WorldWideScience

Sample records for zones exposed astrosphere

  1. Habitable zones exposed: astrosphere collapse frequency as a function of stellar mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David S; Scalo, John M

    2009-09-01

    upper limit to the absolute frequency of descreening encounters as 1-10 Gyr(-1) for solar-type stars and 10(2) to 10(9) times smaller for stars between 0.5 and 0.1 M[middle dot in circle]. Habitable-zone planets orbiting late-K to M stars are virtually never exposed to the severe consequences that have been proposed for astrospheric descreening events, but descreening events at a moderate rate may occur for stars with the Sun's mass or larger.

  2. Astrospheres and Solar-like Stellar Winds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Brian E.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Stellar analogs for the solar wind have proven to be frustratingly difficult to detect directly. However, these stellar winds can be studied indirectly by observing the interaction regions carved out by the collisions between these winds and the interstellar medium (ISM. These interaction regions are called "astrospheres", analogous to the "heliosphere" surrounding the Sun. The heliosphere and astrospheres contain a population of hydrogen heated by charge exchange processes that can produce enough H I Ly alpha absorption to be detectable in UV spectra of nearby stars from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST. The amount of astrospheric absorption is a diagnostic for the strength of the stellar wind, so these observations have provided the first measurements of solar-like stellar winds. Results from these stellar wind studies and their implications for our understanding of the solar wind are reviewed here. Of particular interest are results concerning the past history of the solar wind and its impact on planetary atmospheres.

  3. An astrosphere around the blue supergiant κ Cas: possible explanation of its filamentary structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katushkina, O. A.; Alexashov, D. B.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Izmodenov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    High-resolution mid-infrared observations carried out by the Spitzer Space Telescope allowed one to resolve the fine structure of many astrospheres. In particular, they showed that the astrosphere around the B0.7 Ia star κ Cas (HD 2905) has a clear-cut arc structure with numerous cirrus-like filaments beyond it. Previously, we suggested a physical mechanism for the formation of such filamentary structures. Namely, we showed theoretically that they might represent the non-monotonic spatial distribution of the interstellar dust in astrospheres (viewed as filaments) caused by interaction of the dust grains with the interstellar magnetic field disturbed in the astrosphere due to colliding of the stellar and interstellar winds. In this paper, we invoke this mechanism to explain the structure of the astrosphere around κ Cas. We performed 3D magnetohydrodynamic modelling of the astrosphere for realistic parameters of the stellar wind and space velocity. The dust dynamics and the density distribution in the astrosphere were calculated in the framework of a kinetic model. It is found that the model results with the classical MRN (Mathis, Rumpl & Nordsieck 1977) size distribution of dust in the interstellar medium do not match the observations, and that the observed filamentary structure of the astrosphere can be reproduced only if the dust is composed mainly of big (μm-sized) grains. Comparison of the model results with observations allowed us to estimate parameters (number density and magnetic field strength) of the surrounding interstellar medium.

  4. Non-monotonic spatial distribution of the interstellar dust in astrospheres: finite gyroradius effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katushkina, O. A.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    High-resolution mid-infrared observations of astrospheres show that many of them have filamentary (cirrus-like) structure. Using numerical models of dust dynamics in astrospheres, we suggest that their filamentary structure might be related to specific spatial distribution of the interstellar dust around the stars, caused by a gyrorotation of charged dust grains in the interstellar magnetic field. Our numerical model describes the dust dynamics in astrospheres under an influence of the Lorentz force and assumption of a constant dust charge. Calculations are performed for the dust grains with different sizes separately. It is shown that non-monotonic spatial dust distribution (viewed as filaments) appears for dust grains with the period of gyromotion comparable with the characteristic time-scale of the dust motion in the astrosphere. Numerical modelling demonstrates that the number of filaments depends on charge-to-mass ratio of dust.

  5. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE CONSTRAINTS ON THE WINDS AND ASTROSPHERES OF RED GIANT STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Brian E. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Müller, Hans-Reinhard [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Harper, Graham M., E-mail: brian.wood@nrl.navy.mil [CASA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    We report on an ultraviolet spectroscopic survey of red giants observed by the Hubble Space Telescope , focusing on spectra of the Mg ii h and k lines near 2800 Å in order to study stellar chromospheric emission, winds, and astrospheric absorption. We focus on spectral types between K2 III and M5 III, a spectral type range with stars that are noncoronal, but possessing strong, chromospheric winds. We find a very tight relation between Mg ii surface flux and photospheric temperature, supporting the notion that all K2-M5 III stars are emitting at a basal flux level. Wind velocities ( V {sub w} ) are generally found to decrease with spectral type, with V {sub w} decreasing from ∼40 km s{sup −1} at K2 III to ∼20 km s{sup −1} at M5 III. We find two new detections of astrospheric absorption, for σ Pup (K5 III) and γ Eri (M1 III). This absorption signature had previously only been detected for α Tau (K5 III). For the three astrospheric detections, the temperature of the wind after the termination shock (TS) correlates with V {sub w} , but is lower than predicted by the Rankine–Hugoniot shock jump conditions, consistent with the idea that red giant TSs are radiative shocks rather than simple hydrodynamic shocks. A full hydrodynamic simulation of the γ Eri astrosphere is provided to explore this further.

  6. Comic ray flux anisotropies caused by astrospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K.; Strauss, R. D.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Fichtner, H.

    2016-09-01

    Huge astrospheres or stellar wind bubbles influence the propagation of cosmic rays at energies up to the TeV range and can act as small-scale sinks decreasing the cosmic ray flux. We model such a sink (in 2D) by a sphere of radius 10 pc embedded within a sphere of a radius of 1 kpc. The cosmic ray flux is calculated by means of backward stochastic differential equations from an observer, which is located at r0, to the outer boundary. It turns out that such small-scale sinks can influence the cosmic ray flux at the observer's location by a few permille (i.e. a few 0.1%), which is in the range of the observations by IceCube, Milagro and other large area telescopes.

  7. The astrosphere of the asymptotic giant branch star CIT 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Mack-Crane, Galen P., E-mail: sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Physics, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA 90041 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    We have discovered two extended half-ring structures in a far-ultraviolet image taken with the GALEX satellite of the well-known mass-losing carbon star CIT 6 (RW LMi). The northern (southern) ring is brighter (fainter) with a diameter of ∼15' (∼18'). These structures most likely represent the astrosphere resulting from the shock interaction of CIT 6's molecular wind with the warm interstellar medium (ISM), as it moves through the latter. These data provide a direct estimate of the size of CIT 6's circumstellar envelope that is a factor ∼20 larger than previous estimates based on CO millimeter-wave line data. We find that CIT 6 has been undergoing heavy mass-loss for at least 93,000 yr and the total envelope mass is 0.29 M {sub ☉} or larger, assuming a constant mass-loss rate of 3.2 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. Assuming that the shock front has reached a steady state and CIT 6's motion relative to the ISM is in the sky plane, we measure the termination-shock standoff distance directly from the image and find that CIT 6 is moving at a speed of about ≳39 (0.17 cm{sup –3}/n {sub ISM}){sup 1/2} km s{sup –1} through the ISM around it. However, comparisons with published numerical simulations and analytical modeling shows that CIT 6's forward shock (the northern ring) departs from the parabolic shape expected in steady state. We discuss several possible explanations for this departureþ.

