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Sample records for zonotrichia capensis passerine

  1. Osmoregulatory responses to dietary protein and water intake in the granivorous Zonotrichia capensis (Passerine, Emberizidae Respuestas osmorregulatorias a la proteína dietaria y al consumo de agua en el granívoro Zonotrichia capensis (Paseriformes, Emberizidae

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    PATRICIA ALDEA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the osmoregulatory responses of the granivore Zonotrichia capensis, acclimated to high- and low-protein diets as well as two levels of water intake. We tested whether Z. capensis has the ability to modify the proportion of nitrogenous waste in the excreta when protein intake and water intake varies. After 21 days of acclimation, plasma osmolality was not significantly affected by dietary treatment; however, excreta osmolality was higher in the high-protein group compared to the low-protein group. Nitrogenous wastes in Z. capensis are excreted mainly in the form of uric acid. The proportion of kidney devoted to medullary tissue was 40 % higher in dehydrated birds than in hydrated birds. Excreta osmolality was higher in dehydrated birds, and in all cases higher than plasma concentration by more than 300 mOsm kg"¹. Our data do not support the hypothesis that Z. capensis can switch nitrogen excretion pathways. We hypothesize that the low water content of the seed-base diet, the comparatively low water intake, and the large difference between urine and plasma concentrations may minimize the retrograde flux of urine to the lower intestinal tract, thereby reducing the potential for post-renal urine modificationEstudiamos la respuesta osmorregulatoria del granívoro Zonotrichia capensis, aclimatado a dietas con alta y baja proteína como también a dos niveles de ingestión de agua. Evaluamos si Z. capensis tiene la capacidad de modificar la proporción de los desechos nitrogenados en la excreta cuando la ingestión de proteína y agua varía. Después de 21 días de aclimatación, la osmolalidad del plasma no fue afectada significativamente por el tratamiento dietario. Sin embargo, la osmolalidad de la excreta fue mayor en el grupo alta-proteína comparado con el grupo baja-proteína. Los desechos nitrogenados en Z. capensis son excretados mayoritariamente en forma de ácido úrico. La proporción del riñon ocupado por tejido medular fue

  2. External and gastrointestinal parasites of the rufous-collared sparrow Zonotrichia capensis (Passeriformes, Emberizidae in Chile

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    Sebastián Llanos-Soto

    Full Text Available Abstract A total of 277 rufous-collared sparrows, Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae, were examined for external parasites. The birds were captured using mist nets in seven locations in northern and central Chile. Additionally, seven carcasses from central Chile (the Biobío region were necropsied to evaluate the presence of endoparasite infection. Ectoparasites were found on 35.8% (99/277 of the examined birds and they were represented by the following arthropods: feather mites Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae, and Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae; a louse Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera; and ticks Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae and Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae. Two of the seven necropsied carcasses were infected with the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae. To our knowledge, this study reports P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum, and M. papillosus for the first time for Z. capensis and expands the distributional range for T. capensis to Chile.

  3. The behavioral ecology and breeding biology of the andean sparrow, Zonotrichia Capensis The behavioral ecology and breeding biology of the andean sparrow, Zonotrichia Capensis

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    Miller Alden H.

    1968-09-01

    Full Text Available La ecología de comportamiento y la biología de la reproducción de los Gorriones Andinos "copetones" (Zonotrichia capensis fueron estudiadas a lo largo de un año en una población ubicada a 2.000 metros de altura en la Cordillera Occidental de Colombia. Se capturaron cerca de 170 individuos, y para hacer posible su identificación en el campo se marcaron convenientemente. En varias ocasiones se Iogró la recaptura de muchos de éstos con el objeto de estudiar los cambios de plumaje y ciclos reproductivos a lo largo del año. La condición reproductiva de muchos individuos fue evaluada gracias a repetidas laparotomías. Se describen nueve tipos diferentes de vocalizaciones y se discute sus funciones.  Se establece la existencia de comunicación entre estas aves por medio de variación del plumaje, posturas y movimientos.  Sólo las hembras construyen nidos, los cuales se colocan ya sea en el suelo o sobre arbustos, pero en ningún caso a más de un metro de altura sobre el suelo. La puesta usual es de dos huevos en dos días consecutivos y en las primeras horas de la mañana. La hembra efectúa la incubación que dura de once a doce días. Los polluelos están listos a abandonar el nido en 10 0 12 días más. Los machos y hembras jóvenes alcanzan madurez reproductiva entre los 12 y 11 meses de edad. Muchas hembras vuelven a anidar si han perdido el nido con huevos o los polluelos tiernos.  Algunas hembras anidan por segunda vez inmediatamente después de haber criado polluelos.  Los machos se establecen en territorios claramente definidos y los mantienen a través de nidadas sucesivas. Los lazos de union entre los miembros de una pareja duran de una nidada a la siguiente, aun a través de períodos sin reproducción. Los territorios observados tenían típicamente cerca de 30 x 20 metros. La mayor parte de la alimentación parecía provenir del área definida, aunque ocasionalmente pueden abandonarla.  Alguna vez una pareja fue vista a

  4. Integrating evolutionary and functional tests of adaptive hypotheses: a case study of altitudinal differentiation in hemoglobin function in an Andean Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis.

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    Cheviron, Zachary A; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Projecto-Garcia, Joana; Eddy, Douglas K; Jones, Jennifer; Carling, Matthew D; Witt, Christopher C; Moriyama, Hideaki; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F

    2014-11-01

    In air-breathing vertebrates, the physiologically optimal blood-O2 affinity is jointly determined by the prevailing partial pressure of atmospheric O2, the efficacy of pulmonary O2 transfer, and internal metabolic demands. Consequently, genetic variation in the oxygenation properties of hemoglobin (Hb) may be subject to spatially varying selection in species with broad elevational distributions. Here we report the results of a combined functional and evolutionary analysis of Hb polymorphism in the rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis), a species that is continuously distributed across a steep elevational gradient on the Pacific slope of the Peruvian Andes. We integrated a population genomic analysis that included all postnatally expressed Hb genes with functional studies of naturally occurring Hb variants, as well as recombinant Hb (rHb) mutants that were engineered through site-directed mutagenesis. We identified three clinally varying amino acid polymorphisms: Two in the α(A)-globin gene, which encodes the α-chain subunits of the major HbA isoform, and one in the α(D)-globin gene, which encodes the α-chain subunits of the minor HbD isoform. We then constructed and experimentally tested single- and double-mutant rHbs representing each of the alternative α(A)-globin genotypes that predominate at different elevations. Although the locus-specific patterns of altitudinal differentiation suggested a history of spatially varying selection acting on Hb polymorphism, the experimental tests demonstrated that the observed amino acid mutations have no discernible effect on respiratory properties of the HbA or HbD isoforms. These results highlight the importance of experimentally validating the hypothesized effects of genetic changes in protein function to avoid the pitfalls of adaptive storytelling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please

  5. Contrasting seasonal and aseasonal environments across stages of the annual cycle in the Rufous-collared Sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis: differences in endocrine function, proteome, and body condition.

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    González-Gómez, Paulina L; Echeverria, Valentina; Estades, Cristian F; Perez, Jonathan H; Krause, Jesse S; Sabat, Pablo; Li, Jonathon; Kültz, Dietmar; Wingfield, John C

    2018-05-09

    1.The timing and duration of life history stages (LHS) within the annual cycle can be affected by local environmental cues which are integrated through endocrine signaling mechanisms and changes in protein function. Most animals express a single LHS within a given period of the year because synchronous expression of LHSs is thought to be too costly energetically. However, in very rare and extremely stable conditions, breeding and molt have been observed to overlap extensively in Rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) living in valleys of the Atacama Desert - one of the most stable and aseasonal environments on Earth. 2.To examine how LHS traits at different levels of organization are affected by environmental variability we compared the temporal organization and duration of LHSs in populations in the Atacama Desert with those in the semiarid Fray Jorge National Park in the north of Chile - an extremely seasonal climate but with unpredictable droughts and heavy rainy seasons. 3.We studied the effects of environmental variability on morphological variables related to body condition, endocrine traits, and proteome. Birds living in the seasonal environment had a strict temporal division LHSs while birds living in the aseasonal environment failed to maintain a temporal division of LHSs resulting in direct overlap of breeding and molt. Further, higher circulating glucocorticoids and androgen concentrations were found in birds from seasonal compared to aseasonal populations. Despite these differences, body condition variables and protein expression were not related to the degree of seasonality but rather showed a strong relationship with hormone levels. 4.These results suggest that animals adjust to their environment through changes in behavioral and endocrine traits and may be limited by less labile traits such as morphological variables or expression of specific proteins under certain circumstances. These data on free-living birds shed light on how different

  6. Variation in the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-1 and the song control system in the tropical breeding rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) is dependent on sex and reproductive state.

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    Stevenson, Tyler J; Small, Thomas W; Ball, Gregory F; Moore, Ignacio T

    2012-08-01

    Seasonal breeding in temperate zone vertebrates is characterised by pronounced variation in both central and peripheral reproductive physiology as well as behaviour. In contrast, many tropical species have a comparatively longer and less of a seasonal pattern of breeding than their temperate zone counterparts. These extended, more "flexible" reproductive periods may be associate with a lesser degree of annual variation in reproductive physiology. Here we investigated variation in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction in relation to the changes in the neural song control system in a tropical breeding songbird the rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis). Using in situ hybridization, we show that the optical density of GnRH1 mRNA expression is relatively constant across pre-breeding and breeding states. However, males were found to have significantly greater expression compared to females regardless of breeding state. Both males and females showed marked variation in measures of peripheral reproductive physiology with greater gonadal volumes and concentrations of sex steroids in the blood (i.e. testosterone in males; estrogen in females) during the breeding season as compared to the pre-breeding season. These findings suggest that the environmental cues regulating breeding in a tropical breeding bird ultimately exert their effects on physiology at the level of the median eminence and regulate the release of GnRH1. In addition, histological analysis of the song control system HVC, RA and Area X revealed that breeding males had significantly larger volumes of these brain nuclei as compared to non-breeding males, breeding females, and non-breeding females. Females did not exhibit a significant difference in the size of song control regions across breeding states. Together, these data show a marked sex difference in the extent to which there is breeding-associated variation in reproductive physiology and brain plasticity that is dependent on the reproductive

  7. and labeo capensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J t is known that the yellowfish (Barb us holubi), barhel (Clarias goriepinus) and mudfish (Lobeo capensis and Lobeo umbratus) all contain multiple haemoglobins (Hattingh &. Du Toit 1973; Du Toit et a/1973) but nothing is known about the structure of haemoglobin in these fish. In this paper the oxygen and carbon dioxide ...

  8. DRIFT PATTERNS OF ANCHOVY ENGRAULIS CAPENSIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the southern Benguela, successful recruitment of Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis is highly variable ... The model was able to explain 95% of the observed variability in recruitment for the period 1987–1993 ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Does the endangered Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The Knysna seahorse, Hippocampus capensis, is an endangered teleost confined to three South African estuaries. Its abundance within these systems is low and distributions are patchy. Consequently, monitoring population sizes is labour- intensive. The aim of this study was to establish if Knynsa seahorses are ...

  10. Reproduction in the Cape horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus capensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the largest preovulatory Graafian follicle wilh a diamecer of. 448, I )lm. The preovulatory Graafian follicle is characterized by a cumulus oophorus of about four cell layers and division of the theca folliculi intO a cellular theca intema and fibrous theca extema. The corpus luteum of R. capensi.s comprises a single type of.

  11. Selection on spur shape in Impatiens capensis.

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    Young, Helen J

    2008-06-01

    Rapid speciation within some plant families has been attributed to the evolution of floral spurs and to the effect of spur length on plant reproductive success. The flowers of Impatiens capensis (jewelweed) possess a long, curved spur in which nectar is produced and stored. Spur length and curvature varies among plants within one population. Here I document that spur shape is variable in natural populations, variation within plants is less than variation among plants, and spur shape is correlated with components of female and male reproductive success. The apparent natural selection is weakly directional in 1 of 2 years, with greatest seed production and pollen removal occurring in flowers with the greatest spur curvature. Bee pollinator visit length is longest at flowers with highly curved spurs, and they leave less nectar in these spurs than in flowers with straighter spurs. Spur angle evolution may be limited, at least in part, by opposing selection by nectar-robbers who prefer to visit flowers with greater spur curvature. Other factors that might contribute to the maintenance of spur angle variation are temporal variation in the strength of selection and potential genetic correlations of spur shape with other traits under selection.

  12. Reproductive biology of the cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of the Cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis, was investigated histologically. The study was based on 67 specimens collected over a six-year period. This species is seasonally monoestrous, normally giving birth to twins during November. Spermatogenesis peaks during autumn (March-May) when ...

  13. Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis spawn mainly east of Cape Point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    In the southern Benguela, successful recruitment of Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis is ... Based on the total area of 16–19°C water on the western Agulhas. Bank, Richardson et al. .... in the zone, φ the new value, and β is a relaxation pa-.

  14. Contributions to the biology of the Cape gurnard, Trigla capensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of otoliths of the Cape gurnard,Trigla capensis, has established that the rings are annular. An opaque zone is formed from February to Jury and a hyaline zone during the spawning season from August to March. Females grow faster than males. The Von Bertalanffy growth equation of the females was found to be.

  15. Parasitic Cape honeybee workers, Apis mellifera capensis, evade policing

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    Martin, Stephen J.; Beekman, Madeleine; Wossler, Theresa C.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2002-01-01

    Relocation of the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis, by bee-keepers from southern to northern South Africa in 1990 has caused widespread death of managed African honeybee, A. m. scutellata, colonies. Apis mellifera capensis worker bees are able to lay diploid, female eggs without mating by means of automictic thelytoky (meiosis followed by fusion of two meiotic products to restore egg diploidy), whereas workers of other honeybee subspecies are able to lay only haploid, male eggs. The A. m. capensis workers, which are parasitizing and killing A. m. scutellata colonies in northern South Africa, are the asexual offspring of a single, original worker in which the small amount of genetic variation observed is due to crossing over during meiosis (P. Kryger, personal communication). Here we elucidate two principal mechanisms underlying this parasitism. Parasitic A. m. capensis workers activate their ovaries in host colonies that have a queen present (queenright colonies), and they lay eggs that evade being killed by other workers (worker policing)-the normal fate of worker-laid eggs in colonies with a queen. This unique parasitism by workers is an instance in which a society is unable to control the selfish actions of its members.

  16. Basking behaviour in the rock hyrax ( Procavia capensis ) during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basking is a behaviour frequently observed in the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) during winter that supposedly plays a significant role in rewarming from nocturnal hypothermia. This behaviour, together with changes in body temperature and changes in black bulb temperatures (Tbb) were investigated in the natural ...

  17. Reproductive biology of horse mackerel Trachurus capensis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harvest control measures for Namibia and Angola are defined using reference points for spawning biomass, which requires knowledge of spawning potential and dynamics of fishery stocks. The reproductive biology of two species of horse mackerel, Trachurus capensis and Trachurus trecae, in these waters was ...

  18. Trophic relationships of hake ( Merluccius capensis and M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trophic relationships of two hake species (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus) and three shark species (Centrophorus squamosus, Deania calcea and D. profundorum) were investigated using nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures (δ15N and δ13C) of their muscle tissues. The sharks were more enriched in ...

  19. Genetic variation in natural honeybee populations, Apis mellifera capensis

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    Hepburn, Randall; Neumann, Peter; Radloff, Sarah E.

    2004-09-01

    Genetic variation in honeybee, Apis mellifera, populations can be considerably influenced by breeding and commercial introductions, especially in areas with abundant beekeeping. However, in southern Africa apiculture is based on the capture of wild swarms, and queen rearing is virtually absent. Moreover, the introduction of European subspecies constantly failed in the Cape region. We therefore hypothesize a low human impact on genetic variation in populations of Cape honeybees, Apis mellifera capensis. A novel solution to studying genetic variation in honeybee populations based on thelytokous worker reproduction is applied to test this hypothesis. Environmental effects on metrical morphological characters of the phenotype are separated to obtain a genetic residual component. The genetic residuals are then re-calculated as coefficients of genetic variation. Characters measured included hair length on the abdomen, width and length of wax plate, and three wing angles. The data show for the first time that genetic variation in Cape honeybee populations is independent of beekeeping density and probably reflects naturally occurring processes such as gene flow due to topographic and climatic variation on a microscale.

  20. Aspects of pollination and floral development in Ficus capensis Thunb. (Moraceae

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    H. Baijnath

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available A unique obligatory symbiosis exists between Ficus capensis Thunb., and its pollinator, Ceratosolen capensis Grandi. Flowers from both aerial and geocarpic syconia may be pollinated and produce seeds. Females of C. capensis possess specialized mesothoracic pockets in which pollen is transferred from ripening syconia to receptive ones. A second primary sycophile, Sycophaga cyclostigma Waterston, appears to be ineffective in pollination.Several secondary sycophiles oviposit through the syconial wall. Strong sexual dimorphism exists in most sycophilous wasps. All female flowers have the potential to produce either seeds or galls and variation is merely one of gross morphology. Flowering is distinctly asynchronous. Seeds are dispersed by various fruit predators and germinate very easily under warm humid conditions.

  1. Short-sighted evolution of virulence in parasitic honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

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    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Hepburn, H. Randall; Neumann, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The short-sighted selection hypothesis for parasite virulence predicts that winners of within-host competition are poorer at transmission to new hosts. Social parasitism by self-replicating, female-producing workers occurs in the Cape honeybee Apis mellifera capensis, and colonies of other honeybee subspecies are susceptible hosts. We found high within-host virulence but low transmission rates in a clone of social parasitic A. m. capensis workers invading the neighbouring subspecies A. m. scutellata. In contrast, parasitic workers from the endemic range of A. m. capensis showed low within-host virulence but high transmission rates. This suggests a short-sighted selection scenario for the host-parasite co-evolution in the invasive range of the Cape honeybee, probably facilitated by beekeeping-assisted parasite transmission in apiaries.

  2. Passerine morphology: external measurements of approximately one-quarter of passerine bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2017-05-01

    Studies of community organization and clade diversification that include functional traits have become an important component of the analysis of ecological and evolved systems. Such studies frequently are limited by availability of consistently collected data. Here, I present a data set including eight measurements of the external morphology of 1642 species, roughly one-quarter of all passerine birds (Aves: Order Passeriformes), from all parts of the world, characterizing the relative proportions of the wing, tail, legs, and beak. Specimens were measured opportunistically over the past 40 years in museums in the United States and Europe. Numbers of individuals measured per species vary from one to dozens in some cases. Measurements for males and females of sexually size-dimorphic species are presented separately. The measurements include total length, the lengths of the wing, tail, tarsus, and middle toe, and the length, breadth, and depth of the beak. Particular attention was paid to obtaining a broad representation of passerine higher taxa, with special interest in small families and subfamilies of passerines, as well as species produced by evolutionary radiations of birds in archipelagoes, including the Galapagos, Hawaii, and the Lesser Antilles. Taxonomy follows the Taxonomy in Flux (TIF) checklist as well as the World Bird List of the International Ornithological Council. Geographic distributions are summarized from Edwards's Coded List of Birds of the World. Coverage of taxa and geographic regions varies and reflects the changing interests of the author over the past four decades. North American and South American species are particularly well represented in the sample, as well as species belonging to the families Tyrannidae, Furnariidae, Thamnophilidae, Mimidae, Sturnidae, Fringillidae, Parulidae, Icteridae, Cardinalidae, and Thraupidae. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Polytocy in the Cape serotine bat Eptesicus capensis (A. Smith 1829 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polytocy is described in the Cape serotine bat, Eptesicus capensis,and discussed in relation to the occurrence of multiple births in other microchiropteran bat species in the southern African subregion. Although twins appear to be characteristic of the Cape serotine bat, triplets and even the occasional quadruplets occur.

  4. Morphological correlates of echolocation frequency in the endemic Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, Lizelle J; Jacobs, David S

    2011-05-01

    We investigated intraspecific variation in echolocation calls of the Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis, by comparing echolocation and associated morphological parameters among individuals from three populations of this species. The populations were situated in the center and at the western and eastern limits of the distribution of R. capensis. The latter two populations were situated in ecotones between vegetation biomes. Ecotone populations deviated slightly from the allometric relationship between body size and peak frequency for the genus, and there was no relationship between these variables within R. capensis. Nasal chamber length was the best predictor of peak frequency but not correlated with body size. The evolution of echolocation thus appears to have been uncoupled from body size in R. capensis. Furthermore, females used higher frequencies than males, which imply a potential social role for peak frequency. The differences in peak frequency may have originated from random founder effects and then compounded by genetic drift and/or natural selection. The latter may have acted directly on peak frequency altering skull parameters involved in echolocation independently of body size, resulting in the evolution of local acoustic signatures.

  5. Reintroduction of captive-bred African Grass-Owls Tyto capensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study represents the first attempt to determine post-release survival of a captive-bred owl in Africa. We released six captive-bred African Grass-Owls Tyto capensis into suitable habitat and, using radio telemetry, determined their daytime roost sites. One bird left the study area soon after release and did not yield data.

  6. Interspecific competition alters natural selection on shade avoidance phenotypes in Impatiens capensis.

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    McGoey, Brechann V; Stinchcombe, John R

    2009-08-01

    Shade avoidance syndrome is a known adaptive response for Impatiens capensis growing in dense intraspecific competition. However, I. capensis also grow with dominant interspecific competitors in marshes. Here, we compare the I. capensis shade-avoidance phenotypes produced in the absence and presence of heterospecific competitors, as well as selection on those traits. Two treatments were established in a marsh; in one treatment all heterospecifics were removed, while in the other, all competitors remained. We compared morphological traits, light parameters, seed output and, using phenotypic selection analysis, examined directional and nonlinear selection operating in the different competitive treatments. Average phenotypes, light parameters and seed production all varied depending on competitive treatment. Phenotypic selection analyses revealed different directional, disruptive, stabilizing and correlational selection. The disparities seen in both phenotypes and selection between the treatments related to the important differences in elongation timing depending on the presence of heterospecifics, although environmental covariances between traits and fitness could also contribute. Phenotypes produced by I. capensis depend on their competitive environment, and differing selection on shade-avoidance traits between competitive environments could indirectly select for increased plasticity given gene flow between populations in different competitive contexts.

  7. Studies in the genus Riccia (Marchantiales from southern Africa. 9. R. nigrella and the status of R. capensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Perold

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available R. nigrella DC. (Lamarck & De Candolle 1815, with which R. capensis auct. non Steph.: S. Amell (1952, 1963, is conspecific, is now also recognized from southern Africa. The thallus is brown marginally and dorsally and has shiny black scales with smooth margins at which coloured and hyaline cells alternate irregularly. Arnell's (1961 records of R. capensis Steph. from the Canary Islands are to be regarded as erroneous. R. capensis Steph. (Stephani in Brunnthaler 1913 is now placed in synonymy under R. limbata Bisch.

  8. Daytime passerine migrants over the Sahara — are these diurnal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The landing tendency (sink rate) correlated negatively with the tail wind component. Transect counts on the ground revealed very low proportions of diurnal migrants, not matching the relatively high densities of passerine migration during the day, and a high correlation between transect density of nocturnal migrants and ...

  9. Ticks (Ixodidae) from passerine birds in the Carpathian region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitalska, E.; Literák, I.; Sparagano, O. A .E.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Kocianová, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 118, 23/24 (2006), 759-764 ISSN 0043-5325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Passerine birds * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia * Rickettsia * Ehrlichia * Carpathians Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2006

  10. Agonistic behaviour of Palaearctic passerine migrants at a stopover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We recorded intraspecific and interspecific interactions of Palaearctic migrant passerine birds at Ouadâne, Mauritania, a stopover site in the Sahara desert. ... our observations suggest interspecific interference competition because inferior individuals are temporarily deprived of food, which may influence the fitness of ...

  11. Insect diet of some afrotropical insectivorous passerines at the Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite being the most common avian dietary strategy, our understanding of the nutrition of avian insectivores lags behind that of less populous granivores, herbivores, and frugivores; thereby attracting research interest. Insect diet of Afrotropical insectivorous passerines at the Jos Wildlife Park was studied by trapping birds ...

  12. Propagation of Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera capensis in an in vitro Culture System

    OpenAIRE

    Ileana MICLEA; Marius ZĂHAN

    2017-01-01

    Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera capensis (Droseraceae) are carnivorous plants grown as ornamentals and sources for homeopathic medicine. The aim of this study was to optimize nutrient and growth regulator concentrations for the in vitro propagation of these species. Half strength MS medium (1/2MS) was supplemented with kinetin (0.5, 2, 5 mg/l) or 6-benzyladenine (3, 5 mg/l) and plantlets were transferred to 1/2MS with or without cytokinins. After 8 weeks rosette diameter, plant height, numbe...

  13. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of Pleurostylia capensis Turcz (Loes) (celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razwinani, Mapula; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Motaung, Shirley C K M

    2014-01-01

    Pleurostylia capensis is a large tree that can reach the maximum height of 20 m long, and it have been traditionally used as cosmetic, for steam bath, ritual body wash, and as a purgative to treat symptoms of witchcraft. Using ethanol, chloroform, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and water extracts, leaves, bark and roots of Pleurostylia capensis were investigated scientifically for their effectiveness in antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities using standard methods. The extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Mycobacterium smegmatis), Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Klebsiella oxytoca, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium), and Candida albicans. The antioxidant activity was investigated using 2, 2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhadrazyl (DPPH), free radical scavenging assay. The anti-inflammatory activity of P. capensis extracts was evaluated against both cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX 1 and 2). The ethyl acetate extracts of P. capensis showed a strong antimicrobial activity against B. cereus, K. pneumonia, S. pyogenes, and M. smegmatis with MIC value of 0.39 and 0.78 mg/ml. While the ethanol bark extract was most active against M. smegmatis with MIC value of 0.78 mg/ml; the least potent activity was observed with dichloromethane, chloroform and water extracts, with an MIC value ranging from 1.56 mg/ml to 50.0 mg/ml. The plant extracts proved to be good antioxidant agent, whereas extracts of ethanol were the most active, with IC50 ranging from 1.00 to 1.74 µg/ml, which is lower, and in close range to Vitamin C (1.40 µg/ml). Its moderation to potent inhibitory activity was observed in all extracts. Ethanol and dichloromethane extracts were among the most potent when compared to water and petroleum ether extracts. The water extracts showed to be nontoxic on the Hek cell line with an IC50 value of 204.0, and 207

  14. Open cup nests evolved from roofed nests in the early passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J Jordan; Griffith, Simon C

    2017-02-08

    The architectural diversity of nests in the passerine birds (order Passeriformes) is thought to have played an important role in the adaptive radiation of this group, which now comprises more than half of avian species and occupies nearly all terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present an extensive survey and ancestral state reconstruction of nest design across the passerines, focusing on early Australian lineages and including members of nearly all passerine families worldwide. Most passerines build open cup-shaped nests, whereas a minority build more elaborate domed structures with roofs. We provide strong evidence that, despite their relative rarity today, domed nests were constructed by the common ancestor of all modern passerines. Open cup nests evolved from enclosed domes at least four times independently during early passerine evolution, at least three of which occurred on the Australian continent, yielding several primarily cup-nesting clades that are now widespread and numerically dominant among passerines. Our results show that the ubiquitous and relatively simple cup-shaped nests of many birds today evolved multiple times convergently, suggesting adaptive benefits over earlier roofed designs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Propagation of Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera capensis in an in vitro Culture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana MICLEA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera capensis (Droseraceae are carnivorous plants grown as ornamentals and sources for homeopathic medicine. The aim of this study was to optimize nutrient and growth regulator concentrations for the in vitro propagation of these species. Half strength MS medium (1/2MS was supplemented with kinetin (0.5, 2, 5 mg/l or 6-benzyladenine (3, 5 mg/l and plantlets were transferred to 1/2MS with or without cytokinins. After 8 weeks rosette diameter, plant height, number of roots, root length were recorded and plants were cultured in full strength MS, 1/2MS or 1/2MS with 0.5 mg/l α-naphthaleneacetic acid for the same period of time. Afterwards, plant characteristics (number of roots, root length, number of shoots, number of flower stalks were assessed. For D. rotundifolia, shoot development and rosette diameter increased significantly in the medium with 0.5 mg/l kinetin and 3 mg/l 6-benzyladenine, while root development decreased. Plant growth regulator free medium was more suitable for root development than medium with α-naphthaleneacetic acid and thus supported the formation of significantly more flower stalks. For D. capensis, kinetin was detrimental for shoot development, the optimum medium for both shoot and root formation being MS without plant growth regulators.

  16. The transcriptomic changes associated with the development of social parasitism in the honeybee Apis mellifera capensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumer, Denise; Mumoki, Fiona N.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Moritz, Robin F. A.

    2018-04-01

    Social insects are characterized by the division of labor. Queens usually dominate reproduction, whereas workers fulfill non-reproductive age-dependent tasks to maintain the colony. Although workers are typically sterile, they can activate their ovaries to produce their own offspring. In the extreme, worker reproduction can turn into social parasitism as in Apis mellifera capensis. These intraspecific parasites occupy a host colony, kill the resident queen, and take over the reproductive monopoly. Because they exhibit a queenlike behavior and are also treated like queens by the fellow workers, they are so-called pseudoqueens. Here, we compare the development of parasitic pseudoqueens and social workers at different time points using fat body transcriptome data. Two complementary analysis methods—a principal component analysis and a time course analysis—led to the identification of a core set of genes involved in the transition from a social worker into a highly fecund parasitic pseudoqueen. Comparing our results on pseudoqueens with gene expression data of honeybee queens revealed many similarities. In addition, there was a set of specific transcriptomic changes in the parasitic pseudoqueens that differed from both, queens and social workers, which may be typical for the development of the social parasitism in A. m. capensis.

  17. Identification of the female-produced sex pheromone of the leafminer Holocacista capensis infesting grapevine in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.-L.; Geertsema, H.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Löfstedt, C.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first identification of a sex pheromone in a heliozelid moth, Holocacista capensis van Nieukerken & Geertsema. This leafminer recently infested grapevine in South Africa. Compared to solvent extraction of pheromone glands, solid phase microextraction (SPME) proved to be highly

  18. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  19. Passerine bird communities of Iberian dehesas: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tellería, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian dehesas are a man-made habitat composed of scattered oaks (Quercus spp. and extensive grass cover occupying three million ha in south-western Iberia. This paper compares the structure of the passerine bird communities in this region with other bird assemblages of Iberian woodlands. Although forest bird numbers in the southern half of the Iberian peninsula are decreasing, the dehesas show the highest richness in breeding birds, seemingly as the result of the increased presence of border and open-habitat birds. A low intra-habitat turnover of species was observed in the dehesas, with birds recorded at a sampling point accounting for a high percentage of the total richness of the community. This can be related to the low spatial patchiness of this habitat. In winter, the dehesas continued to maintain many bird species, but showed bird densities similar to other woodlands. This pattern, as well as the scarcity of some common forest passerines during the breeding period, could result from the removal of the shrub layer typical of Mediterranean woodlands.

  20. Coccidia in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Juan P; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla P; Mejía-García, Cristian J; Janczur, Mariusz K; Gomes Lopes, Carlos W; Berto, Bruno P; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerines from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. We captured birds and took samples of their droppings during three field visits. We examined a total of 72 fecal samples and found unsporulated coccidia oocysts in 10 samples from five passerine species: Atlapetes pileatus (3), Cardelina ruber (1), Mniotilta varia (1), Oreothlypis celata (2) and Regulus calendula (3). This appears to be the first recorded study of unsporulated coccidia oocysts in passerine species from Mexico.

  1. Echolocation in the bat, Rhinolophus capensis: the influence of clutter, conspecifics and prey on call design and intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh Fawcett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Echolocating bats are exposed not only to the echoes of their own calls, but often the signals of conspecifics and other bats. For species emitting short, frequency modulated signals e.g. vespertilionoids, adjustments in both the frequency and time domain have been observed in such situations. However, bats using long duration, constant frequency calls may confront special challenges, since these bats should be less able to avoid temporal and frequency overlap. Here we investigated echolocation call design in the highduty cycle bat, Rhinolophus capensis, as bats flew with either a conspecific or heterospecific in a large outdoor flight-room. We compared these recordings to those made of bats flying alone in the same flight-room, and in a smaller flight room, alone, and hunting tethered moths. We found no differences in duty cycle or peak frequency of the calls of R. capensis across conditions. However, in the presence of a conspecific or the vespertilionoid, Miniopterus natalensis, R. capensis produced longer frequency-modulated downward sweeps at the terminus of their calls with lower minimum frequencies than when flying alone. In the presence of the larger high-duty cycle bat, R. clivosus, R. capensis produced shorter calls than when flying alone or with a conspecific. These changes are similar to those of vespertilionoids when flying from open to more cluttered environments. They are not similar to those differences observed in vespertilionoids when flying with other bats. Also unlike vespertilinoids, R. capensis used calls 15 dB less intense in conspecific pairs than when alone.

  2. Life on the rocks: Multilocus phylogeography of rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) from southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswanganye, K Amanda; Cunningham, Michael J; Bennett, Nigel C; Chimimba, Christian T; Bloomer, Paulette

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the role of geography and climatic cycles in determining patterns of biodiversity is important in comparative and evolutionary biology and conservation. We studied the phylogeographic pattern and historical demography of a rock-dwelling small mammal species from southern Africa, the rock hyrax Procavia capensis capensis. Using a multilocus coalescent approach, we assessed the influence of strong habitat dependence and fluctuating regional climates on genetic diversity. We sequenced a mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) and two nuclear introns (AP5, PRKC1) supplemented with microsatellite genotyping, in order to assess evolutionary processes over multiple temporal scales. In addition, distribution modelling was used to investigate the current and predicted distribution of the species under different climatic scenarios. Collectively, the data reveal a complex history of isolation followed by secondary contact shaping the current intraspecific diversity. The cyt b sequences confirmed the presence of two previously proposed geographically and genetically distinct lineages distributed across the southern African Great Escarpment and north-western mountain ranges. Molecular dating suggests Miocene divergence of the lineages, yet there are no discernible extrinsic barriers to gene flow. The nuclear markers reveal incomplete lineage sorting or ongoing mixing of the two lineages. Although the microsatellite data lend some support to the presence of two subpopulations, there is weak structuring within and between lineages. These data indicate the presence of gene flow from the northern into the southern parts of the southern African sub-region likely following the secondary contact. The distribution modelling predictably reveal the species' preference for rocky areas, with stable refugia through time in the northern mountain ranges, the Great Escarpment, as well as restricted areas of the Northern Cape Province and the Cape Fold Mountains of South Africa

  3. The jaw is a second-class lever in Pedetes capensis (Rodentia: Pedetidae

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    Philip G. Cox

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian jaw is often modelled as a third-class lever for the purposes of biomechanical analyses, owing to the position of the resultant muscle force between the jaw joint and the teeth. However, it has been proposed that in some rodents the jaws operate as a second-class lever during distal molar bites, owing to the rostral position of the masticatory musculature. In particular, the infraorbital portion of the zygomatico-mandibularis (IOZM has been suggested to be of major importance in converting the masticatory system from a third-class to a second-class lever. The presence of the IOZM is diagnostic of the hystricomorph rodents, and is particularly well-developed in Pedetes capensis, the South African springhare. In this study, finite element analysis (FEA was used to assess the lever mechanics of the springhare masticatory system, and to determine the function of the IOZM. An FE model of the skull of P. capensis was constructed and loaded with all masticatory muscles, and then solved for biting at each tooth in turn. Further load cases were created in which each masticatory muscle was removed in turn. The analyses showed that the mechanical advantage of the springhare jaws was above one at all molar bites and very close to one during the premolar bite. Removing the IOZM or masseter caused a drop in mechanical advantage at all bites, but affected strain patterns and cranial deformation very little. Removing the ZM had only a small effect on mechanical advantage, but produced a substantial reduction in strain and deformation across the skull. It was concluded that the masticatory system of P. capensis acts as a second class lever during bites along almost the entire cheek tooth row. The IOZM is clearly a major contributor to this effect, but the masseter also has a part to play. The benefit of the IOZM is that it adds force without substantially contributing to strain or deformation of the skull. This may help explain why the

  4. Genomic analysis of $\\textit{Salmonella enterica}$ serovar Typhimurium from wild passerines in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, Alison E; Lawson, Becki; de, Pinna Elizabeth; Wigley, Paul; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R; Page, Andrew J; Holmes, Mark Adrian; Paterson, Gavin K

    2016-01-01

    Passerine salmonellosis is a well-recognised disease of birds in the order Passeriformes, including common songbirds such as finches and sparrows, caused by infection with $\\textit{Salmonella enterica}$ serovar Typhimurium. Previous research has suggested that some subtypes of S. Typhimurium – definitive phage types (DT) 40, 56 variant, and 160 – are host-adapted to passerines, and that these birds may represent a reservoir of infection for humans and other animals. Here, we have used whole g...

  5. Acetyl Groups in Typha capensis: Fate of Acetates during Organosolv and Ionosolv Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idi Guga Audu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available During biomass fractionation, any native acetylation of lignin and heteropolysaccharide may affect the process and the resulting lignin structure. In this study, Typha capensis (TC and its lignin isolated by milling (MWL, ionosolv (ILL and organosolv (EOL methods were investigated for acetyl group content using FT-Raman, 1H NMR, 2D-NMR, back-titration, and Zemplén transesterification analytical methods. The study revealed that TC is a highly acetylated grass; extractive free TC (TCextr and TC MWL exhibited similar values of acetyl content: 6 wt % and 8 wt % by Zemplén transesterification, respectively, and 11 wt % by back-titration. In contrast, lignin extracted from organosolv and [EMIm][OAc] pulping lost 80% of the original acetyl groups. With a high acetyl content in the natural state, TC could be an interesting raw material in biorefinery in which acetic acid could become an important by-product.

  6. Insect ectoparasites from wild passerine birds in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychra O.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild passerine birds (Passeriformes from northeastern part of the Czech Republic were examined for ectoparasites. Three species of louse-flies of the genus Ornithomya (Diptera: Hippoboscidae, two species of fleas of the genera Ceratophyllus and Dasypsyllus (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae, and 15 species of chewing lice belonging to the genera Myrsidea, Menacanthus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Brueelia, Penenirmus, Philopterus (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae were found on 82 birds of 23 species. New chewing louse-host records are Hippolais icterina for Menacanthus currucae; Motacilla cinerea for Menacanthus pusillus; Turdus philomelos and Motacilla cinerea for Brueelia merulensis; and Sylvia atricapilla for Menacanthus eurysternus. Brueelia neoatricapillae is cited for the first time for the Czech Republic. Parasitological parameters such as prevalence, intensity and abundance are also discussed.

  7. Nocturnal activity of nesting shrubland and grassland passerines: Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christy M.; Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine; Smith, Kimberly G.; Schmitz, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal activity of nesting passerines is largely undocumented in field situations. We used video recordings to quantify sleep patterns of four shrubland and three grassland bird species during the nestling period. All species exhibited “back sleep” (bill tucked under scapular feathers); individuals woke frequently for vigils of their surroundings. Sleep-bout duration varied from 6 minutes (grasshopper sparrow) to 28 minutes (blue-winged warbler, field sparrow). Duration on nest varied from 6.4 hours (field sparrow) to 8.8 hours (indigo bunting). Adults woke 20–30 minutes before sunrise. First morning absence from the nest was short; nestlings were fed within 12 minutes of a parent’s departure. Further research is needed to understand energetic costs of sleep and behavioral adaptations to environmental pressures.

  8. Passerine birds breeding under chronic noise experience reduced fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schroeder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fitness in birds has been shown to be negatively associated with anthropogenic noise, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. It is however crucial to understand the mechanisms of how urban noise impinges on fitness to obtain a better understanding of the role of chronic noise in urban ecology. Here, we examine three hypotheses on how noise might reduce reproductive output in passerine birds: (H1 by impairing mate choice, (H2 by reducing territory quality and (H3 by impeding chick development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used long-term data from an island population of house sparrows, Passer domesticus, in which we can precisely estimate fitness. We found that nests in an area affected by the noise from large generators produced fewer young, of lower body mass, and fewer recruits, even when we corrected statistically for parental genetic quality using a cross-fostering set-up, supporting H3. Also, individual females provided their young with food less often when they bred in the noisy area compared to breeding attempts by the same females elsewhere. Furthermore, we show that females reacted flexibly to increased noise levels by adjusting their provisioning rate in the short term, which suggests that noise may be a causal factor that reduces reproductive output. We rejected H1 and H2 because nestbox occupancy, parental body mass, age and reproductive investment did not differ significantly between noisy and quiet areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: OUR RESULTS SUGGEST A PREVIOUSLY UNDESCRIBED MECHANISM TO EXPLAIN HOW ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE CAN REDUCE FITNESS IN PASSERINE BIRDS: by acoustically masking parent-offspring communication. More importantly, using a cross-fostering set-up, our results demonstrate that birds breeding in a noisy environment experience significant fitness costs. Chronic noise is omnipresent around human habitation and may produces similar fitness consequences in a wide range of urban bird species.

  9. (Aonyx capensis)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medulla are 2.4 and 6.4 mm. respectively. These measurements and the overall structure of the kidney of the. Cape clawless otter are intermediate between those of freshwater and marine mammals. Otters occur in both freshwater and marine environments, but on Iy one species occurs in both. The Cape clawless oner.

  10. Procavia capensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and age determination were studied in known age captive hyrax by measuring ... prehensive investigation of the population dynamics of the hyrax and its ... provided and they were fed a ration of commercial rabbit pellets (16% protein ...

  11. Procavia capensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    body measurements and five skull measurements were used as ageing criteria using multiple regression and a predictive equation. Age (months) = 0,0593 Length + 0,0444 Girth +. 0,01117 ... The biology of the hyrax intrigues zoologists for a number of reasons .... mination and it was omitted from the regression analysis.

  12. Apparent dissociation of photoperiodic time measurement between vernal migration and breeding under dim green light conditions in Gambel's white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang WANG, Marilyn RAMENOFSKY, John C. WINGFIELD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In seasonally breeding birds, the annual cycle of photoperiod is a principal environmental cue for temporal arrangement of different life-history stages, such as migration and breeding. In the past, most research has focused on the mechanisms of photoperiodic control of breeding with less attention paid to migration. In Gambel’s white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii (GWCS, photoreceptors for induction of breeding are known to reside in the basal hypothalamus. However, it is unknown whether the sites of photoperiodic reception for vernal migration are the same as those for breeding. Therefore, we hypothesized that they may be controlled separately. In this study, we exposed photosensitive GWCSs to low-penetration green light (wavelength at 510 nm under a regime of 1 lux during the day and <0.1 lux at night, and switched the photoperiodic conditions from short day (10 h daytime to long day (18 h daytime. The results showed that the experimental birds developed traits associated with vernal migration including mass increase, fat deposition and migratory restlessness behavior when transferred from short day to long day green light cycles, while control birds maintained continuously on short day green light conditions did not express any migration related characteristics. Neither experimental nor control groups showed gonadal recrudescence under either green light cycles. In support of our hypothesis, we were able to apparently dissociate the photoperiodic responses regulating vernal migration and breeding, which suggests separate mechanisms of photoperiodic time measurement. Such distinct photoperiodic mechanisms may drive the fine-tuned temporal arrangement of the two life history stages [Current Zoology 59 (3: 349–359, 2013].

  13. Late Pleistocene songbirds of Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia); the first fossil passerine fauna described from Wallacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikna, Thomas; Saptomo, Wahyu; Jatmiko; Wasisto, Sri; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Mayr, Gerald

    2017-01-01

    Background Passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) dominate modern terrestrial bird communities yet their fossil record is limited. Liang Bua is a large cave on the Indonesian island of Flores that preserves Late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits (∼190 ka to present day). Birds are the most diverse faunal group at Liang Bua and are present throughout the stratigraphic sequence. Methods We examined avian remains from the Late Pleistocene deposits of Sector XII, a 2 × 2 m area excavated to about 8.5 m depth. Although postcranial passerine remains are typically challenging to identify, we found several humeral characters particularly useful in discriminating between groups, and identified 89 skeletal elements of passerines. Results At least eight species from eight families are represented, including the Large-billed Crow (Corvus cf. macrorhynchos), the Australasian Bushlark (Mirafra javanica), a friarbird (Philemon sp.), and the Pechora Pipit (Anthus cf. gustavi). Discussion These remains constitute the first sample of fossil passerines described in Wallacea. Two of the taxa no longer occur on Flores today; a large sturnid (cf. Acridotheres) and a grassbird (Megalurus sp.). Palaeoecologically, the songbird assemblage suggests open grassland and tall forests, which is consistent with conditions inferred from the non-passerine fauna at the site. Corvus cf. macrorhynchos, found in the Homo floresiensis-bearing layers, was likely part of a scavenging guild that fed on carcasses of Stegodon florensis insularis alongside vultures (Trigonoceps sp.), giant storks (Leptoptilos robustus), komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis), and probably H. floresiensis as well. PMID:28828271

  14. Late Pleistocene songbirds of Liang Bua (Flores, Indonesia; the first fossil passerine fauna described from Wallacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke J.M. Meijer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Passerines (Aves: Passeriformes dominate modern terrestrial bird communities yet their fossil record is limited. Liang Bua is a large cave on the Indonesian island of Flores that preserves Late Pleistocene–Holocene deposits (∼190 ka to present day. Birds are the most diverse faunal group at Liang Bua and are present throughout the stratigraphic sequence. Methods We examined avian remains from the Late Pleistocene deposits of Sector XII, a 2 × 2 m area excavated to about 8.5 m depth. Although postcranial passerine remains are typically challenging to identify, we found several humeral characters particularly useful in discriminating between groups, and identified 89 skeletal elements of passerines. Results At least eight species from eight families are represented, including the Large-billed Crow (Corvus cf. macrorhynchos, the Australasian Bushlark (Mirafra javanica, a friarbird (Philemon sp., and the Pechora Pipit (Anthus cf. gustavi. Discussion These remains constitute the first sample of fossil passerines described in Wallacea. Two of the taxa no longer occur on Flores today; a large sturnid (cf. Acridotheres and a grassbird (Megalurus sp.. Palaeoecologically, the songbird assemblage suggests open grassland and tall forests, which is consistent with conditions inferred from the non-passerine fauna at the site. Corvus cf. macrorhynchos, found in the Homo floresiensis-bearing layers, was likely part of a scavenging guild that fed on carcasses of Stegodon florensis insularis alongside vultures (Trigonoceps sp., giant storks (Leptoptilos robustus, komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis, and probably H. floresiensis as well.

  15. A phylogenetic hypothesis for passerine birds: taxonomic and biogeographic implications of an analysis of nuclear DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F Keith; Barrowclough, George F; Groth, Jeff G

    2002-02-07

    Passerine birds comprise over half of avian diversity, but have proved difficult to classify. Despite a long history of work on this group, no comprehensive hypothesis of passerine family-level relationships was available until recent analyses of DNA-DNA hybridization data. Unfortunately, given the value of such a hypothesis in comparative studies of passerine ecology and behaviour, the DNA-hybridization results have not been well tested using independent data and analytical approaches. Therefore, we analysed nucleotide sequence variation at the nuclear RAG-1 and c-mos genes from 69 passerine taxa, including representatives of most currently recognized families. In contradiction to previous DNA-hybridization studies, our analyses suggest paraphyly of suboscine passerines because the suboscine New Zealand wren Acanthisitta was found to be sister to all other passerines. Additionally, we reconstructed the parvorder Corvida as a basal paraphyletic grade within the oscine passerines. Finally, we found strong evidence that several family-level taxa are misplaced in the hybridization results, including the Alaudidae, Irenidae, and Melanocharitidae. The hypothesis of relationships we present here suggests that the oscine passerines arose on the Australian continental plate while it was isolated by oceanic barriers and that a major northern radiation of oscines (i.e. the parvorder Passerida) originated subsequent to dispersal from the south.