  8. The Supergalactic Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Habitability in the local universe is examined. Constrained by metal abundance and exposure to sterilizing events, life as we know it requires significantly long periods of stable environmental conditions. Planets within galaxies undergoing major mergers, active AGN, starburst episodes, and merging black holes pose serious threats to long-term habitability. Importantly, the development of several layers of protection from high-energy particles such as a thick atmosphere, a strong planetary magnetic field, an astrosphere, and a galactic magnetic field is of great benefit. Factors such as star type and activity, planet type and composition, the location of a planet within its host galaxy, and even the location within a supercluster of galaxies can affect the potential habitability of planets. We discuss the concept of the Supergalactic Habitable Zone introduced by Mason and Biermann in terms of habitability in the local universe and find that galaxies near the center of the Virgo cluster, for example, have a much lower probability for the development of life as we know it as compared to locations in the Milky Way.

  9. THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN THE KEPLER SEARCH VOLUME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Marshall C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Redfield, Seth [Astronomy Department, Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Jensen, Adam G., E-mail: mjohnson@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Physical Science, University of Nebraska-Kearney, Bruner Hall of Science, 2401 11th Ave, Kearney, NE 68849 (United States)

    2015-07-10

    The properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) surrounding a planetary system can impact planetary climate through a number of mechanisms, including changing the size of the astrosphere (one of the major shields for cosmic rays) as well as direct deposition of material into planetary atmospheres. In order to constrain the ambient ISM conditions for exoplanetary systems, we present observations of interstellar Na i and K i absorption toward seventeen early type stars in the Kepler prime mission field of view (FOV). We identify 39 Na i and 8 K i velocity components, and attribute these to 11 ISM clouds. Six of these are detected toward more than one star, and for these clouds we put limits on the cloud properties, including distance and hydrogen number density. We identify one cloud with significant (≳1.5 cm{sup −3}) hydrogen number density located within the nominal ∼100 pc boundary of the Local Bubble. We identify systems with confirmed planets within the Kepler FOV that could lie within these ISM clouds, and estimate upper limits on the astrosphere sizes of these systems under the assumption that they do lie within these clouds. Under this condition, the Kepler-20, 42, and 445 multiplanet systems could have compressed astrospheres much smaller than the present-day heliosphere. Among the known habitable zone planet hosts, Kepler-186 could have an astrosphere somewhat smaller than the heliosphere, while Kepler-437 and KOI-4427 could have astrospheres much larger than the heliosphere. The thick disk star Kepler-444 may have an astrosphere just a few AU in radius.

  10. PROBABILITY OF CME IMPACT ON EXOPLANETS ORBITING M DWARFS AND SOLAR-LIKE STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, C. [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Opher, M.; Kornbleuth, M., E-mail: ckay@bu.edu [Astronomy Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) produce adverse space weather effects at Earth. Planets in the close habitable zone of magnetically active M dwarfs may experience more extreme space weather than at Earth, including frequent CME impacts leading to atmospheric erosion and leaving the surface exposed to extreme flare activity. Similar erosion may occur for hot Jupiters with close orbits around solar-like stars. We have developed a model, Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), which predicts a CME's deflection. We adapt ForeCAT to simulate CME deflections for the mid-type M dwarf V374 Peg and hot Jupiters with solar-type hosts. V374 Peg's strong magnetic fields can trap CMEs at the M dwarfs's Astrospheric Current Sheet, that is, the location of the minimum in the background magnetic field. Solar-type CMEs behave similarly, but have much smaller deflections and do not become trapped at the Astrospheric Current Sheet. The probability of planetary impact decreases with increasing inclination of the planetary orbit with respect to the Astrospheric Current Sheet: 0.5–5 CME impacts per day for M dwarf exoplanets, 0.05–0.5 CME impacts per day for solar-type hot Jupiters. We determine the minimum planetary magnetic field necessary to shield a planet's atmosphere from CME impacts. M dwarf exoplanets require values between tens and hundreds of Gauss. Hot Jupiters around a solar-type star, however, require a more reasonable <30 G. These values exceed the magnitude required to shield a planet from the stellar wind, suggesting that CMEs may be the key driver of atmospheric losses.

  11. PROBABILITY OF CME IMPACT ON EXOPLANETS ORBITING M DWARFS AND SOLAR-LIKE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, C.; Opher, M.; Kornbleuth, M.

    2016-01-01

    Solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) produce adverse space weather effects at Earth. Planets in the close habitable zone of magnetically active M dwarfs may experience more extreme space weather than at Earth, including frequent CME impacts leading to atmospheric erosion and leaving the surface exposed to extreme flare activity. Similar erosion may occur for hot Jupiters with close orbits around solar-like stars. We have developed a model, Forecasting a CME's Altered Trajectory (ForeCAT), which predicts a CME's deflection. We adapt ForeCAT to simulate CME deflections for the mid-type M dwarf V374 Peg and hot Jupiters with solar-type hosts. V374 Peg's strong magnetic fields can trap CMEs at the M dwarfs's Astrospheric Current Sheet, that is, the location of the minimum in the background magnetic field. Solar-type CMEs behave similarly, but have much smaller deflections and do not become trapped at the Astrospheric Current Sheet. The probability of planetary impact decreases with increasing inclination of the planetary orbit with respect to the Astrospheric Current Sheet: 0.5–5 CME impacts per day for M dwarf exoplanets, 0.05–0.5 CME impacts per day for solar-type hot Jupiters. We determine the minimum planetary magnetic field necessary to shield a planet's atmosphere from CME impacts. M dwarf exoplanets require values between tens and hundreds of Gauss. Hot Jupiters around a solar-type star, however, require a more reasonable <30 G. These values exceed the magnitude required to shield a planet from the stellar wind, suggesting that CMEs may be the key driver of atmospheric losses.

  12. Defining the Brittle Failure Envelopes of Individual Reaction Zones Observed in CO2-Exposed Wellbore Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangx, Suzanne J T; van der Linden, Arjan; Marcelis, Fons; Liteanu, Emilia

    2016-01-19

    To predict the behavior of the cement sheath after CO2 injection and the potential for leakage pathways, it is key to understand how the mechanical properties of the cement evolves with CO2 exposure time. We performed scratch-hardness tests on hardened samples of class G cement before and after CO2 exposure. The cement was exposed to CO2-rich fluid for one to six months at 65 °C and 8 MPa Ptotal. Detailed SEM-EDX analyses showed reaction zones similar to those previously reported in the literature: (1) an outer-reacted, porous silica-rich zone; (2) a dense, carbonated zone; and (3) a more porous, Ca-depleted inner zone. The quantitative mechanical data (brittle compressive strength and friction coefficient) obtained for each of the zones suggest that the heterogeneity of reacted cement leads to a wide range of brittle strength values in any of the reaction zones, with only a rough dependence on exposure time. However, the data can be used to guide numerical modeling efforts needed to assess the impact of reaction-induced mechanical failure of wellbore cement by coupling sensitivity analysis and mechanical predictions.

  13. Temporal variation on environmental variables and pollution indicators in marine sediments under sea Salmon farming cages in protected and exposed zones in the Chilean inland Southern Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Mauricio A

    2016-12-15

    The impacts of any activity on marine ecosystems will depend on the characteristics of the receptor medium and its resilience to external pressures. Salmon farming industry develops along a constant gradient of hydrodynamic conditions in the south of Chile. However, the influence of the hydrodynamic characteristics (weak or strong) on the impacts of intensive salmon farming is still poorly understood. This one year study evaluates the impacts of salmon farming on the marine sediments of both protected and exposed marine zones differing in their hydrodynamic characteristics. Six physico-chemical, five biological variables and seven indexes of marine sediments status were evaluated under the salmon farming cages and control sites. Our results identified a few key variables and indexes necessary to accurately evaluate the salmon farming impacts on both protected and exposed zones. Interestingly, the ranking of importance of the variables and the temporality of the observed changes, varied depending on the hydrodynamic characteristics. Biological variables (nematodes abundance) and environmental indexes (Simpson's dominance, Shannon's diversity and Pielou evenness) are the first to reflect detrimental impacts under the salmon farming cages. Then the physico-chemical variables such as redox, sulphurs and phosphorus in both zones also show detrimental impacts. Based on the present results we propose that the hydrodynamic regime is an important driver of the magnitude and temporality of the effects of salmon farming on marine sediments. The variables and indexes that best reflect the effects of salmon farming, in both protected and exposed zones, are also described. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Distribution of U and Th in Growth Zones of Manganese Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Friedrich, G. H. W.