  16. Chromosomal inversion differences correlate with range overlap in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Daniel M; Price, Trevor D

    2017-10-01

    Chromosomal inversions evolve frequently but the reasons for this remain unclear. We used cytological descriptions of 411 species of passerine birds to identify large pericentric inversion differences between species, based on the position of the centromere. Within 81 small clades comprising 284 of the species, we found 319 differences on the 9 largest autosomes combined, 56 on the Z chromosome, and 55 on the W chromosome. We also identified inversions present within 32 species. Using a new fossil-calibrated phylogeny, we examined the phylogenetic, demographic and genomic context in which these inversions have evolved. The number of inversion differences between closely related species is consistently predicted by whether the ranges of species overlap, even when time is controlled for as far as is possible. Fixation rates vary across the autosomes, but inversions are more likely to be fixed on the Z chromosome than the average autosome. Variable mutagenic input alone (estimated by chromosome size, map length, GC content or repeat density) cannot explain the differences between chromosomes in the number of inversions fixed. Together, these results support a model in which inversions increase because of their effects on recombination suppression in the face of hybridization. Other factors associated with hybridization may also contribute, including the possibility that inversions contain incompatibility alleles, making taxa less likely to collapse following secondary contact.

  17. A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Holt, Ben G; Borregaard, Michael K; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon

    2016-01-01

    The Corvides (previously referred to as the core Corvoidea) are a morphologically diverse clade of passerine birds comprising nearly 800 species. The group originated some 30 million years ago in the proto-Papuan archipelago, to the north of Australia, from where lineages have dispersed and colonized all of the world's major continental and insular landmasses (except Antarctica). During the last decade multiple species-level phylogenies have been generated for individual corvoid families and more recently the inter-familial relationships have been resolved, based on phylogenetic analyses using multiple nuclear loci. In the current study we analyse eight nuclear and four mitochondrial loci to generate a dated phylogeny for the majority of corvoid species. This phylogeny includes 667 out of 780 species (85.5%), 141 out of 143 genera (98.6%) and all 31 currently recognized families, thus providing a baseline for comprehensive macroecological, macroevolutionary and biogeographical analyses. Using this phylogeny we assess the temporal consistency of the current taxonomic classification of families and genera. By adopting an approach that enforces temporal consistency by causing the fewest possible taxonomic changes to currently recognized families and genera, we find the current familial classification to be largely temporally consistent, whereas that of genera is not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nest predation and reproductive traits in small passerines: a comparative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Miguel; Suárez, Francisco

    Nest predation can be a decisive factor in the evolution of bird reproduction strategies. This paper compares several reproductive traits in small passerines on the Iberian Peninsula (n=31) with the probability of daily nest survival from predation. We consider the phylogenetic relationships between species by means of an analysis according to three models of evolutionary change: Brownian, punctuational and GRAFEN'S arbitrary. In this comparative evolutionary scenario, clutch size, egg volume and incubation period appear not to change in relation to nest predation, while the nestling phase duration is a positively-related parameter to daily nest survival from predation. These results are consistent for all models of evolutionary change. Thus, from the perspective of nest predation, the nestling period is the most important evolutionary parameter in small passerines. A hypothetical influence of nest predation on passerine clutch and egg size should only be regarded as an indirect factor, linked to the relationship between these parameters and the duration of the nestling period.

  19. Macroevolution of life-history traits in passerine birds: adaptation and phylogenetic inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Jason; Ilany, Amiyaal; Geffen, Eli; Yom-Tov, Yoram

    2013-05-01

    We used a recent passerine phylogeny and comparative method to evaluate the macroevolution of body and egg mass, incubation and fledging periods, time to independence and time with parents of the main passerine lineages. We hypothesised that passerine reproductive traits are affected by adaptation to both past and present environmental factors and phenotypic attributes such as body mass. Our results suggest that the evolution of body and egg mass, time to independence, incubation and fledging times are affected by strong phylogenetic inertia and that these breeding traits are all affected by body mass. Time with parents, where major lineages exhibit their own fixed optima and body mass does not have an effect, and clutch size which is affected by body mass and additionally by climate regimes, do not exhibit any phylogenetic inertia. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Sociality Affects REM Sleep Episode Duration Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions in the Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Gravett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rock hyrax, Procavia capensis, is a highly social, diurnal mammal. In the current study several physiologically measurable parameters of sleep, as well as the accompanying behavior, were recorded continuously from five rock hyraxes, for 72 h under solitary (experimental animal alone in the recording chamber, and social conditions (experimental animal with 1 or 2 additional, non-implanted animals in the recording chamber. The results revealed no significant differences between solitary and social conditions for total sleep times, number of episodes, episode duration or slow wave activity (SWA for all states examined. The only significant difference observed between social and solitary conditions was the average duration of rapid eye movement (REM sleep episodes. REM sleep episode duration was on average 20 s and 40 s longer under social conditions daily and during the dark period, respectively. It is hypothesized that the increase in REM sleep episode duration under social conditions could possibly be attributed to improved thermoregulation strategies, however considering the limited sample size and design of the current study further investigations are needed to confirm this finding. Whether the conclusions and the observations made in this study can be generalized to all naturally socially sleeping mammals remains an open question.

  1. Toxoplasmosis in the Eastern Grey Kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and the Cape Hyrax, Procavis capensis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly1,4, Nagwan El-Habashi2, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass3,4, Hiroki Sakai4 and Tokuma Yanai4,*

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis was investigated in an eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus, and four cape hyraxes, Procavia capensis, in a Japanese zoo. Clinically, the kangaroo showed neurological signs, emaciation, diarrhea, elevated AST and CK, and subjected to coma before death. One young cape hyrax had severe anorexia, while the other three died without exhibiting clinical signs. Grossly, lungs of the kangaroo were dark red in color, while hyraxes, besides, showed hepatic multifocal white foci, and intestinal multifocal hemorrhages. Histologically, the kangaroo had frequent Toxoplasma gondii pseudocysts in brain, heart and skeletal muscles. All hyraxes had multifocal necrosis with cysts containing numerous bradyzoites in liver and spleen, along with necrotic gastroenteritis and intestinal hemorrhages. Immunohistochemically, cysts showed positive reaction to anti-T. gondii antibodies. These findings indicate possible outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes, zoo habitants; therefore, they could be susceptible intermediate hosts for T. gondii in terms of zoonosis. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in eastern grey kangaroos and cape hyraxes in Japanese zoos.

  2. Synchrotron scanning reveals the palaeoneurology of the head-butting Moschops capensis (Therapsida, Dinocephalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Benoit

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Dinocephalian therapsids are renowned for their massive, pachyostotic and ornamented skulls adapted for head-to-head fighting during intraspecific combat. Synchrotron scanning of the tapinocephalid Moschops capensis reveals, for the first time, numerous anatomical adaptations of the central nervous system related to this combative behaviour. Many neural structures (such as the brain, inner ear and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve were completely enclosed and protected by bones, which is unusual for non-mammaliaform therapsids. The nearly complete ossification of the braincase enables precise determination of the brain cavity volume and encephalization quotient, which appears greater than expected for such a large and early herbivore. The practice of head butting is often associated with complex social behaviours and gregariousness in extant species, which are known to influence brain size evolution. Additionally, the plane of the lateral (horizontal semicircular canal of the bony labyrinth is oriented nearly vertically if the skull is held horizontally, which suggests that the natural position of the head was inclined about 60–65°to the horizontal. This is consistent with the fighting position inferred from osteology, as well as ground-level browsing. Finally, the unusually large parietal tube may have been filled with thick conjunctive tissue to protect the delicate pineal eye from injury sustained during head butting.

  3. The mechanics of explosive seed dispersal in orange jewelweed (Impatiens capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Marika; Feilich, Kara L; Ellerby, David J

    2009-01-01

    Explosive dehiscence ballistically disperses seeds in a number of plant species. During dehiscence, mechanical energy stored in specialized tissues is transferred to the seeds to increase their kinetic and potential energies. The resulting seed dispersal patterns have been investigated in some ballistic dispersers, but the mechanical performance of a launch mechanism of this type has not been measured. The properties of the energy storage tissue and the energy transfer efficiency of the launch mechanism were quantified in Impatiens capensis. In this species the valves forming the seed pod wall store mechanical energy. Their mass specific energy storage capacity (124 J kg(-1)) was comparable with that of elastin and spring steel. The energy storage capacity of the pod tissues was determined by their level of hydration, suggesting a role for turgor pressure in the energy storage mechanism. During dehiscence the valves coiled inwards, collapsing the pod and ejecting the seeds. Dehiscence took 4.2+/-0.4 ms (mean +/-SEM, n=13). The estimated efficiency with which energy was transferred to the seeds was low (0.51+/-0.26%, mean +/-SEM, n=13). The mean seed launch angle (17.4+/-5.2, mean +/-SEM, n=45) fell within the range predicted by a ballistic model to maximize dispersal distance. Low ballistic dispersal efficiency or effectiveness may be characteristic of species that also utilize secondary seed dispersal mechanisms.

  4. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  5. Physiological effects of increased foraging effort in a small passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Kang Nian; Kim, Oh Run; Harris, Karilyn C; Williams, Tony D

    2017-11-15

    Foraging to obtain food, either for self-maintenance or at presumably elevated rates to provide for offspring, is thought to be an energetically demanding activity but one that is essential for fitness (higher reproductive success and survival). Nevertheless, the physiological mechanisms that allow some individuals to support higher foraging performance, and the mechanisms underlying costs of high workload, remain poorly understood. We experimentally manipulated foraging behaviour in zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ) using the technique described by Koetsier and Verhulst (2011) Birds in the 'high foraging effort' (HF) group had to obtain food either while flying/hovering or by making repeated hops or jumps from the ground up to the feeder, behaviour typical of the extremely energetically expensive foraging mode observed in many free-living small passerines. HF birds made significantly more trips to the feeder per 10 min, whereas control birds spent more time (perched) at the feeder. Despite this marked change in foraging behaviour, we documented few short- or long-term effects of 'training' (3 days and 90 days of 'training', respectively) and some of these effects were sex specific. There were no effects of treatment on basal metabolic rate, haematocrit, haemoglobin or plasma glycerol, triglyceride and glucose levels, and masses of kidney, crop, large intestine, small intestine, gizzard and liver. HF females had higher masses of flight muscle, leg muscle, heart and lung compared with controls. In contrast, HF males had lower heart mass than controls and there were no differences for other organs. When both sexes were pooled, there were no effects of treatment on body composition. Finally, birds in the HF treatment group had higher levels of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and, consequently, although treatment did not affect total anti-oxidant capacity, birds in the HF treatment group had higher oxidative stress. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  6. Cranial architecture of tube-snouted gasterosteiformes (Syngnathus rostellatus and Hippocampus capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysen, Heleen; Jouk, Philippe; Brunain, Marleen; Christiaens, Joachim; Adriaens, Dominique

    2010-03-01

    The long snout of pipefishes and seahorses (Syngnathidae, Gasterosteiformes) is formed as an elongation of the ethmoid region. This is in contrast to many other teleosts with elongate snouts (e.g., butterflyfishes) in which the snout is formed as an extension of the jaws. Syngnathid fishes perform very fast suction feeding, accomplished by powerful neurocranial elevation and hyoid retraction. Clearly, suction through a long and narrow tube and its hydrodynamic implications can be expected to require certain adaptations in the cranium, especially in musculoskeletal elements of the feeding apparatus. Not much is known about which skeletal elements actually support the snout and what the effect of elongation is on related structures. Here, we give a detailed morphological description of the cartilaginous and bony feeding apparatus in both juvenile and adult Syngnathus rostellatus and Hippocampus capensis. Our results are compared with previous morphological studies of a generalized teleost, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We found that the ethmoid region is elongated early during development, with the ethmoid plate, the hyosymplectic, and the basihyal cartilage being extended in the chondrocranium. In the juveniles of both species almost all bones are forming, although only as a very thin layer. The elongation of the vomeral, mesethmoid, quadrate, metapterygoid, symplectic, and preopercular bones is already present. Probably, because of the long and specialized parental care which releases advanced developmental stages from the brooding pouch, morphology of the feeding apparatus of juveniles is already very similar to that of the adults. We describe morphological features related to snout elongation that may be considered adaptations for suction feeding; e.g. the peculiar shape of the interhyal bone and its saddle-shaped articulation with the posterior ceratohyal bone might aid in explosive hyoid retraction by reducing the risk of hyoid dislocation.

  7. Decline in snail abundance due to soil acidification causes eggshell defects in forest passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J; vanderWal, R

    On poor soils in the Netherlands an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and of other forest passerines produce eggs with defective shells and have low reproductive success as a result of calcium deficiency. A similar increase in eggshell defects has been observed in Germany and Sweden.

  8. Decline in snail abundance due to soil acidification causes eggshell defects in forest passerines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.; Van der Wal, R.

    1996-01-01

    On poor soils in the Netherlands an increasing number of great tits, Parus major, and of other forest passerines produce eggs with defective shells and have low reproductive success as a result of calcium deficiency. A similar increase in eggshell defects has been observed in Germany and Sweden.

  9. Factors determining presence of passerines breeding within White Stork Ciconia ciconia nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyryt, Adam; Jakubas, Dariusz; Tobolka, Marcin

    2017-08-18

    Nests of White Stork Ciconia ciconia are commonly used by various passerines as nesting sites. In this study, we investigated factors determining presence and number of pairs of species breeding within White Stork nests in an extensive farmland in NE Poland. In 133 (57%) out of 233 White Stork nests, we found at least one breeding pair of passerine bird. These were from three species: House Sparrows Passer domesticus (68% of 133 nests with co-breeding), Tree Sparrows Passer montanus (65%), and Starlings Sturnus vulgaris (30%). The probability of breeding passerines within White Stork nests increased with increasing nest thickness, and was significantly higher in currently occupied nests. Sparrows were more likely to breed in White Stork nests located on electricity poles, situated closer to settlements and surrounded mainly by arable fields where meadows were not prevalent. In this paper, we show that White Stork nests are favorable nesting sites for passerines, as they are well insulated and provide an anti-predatory shield.

  10. Factors determining presence of passerines breeding within White Stork Ciconia ciconia nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbyryt, Adam; Jakubas, Dariusz; Tobolka, Marcin

    2017-10-01

    Nests of White Stork Ciconia ciconia are commonly used by various passerines as nesting sites. In this study, we investigated factors determining presence and number of pairs of species breeding within White Stork nests in an extensive farmland in NE Poland. In 133 (57%) out of 233 White Stork nests, we found at least one breeding pair of passerine bird. These were from three species: House Sparrows Passer domesticus (68% of 133 nests with co-breeding), Tree Sparrows Passer montanus (65%), and Starlings Sturnus vulgaris (30%). The probability of breeding passerines within White Stork nests increased with increasing nest thickness, and was significantly higher in currently occupied nests. Sparrows were more likely to breed in White Stork nests located on electricity poles, situated closer to settlements and surrounded mainly by arable fields where meadows were not prevalent. In this paper, we show that White Stork nests are favorable nesting sites for passerines, as they are well insulated and provide an anti-predatory shield.

  11. Age ratios and their possible use in determining autumn routes of passerine migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. John Ralph

    1981-01-01

    Age ratios and abundance of 61 migrant passerine species comprising more than 42,000 birds were analyzed in an attempt to determine patterns of migration. The data were collected at 10 stations from coastal Massachusetts to inland Pennsylvania. Age ratios are thought to be useful in determining routes of migration. The principal criteria for the edge of a species...

  12. Predictors of extinction risk of passerine birds in a Central European country

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Albrecht, Tomáš; Reif, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2014), s. 498-506 ISSN 1367-9430 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : red list * life history * habitat specialization * distribution * climate change * threatened species * extinction risk * passerine Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.852, year: 2014

  13. Improved detection of coastal acid sulfate soil hotspots through biomonitoring of metal(loid) accumulation in water lilies (Nymphaea capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Jacqueline L; Collins, Richard N

    2014-07-15

    Anthropogenically disturbed coastal acid sulfate soils along the east coast of Australia, and worldwide, periodically result in the discharge of acid waters containing high concentrations of metals. Identifying priority sites (hotspots) within a catchment for acid sulfate soil remediation activities typically involves long-term monitoring of drainwater chemistry, including the capture of data on unpredictable rain-induced groundwater discharge events. To improve upon this monitoring approach, this study investigated using the water lily (Nymphaea capensis) as a biomonitor of drainage waters to identify hotspots in three acid sulfate soil impacted catchments (83 km(2)) in north-eastern New South Wales, Australia. In one catchment where the location of hotspots was known, water lily lamina concentrations of a suite of metal(loid)s were significantly (photspots revealed within catchment variation of plant metal concentrations up to 70-fold. High resolution maps produced from these results, therefore, provided strong evidence for the location of potential hotspots which were confirmed with measurements of drainwater chemistry during rain-induced groundwater discharge events. Median catchment lily accumulation was ca. 160 mg Al kg(-1) and 1,300 mg Fe kg(-1), with hotspots containing up to 6- and 10-fold higher Al and Fe concentrations. These findings suggest that biomonitoring with N. capensis can be an important tool to rapidly identify priority sites for remediation in acid sulfate soil impacted landscapes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of prey size on diet differentiation of seven passerine species at two spring stopover sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti, C.M.; Locatelli, D.P.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.; Baldaccini, N.E.

    1998-01-01

    Prey size was evaluated for seven passerine trans-Saharan migrant species at two spring stopover sites in Sardinia, Italy. The species considered were Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca, Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata, Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus, Garden Warbler Sylvia borin, Whitethroat

  15. Development and characterization of 10 microsatellite markers in the Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis (Chiroptera, Rhinolophidae) and cross-amplification in southern African Rhinolophus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Nicolas; Jacobs, David S; Feldheim, Kevin; Bishop, Jacqueline M

    2015-09-26

    The Cape horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus capensis, is endemic to the Cape region of South Africa. Coalescent analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequence data suggests extensive historical gene flow between populations despite strong geographic variation of their echolocation call phenotype. Nevertheless the fine-scale genetic structure and evolutionary ecology of R. capensis remains poorly understood. Here we describe the development of 10 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci to investigate of the dispersal ecology of R. capensis and to facilitate taxonomic studies of Rhinolophus species in southern Africa. We report 10 microsatellite primer pairs that consistently amplify scorable and polymorphic loci across 12 African rhinolophid species. Initial analysis of two populations of R. capensis from South Africa revealed moderate to high levels of allelic variation with 4-14 alleles per locus and observed heterozygosities of 0.450-0.900. No evidence of linkage disequilibrium was observed and eight of the loci showed no departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cross-species utility of these markers revealed consistently amplifiable polymorphic loci in eleven additional rhinolophid species. The cross-amplification success of the microsatellites developed here provides a cost-effective set of population genetic marker for the study of rhinolophid evolutionary ecology and conservation in southern Africa.

  16. Impact of elephant on two woody trees, Boscia oleoides and Pappea capensis, in an arid thicket-Nama Karoo mosaic, Greater Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietjie Landman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive evidence of the influences of elephant on woody trees in savannah habitats, effects on trees in the succulent thickets of the Eastern Cape are relatively poorly described. Our study investigates the role and intensity of elephant impacts on Pappea capensis and the relatively rare Boscia oleoides in an arid thicket-Nama Karoo mosaic habitat of the Greater Addo Elephant National Park. We show that roughly 19% of the B. oleoides and nearly half of the P. capensis individuals recorded showed signs of elephant impact. Elephant often toppled our study trees, and where these individuals were uprooted, mortalities occurred: B. oleoides ~ 44% of the impacted trees (4 individuals; P. capensis ~ 22% of the impacted trees (29 individuals. Conservation implications: Whilst this study is restricted by limited spatial and temporal replication, P. capensis mortalities caused by elephant occurred at a rate exceeding that of other processes. Our results provide insight into the severity of the measured changes and the need to reduce the impacts. However, it would be critically important to establish the specific driver of elephant–tree interactions before any management intervention is implemented.

  17. Migration, distribution and population (stock) structure of shallow-water hake (Merluccius capensis) in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem inferred using a geostatistical population model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Kainge, Paulus Inekela

    2016-01-01

    Shallow-water hake (Merluccius capensis) is of considerable ecological and economic importance in the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem in South Africa and Namibia. Optimal management of the resource is currently constrained by the limited understanding of migration patterns and population...

  18. Avian disease assessment in seabirds and non-native passerines birds at Midway Atoll NWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Klavitter, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands supports the largest breeding colony of Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) in the world and is a proposed site for the translocation of endangered Northwestern Hawaiian Island passerine birds such as the Nihoa finch (Telespiza ultima), Nihoa millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi), or Laysan finch (Telespiza cantans). On the main Hawaiian Islands, introduced mosquito-borne avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and avian pox (Avipoxvirus) have contributed to the extinction and decline of native Hawaiian avifauna. The mosquito vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) is present on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, where epizootics of Avipoxvirus have been reported among nestling Laysan albatross, black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), and red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) since 1963. Two introduced passerines, the common canary (Serinus canaria) and the common myna (Acridotheres tristis), are also present on Sand Island and may serve as reservoirs of mosquito-borne pathogens. Assessing disease prevalence and transmission potential at Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is a critical first step to translocation of Nihoa endemic passerines. In May 2010 and April 2012 we surveyed Midway Atoll NWR for mosquitoes and evidence of mosquito-borne disease. Although we did not observe active pox infections on albatross nestlings in May 2010, active infections were prevalent on albatross nestlings in April 2012. Presumptive diagnosis of Avipoxvirus was confirmed by PCR amplification of the Avipoxvirus 4b core protein gene from lesions collected from 10 albatross nestlings. Products were sequenced and compared to 4b core protein sequences from 28 Avipoxvirus isolates from the Hawaiian Islands and other parts of the world. Sequences from all Midway isolates were identical and formed a clade with other Avipoxvirus isolates from seabirds that was distinct from other Avipoxvirus isolates from the Hawaiian Islands

  19. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. Tavares; S. Siciliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoo...

  20. A badger in Bannerghatta: an opportunistic record of the Ratel Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776 (Mammalia: Carnivora: Mustelidae from Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Krishnan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A single observation of a Ratel Mellivora capensis has been photo-documented in Bannerghatta National Park on 2 November 2015. This record being the first contemporary evidence of badgers in this region of Karnataka, India, the paper also presents a case study of badgers being close to a highly human-dominated landscape which could be due to some ecological factors that may be conducive as a habitat within the Park. Though a resident population and distribution within the BNP could not be ascertained, it can be proposed that the region may be an extension of range of its most recently documented distribution in the Eastern Ghats landscape. 

  1. Effect of geolocators on migration and subsequent breeding performance of a long-distance passerine migrant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Arlt

    Full Text Available Geolocators are small light-weight data loggers used to track individual migratory routes, and their use has increased exponentially in birds. However, the effects of geolocators on individual performance are still poorly known. We studied geolocator effects on a long-distance migrating passerine bird, the northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe L.. We asked the general question of whether geolocators affect migratory behaviour and subsequent reproductive performance of small passerines by comparing arrival time, breeding time, breeding success and survival of geolocator versus control birds of known identity and breeding history. During two years geolocator birds (n=37 displayed a lower apparent survival (30% as compared to controls (45%, n=164. Furthermore, returning geolocator birds (n=12 arrived on average 3.5 days later, started laying eggs 6.3 days later, and had lower nest success (25% than control birds (78%. Our results suggest that geolocators affect migratory performance with carry-over effects to the timing of breeding and reproductive success in the subsequent breeding season. We discuss the implications of such geolocator effects for the study of migratory strategies of small passerines in general and suggest how to identify and investigate such effects in the future.

  2. Efficacy of the saponin component of Impatiens capensis Meerb.in preventing urushiol-induced contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motz, Vicki A; Bowers, Christopher P; Kneubehl, Alexander R; Lendrum, Elizabeth C; Young, Linda M; Kinder, David H

    2015-03-13

    Many different tribes of American Indians used jewelweed, Impatiens capensis Meerb, as a plant mash to reduce development of poison ivy dermatitis. Saponins are a natural soapy constituent found within plants. A 2012 study suggested that saponins may be present in jewelweed which could be responsible for its efficacy in preventing rash development following contact with Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze (poison ivy). This study validated this hypothesis and demonstrated additional biological activity of the jewelweed saponin containing extract. Fresh I. capensis leaves were extracted with methanol and further partitioned between ethyl acetate and water, with a final separation between water and n-butanol, to obtain a saponin containing extract. The presence of saponins in the extract was demonstrated by the observation of foaming and using a vanillin colorimetric assay for total saponins. Efficacy of the saponin containing extracts in rash reduction was tested by brushing poison ivy (PI) onto the forearms of volunteers (N=23) in six locations and treating these PI exposed areas with distilled water (control), saponin containing extracts, fresh plant mashes, and soaps made with and without plant extracts. Saponin containing extracts were further tested for biological activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and against cancer cell lines A-375, HT-29, and MCF-7. Additionally, because saponins have been shown to have a stimulatory effect in cardiac muscle 2 µl saponin extract was applied superficially to black worms, Lumbriculus variegatus (N=5). Both saponin containing extracts and all soaps tested were effective in reducing poison ivy dermatitis; thus, saponin content correlates with PI rash prevention. No apparent antibiosis was observed against any bacteria tested; however, dose response cytotoxicity was documented against MCF-7 breast cancer cells and cytostatic activity was seen against the HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. Lumbriculus

  3. Curatorial implications of Ophyra capensis (Order Diptera, Family Muscidae) puparia recovered from the body of the Blessed Antonio Patrizi, Monticiano, Italy (Middle Ages).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Johnica J; Baldwin, Diesel A; Higley, Leon; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Reinhard, Karl J

    2015-11-01

    The discovery of dipteran remains on mummified individuals can lead to either cause for curatorial concern or to a better understanding of the individual's post-mortem environment. The present study analyzed insect remains associated with the body of a unique medieval mummy of religious significance, that of the Blessed Antonio Patrizi da Monticiano. A total of 79 puparia were examined and all were identified as Ophyra capensis (Diptera: Muscidae). Additionally, a desiccated moth (Lepidoptera: Tineidae) was encountered. Puparia of O. capensis would be associated with normal decomposition shortly after the death of the mummified individual, and not an infestation beginning during more recent years. Similarly, the tineid moth found would likely be related with decomposition of cloth associated with the remains. These findings illustrate how collection and identification of insects associated with human remains can distinguish between historical decomposition versus issues of modern curatorial concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. The use of feathers in monitoring bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids in the South African endangered African grass-owl (Tyto capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansara-Ross, T M; Ross, M J; Wepener, V

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have quantified metals in South African species and no published data on residues specifically in South African owl feathers exist. Tyto capensis is listed as vulnerable within South Africa, making it preferable to use a non-invasive technique to determine metal bioaccumulation for this species. Comparisons are made with the cosmopolitan T. alba to determine whether this species could be used as a surrogate. Concentrations of various metals were thus determined in feathers of the two species and compared with liver and muscle samples. Samples were taken from 119 owls collected as road kill along a national road. A comparison of concentrations in feathers revealed similarly higher concentrations of aluminium, antimony, lead, nickel, and strontium, whereas concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, titanium and zinc were similarly higher in internal tissues for both species. Metal concentrations of owls were comparable to those reported in literature and below toxic levels, suggesting that these metals were not likely to impact the owls. Further regressions between feathers and corresponding livers were examined to determine if feathers were indicative of internal metal burdens. Significant positive relationships were found for aluminium, copper, lead, nickel and vanadium in T. alba and nickel, manganese and vanadium in T. capensis. Preliminary results support the feasibility of using feathers as non-destructive indicators of environmental contamination in T. capensis although caution needs to be taken when interpreting the results.

  5. Mapping evaporative water loss in desert passerines reveals an expanding threat of lethal dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P; Mutiibwa, Denis; Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Talbot, William A; O'Neill, Jacqueline J; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2017-02-28

    Extreme high environmental temperatures produce a variety of consequences for wildlife, including mass die-offs. Heat waves are increasing in frequency, intensity, and extent, and are projected to increase further under climate change. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of die-off risk are poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of heat waves on evaporative water loss (EWL) and survival in five desert passerine birds across the southwestern United States using a combination of physiological data, mechanistically informed models, and hourly geospatial temperature data. We ask how rates of EWL vary with temperature across species; how frequently, over what areas, and how rapidly lethal dehydration occurs; how EWL and die-off risk vary with body mass; and how die-off risk is affected by climate warming. We find that smaller-bodied passerines are subject to higher rates of mass-specific EWL than larger-bodied counterparts and thus encounter potentially lethal conditions much more frequently, over shorter daily intervals, and over larger geographic areas. Warming by 4 °C greatly expands the extent, frequency, and intensity of dehydration risk, and introduces new threats for larger passerine birds, particularly those with limited geographic ranges. Our models reveal that increasing air temperatures and heat wave occurrence will potentially have important impacts on the water balance, daily activity, and geographic distribution of arid-zone birds. Impacts may be exacerbated by chronic effects and interactions with other environmental changes. This work underscores the importance of acute risks of high temperatures, particularly for small-bodied species, and suggests conservation of thermal refugia and water sources.

  6. Ducks and passerines nesting in northern mixed-grass prairie treated with fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Todd A.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Berkey, Gordon B.

    2011-01-01

    Prescribed fire is an important, ecology-driven tool for restoration of grassland systems. However, prescribed fire remains controversial for some grassland managers because of reported reductions in bird use of recently burned grasslands. Few studies have evaluated effects of fire on grassland bird populations in the northern mixed-grass prairie region. Fewer studies yet have examined the influence of fire on nest density or survival. In our review, we found no studies that simultaneously examined effects of fire on duck and passerine nesting. During 1998—2003, we examined effects of prescribed fire on the density of upland-nesting ducks and passerines nesting in north-central North Dakota, USA. Apparent nest densities of gadwall (Anas strepera), mallard (A. platyrhynchos), and all duck species combined, were influenced by fire history of study units, although the degree of influence was not compelling. Fire history was not related to nest densities of blue-winged teal (A. discors), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), or northern pintail (A. acuta); however, apparent nest densities in relation to the number of postfire growing seasons exhibited a strikingly similar pattern among all duck species. When compared to ducks, fire history strongly influenced apparent nest densities of clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida), Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), and bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). For most species examined, apparent nest densities were lowest in recently burned units, increased during the second postfire growing season, and stabilized or, in some cases, decreased thereafter. Prescribed fire is critical for restoring the ecology of northern mixed-grass prairies and our findings indicate that reductions in nest densities are limited mostly to the first growing season after fire. Our results support the premise that upland-nesting ducks and several grassland passerine species are adapted to periodic fires occurring at a frequency similar to that

  7. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of Sr in eggshells may be associated with lower hatching success of some passerine birds. - Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2-35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell

  8. Potential impacts of climate change on the winter distribution of Afro-Palaearctic migrant passerines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Walther, Bruno A; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    We modelled the present and future sub-Saharan winter distributions of 64 trans-Saharan migrant passerines to predict the potential impacts of climate change. These predictions used the recent ensemble modelling developments and the latest IPCC climatic simulations to account for possible...... changes in range size and location were spatially structured, with species that winter in southern and eastern Africa facing larger range contractions and shifts. Predicted changes in regional species richness for these long-distance migrants are increases just south of the Sahara and on the Arabian...... Peninsula and major decreases in southern and eastern Africa....

  9. Prey-induced changes in the accumulation of amino acids and phenolic metabolites in the leaves of Drosera capensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Jozef; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Stork, František; Hedbavny, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Effect of prey feeding (ants Formica fusca) on the quantitative changes in the accumulation of free amino acids, soluble proteins, phenolic metabolites and mineral nutrients in the leaves of carnivorous plant Drosera capensis was studied. Arginine was the most abundant compound in Drosera leaves, while proline was abundant in ants. The amount of the majority of amino acids and their sum were elevated in the fed leaves after 3 and 21 days, and the same, but with further enhancement after 21 days, was observed in ants. Accumulation of amino acids also increased in young non-fed leaves of fed plants. Soluble proteins decreased in ants, but were not enhanced in fed leaves. This confirms the effectiveness of sundew's enzymatic machinery in digestion of prey and suggests that amino acids are not in situ deposited, but rather are allocated within the plant. The content of total soluble phenols, flavonoids and two selected flavonols (quercetin and kaempferol) was not affected by feeding in Drosera leaves, indicating that their high basal level was sufficient for the plant's metabolism and prey-induced changes were mainly N based. The prey also showed to be an important source of other nutrients besides N, and a stimulation of root uptake of some mineral nutrients is assumed (Mg, Cu, Zn). Accumulation of Ca and Na was not affected by feeding.

  10. Breeding biology of passerines in a subtropical montane forest in northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Fontaine, J.J.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    The breeding ecology of south temperate bird species is less widely known than that of north temperate species, yet because they comprise a large portion of the world's avian diversity, knowledge of their breeding ecology can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the geographic diversity of avian reproductive traits and life history strategies. We provide the first detailed examination of the reproductive strategies of 18 forest passerines of subtropical, northwestern Argentina. Mean clutch sizes were smaller and egg mass was greater than for north temperate birds, but differed among species and nest types, with cavity-nesters having larger clutches than species with open-cup and enclosed nests. Across all species, the average breeding season duration was 50 days; thus, the common perception that southern species have smaller clutch sizes because of longer breeding seasons is not supported in this community. Daily nest predation rates were influenced by nest type, cavity nests suffering the least from predation, as found in north temperate systems. Only females incubated eggs in all but one species, whereas both parents fed and cared for nestlings in all species. Mean nest attentiveness was low compared to north temperate passerines. Mean hourly nestling feeding rates differed among species and were negatively related to nest predation risk. In short, coexisting species in this subtropical forest varied in their life history strategies, in part correlated with variation in nest predation risk, but also differing from north temperate species. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  11. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes: lower species richness compared to European mainland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae. A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai.

  12. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland); Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T. [Section of Ecology, 20014 University of Turku (Finland)

    2011-10-15

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: > We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. > We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. > Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. > Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. > Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  13. Species- and age-related variation in metal exposure and accumulation of two passerine bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Koivula, M.J.; Eeva, T.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the concentration of several elements (arsenic [As], calcium [Ca], cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], selenium [Se] and zinc [Zn]) in adult and nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) and great tits (Parus major) at different distances to a Cu-Ni smelter in 2009. Feces of nestlings generally failed to correspond with internal element concentrations but reflected the pollution exposure, indicating an increased stress by removal of excess metals. The uptake of Cu and Ni were regulated, but As, Cd, Pb and Se accumulated in liver tissue. Pied flycatchers had generally higher element concentrations than great tits. The higher accumulation of As and Pb in pied flycatcher livers was explained by a more efficient absorption, whereas the higher Cd concentration was primarily due to different intake of food items. Age-related differences occurred between the two species, though both Cd and Se accumulated with age. - Highlights: → We measured metal concentrations in feces and livers of two passerine species. → We examined species- and age-related differences in polluted environments. → Feces was evaluated as a useful non-destructive measure of increased stress. → Generally pied flycatchers accumulated higher concentrations than great tits. → Cadmium and selenium accumulated with age in both species. - Accumulation of metals in liver of two insectivorous passerines reflects inter-specific differences in diet, absorption rate and physiological requirements.

  14. Codiversification of gastrointestinal microbiota and phylogeny in passerines is not explained by ecological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropáčková, Lucie; Těšický, Martin; Albrecht, Tomáš; Kubovčiak, Jan; Čížková, Dagmar; Tomášek, Oldřich; Martin, Jean-François; Bobek, Lukáš; Králová, Tereza; Procházka, Petr; Kreisinger, Jakub

    2017-10-01

    Vertebrate gut microbiota (GM) is comprised of a taxonomically diverse consortium of symbiotic and commensal microorganisms that have a pronounced effect on host physiology, immune system function and health status. Despite much research on interactions between hosts and their GM, the factors affecting inter- and intraspecific GM variation in wild populations are still poorly known. We analysed data on faecal microbiota composition in 51 passerine species (319 individuals) using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3-V4 variable region). Despite pronounced interindividual variation, GM composition exhibited significant differences at the interspecific level, accounting for approximately 20%-30% of total GM variation. We also observed a significant correlation between GM composition divergence and host's phylogenetic divergence, with strength of correlation higher than that of GM vs. ecological or life history traits and geographic variation. The effect of host's phylogeny on GM composition was significant, even after statistical control for these confounding factors. Hence, our data do not support codiversification of GM and passerine phylogeny solely as a by-product of their ecological divergence. Furthermore, our findings do not support that GM vs. host's phylogeny codiversification is driven primarily through trans-generational GM transfer as the GM vs. phylogeny correlation does not increase with higher sequence similarity used when delimiting operational taxonomic units. Instead, we hypothesize that the GM vs. phylogeny correlation may arise as a consequence of interspecific divergence of genes that directly or indirectly modulate composition of GM. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. How unpredictable access to food increases the body fat of small passerines: A mechanistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselme, Patrick; Otto, Tobias; Güntürkün, Onur

    2017-11-01

    Unpredictable rewards increase the vigor of responses in autoshaping (a Pavlovian conditioning procedure) and are preferred to predictable rewards in free-choice tasks involving fixed- versus variable-delay schedules. The significance those behavioral properties may have in field conditions is currently unknown. However, it is noticeable that when exposed to unpredictable food, small passerines - such as robins, titmice, and starlings - get fatter than when food is abundant. In functional terms, fattening is viewed as an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply. But this functional view does not explain the causal mechanisms by which small passerines come to be fatter under food uncertainty. Here, it is suggested that one of these causal mechanisms is that involved in behavioral invigoration and preference for food uncertainty in the laboratory. Based on a psychological theory of motivational changes under food uncertainty, we developed an integrative computational model to test this idea. We show that, for functional (adaptive) reasons, the excitatory property of reward unpredictability can underlie the propensity of wild birds to forage longer and/or more intensively in an unpredictable environment, with the consequence that they can put on more fat reserves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puggioni, Giantonella; Cavadini, Patrizia; Maestrale, Caterina; Scivoli, Rosario; Botti, Giuliana; Ligios, Ciriaco; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Lavazza, Antonio; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2013-10-07

    Lagovirus is an emerging genus of Caliciviridae, which includes the Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) of hares that cause lethal hepatitis. In 2010, a new RHDV related virus (RHDV2) with a unique genetic and antigenic profile and lower virulence was identified in France in rabbits. Here we report the identification of RHDV2 as the cause in Sardinia of several outbreaks of acute hepatitis in rabbits and Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus). This is the first account of a lagovirus that causes fatal hepatitis in both rabbits and hares.

  17. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace P Erickson

    Full Text Available Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW] for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows], and domestic cats have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top

  18. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P; Wolfe, Melissa M; Bay, Kimberly J; Johnson, Douglas H; Gehring, Joelle L

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  19. A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collisions with turbines at wind energy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Wallace P.; Wolfe, Melissa M.; Bay, Kimberly J.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Gehring, Joelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 39 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).

  20. The surface topography of Callorhynchocotyle callorhynchi (Manter, 1955) (Monogenea: Hexabothriidae), a parasite of the holocephalan fish Callorhinchus capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Reed, Cecile; Gibson, David I

    2015-09-01

    A scanning electron microscopical study, incorporating some transmission electron microscopical observations, was undertaken on the surface topography of the gill parasite Callorhynchocotyle callorhynchi (Manter, 1955) (Monogenea: Hexabothriidae) from the Cape elephant fish Callorhinchus capensis (Holocephali) off the western coast of South Africa. The study revealed the presence of several new characteristics for this species. These include the presence of regularly distributed, knob-shaped projections on the surface of the haptor, haptoral appendix and sucker peduncles measuring 0.2 μm and in concentrations of approximately 100 per 10 μm(2) and the existence of a ridge which bisects each sucker lumen, forming two different loculi. We also report, for the first time for any monogenean, the presence of 'true spines'; these occur on the luminal surface of the haptoral suckers and have all of the characteristics of the tegumental spines of digeneans, i.e. they are situated within the distal syncytial tegumental cytoplasm, rest on the basal plasma membrane, have a uniform structure and are covered apically by the tegumental surface plasma membrane. These spines are simple, straight and single-pointed. Under the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), within an area of 20 μm in diameter, 23 such spines were counted, but their concentration and arrangement varies in different regions of the sucker. At their base, they measure about 1.5 μm in width and reach approximately 2 μm in height above the general level of the tegument, but transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements of an entire spine indicate that they may reach 3 μm in total length. The presence of spines, possessing similar morphological characteristics in both basal polyopisthocotylean monogeneans and digeneans, represents another characteristic which may prove useful in understanding the evolutionary relationships within the Neodermata.

  1. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area. PMID:26865820

  2. Dataset of Passerine bird communities in a Mediterranean high mountain (Sierra Nevada, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Barea-Azcón, José Miguel; Álvarez-Ruiz, Lola; Bonet-García, Francisco Javier; Zamora, Regino

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, a dataset of passerine bird communities is described in Sierra Nevada, a Mediterranean high mountain located in southern Spain. The dataset includes occurrence data from bird surveys conducted in four representative ecosystem types of Sierra Nevada from 2008 to 2015. For each visit, bird species numbers as well as distance to the transect line were recorded. A total of 27847 occurrence records were compiled with accompanying measurements on distance to the transect and animal counts. All records are of species in the order Passeriformes. Records of 16 different families and 44 genera were collected. Some of the taxa in the dataset are included in the European Red List. This dataset belongs to the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this area.

  3. The intensity threshold of colour vision in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Doris; Grégoire, Arnaud; Del Rey Granado, Maria; Bassoul, Marine; Degueldre, David; Perret, Philippe; Doutrelant, Claire

    2014-11-01

    Many vertebrates use colour vision for vital behaviour but their visual performance in dim light is largely unknown. The light intensity threshold of colour vision is known only for humans, horses and two parrot species. Here, we first explore this threshold in a passerine bird, the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). Using classic conditioning of colour cues to food rewards in three individuals, we find a threshold ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 cd m(-2). Results are comparable to the two previously tested bird species. For tits, nest light conditions probably exceed that threshold, at least after sunrise. These results shed new light on the lively debate questioning the visual performance of cavity nesters and the evolutionary significance of egg and chick coloration. Although this needs further investigation, it is possible that blue tits exploit both colour and brightness cues when viewing their eggs, chicks or conspecifics in their nests. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Habitat constraints on the distribution of passerine residents and neotropical migrants in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    With continuing tropical deforestation, there is increased concern for birds that depend on forest habitats in Latin America. During the past 10 northern winters, we have conducted quantitative studies of habitat use by wintering migrant songbirds and by residents in the Greater Antilles, Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. Many migrants, but few residents, winter in forest fragments and in certain arboreal agricultural habitats (citrus, cacao, shade coffee). Many other agricultural habitats (sun coffee, mango, commercial banana plantations, and heavily grazed pasture) are avoided by most birds. Some species, such as thrushes and ground-feeding warblers, depend on closed-canopy forest. Some, such as Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) and Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), winter primarily in mangroves or other swamp forests. The majority of neotropical migrant passerines winter in forest fragments and certain agricultural habitats, as well as mature forest; but many resident species, especially suboscines (Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Formicariidae, Papridae), are heavily impacted by loss and fragmentation of the forest.

  5. The use of passerine feathers to evaluate heavy metal pollution in Central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R A; Petronilho, J M S; Soares, A M V M; Vingada, J V

    2011-03-01

    In 2003, two sampling strategies were applied in order to evaluate metal contamination in passerine bird feathers. One strategy included the use of nest boxes and nestling great tits in a forest habitat (MU). The other strategy focused on the use of mist nets to capture adult blackbirds, robins and blackcaps in a fragmented non-forested habitat (EST). There was a significantly higher concentration of mercury in great tits (1.09 ± 0.40) sampled in MU and also in robins (3.44 ± 0.91) and blackcaps (1.62 ± 1.99) sampled in EST, in comparison to the reference site (0.66 ± 0.68; 2.04 ± 1.12; 0.32 ± 0.43; respectively). Concerning interspecific differences, robins accumulated significantly more metals than blackbirds or blackcaps.

  6. Nesting and acoustic ecology, but not phylogeny, influence passerine urban tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Gonçalo C

    2014-03-01

    Urbanization is one of the most extensive and ecologically significant changes happening to terrestrial environments, as it strongly affects the distribution of biodiversity. It is well established that native species richness is reduced in urban and suburban areas, but the species traits that predict tolerance to urbanization are yet little understood. In birds, one of the most studied groups in this respect, evidence is appearing that acoustic traits influence urban living, but it remains unknown how this compares to the effects of more obvious ecological traits that facilitate urban living. Therefore, it remains unclear whether acoustic communication is an important predictor of urban tolerance among species. Here, with a comparative study across 140 European and North American passerines, I show that high song frequency, which is less masked by the low-frequency anthropogenic noise, is associated with urban tolerance, with an effect size over half that of the most important ecological trait studied: off-ground nesting. Other nesting and foraging traits accepted to facilitate urban living did not differ for species occurring in urban environments. Thus, the contribution of acoustic traits for passerine urban tolerance approximates that of more obvious ecological traits. Nonetheless, effect sizes of the biological predictors of urban tolerance were low and the phylogenetic signal for urban tolerance was null, both of which suggest that factors other than phenotypic traits have major effects on urban tolerance. A simple possibility is exposure to urbanization, as there was a higher proportion of urban-tolerant species in Europe, which is more urbanized than North America. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Snowpack and variation in reproductive ecology of a montane ground-nesting passerine, Junco hyemalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of snow depth and rate of snowmelt on reproduction of a montane ground-nesting passerine were examined in a 5-year study of Dark-eyed Juncos Junco hyemalis in northern Utah, USA. Distribution of clucth sizes differed significantly among years. Although most clutches contained four eggs, 3-egg clutches, due primarily to second nestings, were more common during a year of early snowmelt and 5-egg clutches were most common during two years of late snowmelt. Average clutch size was lowest in an early snowmelt year and average clutch size and date at which meadows became snow-free were significantly positively correlated. Average hatching date of 4-egg clutches was also significantly positively correlated with date at which meadows became snow-free demonstrating that most birds tracked the pattern of snowmelt. Early snowmelt may allow more pairs to attempt second nesting, but late-lying snow causes breeding to be delayed, allowing time for only one nesting attempt. During this delay, female juncos continue to feed and some may gain enough reserves to produce larger clutches, accounting for the increase in average clutch size in years of late snowmelt. Three female juncos examined in June 1982, a period of late snowmelt, had significantly more lipid reserves than did six males collected at the same time, suggesting that females are not physiologically stressed while awaiting snowmelt. By tracking snowmelt patterns, juncos synchronize production of young with peak summer insect abundance and potentially decrease risk of predation. Snow depth and rate of snowmelt are thus proximate environmental factors that may influence the reproductive ecology of ground-nesting passerines.