    1976-01-01

    Growth zones and individual sublayers from one manganese nodule and three manganese crusts from an area south of Hawaii were analysed for U and Th by the delayed-neutron counting technique. The concentrations of uranium and thorium in the manganese nodule are highest in the outermost zone on top...... to the sediment which has low concentrations of Fe, relative to the zone last exposed to sea water, has also low U contents (2.7 ppm). Th concentrations are higher in the outermost zone on top of the nodule (40 to a maximum of 130 ppm) than in the zone last exposed to the sediment (about 20 ppm Th). Manganese...... crusts contain up to 9 ppm U in the outermost zones last exposed to the sea water. They also have higher concentrations of Th (up to 64 ppm) relative to the inner zones of the crust growing on altered andesitic rock, which contains about 8 ppm U and about 26 ppm Th as an average....

  15. Maskless, parallel patterning with zone-plate array lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. J. D.; Gil, Dario; Menon, Rajesh; Mondol, Mark K.; Smith, Henry I.; Anderson, Erik H.

    1999-01-01

    Zone-plate array lithography (ZPAL) is a maskless lithography scheme that uses an array of shuttered zone plates to print arbitrary patterns on a substrate. An experimental ultraviolet ZPAL system has been constructed and used to simultaneously expose nine different patterns with a 3x3 array of zone plates in a quasidot-matrix fashion. We present exposed patterns, describe the system design and construction, and discuss issues essential to a functional ZPAL system. We also discuss another ZPAL system which operates with 4.5 nm x radiation from a point source. We present simulations which show that, with our existing x-ray zone plates and this system, we should be able to achieve 55 nm resolution. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  16. Stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Belachew, Tefera; Berhanu, Getenesh; Setegn, Tesfaye; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2014-12-01

    Even though many studies showed that infant and child feeding index has a statistically significant association with nutritional status, there is paucity of studies on stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants. This study aimed to investigate the stability of infant and child feeding index over time that is developed based on the current recommendations and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A panel study design was conducted in health institutions in Sidama Zone from February to July, 2012. Three repeated measurements of data were collected from each HIV exposed infant aged 6-17 months over the 6 month follow-up period approximately per 2 month interval. The cross-sectional index was found stable overtime with the repeatability coefficient of 0.802 which differed significantly from zero (95% CI: 0.75-0.85). A longitudinal infant and child feeding index (L-ICFI) has a statistically significant association with length for age Z scores (LAZ) and weight for age Z scores (WAZ) at visit three (β=0.262, p=0.007; β=0.226, p=0.017), respectively. But the longitudinal index has no statistically significant association with WLZ score (p=0.552). There was no significant difference in change of LAZ and WAZ over time between L-ICFI tertiles for both female and male HIV exposed infants. The index is stable overtime at individual level even though one third of the index components were not stable. The L-CFI was associated with LAZ and WAZ but not with WLZ. However there was no significant difference in change of HAZ and WAZ over time between L-ICFI tertiles for both female and male HIV exposed infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Capacity of response of the health system to the expectations of populations in zones exposed to results-based financing in Benin in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Lamidhi; Dona Ouendo, Edgard-Marius; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2017-07-10

    Introduction: The increased use of results-based financing (RBF) services was the basis for this study designed to evaluate the contribution of RBF to the capacity of response of the health system to the population’s expectations. Methods: This study, conducted in six Benin health zones randomly selected in two strata exposed to RBF (FBR_PRPSS and FBR_PASS) and one zone not exposed to RBF (Non_FBR), examined the seven dimensions of reactivity. A score, followed by weighting of their attributes, was used to calculate the index of reactivity (IR). Results: Sixty-seven health care units and 653 people were observed and interviewed. The FBR_PRPSS and FBR_PASS strata, managed by the new provisions of RBF, displayed good performances for the “rapidity of management” (70% and 80%) and “quality of the health care environment” dimensions, with a more marked improvement for the PRPSS model, which provides greater resources. Poor access to social welfare networks in the three strata led to renouncing of health care. The capacity of response to expectations was moderate and similar in the Non_FBR (IR = 0.53), FBR_PASS (IR = 0.62) and FBR_PRPSS (IR = 0.61) strata (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The FBR_PRPSS and FBR_PASS models have a non-significant effect on the capacity of response. Their success probably depends on the health system context, the combination of targeted interventions, such as universal health insurance, but also the importance and the use of the new resources that they provide.

  18. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL (United States). Alabama Cooperative of Fish & Wildlife Research Unit

    2001-07-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9-7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  19. Gill lesions and death of bluegill in an acid mine drainage mixing zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T.B.; Irwin, E.R.; Grizzle, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of an acid mine drainage (AMD) mixing zone was investigated by placing bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) at the confluence of a stream contaminated by AMD and a stream having neutral pH. A mixing channel receiving water from both streams was assembled in the field, during July and October 1996, to determine the toxicity of freshly mixed and aged water (2.9–7.5 min). The AMD stream had elevated concentrations of Al and Fe, which precipitated upon mixing, and of Mn, which did not precipitate in the mixing zone. Fish exposed to freshly mixed water had higher mortality than fish exposed to water after aging. Precipitating Al, but not Fe, accumulated on the gills of bluegill, and accumulation was more rapid early during the mixing process than after aging. Fish exposed for 3.5 h to freshly mixed water had hypertrophy and hyperplasia of gill filament and lamellar epithelial cells. Similar lesions were observed after 6.0 h in fish exposed to water aged after mixing. Results demonstrated that Al was the predominant metal accumulating on the gills of fish in this AMD mixing zone, and that mixing zones can be more toxic than AMD streams in equilibrium.

  20. Inactivation of Candida albicans by Corona Discharge: The Increase of Inhibition Zones Area After Far Subsequent Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslava Fantova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cold atmospheric pressure plasma generated by the negative corona discharge has inhibition effect on the microorganism growth. This effect is well-known and it can be demonstrated on the surface of cultivation agar plates by the formation of inhibition zones. We exposed the cultures of Candida albicans to the negative corona discharge plasma in a special arrangement in this study: The equal doses of plasma were applied subsequently twice or four times on the same culture on one Petri dish, while the distance between exposed points was variable. Only small differences were observed in decontaminated zone areas for twice exposed agar at the shortest distance between exposed points (1.5 cm. In case of the four times exposed agars, we observed significant differences in inhibition zone areas, dependent not only on the exposition site distances, but also on the exposition order. The largest inhibition zone size was observed for the first exposition decreasing to the fourth one. To check relevancy of these dependencies, we presume to conduct further set of experiments with lower yeast concentration. In conclusion, significant difference in partial inhibition zone sizes appeared only when four expositions on one Petri dish were carried out, whereas no significant difference was observed for two subsequent expositions. The explanation of this effect may be the subject of subsequent remote exposition(s, when minute amounts of scattered active particles act on the previously exposed areas; the influence of diffused ozone may also take place.