  8. Selection of passerine birds as bio-sentinel of persistent organic pollutants in terrestrial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiaobo; Sun, Yuxin; Yu, Lehuan; Luo, Xiaojun; Xu, Xiangrong; Qin, Xiaoquan; Gao, Yongli; Mai, Bixian

    2018-08-15

    A broad suite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, were analyzed in pectoral muscle of eight terrestrial passerine bird species from an extensive e-waste recycling site in South China. Concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs in bird samples ranged from 1260-279,000, 121-14,200, and 31-7910ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Insectivorous birds had significantly higher levels of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs than those in granivorous birds. Concentrations of POPs in resident insectivorous birds were significantly greater than those in migrant insectivorous birds. PCBs were the predominant pollutants in all bird species from the e-waste site, followed by PBDEs and DDTs, indicating that PCBs were mainly derived from e-wastes. The granivorous birds had higher proportions of hepta-CBs in total PCBs and higher proportions of octa- to deca-BDEs in total PBDEs compared with the insectivorous birds. The various dietary sources, migration behavior, and possible biotransformation were suspected as reasons of the distinct profiles of POPs in different bird species. The δ 15 N values were significantly and positively correlated with concentrations of POPs in resident insectivorous birds, but not in other passerine bird species, suggesting the influence of trophic levels on bioaccumulation of POPs in resident insectivorous birds. The resident insectivorous birds seem to be promising bio-sentinel of POPs in terrestrial environment around the e-waste sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Within-Winter Flexibility in Muscle Masses, Myostatin, and Cellular Aerobic Metabolic Intensity in Passerine Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; King, Marisa O; Culver, William; Zhang, Yufeng

    Metabolic rates of passerine birds are flexible traits that vary both seasonally and among and within winters. Seasonal variation in summit metabolic rates (M sum = maximum thermoregulatory metabolism) in birds is consistently correlated with changes in pectoralis muscle and heart masses and sometimes with variation in cellular aerobic metabolic intensity, so these traits might also be associated with shorter-term, within-winter variation in metabolic rates. To determine whether these mechanisms are associated with within-winter variation in M sum , we examined the effects of short-term (ST; 0-7 d), medium-term (MT; 14-30 d), and long-term (LT; 30-yr means) temperature variables on pectoralis muscle and heart masses, pectoralis expression of the muscle-growth inhibitor myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2, and pectoralis and heart citrate synthase (CS; an indicator of cellular aerobic metabolic intensity) activities for two temperate-zone resident passerines, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). For both species, pectoralis mass residuals were positively correlated with ST temperature variables, suggesting that cold temperatures resulted in increased turnover of pectoralis muscle, but heart mass showed little within-winter variation for either species. Pectoralis mRNA and protein expression of myostatin and the TLLs were only weakly correlated with ST and MT temperature variables, which is largely consistent with trends in muscle masses for both species. Pectoralis and heart CS activities showed weak and variable trends with ST temperature variables in both species, suggesting only minor effects of temperature variation on cellular aerobic metabolic intensity. Thus, neither muscle or heart masses, regulation by the myostatin system, nor cellular aerobic metabolic intensity varied consistently with winter temperature, suggesting that other factors regulate within-winter metabolic variation in these birds.

  10. Heavy metals and metalloids in egg contents and eggshells of passerine birds from Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of inorganic elements were determined in eggs of passerine birds including the endangered southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) from four regions in Arizona. The main aim of the study was to determine the distribution of metals in egg contents and eggshells, with emphasis on the deposition of Sr in eggshells. Seventy eggs of 11 passerine species were collected at four nesting locations during 2000. Aluminum, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn, were detected primarily in egg contents of all bird species. Arsenic, Ni, Pb, and V were detected primarily in eggshells. A proportion of most inorganic elements accumulated in the eggshell. Concentrations of Ba, Cu, Mn, Se, Sr, and Zn in egg contents and As, Ba, Cu, and V in eggshells of yellow-breasted chats (Icteria virens) were similar among locations. However, concentrations of Mn, Ni, Sr, and Zn in eggshells were significant different among locations. Except for Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, concentrations of inorganic elements were 2–35 times greater in eggshells than in eggs. Most concentrations of metals and metalloids in eggs and eggshells of all the bird species were below levels known to affect reproduction or that have other deleterious effects. However, I found somewhat elevated concentrations of Sr in eggshells (highest mean=1505 μg/g dw, n=3) of yellow-breasted chats and willow flycatchers, and in egg contents of yellow warblers (Dendroica petechia) and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Whether current observed concentrations of Sr in eggshells are affecting nesting birds in Arizona remains to be determined. Strontium and other metals could be associated with lower hatching success in some areas. This study shows that a proportion of many inorganic elements accumulates in the eggshell and that the potential effects on the proper structure and functioning of the eggshell should not be ignored.

  11. Across-environment genetic correlations and the frequency of selective environments shape the evolutionary dynamics of growth rate in Impatiens capensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, John R; Izem, Rima; Heschel, M Shane; McGoey, Brechann V; Schmitt, Johanna

    2010-10-01

    Trade-offs can exist within and across environments, and constrain evolutionary trajectories. To examine the effects of competition and resource availability on trade-offs, we grew individuals of recombinant inbred lines of Impatiens capensis in a factorial combination of five densities with two light environments (full light and neutral shade) and used a Bayesian logistic growth analysis to estimate intrinsic growth rates. To estimate across-environment constraints, we developed a variance decomposition approach to principal components analysis, which accounted for sample size, model-fitting, and within-RIL variation prior to eigenanalysis. We detected negative across-environment genetic covariances in intrinsic growth rates, although only under full-light. To evaluate the potential importance of these covariances, we surveyed natural populations of I. capensis to measure the frequency of different density environments across space and time. We combined our empirical estimates of across-environment genetic variance-covariance matrices and frequency of selective environments with hypothetical (yet realistic) selection gradients to project evolutionary responses in multiple density environments. Selection in common environments can lead to correlated responses to selection in rare environments that oppose and counteract direct selection in those rare environments. Our results highlight the importance of considering both the frequency of selective environments and the across-environment genetic covariances in traits simultaneously. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Cell size is positively correlated between different tissues in passerine birds and amphibians, but not necessarily in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowski, J.; Czarnołęski, M.; François-Krassowska, A.; Maciak, S.; Pis, T.

    2010-01-01

    We examined cell size correlations between tissues, and cell size to body mass relationships in passerine birds, amphibians and mammals. The size correlated highly between all cell types in birds and amphibians; mammalian tissues clustered by size correlation in three tissue groups. Erythrocyte size correlated well with the volume of other cell types in birds and amphibians, but poorly in mammals. In birds, body mass correlated positively with the size of all cell types including erythrocytes...

  13. Five new feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acariformes: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines and hummingbirds (Aves) of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Oniki-Willis, Yoshika

    2016-09-06

    Five new species of feather mites (Proctophyllodidae: Pterodectinae) are described from passerines and hummingbirds of Brazil: Amerodectes longifuscus sp. nov. from Poospiza lateralis (Nordmann, 1835) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), A. vireonis sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus, 1766) (Passeriformes: Vireonidae), Tyrannidectes synallaxis sp. nov. from Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819 (Passeriformes: Furnariidae), Trochilodectes willisi sp. nov. from Phaethornis eurynome (Lesson, 1832) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae), and Xynonodectes phaethornis sp. nov. from Ph. pretrei (Lesson & Delattre, 1839) (Apodiformes: Trochilidae).

  14. Migratory status is not related to the susceptibility to HPAIV H5N1 in an insectivorous passerine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Kalthoff

    Full Text Available Migratory birds have evolved elaborate physiological adaptations to travelling, the implications for their susceptibility to avian influenza are however unknown. Three groups of stonechats (Saxicola torquata from (I strongly migrating, (II weakly migrating and (III non-migrating populations were experimentally infected with HPAIV H5N1. The different bird groups of this insectivorous passerine species were infected in autumn, when the migrating populations clearly exhibit migratory restlessness. Following infection, all animals succumbed to the disease from 3 through 7 days post inoculation. Viral shedding, antigen distribution in tissues, and survival time did not differ between the three populations. However, notably, endothelial tropism of the HPAIV infection was exclusively seen in the group of resident birds. In conclusion, our data document for the first time the high susceptibility of an insectivorous passerine species to H5N1 infection, and the epidemiological role of these passerine birds is probably limited due to their high sensitivity to HPAIV H5N1 infection. Despite pronounced inherited differences in migratory status, the groups were generally indistinguishable in their susceptibility, survival time, clinical symptoms and viral shedding. Nevertheless, the migratory status partly influenced pathogenesis in the way of viral tropism.

  15. A 'slow pace of life' in Australian old-endemic passerine birds is not accompanied by low basal metabolic rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Claus; Chappell, Mark A; Astheimer, Lee B; Londoño, Gustavo A; Buttemer, William A

    2016-05-01

    Life history theory suggests that species experiencing high extrinsic mortality rates allocate more resources toward reproduction relative to self-maintenance and reach maturity earlier ('fast pace of life') than those having greater life expectancy and reproducing at a lower rate ('slow pace of life'). Among birds, many studies have shown that tropical species have a slower pace of life than temperate-breeding species. The pace of life has been hypothesized to affect metabolism and, as predicted, tropical birds have lower basal metabolic rates (BMR) than temperate-breeding birds. However, many temperate-breeding Australian passerines belong to lineages that evolved in Australia and share 'slow' life-history traits that are typical of tropical birds. We obtained BMR from 30 of these 'old-endemics' and ten sympatric species of more recently arrived passerine lineages (derived from Afro-Asian origins or introduced by Europeans) with 'faster' life histories. The BMR of 'slow' temperate-breeding old-endemics was indistinguishable from that of new-arrivals and was not lower than the BMR of 'fast' temperate-breeding non-Australian passerines. Old-endemics had substantially smaller clutches and longer maximal life spans in the wild than new arrivals, but neither clutch size nor maximum life span was correlated with BMR. Our results suggest that low BMR in tropical birds is not functionally linked to their 'slow pace of life' and instead may be a consequence of differences in annual thermal conditions experienced by tropical versus temperate species.

  16. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Tavares

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoons in Quissama (17 species is an evidence of the important role of the region as staging site for migratory birds at national level. Also, nine of the species recorded are threatened at regional and one is threatened at national level. It should be emphasized that three species considered locally extinct in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, the most extensively surveyed area in the State, were recorded in the present study. Additionally, we present a high number of previously unrecorded species in northern Rio de Janeiro, and report the first documented record of Stercorarius pomarinus in Rio de Janeiro State. The region has a notorious Waterbird richness including endangered and migratory species, when compared to other coastal areas of the state.

  17. Selection for rapid embryo development correlates with embryo exposure to maternal androgens among passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Hubert; Palacios, Maria G; Martin, Thomas E

    2007-08-01

    Greater offspring predation favors evolution of faster development among species. We hypothesized that greater offspring predation exerts selection on mothers to increase levels of anabolic androgens in egg yolks to achieve faster development. Here, we tested whether (1) concentrations of yolk androgens in passerine species were associated with offspring predation and (2) embryo and nestling development rates were associated with yolk androgen concentrations. We examined three androgens that increase in potency along the synthesis pathway: androstenedione (A(4)) to testosterone (T) to 5 alpha -dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha -DHT). Concentrations of none of these steroids were related to clutch size; only A(4) was allometrically related to egg volume. Species that experience greater predation showed higher yolk concentrations of T and 5 alpha -DHT. Higher concentrations of T and particularly 5 alpha -DHT were strongly correlated with faster development during the embryo period and less so during the nestling period. Development rates were most strongly correlated with 5 alpha -DHT, suggesting that potency increases along the androgen synthesis pathway and that effects are mediated by the androgen receptor pathway. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection for faster development by time-dependent offspring mortality may be achieved epigenetically by varying embryo exposure to maternal anabolic steroids.

  18. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Charles; Gallagher, Frank J.; Holzapfel, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The use of passerine species as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation is often underutilized when examining the wildlife habitat value of polluted sites. In this study we tested feathers of nestlings of two common bird species (house wren and American robin) for accumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Fe in comparison of a polluted, urban brownfield with a rural, unpolluted site. House wren nestlings at the study site accumulated significantly greater concentrations of all target metals except Zn. At the polluted site we found significant species differences of metal concentrations in feathers, with house wrens accumulating greater concentrations of Pb, Fe, and Zn but slightly lesser accumulations of Cr and Cu than American robins. Although house wren nestlings demonstrated significant accumulation of metals, these concentrations showed little effect on size metrics or fledge rates during the breeding season compared to nestlings from the control site. - Nestlings of birds in an urban brownfield accumulated soil contaminants but did not show signs of reduced breeding success or growth.

  19. Metal accumulation and performance of nestlings of passerine bird species at an urban brownfield site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Charles; Gallagher, Frank J. [Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 14 College Farm Rd., New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8551 (United States); Holzapfel, Claus, E-mail: holzapfe@andromeda.rutgers.ed [Department of Biological Sciences, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Newark, 195 University Ave., Newark, NJ 07102-1811 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The use of passerine species as bioindicators of metal bioaccumulation is often underutilized when examining the wildlife habitat value of polluted sites. In this study we tested feathers of nestlings of two common bird species (house wren and American robin) for accumulation of Pb, Zn, As, Cr, Cu, Fe in comparison of a polluted, urban brownfield with a rural, unpolluted site. House wren nestlings at the study site accumulated significantly greater concentrations of all target metals except Zn. At the polluted site we found significant species differences of metal concentrations in feathers, with house wrens accumulating greater concentrations of Pb, Fe, and Zn but slightly lesser accumulations of Cr and Cu than American robins. Although house wren nestlings demonstrated significant accumulation of metals, these concentrations showed little effect on size metrics or fledge rates during the breeding season compared to nestlings from the control site. - Nestlings of birds in an urban brownfield accumulated soil contaminants but did not show signs of reduced breeding success or growth.

  20. Geographical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Ruuskanen

    Full Text Available Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated.

  1. No Evidence for Pre-Copulatory Sexual Selection on Sperm Length in a Passerine Bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifjeld, Jan T.; Laskemoen, Terje; Kleven, Oddmund; Pedersen, A. Tiril M.; Lampe, Helene M.; Rudolfsen, Geir; Schmoll, Tim; Slagsvold, Tore

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that post-copulatory sexual selection, mediated by sperm competition, influences the evolution of sperm phenotypes. Evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection effects on sperm traits, on the other hand, is rather scarce. A recent paper on the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, reported phenotypic associations between sperm length and two sexually selected male traits, i.e. plumage colour and arrival date, thus invoking pre-copulatory sexual selection for longer sperm. We were unable to replicate these associations with a larger data set from the same and two additional study populations; sperm length was not significantly related to either male plumage colour or arrival date. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sperm length between populations despite marked differences in male plumage colour. We also found some evidence against the previously held assumption of longer sperm being qualitatively superior; longer sperm swam at the same speed as shorter sperm, but were less able to maintain speed over time. We argue that both empirical evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the evolution of sperm morphology is not primarily associated with pre-copulatory sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits in this or other passerine bird species. The relatively large between-male variation in sperm length in this species is probably due to relaxed post-copulatory sexual selection. PMID:22384277

  2. Divergent primary moult-A rare moult sequence among Western Palaearctic passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Kiat

    Full Text Available Wing morphology strongly affects flight performance which may consequently decline during feather moult due to the creation of feather gaps in the wing. Hence, the size and shape of moult-related wing gap may directly affect flight capacity. Here I examined the rare divergent primary moult sequence compared to the more common descendant moult sequence. In the divergent moult, the focus of primary moult is shifted from P1 (primary feather numbered descendantly to another primary between P2 and P5, and then primaries are moulted in two concurrent waves, one descendant and the other ascendant. The result of this rare moult sequence is the splitting of the wing gap to two smaller gaps. Using a large moult database including 6,763 individuals of 32 Western Palaearctic passerine species, I found evidence of divergent moult only among 27 individuals of 12 species. I examined the speed of wing-feather moult for each individual that moulted divergently compared to a control group of individuals at the same moult stage which moulted following the common descending sequence. The results indicate that the sequence of primary moult and moult speed are correlated. Individuals which moulted divergently moulted their primaries with higher moult speed than descendant moulters. The applicability of this study is weakened by the dearth of moult data, thus making it difficult to draw conclusions for a large range of species. Ornithologists and bird ringers are therefore encouraged to collect more basic moult data during their field study.

  3. Evolution of iris colour in relation to cavity nesting and parental care in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Gabrielle L; Thornton, Alex; Clayton, Nicola S

    2017-01-01

    Strong selection pressures are known to act on animal coloration. Although many animals vary in eye colour, virtually no research has investigated the functional significance of these colour traits. Passeriformes have a range of iris colours, making them an ideal system to investigate how and why iris colour has evolved. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we tested the hypothesis that conspicuous iris colour in passerine birds evolved in response to (a) coordination of offspring care and (b) cavity nesting, two traits thought to be involved in intra-specific gaze sensitivity. We found that iris colour and cooperative offspring care by two or more individuals evolved independently, suggesting that bright eyes are not important for coordinating parental care through eye gaze. Furthermore, we found that evolution between iris colour and nesting behaviour did occur in a dependent manner, but contrary to predictions, transitions to coloured eyes were not more frequent in cavity nesters than non-cavity nesters. Instead, our results indicate that selection away from having bright eyes was much stronger in non-cavity nesters than cavity nesters, perhaps because conspicuous eye coloration in species not concealed within a cavity would be more visible to predators. © 2017 The Authors.

  4. A passerine spreads its tail to facilitate a rapid recovery of its body posture during hovering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Yuan; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Hung; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2012-07-07

    We demonstrate experimentally that a passerine exploits tail spreading to intercept the downward flow induced by its wings to facilitate the recovery of its posture. The periodic spreading of its tail by the White-eye bird exhibits a phase correlation with both wingstroke motion and body oscillation during hovering flight. During a downstroke, a White-eye's body undergoes a remarkable pitch-down motion, with the tail undergoing an upward swing. This pitch-down motion becomes appropriately suppressed at the end of the downstroke; the bird's body posture then recovers gradually to its original status. Employing digital particle-image velocimetry, we show that the strong downward flow induced by downstroking the wings serves as an external jet flow impinging upon the tail, providing a depressing force on the tail to counteract the pitch-down motion of the bird's body. Spreading of the tail enhances a rapid recovery of the body posture because increased forces are experienced. The maximum force experienced by a spread tail is approximately 2.6 times that of a non-spread tail.

  5. No evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection on sperm length in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan T Lifjeld

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that post-copulatory sexual selection, mediated by sperm competition, influences the evolution of sperm phenotypes. Evidence for pre-copulatory sexual selection effects on sperm traits, on the other hand, is rather scarce. A recent paper on the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, reported phenotypic associations between sperm length and two sexually selected male traits, i.e. plumage colour and arrival date, thus invoking pre-copulatory sexual selection for longer sperm. We were unable to replicate these associations with a larger data set from the same and two additional study populations; sperm length was not significantly related to either male plumage colour or arrival date. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in sperm length between populations despite marked differences in male plumage colour. We also found some evidence against the previously held assumption of longer sperm being qualitatively superior; longer sperm swam at the same speed as shorter sperm, but were less able to maintain speed over time. We argue that both empirical evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the evolution of sperm morphology is not primarily associated with pre-copulatory sexual selection on male secondary sexual traits in this or other passerine bird species. The relatively large between-male variation in sperm length in this species is probably due to relaxed post-copulatory sexual selection.

  6. Scale-dependent mechanisms of habitat selection for a migratory passerine: an experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Therese M.; Cornell, Kerri L.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat selection theory predicts that individuals choose breeding habitats that maximize fitness returns on the basis of indirect environmental cues at multiple spatial scales. We performed a 3-year field experiment to evaluate five alternative hypotheses regarding whether individuals choose breeding territories in heterogeneous landscapes on the basis of (1) shrub cover within a site, (2) forest land-cover pattern surrounding a site, (3) conspecific song cues during prebreeding settlement periods, (4) a combination of these factors, and (5) interactions among these factors. We tested hypotheses with playbacks of conspecific song across a gradient of landscape pattern and shrub density and evaluated changes in territory occupancy patterns in a forest-nesting passerine, the Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens). Our results support the hypothesis that vegetation structure plays a primary role during presettlement periods in determining occupancy patterns in this species. Further, both occupancy rates and territory turnover were affected by an interaction between local shrub density and amount of forest in the surrounding landscape, but not by interactions between habitat cues and social cues. Although previous studies of this species in unfragmented landscapes found that social postbreeding song cues played a key role in determining territory settlement, our prebreeding playbacks were not associated with territory occupancy or turnover. Our results suggest that in heterogeneous landscapes during spring settlement, vegetation structure may be a more reliable signal of reproductive performance than the physical location of other individuals.

  7. Uptake of heavy metals by Typha capensis from wetland sites polluted by effluent from mineral processing plants: implications of metal-metal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaranyika, M F; Nyati, W

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the existence of metal-metal interactions in plants and their implications for the absorption of toxic elements like Cr. Typha capensis , a good accumulator of heavy metals, was chosen for the study. Levels of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were determined in the soil and roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of T. capensis from three Sites A, B and C polluted by effluent from a chrome ore processing plant, a gold ore processing plant, and a nickel ore processing plant, respectively. The levels of Cr were extremely high at Site A at 5415 and 786-16,047 μg g -1 dry weight in the soil and the plant, respectively, while the levels of Ni were high at Site C at 176 and 24-891 μg g -1 in the soil and the plant, respectively. The levels of Fe were high at all three sites at 2502-7500 and 906-13,833 μg g -1 in the soil and plant, respectively. For the rest of the metals, levels were modest at 8.5-148 and 2-264 μg g -1 in the soil and plant, respectively. Pearson's correlation analysis confirmed mutual synergistic metal-metal interactions in the uptake of Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Fe, and Cr, which are attributed to the similarity in the radii and coordination geometry of the cations of these elements. The implications of such metal-metal interactions (or effects of one metal on the behaviour of another) on the uptake of Cr, a toxic element, and possible Cr detoxification mechanism within the plant, are discussed.

  8. Labeo capensis (Smith)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ture effects have used animals acclimated to constant tempera- tures in the ... in pools isolated during the dry, hot season (Jubb 1967). More than 80070 of the fish .... was such that the fish could actively swim around during their specific oxygen ..... Oxygen consumption and mode of energy production in the intertidal worm ...

  9. Novel plumage aberrations in Paraguayan non-Passerine Birds, and the definition of a new plumage aberration unique to Psittacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous plumage colourations are reported for three species of non-passerine birds from Paraguay, Limpkin (Aramaus guarauna; Aramidae, Nanday Parakeet (Nandayus nenday; Psittacidae, and the Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus; Picidae. A leucistic Limpkin is the first published report of a colour anomaly for the family Aramidae. The colour aberration in N. nenday is hypothesised to be a result of an excess of red psittacofulvin pigments, which are unique to the Psittacidae. Although the mechanisms causing this colour aberration remain unknown, we suggest the term psittacofulvism for the phenotypic effect observed.

  10. Blood parasites shape extreme major histocompatibility complex diversity in a migratory passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; Bielański, Wojciech; Ćmiel, Adam; Solarz, Wojciech; Zając, Tadeusz; Migalska, Magdalena; Sebastian, Alvaro; Westerdahl, Helena; Radwan, Jacek

    2018-06-01

    Pathogens are one of the main forces driving the evolution and maintenance of the highly polymorphic genes of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Although MHC proteins are crucial in pathogen recognition, it is still poorly understood how pathogen-mediated selection promotes and maintains MHC diversity, and especially so in host species with highly duplicated MHC genes. Sedge warblers (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus) have highly duplicated MHC genes, and using data from high-throughput MHC genotyping, we were able to investigate to what extent avian malaria parasites explain temporal MHC class I supertype fluctuations in a long-term study population. We investigated infection status and infection intensities of two different strains of Haemoproteus, that is avian malaria parasites that are known to have significant fitness consequences in sedge warblers. We found that prevalence of avian malaria in carriers of specific MHC class I supertypes was a significant predictor of their frequency changes between years. This finding suggests that avian malaria infections partly drive the temporal fluctuations of the MHC class I supertypes. Furthermore, we found that individuals with a large number of different supertypes had higher resistance to avian malaria, but there was no evidence for an optimal MHC class I diversity. Thus, the two studied malaria parasite strains appear to select for a high MHC class I supertype diversity. Such selection may explain the maintenance of the extremely high number of MHC class I gene copies in sedge warblers and possibly also in other passerines where avian malaria is a common disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Use of captive starlings to determine effects of pollutants on passerine reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; Christian, C.L.; Lamb, D.W.; Kenaga, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    Three reproductive trials were conducted to develop techniques for propagation of captive starlings (Stumus vulgaris) which could determine the effects of environmental contaminants on passerine reproduction. Trials were conducted during the spring of 1979 in five adjacent 2.4 by 3 by 12-m outdoor wire pens containing four or ten pairs of starlings, a similar number of nest boxes, perches, water, commercial turkey starter, and alfalfa hay as nesting material. Nestling diets consisted of combinations of Nebraska Brand bird of prey diet, live or frozen mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and crickets (Acheta domestica), or live earthworms (Pheretima sp.). Starlings reproduced successfully when the number of breeding pairs per pen was reduced from ten to four. The average clutch sizes for each pen (4.3 to 4.9) were similar to those reported for wild starlings. Hatching (60 to 90.4 percent) and fledging (0 to 100 percent) success varied among pens. The fledging success was greatest in the pens which received the most diverse nestling diets: Nebraska Brand diet plus frozen or live mealworms and crickets. Whether the insects were presented alive or frozen appeared to have little effect on the reproductive success. The starlings did not consume or carry earthworms to their young. The body weights of 20-day-old nestlings raised in captivity (X=73.9 g) were similar to those of starlings in the wild. The use of single pairs per pen may eliminate problems in presentation of nestling diets due to asynchrony in breeding between pairs and excessive interactions among individuals, which may interfere with parental care. The starling appears to be an excellent model for examining the effects of environmental contaminants on the reproduction of songbirds in captivity.

  12. Variation in maternal effects and embryonic development rates among passerine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E; Schwabl, Hubert

    2008-05-12

    Embryonic development rates are reflected by the length of incubation period in birds, and these vary substantially among species within and among geographical regions. The incubation periods are consistently shorter in North America (Arizona study site) than in tropical (Venezuela) and subtropical (Argentina) South America based on the study of 83 passerine species in 17 clades. Parents, mothers in particular, may influence incubation periods and resulting offspring quality through proximate pathways, while variation in maternal strategies among species can result from selection by adult and offspring mortality. Parents of long-lived species, as is common in the tropics and subtropics, may be under selection to minimize costs to themselves during incubation. Indeed, time spent incubating is often lower in the tropical and subtropical species than the related north temperate species, causing cooler average egg temperatures in the southern regions. Decreased egg temperatures result in longer incubation periods and reflect a cost imposed on offspring by parents because energy cost to the embryo and risk of offspring predation are both increased. Mothers may adjust egg size and constituents as a means to partially offset such costs. For example, reduced androgen concentrations in egg yolks may slow development rates, but may enhance offspring quality through physiological trade-offs that may be particularly beneficial in longer-lived species, as in the tropics and subtropics. We provide initial data to show that yolks of tropical birds contain substantially lower concentrations of growth-promoting androgens than north temperate relatives. Thus, maternal (and parental) effects on embryonic development rates may include contrasting and complementary proximate influences on offspring quality and deserve further field study among species.

  13. Extremes of heat, drought and precipitation depress reproductive performance in shortgrass prairie passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrey, Reesa Y.; Skagen, Susan K.; Yackel, Amy; Panjabi, Arvind O.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change elevates conservation concerns worldwide because it is likely to exacerbate many identified threats to animal populations. In recent decades, grassland birds have declined faster than other North American bird species, a loss thought to be due to habitat loss and fragmentation and changing agricultural practices. Climate change poses additional threats of unknown magnitude to these already declining populations. We examined how seasonal and daily weather conditions over 10 years influenced nest survival of five species of insectivorous passerines native to the shortgrass prairie and evaluate our findings relative to future climate predictions for this region. Daily nest survival (n = 870) was best predicted by a combination of daily and seasonal weather variables, age of nest, time in season and bird habitat guild. Within a season, survival rates were lower on very hot days (temperatures ≥ 35 °C), on dry days (with a lag of 1 day) and on stormy days (especially for those species nesting in shorter vegetation). Across years, survival rates were also lower during warmer and drier breeding seasons. Clutch sizes were larger when early spring temperatures were cool and the week prior to egg-laying was wetter and warming. Climate change is likely to exacerbate grassland bird population declines because projected climate conditions include rising temperatures, more prolonged drought and more intense storms as the hydrological cycle is altered. Under varying realistic scenarios, nest success estimates were halved compared to their current average value when models both increased the temperature (3 °C) and decreased precipitation (two additional dry days during a nesting period), thus underscoring a sense of urgency in identifying and addressing the current causes of range-wide declines.

  14. Potential ecotoxicological significance of elevated concentrations of strontium in eggshells of passerine birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.; Taylor, Robert J.; Brattin, Bryan L.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence and potential ecotoxicological significance of elevated concentrations of strontium (Sr) in eggshells of nine passerine birds from four regions in Arizona. Concentrations of Sr in eggshells ranged from 70 to 1360 µg g−1 dry weight (overall mean  =  684 ± 345 SD µg g−1 dw) for the four regions. 23% of the eggshells had Sr concentrations greater than 1000 µg g−1 dw. To our knowledge, these are among the highest levels of Sr that have been reported in bird eggshells in North America. Of the nine species, Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) had the greatest concentrations of Sr. There was a significant positive correlation between Sr and calcium (Ca), and between barium (Ba) and Ca. Ca, Sr, and Ba interact with each other and can exert similar chemical and pharmacological effects. Mean (n ≥ 3) eggshell∶egg ratios for Sr varied with species and ranged from 6.1∶1 to 40.2∶1; ratios for individual eggs reached 92.7∶1. Mean Sr/Ca values ranged from 1.3 × 10−3 to 3.0 × 10−3 and mean eggshell thickness ranged from 83 ± 6 to 120 ± 9 µm for all species. Eggshell thickness was not significantly correlated with Sr for any species but tended to increase with Sr concentrations. We postulate that high concentrations of Sr in the shell could affect later-stage embryos by possible interference with Ca metabolism and bone growth, resulting in reduced hatching success and potential minor beak deformities.

  15. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Antioxidant defenses predict long-term survival in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Saino

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal and pathological processes entail the production of oxidative substances that can damage biological molecules and harm physiological functions. Organisms have evolved complex mechanisms of antioxidant defense, and any imbalance between oxidative challenge and antioxidant protection can depress fitness components and accelerate senescence. While the role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis and aging has been studied intensively in humans and model animal species under laboratory conditions, there is a dearth of knowledge on its role in shaping life-histories of animals under natural selection regimes. Yet, given the pervasive nature and likely fitness consequences of oxidative damage, it can be expected that the need to secure efficient antioxidant protection is powerful in molding the evolutionary ecology of animals. Here, we test whether overall antioxidant defense varies with age and predicts long-term survival, using a wild population of a migratory passerine bird, the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica, as a model.Plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC of breeding individuals was measured using standard protocols and annual survival was monitored over five years (2006-2010 on a large sample of selection episodes. AOC did not covary with age in longitudinal analyses after discounting the effect of selection. AOC positively predicted annual survival independently of sex. Individuals were highly consistent in their relative levels of AOC, implying the existence of additive genetic variance and/or environmental (including early maternal components consistently acting through their lives.Using longitudinal data we showed that high levels of antioxidant protection positively predict long-term survival in a wild animal population. Present results are therefore novel in disclosing a role for antioxidant protection in determining survival under natural conditions, strongly demanding for more longitudinal eco-physiological studies of life-histories in

  17. External heart deformities in passerine birds exposed to environmental mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jamie C; Millsap, Deborah S; Yeager, Ronnie L; Heise, Steve S; Sparks, Daniel W; Henshel, Diane S

    2006-02-01

    Necropsy-observable cardiac deformities were evaluated from 283 nestling passerines collected from one reference site and five polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sites around Bloomington and Bedford, Indiana, USA. Hearts were weighed and assessed on relative scales in three dimensions (height, length, and width) and for externally visible deformities. Heart weights normalized to body weight (heart somatic index) were decreased significantly at the more contaminated sites in both house wren (Troglodytes aedon) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor). Heart somatic indices significantly correlated with log PCB concentrations in Carolina chickadee (Parus carolinesis) and tree swallow and with log 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalent values in tree swallow alone. Ventricular length was increased significantly in eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) and decreased significantly in Carolina chickadee and tree swallow from contaminated sites versus the reference site. Heart length regressed significantly against the log PCB concentrations (Carolina chickadee and tree swallow) or the square of the PCB concentrations (red-winged blackbird [Agelaius phoeniceus]) in a sibling bird. The deformities that were observed most at the contaminated sites included abnormal tips (pointed, rounded, or flattened), center rolls, macro- and microsurface roughness, ventricular indentations on the ventral or dorsal surface, lateral ventricular notches, visibly thin ventricular walls, and changes in overall heart shape. A pooled heart deformity index regressed significantly against the logged contaminant concentrations for all species except red-winged blackbird. These results indicate that developmental changes in heart morphometrics and shape abnormalities are quantifiable and may be sensitive and useful indicators of PCB-related developmental impacts across many avian species.

  18. Going to extremes: contrasting rates of diversification in a recent radiation of new world passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F Keith; Burns, Kevin J; Klicka, John; Lanyon, Scott M; Lovette, Irby J

    2013-03-01

    Recent analyses suggest that a few major shifts in diversification rate may be enough to explain most of the disparity in diversity among vertebrate lineages. At least one significant increase in diversification rate appears to have occurred within the birds; however, several nested lineages within birds have been identified as hyperdiverse by different studies. A clade containing the finches and relatives (within the avian order Passeriformes), including a large radiation endemic to the New World that comprises ~8% of all bird species, may be the true driver of this rate increase. Understanding the patterns and processes of diversification of this diverse lineage may go a long way toward explaining the apparently rapid diversification rates of both passerines and of birds as a whole. We present the first multilocus phylogenetic analyses of this endemic New World radiation of finch relatives that include sampling of all recognized genera, a relaxed molecular clock analysis of its divergence history, and an analysis of its broad-scale diversification patterns. These analyses recovered 5 major lineages traditionally recognized as avian families, but identified an additional 10 relatively ancient lineages worthy of recognition at the family level. Time-calibrated diversification analyses suggested that at least 3 of the 15 family-level lineages were significantly species poor given the entire group's background diversification rate, whereas at least one-the tanagers of family Thraupidae-appeared significantly more diverse. Lack of an age-diversity relationship within this clade suggests that, due to rapid initial speciation, it may have experienced density-dependent ecological limits on its overall diversity.

  19. Variation in maternal effects and embryonic development rates among passerine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Schwabl, H.

    2008-01-01

    Embryonic development rates are reflected by the length of incubation period in birds, and these vary substantially among species within and among geographical regions. The incubation periods are consistently shorter in North America (Arizona study site) than in tropical (Venezuela) and subtropical (Argentina) South America based on the study of 83 passerine species in 17 clades. Parents, mothers in particular, may influence incubation periods and resulting offspring quality through proximate pathways, while variation in maternal strategies among species can result from selection by adult and offspring mortality. Parents of long-lived species, as is common in the tropics and subtropics, may be under selection to minimize costs to themselves during incubation. Indeed, time spent incubating is often lower in the tropical and subtropical species than the related north temperate species, causing cooler average egg temperatures in the southern regions. Decreased egg temperatures result in longer incubation periods and reflect a cost imposed on offspring by parents because energy cost to the embryo and risk of offspring predation are both increased. Mothers may adjust egg size and constituents as a means to partially offset such costs. For example, reduced androgen concentrations in egg yolks may slow development rates, but may enhance offspring quality through physiological trade-offs that may be particularly beneficial in longer-lived species, as in the tropics and subtropics. We provide initial data to show that yolks of tropical birds contain substantially lower concentrations of growth-promoting androgens than north temperate relatives. Thus, maternal (and parental) effects on embryonic development rates may include contrasting and complementary proximate influences on offspring quality and deserve further field study among species. ?? 2007 The Royal Society.

  20. Seasonal behavioral responses of an arid-zone passerine in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattinson, Nicholas B; Smit, Ben

    2017-10-01

    Many arid-zone animals have to forage under extremely hot conditions to maintain water and energy balance. The effect of high air temperatures (T air ) on the behavioral patterns of small endothermic animals-characterized by their high energy and water demands-will provide a valuable framework for understanding species vulnerability to climate warming. We determined the seasonal behavioral responses to changes in T air in a~10-g arid-zone passerine, the rufous-eared warbler (Malcorus pectoralis), in the Karoo semi-desert, South Africa. Rufous-eared warblers showed significant temperature-dependence in their behavior in summer, but not in winter. During summer, the warblers frequently experienced T air exceeding 40°C in the shade. For all observations 36°C, the warblers showed reductions in preening (40% decrease), foraging effort (56% decrease), and foraging success (15% decrease), as well as a significant increase in time spent engaged in evaporative cooling behavior. Moreover, as T air increased the warblers shifted increasingly off the ground and out of the full sun, into microsites in the shade (131% increase) and in shrubs (23% increase). In this regard, behavior varied seasonally, with the time spent in the shade 23% higher, and foraging effort 28% higher, in summer compared to winter across a range of moderate T air (15-30°C). Our findings emphasize the link between behavior and temperature in small birds inhabiting hot, arid environments, as well as the importance of understanding these responses for predicting biologically meaningful responses (and hence, vulnerability) of arid-zone avian communities to climactic shifts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  2. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  3. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ödeen, Anders; Håstad, Olle; Alström, Per

    2011-10-24

    Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS) and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS). They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex.

  4. Evolution of ultraviolet vision in the largest avian radiation - the passerines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håstad Olle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific variation in avian colour vision falls into two discrete classes: violet sensitive (VS and ultraviolet sensitive (UVS. They are characterised by the spectral sensitivity of the most shortwave sensitive of the four single cones, the SWS1, which is seemingly under direct control of as little as one amino acid substitution in the cone opsin protein. Changes in spectral sensitivity of the SWS1 are ecologically important, as they affect the abilities of birds to accurately assess potential mates, find food and minimise visibility of social signals to predators. Still, available data have indicated that shifts between classes are rare, with only four to five independent acquisitions of UV sensitivity in avian evolution. Results We have classified a large sample of passeriform species as VS or UVS from genomic DNA and mapped the evolution of this character on a passerine phylogeny inferred from published molecular sequence data. Sequencing a small gene fragment has allowed us to trace the trait changing from one stable state to another through the radiation of the passeriform birds. Their ancestor is hypothesised to be UVS. In the subsequent radiation, colour vision changed between UVS and VS at least eight times. Conclusions The phylogenetic distribution of SWS1 cone opsin types in Passeriformes reveals a much higher degree of complexity in avian colour vision evolution than what was previously indicated from the limited data available. Clades with variation in the colour vision system are nested among clades with a seemingly stable VS or UVS state, providing a rare opportunity to understand how an ecologically important trait under simple genetic control may co-evolve with, and be stabilised by, associated traits in a character complex.

  5. Modeling the flocking propensity of passerine birds in two Neotropical habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomara, Lars Y; Cooper, Robert J; Petit, Lisa J

    2007-08-01

    We examined the importance of mixed-species flock abundance, individual bird home range size, foraging height, and foraging patch characteristics in predicting the propensity for five Neotropical passerine bird species (Slaty Antwren, Myrmotherula schisticolor; Golden-crowned Warbler, Basileuterus culicivorus; Slate-throated Redstart, Myioborus miniatus; Wilson's Warbler, Wilsonia pusilla; and Black-and-white Warbler, Mniotilta varia) to forage within flocks, rather than solitarily. We used study plots in primary mid-elevation forest and in shade coffee fields in western Panama. We expected that all species would spend as much time as possible flocking, but that the social and environmental factors listed above would limit compatibility between flock movements and individual bird movements, explaining variability in flocking propensity both within and among species. Flocking propensity was well predicted by home range size and flock abundance together, for four of the five species. While flock abundance was uniform across plots, home range sizes varied among species and plots, so that home range size appeared to be the principle factor limiting flocking propensity. Estimates of flock abundance were still required, however, for calculating flocking propensity values. Foraging height and patch characteristics slightly improved predictive ability for the remaining species, M. miniatus. In general, individual birds tended to join flocks whenever one was available inside their home range, regardless of a flock's specific location within the home range. Flocking propensities of individual species were lower in shade coffee fields than in forests, and probably vary across landscapes with variations in habitat. This variability affects the stability and species composition of flocks, and may affect survival rates of individual species.

  6. Leptin affects life history decisions in a passerine bird: a field experiment.

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    Mare Lõhmus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organisms face trade-offs regarding their life-history strategies, such as decisions of single or multiple broods within a year. In passerines displaying facultative multiple breeding, the probability of laying a second clutch is influenced by several life-history factors. However, information about the mechanistic background of these trade-offs is largely lacking. Leptin is a protein hormone produced by white fat cells, and acts as a signal between peripheral energy depots and the central nervous system. In addition, leptin affects cells at all levels of the reproductive axis and plays a critical role in regulating the allocation of metabolic energy to reproduction. As such, it is possible that leptin levels influence the decision of whether or not to invest time and energy into a second clutch. Accordingly, we expect a treatment with exogenous leptin to result in an increased number of second broods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At a later stage during the first brood, female great tits were treated either with long-term leptin-filled cholesterol pellets (the experimental birds or with pellets containing only cholesterol (the control birds. We found that leptin-treated females were significantly more likely to have a second brood and that the earlier females were more likely to lay a second clutch than the late females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As both timing of first brood and treatment with leptin were important in the decision of having multiple broods, the trade-offs involved in the breeding strategy most likely depend on multiple factors. Presumably leptin has evolved as a signal of energy supply status to regulate the release of reproductive hormones so that reproduction is coordinated with periods of sufficient nutrients. This study investigated the role of leptin as a mediator between energy resources and reproductive output, providing a fundamentally new insight into how trade-offs work on a functional basis.

  7. Passerine migrant stopover duration and spatial behaviour at an urban stopover site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewagen, Chad L.; Slayton, Eric J.; Guglielmo, Christopher G.

    2010-09-01

    Migration routes of many Nearctic-Neotropical landbirds pass through the most urbanized regions of North America. Migrants are known to use urban habitats as stopover sites and often occur in cities at exceptional density; yet knowledge of migrant behaviour and ecology in such places is surprisingly limited. We radio-tracked ovenbirds ( Seiurus aurocapillus) during stopovers in a New York City park to obtain some of the first detailed information on how landbird migrants utilize an urban habitat as a stopover site. We examined fine-scale movement patterns, home range sizes, stopover durations, and how arrival condition affected each of these metrics. During both seasons, most birds moved widely throughout the site upon presumed arrival and then either continued migration that night or settled into a more defined area on subsequent days. Area usage varied markedly among individuals during both seasons, ranging 1-16 ha. Stopover durations averaged 3.0 days (range = 1-10 days) during spring and 2.9 days (range = 1-14 days) during autumn. Spatial behaviours and stopover durations were not influenced by arrival condition during spring, and during autumn only movement rates and displacement distances were significantly (negatively) condition-related. Our findings do not support previous assumptions that urban stopover habitats are only used by migrants briefly in times of urgency when alternatives are unavailable. At least half of the birds we studied stopped over for multiple days during both seasons, and bird movements were indicative of an ability to search for, locate, and occupy suitable micro-sites. Ovenbird behaviour in our study site was similar in many ways to what has been observed in recent telemetry studies of ovenbirds and other passerine migrants at various non-urban stopover sites.

  8. Arthropods and passerine birds in coniferous forest. The impact of acidification and needle-loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, B. [Goeteborg Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Sect. of Animal Ecology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The micro-habitat structure on coniferous trees changes as a result of needle-loss. This structural change in the vegetation may affect arthropods living in spruce Picea abies by indirect mechanisms, e.g. altered relations between prey and predators. The impact of acidification and needle-loss on some tree-living arthropods and passerine birds is reviewed. New information about the taxonomic composition of spiders in relation to needle density in a field experiments is reported. The main combined findings from the review and field experiments are: 1) Acid precipitation may be toxic because of high H{sup +} concentrations. However, simulated acid rain (pH 4.0) did not reduce the growth rate of a spruce-living spider. There is a present no evidence of toxic effect on arthropods at this level of pH. 2) Experiments in the field and laboratory and data from natural populations suggested that spruce-living arthropods are affected by the needle density of branches. These data showed a positive correlation between needle density and spider abundance. However, a large-scale field experiment could not confirm this relationship. 3) The interaction between bird predation and needle density was examined in a large-scale field experiment. There were strong negative effects of bird predation on arthropod abundance. Moreover, the taxonomic composition among spiders changed as a result of bird predation: raptorial spiders increased their relative abundance whereas sheetweb spiders decreased their relative abundance when bird predation was excluded. There were also some cases of bird predation/needle density interactions. In the absence of bird predation, the needle density affected the spider size distribution: large spiders were more common on needle-sparse branches than on needle-dens ones. The species composition was affected by similar interactions, e.g. bird predation effects on crab spiders (Thomisidae) were found on needle-sparse branches only. (Abstract Truncated)

  9. A taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic perspective on the community assembly of passerine birds along an elevational gradient in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuelian; Luo, Kang; Brown, Calum; Lin, Luxiang

    2018-03-01

    Integrating multiple facets of biodiversity to describe spatial and temporal distribution patterns is one way of revealing the mechanisms driving community assembly. We assessed the species, functional, and phylogenetic composition and structure of passerine bird communities along an elevational gradient both in wintering and breeding seasons in the Ailao Mountains, southwest China, in order to identify the dominant ecological processes structuring the communities and how these processes change with elevation and season. Our research confirms that the highest taxonomic diversity, and distinct community composition, was found in the moist evergreen broadleaf forest at high elevation in both seasons. Environmental filtering was the dominant force at high elevations with relatively cold and wet climatic conditions, while the observed value of mean pairwise functional and phylogenetic distances of low elevation was constantly higher than expectation in two seasons, suggested interspecific competition could play the key role at low elevations, perhaps because of relative rich resource result from complex vegetation structure and human-induced disturbance. Across all elevations, there was a trend of decreasing intensity of environmental filtering whereas increasing interspecific competition from wintering season to breeding season. This was likely due to the increased resource availability but reproduction-associated competition in the summer months. In general, there is a clear justification for conservation efforts to protect entire elevational gradients in the Ailao Mountains, given the distinct taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic compositions and also elevational migration pattern in passerine bird communities.

  10. In silico peptide-binding predictions of passerine MHC class I reveal similarities across distantly related species, suggesting convergence on the level of protein function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Follin, Elna; Karlsson, Maria; Lundegaard, Claus

    2013-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes found in the vertebrate genome, and they encode proteins that play an essential role in the adaptive immune response. Many songbirds (passerines) have been shown to have a large number of transcribed MHC class I genes...

  11. Nest-site selection and nest success of an Arctic-breeding passerine, Smith's Longspur, in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Heather R.; Kendall, Steve J.; Powell, Abby

    2017-01-01

    Despite changes in shrub cover and weather patterns associated with climate change in the Arctic, little is known about the breeding requirements of most passerines tied to northern regions. We investigated the nesting biology and nest habitat characteristics of Smith's Longspurs (Calcarius pictus) in 2 study areas in the Brooks Range of Alaska, USA. First, we examined variation in nesting phenology in relation to local temperatures. We then characterized nesting habitat and analyzed nest-site selection for a subset of nests (n = 86) in comparison with paired random points. Finally, we estimated the daily survival rate of 257 nests found in 2007–2013 with respect to both habitat characteristics and weather variables. Nest initiation was delayed in years with snow events, heavy rain, and freezing temperatures early in the breeding season. Nests were typically found in open, low-shrub tundra, and never among tall shrubs (mean shrub height at nests = 26.8 ± 6.7 cm). We observed weak nest-site selection patterns. Considering the similarity between nest sites and paired random points, coupled with the unique social mating system of Smith's Longspurs, we suggest that habitat selection may occur at the neighborhood scale and not at the nest-site scale. The best approximating model explaining nest survival suggested a positive relationship with the numbers of days above 21°C that an individual nest experienced; there was little support for models containing habitat variables. The daily nest survival rate was high (0.972–0.982) compared with that of most passerines in forested or grassland habitats, but similar to that of passerines nesting on tundra. Considering their high nesting success and ability to delay nest initiation during inclement weather, Smith's Longspurs may be resilient to predicted changes in weather regimes on the breeding grounds. Thus, the greatest threat to breeding Smith's Longspurs associated with climate change may be the loss of low

  12. Side-specific effect of yolk testosterone elevation on second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gergely; Blázi, György; Hegyi, Gergely; Török, János

    2016-02-01

    Second-to-fourth digit ratio is a widely investigated sexually dimorphic morphological trait in human studies and could reliably indicate the prenatal steroid environment. Conducting manipulative experiments to test this hypothesis comes up against ethical limits in humans. However, oviparous tetrapods may be excellent models to experimentally investigate the effects of prenatal steroids on offspring second-to-fourth digit ratio. In this field study, we injected collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis) eggs with physiological doses of testosterone. Fledglings from eggs with elevated yolk testosterone, regardless of their sex, had longer second digits on their left feet than controls, while the fourth digit did not differ between groups. Therefore, second-to-fourth digit ratio was higher in the testosterone-injected group, but only on the left foot. This is the first study which shows experimentally that early testosterone exposure can affect second-to-fourth digit ratio in a wild population of a passerine bird.

  13. Effects of laboratory housing on exploratory behaviour, novelty discrimination and spatial reference memory in a subterranean, solitary rodent, the Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuizen, Maria Kathleen; Scheibler, Anne-Gita; Bennett, Nigel Charles; Amrein, Irmgard

    2013-01-01

    A large number of laboratory and field based studies are being carried out on mole-rats, both in our research group and others. Several studies have highlighted the development of adverse behaviours in laboratory animals and have emphasised the importance of enrichment for captive animals. Hence we were interested in evaluating how laboratory housing would affect behavioural performance in mole-rats. We investigated exploratory behaviour, the ability to discriminate between novel and familiar environments and reference memory in the solitary Cape mole-rat (Georychus capensis). Our data showed that both wild and captive animals readily explore open spaces and tunnels. Wild animals were however more active than their captive counterparts. In the Y maze two trial discrimination task, wild animals failed to discriminate between novel and familiar environments, while laboratory housed mole-rats showed preferential spatial discrimination in terms of the length of time spent in the novel arm. The performance of the laboratory and wild animals were similar when tested for reference memory in the Y maze, both groups showed a significant improvement compared to the first day, from the 3rd day onwards. Wild animals made more mistakes whereas laboratory animals were slower in completing the task. The difference in performance between wild and laboratory animals in the Y-maze may be as a result of the lower activity of the laboratory animals. Laboratory maintained Cape mole-rats show classic behaviours resulting from a lack of stimulation such as reduced activity and increased aggression. However, they do display an improved novelty discrimination compared to the wild animals. Slower locomotion rate of the laboratory animals may increase the integration time of stimuli, hence result in a more thorough inspection of the surroundings. Unlike the captive animals, wild animals show flexibility in their responses to unpredictable events, which is an important requirement under

  14. Hexabromocyclododecane in terrestrial passerine birds from e-waste, urban and rural locations in the Pearl River Delta, South China: Levels, biomagnification, diastereoisomer- and enantiomer-specific accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuxin; Luo Xiaojun; Mo Ling; He Mingjing; Zhang Qiang; Chen Shejun; Zou Fasheng; Mai Bixian

    2012-01-01

    Diastereoisomers and enantiomers of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in muscle and stomach contents of three terrestrial passerine birds from e-waste, urban and rural locations in South China. The highest HBCD concentration was found at the urban site, followed by the e-waste site, suggesting that HBCD was linked to urbanization and industrialization, as well as e-waste recycling activities. Trophic magnification for α-HBCD was observed in the terrestrial food chain. Diastereisomeric pattern in birds showed the predominance of α-isomer, with a minor contribution of γ-isomer. The enantiomeric analysis revealed a preferential enrichment of (−)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD. The similarity in enantiomeric fractions of HBCD isomers between muscle and stomach contents of birds suggested that dietary uptake may be responsible for the observed nonracemic distribution of HBCD isomers in the studied birds although in vivo enantioselective biotic processes cannot be ruled out. - Highlights: ► HBCD concentrations in three terrestrial passerine birds and their stomach contents were determined. ► Biomagnification and trophic magnification for α-HBCD was found. ► A preferential enrichment of (−)-α-HBCD and (+)-γ-HBCD were found in birds. ► Diet rather than in vivo biotic processes contributed to the observed nonracemic distribution of HBCD isomers. - Enantiomer-specific accumulation of hexabromocyclododecane in terrestrial passerine birds in South China was demonstrated.

  15. Organochlorine pollutants and stable isotopes in resident and migrant passerine birds from northwest Michoacán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A

    2008-10-01

    Although concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in birds from most of the United States and Canada have decreased over the last 30 years, there is still concern that migrant birds might be exposed to elevated concentrations of OCs during migration in Latin America. The Lerma-Chapala Basin in west-central Mexico is an important migration corridor and wintering area for many species. The objectives of this study were to assess if resident and migrant birds wintering in western Michoacán, Mexico accumulated elevated concentrations of OCs during fall and spring and to determine if the stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD could be used to predict burdens and origins of DDE accumulation. Resident and migrant passerine insectivorous birds were collected during fall and spring (2001-2002) in northwest Michoacán, near Chapala Lake, Mexico. The carcasses were analyzed for OCs and tail feathers were analyzed for stable isotopes delta(15)N, delta(13)C, and deltaD. The OCs detected in more than 50% of the samples were: oxychlordane (79%), p,p'-DDE (100%), p,p'-DDT (57%), and total PCBs (100%). p,p'-DDE was the OC detected at the highest concentrations, whereas residues of other OCs were near or below detection limits. Overall, there were no significant differences in concentrations of OCs between seasons or between resident and migrant birds. Concentrations of DDE and oxychlordane were somewhat higher in migrant and resident birds during spring than in fall; however, concentrations were significantly different only for oxychlordane. Two resident birds collected in fall and spring had DDE residues >10 microg/g wet weight in carcass. There were no significant differences in delta(13)C and delta(15)N values among species, between seasons, or between migrant and resident birds. However, deltaD values were clearly different between species and helped differentiate migrant from resident birds. deltaD values also were negatively and significantly correlated

  16. Histopathological survey of protozoa, helminths and acarids of imported and local psittacine and passerine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1992-12-01

    A total of 534 psittacine and passerine birds consisting of 241 imported and 293 local birds were examined histologically. As a result, the following parasites were found: Giardia (86 cases), Knemido-coptes (26 cases), coccidia (10 cases), Ascaridia (6 cases), Cryptosporidium (5 cases), Sarcocystis (5 cases), tapeworm (4 cases), microfilaria (2 cases), Hexamita (1 case), and Spiroptera (1 case). High incidences of giardiasis and knemido-coptic infestation were detected in the local birds, but rarely in the imported birds. Giardial trophozoites were observed mainly in the duodenum of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Knemidocoptic mites burrowed into the epidermis producing proliferative dermatitis in 25 budgerigars and 1 African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). This ectoparasite often infested the skin around the cloaca. Coccidiosis was seen only in the small intestines of the finch (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae), African Grey Parrot, Rainbow lory (Trichoglossus haematodus), Indian Ring-necked parakeet (Psittacula krameri manillensis) and peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis). Two parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva and Psittacus erithacus erithacus) and two budgerigars had intestinal cryptosporidiosis. Conjunctivitis associated with cryptosporidial infection was seen in a lovebird. Sarcocystis cysts containing crescent-shaped bradyzoites were found not only in the thigh and breast but also in the heart and cloacal muscles. Other organisms such as Ascaridia, tapeworm, microfilaria, Hexamita, and Spiroptera were clinically less significant. However, infections such as Giardia and Cryptosporidim might have zoonotic implications.

  17. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Laaksonen, Toni; Morales, Judith; Moreno, Juan; Mateo, Rafael; Belskii, Eugen; Bushuev, Andrey; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Slate, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Eeva, Tapio

    2014-03-01

    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in metal pollution across a species' breeding range. We studied large-scale geographic variation in metal levels in the eggs of a small passerine, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), sampled from 15 populations across Europe. We measured 10 eggshell elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Se, Sr, and Ca) and several shell characteristics (mass, thickness, porosity, and color). We found significant variation among populations in eggshell metal levels for all metals except copper. Eggshell lead, zinc, and chromium levels decreased from central Europe to the north, in line with the gradient in pollution levels over Europe, thus suggesting that eggshell can be used as an indicator of pollution levels. Eggshell lead levels were also correlated with soil lead levels and pH. Most of the metals were not correlated with eggshell characteristics, with the exception of shell mass, or with breeding success, which may suggest that birds can cope well with the current background exposure levels across Europe.

  18. Nest predation risk and growth strategies of passerine species: grow fast or develop traits to escape risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi-Ru; Martin, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Different body components are thought to trade off in their growth and development rates, but the causes for relative prioritization of any trait remains a critical question. Offspring of species at higher risk of predation might prioritize development of locomotor traits that facilitate escaping risky environments over growth of mass. We tested this possibility in 12 altricial passerine species that differed in their risk of nest predation. We found that rates of growth and development of mass, wings, and endothermy increased with nest predation risk across species. In particular, species with higher nest predation risk exhibited relatively faster growth of wings than of mass, fledged with relatively larger wing sizes and smaller mass, and developed endothermy earlier at relatively smaller mass. This differential development can facilitate both escape from predators and survival outside of the nest environment. Tarsus growth was not differentially prioritized with respect to nest predation risk, and instead all species achieved adult tarsus size by age of fledging. We also tested whether different foraging modes (aerial, arboreal, and ground foragers) might explain the variation of differential growth of locomotor modules, but we found that little residual variation was explained. Our results suggest that differences in nest predation risk among species are associated with relative prioritization of body components to facilitate escape from the risky nest environment.

  19. The genetic effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes over a tropical latitudinal gradient: diversification of an Atlantic Forest passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Horta, Fernando M; Cabanne, Gustavo S; Meyer, Diogo; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2011-05-01

    The increase in biodiversity from high to low latitudes is a widely recognized biogeographical pattern. According to the latitudinal gradient hypothesis (LGH), this pattern was shaped by differential effects of Late Quaternary climatic changes across a latitudinal gradient. Here, we evaluate the effects of climatic changes across a tropical latitudinal gradient and its implications to diversification of an Atlantic Forest (AF) endemic passerine. We studied the intraspecific diversification and historical demography of Sclerurus scansor, based on mitochondrial (ND2, ND3 and cytb) and nuclear (FIB7) gene sequences. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three well-supported clades associated with distinct latitudinal zones. Coalescent-based methods were applied to estimate divergence times and changes in effective population sizes. Estimates of divergence times indicate that intraspecific diversification took place during Middle-Late Pleistocene. Distinct demographic scenarios were identified, with the southern lineage exhibiting a clear signature of demographic expansion, while the central one remained more stable. The northern lineage, contrasting with LGH predictions, exhibited a clear sign of a recent bottleneck. Our results suggest that different AF regions reacted distinctly, even in opposite ways, under the same climatic period, producing simultaneously favourable scenarios for isolation and contact among populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Functional characterization of spectral tuning mechanisms in the great bowerbird short-wavelength sensitive visual pigment (SWS1), and the origins of UV/violet vision in passerines and parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hazel, Ilke; Sabouhanian, Amir; Day, Lainy; Endler, John A; Chang, Belinda S W

    2013-11-13

    One of the most striking features of avian vision is the variation in spectral sensitivity of the short wavelength sensitive (SWS1) opsins, which can be divided into two sub-types: violet- and UV- sensitive (VS & UVS). In birds, UVS has been found in both passerines and parrots, groups that were recently shown to be sister orders. While all parrots are thought to be UVS, recent evidence suggests some passerine lineages may also be VS. The great bowerbird (Chlamydera nuchalis) is a passerine notable for its courtship behaviours in which males build and decorate elaborate bower structures. The great bowerbird SWS1 sequence possesses an unusual residue combination at known spectral tuning sites that has not been previously investigated in mutagenesis experiments. In this study, the SWS1 opsin of C. nuchalis was expressed along with a series of spectral tuning mutants and ancestral passerine SWS1 pigments, allowing us to investigate spectral tuning mechanisms and explore the evolution of UV/violet sensitivity in early passerines and parrots. The expressed C. nuchalis SWS1 opsin was found to be a VS pigment, with a λmax of 403 nm. Bowerbird SWS1 mutants C86F, S90C, and C86S/S90C all shifted λmax into the UV, whereas C86S had no effect. Experimentally recreated ancestral passerine and parrot/passerine SWS1 pigments were both found to be VS, indicating that UV sensitivity evolved independently in passerines and parrots from a VS ancestor. Our mutagenesis studies indicate that spectral tuning in C. nuchalis is mediated by mechanisms similar to those of other birds. Interestingly, our ancestral sequence reconstructions of SWS1 in landbird evolution suggest multiple transitions from VS to UVS, but no instances of the reverse. Our results not only provide a more precise prediction of where these spectral sensitivity shifts occurred, but also confirm the hypothesis that birds are an unusual exception among vertebrates where some descendants re-evolved UVS from a violet type

  1. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu, Jiang-Ping, E-mail: jpwu@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao, Lin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Mo, Ling [Hainan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Haikou 571126 (China); Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f{sub anti} values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f{sub anti} values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f{sub anti} values were observed. • The f{sub anti} values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations.

  2. Accumulation of Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial passerines from a nature reserve in South China: The influences of biological and chemical variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Tao, Lin; Mo, Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have addressed the bioaccumulation of Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant in wildlife, few data are available on terrestrial organisms. This study examined the presence of DP isomers in the muscle tissue of seven terrestrial resident passerine species, i.e., the great tit (Parus major), the oriental magpie-robin (Copsychus saularis), the red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), the light-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), the streak-breasted scimitar babbler (Pomatorhinus ruficollis), the long-tailed shrike (Lanius schach), and the orange-headed thrush (Zoothera citrina), from a national nature reserve located in South China. The ∑DP (sum of syn-DP and anti-DP) concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 104 ng/g lipid weight, with significantly higher levels in insectivorous birds than in omnivorous birds. The overall exposure to DP isomers of the current passerines may be attributed to the intensive release of this pollutant from electronic waste recycling sites and industrial zones in the vicinity of the nature reserve. Species-specific DP isomeric profiles were also found, with significantly greater f anti values (the isomer fractions of anti-DP) in the red-whiskered bulbul and the oriental magpie-robin. Additionally, the f anti values were significantly negatively correlated to ∑DP concentrations for the individual bird samples, suggesting the influence of DP concentrations on the isomeric profiles. - Highlights: • We investigated the occurrence of DP in seven species of terrestrial passerines. • Insectivorous birds accumulated higher ∑DP concentrations than omnivorous birds. • Inter-species differences in the f anti values were observed. • The f anti values were significantly correlated to DP concentrations

  3. Evolution of sexual dichromatism in relation to nesting habits in European passerines: a test of Wallace's hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, J J; Moreno, J

    2012-08-01

    Wallace proposed in 1868 that natural rather than sexual selection could explain the striking differences in avian plumage dichromatism. Thus, he predicted that nesting habits, through their association with nest predation, could drive changes in sexual dichromatism by enabling females in cavity nesters to become as conspicuous as males, whereas Darwin (1871, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, John Murray, London) argued that sexual selection was the sole explanation for dichromatism. Sexual dichromatism is currently used as indicating the strength of sexual selection, and therefore testing Wallace's claim with modern phylogentically controlled methodologies is of prime interest for comparing the roles of natural and sexual selection in affecting the evolution of avian coloration. Here, we have related information on nest attendance, sexual dichromatism and nesting habits (open and cavity nesting) to male and female plumage conspicuousness in European passerines. Nest incubation attendance does not explain male or female plumage conspicuousness but nest type does. Moreover, although females of monochromatic and cavity nesting species are more conspicuous than females of other species, males of monochromatic and open nesting species are those with more cryptic plumage. Finally, analyses of character evolution suggest that changes in nesting habits influence the probability of changes in both dichromatism and plumage conspicuousness of males but do not significantly affect those in females. These results strongly suggest a role of nesting habits in the evolution of plumage conspicuousness of males, and a role for sexual selection also in females, both factors affecting the evolution of sexual dichromatism. We discuss our findings in relation to the debate that Darwin and Wallace maintained more than one century ago on the importance of natural and sexual selection in driving the evolution of plumage conspicuousness and sexual dichromatism in birds

  4. Growth strategies of passerine birds are related to brood parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remes, Vladimír

    2006-08-01

    Sibling competition was proposed as an important selective agent in the evolution of growth and development. Brood parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) intensifies sibling competition in the nests of its hosts by increasing host chick mortality and exposing them to a genetically unrelated nestmate. Intranest sibling competition for resources supplied by parents is size dependent. Thus, it should select for high development rates and short nestling periods, which would alleviate negative impacts of brood parasitic chicks on host young. I tested these predictions on 134 North American passerines by comparative analyses. After controlling for covariates and phylogeny, I showed that high parasitism rate was associated with higher nestling growth rate, lower mass at fledging, and shorter nestling periods. These effects were most pronounced in species in which sibling competition is most intense (i.e., weighing over about 30 g). When species were categorized as nonhosts versus old hosts (parasitized for thousands of years) versus new hosts (parasitized the last 100-200 years), there was a clear effect of this parasitism category on growth strategies. Nestling growth rate was the most evolutionarily flexible trait, followed by mass at fledging and nestling period duration. Adjustments during incubation (incubation period length, egg volume) were less pronounced and generally disappeared after controlling for phylogeny. I show that sibling competition caused by brood parasites can have strong effects on the evolution of host growth strategies and that the evolution of developmental traits can take place very rapidly. Human alteration of habitats causing spread of brood parasites to new areas thus cascades into affecting the evolution of life-history traits in host species.

  5. Microbial abundance on the eggs of a passerine bird and related fitness consequences between urban and rural habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Hyunna; Jablonski, Piotr G; Choe, Jae Chun; Husby, Magne

    2017-01-01

    Urban environments present novel and challenging habitats to wildlife. In addition to well-known difference in abiotic factors between rural and urban environments, the biotic environment, including microbial fauna, may also differ significantly. In this study, we aimed to compare the change in microbial abundance on eggshells during incubation between urban and rural populations of a passerine bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica), and examine the consequences of any differences in microbial abundances in terms of hatching success and nestling survival. Using real-time PCR, we quantified the abundances of total bacteria, Escherichia coli/Shigella spp., surfactin-producing Bacillus spp. and Candida albicans on the eggshells of magpies. We found that urban magpie eggs harboured greater abundances of E. coli/Shigella spp. and C. albicans before incubation than rural magpie eggs. During incubation, there was an increase in the total bacterial load, but a decrease in C. albicans on urban eggs relative to rural eggs. Rural eggs showed a greater increase in E. coli/Shigella spp. relative to their urban counterpart. Hatching success of the brood was generally lower in urban than rural population. Nestling survival was differentially related with the eggshell microbial abundance between urban and rural populations, which was speculated to be the result of the difference in the strength of the interaction among the microbes. This is the first demonstration that avian clutches in urban and rural populations differ in eggshell microbial abundance, which can be further related to the difference in hatching success and nestling survival in these two types of environments. We suggest that future studies on the eggshell microbes should investigate the interaction among the microbes, because the incubation and/or environmental factors such as urbanization or climate condition can influence the dynamic interactions among the microbes on the eggshells which can further determine the

  6. Linking phenological events in migratory passerines with a changing climate: 50 years in the Laurel Highlands of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Molly E; DeGroote, Lucas W

    2017-01-01

    Advanced timing of both seasonal migration and reproduction in birds has been strongly associated with a warming climate for many bird species. Phenological responses to climate linking these stages may ultimately impact fitness. We analyzed five decades of banding data from 17 migratory bird species to investigate 1) how spring arrival related to timing of breeding, 2) if the interval between arrival and breeding has changed with increasing spring temperatures, and 3) whether arrival timing or breeding timing best predicted local productivity. Four of 17 species, all mid- to long-distance migrants, hatched young earlier in years when migrants arrived earlier to the breeding grounds (~1:1 day advancement). The interval between arrival on breeding grounds and appearance of juveniles shortened with warmer spring temperatures for 12 species (1-6 days for every 1°C increase) and over time for seven species (1-8 days per decade), suggesting that some migratory passerines adapt to climate change by laying more quickly after arrival or reducing the time from laying to fledging. We found more support for the former, that the rate of reproductive advancement was higher than that for arrival in warm years. Timing of spring arrival and breeding were both poor predictors of avian productivity for most migrants analyzed. Nevertheless, we found evidence that fitness benefits may occur from shifts to earlier spring arrival for the multi-brooded Song Sparrow. Our results uniquely demonstrate that co-occurring avian species are phenologically plastic in their response to climate change on their breeding grounds. If migrants continue to show a weaker response to temperatures during migration than breeding, and the window between arrival and optimal breeding shortens further, biological constraints to plasticity may limit the ability of species to adapt successfully to future warming.

  7. Linking phenological events in migratory passerines with a changing climate: 50 years in the Laurel Highlands of Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly E McDermott

    Full Text Available Advanced timing of both seasonal migration and reproduction in birds has been strongly associated with a warming climate for many bird species. Phenological responses to climate linking these stages may ultimately impact fitness. We analyzed five decades of banding data from 17 migratory bird species to investigate 1 how spring arrival related to timing of breeding, 2 if the interval between arrival and breeding has changed with increasing spring temperatures, and 3 whether arrival timing or breeding timing best predicted local productivity. Four of 17 species, all mid- to long-distance migrants, hatched young earlier in years when migrants arrived earlier to the breeding grounds (~1:1 day advancement. The interval between arrival on breeding grounds and appearance of juveniles shortened with warmer spring temperatures for 12 species (1-6 days for every 1°C increase and over time for seven species (1-8 days per decade, suggesting that some migratory passerines adapt to climate change by laying more quickly after arrival or reducing the time from laying to fledging. We found more support for the former, that the rate of reproductive advancement was higher than that for arrival in warm years. Timing of spring arrival and breeding were both poor predictors of avian productivity for most migrants analyzed. Nevertheless, we found evidence that fitness benefits may occur from shifts to earlier spring arrival for the multi-brooded Song Sparrow. Our results uniquely demonstrate that co-occurring avian species are phenologically plastic in their response to climate change on their breeding grounds. If migrants continue to show a weaker response to temperatures during migration than breeding, and the window between arrival and optimal breeding shortens further, biological constraints to plasticity may limit the ability of species to adapt successfully to future warming.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Ficus capensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    Allium sativum) is used to reduce cholesterol levels and to boost immune system; it lowers high blood pressure and its oil has been seen to have antibacterial properties (Juurlink, 2001). Milk thistle. Silybum marianum has also ...

  9. Organohalogen contamination in passerine birds from three metropolises in China: Geographical variation and its implication for anthropogenic effects on urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Le-Huan; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Hong-Ying; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Zheng, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of organohalogen pollutants (OHPs), including dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and dechlorane plus (DP) in three metropolises of China, Beijing, Wuhan, and Guangzhou, and a reference rural site were determined using terrestrial residential passerine species as bioindicator. DDTs dominated in Wuhan whereas flame retardants dominated in Guangzhou and Beijing. No geographical variation was found for PCB levels but it exhibited different homologue profiles among different sites which could be attributed to different dietary sources of birds. Industry characteristics of the sampling location contributed to the geographical differences in the occurrence and contamination profile of OHPs. The transformation of traditional agriculture characterized contamination profiles to industry characterized profiles in Beijing and Guangzhou implicates significantly environmental concern on the flame retardants contamination in non-hot-spot regions of China. - Highlights: • Various OHPs were determined in passerine birds from three metropolises of China. • Geographical variations of OHPs levels and contamination profiles were observed. • More concern should be taken on the dominance of FRs in Chinese developed cities. • Diet source characterized by δ 13 C plays a key role in PCB pattern determination. - Geographical variations of OHPs contamination profiles indicate significant impact of industrialization and urbanization on Chinese urban environment

  10. NOTES ON TAXONOMY AND DISTRIBUTION OF MYRSIDEA SERINI (SÉGUY, 1944 (PHTHIRAPTERA: AMBLYCERA: MENOPONIDAE ON SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICAN PASSERINE BIRDS (AVES: PASSERIFORMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARMANDO C. CICCHINO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myrsidea serini (Séguy, 1944 is recorded from three different passerine hosts from Argentina and Chile: Carduelis barbata (Molina, 1782 (Fringillidae, Chrysomus thilius petersi (Laubmann, 1934 and Agelaioides badius badius (Vieillot, 1819 (Icteridae. Somatic features and body measurements from available specimens belonging to these host-populations are compared with those recorded from Old World hosts, finding only some slight differences in certain body measurements (here interpreted as correlated to differences in host sizes, but none in chaetotaxy. This species was synoxenic with Myrsidea psittaci Carriker, 1955 on C. t. petersi in at least two localities in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Comparative studies of external chorionic architecture of the eggs, preferential sites of oviposition, prevalence has been carried out for both species, along with some remarks concerning the still problematic species, Myrsidea argentina (Kellogg, 1906, originally recorded off Carduelis magellanica (Vieillot, 1805.

  11. Does migratory distance affect fuelling in a medium-distance passerine migrant?: results from direct and step-wise simulated magnetic displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ilieva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In birds, fat accumulation before and during migration has been shown to be endogenously controlled and tuned by, among other factors, the Earth's magnetic field. However, our knowledge about the influence of the geomagnetic field on the fuelling in migrating birds is still limited to just a few nocturnally migrating passerine species. In order to study if variations of the magnetic field can also influence the fuelling of both day- and night-migrating passerines, we caught first-year dunnocks (Prunella modularis and subjected them to three magnetic field conditions simulated by a system of magnetic coils: (1 local geomagnetic field of southern Sweden, (2 magnetic field corresponding to the centre of the expected wintering area, and (3 magnetic field met at the northern limit of the species' breeding distribution. We did not find a difference in mass increase between the birds kept in a local magnetic field and a field resembling their wintering area, irrespectively of the mode of magnetic displacement, i.e. direct or step-wise. However, the dunnocks magnetically displaced north showed a lower rate of fuelling in comparison to the control group, probably due to elevated activity. Compared with previous studies, our results suggest that the fuelling response to magnetic displacements during the migration period is specific to the eco-physiological situation. Future studies need to address if there is an effect of magnetic field manipulation on the level of migratory activity in dunnocks and how widespread the influence of local geomagnetic field parameters is on fuelling decisions in different bird species, which have different migratory strategies, distances and migration history.

  12. Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) from the gills of a captive onefin electric ray, Narke capensis (Narkidae) at Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David B; Chisholm, Leslie A; Hansen, Haakon

    2016-09-01

    Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from the gills of a captive female onefin electric ray, Narke capensis, collected for exhibition at Two Oceans Aquarium in Cape Town, South Africa. Electrocotyle n. gen. is most similar to the heterocotyline genera Heterocotyle and Potamotrygonocotyle but could not be accommodated easily in either of these groups. The new genus is characterised by a haptor with one central and eight peripheral loculi, four unsclerotised structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor, a single unsclerotised non-sinous ridge on the ventral surface of the haptoral septa, large hamuli with a long handle and reduced guard, a vagina with sclerotised walls, and tetrahedral eggs. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 28S sequences strongly support the separate genus status of Electrocotyle n. gen and thus support our morphological conclusion. The Heterocotylinae is amended to accommodate the new genus, and the new species is fully described and illustrated herein. This is the first record of a monocotylid from the Narkidae. Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen. n. sp. is considered potentially pathogenic given its negative impact on the health of its captive host kept in the quarantine facility at Two Oceans Aquarium.

  13. Are there different requirements for trace elements in eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based color production? A case study of two passerine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zduniak, Piotr; Surmacki, Adrian; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2014-09-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments including bird plumage. It has been shown that several trace elements may play roles in the production and signaling function of melanin-colored plumage. We investigated coloration and content of various metal elements in the rectrices of two insectivorous passerines, Common Redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) and Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla), which have eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based coloration, respectively. We hypothesized that 1) the two species would differ in concentrations of metals important in melanin synthesis (Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn), 2) differences in metal concentration levels would be related to feather coloration. Our study confirmed the first prediction and provides the first evidence that selected elements may play a greater role in pheomelanin than in eumelanin synthesis. Concentrations of three elements considered as important in melanin synthesis (Ca, Fe, Zn) were 52% to 93% higher in rusty colored Common Redstart feathers compared to the dark gray Blackcap feathers. However, element concentrations were not correlated with feather coloration or sex in either species. Our study suggests that, of the two melanin forms, pheomelanin synthesis may bear higher costs associated with the acquisition of specific elements or limited elements may create trade-offs between ornamentation and other physiological functions. Our findings warrant further investigations designed to better understand the roles of macro- and microelements in the synthesis of both forms of melanin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. In silico peptide-binding predictions of passerine MHC class I reveal similarities across distantly related species, suggesting convergence on the level of protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follin, Elna; Karlsson, Maria; Lundegaard, Claus; Nielsen, Morten; Wallin, Stefan; Paulsson, Kajsa; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-04-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are the most polymorphic genes found in the vertebrate genome, and they encode proteins that play an essential role in the adaptive immune response. Many songbirds (passerines) have been shown to have a large number of transcribed MHC class I genes compared to most mammals. To elucidate the reason for this large number of genes, we compared 14 MHC class I alleles (α1-α3 domains), from great reed warbler, house sparrow and tree sparrow, via phylogenetic analysis, homology modelling and in silico peptide-binding predictions to investigate their functional and genetic relationships. We found more pronounced clustering of the MHC class I allomorphs (allele specific proteins) in regards to their function (peptide-binding specificities) compared to their genetic relationships (amino acid sequences), indicating that the high number of alleles is of functional significance. The MHC class I allomorphs from house sparrow and tree sparrow, species that diverged 10 million years ago (MYA), had overlapping peptide-binding specificities, and these similarities across species were also confirmed in phylogenetic analyses based on amino acid sequences. Notably, there were also overlapping peptide-binding specificities in the allomorphs from house sparrow and great reed warbler, although these species diverged 30 MYA. This overlap was not found in a tree based on amino acid sequences. Our interpretation is that convergent evolution on the level of the protein function, possibly driven by selection from shared pathogens, has resulted in allomorphs with similar peptide-binding repertoires, although trans-species evolution in combination with gene conversion cannot be ruled out.

  15. Advanced long-term bird banding and climate data mining in spring confirm passerine population declines for the Northeast Chinese-Russian flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shengwu; Huettmann, Falk; Guo, Yumin; Li, Xianda; Ouyang, Yanlan

    2016-09-01

    The migration of birds is fascinating for humans but it's also a serious environmental monitoring and management issue on a global level. Bird banding using mistnets has been the method of choice for decades worldwide; linking these data with climate data allows to infer on global warming and outlier events. However, good methods to achieve this effectively in time and space for many species are still missing; data for Asia are specifically sparse and often 'messy'. Here we present a data mining summary information for data from two bird banding stations (Gaofeng and Qingfeng) along the vast Northeast Chinese-Russian flyway. Bird data were collected during spring 2002-2011 with standardized techniques and then linked with related climate data in the banding as well as the wintering sites. This creates a complex data set which is based on a decade and which includes many predictors. This first-time data mining analysis with 'data cloning' and machine learning methods (boosted regression trees) shows how to extract the major signals in this unique dataset from highly correlated and interacting predictors. Our results indicate a large-scale warming trend for the flyway, with a start in 2003, and a freezing rain outlier event in 2008; the last years remained on a rather warm level. All evidence along this vast flyway supports major changes, warming trends, habitat losses and consequently strong passerine declines. Presumably human pressures are a major factor either way and we propose to address these problems immediately for betterment if meaningful conservation targets are to be met.

  16. Early ontogeny of Labeo capensis (pisces: Cyprinidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the early development of Indian Labeo species (e.g. Khan. 1925; Ahmad 1944 ...... ber, size or intensity, was helpful in grouping North American cyprinid larvae. .... impregnated eggs of common freshwater fishes of Bengal. Curro Sci. 26: 125 ...

  17. anchovy Engraulis capensis, sardine Sardinops sa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    rates ranged between 0.05 and 0.29.h-1, with mean values of 0.09 and 0.27.h-1 for fish fed zooplankton and phytoplankton ... Linear, square root, and exponential func- tions were ...... Far Eastern sardine and their implication in the fluctuation.

  18. Pseudocordylus capensis (Sauria: CordyJidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-02-24

    Feb 24, 1997 ... of the evolution of CordyJidae reproductive cycles, this study represents the first .... that both gland types are more functional in males. detailed studies are .... eral groups of lizard, snake, and fish taxa, suggesting that sex- ual differences in body ... to determine the role of constraining ecological factors, such.

  19. Reproductive periods in birds near the equator

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Alden H.

    2012-01-01

    Para el estudio de los ciclos reproductivos de las aves cerca al ecuador se seleccionó el Gorrión (Zonotrichia capensis) teniendo en cuenta que se han realizado estudios intensivos en especies próximas que habitan el hemisferio norte. Se escogió como estación de trabajo, el sitio denominado Mares localizado en la cima de la Cordillera Occidental sobre la carretera que conduce de Cali a Buenaventura.  Mediante trabajos de anillado, instalación de trampas para captura de las aves, realización d...

  20. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Erica F; Verpeut, Jessica; Horvat-Gordon, Maria; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Bartell, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  1. Differential regulation of adipokines may influence migratory behavior in the white-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica F Stuber

    Full Text Available White-throated sparrows increase fat deposits during pre-migratory periods and rely on these fat stores to fuel migration. Adipose tissue produces hormones and signaling factors in a rhythmic fashion and may be controlled by a clock in adipose tissue or driven by a master clock in the brain. The master clock may convey photoperiodic information from the environment to adipose tissue to facilitate pre-migratory fattening, and adipose tissue may, in turn, release adipokines to indicate the extent of fat energy stores. Here, we present evidence that a change in signal from the adipokines adiponectin and visfatin may act to indicate body condition, thereby influencing an individual's decision to commence migratory flight, or to delay until adequate fat stores are acquired. We quantified plasma adiponectin and visfatin levels across the day in captive birds held under constant photoperiod. The circadian profiles of plasma adiponectin in non-migrating birds were approximately inverse the profiles from migrating birds. Adiponectin levels were positively correlated to body fat, and body fat was inversely related to the appearance of nocturnal migratory restlessness. Visfatin levels were constant across the day and did not correlate with fat deposits; however, a reduction in plasma visfatin concentration occurred during the migratory period. The data suggest that a significant change in the biological control of adipokine expression exists between the two migratory conditions and we propose a role for adiponectin, visfatin and adipose clocks in the regulation of migratory behaviors.

  2. Antibacterial activity of Ficus capensis | Oyeleke | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 10 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Annual reproductive pattern in the dassie Procavia capensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fertilization between the period mid-March and mid-April. Of. 49 pregnant ... crease litter size appears to be related more to a conservative ovulation rate than to ova ..... tween the left and right uterine horns is given in Table 2, from which it can ...

  4. Anchovy Engraulis capensis and sardine Sardinops sagax currently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Recruitment is thought to be determined largely by ... for forecasting recruitment strength. ..... In March and April, sustained upwelling wind events ... 2 Assumes average current velocities of 10–15 cm.s–1 in a west-north-westerly direction ...

  5. REPRODUCTION IN THE ROCK HYRAX (PROCA VIA CAPENSIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of corpora lutea and foetuses in the females, the reproductive organs and glands of all animals ... However, the approximate time of conception was calculated from the ... These findings were further confirmed by estimating the percentage.

  6. Cape hake Merluccius capensis are abundant over the Namibian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    In summer 1994, oxygen depletion was very pro- nounced in bottom waters over the Namibian shelf, from 18 to 25°S. In January, bottom water of the inner and midshelf regions of northern and central Namibia was depleted of oxygen to levels as low as <0.5 ml.l–1, with levels of between 1 and 2 ml.l–1 at the shelf edge.

  7. Biological activities of Typha capensis (Typhaceae) from Limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... hypersensitivity, immune-suppression and allergic reac- tions (Ahmad et al., 1998). .... detected by yellow spots against a purple background on TLC ... ments for both domestic animals and humans in southern. Africa and for ...

  8. The Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis is the most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    25 cm being sampled by the latter. Also, the .... Parallel trawl comparison tests .... fish (>27 cm). The modal length of the fish in both. 268. A Decade of Namibian Fisheries Science. South African Journal of Marine Science 23. 2001. B. A C W u.

  9. Cape hake Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    knowledge of the behaviour of Cape hake in general. ... Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, National Marine Information and Research Centre, P.O. Box 912, Swakopmund, Namibia. E-mail: ... (BEI) post-processing system, which allows for better ..... deep water, where hake density is generally low and.

  10. Nuclear organization of the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) amygdaloid complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limacher-Burrell, Aude-Marie; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Gravett, Nadine; Maseko, Busisiwe C; Manger, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    The current study details the nuclear organization of the rock hyrax amygdaloid complex using both Nissl and myelin stains, along with a range of immunohistochemical stains. The rock hyrax appears to be the least derived of the Afrotherians, a group with a huge range of body phenotypes, life histories and specialized behaviours, brain sizes, and ecological niches. In this sense, the rock hyrax represents a species where the organization of the amygdaloid complex may be reflective of that in stem Eutherian mammals. Our analysis indicates that the nuclear organization of the rock hyrax amygdaloid complex is indeed very similar to that in other mammals studied, with four major nuclear groupings (the deep or basolateral group; the superficial or cortical-like or corticomedial group; the centromedial group; and the other amygdaloid nuclei) being observed, which is typical of Eutherian mammals. Moreover, each of these groupings is composed of several nuclei, the vast majority of which were readily identified in the rock hyrax. Small nuclei identified in rodents and primates were absent in the superficial and centromedial groups, seemingly involved with olfaction. A novel shell-like nucleus of the accessory basal nuclear cluster was observed in the rock hyrax, again, likely to be involved in olfaction. The current study underlines the conserved nature of nuclear parcellation in the Eutherian mammal amygdaloid complex and indicates that across most species, the flow of information processing related to species-specific affective-laden stimuli and the resultant physiological and behavioural outcomes are likely to be similar across species.

  11. The Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis is an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The extent to which this feeding behaviour is relevant to South African .... 1). These fish were either processed on board or blast-frozen ... 1998. 265. Table II: Stomach sample collection information of horse mackerel caught in bottom trawls during the South and West ..... Agulhas Bank, where the thermocline is deep and.

  12. Over the past decades, the Cape anchovy Engraulis capensis has ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Data on the thermal structure, copepod biomass and production, and total number of eggs of the Cape anchovy ... To identify factors controlling the area of this water mass, a cluster ...... thesis, University of Cape Town: [vii] + 278 pp. SHANNON ...

  13. Vine snake (Thelotornis capensis bite in a dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Otto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A vine snake bite in a dog is reported. There was continued minor bleeding from the assumed nose bite site for 4 days. Currently manufactured snakebite antivenom is not effective against vine snake bites and treatment is supportive.

  14. The Cape horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis fishery off ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1940s, mainly by purse-seiners operating off the. West ... near Mossel Bay to East London were carried out in ... West Coast (including Namibia) and South Coast population of horse mackerel, ..... spawning behaviour, as reported for mackerel.

  15. The ichthyofauna associated with Zostera capensis Setchell ill the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quency distribution of the adult, juvenile and larval fish oc- curring in the main ...... Estuarine fishes. In: Estuarine Ecology with particular reference to southern Africa (ed.) ... Structural and functional aspects of the surf- zone fish community in ...

  16. The two species of Cape hake, Merluccius capensis and M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    are to be chosen by decision-makers, and adjust the TAC up or down from one year to the next according to whether trends in ... ment of the Nambian hake resource at that time was ...... Distribution medians, together with 90% probability.

  17. The Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789) (Aves: Icteridae), at 2,800 m asl in Quito, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Pinto, C Miguel; Carrión, Juan Manuel; Jarrín-E, Rubén D; Poveda, Cristian; de Vries, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    The Shiny Cowbird, Molothrus bonariensis Gmelin, 1789, is a brood parasite of hundreds of small-bodied birds that is native to South American lowlands. Within the last 100 years this species has been expanding its range throughout the Caribbean, towards North America, but has rarely been seen above 2,000 m asl. Here, we present records of Shiny Cowbirds in Quito, a city located 2,800 m above sea level that harbors a bird community typical of the Andean valleys. We found two juvenile individuals parasitizing two different pairs of Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776). This report constitutes an altitudinal range expansion of reproductive populations of ca. 500m, which may have beenprompted by anthropogenic disturbance.

  18. Spring weights of some Palaearctic passerines in Ethiopia and Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 33 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Some conservation aspects of papyrus endemic passerines around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 28 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Timing of primary wing moult in sexually dimorphic passerines from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the species where males started moult before the females, the standard deviation of the start of moult was generally smaller in the males and the males generally took longer to moult. These differences in the patterns of moult are discussed in the context of differences in parental care between males and females of each ...

  1. Complex Mhc-based mate choice in a wild passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneaud, Camille; Chastel, Olivier; Federici, Pierre; Westerdahl, Helena; Sorci, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    The extreme polymorphism of the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) is famous for protecting hosts against constantly evolving pathogens. Mate choice is often evoked as a means of maintaining Mhc variability through avoidance of partners with similar Mhc alleles or preference for heterozygotes. Evidence for these two hypotheses mostly comes from studies on humans and laboratory mice. Here, we tested these hypotheses in a wild outbred population of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Females were not more or less closely related to the males they paired with when considering neutral genetic variation. However, males failed to form breeding pairs when they had too few Mhc alleles and when they were too dissimilar from females at Mhc loci (i.e. had no common alleles). Furthermore, pairs did not form at random as Mhc diversity positively correlated in mating pairs. These results suggest that mate choice evolves in response to (i) benefits in terms of parasite resistance acquired from allelic diversity, and (ii) costs associated with the disruption of co-adapted genes. PMID:16600889

  2. Local individual preferences for nest materials in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adèle Mennerat

    Full Text Available Variation in the behavioural repertoire of animals is acquired by learning in a range of animal species. In nest-building birds, the assemblage of nest materials in an appropriate structure is often typical of a bird genus or species. Yet plasticity in the selection of nest materials may be beneficial because the nature and abundance of nest materials vary across habitats. Such plasticity can be learned, either individually or socially. In Corsican populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, females regularly add in their nests fragments of several species of aromatic plants during the whole breeding period. The selected plants represent a small fraction of the species present in the environment and have positive effects on nestlings.We investigated spatiotemporal variations of this behaviour to test whether the aromatic plant species composition in nests depends on 1 plant availability in territories, 2 female experience or 3 female identity. Our results indicate that territory plays a very marginal role in the aromatic plant species composition of nests. Female experience is not related to a change in nest plant composition. Actually, this composition clearly depends on female identity, i.e. results from individual preferences which, furthermore, are repeatable both within and across years. A puzzling fact is the strong difference in plant species composition of nests across distinct study plots.This study demonstrates that plant species composition of nests results from individual preferences that are homogeneous within study plots. We propose several hypotheses to interpret this pattern of spatial variation before discussing them in the light of preliminary results. As a conclusion, we cannot exclude the possibility of social transmission of individual preferences for aromatic plants. This is an exciting perspective for further work in birds, where nest construction behaviour has classically been considered as a stereotypic behaviour.

  3. Global Dynamics of Dispersal and Diversification among Passerine Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, Jonathan David

    Global variation in the distribution and diversity of species has been recognized by naturalists for centuries. However, despite extensive scientific study since the initial documentation of these patterns, we still lack a comprehensive explanation as to their underlying causes. Ultimately, this ...

  4. insect diet of some afrotropical insectivorous passerines at the jos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Such studies identify the food resources ... Insectivorous birds are beneficial to agriculturists as they control ... devastated by tin-mining activities, a high human population has ... dominated by Jacaranda mimosaefolia, Parkia clappertoniana,.

  5. Experimental evidence for adaptive personalities in a wild passerine bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Bouwman, Karen M.; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals of the same species differ consistently in risky actions. Such 'animal personality' variation is intriguing because behavioural flexibility is often assumed to be the norm. Recent theory predicts that between-individual differences in propensity to take risks should evolve if individuals

  6. Experimental evidence for adaptive personalities in a wild passerine bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, Marion; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Bouwman, Karen M.; Michler, Stephanie P. M.; Ubels, Richard; Both, Christiaan; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals of the same species differ consistently in risky actions. Such ‘animal personality’ variation is intriguing because behavioural flexibility is often assumed to be the norm. Recent theory predicts that between-individual differences in propensity to take risks should evolve if individuals differ in future fitness expectations: individuals with high long-term fitness expectations (i.e. that have much to lose) should behave consistently more cautious than individuals with lower expectations. Consequently, any manipulation of future fitness expectations should result in within-individual changes in risky behaviour in the direction predicted by this adaptive theory. We tested this prediction and confirmed experimentally that individuals indeed adjust their ‘exploration behaviour’, a proxy for risk-taking behaviour, to their future fitness expectations. We show for wild great tits (Parus major) that individuals with experimentally decreased survival probability become faster explorers (i.e. increase risk-taking behaviour) compared to individuals with increased survival probability. We also show, using quantitative genetics approaches, that non-genetic effects (i.e. permanent environment effects) underpin adaptive personality variation in this species. This study thereby confirms a key prediction of adaptive personality theory based on life-history trade-offs, and implies that selection may indeed favour the evolution of personalities in situations where individuals differ in future fitness expectations. PMID:23097506

  7. Recombination among multiple mitochondrial pseudogenes from a passerine genus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Klitgaard; Arctander, P.

    2001-01-01

    to the observed differences in substitution patterns 58% of the cloned sequences were identified as pseudogenes. Recombination could be traced in 19% of the inferred nuclear pseudogenes, but this figure probably represents a Significant underestimation of the factual recombination events. The nonrecombined...... pseudogenes consisted of multiple haplotypes found to diverge from 1 to 16% from the mitochondrial gene. The number of mitochondrial nuclear copies and their apparent frequent recombination suggest that pseudogenes constitute a serious potential risk in confounding phylogenetic studies and population genetic...

  8. Local individual preferences for nest materials in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennerat, Adèle; Perret, Philippe; Lambrechts, Marcel M

    2009-01-01

    Variation in the behavioural repertoire of animals is acquired by learning in a range of animal species. In nest-building birds, the assemblage of nest materials in an appropriate structure is often typical of a bird genus or species. Yet plasticity in the selection of nest materials may be beneficial because the nature and abundance of nest materials vary across habitats. Such plasticity can be learned, either individually or socially. In Corsican populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, females regularly add in their nests fragments of several species of aromatic plants during the whole breeding period. The selected plants represent a small fraction of the species present in the environment and have positive effects on nestlings. We investigated spatiotemporal variations of this behaviour to test whether the aromatic plant species composition in nests depends on 1) plant availability in territories, 2) female experience or 3) female identity. Our results indicate that territory plays a very marginal role in the aromatic plant species composition of nests. Female experience is not related to a change in nest plant composition. Actually, this composition clearly depends on female identity, i.e. results from individual preferences which, furthermore, are repeatable both within and across years. A puzzling fact is the strong difference in plant species composition of nests across distinct study plots. This study demonstrates that plant species composition of nests results from individual preferences that are homogeneous within study plots. We propose several hypotheses to interpret this pattern of spatial variation before discussing them in the light of preliminary results. As a conclusion, we cannot exclude the possibility of social transmission of individual preferences for aromatic plants. This is an exciting perspective for further work in birds, where nest construction behaviour has classically been considered as a stereotypic behaviour.