  1. Spatial variability of macrobenthic zonation on exposed sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Rubal, Marcos; Cacabelos, Eva; Maldonado, Cristina; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-07-01

    We analysed the consistence of vertical patterns of distribution (i.e. zonation) for macrofauna at different spatial scales on four intermediate exposed beaches in the North of Portugal. We tested the hypothesis that biological zonation on exposed sandy beaches would vary at the studied spatial scales. For this aim, abundance, diversity and structure of macrobenthic assemblages were examined at the scales of transect and beach. Moreover, the main environmental factors that could potentially drive zonation patterns were investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the number of biological zones ranged from two to three depending on the beach and from indistinct zonation to three zones at the scale of transect. Therefore, results support our working hypothesis because zonation patterns were not consistent at the studied spatial scales. The median particle size, sorting coefficient and water content were significantly correlated with zonation patterns of macrobenthic assemblages. However, a high degree of correlation was not reached when the total structure of the assemblage was considered.

  2. Modeling and Simulation for a Surf Zone Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    Figure 1.6: A picture Carmel River State Beach near Monterey, California showing a typical surf zone enviroment . Features include submerged and exposed...picture of the enviroment [34]. Another benefit that will be gained from the use of ROS for navigation is the direct integration of Gazebo and the

  3. Probing the deep critical zone beneath the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Heather L.; Brantley, Susan L.; Scatena, Fred; Bazilevskaya, Katya; Blum, Alex E.; Schulz, Marjorie S.; Jiménez, Rafael; White, Arthur F.; Rother, G.; Cole, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has suggested that weathering processes occurring in the subsurface produce the majority of silicate weathering products discharged to the world's oceans, thereby exerting a primary control on global temperature via the well-known positive feedback between silicate weathering and CO2. In addition, chemical and physical weathering processes deep within the critical zone create aquifers and control groundwater chemistry, watershed geometry and regolith formation rates. Despite this, most weathering studies are restricted to the shallow critical zone (e.g. soils, outcrops). Here we investigate the chemical weathering, fracturing and geomorphology of the deep critical zone in the Bisley watershed in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, Puerto Rico, from two boreholes drilled to 37.2 and 27.0 m depth, from which continuous core samples were taken. Corestones exposed aboveground were also sampled. Weathered rinds developed on exposed corestones and along fracture surfaces on subsurface rocks slough off of exposed corestones once rinds attain a thickness up to ~1 cm, preventing the corestones from rounding due to diffusion limitation. Such corestones at the land surface are assumed to be what remains after exhumation of similar, fractured bedrock pieces that were observed in the drilled cores between thick layers of regolith. Some of these subsurface corestones are massive and others are highly fractured, whereas aboveground corestones are generally massive with little to no apparent fracturing. Subsurface corestones are larger and less fractured in the borehole drilled on a road where it crosses a ridge compared with the borehole drilled where the road crosses the stream channel. Both borehole profiles indicate that the weathering zone extends to well below the stream channel in this upland catchment; hence weathering depth is not controlled by the stream level within the catchment and not all of the water in the watershed is discharged to the stream

  4. Analysis of micronuclei of the oral epithelium in workers of a banana zone exposed to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Achi, R.

    1999-01-01

    The following study was realized with workers of the zone of Guapiles (Limon, Costa Rica), to determine the possible damage to the genetic material occasioned by labour exhibition to pesticides. The presence of micronuclei in cells of the oral epithelium was used as a biomarcador of effect . Besides, an analysis of frequency of other abnormalities was made in the nucleus of the epithelial cells, which can be an indication of genotoxicity or cytotoxicity. The group of women exposed to pesticides (cases) was formed by workers of packing plants of different independent banana states. The group of women who constituted the group of control were persons that neither them nor their spouses or companions had never worked at agricultural labours and that had not lived inside a banana estate. The samples of the controls were gathered not only from women who are employed at the Hospital of Guapiles, but also from patients who were expecting to be attended in the external consultation of the same hospital, or, in the Healthy Child consultation in the health center of the same city. It is the first time that a study of control-case is done in the country to detect genotoxicidad, using micronuclei of the oral epithelium (MNOE) as a biomarcador. The participants were interviewed to obtain information about his or her customs and family history that could be relevant for the study. The preparation and the analysis of the cells of the oral epithelium of every individual was done in the laboratories of the Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (INISA), of the Universidad de Costa Rica. Although there are indications of cytotoxic and genotoxicity in the controls showed by an increase of the frequencies of other nuclear abnormalities, the results demonstrated that there is not a significant increase in MNOE's frequency between the group of cases and of controls. (Author) [es

  5. Quantifying the Variation in Shear Zone Character with Depth: a Case Study from the Simplon Shear Zone, Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, T. K.; Platt, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    A widely-accepted model for the rheology of crustal-scale shear zones states that they comprise distributed strain at depth, in wide, high-temperature shear zones, which narrow to more localized, high-strain zones at lower temperature and shallower crustal levels. We test and quantify this model by investigating how the width, stress, temperature and deformation mechanisms change with depth in the Simplon Shear Zone (SSZ). The SSZ marks a major tectonic boundary in the central Alps, where normal-sense motion and rapid exhumation of the footwall have preserved evidence of older, deeper deformation in rocks progressively further into the currently-exposed footwall. As such, microstructures further from the brittle fault (which represents the most localized, most recently-active part of the SSZ) represent earlier, higher- temperature deformation from deeper crustal levels, while rocks closer to the fault have been overprinted by successively later, cooler deformation at shallower depths. This study uses field mapping and microstructural studies to identify zones representing deformation at various crustal levels, and characterize each in terms of zone width (representing width of the shear zone at that time and depth) and dominant deformation mechanism. In addition, quartz- (by Electron Backscatter Diffraction, EBSD) and feldspar grain size (measured optically) piezometry are used to calculate the flow stress for each zone, while the Ti-in-quartz thermometer (TitaniQ) is used to calculate the corresponding temperature of deformation. We document the presence of a broad zone in which quartz is recrystallized by the Grain Boundary Migration (GBM) mechanism and feldspar by Subgrain Rotation (SGR), which represents the broad, deep zone of deformation occurring at relatively high temperatures and low stresses. In map view, this transitions to successively narrower zones, respectively characterized by quartz SGR and feldspar Bulge Nucleation (BLG); quartz BLG and brittle

  6. Environmental Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Different Climatic Zones of Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Douglas J.; Dhand, Navneet K.; Watt, Bruce; Whittington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The duration of survival of both the S and C strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in feces was quantified in contrasting climatic zones of New South Wales, Australia, and detailed environmental temperature data were collected. Known concentrations of S and C strains in feces placed on soil in polystyrene boxes were exposed to the environment with or without the provision of shade (70%) at Bathurst, Armidale, Condobolin, and Broken Hill, and subsamples taken every 2 weeks were cultured for the presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. The duration of survival ranged from a minimum of 1 week to a maximum of 16 weeks, and the provision of 70% shade was the most important factor in extending the survival time. The hazard of death for exposed compared to shaded samples was 20 and 9 times higher for the S and C strains, respectively. Site did not affect the survival of the C strain, but for the S strain, the hazard of death was 2.3 times higher at the two arid zone sites (Broken Hill and Condobolin) than at the two temperate zone sites (Bathurst and Armidale). Temperature measurements revealed maximum temperatures exceeding 60°C and large daily temperature ranges at the soil surface, particularly in exposed boxes. PMID:24463974

  7. Occupational health risks among trichloroethylene-exposed workers in a clock manufacturing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singthong, Siriporn; Pakkong, Pannee; Choosang, Kantima; Wongsanit, Sarinya