  9. Transgenerational effects enhance specific immune response in a wild passerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli Broggi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate mothers transfer diverse compounds to developing embryos that can affect their development and final phenotype (i.e., maternal effects. However, the way such effects modulate offspring phenotype, in particular their immunity, remains unclear. To test the impact of maternal effects on offspring development, we treated wild breeding house sparrows (Passer domesticus in Sevilla, SE Spain with Newcastle disease virus (NDV vaccine. Female parents were vaccinated when caring for first broods, eliciting a specific immune response to NDV. The immune response to the same vaccine, and to the PHA inflammatory test were measured in 11-day-old chicks from their following brood. Vaccinated chicks from vaccinated mothers developed a stronger specific response that was related to maternal NDV antibody concentration while rearing their chicks. The chicks’ carotenoid concentration and total antioxidant capacity in blood were negatively related to NDV antibody concentration, whereas no relation with PHA response was found. Specific NDV antibodies could not be detected in 11-day-old control chicks from vaccinated mothers, implying that maternally transmitted antibodies are not directly involved but may promote offspring specific immunity through a priming effect, while other immunity components remain unaffected. Maternally transmitted antibodies in the house sparrow are short-lived, depend on maternal circulation levels and enhance pre-fledging chick specific immunity when exposed to the same pathogens as the mothers.

  10. Global dynamics of dispersal and diversification among passerine birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennedy, Jonathan David

    2017-01-01

    , and the capacity of different geographic areas to preserve taxa through time. Here, I assess the relationships among these processes, to elucidate the causes of geographic and taxonomic variation in species richness among the most speciose order of birds: the Passeriformes (c. 6,500 species). To achieve this, I...

  11. Calcium availability limits breeding success of passerines on poor soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J; Drent, RH

    1. The role of food in avian reproduction is generally studied from the perspective of the protein and energy demand of birds, This study provides the first experimental evidence that calcium availability may limit reproduction in wild birds as well. 2. Data are presented showing that a large

  12. Calcium availability limits breeding success of passerines on poor soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, J.; Drent, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    1. The role of food in avian reproduction is generally studied from the perspective of the protein and energy demand of birds, This study provides the first experimental evidence that calcium availability may limit reproduction in wild birds as well. 2. Data are presented showing that a large

  13. Winter banding of passerines on the Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between February 1969 and May 1973, bait traps were operated during winter at Cold Bay (55° 12' N, 162° 43' W), Alaska, headquarters of the Izembek National Wildlife...

  14. Invasive plant erodes local song diversity in a migratory passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette K. Ortega; Aubree Benson; Erick Greene

    2014-01-01

    Exotic plant invasions threaten ecosystems globally, but we still know little about the specific consequences for animals. Invasive plants can alter the quality of breeding habitat for songbirds, thereby impacting important demographic traits such as dispersal, philopatry, and age structure. These demographic effects may in turn alter song-learning conditions to affect...

  15. Rates of cholestrol ester formation during storage of anchovy (Engraulis capensis) at various temperatures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Koning, AJ

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Anchovy were stored at 17, 8, 0 and -6 degrees C. Samples were withdrawn periodically, the lipids extracted, purified, and analysed for free and esterified cholesterol. From the results of these tests the rates of the enzymatic esterification...

  16. A description and discussion of threat- and anxiety-behaviour of Burhinus capensis (Lichtenstein) during incubation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuysen, G.J.

    1964-01-01

    Dedicated to Professor H. Boschma on the occasion of his seventieth birthday. INTRODUCTION The family Burhinidae or Stone Curlews, consists of large ploverlike birds which have no hind toe, long yellow legs with thickened tibiotarsal joints, hence the sometimes used popular name of "thickknee". The

  17. Feeding on prey increases photosynthetic efficiency in the carnivorous sundew Drosera capensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlovič, A.; Krausko, M.; Libiaková, M.; Adamec, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 1 (2014), s. 69-78 ISSN 0305-7364 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : carnivorous plants * fruit flies * digestive enzymes Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.654, year: 2014

  18. The two species of Cape hake, Merluccius capensis (shallow-water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    tinguish them in commercial catch statistics. Conse- ... and hence are taken incidentally in hake-directed fishing, instead of only species whose capture requires a different .... catch of these species is determined only at the landing site, and is ...

  19. Polytocy in the Cape serotine bat Eptesicus capensis (A. Smith 1829 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-11-28

    Nov 28, 1989 ... cover would not be a reliable measure of availability as flowers represent a small proportion of the plant canopy and are also only temporarily present. From these observations it may be concluded that. Cape hares are not obligate grazers but are capable of utilizing browse, a strategy which allows this ...

  20. Within-species digestive tract flexibility in rufous-collared sparrows and the climatic variability hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Karin; Bozinovic, Francisco; Rojas, José M; Sabat, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The climatic variability hypothesis (CVH) states that species are geographically more widespread at higher latitudes because individuals have a broader range of physiological tolerance or phenotypic flexibility as latitude and climatic variability increase. However, it remains unclear to what extent climatic variability or latitude, acting on the phenotype, account for any observed geographical gradient in mean range size. In this study, we analyzed the physiological flexibility within the CVH framework by using an intraspecific population experimental approach. We tested for a positive relationship between digestive-tract flexibility (i.e., morphology and enzyme activities) and latitude and climatic and natural diet variability in populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) captured in desert (27°S), Mediterranean (33°S), and cold-temperate (41°S) sites in Chile. In accordance with the CVH, we observed a positive relationship between the magnitude of digestive-tract flexibility and environmental variability but not latitude. The greatest digestive flexibility was observed in birds at middle latitudes, which experience the most environmental variability (a Mediterranean climate), whereas individuals from the most stable climates (desert and cold-temperate) exhibited little or no digestive-tract flexibility in response to experimental diets. Our findings support the idea that latitudinal gradients in geographical ranges may be strongly affected by the action of regional features, which makes it difficult to find general patterns in the distribution of species.

  1. Effects of food supplementation on a tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Alexandra M; Moore, Ignacio T

    2013-10-01

    Tropical birds typically exhibit a 'slow pace of life' relative to higher latitude species. This is often manifested as slow development, low fecundity, and high survival. Following from this, it is predicted that tropical birds may be more likely to trade current reproductive effort to favor self-maintenance, thus supporting survival and future reproduction. To test this idea, we conducted two food supplementation experiments on tropical rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in the eastern Andes of Ecuador. In the first experiment, we food-supplemented pairs during the non-breeding life-history stage, and in the second experiment, we food-supplemented pairs that were provisioning fledglings. In both experiments, a larger proportion of food-supplemented birds exhibited pre-basic molt (replacement of feathers) than in a control group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that a food-supplemented bird invests extra resources into molt, a form of self-maintenance, and contrasts with the majority of food supplementation studies in high latitude birds that show they typically advance the initiation of, or extend the period of, reproduction. Our results are consistent with the syndrome of the slow pace of life in the tropics and support the concept of fundamental differences between temperate-zone and tropical birds.

  2. Why are tropical mountain passes "low" for some species? Genetic and stable-isotope tests for differentiation, migration and expansion in elevational generalist songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadek, Chauncey R; Newsome, Seth D; Beckman, Elizabeth J; Chavez, Andrea N; Galen, Spencer C; Bautista, Emil; Witt, Christopher C

    2018-05-01

    Most tropical bird species have narrow elevational ranges, likely reflecting climatic specialization. This is consistent with Janzen's Rule, the tendency for mountain passes to be effectively "higher" in the tropics. Hence, those few tropical species that occur across broad elevational gradients (elevational generalists) represent a contradiction to Janzen's Rule. Here, we aim to address the following questions. Are elevational generalists being sundered by diversifying selection along the gradient? Does elevational movement cause these species to resist diversification or specialization? Have they recently expanded, suggesting that elevational generalism is short-lived in geological time? To answer these questions, we tested for differentiation, movement and expansion in four elevational generalist songbird species on the Andean west slope. We used morphology and mtDNA to test for genetic differentiation between high- and low-elevation populations. To test for elevational movements, we measured hydrogen isotope (δ 2 H) values of metabolically inert feathers and metabolically active liver. Morphology differed for House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) and Hooded Siskin (Spinus magellanicus), but not for Cinereous Conebill (Conirostrum cinereum) and Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) respectively. mtDNA was structured by elevation only in Z. capensis. δ 2 H data indicated elevational movements by two tree- and shrub-foraging species with moderate-to-high vagility (C. cinereum and S. magellanicus), and sedentary behaviour by two terrestrial-foraging species with low-to-moderate vagility (T. aedon and Z. capensis). In S. magellanicus, elevational movements and lack of mtDNA structure contrast with striking morphological divergence, suggesting strong diversifying selection on body proportions across the c. 50 km gradient. All species except C. cinereum exhibited mtDNA haplotype variation consistent with recent population expansion across the elevational

  3. Granivorous birds and sorghum crop in the province of Villa Clara,Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Miguel Saucedo Castillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the damages granivorous birds cause to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench in the province of Villa Clara, Cuba, research based on the determination of the major endemic, migratory birds and their relationship with the distribution were made space of historical meteorological variables in the province in the seasonal behavior of birds in different climatic regions. Population to sorghum producers grouped in different forms surveys were conducted, which yielded a large database, such as the determination of the main grain-eating birds percentage damage incurred, varieties, grain color, growth stage and other indicators. Nine main species affecting sorghum grain-eating birds in our province were recorded; Passer domesticus, Lonchura malacca, Lonchura punctulata, Dives atroviolaceus, Passerina cyanea, Zonotrichia leucophrys, Columbina passerine, Zenaida macroura y Zenaida asiatica. The spatial distribution of meteorological variables and their relation to the seasonal behavior of birds in different climatic regions of the province was determined, based on record four preferential habitat areas. The results allowed us to provide companies and different forms of production in Villa Clara, the possibility of a varietal structure planting of sorghum on the basis of different preferential areas granivorous birds, together with the morphological and physiological characteristics of different genotypes introduced in agricultural production of the province and nationally.

  4. Larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in the threatened freshwater fish Sandelia capensis (Anabantidae) in South Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; van Rensburg, C.J.; Van As, L. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 3 (2016), s. 251-254 ISSN 0177-5103 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : parasitic nematode * third-stage larva * paratenic host * endangered fish species * Africa Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  5. Phytophthora taxa associated with cultivated Agathosma, with emphasis on the P. citricola complex and P. capensis sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Denman, S.; Kirk, S.A.; Botha, W.J.; Mostert, L.; McLeod, A.

    2010-01-01

    Agathosma species, which are indigenous to South Africa, are also cultivated for commercial use. Recently growers experienced severe plant loss, and symptoms shown by affected plants suggested that a soilborne disease could be the cause of death. A number of Phytophthora taxa were isolated from

  6. Notes on food and foraging of the Honey Badger Mellivora capensis in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Kruuk

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Contents of faeces indicated that honey badgers in the Kalahari eat mostly rodents, followed by lizards and scorpions, all of which are caught by digging. Larger mammals (aardwolf, bat-eared fox, springhare and large snakes are also eaten. Foraging behaviour is described and individual differences in foraging strategies are discussed.

  7. The role of electrical and jasmonate signalling in the recognition of captured prey in the carnivorous sundew plant Drosera capensis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausko, M.; Perůtka, M.; Šebela, M.; Šamajová, O.; Šamaj, J.; Novák, Ondřej; Pavlovič, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 4 (2017), s. 1818-1835 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : action potential * carnivorous plant * Drosera * electrical signal * enzymes * jasmonates * long-distance signalling * sundew Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  8. Firewalls in bee nests—survival value of propolis walls of wild Cape honeybee ( Apis mellifera capensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Geoff; Tautz, Jürgen; Sternberg, Karin; Cullinan, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    The Cape bee is endemic to the winter rainfall region of South Africa where fires are an integral part of the ecology of the fynbos (heathland) vegetation. Of the 37 wild nests in pristine Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos in the Cape Point section of Table Mountain National Park that have been analyzed so far, only 22 could be accessed sufficiently to determine the existence of a propolis wall of which 68% had propolis walls which entirely enclosed their openings. The analysis of the 37 wild nests revealed that 78% occurred under boulders or in clefts within rocks, 11% in the ground, 8% in tree cavities, and 3% within shrubs. The analysis of 17 of these nests following a fire within the park revealed that the propolis walls materially protected the nests and retarded the fire with all the colonies surviving. The bees responded to the smoke by imbibing honey and retreating to the furthest recess of their nest cavity. The bees were required to utilize this honey for about 3 weeks after which fire-loving plants appeared and began flowering. Considerable resources were utilized in the construction of the propolis walls, which ranged in thickness from 1.5 to 40 mm (mean 5 mm). Its physical environment determines the nesting behavior of the Cape bee. The prolific use of propolis serves to insulate the nest from extremes of temperature and humidity, restricts entry, camouflages the nest, and acts as an effective fire barrier protecting nests established mostly under rocks in vegetation subjected to periodic fires.

  9. Firewalls in bee nests-survival value of propolis walls of wild Cape honeybee (Apis mellifera capensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribe, Geoff; Tautz, Jürgen; Sternberg, Karin; Cullinan, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    The Cape bee is endemic to the winter rainfall region of South Africa where fires are an integral part of the ecology of the fynbos (heathland) vegetation. Of the 37 wild nests in pristine Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos in the Cape Point section of Table Mountain National Park that have been analyzed so far, only 22 could be accessed sufficiently to determine the existence of a propolis wall of which 68% had propolis walls which entirely enclosed their openings. The analysis of the 37 wild nests revealed that 78% occurred under boulders or in clefts within rocks, 11% in the ground, 8% in tree cavities, and 3% within shrubs. The analysis of 17 of these nests following a fire within the park revealed that the propolis walls materially protected the nests and retarded the fire with all the colonies surviving. The bees responded to the smoke by imbibing honey and retreating to the furthest recess of their nest cavity. The bees were required to utilize this honey for about 3 weeks after which fire-loving plants appeared and began flowering. Considerable resources were utilized in the construction of the propolis walls, which ranged in thickness from 1.5 to 40 mm (mean 5 mm). Its physical environment determines the nesting behavior of the Cape bee. The prolific use of propolis serves to insulate the nest from extremes of temperature and humidity, restricts entry, camouflages the nest, and acts as an effective fire barrier protecting nests established mostly under rocks in vegetation subjected to periodic fires.

  10. Background matching and evolution of cryptic colours of selected passerines in deciduous woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bursell, Jens; Dyck, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Most drab plumage colours are probably cryptic. Crypsis (camouflage) occurs when the colour of a significant part of the plumage is similar to the colour of a significant part of the background against which the prey bird may be detected by a potential predator. In this study we compare back...... colours of tits and associated species with colour backgrounds in their habitat during a four-month period in winter. We test the hypothesis that in some of the species back colour is similar to one of the background colours. In addition to colour backgrounds, microhabitats and tree species were also...... recorded. Great Tit Parus major, Nuthatch Sitta europea and Treecreeper Certhia familiaris showed distinct preferences for different colour backgrounds, reflecting their choice of microhabitats and tree species. The data suggest that in the Great Tit the olivemoss green back colour has evolved as crypsis...

  11. Multilevel selection and neighbourhood effects from individual to metapopulation in a wild passerine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Laiolo

    Full Text Available Multilevel selection has rarely been studied in the ecological context of animal populations, in which neighbourhood effects range from competition among territorial neighbours to source-sink effects among local populations. By studying a Dupont's lark Chersophilus duponti metapopulation, we analyze neighbourhood effects mediated by song repertoires on fitness components at the individual level (life-span and population level (growth rate. As a sexual/aggressive signal with strong effects on fitness, birdsong creates an opportunity for group selection via neighbour interactions, but may also have population-wide effects by conveying information on habitat suitability to dispersing individuals. Within populations, we found a disruptive pattern of selection at the individual level and an opposite, stabilizing pattern at the group level. Males singing the most complex songs had the longest life-span, but individuals with the poorest repertoires lived longer than 'average' males, a finding that likely reflects two male strategies with respect to fitness and sexual trait expression. Individuals from groups with intermediate repertoires had the longest life-span, likely benefitting from conspecific signalling to attract females up to the detrimental spread of competitive interactions in groups with superior vocal skills. Within the metapopulation selection was directional but again followed opposite patterns at the two levels: Populations had the highest growth rate when inhabiting local patches with complex repertoires surrounded by patches with simple repertoires. Here the song may impact metapopulation dynamics by guiding prospecting individuals towards populations advertising habitat quality. Two fitness components linked to viability were therefore influenced by the properties of the group, and birdsong was the target of selection, contributing to linking social/sexual processes at the local scale with regional population dynamics.

  12. Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Quinn, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Group living commonly helps organisms face challenging environmental conditions. Although a known phenomenon in humans, recent findings suggest that a benefit of group living in animals generally might be increased innovative problem-solving efficiency. This benefit has never been demonstrated in a natural context, however, and the mechanisms underlying improved efficiency are largely unknown. We examined the problem-solving performance of great and blue tits at automated devices and found that efficiency increased with flock size. This relationship held when restricting the analysis to naive individuals, demonstrating that larger groups increased innovation efficiency. In addition to this effect of naive flock size, the presence of at least one experienced bird increased the frequency of solving, and larger flocks were more likely to contain experienced birds. These findings provide empirical evidence for the “pool of competence” hypothesis in nonhuman animals. The probability of success also differed consistently between individuals, a necessary condition for the pool of competence hypothesis. Solvers had a higher probability of success when foraging with a larger number of companions and when using devices located near rather than further from protective tree cover, suggesting a role for reduced predation risk on problem-solving efficiency. In contrast to traditional group living theory, individuals joining larger flocks benefited from a higher seed intake, suggesting that group living facilitated exploitation of a novel food source through improved problem-solving efficiency. Together our results suggest that both ecological and social factors, through reduced predation risk and increased pool of competence, mediate innovation in natural populations. PMID:21930936

  13. Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine bird

    OpenAIRE

    ?berg, Meit; Arlt, Debora; P?rt, Tomas; Laugen, Ane T; Eggers, S?nke; Low, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions during parental care may have direct consequences for offspring production, but longer-term effects on juvenile and parental survival are less well known. We used long-term data on reproductive output, recruitment, and parental survival in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate the effects of rainfall during parental care on fledging success, recruitment success (juvenile survival), and parental survival, and how these effects related to nestling age,...

  14. The evolution of highly variable immunity genes across a passerine bird radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, E A; Strandh, M; Hasselquist, D; Nilsson, J-Å; Westerdahl, H

    2016-02-01

    To survive, individuals must be able to recognize and eliminate pathogens. The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play an essential role in this process in vertebrates as their diversity affects the repertoire of pathogens that can be recognized by the immune system. Emerging evidence suggests that birds within the parvorder Passerida possess an exceptionally high number of MHC genes. However, this has yet to be directly investigated using a consistent framework, and the question of how this MHC diversity has evolved has not been addressed. We used next-generation sequencing to investigate how MHC class I gene copy number and sequence diversity varies across the Passerida radiation using twelve species chosen to represent the phylogenetic range of this group. Additionally, we performed phylogenetic analyses on this data to identify, for the first time, the evolutionary model that best describes how MHC class I gene diversity has evolved within Passerida. We found evidence of multiple MHC class I genes in every family tested, with an extremely broad range in gene copy number across Passerida. There was a strong phylogenetic signal in MHC gene copy number and diversity, and these traits appear to have evolved through a process of Brownian motion in the species studied, that is following the pattern of genetic drift or fluctuating selection, as opposed to towards a single optimal value or through evolutionary 'bursts'. By characterizing MHC class I gene diversity across Passerida in a systematic framework, this study provides a first step towards understanding this huge variation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Around the Mediterranean: an extreme example of loop migration in a long-distance migratory passerine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klvaňa, P.; Cepák, J.; Munclinger, P.; Michálková, R.; Tomášek, Oldřich; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2018), č. článku e01595. ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11782S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hirundo rustica * light- level loggers * loop migration Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 2.228, year: 2016

  16. First evidence of independent pseudogenization of Toll-like receptor 5 in passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bainová, H.; Králová, Tereza; Bryjová, Anna; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bryja, Josef; Vinkler, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (2014), s. 151-155 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1871 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Birds * Expression * Innate immunity * Toll-like receptor 5 * Pseudogene * Flagellin Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  17. Migration distance is positively associated with sex-linked genetic diversity in passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gohli, J.; Lifjeld, J. T.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-52 ISSN 0394-9370 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : autosomes * female promiscuity * introns * seasonal migration * Z chromosome Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2016

  18. Diet of some insectivorous passerines in semi-arid regions of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BrubruNilaus afer, Brown-crowned Tchagra Tchagra australis,Crimson-breasted Shrike Laniarius atrococcineus, BokmakierieTelophorus zeylonus, Pririt Batis Batis pririt (Malaconotidae), Common Fiscal Lanius collarisand Magpie Shrike Corvinella melanoleuca(Laniidae) had eaten mainly grasshoppers and beetles.

  19. A Passerine Bird's evolution corroborates the geologic history of the island of New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Kristy; Lemmon, Alan R; Mack, Andrew L; Fleischer, Robert C; Dumbacher, John P

    2011-05-06

    New Guinea is a biologically diverse island, with a unique geologic history and topography that has likely played a role in the evolution of species. Few island-wide studies, however, have examined the phylogeographic history of lowland species. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of phylogeographic variation of a common and widespread New Guinean bird species (Colluricincla megarhyncha). Specifically, we test the mechanisms hypothesized to cause geographic and genetic variation (e.g., vicariance, isolation by distance and founder-effect with dispersal). To accomplish this, we surveyed three regions of the mitochondrial genome and a nuclear intron and assessed differences among 23 of the 30 described subspecies from throughout their range. We found support for eight highly divergent lineages within C. megarhyncha. Genetic lineages were found within continuous lowland habitat or on smaller islands, but all individuals within clades were not necessarily structured by predicted biogeographic barriers. There was some evidence of isolation by distance and potential founder-effects. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence among lineages was at a level often observed among different species or even genera of birds (5-11%), suggesting lineages within regions have been isolated for long periods of time. When topographical barriers were associated with divergence patterns, the estimated divergence date for the clade coincided with the estimated time of barrier formation. We also found that dispersal distance and range size are positively correlated across lineages. Evidence from this research suggests that different phylogeographic mechanisms concurrently structure lineages of C. megarhyncha and are not mutually exclusive. These lineages are a result of evolutionary forces acting at different temporal and spatial scales concordant with New Guinea's geological history.

  20. Telomere length reveals cumulative individual and transgenerational inbreeding effects in a passerine bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bebbington, Kat; Spurgin, Lewis G.; Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S.

    Inbreeding results in more homozygous offspring that should suffer reduced fitness, but it can be difficult to quantify these costs for several reasons. First, inbreeding depression may vary with ecological or physiological stress and only be detectable over long time periods. Second, parental

  1. Foraging behavior of three passerines in mature bottomland hardwood forests during summer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffington, J., Matthew; Kilgo, John, C.; Sargent, Robert, A.; Miller, Karl, V.; Chapman, Brian, R.

    2001-08-01

    Attention has focused on forest management practices and the interactions between birds and their habitat, as a result of apparent declines in populations of many forest birds. Although avian diversity and abundance have been studied in various forest habitats, avian foraging behavior is less well known. Although there are published descriptions of avian foraging behaviors in the western United States descriptions from the southeastern United States are less common. This article reports on the foraging behavior of the White-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, and Hooded Warbler in mature bottomland hardwood forests in South Carolina.

  2. Extra-pair fertilizations contribute to selection on secondary male ornamentation in a socially monogamous passerine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Vinkler, Michal; Schnitzer, J.; Poláková, Radka; Munclinger, P.; Bryja, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 10 (2009), s. 2020-2030 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : extra-pair paternity * sexual selection * variance in fitness * within-pair reproductive success Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.816, year: 2009

  3. Experimental evidence for density-dependent reproduction in a cooperatively breeding passerine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Lyanne; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Both, Christiaan; Bristol, Rachel; Richardson, David S.; Komdeur, Jan; Sauer, J.R.

    Temporal variation in survival, fecundity, and dispersal rates is associated with density-dependent and density-independent processes. Stable natural populations are expected to be regulated by density-dependent factors. However, detecting this by investigating natural variation in density is

  4. Haematological health assessment in a passerine with extremely high proportion of basophils in peripheral blood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Schnitzer, J.; Munclinger, P.; Votýpka, J.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 4 (2010), s. 841-849 ISSN 0021-8375 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : basophilic granulocyte * hematology * hematocrit * Leucocyte differential count * Polychromatic erythrocyte Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.297, year: 2010

  5. Maternal immunization increases nestling energy expenditure, immune function, and fledging success in a passerine bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Burness

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Female birds transfer maternally derived antibodies (matAb to their nestlings, via the egg yolk. These antibodies are thought to provide passive protection, and allow nestlings to avoid the costs associated with mounting an innate immune response. To test whether there is an energetic benefit to nestlings from receiving matAb, we challenged adult female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor prior to clutch initiation with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS or saline (Control. Following hatching, one half of each female's nestlings were immunized on day 8 post-hatch with LPS or saline, and the 4-h post-immunization nestling metabolic rate (MR was measured. There was no difference in either LPS-reactive antibodies or total Ig levels between offspring of immunized and non-immunized mothers on day 6 or 14 post-hatch, possibly reflecting a relatively short half-life of matAbs in altricial birds. Additionally, we found no evidence that nestlings from LPS-immunized mothers could avoid the growth suppression that may result from activation of an inflammatory response. Unexpectedly, we found that control nestlings from LPS mothers had higher resting MR than control nestlings of control mothers. We attribute the increased MR to the costs associated with a general non-specific enhancement of immune function in nestlings from LPS-immunized mothers. Consistent with enhanced immune function, nestlings of immunized mothers had a more robust inflammatory response to phytohaemagglutinin and higher fledging success. Our results suggest that maternal antigen exposure pre-laying can result in increased fitness for both mothers and offspring, depending on food availability.

  6. Strong contribution of immigration to local population regulation: evidence from a migratory passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Jakober, Hans; Stauber, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the dynamics of populations requires knowledge about the variation of the underlying demographic rates and about the reasons for their variability. In geographically open populations, immigration is often necessary to prevent declines, but little is known about whether immigration can contribute to its regulation. We studied the dynamics of a Red-backed Shrike population (Lanius collurio) over 36 years in Germany with a Bayesian integrated population model. We estimated mean and temporal variability of population sizes, productivity, apparent survival, and immigration. We assessed how strongly the demographic rates were correlated with population growth to understand the demographic reasons of population change and how strongly the demographic rates were correlated with population size to identify possible density-dependent mechanisms. The shrike population varied between 35 and 74 breeding pairs but did not show a significant trend in population size over time (growth rate 1.002 +/- 0.001 [mean +/- SD]). Apparent survival of females (juveniles 0.06 +/- 0.01; adults 0.37 +/- 0.03) was lower than that of males (juveniles 0.10 +/- 0.01; adults 0.44 +/- 0.02). Immigration rates were substantial and higher in females (0.56 +/- 0.02) than in males (0.43 +/- 0.02), and average productivity was 2.76 +/- 0.14. Without immigration, the Red-backed Shrike population would have declined strongly. Immigration was the strongest driver for the number of females while local recruitment was the most important driver for the number of males. Immigration of both sexes and productivity, but not local recruitment and survival, were subject to density dependence. Density-dependent productivity was not effectively regulating the local population but may have contributed to regulate shrike populations at larger spatial scales. These findings suggest that immigration is not only an important component to prevent a geographically open population from decline, but that it can also contribute to its regulation.

  7. Multi-Level Determinants of Parasitic Fly Infection in Forest Passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoli, Darío Ezequiel; Antoniazzi, Leandro Raúl; Saravia, María José; Silvestri, Leonardo; Rorhmann, David; Beldomenico, Pablo Martín

    2013-01-01

    The study of myiasis is important because they may cause problems to the livestock industry, public health, or wildlife conservation. The ecology of parasitic dipterans that cause myiasis is singular, as they actively seek their hosts over relatively long distances. However, studies that address the determinants of myiasis dynamics are very scarce. The genus Philornis include species that may be excellent models to study myiasis ecology, as they exclusively parasitize bird nestlings, which stay in their nests until they are fully fledged, and larvae remain at the point of entry until the parasitic stage is over, thus allowing the collection of sequential individual-level infection data from virtually all the hosts present at a particular area. Here we offer a stratified multi-level analysis of longitudinal data of Philornis torquans parasitism in replicated forest bird communities of central Argentina. Using Generalized Linear Models and Generalized Linear Mixed Models and an information theory approach for model selection, we conducted four groups of analyses, each with a different study unit, the individual, the brood, the community at a given week, and the community at a given year. The response variable was larval abundance per nestling or mean abundance per nestling. At each level, models included the variables of interest of that particular level, and also potential confounders and effect modifiers of higher levels. We found associations of large magnitude at all levels, but only few variables truly governed the dynamics of this parasite. At the individual level, the infection was determined by the species and the age of the host. The main driver of parasite abundance at the microhabitat level was the average height of the forest, and at the community level, the density of hosts and prior rainfall. This multi-level approach contributed to a better understanding of the ecology of myiasis. PMID:23874408

  8. New records for Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodidae) on non-passerine birds in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Costa Neto, Sócrates Fraga; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide new records of Amblyomma sculptum on two species of terricolous birds in two areas of the Cerrado (savannah- like) bioma: two specimens of Cariama cristata were captured in the state of Goiás and one specimen ofCrax fasciolata was captured in the state of Minas Gerais. One of the C. cristata was parasitized by 15 larvae, six nymphs, one male and two females whereas the C. fasciolata was parasitized by seven larvae and eight nymphs. This paper presents a new locality for occurrence of parasitism A. sculptum in C. cristata and a new host for C fasciolata.

  9. New species of the feather mite subfamily Pterodectinae (Astigmata, Proctophyllodidae) from passerines in Senegal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav; Koubek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2010), s. 399-413 ISSN 1230-2821 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Feather mites * systematics * Senegal * Passeriformes * Proctophyllodidae Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.144, year: 2010

  10. Guidance for Reviewing OCSPP 850.2100 Avian Oral Toxicity Studies Conducted with Passerine Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance based on comparison of results from the TG223 validation studies to results from avian acute oral studies previously submitted to EPA for two test chemicals following EPA's 850.2100 (public draft) guidelines.

  11. Rainfall during parental care reduces reproductive and survival components of fitness in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora; Pärt, Tomas; Laugen, Ane T; Eggers, Sönke; Low, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions during parental care may have direct consequences for offspring production, but longer-term effects on juvenile and parental survival are less well known. We used long-term data on reproductive output, recruitment, and parental survival in northern wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) to investigate the effects of rainfall during parental care on fledging success, recruitment success (juvenile survival), and parental survival, and how these effects related to nestling age, breeding time, habitat quality, and parental nest visitation rates. While accounting for effects of temperature, fledging success was negatively related to rainfall (days > 10 mm) in the second half of the nestling period, with the magnitude of this effect being greater for breeding attempts early in the season. Recruitment success was, however, more sensitive to the number of rain days in the first half of the nestling period. Rainfall effects on parental survival differed between the sexes; males were more sensitive to rain during the nestling period than females. We demonstrate a probable mechanism driving the rainfall effects on reproductive output: Parental nest visitation rates decline with increasing amounts of daily rainfall, with this effect becoming stronger after consecutive rain days. Our study shows that rain during the nestling stage not only relates to fledging success but also has longer-term effects on recruitment and subsequent parental survival. Thus, if we want to understand or predict population responses to future climate change, we need to consider the potential impacts of changing rainfall patterns in addition to temperature, and how these will affect target species' vital rates.

  12. A Passerine Bird's evolution corroborates the geologic history of the island of New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy Deiner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available New Guinea is a biologically diverse island, with a unique geologic history and topography that has likely played a role in the evolution of species. Few island-wide studies, however, have examined the phylogeographic history of lowland species. The objective of this study was to examine patterns of phylogeographic variation of a common and widespread New Guinean bird species (Colluricincla megarhyncha. Specifically, we test the mechanisms hypothesized to cause geographic and genetic variation (e.g., vicariance, isolation by distance and founder-effect with dispersal. To accomplish this, we surveyed three regions of the mitochondrial genome and a nuclear intron and assessed differences among 23 of the 30 described subspecies from throughout their range. We found support for eight highly divergent lineages within C. megarhyncha. Genetic lineages were found within continuous lowland habitat or on smaller islands, but all individuals within clades were not necessarily structured by predicted biogeographic barriers. There was some evidence of isolation by distance and potential founder-effects. Mitochondrial DNA sequence divergence among lineages was at a level often observed among different species or even genera of birds (5-11%, suggesting lineages within regions have been isolated for long periods of time. When topographical barriers were associated with divergence patterns, the estimated divergence date for the clade coincided with the estimated time of barrier formation. We also found that dispersal distance and range size are positively correlated across lineages. Evidence from this research suggests that different phylogeographic mechanisms concurrently structure lineages of C. megarhyncha and are not mutually exclusive. These lineages are a result of evolutionary forces acting at different temporal and spatial scales concordant with New Guinea's geological history.

  13. Evidence of taxon cycles in an Indo-Pacific passerine bird radiation (Aves: Pachycephala)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jønsson, Knud Andreas; Irestedt, Martin; Christidis, Les; Clegg, Sonya M.; Holt, Ben G.; Fjeldså, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Many insular taxa possess extraordinary abilities to disperse but may differ in their abilities to diversify and compete. While some taxa are widespread across archipelagos, others have disjunct (relictual) populations. These types of taxa, exemplified in the literature by selections of unrelated taxa, have been interpreted as representing a continuum of expansions and contractions (i.e. taxon cycles). Here, we use molecular data of 35 out of 40 species of the avian genus Pachycephala (including 54 out of 66 taxa in Pachycephala pectoralis (sensu lato), to assess the spatio-temporal evolution of the group. We also include data on species distributions, morphology, habitat and elevational ranges to test a number of predictions associated with the taxon-cycle hypothesis. We demonstrate that relictual species persist on the largest and highest islands across the Indo-Pacific, whereas recent archipelago expansions resulted in colonization of all islands in a region. For co-occurring island taxa, the earliest colonists generally inhabit the interior and highest parts of an island, with little spatial overlap with later colonists. Collectively, our data support the idea that taxa continuously pass through phases of expansions and contractions (i.e. taxon cycles). PMID:24403319

  14. Maladaptive habitat selection of a migratory passerine bird in a human-modified landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck A Hollander

    Full Text Available In human-altered environments, organisms may preferentially settle in poor-quality habitats where fitness returns are lower relative to available higher-quality habitats. Such ecological trapping is due to a mismatch between the cues used during habitat selection and the habitat quality. Maladaptive settlement decisions may occur when organisms are time-constrained and have to rapidly evaluate habitat quality based on incomplete knowledge of the resources and conditions that will be available later in the season. During a three-year study, we examined settlement decision-making in the long-distance migratory, open-habitat bird, the Red-backed shrike (Lanius collurio, as a response to recent land-use changes. In Northwest Europe, the shrikes typically breed in open areas under a management regime of extensive farming. In recent decades, Spruce forests have been increasingly managed with large-size cutblocks in even-aged plantations, thereby producing early-successional vegetation areas that are also colonised by the species. Farmland and open areas in forests create mosaics of two different types of habitats that are now occupied by the shrikes. We examined redundant measures of habitat preference (order of settlement after migration and distribution of dominant individuals and several reproductive performance parameters in both habitat types to investigate whether habitat preference is in line with habitat quality. Territorial males exhibited a clear preference for the recently created open areas in forests with higher-quality males settling in this habitat type earlier. Reproductive performance was, however, higher in farmland, with higher nest success, offspring quantity, and quality compared to open areas in forests. The results showed strong among-year consistency and we can therefore exclude a transient situation. This study demonstrates a case of maladaptive habitat selection in a farmland bird expanding its breeding range to human-created open habitats in plantations. We discuss the reasons that could explain this decision-making and the possible consequences for the population dynamics and persistence.

  15. Food supplementation mitigates dispersal-dependent differences in nest defence in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Récapet, Charlotte; Daniel, Grégory; Taroni, Joëlle; Bize, Pierre; Doligez, Blandine

    2016-05-01

    Dispersing and non-dispersing individuals often differ in phenotypic traits (e.g. physiology, behaviour), but to what extent these differences are fixed or driven by external conditions remains elusive. We experimentally tested whether differences in nest-defence behaviour between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals changed with local habitat quality in collared flycatchers, by providing additional food during the nestling rearing period. In control (non-food-supplemented) nests, dispersers were less prone to defend their brood compared with non-dispersers, whereas in food-supplemented nests, dispersing and non-dispersing individuals showed equally strong nest defence. We discuss the importance of dispersal costs versus adaptive flexibility in reproductive investment in shaping these differences in nest-defence behaviour between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals. Irrespective of the underlying mechanisms, our study emphasizes the importance of accounting for environmental effects when comparing traits between dispersing and non-dispersing individuals, and in turn assessing the costs and benefits of dispersal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Impact of nest sanitation on the immune system of parents and nestlings in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jessica K; Griffith, Simon C; Klasing, Kirk C; Buchanan, Katherine L

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial communities are thought to have fundamental effects on the growth and development of nestling birds. The antigen exposure hypothesis suggests that, for both nestlings and adult birds, exposure to a diverse range of bacteria would select for stronger immune defences. However, there are relatively few studies that have tested the immune/bacterial relationships outside of domestic poultry. We therefore sought to examine indices of immunity (microbial killing ability in naive birds, which is a measure of innate immunity, and the antibody response to sheep red blood cells, which measures adaptive immunity) in both adult and nestling zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We did this throughout breeding and between reproductive attempts in nests that were experimentally manipulated to change the intensity of bacterial exposure. Our results suggest that nest sanitation and bacterial load affected measures of the adaptive immune system, but not the innate immune parameters tested. Adult finches breeding in clean nests had a lower primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells, particularly males, and a greater difference between primary and secondary responses. Adult microbial killing of Escherichia coli decreased as parents moved from incubation to nestling rearing for both nest treatments; however, killing of Candida albicans remained consistent throughout. In nestlings, both innate microbial killing and the adaptive antibody response did not differ between nest environments. Together, these results suggest that exposure to microorganisms in the environment affects the adaptive immune system in nesting birds, with exposure upregulating the antibody response in adult birds. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. New records for Amblyomma sculptum (Ixodidae on non-passerine birds in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this paper was to provide new records of Amblyomma sculptum on two species of terricolous birds in two areas of the Cerrado (savannah- like bioma: two specimens of Cariama cristata were captured in the state of Goiás and one specimen ofCrax fasciolata was captured in the state of Minas Gerais. One of the C. cristata was parasitized by 15 larvae, six nymphs, one male and two females whereas the C. fasciolata was parasitized by seven larvae and eight nymphs. This paper presents a new locality for occurrence of parasitism A. sculptum in C. cristata and a new host for C fasciolata.

  18. Evaluation of habitat suitability models for forest passerines using demographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse; Frank R., III Thompson; William D. Dijak; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Richard L. Clawson

    2010-01-01

    Habitat suitability is often used as a surrogate for demographic responses (i.e., abundance, survival, fecundity, or population viability) in the application of habitat suitability index (HSI) models. Whether habitat suitability actually relates to demographics, however, has rarely been evaluated. We validated HSI models of breeding habitat suitability for wood thrush...

  19. Feather mites of the subfamily Proctophyllodinae (Acari: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Costa Rica

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Sychra, O.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4297, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-105 ISSN 1175-5326 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Proctophyllodidae * systematics * new species * fauna * host associations * Passeriformes * Costa Rica Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.972, year: 2016

  20. Extrapair paternity and the opportunity for sexual selection in long-distant migratory passerines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Schnitzer, J.; Kreisinger, J.; Exnerová, A.; Bryja, Josef; Munclinger, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2007), s. 477-486 ISSN 1045-2249 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0851; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : comparative analysis * mate choice * red-winged blackbirds Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.018, year: 2007 http://beheco.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/18/2/477

  1. Consequences of sibling rivalry vary across life in a passerine bird

    OpenAIRE

    Bebbington, Kat; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Spurgin, Lewis G.; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the costs of sibling rivalry in systems where offspring always have competitors, but conclusions about sibling rivalry in these species are restricted to interpreting the cost of changes in the relative level of competition and are often complicated by the expression of potentially costly rivalry related traits. Additionally, the majority of studies focus on early-life sibling rivalry, but the costs of competition can also affect later-life performance. We test a su...

  2. Consequences of sibling rivalry vary across life in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Kat; Kingma, Sjouke A; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Spurgin, Lewis G; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have assessed the costs of sibling rivalry in systems where offspring always have competitors, but conclusions about sibling rivalry in these species are restricted to interpreting the cost of changes in the relative level of competition and are often complicated by the expression of potentially costly rivalry related traits. Additionally, the majority of studies focus on early-life sibling rivalry, but the costs of competition can also affect later-life performance. We test a suite of hypothesized immediate (early-life body mass, telomere length, and survival) and delayed (adult reproductive potential and lifespan) costs of sibling rivalry for offspring of differing competitive ability in Seychelles warblers, where most offspring are raised singly and hence competitor success can be compared to a competition-free scenario. Compared to those raised alone, all competing nestlings had lower body mass and weaker competitors experienced reduced survival. However, the stronger competitors appeared to have longer adult breeding tenures and lifespan than those raised alone. We propose that comparisons with competition-free groups, as well as detailed fitness measures across entire lifetimes, are needed to understand the evolution of sibling rivalry and thus individual reproductive strategy in wild systems.

  3. Consequences of sibling rivalry vary across life in a passerine bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bebbington, Kat; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Spurgin, Lewis G.; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    Many studies have assessed the costs of sibling rivalry in systems where offspring always have competitors, but conclusions about sibling rivalry in these species are restricted to interpreting the cost of changes in the relative level of competition and are often complicated by the expression of

  4. Maternal condition but not corticosterone is linked to offspring sex ratio in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J Henderson

    Full Text Available There is evidence of offspring sex ratio adjustment in a range of species, but the potential mechanisms remain largely unknown. Elevated maternal corticosterone (CORT is associated with factors that can favour brood sex ratio adjustment, such as reduced maternal condition, food availability and partner attractiveness. Therefore, the steroid hormone has been suggested to play a key role in sex ratio manipulation. However, despite correlative and causal evidence CORT is linked to sex ratio manipulation in some avian species, the timing of adjustment varies between studies. Consequently, whether CORT is consistently involved in sex-ratio adjustment, and how the hormone acts as a mechanism for this adjustment remains unclear. Here we measured maternal baseline CORT and body condition in free-living blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus over three years and related these factors to brood sex ratio and nestling quality. In addition, a non-invasive technique was employed to experimentally elevate maternal CORT during egg laying, and its effects upon sex ratio and nestling quality were measured. We found that maternal CORT was not correlated with brood sex ratio, but mothers with elevated CORT fledged lighter offspring. Also, experimental elevation of maternal CORT did not influence brood sex ratio or nestling quality. In one year, mothers in superior body condition produced male biased broods, and maternal condition was positively correlated with both nestling mass and growth rate in all years. Unlike previous studies maternal condition was not correlated with maternal CORT. This study provides evidence that maternal condition is linked to brood sex ratio manipulation in blue tits. However, maternal baseline CORT may not be the mechanistic link between the maternal condition and sex ratio adjustment. Overall, this study serves to highlight the complexity of sex ratio adjustment in birds and the difficulties associated with identifying sex biasing mechanisms.

  5. Food supplementation does not increase demographic rates in a passerine species of conservation concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes M.W. Sim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have examined the effects of the provision of supplementary food on aspects of avian reproductive success, but far fewer have gone on to examine the potential positive effects of food supplementation on the demographic rates which are key for population growth rate. Testing for potential effects of food shortage on vital rates is likely to be particularly important in species of high conservation concern, where populations are particularly small, isolated or decreasing rapidly. Here we test the effects of the provision of supplementary food on reproductive success, body condition at fledging and post-fledging survival of ring ouzels (Turdus torquatus, a species of high conservation concern in the UK. However, food supplementation had no detectable effect on any of these parameters. There was no significant difference in return rates of fed and unfed fledglings in the year following hatching, and most post-fledging mortality was apparently caused by predation by raptors and mustelids. We conclude that the supply of invertebrate food sources for nestlings was not a major limiting factor in our study area, at least during this two-year study. Further studies are required to quantify the precise mix of habitats used by ring ouzels, at the appropriate scale, which provide concealment from predators and access to food supplies throughout the spring and summer months.

  6. Endoscopic Sex Identification in Chelonians and Birds (Psittacines, Passerines, and Raptors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Despite the advent of DNA probes for sex identification of many avian and some reptile species, clinicians involved with zoos, conservation projects, or breeders may still be asked to perform "surgical sexing." This article describes the practical approach to performing endoscopic sex identification in psittacines and chelonians, including patient preparation, anesthesia, and endoscopic procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Parents or predators: Examining intraseasonal variation in nest survival for migratory passerine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin Hirsch-Jacobson; W. Andrew Cox; Emily E. Tewes; Frank R., III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2012-01-01

    For birds, risk of nest predation can vary within a breeding season, but few data exist that explain why such variation occurs. We investigated intraseasonal variation of nest survival of the Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) in Midwestern forests and tested whether four of the adults' reproductive strategies (clutch size, nest...

  8. Plumage bacterial assemblages in a breeding wild passerine: relationships with ecological factors and body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saag, Pauli; Tilgar, Vallo; Mänd, Raivo; Kilgas, Priit; Mägi, Marko

    2011-05-01

    Microorganisms have been shown to play an important role in shaping the life histories of animals, and it has recently been suggested that feather-degrading bacteria influence the trade-off between parental effort and self-preening behavior in birds. We studied a wild breeding population of great tits (Parus major) to explore habitat-, seasonal-, and sex-related variation in feather-degrading and free-living bacteria inhabiting the birds' yellow ventral feathers and to investigate associations with body condition. The density and species richness of bacterial assemblages was studied using flow cytometry and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The density of studied bacteria declined between the nest-building period and the first brood. The number of bacterial phylotypes per bird was higher in coniferous habitat, while bacterial densities were higher in deciduous habitat. Free-living bacterial density was positively correlated with female mass; conversely, there was a negative correlation between attached bacterial density and female mass during the period of peak reproductive effort. Bacterial species richness was sex dependent, with more diverse bacterial assemblages present on males than females. Thus, this study revealed that bacterial assemblages on the feathers of breeding birds are affected both by life history and ecological factors and are related to body condition.

  9. Codiversification of gastrointestinal microbiota and phylogenyin passerines is not explained by ecological divergence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropáčková, L.; Těšický, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Kubovčiak, J.; Čížková, Dagmar; Tomášek, Oldřich; Martin, J.-F.; Bobek, Lukáš; Králová, Tereza; Procházka, Petr; Kreisinger, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 19 (2017), s. 5292-5304 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11782S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : birds * cophylogeny * metagenomics * microbiome * neutral/adaptive evolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 6.086, year: 2016

  10. Microbial infection affects egg viability and incubation behavior in a tropical passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark I. Cook; Steven R. Beissinger; Gary A. Toranzos; Roberto A. Arendt Rodriguez

    2004-01-01

    Many avian species initiate incubation before clutch completion, which causes eggs to hatch asynchronously. This influences brood competitive dynamics and often results in nestling mortality. The prevailing hypotheses contend that parents incubate early because asynchronous hatching provides fitness benefits to parents or surviving offspring. An alternative idea is...

  11. Passerine extrapair mating dynamics: a bayesian modeling approach comparing four species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brommer, J.E.; Alho, J.S.; Biard, C.; Chapman, J.R.; Charmantier, A.; Dreiss, A.; Hartley, I.R.; Hjernquist, M.B.; Kempenaers, B.; Komdeur, J.; Laaksonen, T.; Lehtonen, P.K.; Lubjuhn, T.; Patrick, S.C.; Rosivall, B.; Tinbergen, J.M.; Van der Velde, M.; Van Oers, K.; Wilk, T.; Winkel, W.

    2010-01-01

    In many socially monogamous animals, females engage in extrapair copulation (EPC), causing some broods to contain both within‐pair and extrapair young (EPY). The proportion of all young that are EPY varies across populations and species. Because an EPC that does not result in EPY leaves no forensic

  12. Passerine Extrapair Mating Dynamics : A Bayesian Modeling Approach Comparing Four Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brommer, Jon E.; Alho, Jussi S.; Biard, Clotilde; Chapman, Joanne R.; Charmantier, Anne; Dreiss, Amelie; Hartley, Ian R.; Hjernquist, Marten B.; Kempenaers, Bart; Komdeur, Jan; Laaksonen, Toni; Lehtonen, Paula K.; Lubjuhn, Thomas; Patrick, Samantha C.; Rosivall, Balazs; Tinbergen, Joost M.; van der Velde, Marco; van Oers, Kees; Wilk, Tomasz; Winkel, Wolfgang; Hjernquist, Mårten B.; Boughman, Janette; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    In many socially monogamous animals, females engage in extrapair copulation (EPC), causing some broods to contain both within-pair and extrapair young (EPY). The proportion of all young that are EPY varies across populations and species. Because an EPC that does not result in EPY leaves no forensic

  13. Hormone levels predict individual differences in reproductive success in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jenny Q; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Quetting, Michael; Hau, Michaela

    2011-08-22

    Hormones mediate major physiological and behavioural components of the reproductive phenotype of individuals. To understand basic evolutionary processes in the hormonal regulation of reproductive traits, we need to know whether, and during which reproductive phases, individual variation in hormone concentrations relates to fitness in natural populations. We related circulating concentrations of prolactin and corticosterone to parental behaviour and reproductive success during both the pre-breeding and the chick-rearing stages in both individuals of pairs of free-living house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Prolactin and baseline corticosterone concentrations in pre-breeding females, and prolactin concentrations in pre-breeding males, predicted total number of fledglings. When the strong effect of lay date on total fledgling number was corrected for, only pre-breeding baseline corticosterone, but not prolactin, was negatively correlated with the reproductive success of females. During the breeding season, nestling provisioning rates of both sexes were negatively correlated with stress-induced corticosterone levels. Lastly, individuals of both sexes with low baseline corticosterone before and high baseline corticosterone during breeding raised the most offspring, suggesting that either the plasticity of this trait contributes to reproductive success or that high parental effort leads to increased hormone concentrations. Thus hormone concentrations both before and during breeding, as well as their seasonal dynamics, predict reproductive success, suggesting that individual variation in absolute concentrations and in plasticity is functionally significant, and, if heritable, may be a target of selection.

  14. Hybridization Associated with Cycles of Ecological Succession in a Passerine Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Renée A; Semenov, Georgy A

    2017-10-01

    Identifying the diversity of contexts that can lead to hybridization is important for understanding its prevalence and dynamics in natural populations. Despite the potential of ecological succession to dramatically alter species co-occurrence and abundances, it is unknown whether it directly promotes hybridization and, if so, has long-lasting consequences. Here, we summarize 30 years of survey data across 10 populations to show that in western and mountain bluebirds, heterospecific pairing occurs during repeatable and transient colonization events at the early stages of species turnover. Despite mixed pairing occurring only during early succession, genetic data showed presence of hybrids at both early and late successional stages. Moreover, hybrids showed novel patterns of variation in morphology and behavior, emphasizing that even ephemeral contexts for hybridization can have important evolutionary consequences. Our results suggest that because ecological succession often brings together closely related competitors in disparate numbers but lasts for only a brief period of time, it may be a widespread but underappreciated context for hybridization.

  15. Congener-specific egg contribution of polychlorinated biphenyls to nestlings in two passerine species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, Jonathan D., E-mail: jonathan.maul@tiehh.ttu.ed [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Halbrook, Richard S. [Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Quantifying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in nestlings of avian species is a common method for assessing trophic transfer and risk at PCB-contaminated sites. The proportion of nestling PCB mass due to maternal transfer is often accounted for by subtracting total PCB mass in eggs from nestlings. However, variation in physicochemical properties and metabolism among congeners may lead to differences between egg contribution based on total PCBs and dioxin-like congeners. We examined congener-specific variation in contribution of PCBs from eggs to nestlings in tree swallows and European starlings. Egg contribution of total PCB mass was 14.3 and 16.2%, respectively, whereas contribution based on dioxin-like congeners was 14.8 and 13.6%, respectively. These data suggest that using total PCB mass in eggs to adjust estimates of PCB accumulation in nestlings may not reflect patterns for dioxin-like congeners, potentially over or under-estimating the risk of toxicity of PCBs. - Congener-specific contribution of PCBs from egg to nestlings was examined.

  16. PCR diagnostics underestimate the prevalence of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in experimentally-infected passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Schultz, Jeffrey J.; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2002-01-01

    Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have recently been developed for diagnosing malarial infections in both birds and reptiles, but a critical evaluation of their sensitivity in experimentally-infected hosts has not been done. This study compares the sensitivity of several PCR-based methods for diagnosing avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) in captive Hawaiian honeycreepers using microscopy and a recently developed immunoblotting technique. Sequential blood samples were collected over periods of up to 4.4 yr after experimental infection and rechallenge to determine both the duration and detectability of chronic infections. Two new nested PCR approaches for detecting circulating parasites based on P. relictum 18S rRNA genes and the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) gene are described. The blood smear and the PCR tests were less sensitive than serological methods for detecting chronic malarial infections. Individually, none of the diagnostic methods was 100% accurate in detecting subpatent infections, although serological methods were significantly more sensitive (97%) than either nested PCR (61–84%) or microscopy (27%). Circulating parasites in chronically infected birds either disappear completely from circulation or to drop to intensities below detectability by nested PCR. Thus, the use of PCR as a sole means of detection of circulating parasites may significantly underestimate true prevalence.

  17. Synchronisation of parental behaviours reduces the risk of nest predation in a socially monogamous passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leniowski, K; Węgrzyn, E

    2018-05-09

    Social monogamy with bi-parental care is the most common breeding pattern in birds, yet cooperation between mates has not been intensively studied to date. In this study we investigate synchronisation of parental behaviours in the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, a species characterized by bi-parental care and high nest predation. We test the hypothesis that mates synchronize their behaviours to decrease total activity at the nest, which is known to affect predation rate in birds. We examine if blackcap parents synchronise their feeding trips more when nestlings are at the poikilothermic stage, and they may be more vulnerable to nest predation due to their inability to escape and survive outside the nest without parental brooding. We also investigate the alternation of feeding trips by parents. We show that blackcap parents synchronise the majority of their feeding trips during the whole nestling period, and the level of parental synchrony is higher before nestlings develop endothermy. The alternation of male and female feeding trips was much higher than would be expected by chance and was positively related to parental synchrony. We have demonstrated that synchronisation of parental feeding trips significantly decreased parental activity at the nest, and nest survival time increased with the synchrony of parental feeding trips.

  18. Genetic population structure in an equatorial sparrow: roles for culture and geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, J E; Fleischer, R C; Danner, R M; Moore, I T

    2017-06-01

    Female preference for local cultural traits has been proposed as a barrier to breeding among animal populations. As such, several studies have found correlations between male bird song dialects and population genetics over relatively large distances. To investigate whether female choice for local dialects could act as a barrier to breeding between nearby and contiguous populations, we tested whether variation in male song dialects explains genetic structure among eight populations of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Ecuador. Our study sites lay along a transect, and adjacent study sites were separated by approximately 25 km, an order of magnitude less than previously examined for this and most other species. This transect crossed an Andean ridge and through the Quijos River Valley, both of which may be barriers to gene flow. Using a variance partitioning approach, we show that song dialect is important in explaining population genetics, independent of the geographic variables: distance, the river valley and the Andean Ridge. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that song acts as a barrier to breeding among populations in close proximity. In addition, songs of contiguous populations differed by the same degree or more than between two populations previously shown to exhibit female preference for local dialect, suggesting that birds from these populations would also breed preferentially with locals. As expected, all geographic variables (distance, the river valley and the Andean Ridge) also predicted population genetic structure. Our results have important implications for the understanding whether, and at what spatial scale, culture can affect population divergence. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Relationship between bird-of-prey decals and bird-window collisions on a Brazilian university campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Brisque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bird-window collisions are a dramatic cause of bird mortality globally. In Latin America, statistics are generally very scarce and/or inaccessible so the frequency of such incidents is still poorly understood. Nevertheless, civilians have applied preventive methods (e.g. adhesive bird-of-prey decals sparsely but, to our knowledge, no study has evaluated their effectiveness in Brazil. Here, we estimated the mortality rate of bird-window collisions and tested the effectiveness of bird-of-prey decals at preventing such accidents. We undertook daily searches for bird carcasses, presumably resulting from window collisions, near all buildings on a university campus over seven months. Adhesive bird-of-prey decals were then applied to the two buildings with the highest mortality rates and surveys continued for over 12 more months. The mortality rates before and after the application of decals and between seasons were then compared using Friedman test. We recorded 36 collisions, 29 around the two buildings with the highest collision rates 19 prior and 10 after our intervention with associated collision rates of 0.08 and 0.04 collisions/day. Although mortality was reduced by almost half, this difference was not statistically significant. The Blue-black grassquit, Volatinia jacarina (Linnaeus, 1766, and Ruddy ground dove, Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1810 suffered the highest number of collisions, followed by the Rufous-collared sparrow, Zonotrichia capensis (P. L. Statius Müller, 1776. Our bird-of-prey decals and efforts were insufficient to prevent or dramatically reduce the number of bird-window collisions. Therefore, we recommend that different interventions be used and additional long-term studies undertaken on their efficacy.

  20. Coping with Salt Water Habitats: Metabolic and Oxidative Responses to Salt Intake in the Rufous-Collared Sparrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sabat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many physiological adjustments occur in response to salt intake in several marine taxa, which manifest at different scales from changes in the concentration of individual molecules to physical traits of whole organisms. Little is known about the influence of salinity on the distribution, physiological performance, and ecology of passerines; specifically, the impact of drinking water salinity on the oxidative status of birds has been largely ignored. In this study, we evaluated whether experimental variations in the salt intake of a widely-distributed passerine (Zontotrichia capensis could generate differences in basal (BMR and maximum metabolic rates (Msum, as well as affect metabolic enzyme activity and oxidative status. We measured rates of energy expenditure of birds after 30-d acclimation to drink salt (SW or tap (fresh water (TW and assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney. Finally, we evaluated the oxidative status of bird tissues by means of total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activities and lipid oxidative damage (Malondialdehyde, MDA. The results revealed a significant increase in BMR but not Msum, which resulted in a reduction in factorial aerobic scope in SW- vs. TW-acclimated birds. These changes were paralleled with increased kidney and intestine masses and catabolic activities in tissues, especially in pectoralis muscle. We also found that TAC and MDA concentrations were ~120 and ~400% higher, respectively in the liver of animals acclimated to the SW- vs. TW-treatment. Our study is the first to document changes in the oxidative status in birds that persistently drink saltwater, and shows that they undergo several physiological adjustments that range that range in scale from biochemical capacities (e.g., TAC and MDA to whole organism traits (e.g., metabolic rates. We propose that the physiological changes observed

  1. Long distance migratory songbirds respond to extremes in arctic seasonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelman, N.; Asmus, A.; Chmura, H.; Krause, J.; Perez, J. H.; Sweet, S. K.; Gough, L.; Wingfield, J.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic regions are warming rapidly, with extreme weather events increasing in frequency, duration and intensity, as in other regions. Many studies have focused on how shifting seasonality in environmental conditions affect the phenology and productivity of vegetation, while far fewer have examined how arctic fauna responds. We studied two species of long-distance migratory songbirds, Lapland longspurs, Calcarius lapponicus, and White-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, across seven consecutive breeding seasons in northern Alaskan tundra. We aimed to understand how spring environmental conditions affected breeding cycle phenology, food availability, body condition, stress physiology, and ultimately, reproductive success. Spring temperatures, precipitation, storm frequency, and snow-free dates differed significantly among years, with 2013 characterized by unusually late snow cover, and 2015 and 2016 characterized by unusually early snow-free dates and several late spring snowstorms. In response, we found that relative to other study years, there was a significant delay in breeding cycle phenology for both study species in 2013, while breeding cycle phenology was significantly earlier in 2015 only. For both species, we also found significant variation among years in: the seasonal patterns of arthropod availability during the nesting stage; body condition, and; stress physiology. Finally, we found significant variation in reproductive success of both species across years, and that daily survival rates were decreased by snow storm events. Our findings suggest that arctic-breeding passerine communities may be able to adjust phenology to unpredictable shifts in the timing of spring, but extreme conditions during the incubation and nestling stages are detrimental to reproductive success.

  2. The new French 2010 Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus causes an RHD-like disease in the Sardinian Cape hare (Lepus capensis mediterraneus)

    OpenAIRE

    Puggioni, Giantonella; Cavadini, Patrizia; Maestrale, Caterina; Scivoli, Rosario; Botti, Giuliana; Ligios, Ciriaco; Le Gall-Recul?, Ghislaine; Lavazza, Antonio; Capucci, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Lagovirus is an emerging genus of Caliciviridae, which includes the Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) of rabbits and the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) of hares that cause lethal hepatitis. In 2010, a new RHDV related virus (RHDV2) with a unique genetic and antigenic profile and lower virulence was identified in France in rabbits. Here we report the identification of RHDV2 as the cause in Sardinia of several outbreaks of acute hepatitis in rabbits and Cape hare (Lepus capens...

  3. Effects of environmental variables on survey catch rates and distribution by size of shallow- and deep-water Cape hakes, Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus off Namibia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela; van der Plas, A. K.; Bartholomae, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the effects of temperature, oxygen, salinity and time of day on survey trawl catches, we modeled observed catches of juvenile, small, medium and large hakes per station as functions of zenith angle of the sun, geographical position, year, temperature, salinity, oxygen and depth....

  4. Risk from cattle trampling to nests of an endangered passerine evaluated using artificial nest experiments and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Rolek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands are often grazed by cattle and many grassland birds nest on the ground, potentially exposing nests to trampling. We tested for trampling risk introduced by cattle to nests of endangered Florida Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum floridanus using experimentally paired grids of artificial nests (i.e., clay targets similar in size to nests of Florida Grasshopper Sparrows and counted the number of clay targets that were broken in paired grazed and ungrazed enclosures. Clay targets in grazed grids were trampled 3.9% more often than their respective ungrazed grids, and measurements of cattle presence or density were correlated with the number of broken clay targets, suggesting that excluding cattle during breeding is an important management recommendation for the Florida Grasshopper Sparrow. Trampling rates within grazed enclosures were spatially homogeneous with respect to cattle infrastructure such as supplemental feeding troughs and fences, and forests and stocking density were poor predictors of trampling rates when excluding ungrazed grids. We used population viability analysis to compare quasi-extinction rates, intrinsic growth rates, and median abundance in grazed and ungrazed Florida Grasshopper Sparrow aggregations to further understand the biological significance of management aimed at reducing trampling rates during the breeding season. Simulations indicated that trampling from grazing increased quasi-extinction rates by 41% while reducing intrinsic growth rates by 0.048, and reducing median abundance by an average of 214 singing males after 50 years. Management should avoid grazing enclosures occupied by Florida Grasshopper Sparrows during the nesting season to minimize trampling rates. Our methods that combine trampling experiments with population viability analysis provide a framework for testing effects from trampling on other grassland ground-nesting birds, and can directly inform conservation and management of the Florida Grasshopper Sparrow.

  5. Heritability and social brood effects on personality in juvenile and adult life-history stages in a wild passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winney, I S; Schroeder, J; Nakagawa, S; Hsu, Y-H; Simons, M J P; Sánchez-Tójar, A; Mannarelli, M-E; Burke, T

    2018-01-01

    How has evolution led to the variation in behavioural phenotypes (personalities) in a population? Knowledge of whether personality is heritable, and to what degree it is influenced by the social environment, is crucial to understanding its evolutionary significance, yet few estimates are available from natural populations. We tracked three behavioural traits during different life-history stages in a pedigreed population of wild house sparrows. Using a quantitative genetic approach, we demonstrated heritability in adult exploration, and in nestling activity after accounting for fixed effects, but not in adult boldness. We did not detect maternal effects on any traits, but we did detect a social brood effect on nestling activity. Boldness, exploration and nestling activity in this population did not form a behavioural syndrome, suggesting that selection could act independently on these behavioural traits in this species, although we found no consistent support for phenotypic selection on these traits. Our work shows that repeatable behaviours can vary in their heritability and that social context influences personality traits. Future efforts could separate whether personality traits differ in heritability because they have served specific functional roles in the evolution of the phenotype or because our concept of personality and the stability of behaviour needs to be revised. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Nest Success and Cause-Specific Nest Failure of Grassland Passerines Breeding in Prairie Grazed by Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript describes two years of field research on ground-nesting songbird species at Zumwalt Prairie Reserve, northeastern Oregon, USA. Cattle-grazing has long been suspected in declines of ground-nesting songbirds in grazed grassland, primarily due to increased trampling...

  7. Fitness consequences of northward dispersal as possible adaptation to climate change, using experimental translocation of a migratory passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Claudia; Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Both, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Climate change leads to rapid, differential changes in phenology across trophic levels, often resulting in temporal mismatches between predators and their prey. If a species cannot easily adjust its timing, it can adapt by choosing a new breeding location with a later phenology of its prey. In this study, we experimentally investigated whether long-distance dispersal to northern breeding grounds with a later phenology could be a feasible process to restore the match between timing of breeding and peak food abundance and thus improve reproductive success. Here, we report the successful translocation of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) to natural breeding sites 560 km to the Northeast. We expected translocated birds to have a fitness advantage with respect to environmental phenology, but to potentially pay costs through the lack of other locally adapted traits. Translocated individuals started egg laying 11 days earlier than northern control birds, which were translocated only within the northern site. The number of fledglings produced was somewhat lower in translocated birds, compared to northern controls, and fledglings were in lower body condition. Translocated individuals were performing not significantly different to control birds that remained at the original southern site. The lack of advantage of the translocated individuals most likely resulted from the exceptionally cold spring in which the experiment was carried out. Our results, however, suggest that pied flycatchers can successfully introduce their early breeding phenotype after dispersing to more northern areas, and thus that adaptation through dispersal is a viable option for populations that get locally maladapted through climate change.

  8. Fitness consequences of northward dispersal as possible adaptation to climate change, using experimental translocation of a migratory passerine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Claudia; Nord, Andreas; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Both, Christiaan

    2013-01-01

    Climate change leads to rapid, differential changes in phenology across trophic levels, often resulting in temporal mismatches between predators and their prey. If a species cannot easily adjust its timing, it can adapt by choosing a new breeding location with a later phenology of its prey. In this

  9. Do females invest more into eggs when males sing more attractively? Postmating sexual selection strategies in a monogamous reed passerine

    OpenAIRE

    Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Majtan, Juraj; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Hoi, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Maternal investment can play an important role for offspring fitness, especially in birds, as females have to provide their eggs with all the necessary nutrients for the development of the embryo. It is known that this type of maternal investment can be influenced by the quality of the male partner. In this study, we first verify that male song is important in the mate choice of female Eurasian reed warblers, as males mate faster when their singing is more complex. Furthermore, female egg inv...

  10. Do females invest more into eggs when males sing more attractively? Postmating sexual selection strategies in a monogamous reed passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Majtan, Juraj; Okuliarová, Monika; Zeman, Michal; Hoi, Herbert

    2014-04-01

    Maternal investment can play an important role for offspring fitness, especially in birds, as females have to provide their eggs with all the necessary nutrients for the development of the embryo. It is known that this type of maternal investment can be influenced by the quality of the male partner. In this study, we first verify that male song is important in the mate choice of female Eurasian reed warblers, as males mate faster when their singing is more complex. Furthermore, female egg investment varies in relation to male song characteristics. Interestingly, clutch size, egg weight, or size, which can be considered as an high-cost investment, is not influenced by male song characteristics, whereas comparably low-cost investment types like investment into diverse egg components are adjusted to male song characteristics. In line with this, our results suggest that female allocation rules depend on investment type as well as song characteristics. For example, egg white lysozyme is positively correlated with male song complexity. In contrast, a negative correlation exists between-song speed and syllable repetitiveness and egg yolk weight as well as egg yolk testosterone concentration. Thus, our results suggest that female egg investment is related to male song performance in several aspects, but female investment patterns regarding various egg compounds are not simply correlated.

  11. New feather mites of the subfamily Pterodectinae (Acari: Astigmata: Proctophyllodidae) from passerines (Aves: Passeriformes) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mironov, S. V.; Literák, I.; Čapek, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1947, - (2008), s. 1-38 ISSN 1175-5326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acari * Astigmata * feather mites * systematics * Brazil * Proctophyllodidae * Aves * Passeriformes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.740, year: 2008 http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2008/f/zt01947p038.pdf

  12. Non-breeding range size predicts the magnitude of population trends in trans-Saharan migratory passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Procházka, Petr; Ieronymidou, C.; Burfield, I. J.; Reif, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 4 (2018), s. 599-606 ISSN 0030-1299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : stork Ciconia ciconia * life history * survival rates * connectivity * traits * Europe * diversity * evolution * patterns * declines Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.030, year: 2016

  13. The liver but not the skin is the site for conversion of a red carotenoid in a passerine bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Val, Esther; Senar, Juan Carlos; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Jarén, Manuel; Borràs, Antoni; Cabrera, Josep; Negro, Juan José

    2009-07-01

    Carotenoids may provide numerous health benefits and are also responsible for the integumentary coloration of many bird species. Despite their importance, many aspects of their metabolism are still poorly known, and even basic issues such as the anatomical sites of conversion remain controversial. Recent studies suggest that the transformation of carotenoid pigments takes place directly in the follicles during feather growth, even though the liver has been previously recognised as a storing organ for these pigments with a certain potential for conversion. In this context, we analysed the carotenoid profile of plasma, liver, skin and feathers of male Common Crossbills ( Loxia curvirostra). Interestingly, the derivative feather pigment 3-hydroxy-echinenone was detected in the liver and in the bloodstream (i.e. the necessary vehicle to transport metabolites to colourful peripheral tissues). Our results demonstrate for the first time with empirical data that the liver may act as the main site for the synthesis of integumentary carotenoids. This finding contradicts previous assumptions and raises the question of possible inter-specific differences in the site of carotenoid conversion in birds.

  14. Reproductive Performance of a Declining Forest Passerine in Relation to Environmental and Social Factors: Implications for Species Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Grendelmeier

    Full Text Available Identifying factors influencing a species' ecological niche and demography is a prerequisite for species conservation. However, our understanding of the interplay between demographic rates and biotic/abiotic factors is still poor for most species of conservation concern. We evaluated relevance of eight hypotheses relating to timing of breeding, temporal nest exposure, nest concealment, topography, tree structure, predation risk and disturbance, density dependence and weather for explaining variation in reproductive performance of the declining wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in northern Switzerland. Reproductive performance was monitored with cameras at 136 nests from 2010 to 2012 and was associated to temporal exposure, timing of breeding and concealment of nests. Daily nest survival was positively related to the number of grass and sedge tussocks, nest concealment and nest age. Clutch size and number of fledglings decreased, the later in the season a nest was initiated. Nest survival over an average nesting period of 31 days was 46.9 ± 0.07% (mean ± SE, daily nest survival rate was 0.976 ± 0.002. As for many ground-breeding birds, nest predation was the principal cause of nest failure, accounting for 79% of all nest losses. Conservation measures should aim at increasing the area of relatively homogenous forest stands featuring suitable habitats characterized by abundant and accessible grass and sedge tussocks. In managed forests, such conditions can be found in stands of middle age (i.e. pole wood with little to no shrub layer.

  15. Redescriptions and comments on the validity of Acuaria subula and A. skrjabini (Nematoda, Spirurida, Acuariidae), parasites of passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutafchiev, Yasen; Kontrimavichus, Vytautas L; Georgiev, Boyko B

    2013-09-01

    Acuaria subula (Dujardin, 1845) is redescribed by light microcopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the basis of specimens from its type host, Erithacus rubecula (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae), from Curonian Spit (Kaliningradskaya Oblast', Russia) and Bulgaria. Acuaria skrjabini (Ozerskaya, 1926) is redescribed by LM and SEM on the basis of specimens from Passer domesticus (type host) and P. hispaniolensis (Passeriformes, Passeridae) from Bulgaria. Contrary to previous opinions recognizing A. skrjabini as a junior synonym of A. subula, the present study confirms that they are distinct species. They can be distinguished on the basis of the ratio between the length of cordons and the body length, the ratio between the length of muscular oesophagus and glandular oesophagus, and the ratio between the total length of oesophagus and the body length. In addition, the plates forming the cordons in these two species exhibit different morphological characters. Another difference between these two species is associated with the particular irregular mosaic ornamentation of the cuticle on the ventral and lateral sides of body around the region of vulva of A. subula and its absence in A. skrjabini. Data on their host and geographical ranges are surveyed. The type series of Acuaria buttnerae Chabaud et Petter, 1961, described as a parasite of Calandrella brachydactyla (Passeriformes, Alaudidae) in France, is re-examined; the latter species is recognized as a junior synonym of A. skrjabini (new synonymy).

  16. Demographic response to environmental variation in breeding, stopover and non-breeding areas in a migratory passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Michael; Jakober, Hans; Stauber, Wolfgang

    2011-10-01

    Demographic rates of migratory species passing through several areas during their annual cycle may be affected by environmental conditions at each of these areas. Recent studies provide evidence that their impact is not necessarily immediate, but can be delayed. We studied survival, reproductive success and arrival date at the breeding grounds of red-backed shrikes Lanius collurio, a trans-Saharan migrant, in relation to weather and vegetation on the breeding grounds, the stopover sites during migration and in the wintering areas. These environmental factors are used as proxy of the shrike's food supply. We analysed detailed demographic data of some 4,600 individuals from 25 years with multistate capture-recapture and mixed models. Survival probabilities of juveniles and breeders of both sexes varied in parallel across time, suggesting that all cohorts were sensitive to similar causes of mortality. Reproductive performance increased with temperature and decreased with rainfall on the breeding area. Moreover, it increased with vegetation cover in the Sahelian stopover area used on autumn migration suggesting a carry-over effect. Arrival date was negatively affected by spring temperatures in the breeding area. Hence, demographic rates were affected by environmental factors on the breeding grounds, but also outside and elsewhere. This suggests that the shrike's population dynamics are driven by environmental factors operating at various scales of space and time. However, only a small amount of the temporal variation in demographic rates is explained by the environmental factors considered, suggesting that additional factors, such as those operating during migration, might be important.

  17. Identification of the first toll-like receptor gene in passerine birds: TLR4 orthologue in zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinkler, Michal; Bryjová, Anna; Albrecht, Tomáš; Bryja, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2009), s. 32-41 ISSN 0001-2815 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930608; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : avian immunogenetics * comparative immunology * evolutionary immunology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.330, year: 2009

  18. Life-history and ecological correlates of geographic variation in egg and clutch mass among passerine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Bassar, R.D.; Bassar, S.K.; Fontaine, J.J.; Lloyd, P.; Mathewson, Heather A.; Niklison, Alina M.; Chalfoun, A.

    2006-01-01

    Broad geographic patterns in egg and clutch mass are poorly described, and potential causes of variation remain largely unexamined. We describe interspecific variation in avian egg and clutch mass within and among diverse geographic regions and explore hypotheses related to allometry, clutch size, nest predation, adult mortality, and parental care as correlates and possible explanations of variation. We studied 74 species of Passeriformes at four latitudes on three continents: the north temperate United States, tropical Venezuela, subtropical Argentina, and south temperate South Africa. Egg and clutch mass increased with adult body mass in all locations, but differed among locations for the same body mass, demonstrating that egg and clutch mass have evolved to some extent independent of body mass among regions. A major portion of egg mass variation was explained by an inverse relationship with clutch size within and among regions, as predicted by life-history theory. However, clutch size did not explain all geographic differences in egg mass; eggs were smallest in South Africa despite small clutch sizes. These small eggs might be explained by high nest predation rates in South Africa; life-history theory predicts reduced reproductive effort under high risk of offspring mortality. This prediction was supported for clutch mass, which was inversely related to nest predation but not for egg mass. Nevertheless, clutch mass variation was not fully explained by nest predation, possibly reflecting interacting effects of adult mortality. Tests of the possible effects of nest predation on egg mass were compromised by limited power and by counterposing direct and indirect effects. Finally, components of parental investment, defined as effort per offspring, might be expected to positively coevolve. Indeed, egg mass, but not clutch mass, was greater in species that shared incubation by males and females compared with species in which only females incubate eggs. However, egg and clutch mass were not related to effort of parental care as measured by incubation attentiveness. Ecological and life-history correlates of egg and clutch mass variation found here follow from theory, but possible evolutionary causes deserve further study. ?? 2006 The Society for the Study of Evolution. All rights reserved.

  19. Large-scale geographical variation in eggshell heavy metal and calcium content in a passerine bird (Ficedula hypoleuca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruuskanen, S.; Morales, J.; Laaksonen, T.; Moreno, J.; Mateo, R.; Belskii, E.; Bushuev, A.; Jarvinen, A.; Kerimov, A.; Krams, I.; Morosinotto, C.; Mand, R.; Orell, M.; Qvarnstrom, A.; Slater, F.M.; Siitari, H.; Tilgar, V.; Visser, M.E.; Winkel, W.; Zang, H.; Eeva, T.

    2014-01-01

    Birds have been used as bioindicators of pollution, such as toxic metals. Levels of pollutants in eggs are especially interesting, as developing birds are more sensitive to detrimental effects of pollutants than adults. Only very few studies have monitored intraspecific, large-scale variation in

  20. Reproductive Performance of a Declining Forest Passerine in Relation to Environmental and Social Factors: Implications for Species Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendelmeier, Alex; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Gerber, Michael; Pasinelli, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing a species' ecological niche and demography is a prerequisite for species conservation. However, our understanding of the interplay between demographic rates and biotic/abiotic factors is still poor for most species of conservation concern. We evaluated relevance of eight hypotheses relating to timing of breeding, temporal nest exposure, nest concealment, topography, tree structure, predation risk and disturbance, density dependence and weather for explaining variation in reproductive performance of the declining wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in northern Switzerland. Reproductive performance was monitored with cameras at 136 nests from 2010 to 2012 and was associated to temporal exposure, timing of breeding and concealment of nests. Daily nest survival was positively related to the number of grass and sedge tussocks, nest concealment and nest age. Clutch size and number of fledglings decreased, the later in the season a nest was initiated. Nest survival over an average nesting period of 31 days was 46.9 ± 0.07% (mean ± SE), daily nest survival rate was 0.976 ± 0.002. As for many ground-breeding birds, nest predation was the principal cause of nest failure, accounting for 79% of all nest losses. Conservation measures should aim at increasing the area of relatively homogenous forest stands featuring suitable habitats characterized by abundant and accessible grass and sedge tussocks. In managed forests, such conditions can be found in stands of middle age (i.e. pole wood) with little to no shrub layer.

  1. Density and fledging success of ground-nesting passerines in Conservation Reserve Program fields in the northeastern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koford, Rolf R.

    1999-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program, initiated in 1985, was designed primarily to reduce soil erosion and crop surpluses. A secondary benefit was the provision of habitat for wildlife. Grassland bird populations, many of which declined in the decades prior to the Conservation Reserve Program, may have benefited from the Conservation Reserve Program if reproduction in this newly available habitat has been at least as high as it would have been in the absence of the Conservation Reserve Program. On study areas in North Dakota and Minnesota, I examined breeding densities and fledging success of grassland birds in Conservation Reserve Program fields and in an alternative habitat of similar structure, idle grassland fields on federal Waterfowl Production Areas. Fields were 10 to 25 hectares in size. The avifaunas of these two habitats were similar, although brush-dependent species were more abundant on Waterfowl Protection Areas. The common species in these habitats included ones whose continental populations have declined, such as Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum), Savannah Sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), and Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus). These ground-nesting species were pooled with other ground nesters in an analysis of fledging success, which revealed no significant differences between habitats, between states, or among years (1991-1993). Predation was the primary cause of nest failure. I concluded that Conservation Reserve Program fields in this region were suitable breeding habitat for several species whose populations had declined prior to the Conservation Reserve Program era. This habitat appeared to be as secure for nests of ground-nesting birds as another suitable habitat in North Dakota and Minnesota.

  2. Patterns of sperm damage in Chernobyl passerine birds suggest a trade-off between sperm length and integrity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermosell, I. G.; Laskemoen, T.; Rowe, M.; Moller, A. P.; Mousseau, T. A.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2013), s. 20130530 ISSN 1744-9561 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : acrosome * radiation * sperm evolution * sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.425, year: 2013

  3. Survival of Afro-Palaearctic passerine migrants in western Europe and the impacts of seasonal weather variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, Alison; Robinson, Robert A.; Gargallo, Gabriel; Julliard, Romain; van der Jeugd, Henk; Baillie, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Populations of migratory songbirds in western Europe show considerable variation in population trends between species and regions. The demographic and environmental causes of these large-scale patterns are poorly understood. Using data from Constant Effort mist-netting studies, we investigated

  4. Comparison of historical bottleneck effects and genetic consequences of re-introduction in a critically endangered island passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Rachel M; Tucker, Rachel; Dawson, Deborah A; Horsburgh, Gavin; Prys-Jones, Robert P; Frantz, Alain C; Krupa, Andy; Shah, Nirmal J; Burke, Terry; Groombridge, Jim J

    2013-09-01

    Re-introduction is an important tool for recovering endangered species; however, the magnitude of genetic consequences for re-introduced populations remains largely unknown, in particular the relative impacts of historical population bottlenecks compared to those induced by conservation management. We characterize 14 microsatellite loci developed for the Seychelles paradise flycatcher and use them to quantify temporal and spatial measures of genetic variation across a 134-year time frame encompassing a historical bottleneck that reduced the species to ~28 individuals in the 1960s, through the initial stages of recovery and across a second contemporary conservation-introduction-induced bottleneck. We then evaluate the relative impacts of the two bottlenecks, and finally apply our findings to inform broader re-introduction strategy. We find a temporal trend of significant decrease in standard measures of genetic diversity across the historical bottleneck, but only a nonsignificant downward trend in number of alleles across the contemporary bottleneck. However, accounting for the different timescales of the two bottlenecks (~40 historical generations versus introduction. In some cases, the loss of genetic diversity per generation can, initially at least, be greater across re-introduction-induced bottlenecks. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Incorporating Partners in Flight Priorities into State Agency Operational Plans: Development of a Management System for Wetland Passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Hodgman

    2005-01-01

    State agencies are often considered the prime avenues for implementation of Partners in Flight (PIF) bird conservation plans. Yet, such agencies already have in place a planning structure, which allows for dispersal of Federal Aid funds and guides management actions. Consequently, superimposing additional planning frameworks (e.g., PIF bird conservation plans) on state...

  6. Adaptive influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on variation of incubation periods among tropical and temperate passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Ton, Riccardo; Oteyza, Juan C.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding intrinsic (physiological) and extrinsic (e.g., temperature) causes of variation in embryonic development time (incubation period) is important because they can have different impacts on individual quality. Robert Ricklefs and colleagues have argued that longer incubation periods result primarily from intrinsic physiological programs that increase individual quality and adult survival. They claim that incubation periods are largely invariant and that extrinsic factors like temperature have little impact. We have argued that adult survival may be a cause rather than a consequence of much of the variation in embryonic development time. A reduction in extrinsic sources of annual adult mortality (e.g., migration, predation, nonbreeding-season mortality) favors reduced parental effort during incubation to minimize costs to future reproduction and survival. Reduced parental effort, in turn, manifests as cooler average egg temperatures that yield longer incubation periods. Ricklefs and colleagues mischaracterized our hypothesis and deconstructed their own incorrect version, while also making some incorrect statements. We show that reevaluation of previous evidence provided by this group actually supports a role of egg temperature for the variation in incubation periods. We also summarize other observational and experimental evidence that incubation periods are not invariant and that egg temperature has a strong causal influence on variation within and among species. In fact, egg temperature explains ∼60% of the difference in incubation periods among species. The remaining ∼40% reflects intrinsic physiological programs and other factors, potentially providing intrinsic benefits. Ultimately, annual adult mortality explains substantial variation in parental effort and egg temperature, and the latter strongly explains variation in incubation periods. Both intrinsic programs and extrinsic temperature effects need to be considered in attempts to understand incubation strategies.

  7. Fecundity selection does not vary along a large geographical cline of trait means in a passerine bird

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkiä, P.M.; Adamík, P.; Atemyev, A. V.; Belskii, E.; Both, Christiaan; Burês, S.; Burgess, M.D.; Bushuev, A.V.; Forsman, JT; Grinkov, V.; Hoffmann, D.; Järvinen, A.; Král, M.; Krams, I.; Lampe, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Local environmental and ecological conditions are commonly expected to result in local adaptation, although there are few examples of variation in phenotypic selection across continent-wide spatial scales. We collected standardized data on selection with respect to the highly variable plumage coloration of pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleucaPall.) males from 17 populations across the species' breeding range. The observed selection on multiple male coloration traits via the annual number of fl...

  8. Fecundity selection does not vary along a large geographical cline of trait means in a passerine bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sirkiae, Paeivi M.; Adamik, Peter; Artemyev, Alexandr V.; Belskii, Eugen; Both, Christiaan; Bures, Stanislav; Burgess, Malcolm; Bushuev, Andrey V.; Forsman, Jukka T.; Grinkov, Vladimir; Hoffmann, Dieter; Jaervinen, Antero; Kral, Miroslav; Krams, Indrikis; Lampe, Helene M.; Moreno, Juan; Maegi, Marko; Nord, Andreas; Potti, Jaime; Ravussin, Pierre-Alain; Sokolov, Leonid; Laaksonen, Toni

    Local environmental and ecological conditions are commonly expected to result in local adaptation, although there are few examples of variation in phenotypic selection across continent-wide spatial scales. We collected standardized data on selection with respect to the highly variable plumage

  9. Blood parasites in passerine birds from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Hemoparasitos em passeriformes da Mata Atlântica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Sebaio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasites may lead bird species to extinction, affect host temporal and spatial population dynamics, alter community structure and alter individuals’ social status. We evaluated blood parasite prevalence and intensity according to bird families and species, among 925 birds that were caught in 2000 and 2001, in the Atlantic Forest in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We applied Giemsa staining to thin blood smears, to detect blood parasites. The birds (n = 15.8% in 11 families, were infected by at least one parasite genus, especially Muscicapidae (28.3% and Conopophagidae (25%. Among the 146 infected birds, Plasmodium was detected in all bird families and had the highest prevalence (54.8%. Trypanosoma, Haemoproteus and microfilaria had lower prevalence rates (23.3, 23.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Birds caught during the rainy season were more infected than birds caught during the dry season. The overall low prevalence of blood parasites in birds is similar to the patterns found elsewhere in the Neotropical region.Parasitos podem levar espécies de aves à extinção, afetar as dinâmicas temporais e espaciais dos hospedeiros, alterar a estrutura de comunidades e o status social de indivíduos. Avaliou-se a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos em famílias e espécies de 925 aves capturadas, entre 2000 e 2001, na Mata Atlântica de Minas Gerais. Foram coradas com Giemsa extensões de sangue para detectar parasitos hematozoários. As aves (n= 15,8% 11 famílias estavam infectadas por pelo menos um gênero de parasito, especialmente Muscicapidae (28,3% e Conopophagidae (25%. Entre as 146 aves infectadas, Plasmodium foi detectado em todas as famílias e possuiu a maior prevalência (54,8%. Trypanosoma,Haemoproteus e microfilaria possuíram baixas prevalências (23,3, 23,3 e 2,1%, respectivamente. Aves capturadasdurante a estação chuvosa estavam mais infectadas do que aves capturadas durante a estação seca. A baixa prevalência geral de parasitos do sangue das aves é semelhante aos padrões encontrados em outras localidades da região Neotropical.

  10. Effects of migratory status and habitat on the prevalence and intensity of infection by haemoparasites in passerines in eastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera, J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian peninsula is a suitable place to study the effects of migratory condition on the prevalence of blood parasites in avian communities as resident, local populations cohabit with migratory species and with abundant vector populations. In this study we examined the incidence of avian blood parasites in three localities in the Mediterranean region (east Spain, in relation to the migratory status of the species. We analyzed 333 blood smears from 11 avian species, and obtained an overall prevalence of 9.6%. The prevalence of parasites varied among the different species studied, although intensity of infection did not. Our results are discussed in terms of population dynamics and abundance of Diptera vectors able to transmit blood parasites to other birds.

  11. The niche and phylogeography of a passerine reveal the history of biological diversification between the Andean and the Atlantic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Arias, Natalia; Dantas, Gisele P M; Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Naoki, Kazuya; Gómez, Maria I; Santos, Fabricio R; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Aleixo, Alexandre; Tubaro, Pablo L; Cabanne, Gustavo S

    2017-07-01

    The Atlantic Forest is separated from the Andean tropical forest by dry and open vegetation biomes (Chaco and Cerrado). Despite this isolation, both rainforests share closely related lineages, which suggest a past connection. This connection could have been important for forest taxa evolution. In this study, we used the Saffron-billed Sparrow (Arremon flavirostris) as a model to evaluate whether the Andean and the Atlantic forests act as a refugia system, as well as to test for a history of biogeographic connection between them. In addition, we evaluated the molecular systematic of intraspecific lineages of the studied species. We modeled the current and past distribution of A. flavirostris, performed phylogeographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and used Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) analyses to test for biogeographic scenarios. The major phylogeographic disjunction within A. flavirostris was found between the Andean and the Atlantic forests, with a divergence that occurred during the Mid-Pleistocene. Our paleodistribution models indicated a connection between these forest domains in different periods and through both the Chaco and Cerrado. Additionally, the phylogeographic and ABC analyses supported that the Cerrado was the main route of connection between these rainforests, but without giving decisive evidence against a Chaco connection. Our study with A. flavirostris suggest that the biodiversity of the Andean and of the Atlantic forests could have been impacted (and perhaps enriched?) by cycles of connections through the Cerrado and Chaco. This recurrent cycle of connection between the Andean and the Atlantic Forest could have been important for the evolution of Neotropical forest taxa. In addition, we discussed taxonomic implications of the results and proposed to split the studied taxon into two full species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stock-environment recruitment analysis for Namibian Cape hake Merluccius capensis. ... The factors modulating recruitment success of Cape hake Merluccius capensis in Namibian waters are still unresolved. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Argyrosomus hololepidotus, Pomatomus saltatrix and Merluccius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    saltatrix (elf) and Merluccius capensis (Shallow-water hake) between Algoa Bay ... deep-water species such as Merluccius capensis is well known. (Botha 1971; Botha ...... B. Davie in collecting and processing the material is acknowledged.

  14. The Cetaceans of Ghana, a Validated Faunal Checklist | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... S. longirostris longirostris*, S. attenuata, S. frontalis, Delphinus capensis capensis*, Lagenodelphis hosei, Steno bredanensis, Grampus griseus, Peponocephala electra*, Feresa attenuata**, Globicephala macrorhynchus, Orcinus orca*, Pseudorca crassidens*, Kogia sima**, Physetermacrocephalus*, Ziphius cavirostris** ...

  15. Reproductive periods in birds near the Equator Reproductive periods in birds near the Equator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Alden H.

    1958-09-01

    Full Text Available Para el estudio de los ciclos reproductivos de las aves cerca al ecuador se seleccionó el Gorrión (Zonotrichia capensis teniendo en cuenta que se han realizado estudios intensivos en especies próximas que habitan el hemisferio norte.  Se escogió como estación de trabajo, el sitio denominado Mares localizado en la cima de la Cordillera Occidental sobre la carretera que conduce de Cali a Buenaventura. Mediante trabajos de anillado, instalación de trampas para captura de las aves, realización de laparotomías y observación constante. se ha llegado a las siguientes conclusiones preliminares: a Que las aves cerca del ecuador tienen como en otras latitudes periodos o ciclos de reproducción, aunque la especie en conjunto pueda estar anidando prácticamente durante todo el año. b Que los machos están en condiciones fisiológicas para reproducirse a los cinco meses de edad y que con seguridad algunos permanecen en condiciones de reproducción durante cuatro meses continuos; además que las hembras anidan a los cinco meses de edad. c Que estas aves tienen una marcada resistencia contra las infecciones que podrían sobrevenirles por el empleo de instrumental quirúrgico sin previa desinfección, usado en las intervenciones.  Algunos individuos fueron operados hasta tres veces y tan solo se sabe de uno que murió, no debido a infección sino a una alta dosis de anestesia. A partir del ocho de febrero del presente año, se han anillado ciento veinte (120 individuos en un área aproximada de dos hectáreas, y se ha coleccionado material adicional en la vecindad de la estación de estudio, el cual se preserva para futuros estudios comparativos. Para el estudio de los ciclos reproductivos de las aves cerca al ecuador se seleccionó el Gorrión (Zonotrichia capensis teniendo en cuenta que se han realizado estudios intensivos en especies próximas que habitan el hemisferio norte. Se escogió como estación de trabajo, el sitio denominado Mares

  16. Relatively high prevalence of pox-like lesions in Henslow's sparrow (Ammodrammus henslowii) among nine species of migratory grassland passerines in Wisconsin, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S; Hofmeister, Erik K; Ribic, Christine A; Sample, David W

    2014-10-01

    Globally, Avipoxvirus species affect over 230 species of wild birds and can significantly impair survival. During banding of nine grassland songbird species (n=346 individuals) in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, we noted species with a 2-6% prevalence of pox-like lesions (possible evidence of current infection) and 4-10% missing digits (potential evidence of past infection). These prevalences approach those recorded among island endemic birds (4-9% and 9-20% for the Galapagos and Hawaii, respectively) for which Avipoxvirus species have been implicated as contributing to dramatic population declines. Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii (n=165 individuals) had the highest prevalence of lesions (6.1%) and missing digits (9.7%). Among a subset of 26 Henslow's Sparrows from which blood samples were obtained, none had detectable antibody reactive to fowlpox virus antigen. However, four samples (18%) had antibody to canarypox virus antigen with test sample and negative control ratios (P/N values) ranging from 2.4 to 6.5 (median 4.3). Of four antibody-positive birds, two had lesions recorded (one was also missing a digit), one had digits missing, and one had no signs. Additionally, the birds with lesions or missing digits had higher P/N values than did the antibody-positive bird without missing digits or recorded lesions. This study represents an impetus for considering the impacts and dynamics of disease caused by Avipoxvirus among North American grassland bird species.