    2014-08-22

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an important volatile organic compound once widely used in industry throughout the world. Occupational exposure to TCE can cause a number of health hazards such as allergic reactions and genetic damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate occupational exposure to TCE, by analysis of the air in the breathing zone and of urine from workers employed in a clock manufacturing factory. A subjective symptom survey was conducted by using a self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the health hazards. Micronucleus (MN) frequency, based on the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes, (PBLs) was used as a biomarker for chromosome damage. A total of 244 participants, including 171 workers occupationally exposed to TCE and 73 non-exposed control employees, working mainly in office jobs in the same factory, were enrolled in this study. Analyses of airborne TCE concentrations in the workplace, and of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA) of the workers and controls, were performed by Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) using the modified headspace technique. The average concentration of TCE in the workplace breathing zone was 27.83 ± 6.02 ppm. The average level of urinary TCA of the exposed workers and controls was 14.84 ± 1.62, 2.95 ± 0.28 mg/L. The frequency of MN/1000BN was 7.029 ± 0.39, significantly higher than for those in the control group (3.57 ± 0.31, p = 0.001). According to multiple linear regression analysis, the results indicated that urinary TCA levels correlated with the increased MN in exposed workers (r = 0.285, p trichloroethylene exposure. The use of TCE in the factory is threatening workers' health.

  8. Cytogenetic Follow-up Study of Population Occupationally Exposed to Nonionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garaj-Vrhovac, V.; Kasuba, V.; Vojvodic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyse the results of a four year follow- up study of chromosome aberrations in a population occupationally exposed to microwave radiation. The study included a group of 30 healthy volunteers - radar technicians occupationally exposed to microwave radiation and a group of 30 healthy controls from the general population. The average duration of employment of the exposed subjects was 16 years. The chromosome aberrations assay was carried out on 48 h culture of lymphocytes. Microwave power density was measured with Raham model 4A (General Microwave Corporation, Farmingdale, NY) at different workplaces. The measurements of electromagnetic field power density distribution at different workplaces show that during an ordinary workday the examinees stay in zones with power density below 5 mW/cm 2 with a frequency range of 1250-1350 MHz. The chromosomal type of aberrations in the exposed group during the 4-year follow up study was predominantly higher than in the control group. The total percentage of chromosome aberrations for the exposed group in the first year of the study was 2.36%, in the second 1.43%, in the third 2.88%, and in the fourth year 2.60%, while for the control group was 1.39%. In every year of investigation in exposed group manifested dicentric chromosomes, while in last two years ring chromosome also detected. Mutagenic changes in the somatic cells detected in exposed subjects pointed to the fact that these cellular damages can be related to continuous occupational exposure to microwave radiation. (author)

  9. Phase zone plates as condensers for the Gottingen scanning x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilkenbach, R.; Thieme

    1987-01-01

    With the Gottingen scanning x-ray microscope the synchrotron source is image by x-ray optics into a monochromatic small scan spot, through which a specimen can be moved. Hereby one part of the optics, the condenser zone plate and a pinhole, works as a linear monochromator in the wavelength region of λ = 2.36 nm to λ = 4.5 nm. The efficiency of such a condenser should be as high as possible to minimize the loss of radiation. Phase zone plates have a four times higher efficiency in the first order of diffraction than amplitude zone plates. Two condenser zone plates, KZP4 and KZP5, have been constructed so that they are well suited for the use in the scanning microscope. These zone plates have been made holographically by superposing two wavefronts of laser light in an specific designed optical arrangement and exposing the zone plate structure into a photoresist. Using reactive ion etching (RIE) the structure has been transformed into Germanium. The thickness of the zone plate has been chosen to show at λ = 2.36 nm a phase effect. The efficiency has been measured at the Berliner Elektronenspeircherring Gesellschaft fur Synchrotronstrahlung m.b.H., Berlin

  10. X-ray microscopy with high resolution zone plates -- Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, G.; Wilhein, T.; Niemann, B.; Guttmann, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to expand the applications of X-ray microscopy, developments in the fields of zone plate technology, specimen preparation and imaging techniques have been made. A new cross-linked polymer chain electron beam resist allows to record zone plate pattern down to 19 nm outermost zone width. High resolution zone plates in germanium with outermost zone widths down to 19 nm have been developed. In addition, phase zone plates in nickel down to 30 nm zone width have been made by electroplating. In order to enhance the image contrast for weak absorbing objects, the phase contrast method for X-ray microscopy was developed and implemented on the Goettingen X-ray microscope at BESSY. The effects of X-ray absorption on the structure of biological specimen limits the maximum applicable radiation dose and therefore the achievable signal to noise ratio for an artifact-free X-ray image. To improve the stability especially of biological specimen, a cryogenic object chamber has been developed and tested. It turns out that at the operating temperature T ≤ 130 K unfixed biological specimen can be exposed to a radiation dose of 10 9 --10 10 Gy without any observable structural changes. A multiple-angle viewing stage allows to take stereoscopic images with the X-ray microscope, giving a 3D-impression of the object

  11. Fault zone architecture, San Jacinto fault zone, southern California: evidence for focused fluid flow and heat transfer in the shallow crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, N.; Girty, G. H.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    We report results of a new study of the San Jacinto fault zone architecture in Horse Canyon, SW of Anza, California, where stream incision has exposed a near-continuous outcrop of the fault zone at ~0.4 km depth. The fault zone at this location consists of a fault core, transition zone, damage zone, and lithologically similar wall rocks. We collected and analyzed samples for their bulk and grain density, geochemical data, clay mineralogy, and textural and modal mineralogy. Progressive deformation within the fault zone is characterized by mode I cracking, subsequent shearing of already fractured rock, and cataclastic flow. Grain comminution advances towards the strongly indurated cataclasite fault core. Damage progression towards the core is accompanied by a decrease in bulk and grain density, and an increase in porosity and dilational volumetric strain. Palygorskite and mixed-layer illite/smectite clay minerals are present in the damage and transition zones and are the result of hydrolysis reactions. The estimated percentage of illite in illite/smectite increases towards the fault core where the illite/smectite to illite conversion is complete, suggesting elevated temperatures that may have reached 150°C. Chemical alteration and elemental mass changes are observed throughout the fault zone and are most pronounced in the fault core. We conclude that the observed chemical and mineralogical changes can only be produced by the interaction of fractured wall rocks and chemically active fluids that are mobilized through the fault zone by thermo-pressurization during and after seismic events. Based on the high element mobility and absence of illite/smectite in the fault core, we expect that greatest water/rock ratios occur within the fault core. These results indicate that hot pore fluids circulate upwards through the fractured fault core and into the surrounding damage zone. Though difficult to constrain, the site studied during this investigation may represent the top