  17. Relatively high prevalence of pox-like lesions in Henslow's Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii) among nine species of migratory grassland passerines in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Ribic, Christine A.; Sample, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, Avipoxvirus species affect over 230 species of wild birds and can significantly impair survival. During banding of nine grassland songbird species (n = 346 individuals) in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, we noted species with a 2–6% prevalence of pox-like lesions (possible evidence of current infection) and 4–10% missing digits (potential evidence of past infection). These prevalences approach those recorded among island endemic birds (4–9% and 9–20% for the Galapagos and Hawaii, respectively) for which Avipoxvirus species have been implicated as contributing to dramatic population declines. Henslow's Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii (n = 165 individuals) had the highest prevalence of lesions (6.1%) and missing digits (9.7%). Among a subset of 26 Henslow's Sparrows from which blood samples were obtained, none had detectable antibody reactive to fowlpox virus antigen. However, four samples (18%) had antibody to canarypox virus antigen with test sample and negative control ratios (P/N values) ranging from 2.4 to 6.5 (median 4.3). Of four antibody-positive birds, two had lesions recorded (one was also missing a digit), one had digits missing, and one had no signs. Additionally, the birds with lesions or missing digits had higher P/N values than did the antibody-positive bird without missing digits or recorded lesions. This study represents an impetus for considering the impacts and dynamics of disease caused by Avipoxvirus among North American grassland bird species.

  18. Blue-green eggshell coloration is not a sexually selected signal of female quality in an open-nesting polygynous passerine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Honza, Marcel; Požgayová, Milica; Procházka, Petr; Cherry, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 6 (2011), s. 493-499 ISSN 0028-1042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930605; GA AV ČR IAA600930903; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Acrocephalus arundinaceus * Blue-green chroma * Egg colour * Female condition * Great reed warbler * Polygyny Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2011

  19. Prolactin is related to individual differences in parental behavior and reproductive success in a biparental passerine, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Kristina O; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Variation in parental care can lead to important fitness consequences. The endocrine system is known to regulate physiological and behavioral reproductive traits that are important contributors to lifetime reproductive success. However, the hormonal basis of variation in avian parental care is still not well understood. Plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations are generally high during post-hatch parental care in birds, and may be a candidate mechanism that regulates variation in parental care and other reproductive success outcomes. Here we analyze the relationship between PRL, parental behavior (chick brooding and feeding) and reproductive success outcomes (clutch size, number of chicks hatched, and chick survival) for the first time in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Birds were given cabergoline, a dopamine agonist traditionally used to lower prolactin in mammals, or vehicle in their food. Cabergoline had no effect on prolactin concentrations, but across both groups we found that PRL is positively correlated with parental behavior, number of chicks hatched, and chick survival, but not clutch size. Results from this study will inform hypotheses and predictions for future manipulation studies which test for a causal role for PRL in parental traits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Testing genotyping strategies for ultra-deep sequencing of a co-amplifying gene family: MHC class I in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedrzycka, Aleksandra; Sebastian, Alvaro; Migalska, Magdalena; Westerdahl, Helena; Radwan, Jacek

    2017-07-01

    Characterization of highly duplicated genes, such as genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), where multiple loci often co-amplify, has until recently been hindered by insufficient read depths per amplicon. Here, we used ultra-deep Illumina sequencing to resolve genotypes at exon 3 of MHC class I genes in the sedge warbler (Acrocephalus schoenobaenus). We sequenced 24 individuals in two replicates and used this data, as well as a simulated data set, to test the effect of amplicon coverage (range: 500-20 000 reads per amplicon) on the repeatability of genotyping using four different genotyping approaches. A third replicate employed unique barcoding to assess the extent of tag jumping, that is swapping of individual tag identifiers, which may confound genotyping. The reliability of MHC genotyping increased with coverage and approached or exceeded 90% within-method repeatability of allele calling at coverages of >5000 reads per amplicon. We found generally high agreement between genotyping methods, especially at high coverages. High reliability of the tested genotyping approaches was further supported by our analysis of the simulated data set, although the genotyping approach relying primarily on replication of variants in independent amplicons proved sensitive to repeatable errors. According to the most repeatable genotyping method, the number of co-amplifying variants per individual ranged from 19 to 42. Tag jumping was detectable, but at such low frequencies that it did not affect the reliability of genotyping. We thus demonstrate that gene families with many co-amplifying genes can be reliably genotyped using HTS, provided that there is sufficient per amplicon coverage. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Intestinal Disaccharidases and Aminopeptidase-N in two species of Cinclodes (Passerine: Furnaridae Disacaridasas y aminopeptidasa-N en dos especies de Cinclodes (Paserine: Furnaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO SABAT

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been postulated that both digestive capacity and intestinal biochemical features are correlated to dietary habits in birds. Therefore, it would be expected to find biochemical constraint to hydrolyze sugars in those species, which predate exclusively on marine invertebrates. In vitro intestinal activities of these enzymes were studied in Cinclodes nigrofumosus (d' Orbigny and Cinclodes patagonicus (Gmelling. Due to differences in dietary habits between species I predicted the lack of sucrase activity in C. nigrofumosus but not in C. patagonicus. Also, low activities of maltase would be expected in both species. On the other hand due to the considerable amount of proteins and trehalose present in preys, high activities of both trehalase and aminopeptidase-N were also expected. Contrary to previous reports in birds, significant activity of trehalase was found. Also lack of sucrase and small amounts of maltase were observed as well as a significant aminopeptidase-N activity in both species. Although the digestive enzyme activities of C. nigrofumosus and C. patagonicus appear to be correlated with their natural diet, the similarities between species in all enzymes activities suggest an strong effect of phylogenetic inertiaSe ha postulado que en las aves tanto la capacidad digestiva como las características bioquímicas del intestino están correlacionadas con los hábitos dietarios. Por esto, es probable que aquellas especies que se alimentan exclusivamente de invertebrados, posean una restricción bioquímica para hidrolizar azúcares. La actividad intestinal in vitro de esas enzimas se estudió en Cinclodes nigrofumosus (d' Orbigny y Cinclodes patagonicus (Gmelling.Debido a diferencias en los habitos entre las especies, se predice que sacarasa estará ausente en C. nigrofumosus, pero no en C. patagonicus. Además, se debiera encontrar una actividad maltásica baja en ambas especies. Por otro lado, debido a las considerables cantidades de proteína y trehalosa presente en las presas, también debiera encontrarse actividades importantes de amnopeptidasa-N y trehalasa. Contrario a reportes previos, se encontró una actividad significativa de trehalasa. Además, en ambas especies se encontró ausencia de actividad de sacarasa y baja actividad de maltasa, asi como una significativa actividad de aminopeptidasa-N. Aun cuando las actividades enzimáticas digestivas de C. nigrofumosus y C. patagonicus parecen estar correlacionadas con la dieta natural, la similitud de las actividades entre las especies sugiere la existencia de una fuerte inercia filogenética

  2. Why are birds' eggs colourful? Eggshell pigments co-vary with life-history and nesting ecology among British breeding non-passerine birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cassey, P.; Thomas, G.H.; Portugal, S. J.; Maurer, G.; Hauber, M. E.; Grim, T.; Lovell, P.G.; Mikšík, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2012), s. 657-672 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biliverdin * protoporphyrin * eggshell pigment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.413, year: 2012

  3. Using stable hydrogen isotopes (delta2H) and ring recoveries to trace natal origins in a Eurasian passerine with a migratory divide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Petr; Van Wilgenburg, S. L.; Neto, J. M.; Yosef, R.; Hobson, K. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 6 (2013), s. 541-550 ISSN 0908-8857 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930508; GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus * autumn migration * sedge warblers * population declines * willow warblers * dispersal Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  4. Evolution and plasticity: Divergence of song discrimination is faster in birds with innate song than in song learners in Neotropical passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Benjamin G; Montgomery, Graham A; Schluter, Dolph

    2017-09-01

    Plasticity is often thought to accelerate trait evolution and speciation. For example, plasticity in birdsong may partially explain why clades of song learners are more diverse than related clades with innate song. This "song learning" hypothesis predicts that (1) differences in song traits evolve faster in song learners, and (2) behavioral discrimination against allopatric song (a proxy for premating reproductive isolation) evolves faster in song learners. We tested these predictions by analyzing acoustic traits and conducting playback experiments in allopatric Central American sister pairs of song learning oscines (N = 42) and nonlearning suboscines (N = 27). We found that nonlearners evolved mean acoustic differences slightly faster than did leaners, and that the mean evolutionary rate of song discrimination was 4.3 times faster in nonlearners than in learners. These unexpected results may be a consequence of significantly greater variability in song traits in song learners (by 54-79%) that requires song-learning oscines to evolve greater absolute differences in song before achieving the same level of behavioral song discrimination as nonlearning suboscines. This points to "a downside of learning" for the evolution of species discrimination, and represents an important example of plasticity reducing the rate of evolution and diversification by increasing variability. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Characterization and 454 pyrosequencing of Major Histocompatibility Complex class I genes in the great tit reveal complexity in a passerine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepil Irem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The critical role of Major Histocompatibility Complex (Mhc genes in disease resistance and their highly polymorphic nature make them exceptional candidates for studies investigating genetic effects on survival, mate choice and conservation. Species that harbor many Mhc loci and high allelic diversity are particularly intriguing as they are potentially under strong selection and studies of such species provide valuable information as to the mechanisms maintaining Mhc diversity. However comprehensive genotyping of complex multilocus systems has been a major challenge to date with the result that little is known about the consequences of this complexity in terms of fitness effects and disease resistance. Results In this study, we genotyped the Mhc class I exon 3 of the great tit (Parus major from two nest-box breeding populations near Oxford, UK that have been monitored for decades. Characterization of Mhc class I exon 3 was adopted and bidirectional sequencing was carried using the 454 sequencing platform. Full analysis of sequences through a stepwise variant validation procedure allowed reliable typing of more than 800 great tits based on 214,357 reads; from duplicates we estimated the repeatability of typing as 0.94. A total of 862 alleles were detected, and the presence of at least 16 functional loci was shown - the highest number characterized in a wild bird species. Finally, the functional alleles were grouped into 17 supertypes based on their antigen binding affinities. Conclusions We found extreme complexity at the Mhc class I of the great tit both in terms of allelic diversity and gene number. The presence of many functional loci was shown, together with a pseudogene family and putatively non-functional alleles; there was clear evidence that functional alleles were under strong balancing selection. This study is the first step towards an in-depth analysis of this gene complex in this species, which will help understanding how parasite-mediated and sexual selection shape and maintain host genetic variation in nature. We believe that study systems like ours can make important contributions to the field of evolutionary biology and emphasize the necessity of integrating long-term field-based studies with detailed genetic analysis to unravel complex evolutionary processes.

  6. Eye trematode infection in small passerines in Peru caused by Philophthalmus lucipetus, an agent with a zoonotic potential spread by an invasive freshwater snail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Literák, I.; Heneberg, P.; Sitko, J.; Wetzel, E. J.; Callirgos, J. M. C.; Čapek, Miroslav; Basto, D. V.; Papoušek, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 4 (2013), s. 390-396 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601690901; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Birds * Caenogastropoda * Digenea * DNA analysis * Echinostomida * Eye trematode * Fluke Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.111, year: 2013

  7. An Approach to Distinguish between Plasticity and Non-random Distributions of Behavioral Types Along Urban Gradients in a Wild Passerine Bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Sprau

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of urbanization has been widely studied in the context of species diversity and life history evolution. Behavioral adaptation, by contrast, remains poorly understood because empirical studies rarely investigate the relative importance of two key mechanisms: plastic responses vs. non-random distributions of behavioral types. We propose here an approach that enables the simultaneous estimation of the respective roles of these distinct mechanisms. We investigated why risky behaviors are often associated with urbanization, using an urban nest box population of great tits (Parus major as a study system. We simultaneously and repeatedly quantified individual behavior (aggression and flight initiation distance as well as environmental factors characterizing level of urbanization (numbers of pedestrians, cars and cyclists. This enabled us to statistically distinguish plastic responses from patterns of non-random distributions of behavioral types. Data analyses revealed that individuals did not plastically adjust their behavior to the level of urbanization. Behavioral types were instead non-randomly distributed: bold birds occurred more frequently in areas with more cars and fewer pedestrians while shy individuals were predominantly found in areas with fewer cars and more pedestrians. These novel findings imply a major role for behavioral types in the evolutionary ecology of urban environments and call for the full integration of among- and within-individual variation in urban ecological studies.

  8. The importance of microclimate variation in determining size, growth and survival of avian offspring: experimental evidence from a cavity nesting passerine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Russell D; Lawrie, Cheyenne C; O'Brien, Erin L

    2005-07-01

    Organisms are expected to balance energy allocation in such a way that fitness is maximized. While much research has focussed on allocation strategies of reproducing parents, in particular birds, relatively little attention has been paid to how nestlings allocate energy while in the nest. Nestling birds are faced with a trade-off between devoting energy to growth or to thermoregulation, and in altricial species it is likely that the thermal environment of the nest site influences the nature of this trade-off. Here, we experimentally investigate how altering the microclimate of nests affects the growth, size and survival, as well as cell-mediated immune (CMI) response, of nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) in a temperate environment. We place air-activated heating pads in nests of swallows when young were between 4 days and 16 days of age, and compared performance of offspring to control nests. Our manipulation raised temperatures of heated nests by approximately 5 degrees C compared to control nests. Offspring in heated nests had enhanced survival while in the nest, and we also found that they were heavier and had longer ninth primary feathers at 16 days of age. In addition, heating nest boxes resulted in significantly faster growth of primaries, and there was a trend for growth rates of mass to also be higher in heated nests. There were no significant differences between heated and control nests in growth rate or size of tarsus at age 16 days, and we speculate that this lack of response to elevated nest temperatures may be due to growth of skeletal structures being limited by other factors such as calcium availability. We also found no difference between heated and control nests in CMI response. Nonetheless, our results show overall that increasing temperatures of nests has significant benefits that enhance the fitness of offspring. As provisioning rates to offspring did not differ between heated and control nests, we suspect that the beneficial effects of heating were not the consequence of changes in parental behaviour. Our results provide insight into factors, other than food supply, that have important consequences in determining reproductive success of birds breeding in temperate environments.

  9. A genome-wide assessment of stages of elevational parapatry in Bornean passerine birds reveals no introgression: implications for processes and patterns of speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Moyle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Topographically complex regions often contain the close juxtaposition of closely related species along elevational gradients. The evolutionary causes of these elevational replacements, and thus the origin and maintenance of a large portion of species diversity along elevational gradients, are usually unclear because ecological differentiation along a gradient or secondary contact following allopatric diversification can produce the same pattern. We used reduced representation genomic sequencing to assess genetic relationships and gene flow between three parapatric pairs of closely related songbird taxa (Arachnothera spiderhunters, Chloropsis leafbirds, and Enicurus forktails along an elevational gradient in Borneo. Each taxon pair presents a different elevational range distribution across the island, yet results were uniform: little or no gene flow was detected in any pairwise comparisons. These results are congruent with an allopatric “species-pump” model for generation of species diversity and elevational parapatry of congeners on Borneo, rather than in situ generation of species by “ecological speciation” along an elevational gradient.

  10. The influence of biogeographic history on the functional and phylogenetic diversity of passerine birds in savannas and forests of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Sara Miranda; Juen, Leandro; Sobral, Fernando Landa; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas

    2018-04-01

    Passeriformes is the largest and most diverse avian order in the world and comprises the Passeri and Tyranni suborders. These suborders constitute a monophyletic group, but differ in their ecology and history of occupation of South America. We investigated the influence of biogeographic history on functional and phylogenetic diversities of Passeri and Tyranni in forest and savanna habitats in the Brazilian Amazon. We compiled species composition data for 34 Passeriformes assemblages, 12 in savannas and 22 in forests. We calculated the functional (Rao's quadratic entropy, FD Q ) and phylogenetic diversities (mean pairwise distance, MPD, and mean nearest taxon distance, MNTD), and the functional beta diversity to investigate the potential role of biogeographic history in shaping ecological traits and species lineages of both suborders. The functional diversity of Passeri was higher than for Tyranni in both habitats. The MPD for Tyranni was higher than for Passeri in forests; however, there was no difference between the suborders in savannas. In savannas, Passeri presented higher MNTD than Tyranni, while in forest areas, Tyranni assemblages showed higher MNTD than Passeri. We found a high functional turnover (~75%) between Passeri and Tyranni in both habitats. The high functional diversity of Passeri in both habitats is due to the high diversity of ecological traits exhibited by species of this group, which enables the exploitation of a wide variety of resources and foraging strategies. The higher Tyranni MPD and MNTD in forests is likely due to Tyranni being older settlers in this habitat, resulting in the emergence and persistence of more lineages. The higher Passeri MNTD in savannas can be explained by the existence of a larger number of different Passeri lineages adapted to this severe habitat. The high functional turnover between the suborders in both habitats suggests an ecological strategy to avoid niche overlap.

  11. In vitro determination of the anti-aging potential of four southern African medicinal plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlovu, G

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available southern African medicinal plants; Clerodendrum glabrum, Schotia brachypetala, Psychotria capensis and Peltophorum africanum, were investigated to assess their anti-aging properties....

  12. Abundance and distribution of avian and marine mammal predators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal predators associated with this activity were common dolphins Delphinus capensis and Cape gannets Morus capensis, and their nearshore distribution was associated with sardine and East Coast round herring E. teres. Few clupeoids were encountered along the KwaZulu-Natal continental shelf, although ...

  13. The KwaZulu-Natal sardine run: shoal distribution in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The predator variables were highly significant (r2 = 0.48) with Cape gannets Morus capensis, followed by the sharks/gamefish and common dolphins Delphinus capensis, being most closely associated with sardine presence. Environmental variables were not as influential in the GLM models (r2 = 0.23), but some variables ...

  14. Temperature sensitivity of the oxygenation reaction of stripped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -operativity (n) at all three experimental temperatures compared to L. capensis. The heat of oxygenation (",H) between 8"C (pH 7,63) and. 23"C (pH 7,49) calculated for L capensis haemoglobin (-56,3 kJ.mol ') exceeded that of C. gariepinus ...

  15. An analysis of the recreational shore fishery in the Goukamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten years (1993–2002) of shore fishing catch and effort data collected during routine patrols in the Goukamma Marine Protected Area in theWestern Cape Province were analysed. Of a total of 35 species recorded, the most common were backtail, Diplodus sargus capensis (39%), and galjoen, Dichistius capensis (25%).

  16. Phylogenetic relationships among members of the Pachydactylus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Pachydactylus capensis group is a phenetically-defined assemblage of five small-bodied geckos broadly distributed in eastern southern Africa. Several additional small-bodied Pachydactylus have been historically considered subspecies of P. capensis or members of this group. To assess evolutionary relationships ...

  17. Sexual dimorphism of four owl species in South Africa | Ansara-Ross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owl Tyto capensis, Barn Owl T. alba, Marsh Owl Asio capensis and Spotted Eagle-Owl Bubo africanus) by examining specimens of intact owl carcasses found killed by vehicles along a national road in Gauteng province, South Africa. Females ...

  18. 50 CFR 10.13 - List of Migratory Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection of Migratory Birds, August 16, 1916, United States-Great Britain (on behalf of Canada), 39 Stat..., Gallinago stenura Swinhoe's, Gallinago megala Wilson's, Gallinago delicata (the “common” snipe hunted in..., Spizella pusilla Five-striped, Aimophila quinquestriata Fox, Passerella iliaca Golden-crowned, Zonotrichia...

  19. Compilation of 1985 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3. Tabs H-J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Buckley B. (1975) The Feen% P. (1970) Seasonal changes in oak leaf tannin processing of conifer and hardwood leaves in two and nutrients as a cause...Zonotrichia aIbicollis 35 51 34 77 -Drk-.yed Junco Junco hvermlis I I I I Red- wineed Blackbird Amelaius ohoeniceus 1 5 15 0 Comnon Grackle Ouiscalus cuiscula

  20. Behavioral experiments in a wild passerine cause short-term reductions in parental provisioning and nestling mass Experimentos conductuales en un ave paserina silvestre causan reducciones de corto plazo en el cuidado parental y peso de pichones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WOUTER F.D VAN DONGEN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on wild animals often involves the capture and temporary removal of individuals from their territory. Although the acute effects of such procedures are well understood in terms of stress hormone profiles, their effect on the behaviour of captured individuals after release is poorly known. Additionally, for socially-monogamous individuals captured whilst breeding, little is known regarding whether the remaining individual compensates for the temporary loss of its partner and whether offspring condition or survival ultimately decreases due to any reductions in parental provisioning. We investigated the influence of field-based experiments requiring temporary adult removal on adult provisioning behaviour and nestling mass in the thorn-tailed rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda, a Chilean furnariid species with equal parental effort between sexes. During the absence of the removed individual, remaining individuals did not increase nestling provisioning rates while, upon their release, removed individuals did not return to nestling feeding for at least 38 minutes and typically much longer. This drastic reduction in combined parental provisioning negatively affected nestling mass, while average nestling mass increased during a control period, nestlings failed to gain weight during and subsequent to parental removal. Finally, our experiments did not affect fledging probability. Overall, our results indicate that the temporary removal of rayaditos from their territories can cause short-term reductions in parental provisioning and nestling weight, but is unlikely to lead to any long-term effects on nestling survival.Las investigaciones en animales silvestres frecuentemente requieren la captura y remoción de individuos de sus territorios. Si bien se conocen los efectos a nivel hormonal de tales métodos, sus efectos sobre la conducta de los individuos después de la liberación son escasamente conocidos. Además, para individuos de especies monógamas que son capturados durante la época reproductiva, se desconoce si el individuo restante compensa la pérdida temporal de su compañero ni si la condición o sobrevivencia de los pichones disminuye como consecuencia del cuidado parental reducido. Investigamos la influencia de experimentos de campo que remueven temporalmente un adulto sobre las visitas de aprovisionamiento y el peso de pichones en el rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda, un furnárido con similar cuidado parental entre los sexos. Durante la ausencia de un adulto, los individuos restantes de cada pareja no aumentaron la frecuencia de aprovisionamiento. Después de su liberación, los individuos previamente ausentes no volvieron a alimentar a sus pichones por al menos 38 minutos. Esta acentuada reducción en cuidado parental por ambos adultos de la pareja afectó negativamente el peso de los pichones. Aunque el peso medio de los pichones aumentó durante el período control, los pichones no aumentaron su peso durante y después de la remoción parental. Nuestros experimentos no afectaron el éxito de los volantones. Globalmente, los experimentos causaron reducciones de corto plazo en cuidado parental y peso de pichones, pero es improbable que causen efectos de largo plazo en la sobrevivencia de los pichones.

  1. New distribution records for four mammal species, with notes on their taxonomy and ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Bronner

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available New distribution records for four small mammal species (Georychus capensis, Galerella pulverulenta, Rhinolophus swinnyi and Amblysomus julianae are presented, along with relevant notes on the taxonomy, karyology and ecology of these species.

  2. African penguins as predators and prey — coping (or not) with change

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They feed to a large extent on shoaling epipelagic fish, notably anchovy Engraulis capensis and ... This has led to both the extinction and formation of colonies. ... The chance of survival of the species through the 21st century is tenuous.

  3. Two hake species, deep-water Cape hake Merluccius paradoxus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    paradoxus and shallow-water Cape hake M. capensis, are found along the ... For both species, average length increased with depth. M. paradoxus expanded its ..... Evolution of the Benguela, physical features and processes. In Oceano-.

  4. pisces: Sparidae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    items, which combines the modified points method and the frequency of occurrence ... Studies on the feeding and breeding biology of D. sargus capensis to date refer to ...... habits of albacore, bluefin tuna, and bonito in California water. Calif.

  5. SWFSC/MMTD: Ecosystem Survey of Delphinus Species (ESDS) 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This survey focused on two species of common dolphin: the short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, and the long-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus capensis ,...

  6. Impact of commercial afforestation on bird populations in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa - Insights from bird-atlas data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Allan, DG

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available -tailed pipit Anthus brachyurus Yellow-breasted pipit Hemimacronyx chloris Orange-throated longclaw Macronyx capensis Fiscal shrike Lanius collaris Pied starling Spreo bicolor Gurney's sugarbird Promerops gurneyi Malachite sunbird...

  7. The Food and Agriculture Organization, in its Reykjavik Declaration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-06-06

    Jun 6, 2005 ... information on the geographical distribution of marine species to improve .... snoek, albacore, bigeye tuna, yellowfin tuna, shallow- water Cape hake Merluccius capensis and deep- ..... raw data processing by MCM. Because ...

  8. African Zoology - Vol 47, No 1 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lygodactylus capensis) (Gekkonidae) · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Patricia A. Fleming, Philip W. Bateman, 55-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.3377/004.047.0110 ...

  9. Trawl survey data are applied in fish stock assessment mainly to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Merluccius capensis (shallow-water Cape hake) and. M. paradoxus (deep-water Cape hake) off Namibia provide an ... published data), meaning that the horizontal trawl opening will .... Acoustic data were post-processed twice daily. Hake.

  10. The Benguela upwelling system is one of the most productive in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Waldron and Probyn 1992), providing a large biomass of plankton and planktivo- rous fish (Ware 1992) that in turn are preyed on by the. Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus, which are dominant and highly successful demersal.

  11. Seasonal variation in plasma and corpus luteum oestradiol.17[3and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flemming 1993) and, in males, with circulating sex steroid concentrations ..... biology of the Cape mole-rat, Georychus capensis (Rodentia. Bathycrgidac), j, Zool" ... brain. and behavior: an emerging discipline in herpetology. In: Biology of the ...

  12. Nieuwe vondsten van zeldzame planten in 1993, 1994 en (ten dele) 1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijden, van der Ruud; Holverda, Wout J.; Duistermaat, Leni (H.)

    1996-01-01

    New indigenous species are Conopodium majus and Vulpia membranacea, and the recently recorded hybrid Scutellaria galericulata x minor (S. x hybrida). New and fully naturalized neophytes are the invasive species Hydrocotyle ranunculoides and Impatiens capensis. Other new neophytes are

  13. Department of Zoological Sciences, Addis Ababa Univer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... unprecedented negative effects thereby exasperating natural disasters which ultimately will cause a negative .... such farms there is substantial activity in animal husbandry. .... capensis, Prunus africana, Cordia africana, and ...

  14. lutionary research has been on the relationships and structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    off Namibia have been limited by either a spatial or a temporal scale ... Antarctic Intermediate, deep and bottom waters. (Shannon .... either to include or to ignore rare species (Alatalo ...... Shallow-water Cape hake Merluccius capensis, horse.

  15. Bird species of Mouau with special emphasis on foraging behavior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten different bird species were peculiar to the Umudike environment and of these eight were regular thus closely observed and identified. The other two species were scarcely available and may be regarded as visiting birds. The eight species identified were either Passerine or Non-Passerine. The northern grey-headed ...

  16. Conservation implications when the next predators are known. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank R., III Thompson; Christine A. Ribic

    2012-01-01

    Conservation and management of passerines has largely focused on habitat manipulation or restoration because the natural communities on which these birds depend have been destroyed and fragmented. However, productivity is another important aspect of avian conservation, and nest predation can be a large source of nesting mortality for passerines. Recent studies using...

  17. Sugar and protein digestion in flowerpiercers and hummingbirds: a comparative test of adaptive convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schondube, J E; Martinez del Rio, C

    2004-04-01

    Flowerpiercers are the most specialized nectar-feeding passerines in the Neotropics. They are nectar robbers that feed on the sucrose-rich diet of hummingbirds. To test the hypothesis that flowerpiercers have converged with hummingbirds in digestive traits, we compared the activity of intestinal enzymes and the gut nominal area of cinnamon-bellied flowerpiercers (Diglossa baritula) with those of eleven hummingbird species. We measured sucrase, maltase, and aminopeptidase-N activities. To provide a comparative context, we also compared flowerpiercers and hummingbirds with 29 species of passerines. We analyzed enzyme activity using both standard allometric analyses and phylogenetically independent contrasts. Both approaches revealed the same patterns. With the exception of sucrase activity, hummingbirds' digestive traits were indistinguishable from those of passerines. Sucrase activity was ten times higher in hummingbirds than in passerines. Hummingbirds and passerines also differed in the relationship between intestinal maltase and sucrase activities. Maltase activity was two times higher per unit of sucrase activity in passerines than in hummingbirds. The sucrase activity of D. baritula was much lower than that of hummingbirds, and not unlike that expected for a passerine of its body mass. With the exception of aminopeptidase-N activity, the digestive traits of D. baritula were not different from those of other passerines. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  18. Alabama ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns...

  19. Pox in mourning doves in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.

    1961-01-01

    Pox infection has occurrcd in mourning doves in at least 8 states on 12 separate occasions. Unsuccessful attempts were made to transmit both fowl pox (chicken isolate) and passerine pox (cowbird isolate) to mourning doves.

  20. Combining direct and indirect tracking techniques to assess the impact of sub-Saharan conditions on cross-continental songbird migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Fraser, Kevin C.; Kyser, T. Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how events throughout the annual cycle interact to influence individual fitness and hence population dynamics is crucial to optimize conservation strategies for migratory birds. Despite major advancements in technology, direct tracking devices for passerine songbirds are still limited...

  1. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, gulls and...

  2. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  3. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: North Carolina: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in North...

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: South Florida: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  6. Maryland ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  7. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Central California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerine birds, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds,...

  8. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, and gulls and...

  9. Columbia River ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, diving birds, seabirds, passerine birds, gulls, and terns in...

  10. Hawaii ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered waterbirds and passerine birds, migratory shorebirds and waterfowl, gulls and terns,...

  11. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for pelagic birds, shorebirds, wading birds, waterfowl, gulls, terns, and passerine birds in Guam and the...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Northern California: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for alcids, diving birds, gulls, terns, passerines, pelagic birds, raptors, shorebirds, wading birds, and...

  13. Virginia ESI: BIRDS (Bird Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, waterfowl, raptors, diving birds, pelagic birds, passerine birds, and gulls...

  14. Molecular evidence for long-distance colonization in an Indo-Pacific seahorse lineage

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Teske, P.R.; Hamilton, H.; Palsboll, P.J.; Choo, C.K.; Gabr, H.; Lourie, S.A.; Santos, M.; Sreepada, R.A.; Cherry, M.I.; Matthee, C.A.

    Island, Mozambique 2 Pemba, Tanzania* 1 H. kuda Tayabas Bay, Quezon, the Philippines 35(+3) (West Pacific lineage) Fiji 10 Taiwan* 1 H. fuscus Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Egypt* 35 H. capensis Knysna Estuary, South Africa 35 Outgroup H. reidi Gulf of Mexico..., Mexico* 1 H. ingens East Pacific coast, Mexico* 1 H. hilonis Hawaii* 1 H. capensis (South Africa) H. kuda (South Africa) H. kuda (Mozambique) H. kuda (Tanzania) H. kuda (western India) H. kuda (southeastern India) H. kuda (Malaysia) H. kuda (Lombok) H...

  15. Conservation implications when the nest predators are known

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Thompson, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Conservation and management of passerines has largely focused on habitat manipulation or restoration because the natural communities on which these birds depend have been destroyed and fragmented. However, productivity is another important aspect of avian conservation, and nest predation can be a large source of nesting mortality for passerines. Recent studies using video surveillance to identify nest predators allow researchers to start evaluating what methods could be used to mitigate nest predation to help passerines of conservation concern. From recent studies, we identified latitudinal and habitat-related patterns in the importance of predator groups that depredate passerine nests. We then reviewed how knowledge of specific nest predators can benefit conservation of bird species of concern. Mammals were the dominant predator group in northern grasslands. Snakes were the dominant predator group in southern habitats. Fire ants were only a nest predator in southern latitudes. Differences in the importance of predator species or groups were likely the result of both their geographic patterns of distribution and habitat preferences. Some direct and indirect predator control measures developed for waterfowl management potentially could be used to benefit passerine productivity. We reviewed three examples-cowbirds, snakes in shrublands, and ground squirrels in grasslands-to illustrate how different predator control strategies may be needed in different situations. Mitigation of passerine nest predation will need to be based on knowledge of predator communities to be effective. This requires large samples of predation events with identified predators; video technology is essential for this task.

  16. Ant species richness of fynbos and forest ecosystems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ant fauna in fynbos and forest habitats in the southern Cape are compared. There is no significant difference in ant species richness between the two undisturbed habitat types, and the only two species common to both are Acantholepis capensis and Camponotus maculatus. The degree of Hakea sericea infestation in ...

  17. The taxonomic status of common dolphins Delphinus spp. in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aside from gender differences, a principal components analysis of skull measurements of 72 adult common dolphins from South Africa failed to distinguish more than one form of Delphinus. Plots of rostral length against zygomatic width indicated most could be referred to the long-beaked form D. capensis, but three ...

  18. During the British Antarctic Survey's Offshore Biological Programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    high wingfold thickened to form a ridge, long wing, short crest; hood long relative to crest and broadly notched in the midline; thickened fold running to lower part ... soma (Goodrich, 1896), C. imperator Chun, 1910, C. atlantica (MacDonald & Clench, 1934), C. joubini. Voss, 1967, C. capensis Voss, 1967 and C. calyx. Young ...

  19. Forecasting in South African pelagic fisheries management: The use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two simple rulebased deterministic modelling approaches are described, which use semi-quantitative and qualitative rules to relate recruitment success of South African anchovy Engraulis capensis to physical and biological indices. The first model relates recruitment success to indices of wind and sea surface temperature ...

  20. Sodium and potassium concentrations in floral nectars in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sodium and potassium concentrations have been measured in nectar from a variety of flowering plants visited by honey bees (Apis mellifera capensis). In 18 plant species the mean sodium concentration was 9,8 ± 1,4 mmol (± S.E.), and the mean potassium concentration was 18,7 ± 4,3 mmol. These results are compared ...

  1. Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-03-17

    Mar 17, 1987 ... Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz, and the African honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille,. , in the western Cape Province. P.V. W-Worswick*. Department of Zoology, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 Republic of South Africa.

  2. African Zoology - Vol 33, No 4 (1998)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predation on the tent tortoise Psammobates tentorius: a whodunit with the honey badger Mellivora capensis as prime suspect · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Penn Lloyd, Dekker A. Stadler, 200-202 ...

  3. Effects of temperature and salinity on resting metabolism in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the resting metabolic rate (RMR; mg O2 g/h) of the resident rock pool fish Caffrogobius caffer and the transient sparid Diplodus sargus capensis at a range of salinities (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 PSU) and temperatures (14, 20 and 28°C) using closed-vessel respirometry. Both species were temperature ...

  4. Variable spatial structure of schooling pelagic fish off Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schools of horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis, sardine Sardinops sagax and round herring Etrumeus whiteheadi were surveyed by conventional echo-integration along systematic transects. The transects were surveyed twice, in opposite directions. Clupeoid biomass was concentrated in a few dense ...

  5. Phylogeographic patterning among two codistributed shrimp species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae reveals high levels of connectivity across biogeographic regions along the South African coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa E Wood

    Full Text Available We compare the genetic structuring and demographic history of two sympatric caridean shrimp species with distinct life history traits, one amphidromous species Palaemon capensis and one marine/estuarine species Palaemon peringueyi, in the historical biogeographical context of South Africa. A total of 103 specimens of P. capensis collected from 12 localities and 217 specimens of P. peringueyi collected from 24 localities were sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase one (CO1 locus. Results from analyses of molecular variance (AMOVA, pairwise ΦST comparisons and haplotype networks demonstrate weak to moderate genetic differentiation in P. capensis and P. peringueyi respectively. P. peringueyi exhibits partial isolation between populations associated with distinct biogeographic regions, likely driven by the region's oceanography. However, there is minimal evidence for the occurrence of discrete regional evolutionary lineages. This demonstrated lack of genetic differentiation is consistent with a marine, highly dispersive planktonic phase in both the amphidromous P. capensis and the marine/estuarine P. peringueyi. Bayesian skyline plots, mismatch expansions and time since expansion indicate that both species maintained stable populations during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, unlike other southern African aquatic species.

  6. African Zoology - Vol 21, No 2 (1986)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical population genetics of the black mussel Choromytilus meridionalis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Effects of temperature and hypoxic stress on the oxygen consumption rates of the mudsucker fish Labeo capensis (Smith) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Short Communication Validation of growth zone deposition rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flathead mullet Mugil cephalus and freshwater mullet Myxus capensis are important components in South African estuarine fish communities and fisheries, but there is little information on their age and growth or age validation. This study validated the periodicity of growth zone formation in sectioned sagittal otoliths and ...

  8. Validation of growth zone deposition in otoliths of two large endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We tested the hypothesis that growth zones in the astericus otoliths of smallmouth yellowfish (Labeobarbus aeneus) and Orange River mudfish (Labeo capensis) were deposited annually. Two methods, fluorochrome marking and edge analysis of otoliths were used. For fluorochrome marking, specimens of both species ...

  9. Bayesian analysis of allozyme markers indicates a single genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kingklip Genypterus capensis inhabit deep continental shelf and slope waters off southern Africa and are now largely harvested as a bycatch in trawl and longline fisheries for Cape hakes Merluccius spp. Regional differences in growth, vertebral count and otolith morphology indicate that kingklip may consist of three stocks.

  10. Escapement of Cape hakes under the fishing line of the Namibian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to establish whether Cape hakes Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus escape under the fishing line and to identify any species or length dependence of escape rates. Experiments were carried out in Namibian waters during two cruises in October 2002 and October 2003. A collection bag ...

  11. Intrusion of beach-disposed dredger spoil into the Mhlathuze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment intrusion and its impact on the beds of the seagrass Zostera capensis in the estuary were monitored from 1996 to 1999. Fine sediment did enter the estuary from the marine environment and was deposited mainly in its lower reaches, where its settling on the leaves of Zostera resulted in a major die-back. However ...

  12. In vitro antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, phytochemical screening and in vitro antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of D. edulis and F. capensis leaves were evaluated. Each plant leaves were extracted in methanol using standard procedures. The phytochemical screening of the resulting extracts showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, ...

  13. Functional Anatomy of the Feeding Apparatus of Four South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional anatomy of the head and anterior neck region of the cormorants Phalacrocorax lucidus. P. neglectus, P. capensis and P. africanus was investigated. There are significant differences in absolute size of the muscle and bone elements between the four species. The relative proportions of these elements are, ...

  14. Evaluation of a class of possible simple interim management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During 1997, considerable scientific differences arose about the status of the Namibian hake (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus) resource, and as to whether the hake Total Allowable Catch (TAC) should be substantially decreased or increased. These differences revolved primarily around whether or not abundance ...

  15. A model of trophic flows in the northern Benguela upwelling system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ultimately, this type of model may form a basis for multispecies management approaches in the region. By the 1980s, sardine Sardinops sagax and hake Merluccius spp. stocks in the northern Benguela had both undergone a decline, yet were still heavily fished. Horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis had increased ...

  16. Selected fishery and population parameters of eight shore-angling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected fishery and population parameters of eight shore-angling species in the ... Five different estimates of natural mortality (M), and the coefficients of ... for the most abundant species, blacktail Diplodus capensis, with a mean CPUE of 0.252 ... Keywords: catch per unit effort; fisheries management; marine protected area; ...

  17. Influence of oceanographic fronts and low oxygen on the distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The horizontal and vertical distributions of eggs and larvae of sardine Sardinops sagax, anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus capensis were examined in relation to distribution patterns of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen. Samples were collected during February–March 2002 ...

  18. Molecular evidence for long-distance colonization in an Indo-Pacific seahorse lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teske, PR; Hamilton, H; Palsboll, PJ; Choo, CK; Gabr, H; Lourie, SA; Santos, M; Sreepada, A; Cherry, MI; Matthee, CA

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial control region (mtDNA CR) diversity within and among 6 seahorse populations associated with the Indo-Pacific Hippocampus kuda complex (H. kuda from India, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, H. fuscus from the Red Sea and H. capensis from South Africa) was compared to determine

  19. (Gmelin, 1791) and Patella concolor Krauss, 1848 (Gastropoda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-11-21

    Nov 21, 1986 ... Trans Roy. Soc. S. Afr. 41: 111-160. BRANCH, G.M. 1975. Notes on the ecology of Patella concolor and Cellana capensis and the effects of human consumption on limpet populations. 2001 Afr. 10: 75-85. BRANCH, G.M. 1981. The biology of limpets: physical factors, energy flow, and ecological interactions.

  20. Male flat lizards prefer females with novel scents | Lewis | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Males were given a choice between two refuges, an odourless control and one of the following: a conspecific female from the same population (sympatric), a conspecific female from a distant population (allopatric), and a female from their sister species (heterospecific), P. capensis. Males chose refuges treated with the scent ...

  1. New species of haematozoa in Phalacrocoracidae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New species of haematozoa, namely Leucocytozoon ugwidi sp. nov. from the Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis and Haemoproteus skuae sp. nov. from the Subantarctic Skua Catharacta antarctica, are described. These are the first species to be recorded from the families Phalacrocoracidae and Stercorariidae, ...

  2. Factors influencing the breeding success of Cape Gannets Morus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the 2002/2003 breeding season at Malgas Island, South Africa, 125 nests of Cape Gannets Morus capensis, of which at least one partner was of known age, were monitored. The age of birds at these nests ranged from five to 22 years. At five nests, the ages of both partners were known; ages were similar for birds ...

  3. The Cape commercial linefishery consists of about 2 500 vessels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    assessing the ecosystem effects of fishing and evaluating the benefits of ... Such information would assist in the ... Traditional Cape linefish may be broadly divided into ... gressively farther offshore (and into deeper. Griffiths: ... (Griffiths 1997c); this process controls avail- ... of shallow-water Cape hake Merluccius capensis,.

  4. Ontogenetic dietary shift and morphological correlates for Diplodus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allometric growth patterns of functional morphological variables that reflect resource use in fish were correlated with the diet of Diplodus capensis in southern Angola. A total of 114 individuals (76–336 mm FL) were collected for stomach content analysis and a further 35 individuals (80–320 mm FL) for morphometric ...

  5. Short Note Is the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens or Zosterops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recent scientific literature employs three binomial names for the southern African endemic bird known as the Cape White-eye: Zosterops capensis, Z. pallidus and Z. virens. This unacceptable inconsistency reflects the contention regarding white-eye systematics. Recent molecular work by Oatley and colleagues led to ...

  6. Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds in South Africa, especially African penguins Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannets Morus capensis , 1983–2005. ... In addition, oiling has a long-term negative impact on the breeding productivity and cost of reproduction in de-oiled birds. The primary ...

  7. The proposed transfer of the echiuran Ochetostoma capense to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The taxonomic position of the echurian Ochetostoma capense is reviewed based on examination of type material and on specimens from the type locality. On the basis of the disposition of the inner oblique muscle layer, the species is transferred to the genus Listriolobus and is re-described as L. capensis.

  8. Comparison of the morphology of the megachiropteran and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... from the choroid. This does not occur in the insectivorous bat R. capensis, where the choroid and the retina form a smooth layer. It is suggested that this unique feature of the fruit bat, and the associated increase in surface area and hence the number of photoreceptors is probably responsible for its good nocturnal vision.

  9. Integration of metabolism and digestion in the hyrax | Fairall | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic adaptations and digestive ability were integrated to explain the ecological efficiency of the hyrax (Procavia capensis). Metabolic rate was shown to decrease linearly with a drop in ambient temperature, but at a lower rate than an animal of equivalent size, the guinea-pig (Cavia porcel/us). This is achieved by ...

  10. Energetic Requirements for Growth and Maintenance of the Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energetic requirements for growth and maintenance of the Cape gannet (Sula capensis) were studied by hand-rearing captive chicks and keeping juveniles in captivity at constant mass. Daily gain in mass was linear until 60 days of age; after 82 days the chicks lost mass prior to attaining fledging age (97 days).

  11. Fish community structures in Zostera and non-Zostera regions of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zostera capensis Setchell as shelter and food for juvenile fish in South ... (0) Shannon-Weaver index of general diversity (II) where. H = rP)o~P; ..... sea. Van der Elst 1981. sea. Day et al. 1981. sea sea. Wallace 1975. sea. Day et al. 1981 .... The water in the Mngazana estuary is remarkably clear, especially in the mouth area ...

  12. Spawning strategies and transport of early stages of the two Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal and short-term variability of environmental parameters influence the spawning strategies of fish species. In this study, the spawning strategies and the transport of early stages of the two Cape hake species off South Africa were investigated. Distribution of eggs and larvae of Merluccius paradoxus and M. capensis ...

  13. The distribution and abundance of the endangered Knysna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence, distribution and abundance of the endangered Knysna seahorse Hippocampus capensis in 10 estuaries on South Africa's warm temperate south coast, were investigated. Seahorses were found only in the Knysna, Swartvlei and Keurbooms estuaries. Sex ratios were even and, in most cases, more adults ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    W-Worswick, P.V.. Vol 23, No 2 (1988) - Articles Comparison of nectar foraging efficiency in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz, and the African honeybee, Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille, in the western Cape Province Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2224-073X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. Crustacea; Talitridae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution of the amphipod, Talorchestia capensis (Crustacea; Talitridae) has been studied in a dune-beach system. The majority of amphipods occurred in dune slacks with fewer on the beach. No zonation of size classes existed, both juveniles and adults occurring throughout the slack. Amphipods were concentrated in ...

  16. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Eastern Mountains and Piedmont Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    nettle (Boehmeria cylindrica), Canadian woodnettle (Laportea canaden- sis), white panicle aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum = Aster simplex...spp.), smallspike false nettle , lizard’s tail, skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus), cardinal flower, jewelweed (Impatiens capensis), tearthumbs...Presence of live individuals, diapausing insect eggs or crustacean cysts, or dead remains of aquatic fauna, such as, but not limited to, sponges, bivalves

  17. Estimating Cape hare occupancy and abundance in southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study outlines the importance of integrating spotlighting data and occupancy modelling to estimate the spatial occupancy, abundance and habitat preferences of Cape hares Lepus capensis in southern Tunisia. Exploring the spatial distribution pattern of this species is problematic because of its nocturnal and secretive ...

  18. The importance of lipid-rich fish prey for Cape gannet chick growth : are fishery discards an alternative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullers, Ralf H. E.; Navarro, Rene A.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Underhill, Les G.

    2009-01-01

    A recent decline in population numbers of Cape gannets (Morus capensis) breeding off the west coast of South Africa coincided with decreased availability of lipid-rich fish prey: anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardinops sagax). Seabirds can use fishery discards as an alternative, but

  19. Macrofaunal community structure in the littoral zone of a freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidimensional scaling (MDS) indicated that there were no significant spatial patterns in the macrofaunal community structure within the four zones which could be related to the predominance of euryhaline species, including Marphysa sanguinea (estuarine wonder worm), Arcuatula capensis (estuarine mussel), Macoma ...

  20. Aphrodisiac properties of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treated with M. whitei and E. capensis, aloe and pumpkin seeds showing an increase in sexual performance in terms of intromissions and ejaculatory latency which also improved sexual sensation and coupulatory efficiency. The formulations of plants under investigation showed significant aphrodisiac properties.

  1. Comparison of the population structure and life-history parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blacktail seabream Diplodus capensis were sampled from proximate (10 km apart) exploited and unexploited areas in southern Angola to compare their population structures and life-history parameters. Females dominated the larger size and older age classes in the unexploited area. In the exploited area the length and ...