  12. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M.; Khaliullin, Timur O.; Vasil'yeva, Olga L.; Zalyalov, Ramil R.; Mustafin, Ilshat G.; Kisin, Elena R.; Birch, M. Eileen; Yanamala, Naveena; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  13. Fibrosis biomarkers in workers exposed to MWCNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatkhutdinova, Liliya M., E-mail: liliya.fatkhutdinova@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Khaliullin, Timur O., E-mail: Khaliullin.40k@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States); Vasil' yeva, Olga L., E-mail: volgaleon@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Zalyalov, Ramil R., E-mail: zalyalov.ramil@gmail.com [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Mustafin, Ilshat G., E-mail: ilshat64@mail.ru [Kazan State Medical University, ul. Butlerova 49, Kazan 420012 (Russian Federation); Kisin, Elena R., E-mail: edk8@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Birch, M. Eileen, E-mail: mib2@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Yanamala, Naveena, E-mail: wqu1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Shvedova, Anna A., E-mail: ats1@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV (United States); Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, WVU, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with their unique physico-chemical properties offer numerous technological advantages and are projected to drive the next generation of manufacturing growth. As MWCNT have already found utility in different industries including construction, engineering, energy production, space exploration and biomedicine, large quantities of MWCNT may reach the environment and inadvertently lead to human exposure. This necessitates the urgent assessment of their potential health effects in humans. The current study was carried out at NanotechCenter Ltd. Enterprise (Tambov, Russia) where large-scale manufacturing of MWCNT along with relatively high occupational exposure levels was reported. The goal of this small cross-sectional study was to evaluate potential biomarkers during occupational exposure to MWCNT. All air samples were collected at the workplaces from both specific areas and personal breathing zones using filter-based devices to quantitate elemental carbon and perform particle analysis by TEM. Biological fluids of nasal lavage, induced sputum and blood serum were obtained from MWCNT-exposed and non-exposed workers for assessment of inflammatory and fibrotic markers. It was found that exposure to MWCNTs caused significant increase in IL-1β, IL6, TNF-α, inflammatory cytokines and KL-6, a serological biomarker for interstitial lung disease in collected sputum samples. Moreover, the level of TGF-β1 was increased in serum obtained from young exposed workers. Overall, the results from this study revealed accumulation of inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers in biofluids of workers manufacturing MWCNTs. Therefore, the biomarkers analyzed should be considered for the assessment of health effects of occupational exposure to MWCNT in cross-sectional epidemiological studies. - Highlights: • The effects of MWCNT exposure in humans remain unclear. • We found increased KL-6/TGF-β levels in the biofluids of MWCNT-exposed workers.

  14. The mediator-modulator brain system in minks exposed to radiation factors of the Chernobyl NPP 10-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishunina, T.M.; Kalinskaya, L.N.; Pil'kevich, L.I.; Kononenko, V.Ya.; Ryasenko, V.I.; Bogdanova, T.I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the activity of the important metabolizing mediators/modulators of the central nervous system: adenosine, angiotensin and GABA as well as specific bonding of 14 C-GABA by synaptic membranes of brain structures in minks who were in the 10-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP from 0.5 months to 3 years. Adenosine deaminase, angiotensin converting enzyme and glutamate decarboxylase activities endured significant changes in the hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral, cortex, medulla oblongata and midbrain of minks; the direction and the extent of manifestation of those changes depend on the term of animals' stay in the zone. The GABA reception in the cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata increased significantly and progressively with the prolongation of exposure to radiation. It is concluded that the variety of changes, their regional-specificity and dependence on exposure of animals to the radiation factors of the Chernobyl NPP 10-km zone may induce development of serious complications not only in nervous but in some other systems

  15. Positron annihilation spectroscopy studies of bronze exposed to sandblasting at different pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdyumov, S.; Siemek, K.; Horodek, P.

    2017-11-01

    An application of Doppler broadening of annihilation line spectroscopy to samples of beryllium bronze DIN-CuBe2 exposed to sandblasting is presented in performed studies. It is familiar that sandblasting introduces open-volume defects. Samples were sandblasted under different pressure for 1 minute using 110 μm particles of Al2O3. For a non-defected sample the constant value of S-parameter was detected. In the cases of sandblasted samples, S-parameter decreased when the depth enhanced. In our studies the thicknesses of defected zones were determined (it was c.a. 30 μm for a sample blasted under pressure of 1 bar and 110 μm - for 5 bar), and it was also observed that if sandblasting pressure is higher the defected zone is larger.

  16. Fifty years of shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  17. Evidence for selection in response to radiation exposure: Pinus sylvestris in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    Changes of genetic structures due to viability selection are likely to occur in populations exposed to rapidly and extremely changing environmental conditions after catastrophic events. However, very little is known about the extent of selective responses and in particular the proportion of the genome involved in putatively adaptive reactions for non-model plants. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in order to investigate genetic differences between pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees which were partially exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees with a similar origin. Six percent of the investigated loci (15 of 222 loci) were identified as candidates for selective responses. Moderate differentiation was observed between groups of trees showing either weak or strong phenotypic responses to high radiation levels. - Highlights: → Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation were investigated. → Pines with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees. → AFLP markers were used to reveal evidences of selection processes. → 15 of 222 loci are identified as candidates for selective responses. → Moderate differentiation is observed between irradiated and control trees. - Genetic responses to the exposure of trees to radiation in the Chernobyl zone may involve adaptive changes at a comparatively large part of the genome.

  18. The Oldman River triangle zone: a complicated tectonic wedge delineated by new structural mapping and seismic interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmal, G. S. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Inst. of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology; Lawton, D. C.; Spratt, D. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics; MacKay, P. A.

    1996-06-01

    The triangle zone exposed along and adjacent to the Alberta Foothills was characterized on the basis of new structural mapping and seismic surveys. Results indicate that the zone is comprised of a complicated structure involving significant deformation in the hanging wall of the upper detachment, including orogenic thrusts and large orogen-vergent folds, as well as secondary orogen-directed tectonic wedging. This structure is considered to be an example of a `nested` triangle zone, where an `outer` tectonic wedge with modest shortening encases an `inner` counterpart with substantially more shortening. Both of these wedges show evidence of synchronous deformation. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Root-Zone Glyphosate Exposure Adversely Affects Two Ditch Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndsay E. Saunders

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate, one of the most applied herbicides globally, has been extensively studied for its effects on non-target organisms. In the field, following precipitation, glyphosate runs off into agricultural ditches where it infiltrates into the soil and thus may encounter the roots of vegetation. These edge-of-field ditches share many characteristics with wetlands, including the ability to reduce loads of anthropogenic chemicals through uptake, transformation, and retention. Different species within the ditches may have a differential sensitivity to exposure of the root zone to glyphosate, contributing to patterns of abundance of ruderal species. The present laboratory experiment investigated whether two species commonly found in agricultural ditches in southcentral United States were affected by root zone glyphosate in a dose-dependent manner, with the objective of identifying a sublethal concentration threshold. The root zone of individuals of Polygonum hydropiperoides and Panicum hemitomon were exposed to four concentrations of glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content was measured, and the ratio of aboveground biomass to belowground biomass and survival were quantified. The findings from this study showed that root zone glyphosate exposure negatively affected both species including dose-dependent reductions in chlorophyll content. P. hydropiperdoides showed the greatest negative response, with decreased belowground biomass allocation and total mortality at the highest concentrations tested.

  20. Reciprocal translocations in mice taken from the thirty-kilometer zone around the crippled reactor of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantseva, M.D.; Ramajya, L.K.; Testov, B.V.; Chekhovich, A.V.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shaks, A.I.; Lobaneva, N.V.

    1990-01-01

    A study was made of the incidence of genetic damages to germ cells of male mice taken from or exposed within the thirty-kilometer Zone of Chernobyl, the contaminated no-man's-land around the reactor that failed. At all contamination levels mouse spermatocytes exhibited reciprocal translocations, a relatively low frequency of which increased with increasing dose rate. Heterozygotes, with respect to reciprocal translocations (5%), were found among males exposed to enhanced radiation background as early embryons

  1. Proposed stratigraphic nomenclature and macroscopic identification of lithostratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.

    1996-09-01

    This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data.

  2. Proposed stratigraphic nomenclature and macroscopic identification of lithostratigraphic units of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesch, D.C.; Spengler, R.W.; Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the formations of the Paintbrush Group exposed at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, presents a detailed stratigraphic nomenclature for the Tiva Canyon and Topopah spring Tuffs, and discusses the criteria that define lithostratigraphic units. The Tiva Canyon and Topopah Spring Tuffs are divided into zones, subzones, and intervals on the basis of macroscopic features observed in surface exposures and borehole samples. Primary divisions reflect depositional and compositional zoning that is expressed by variations in crystal content, phenocryst assemblage, pumice content and composition, and lithic content. Secondary divisions define welding and crystlalization zones, depositional features, or fracture characteristics. Both formations are divided into crystal-rich and crystal-poor members that have an identical sequency of zones, although subzone designations vary slightly between the two units. The identified lithostratigraphic divisions can be used to approximate thermal-mechanical and hydrogeologic boundaries in the field. Linking these three systems of nomenclature provides a framework within which to correlate these properties through regions of sparse data

  3. Hydrothermal alteration in the Matok Igneous Complex, Southern Marginal Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieber, T.; Van Reenen, D.D.; Barton, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ductile shear zones associated with the 2700 to 2650 Ma Limpopo Orogeny locally contained gold mineralization. Some of these shear zones were reactivated under brittle conditions and contain zones of hydrothermal alteration that are of potential economic significance. Within the approximately 2670 Ma Matok Complex, two examples of this shear zone controlled alteration are exposed, the Dwars River and Sand River alteration zones. The granitic rocks of this Complex experienced early selective sericitization of plagioclase and the subsequent development of perthitic porphyroblasts. This early regional alteration was overprinted along brittle shear zones by pervasive propylitization and vein controlled quartz-albite alteration. The setting, composition, and the age of the Matok Complex make it a possible source for Archaean gold mineralization. The Dwars River and Sand River alteration zones are characterized by the absence of significant gold mineralization. The pattern of wall-rock alteration indicates that the hydrothermal processes were different from typical Archaean lode gold deposits. P-T conditions during the shear-zone controlled alteration were less than 400 degrees C and 1,9 - 2,8 kb. The shear zone hosted alteration could have taken place anytime between emplacement of the Matok Complex and about 1315 Ma ago. 35 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Brain abnormalities among the mentally retarded prenatally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori; Nishitani, Hiromu; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Kobayashi, Takuro; Goto, Ikuo.

    1992-07-01

    An increased occurrence of severe mental retardation, with or without accompanying small head size, at specific gestational ages has been the most conspicuous effect on brain development of prenatal exposure to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A variety of biological mechanisms could be responsible for this finding, including cell killing and mismanaged neuronal migration. We describe here the findings on magnetic resonance imaging of the brains of five of these mentally retarded individuals, all of whom were exposed in the 8th through the 15th weeks following fertilization, the gestational period shown to be the most vulnerable to radiation-related damage. In the two cases exposed at the 8th or 9th week following fertilization, large areas of ectopic gray matter are seen, strong evidence of a failure of the neurons to migrate to their proper functional sites. The two individuals exposed in the 12th or 13th week show no readily recognized ectopic gray areas but do show mild macrogyria, which implies some impairment in the development of the cortical zone. Moreover, both have mega cisterna magna. Finally, the one individual seen who was exposed still later in development, in the 15th week, shows none of the changes seen in the other four individuals. This person's brain, though small, appears to have normal architecture. These findings are discussed in terms of the embryological events transpiring at the time of the prenatal exposure of these individuals to ionizing radiation. (author)

  5. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  6. Effect of Thermal Distress on Residual Behavior of CFRP-Strengthened Steel Beams Including Periodic Unbonded Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isamu Yoshitake

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the residual behavior of wide-flange steel beams strengthened with high-modulus carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates subjected to thermal loading. Because the coefficients of thermal expansion of the steel and the CFRP are different, temperature-induced distress may take place along their interface. Periodic unbonded zones are considered to represent local interfacial damage. Five test categories are designed depending on the size of the unbonded zones from 10 to 50 mm, and corresponding beams are loaded until failure occurs after exposing to a cyclic temperature range of ΔT = 25 °C (−10 to 15 °C up to 84 days. The composite action between the CFRP and the steel substrate is preserved until yielding of the beams happens, regardless of the thermal cycling and periodic unbonded zones. The initiation and progression of CFRP debonding become apparent as the beams are further loaded, particularly at geometric discontinuities in the vicinity of the unbonded zones along the interface. A simple analytical model is employed to predict the interfacial stress of the strengthened beams. A threshold temperature difference of ΔT = 30 °C is estimated for the initiation and progression of CFRP debonding. Multiple debonding-progression stages in conjunction with the extent of thermal distress appear to exist. It is recommended that high-modulus CFRP be restrictively used for strengthening steel members potentially exposed to a wide temperature variation range.

  7. Root-zone temperature and water availability affect early root growth of planted longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Sword

    1995-01-01

    Longleaf pine seedlings from three seed sources were exposed to three root-zone temperatures and three levels of water availability for 28 days. Root growth declined as temperature and water availability decreased. Root growth differed by seed source. Results suggest that subtle changes in the regeneration environment may influence early root growth of longleaf pine...

  8. Postmortem metallurgical examination of a fire-exposed spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rack, H.J.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1980-04-01

    A potmortem examination of a large fire-exposed rail-transported spent fuel shipping container has revealed the presence of two macrofissures in the outer cask shell. The first, a part-thru crack located within the seam weld fusion zone of the outer cask shell, was typical of hot cracks that may be found in stainless steel weldments. The second, located within the stainless steel base metal, apparently originated at microcracks formed during the welding of a copper-stainless steel dissimilar metal joint. The latter microcrack then propagated during the fire-test, ultimately penetrating the outer shall of the cask. 18 figures, 2 tables

  9. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  10. Standard practice for exposing and evaluating metals and alloys in surface seawater

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers conditions for the exposure of metals, alloys, and other materials in natural surface seawater such as those typically found in bays, harbors, channels, and so forth, as contrasted with deep ocean testing. This practice covers full immersion, tidal zone and related splash, and spray zone exposures. 1.2 This practice sets forth general procedures that should be followed in conducting seawater exposure tests so that meaningful comparisons may be made from one location to another. 1.3 This practice identifies recommended procedures for evaluating the effects of natural surface seawater on the materials exposed. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regula...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUE FOR ZONING THE FORMER SEMIPALATINSK TEST SITE TERRITORY USINHG GEOINFORMATIONAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Yakovenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on radio-ecological assessment of pollution carried out at the former Semipalatinsk test site. The technique of radio-ecological zoning with methods of geoinformation mapping, including the determination of qualitative and qualitative criteria depending on the degree of superficial soil layer pollution, exposed to anthropogenic radiative impact, is offered. The result of such zoning makes it possible to evaluate the degree of radiation impact on the surveyed area, identify areas with high background radiation and define the borders representing potential risks to the public, residing or carrying out business activities within the area.

  12. Microstructural investigation of the heat-affected zone of simulated welded joint of P91 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vuherer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the process of testing real components exposed to elevated temperature, it is not possible to neglect cracks. The most significant cracks can be induced by welding, which is applied for joining of structural components. Pressure equipment in service is also exposed to high pressure and high stresses. Materials for their manufacturing are designed to resist high stress at elevated temperature, and to meet requirements regarding creep resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate microstructure of different regions of the heat affected zone in T/P91 steels by using thermal simulation instead of welding.