  2. Effects of animal activity on the absorption rate of soils in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rates of absorption into various microsites in Karoo soils were compared. The absorption of water by hard, bare intershrub soils was significantly increased by the presence of emergence holes of adult cicadas and near nest-mounds of the harvester ant Messor capensis. Both these insects play an important role in ...

  3. First record of predation by the alien invasive freshwater fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First record of predation by the alien invasive freshwater fish Micropterus salmoides L. (Centrarchidae) on migrating estuarine fishes in South Africa. ... Estuarine fish species, Monodactylus falciformis, and two species of the family Mugilidae, Mugil cephalus and Myxus capensis, were the most common fish prey in both size ...

  4. Development of the chondrocranium of the shallow-water Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-01-15

    Jan 15, 1988 ... Both the auditory capsules and the occipital arches take part in the development of the tectum synoticum. The tectum posterius does not develop separately, but as a posterior extension of the tectum synoticum. Die ontwikkeling die neurokranium van Merluccius capensis word beskryf vanaf die vroegste ...

  5. In a study on the description and dynamics of the nearshore ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    plankton taxonomy from the neritic region along the south-east coast of South Africa. The family Cyno- glossidae consists of three genera and 13 species in southern African waters (Heemstra 1986). The genus. Cynoglossus alone contains nine of these species, C. zanzibarensis and C. capensis being the only two.

  6. Root-nodule bacteria isolated from native Amphithalea ericifolia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indigenous root-nodule bacteria isolated from the acid sands of the Cape using Aspalathus linearis, Aspalathus hispida, Aspalathus carnosa, Aspalathus capensis and Amphithalea ericifolia as trap hosts showed considerable tolerance to low pH. Isolates from A. ericifolia and A. carnosa could even grow in YMB medium at ...

  7. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 250 ... Vol 103, No 1 (2014), Butterfly pollination of the dryland wildflower Gloriosa minor, Abstract. DJ Martins. Vol 88, No 1 (1999), Canthariphilous insects in east Africa, Abstract. C Hemp, A Hemp, K Dettner. Vol 103, No 2 (2014), Cape grass owl tyto capensis pellet indicates a Range extension for the vlei rat ...

  8. African Zoology - Vol 42, No 2 (2007)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat use and movement patterns in the graceful crag lizard, Pseudocordylus capensis · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... The leaf-litter earthworm fauna (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of forests in Limpopo Province, South Africa: diversity, communities and conservation · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract · Vol 31, No 1 (2009) - Articles Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds in South Africa, especially African penguins Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannets Morus capensis, 1983–2005. Abstract · Vol 31, No 1 (2009) - Articles Turtle bycatch in the pelagic longline fishery off southern ...

  10. ’n Respirometer vir akwatiese diere, geyk teen die Scholander-respirometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. van Aardt

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available ’n Betroubare maar stadig werkende respirometer is vergelyk met ’n nuut ontwerpte Clark-elektroderespirometer. As metingsmateriaal is van Labeo capensis, ’n varswatervis, gebruik gemaak. Die resultate is statisties ontleed. Daar is gevind dat die iesings van die Clark-elektroderespirometer effens hoer is as die van die klassieke manometriese respirometer van Scholander.

  11. Four large coastal upwelling areas are created by eastern boundary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    large deep-water hake Merluccius paradoxus, 2.7% small M. paradoxus, 1.3% ... hake in the Benguela region, the shallow-water species. Merluccius capensis .... sharks are not included in the estimate, and neither is the proportion of sharks ...

  12. Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCormack, John E.; Maley, James M.; Hird, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    divergence in four phylogenetically diverse avian systems using a method for quick and cost-effective generation of primary DNA sequence data using pyrosequencing. NGS data were processed using an analytical pipeline that reduces many reads into two called alleles per locus per individual. Using single...... throughout the genome. Using eight loci found in Zonotrichia and Junco lineages, we were also able to generate a species tree of these sparrow sister genera, demonstrating the potential of this method for generating data amenable to coalescent-based analysis. We discuss improvements that should enhance...

  13. The relationship between habitat complexity and nursery provision for an estuarine-dependent fish species in a permanently open South African Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Timothy; James, Nicola C.; Potts, Warren M.; Rajkaran, Anusha

    2017-11-01

    Estuarine-dependent marine fish species rely on shallow, sheltered and food rich habitats for protection from predators, growth and ultimately recruitment to adult populations. Hence, habitats within estuaries function as critical nursery areas for an abundance of fish species. However, these habitats vary in the degree of nursery function they provide and few studies have quantitatively assessed the relative nursery value of different habitat types within estuaries, particularly in the context of habitat complexity. This study aimed to assess the nursery value of the dominant vegetated habitats, namely the submergent Zostera capensis (Setch.) (seagrass) beds and emergent Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald (salt marsh) beds in the Bushmans Estuary, South Africa. Biomass and stem density were sampled seasonally in order to gain insight into the vegetation dynamics of seagrass and salt marsh beds. Aerial cover, canopy height and underwater camera imagery were used to develop multiple complexity indices for prioritizing habitat complexity. The relatively consistent results of the dimensionless indices (interstitial space indices and fractal geometry) suggest that Z. capensis exhibits an overall greater degree of complexity than S. maritima, and hence it can be expected that fish abundance is likely to be higher in Z. capensis beds than in S. maritima habitats. Underwater video cameras were deployed in seagrass, salt marsh and sand flat habitats to assess the relative abundance and behaviour of the estuarine-dependent sparid Rhabosargus holubi (Steindachner 1881) in different habitats. The relative abundance of R. holubi was significantly higher in Z. capensis seagrass than S. maritima salt marsh and sand flats, whilst the behaviour of R. holubi indicated a high degree of habitat use in structured habitats (both Z. capensis and S. martima) and a low degree of habitat use in unstructured sand flat habitats.

  14. Brain transcriptome sequencing and assembly of three songbird model systems for the study of social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N. Balakrishnan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emberizid sparrows (emberizidae have played a prominent role in the study of avian vocal communication and social behavior. We present here brain transcriptomes for three emberizid model systems, song sparrow Melospiza melodia, white-throated sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis, and Gambel’s white-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii. Each of the assemblies covered fully or in part, over 89% of the previously annotated protein coding genes in the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata, with 16,846, 15,805, and 16,646 unique BLAST hits in song, white-throated and white-crowned sparrows, respectively. As in previous studies, we find tissue of origin (auditory forebrain versus hypothalamus and whole brain as an important determinant of overall expression profile. We also demonstrate the successful isolation of RNA and RNA-sequencing from post-mortem samples from building strikes and suggest that such an approach could be useful when traditional sampling opportunities are limited. These transcriptomes will be an important resource for the study of social behavior in birds and for data driven annotation of forthcoming whole genome sequences for these and other bird species.

  15. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals reticulate evolution in hares (Lepus spp., Lagomorpha, Mammalia from Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Tolesa

    Full Text Available For hares (Lepus spp., Leporidae, Lagomorpha, Mammalia from Ethiopia no conclusive molecular phylogenetic data are available. To provide a first molecular phylogenetic model for the Abyssinian Hare (Lepus habessinicus, the Ethiopian Hare (L. fagani, and the Ethiopian Highland Hare (L. starcki and their evolutionary relationships to hares from Africa, Eurasia, and North America, we phylogenetically analysed mitochondrial ATPase subunit 6 (ATP6; n = 153 / 416bp and nuclear transferrin (TF; n = 155 / 434bp sequences of phenotypically determined individuals. For the hares from Ethiopia, genotype composition at twelve microsatellite loci (n = 107 was used to explore both interspecific gene pool separation and levels of current hybridization, as has been observed in some other Lepus species. For phylogenetic analyses ATP6 and TF sequences of Lepus species from South and North Africa (L. capensis, L. saxatilis, the Anatolian peninsula and Europe (L. europaeus, L. timidus were also produced and additional TF sequences of 18 Lepus species retrieved from GenBank were included as well. Median joining networks, neighbour joining, maximum likelihood analyses, as well as Bayesian inference resulted in similar models of evolution of the three species from Ethiopia for the ATP6 and TF sequences, respectively. The Ethiopian species are, however, not monophyletic, with signatures of contemporary uni- and bidirectional mitochondrial introgression and/ or shared ancestral polymorphism. Lepus habessinicus carries mtDNA distinct from South African L. capensis and North African L. capensis sensu lato; that finding is not in line with earlier suggestions of its conspecificity with L. capensis. Lepus starcki has mtDNA distinct from L. capensis and L. europaeus, which is not in line with earlier suggestions to include it either in L. capensis or L. europaeus. Lepus fagani shares mitochondrial haplotypes with the other two species from Ethiopia, despite its distinct

  16. Shedding and serologic responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Thomas, Nicholas O; Orahood, Darcy S; Anderson, Theodore D; Oesterle, Paul T

    2010-10-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are well-recognized natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV); however, little is known about the role of passerines in avian influenza virus ecology. Passerines are abundant, widespread, and commonly come into contact with free-ranging birds as well as captive game birds and poultry. We inoculated and subsequently challenged house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with wild-bird origin LPAIV H3N8 to evaluate their potential role in transmission. Oropharyngeal shedding was short lived, and was detected in more starlings (97.2%) than sparrows (47.2%; n=36 of each). Cloacal shedding was rare in both species (8.3%; n=36 of each) and no cage-mate transmission occurred. Infectious LPAIV was cultured from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and gastrointestinal and respiratory tissues from both species. Seroconversion was detected as early as 3 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) (16.7% of sparrows and 0% of starlings; n=6 each); 50% of these individuals seroconverted by 5 d.p.i., and nearly all birds (97%; n=35) seroconverted by 28 d.p.i. In general, pre-existing homologous immunity led to reduced shedding and increased antibody levels within 7 days of challenge. Limited shedding and lack of cage-mate transmission suggest that passerines are not significant reservoirs of LPAIV, although species differences apparently exist. Passerines readily and consistently seroconverted to LPAIV, and therefore inclusion of passerines in epidemiological studies of influenza outbreaks in wildlife and domestic animals may provide further insight into the potential involvement of passerines in avian influenza virus transmission ecology.

  17. Ecological factors affect the level and scaling of avian BMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Brian Keith

    2009-01-01

    The basal rate of metabolism (BMR) in 533 species of birds, when examined with ANCOVA, principally correlates with body mass, most of the residual variation correlating with food habits, climate, habitat, a volant or flightless condition, use or not of torpor, and a highland or lowland distribution. Avian BMR also correlates with migratory habits, if climate and a montane distribution is excluded from the analysis, and with an occurrence on small islands if a flightless condition and migration are excluded. Residual variation correlates with membership in avian orders and families principally because these groups are behaviorally and ecologically distinctive. However, the distinction between passerines and other birds remains a significant correlate of avian BMR, even after six ecological factors are included, with other birds having BMRs that averaged 74% of the passerine mean. This combination of factors accounts for 97.7% of the variation in avian BMR. Yet, migratory species that belong to Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Pelecaniformes, and Procellariiformes and breed in temperate or polar environments have mass-independent basal rates equal to those found in passerines. In contrast, penguins belong to an order of polar, aquatic birds that have basal rates lower than passerines because their flightless condition depresses basal rate. Passerines dominate temperate, terrestrial environments and the four orders of aquatic birds dominate temperate and polar aquatic environments because their high BMRs facilitate reproduction and migration. The low BMRs of tropical passerines may reflect a sedentary lifestyle as much as a life in a tropical climate. Birds have BMRs that are 30-40% greater than mammals because of the commitment of birds to an expensive and expansive form of flight.

  18. Nuuk Basic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulf Hansen, Birger; Christensen, Louise Holm; Tamstorf, Mikkel P.

    2014-01-01

    simulating higher temperatures and increased cloud cover. Generally, all plots functioned as sinks for atmospheric CO2 at the time of the measurement (midday). In October, Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) was generally close to zero. Similar to previous years the uptake of CO2 was higher in control plots...... house in Kobbefjord. All four species of passerines (Lapland buntings, snow buntings, northern wheatears, and redpolls) were already present at the time of the first census, and the survey was carried out until no more observations were made at any census point. The total number of passerines has varied...

  19. Bird interactions with wind turbines : a Canadian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Hamilton, B. [TAEM Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    An environmental study has been conducted on a wind farm adjacent to Castle River, in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta. The objective was to determine the impact of the many wind turbines on birds. The study involved observations of different bird species including raptors, waterfowl and passerines. The observations looked at bird numbers, location relative to turbines, and changes in flight pattern. The study found that raptors flew around or over the turbine blades, while passerines remained below, and waterfowl flew up and over the blades. Very few dead birds were found over the monitoring period, suggesting that wind turbines do not have a major impact on birds. figs.

  20. Small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Swanepoel

    1975-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the small mammals of the Addo Elephant National Park resulted in a checklist, as well as information on relative numbers, distribution within the Park, reproductive activity, sex ratios, and body measurements. Forty mammals species occur in the Park, while three re-introduced species probably do not occur any longer. Of the 40 species 28 are considered small mammals comprising 13 rodent, eight carnivore, two shrew, two bat, one primate and one lagomorph species, as well as the aardvark: Crociduraflavescens, C. cyanea infumata, Rousettus aegyptiacus, Eptesicus capensis, Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Canis mesomelas, Ictonyx striatus, Poecilogale albinucha, Genetta sp., Herpestes pulverulentus, Suricata suricatta, Proteles cristatus, Felis caracal, Orycteropus afer, Lepus saxatilis, Cryptomys hottentotus, Hystrix africae-australis, Pedetes capensis, Graphiurus murinus, Aethomys namaquensis, Praomys natalensis, Rhabdomys pumilio, Mus minutoides, Rattus rattus, Saccostomys campestris, Desmodillus auricularis, Otomys irroratus and 0. unisulcatus.

  1. Freshwater fishes of Tsitsikamma National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in the Tsitsikamma National Park. Fish assemblages in six river systems were sampled in 2001, with a total of 323 fish from eight species recorded. Indigenous fish collected included four freshwater species (Pseudobarbus afer, Pseudobarbus tenuis, Sandelia capensis, Anguilla mossambica, three estuarine species (Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Myxus capensis, and one alien (Micropterus salmoides. One additional indigenous species (Galaxias zebratus and two aliens (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss could potentially occur within the park. The topography and locality of the park presents a unique opportunity to meaningfully conserve the endangered P. tenuis as well as other fish characteristic of the eastern reaches of the Cape Floristic Region. Management action is required to minimise opportunities for further establishment and spread of alien fish species and to conserve indigenous fish assemblages within the park.

  2. Fine-scale environmental effects on Cape hake survey catch rates in the Northern Benguela, using data from a trawl-mounted instrument package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainge, Paulus Inekela; Wieland, Kai

    2017-01-01

    We investigated fine-scale effects of environmental variables associated with habitat distribution for 4 size groups of Cape hakes, Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus, using generalized additive models (GAMs) with a negative binominal error distribution. This study took place during the Namibian...... hake trawl survey of 2016, and was made possible for the first time in Namibia by collecting oceanographic information with a trawl-mounted instrument package concurrently with the catch data. Depth, geographical position, bottom oxygen and bottom temperature had the most pronounced effect on the catch...... rates of both hake species, whereas solar zenith angle representing diel effects and surface layer chlorophyll appeared to be less important. The explained deviance for the best models ranged from 71.4% for M. capensis to 92.7% for M. paradoxus between 43 and 57 cm in length. Differences in catch rates...

  3. Diptera Brachycera found inside the esophagus of a mummified adult male from the early XIX century, Lisbon, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Souto Couri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fly puparia and adult fragments of diptera muscid were found inside the esophagus of a mummified body from the early XIX century, buried inside the crypt of the Sacrament Church (Lisbon, Portugal. The identification of the material revealed a monospecific colonization by Ophyra capensis (Wiedemann (Diptera: Muscidae, a species known to invade corpses in the ammoniacal fermentation wave. This species can be found in corpses kept indoors, not available to the early waves of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae. In the present case, the number of pupae and their developmental stage suggest that the female invaded the mummified corpse through the partially opened mouth and the oviposition took place directly inside the esophagus. This is the first case of O. capensis infesting internal organs of an intact corpse. The use of chemical products for the embalming process probably explains why external colonization did not occur.

  4. Antidiabetic screening and scoring of eleven plants traditionally used in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van de Venter, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available 1 cCannabis sativa L. Cannabaceae L Aq 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 Org 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cissampelos capensis L.f. Menispermaceae L Aq 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 2 L Org 2 -1 2 -1 1 5 -2 3 Org 2 -1 2 -1 0 4 -2 2 cCatharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don. Apocynaceae T Aq 2...

  5. Investigating onychophoran gas exchange and water balance as a means to inform current controversies in arthropod physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

    2008-10-01

    Several controversies currently dominate the fields of arthropod metabolic rate, gas exchange and water balance, including the extent to which modulation of gas exchange reduces water loss, the origins of discontinuous gas exchange, the relationship between metabolic rate and life-history strategies, and the causes of Palaeozoic gigantism. In all of these areas, repeated calls have been made for the investigation of groups that might most inform the debates, especially of taxa in key phylogenetic positions. Here we respond to this call by investigating metabolic rate, respiratory water loss and critical oxygen partial pressure (Pc) in the onychophoran Peripatopsis capensis, a member of a group basal to the arthropods, and by synthesizing the available data on the Onychophora. The rate of carbon dioxide release (VCO2) at 20 degrees C in P. capensis is 0.043 ml CO2 h(-1), in keeping with other onychophoran species; suggesting that low metabolic rates in some arthropod groups are derived. Continuous gas exchange suggests that more complex gas exchange patterns are also derived. Total water loss in P. capensis is 57 mg H2O h(-1) at 20 degrees C, similar to modern estimates for another onychophoran species. High relative respiratory water loss rates ( approximately 34%; estimated using a regression technique) suggest that the basal condition in arthropods may be a high respiratory water loss rate. Relatively high Pc values (5-10% O2) suggest that substantial safety margins in insects are also a derived condition. Curling behaviour in P. capensis appears to be a strategy to lower energetic costs when resting, and the concomitant depression of water loss is a proximate consequence of this behaviour.

  6. Effects of temperature and hypoxic stress on the oxygen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The specific oxygen consumption rate (VO2lMb) of Labeo capensis, the freshwater mudsucker, was determined for small and large fish at winter (8°C) and summer (23°C) temperatures. VO2lMb was also determined during hypoxic conditions of the experimental water. It was found that VO2lMb does not differ substantially ...

  7. Phylogeny of the Juncaceae based on rbcL sequences, with special emphasis on Luzula DC. and Juncus L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drábková, L.; Kirschner, J.; Seberg, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Cladistic analysis of rbcL nucleotide sequences was applied to 58 taxa representing most subgenera and sections of Luzula and Juncus, chosen to reflect morphological and geographical diversity of both genera. Additionally, representatives of all other genera of the Juncaceae and two taxa from the......-supported clade is represented by an assemblage of representatives of five genera and species distributed in the Southern Hemisphere: Juncus capensis and J. lomatophyllus (both from section Graminifolii), Rostkovia, Distichia, Marsippospermum, and Patosia....

  8. Aspects of the morphology and the ecology of a Paradiplozoon species from Barbus aeneus in the Vaal Dam, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. Zoology Only a few species of the family Diplozoidae have previously been described from Africa, from various Labeo and Barbus species. An investigation was undertaken respectively in the Vaal Dam and Vaal River Barrage in the Vaal River system, South Africa to determine aspects of the morphology, taxonomy and ecology of specimens of this family collected from the gills of Barbus aeneus. Various fish species, namely B. aeneus, Barbus kimberleyensis, Labeo capensis, Labeo umbratus, Cy...

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with shade trees and Coffea arabica L. in a coffee-based agroforestry system in Bonga, Southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sewnet ,Tadesse Chanie; Tuju, Fassil Assefa

    2013-01-01

    In a first step to understand the interactions between Coffea arabica L. trees and mycorrhizae in Ethio¬pia, an investigation of the current mycorrhizal colonization status of roots was undertaken. We sampled 14 shade tree species occurring in coffee populations in Bonga forest, Ethiopia. Milletia fer¬ruginea, Schefflera abyssinica, Croton macrostachyus, Ficus vasta, F. sur, Albizia gummifera, Olea capensis, Cordia africana, Ehretia abyssinica, Pouteria adolfi-friederici, Pavetta oliveriana, ...

  10. Does song complexity matter in an intra-sexual context in common blackbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesler, Nana; Sacher, Thomas; Coppack, Timothy

    Bird song is thought to be subject of both inter- and intra-sexual selection and song complexity a signal of male quality. One aspect of song complexity, repertoire size, correlates with estimates of male quality in several passerine species.  The Common Blackbird (Turdus merula) has a large repe...

  11. Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology - Vol 33 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spring weights of some Palaearctic passerines in Ethiopia and Kenya: evidence for important migration staging areas in eastern Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. D Pearson, H Biebach, G Nikolaus, E Yohannes, 45-52 ...

  12. Advanced autumn migration of sparrowhawk has increased the predation risk of long-distance migrants in Finland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi Lehikoinen

    Full Text Available Predation affects life history traits of nearly all organisms and the population consequences of predator avoidance are often larger than predation itself. Climate change has been shown to cause phenological changes. These changes are not necessarily similar between species and may cause mismatches between prey and predator. Eurasian sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus, the main predator of passerines, has advanced its autumn phenology by about ten days in 30 years due to climate change. However, we do not know if sparrowhawk migrate earlier in response to earlier migration by its prey or if earlier sparrowhawk migration results in changes to predation risk on its prey. By using the median departure date of 41 passerine species I was able to show that early migrating passerines tend to advance, and late migrating species delay their departure, but none of the species have advanced their departure times as much as the sparrowhawk. This has lead to a situation of increased predation risk on early migrating long-distance migrants (LDM and decreased the overlap of migration season with later departing short-distance migrants (SDM. Findings highlight the growing list of problems of declining LDM populations caused by climate change. On the other hand it seems that the autumn migration may become safer for SDM whose populations are growing. Results demonstrate that passerines show very conservative response in autumn phenology to climate change, and thus phenological mismatches caused by global warming are not necessarily increasing towards the higher trophic levels.

  13. Female and male Blue Tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) sing in response to experimental predator exposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahr, K.; Seifert, Carlo Lutz; Hoi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 3 (2016), s. 907-911 ISSN 0021-8375 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : defence behaviour * female song * passerines Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10336-016-1345-3

  14. Variation in apical hook length reflects the intensity of sperm competition in murine rodents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šandera, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Stopka, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), e68427 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : postcopulatory sexual selection * field mice Apodemus * female promiscuity * acrosome reaction * Passerine birds * Muroid rodents * genus Apodemus * cytochrome-b * testes size * house mice Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  15. The influence of habitat structure on sexual conflict over care in Penduline Tits Remiz pendulinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Rene E.; Pilon, Arjen E.; Szentirmai, Istvan; Szekely, Tamas; Komdeur, Jan; Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Spatial and temporal distributions of resources and habitats often influence breeding systems. These influences are particularly relevant in those species that exhibit variable breeding systems. We studied such a species, the Penduline Tit Remiz pendulinus. This small passerine bird has sequential

  16. Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body...

  17. Sperm depletion does not account for undeveloped eggs in blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, Elske; Vedder, Oscar; Komdeur, Jan; Magrath, Michael J. L.

    Hatching failure negatively impacts reproductive success in birds. One reason why eggs fail to hatch is that they are not fertilized, which may be because they receive insufficient sperm. In most passerines, copulation declines in frequency or ceases altogether after the laying of the first egg, so

  18. Postcopulatory sexual selection is associated with accelerated evolution of sperm morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rowe, M.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Cramer, E. R. A.; Johnsen, A.; Laskemoen, T.; Weir, J. T.; Lifjeld, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 4 (2015), s. 1044-1052 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : birds * evolutionary diversification * evolutionary rate * passerine * sperm competition Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.007, year: 2015

  19. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine

  20. Toxoplasmosis in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) from the zoo of Clères, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis causes mortality in several avian species, especially passerine birds. Toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in a bar-shouldered dove (Geopelia humeralis) found dead at the zoo of Clères (France). The bird had necrotizing pneumonia and nephritis with intralesional tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondi...

  1. Ticks of the Hyalomma marginatum complex transported by migratory birds into Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapek, Miroslav; Literák, I.; Kocianová, E.; Sychra, O.; Najer, T.; Trnka, A.; Kverek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2014), s. 489-493 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ticks * Hyalomma marginatum complex * Vector * Passerines * Migration * Central Europe Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  2. Intra-tropical movements as a beneficial strategy for Palearctic migratory birds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koleček, Jaroslav; Hahn, S.; Emmenegger, T.; Procházka, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 171675 (2018), č. článku 171675. ISSN 2054-5703 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06451S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : geolocator * habitat deterioration * NDVI * passerines * sub-Saharan Africa * vegetation conditions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Ornithology Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016

  3. Status of the cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) in Northern Alabama, 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Carpenter; Eric C. Soehren; Adrian A. Lesak; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2005-01-01

    The cerulean warbler (Dendroica cerulea) is a Neotropic-Nearctic migratory passerine that breeds in eastern North America and winters in northwestern South America (Dunn and Garrett 1997, Hamel 2000a, 2000b). The northern two-thirds of Alabama historically represented the southernmost extension of the Cerulean Warbler's breeding range, where...

  4. Vocal performance reflects individual quality in a nonpasserine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janicke, T.; Hahn, S.M.; Ritz, M.S.; Peter, H.-U.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies on mate-quality recognition in passerines showed that females use subtle differences in sound production to assess males. We analysed long calls of brown skuas, Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi, to test whether vocal performance could serve as an indicator of individual quality in a

  5. A single long day triggers follicle growth in captive female Great Tits (Parus major) in winter but does not affect laying dates in the wild in spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Marvelde, L.; Schaper, S.V.; Visser, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    In many forest passerine bird species, rapid climate warming has led to a phenological mismatch between the period of maximum nestlings' food requirements and the period of maximum food availability (seasonal caterpillar biomass peak) due to an insufficient advancement of the birds' laying dates.

  6. Between-year survival and rank transitions in male Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) : A multistate modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, Kristin A.; Mennill, Daniel J.; Ramsay, Scott M.; Otter, Ken A.; Ratcliffe, Laurene M.; Kraus, Cornelia

    In dominance-structured animal societies, variation in individual fitness is often related to social status. Like many passerine birds, Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) have a short average adult life-expectancy (similar to 2 years); however, the maximum recorded life span is >5x as

  7. Death and danger at migratory stopovers: Problems with "predation risk"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lank, D.B.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    Dierschke (2003) recently published a paper entitled, ``Predation hazard during migratory stopover: are light or heavy birds under risk?¿¿ He measured the body condition of 11 species of passerine migrants depredated by feral cats and raptors at an offshore stopover site, and used these data to

  8. Nesting success and within-season breeding dispersal in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nest predation is a primary cause of nesting mortality for many bird species, particularly passerines. Nest location can affect predation, and it has also been demonstrated that predation risk can alter nest site selection. Birds can limit predation risk by selecting specific habitat characteristics; by changing nest site ...

  9. Larvae of trombiculid mites (Acarina: Trombiculidae) in wild birds in Slovak and Polish Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Literák, I.; Honza, Marcel; Pinowska, B.; Haman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 4 (2001), s. 479-483 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 161700001 Keywords : Passerines * parasites * Trombiculidae Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2001 http://vfu-www.vfu.cz/acta-vet/vol70/pdf/70_479.pdf

  10. Assessment of residual DDE at four remediated Hanford waste sites, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linville, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the extent and distribution of residual DDE, a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), across the four waste sites by sampling ground-dwelling insects and bird eggs, evaluating the use of insects for monitoring contamination pathways, and determining the species of passerine birds present and the number of nesting pairs utilizing the waste sites

  11. The effects of temperature on nest predation by mammals, birds, and snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Andrew Cox; F.R. Thompson III; J.L. Reidy

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how weather influences survival and reproduction is an important component of forecasting how climate change will influence wildlife population viability. Nest predation is the primary source of reproductive failure for passerine birds and can change in response to temperature. However, it is unclear which predator species are responsible for such...

  12. Sperm morphology in two house mouse subspecies: Do wild-derived strains and wild mice tell the same story?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrechtová, Jana; Albrecht, Tomáš; Ďureje, Ľudovít; Pallazola, V. A.; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 12 (2014), e115669 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mus musculus musculus * hybrid zone * multiple paternity * Passerine birds * Swimming velocity * Central Europe * Competition * Speciation * Common * Size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  13. Affymetrix SNP array data for wild Dutch great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Da Vinicius; Laine, Veronika N.; Bosse, M.; Oers, C.H.J.; Dibbits, B.W.; Visser, M.E.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.

    2018-01-01

    The great tit is a widely studied passerine bird species in ecology that, in the past decades, has provided important insights into speciation, phenology, behavior and microevolution. After completion of the great tit genome sequence, a customized high density 650k SNP array was developed enabling

  14. Do brood sex ratio, nestling development and sex affect fledging timing and order? An experimental study on great tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radersma, Reinder; Tinbergen, Joost M.; Komdeur, Jan

    The process of nest leaving (fledging) in hole-breeding passerines is largely unexplored, although it is potentially an important facet of reproduction. We used the great tit, Parus major, to investigate whether fledging timing and order were affected by nestling development and sex, as well as the

  15. Cryptosporidium galli and novel Cryptosporidium avian genotype VI in North American red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chelladurai, J.J.; Clark, M.E.; Kváč, Martin; Holubová, Nikola; Khan, E.; Stenger, B.L.S.; Giddings, C.W.; McEvoy, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 5 (2016), s. 1901-1906 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * Red-winged blackbird * Passerines * Cryptosporidium galli * Avian genotypeVI * Proventriculus * Intestine Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  16. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mitochondrial genomes have proved to be powerful tools in resolving phylogenetic relationships. Emberiza chrysophrys (least concern species: IUCN 2013) is a passerine bird in the bunting family, Emberizidae. The complete mitochondrial genome of E. chrysophrys was sequenced. This circular mitochondrial genome was ...

  17. Effects of two-age management and clearcutting on songbird density and reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery V. Nichols; Petra Bohall Wood

    1995-01-01

    We examined density and reproductive success of passerine species on 7 uncut forest stands and on 12 stands harvested 10-14 years ago on the Monongahela National Forest of West Virginia (6 clearcut stands and 6 stands harvested using 2-age management). In 2-age management, stands resemble a shelterwood cut with 10-30 overstory trees/acre left uncut. Uncut periphery...

  18. Microsatellite DNA markers for delineating population structure and kinship among the endangered Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIM L. KING; MICHAEL S. EACKLES; ANNE P. HENDERSON; CAROL I. BOCETTI; DAVE CURRIE; JR WUNDERLE

    2005-01-01

    We document the isolation and characterization of 23 microsatellite DNA markers for the endangered Kirtland’s warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), a Nearctic/Neotropical migrant passerine. This suite of markers revealed moderate to high levels of allelic diversity (averaging 7.7 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity (averaging 72%). Genotypic frequencies at 22 of 23 (95%)...

  19. Density dependence of avian clutch size in resident and migrant species: is there a constraint on the predictability of competitor density?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of density dependence of clutch size is tested in 57 long-term population studies of 10 passerine bird species. In about half of the studies of tit species Parus spp. density dependence of clutch size was found, while none was found in studies of two flycatcher species Ficedula spp. One

  20. European birds and aposematic Heteroptera: review of comparative experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exnerová, A.; Svádová, K.; Fousová, P.; Fučiková, E.; Ježová, D.; Niederlová, A.; Kopečková, M.; Štys, P.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of defensive mechanisms in 11 European aposematic species of Heteroptera against various passerine predators was analysed. Bird species differed in their reactions to aposematic preys: small insectivorous birds generally avoided aposematic bugs, but granivorous birds as well as large

  1. Mixed effects of geolocators on reproduction and survival of Cerulean Warblers, a canopy-dwelling, long-distance migrant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas W. Raybuck; Jeffrey L. Larkin; Scott H. Stoleson; Than J. Boves

    2017-01-01

    Light-level geolocators, miniature devices used for tracking avian migration over the full annual cycle, are being widely deployed on small migratory passerines. However, the effects of carrying geolocators on the breeding biology of songbirds are unclear, and variable species- and guild-specific conclusions have been drawn regarding their effects on return rates (...

  2. Egg Speckling Patterns Do Not Advertise Offspring Quality or Influence Male Provisioning in Great Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoddard, M.C.; Fayet, A.; Kilner, R.M.; Hinde, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a

  3. Biparentally deserted offspring are viable in a species with intense sexual conflict over care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pogány, Ákos; Kosztolányi, András; Miklósi, Ádám; Komdeur, Jan; Székely, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Desertion of clutch (or brood) by both parents often leads to breeding failure, since in vast majority of birds care by at least one parent is required for any young to fledge. Recent works in a highly polygamous passerine bird, the Eurasian penduline tit (Remiz pendulinus), suggest that biparental

  4. Simulated moult reduces flight performance but overlap with breeding does not affect breeding success in a long-distance migrant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomotani, Barbara M.; Muijres, Florian T.; Koelman, Julia; Casagrande, Stefania; Visser, Marcel E.

    2018-01-01

    * Long-distance migrants are time-constrained as they need to incorporate many annual cycle stages within a year. Migratory passerines moult in the short interval between breeding and migration. To widen this interval, moult may start while still breeding, but this results in flying with moulting

  5. Simulated moult reduces flight performance but overlap with breeding does not affect breeding success in a long-distance migrant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mizumo Tomotani, Barbara; Muijres, F.T.; Koelman, Julia; Casagrande, Stefania; Visser, Marcel E.

    2018-01-01

    1.Long-distance migrants are time-constrained as they need to incorporate many annual cycle stages within a year. Migratory passerines moult in the short interval between breeding and migration. To widen this interval, moult may start while still breeding, but this results in flying with moulting

  6. Typical Little Egrets Egretta garzetta mix with Dimorphic Egrets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sclater, W.L. 1924. Systema Avium Aethiopicanum. Part 1. London. Urban, E.K., Fry, C.H. & Keith, S. (Eds.). 1986. The Birds of Africa. Vol. 2. London. Academic Press. White, C.M.N. 1965. A Revised Check List of African Non-Passerine Birds. Govt Printer. Lusaka. Zedlitz, O.G. 1914. Das Sud-Somaliland als ...

  7. Insights into Wilson's Warbler migration from analyses of hydrogen stable-isotope ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Viorel Atudorei; Zachary D. Sharp; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    Our ability to link the breeding locations of individual passerines to migration stopover sites and wintering locations is limited. Stable isotopes of hydrogen contained in bird feathers have recently shown potential in this regard. We measured hydrogen stable-isotope ratios (deltaD) of feathers from breeding, migrating, and wintering Wilson's Warblers. Analyses...

  8. Salmonellae in avian wildlife in Norway from 1969 to 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsum, T.; Handeland, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    2002-01-01

    Postmortem records of wild-living birds in Norway with laboratory-confirmed findings of salmonella infection were summarized for the period from 1969 to 2000. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 470 birds belonging to 26 species. The salmonella-positive birds included 441 small passerines, 15 gull...

  9. The strength of direct selection against female promiscuity is associated with rates of extrapair fertilizations in socially monogamous songbirds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Albrecht, Tomáš; Kreisinger, J.; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 5 (2006), s. 739-744 ISSN 0003-0147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : comparative analysis * female infidelity * passerines Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.660, year: 2006

  10. Developmental exposure to a brominated flame retardant: An assessment of effects on physiology, growth, and reproduction in a songbird, the zebra finch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, Margaret L.; Williams, Tony D.; Elliott, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as additive flame retardants, and BDE-99 is one of the most predominant congeners found in the environment. BDE-99 has been reported in avian samples worldwide, yet knowledge of its toxicity to birds is minimal. We assessed the short- and long-term effects of nestling exposure to environmentally relevant levels of BDE-99 in a model passerine, the zebra finch. Early exposure to BDE-99 did not affect hematocrit, oxidative stress, or thyroid hormones in either the juvenile or adult stages, and there were no effects on chick growth or survival. BDE-99 exposure caused a dose-dependent delay in timing of reproduction, but there were no other effects on reproductive success. In zebra finches, endpoints related to reproductive behavior appear to be the most sensitive to BDE-99. However, passerines overall appear to be less sensitive than birds of prey or mammals to PBDE exposure. -- Highlights: •We exposed zebra finches nestlings to BDE-99 and raised them to sexual maturity. •Found no effects on physiology, chick growth, survival, or reproductive success. •As BDE-99 dose increased, laying interval increased. •Passerine birds possibly less sensitive to BDE-99 than mammals or other bird species. -- Nestling exposure to BDE-99 affects timing of breeding in zebra finches, but overall passerines appear to be less sensitive to PBDEs than mammals or other bird species

  11. Does climate change explain the decline of a trans-Saharan Afro-Palaearctic migrant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce-Higgins, J W; Yalden, D W; Dougall, T W; Beale, C M

    2009-03-01

    There is an urgent need to understand how climate change will impact on demographic parameters of vulnerable species. Migrants are regarded as particularly vulnerable to climate change; phenological mismatch has resulted in the local decline of one passerine, whilst variations in the survival of others have been related to African weather conditions. However, there have been few demographic studies on trans-Saharan non-passerine migrants, despite these showing stronger declines across Europe than passerines. We therefore analyse the effects of climate on the survival and productivity of common sandpipers Actitis hypoleucos, a declining non-passerine long-distant migrant using 28 years' data from the Peak District, England. Adult survival rates were significantly negatively correlated with winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), being lower when winters were warm and wet in western Europe and cool and dry in northwest Africa. Annual variation in the productivity of the population was positively correlated with June temperature, but not with an index of phenological mismatch. The 59% population decline appears largely to have been driven by reductions in adult survival, with local productivity poorly correlated with subsequent population change, suggesting a low degree of natal philopatry. Winter NAO was not significantly correlated with adult survival rates in a second, Scottish Borders population, studied for 12 years. Variation in climatic conditions alone does not therefore appear to be responsible for common sandpiper declines. Unlike some passerine migrants, there was no evidence for climate-driven reductions in productivity, although the apparent importance of immigration in determining local recruitment complicates the assessment of productivity effects. We suggest that further studies to diagnose common sandpiper declines should focus on changes in the condition of migratory stop-over or wintering locations. Where possible, these analyses should be repeated

  12. Contrasting nest survival patterns for ducks and songbirds in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Todd; Shaffer, Terry L.; Madden, Elizabeth M.; Nenneman, Melvin P.

    2017-01-01

    Management actions intended to protect or improve habitat for ducks may benefit grassland-nesting passerines, but scant information is available to explore this assumption. During 1998–2003, we examined nest survival of ducks and songbirds to determine whether effects of prescribed fire and other habitat features (e.g., shrub cover and distance to habitat edges) were similar for ducks and passerines breeding in North Dakota. We used the logistic-exposure method to estimate survival of duck and songbird nests (n = 3,171). We used an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that most influenced nest survival. Patterns of nest survival were markedly different between taxonomic groups. For ducks, nest survival was greater during the first postfire nesting season (daily survival rate [DSR] = 0.957, 85% CI = 0.951–0.963), relative to later postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.946, 85% CI = 0.942–0.950). Furthermore duck nest survival and nest densities were inversely related. Duck nest survival also was greater as shrub cover decreased and as distance from cropland and wetland edges increased. Passerines had lower nest survival during the first postfire nesting season (DSR = 0.934, 85% CI = 0.924–0.944), when densities also were low compared to subsequent postfire nesting seasons (DSR = 0.947, 85% CI = 0.944–0.950). Parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) reduced passerine nest survival and this effect was more pronounced during the first postfire nesting season compared to subsequent nesting seasons. Passerine nest survival was greater as shrub cover decreased and perhaps for more concealed nests. Duck and songbird nest survival rates were not correlated during this study and for associated studies that examined additional variables using the same dataset, suggesting that different mechanisms influenced their survival. Based on our results, ducks should not be considered direct surrogates for passerines

  13. Monograph of Diplachne (Poaceae, Chloridoideae, Cynodonteae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Neil; Peterson, Paul M; Romaschenko, Konstantin; Simon, Bryan K

    2018-01-01

    Diplachne P. Beauv. comprises two species with C 4 (NAD-ME) photosynthesis. Diplachne fusca has a nearly pantropical-pantemperate distribution with four subspecies: D. fusca subsp. fusca is Paleotropical with native distributions in Africa, southern Asia and Australia; the widespread Australian endemic D. f. subsp. muelleri; and D. f. subsp. fascicularis and D. f. subsp. uninervia occurring in the New World. Diplachne gigantea is known from a few widely scattered, older collections in east-central and southern Africa, and although Data Deficient clearly is of conservation concern. A discussion of previous taxonomic treatments is provided, including molecular data supporting Diplachne in its newer, restricted sense. Many populations of Diplachne fusca are highly tolerant of saline substrates and most prefer seasonally moist to saturated soils, often in disturbed areas. Some populations of Diplachne fusca in southern Asia combine nitrogen-fixation, high salinity tolerance and palatibilty to livestock, which should be pursued with further research for purposes of soil reclamation. Diplachne fusca subsp. uninervia is the most invasive of the subspecies and is becoming weedy in some non-native areas, including in the Old World. This monograph provides detailed descriptions of all taxa, a key to the species and subspecies, geographic distributions and information on the anatomy of leaves, stems, lemmatal micromorphology and discussions of the chromosome numbers. Lectotypes are designated for: Atropis carinata Grisb.; Diplachne acuminata Nash; Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. concinna Nees; Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. obscura Nees, Diplachne capensis (Nees) Nees var. prolifera subvar. minor Nees, Diplachne halei Nash, Diplachne maritima E.P. Bicknel, Diplachne muelleri Benth., Diplachne reverchonii Vasey, Diplachne tectoneticola Backer, Leptochloa imbricata Thurb., Leptochloa neuroglossa Peter, Leptochloa uninervia var. typica fo. abbreviata Parodi, Triodia

  14. Basal metabolic rate in free-living tropical birds: the influence of phylogenetic, behavioral, and ecological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstenkov, Oleg; Zubkova, Ekaterina; Solovyeva, Eugenia; Kerimov, Anvar

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The majority of our knowledge of avian energetics is based on studies of birds from temperate and high latitudes. Using the largest existing sample of wild-caught Old World tropical species, we showed that birds from Southern Vietnam had lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than temperate species. The strongest dissimilarity between tropical and temperate species was the low scaling exponent in the allometric relation between BMR and body mass in tropical birds (the regression slope was 0.573). The passerine migrants to temperate and high latitudes had higher BMR than tropical sedentary passerines. Body mass alone accounted for 93% of the variation in BMR (body mass ranged from 5 to 252 g). Contrary to some other studies, we did not find evidence besides the above mentioned that phylogeny, taxonomy, behavior, or ecology have a significant influence on BMR variation among tropical birds. PMID:29492036

  15. Developing an automated risk management tool to minimize bird and bat mortality at wind facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson Willmott, Julia; Forcey, Greg M; Hooton, Lauren A

    2015-11-01

    A scarcity of baseline data is a significant barrier to understanding and mitigating potential impacts of offshore development on birds and bats. Difficult and sometimes unpredictable conditions coupled with high expense make gathering such data a challenge. The Acoustic and Thermographic Offshore Monitoring (ATOM) system combines thermal imaging with acoustic and ultrasound sensors to continuously monitor bird and bat abundance, flight height, direction, and speed. ATOM's development and potential capabilities are discussed, and illustrated using onshore and offshore test data obtained over 16 months in the eastern USA. Offshore deployment demonstrated birds tending to fly into winds and activity declining sharply in winds >10 km h(-1). Passerines showed distinct seasonal changes in flight bearing and flew higher than non-passerines. ATOM data could be used to automatically shut down wind turbines to minimize collision mortality while simultaneously providing information for modeling activity in relation to weather and season.

  16. Effects of wind turbines on upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, K.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Grassland passerines were surveyed during summer 1995 on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area in southwestern Minnesota to determine the relative influence of wind turbines on overall densities of upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. Birds were surveyed along 40 m fixed width transects that were placed along wind turbine strings within three CRP fields and in three CRP fields without turbines. Conservation Reserve Program grasslands without turbines and areas located 180 m from turbines supported higher densities (261.0-312.5 males/100 ha) of grassland birds than areas within 80 m of turbines (58.2-128.0 males/100 ha). Human disturbance, turbine noise, and physical movements of turbines during operation may have disturbed nesting birds. We recommend that wind turbines be placed within cropland habitats that support lower densities of grassland passerines than those found in CRP grasslands.

  17. Basal metabolic rate in free-living tropical birds: the influence of phylogenetic, behavioral, and ecological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushuev, Andrey; Tolstenkov, Oleg; Zubkova, Ekaterina; Solovyeva, Eugenia; Kerimov, Anvar

    2018-02-01

    The majority of our knowledge of avian energetics is based on studies of birds from temperate and high latitudes. Using the largest existing sample of wild-caught Old World tropical species, we showed that birds from Southern Vietnam had lower basal metabolic rate (BMR) than temperate species. The strongest dissimilarity between tropical and temperate species was the low scaling exponent in the allometric relation between BMR and body mass in tropical birds (the regression slope was 0.573). The passerine migrants to temperate and high latitudes had higher BMR than tropical sedentary passerines. Body mass alone accounted for 93% of the variation in BMR (body mass ranged from 5 to 252 g). Contrary to some other studies, we did not find evidence besides the above mentioned that phylogeny, taxonomy, behavior, or ecology have a significant influence on BMR variation among tropical birds.

  18. Passeriformes: nest predators and prey in a Neotropical Savannah in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo F. França

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of predators of birds' nests, crucial to a better understanding of predator-prey interactions, remains poorly known. Here we provide evidence that birds, and especially passerines, may depredate birds' nests in the Cerrado (Neotropical Savannah of Central Brazil. Data was collected primarily in a Conservation Unit (Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas during the breeding season, between 2003 and 2007. We report and discuss details on 14 events of nest predation, 12 of which by passerines, mostly by curl-crested jays - Cyanocorax cristatellus (Temminck, 1823. The results of our study suggest that the role of birds as nest predators in the Cerrado has been underestimated and needs to be further investigated.

  19. An unconventional mechanism of lift production during the downstroke in a hovering bird ( Zosterops japonicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Liu, Chieh-Cheng; Yang, Jing-Tang; Soong, Chyi-Yeou

    2011-11-01

    An unconventional mechanism of ventral clap is exploited by hovering passerines to produce lift. Quantitative visualization of the wake flow, analysis of kinematics and evaluation of the transient lift force was conducted to dissect the biomechanical role of the ventral clap in the asymmetrical hovering flight of passerines. The ventral clap can first abate and then augment lift production during the downstroke; the net effect of the ventral clap on lift production is, however, positive because the extent of lift augmentation is greater than the extent of lift abatement. Moreover, the ventral clap is inferred to compensate for the zero lift production of the upstroke because the clapping wings induce a substantial elevation of the lift force at the end of the downstroke. Overall, our observations shed light on the aerodynamic function of the ventral clap and offer biomechanical insight into how a bird hovers without kinematically mimicking hovering hummingbirds.

  20. Nutritional significance of a winter-flowering succulent for opportunistic avian nectarivores

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Symes, CT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available the enriched crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) isotopic signature of nectar ()12.6 ± 0.5&). This relatively small contribution of A. marlothii nectar to assimilated carbon in whole blood contrasted with that of exhaled CO2 in Afri- can Red-eyed Bulbuls... Pycnonotus nigricans and Cape White-eyes Zosterops capensis. In both these species, the d13C of breath samples was significantly enriched compared with blood and feathers, and closely resembled that of the nectar, revealing combustion of ingested nectar...