  13. Exposing ecological and economic costs of the research-implementation gap and compromises in decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareksela, Santtu; Moilanen, Atte; Ristaniemi, Olli; Välivaara, Reima; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2018-02-01

    The frequently discussed gap between conservation science and practice is manifest in the gap between spatial conservation prioritization plans and their implementation. We analyzed the research-implementation gap of one zoning case by comparing results of a spatial prioritization analysis aimed at avoiding ecological impact of peat mining in a regional zoning process with the final zoning plan. We examined the relatively complex planning process to determine the gaps among research, zoning, and decision making. We quantified the ecological costs of the differing trade-offs between ecological and socioeconomic factors included in the different zoning suggestions by comparing the landscape-level loss of ecological features (species occurrences, habitat area, etc.) between the different solutions for spatial allocation of peat mining. We also discussed with the scientists and planners the reasons for differing zoning suggestions. The implemented plan differed from the scientists suggestion in that its focus was individual ecological features rather than all the ecological features for which there were data; planners and decision makers considered effects of peat mining on areas not included in the prioritization analysis; zoning was not truly seen as a resource-allocation process and not emphasized in general minimizing ecological losses while satisfying economic needs (peat-mining potential); and decision makers based their prioritization of sites on site-level information showing high ecological value and on single legislative factors instead of finding a cost-effective landscape-level solution. We believe that if the zoning and decision-making processes are very complex, then the usefulness of science-based prioritization tools is likely to be reduced. Nevertheless, we found that high-end tools were useful in clearly exposing trade-offs between conservation and resource utilization. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Prioritising coastal zone management issues through fuzzy cognitive mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliadou, Aleka; Santoro, Francesca; Nader, Manal R; Dagher, Manale Abou; Al Indary, Shadi; Salloum, Bachir Abi

    2012-04-30

    Effective public participation is an essential component of Integrated Coastal Zone Management implementation. To promote such participation, a shared understanding of stakeholders' objectives has to be built to ultimately result in common coastal management strategies. The application of quantitative and semi-quantitative methods involving tools such as Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping is presently proposed for reaching such understanding. In this paper we apply the Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping tool to elucidate the objectives and priorities of North Lebanon's coastal productive sectors, and to formalize their coastal zone perceptions and knowledge. Then, we investigate the potential of Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping as tool for support coastal zone management. Five round table discussions were organized; one for the municipalities of the area and one for each of the main coastal productive sectors (tourism, industry, fisheries, agriculture), where the participants drew cognitive maps depicting their views. The analysis of the cognitive maps showed a large number of factors perceived as affecting the current situation of the North Lebanon coastal zone that were classified into five major categories: governance, infrastructure, environment, intersectoral interactions and sectoral initiatives. Furthermore, common problems, expectations and management objectives for all sectors were exposed. Within this context, Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping proved to be an essential tool for revealing stakeholder knowledge and perception and understanding complex relationships. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The forming of the complexes of soil mezofauna in the zone of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    We carried out the pedobiological research in the different biogeocenoses in the zone of radioactive contamination. Based on the obtained data we can conclude a direct correlation between the viability of the soil invertebrates and the background gamma-radiation intensity. All the facts indicate that soil animal complexes in biogeocenoses exposed to radiation for a long time impact clearly noticeable suppression

  16. From an ocean floor wrench zone origin to transpressional tectonic emplacement of the Sithonia ophiolite, eastern Vardar Suture Zone, northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonev, Nikolay; Filipov, Petyo

    2017-12-01

    In the Hellenides of northern Greece, the Sithonia back-arc ophiolite constitute an element of the Vardar suture zone against the Chortiatis island arc magmatic suite, the Melissochori Formation and the Serbo-Macedonian Massif further north at the Mesozoic continental margin of Eurasia. A granodiorite from the Chortiatis island arc magmatic suite crystallized at 160 Ma as derived from new U-Pb zircon geochronology and confirms the end of arc magmatic activity that started at around 173 Ma. Located southerly of the Chortiatis island arc magmatic suite, the Sithonia ophiolite had igneous life from 159 to 149 Ma, and the ophiolite interfinger with clastic-carbonate Kimmeridgian sediments. Magmatic structures (i.e., sheeted dykes) in the ophiolite witness for NE-trending rift axis, while the transform faults and fracture zones sketch NW-SE transcurrent transtension-like propagation of the rift-spreading center at Sithonia that is consistent with a dextral wrench corridor already proposed for the ophiolite origin in the eastern Vardar zone. The tectonic emplacement of the Sithonia ophiolite involved dextral ENE to SE strike-slip sense of shear and SW and NE reverse thrust sense of shear on mostly steep foliation S1, subhorizontal lineation L1 and associated variably inclined F1 fold axes. This structural grain and kinematics are shared by adjacent Chortiatis island arc magmatic suite and the Melissochori Formation. The coexistence of strike-parallel and thrust components of displacement along discrete dextral strike-slip shear zones and internal deformation of the mentioned units is interpreted to result from a bulk dextral transpressive deformation regime developed in greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions. The back-arc ocean floor previous structural architecture with faults and fracture zones where Kimmeridgian sediments deposited in troughs was used by discrete strike-slip shear zones in which these sediments involved, and the shear zones become the sites for

  17. Peculiarities of gastrointestinal tract diseases course in the persons exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasyijeshvyilyi, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The study involved 145 men aged 21 - 49 years, who were exposed to radiation in the dose of 9.3 ± 1.6 rem at different terms of their stay in 30-km zone during 49 ± 5.4 days. In the study group, chronic gastroduodenitis was diagnosed in 56 patients, chronic cholecystitis - in 47 patients, chronic pancreatitis - in 42 patients. In spite of the difference of nosologic forms, main clinical features of the disease were noted to be the changes of vegetative nervous system and psycho emotional changes

  18. Genetic effects of prolonged combined irradiation of laboratory animals in Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant alienation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savtsova, Z.D.; Vojejkova, Yi.M.; Dzhaman, N.Yi.; Yudyina, O.Yu.; Yindik, V.M.; Kovbasyuk, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    Prolonged combined (external and internal) irradiation of mice in the r zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant caused hereditary disturbances physiological defects in the posterity irrespective of the fact if one or both parents were irradiated. The most favourable indices were observed in F2 posterity of the both exposed parents

  19. Does moving from war zone change emotions and risk perceptions? A field study of Israeli students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current field study uses data collected after the 2009 war between Israel and the Hamas militias in the Gaza Strip ended. The study compares recalled emotions and perceived risks among two groups of students, all of whom were exposed to rocket attacks. Individuals in the ``left the war zone'' group left the region under attack as a precautionary action, while the ``stayed in the war zone'' group remained in the region during war. The results indicate no significant differences in the levels of recalled fear and anger between the two groups, while the perceived self-risk from terror was higher among the ``stayed in the war zone'' group. Yet, a higher level of recalled fear was found among those who left the war zone and whose parents resided in the war zone, compared to those who left the war zone and whose parents resided outside the war zone. In addition, fearful people became more pessimistic about their level of personal risk from terror, but not about the routine risks. We conclude that civilians need attention even if they leave the war zone since leaving the attacked region as a precautionary action may mitigate perceived self-risk from terror but does not seem to eliminate the high level of negative emotions evoked by the terror attacks.

  20. Frequencies of micronuclei in bank voles from zones of high radiation at Chernobyl, Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, B.E.; Baker, R.J.

    2000-06-01

    A population of Clethrionomys glareolus (bank vole) from a highly radioactive area within the Chernobyl, Ukraine exclusion zone was sampled in June 1997 and in June and October 1998. Internal radiation doses from radiocesium were estimated to be as high as 8 rads/d. Total dose, which takes into account the internal dose form radiostrontium and the surrounding environment, was estimated to be 15 to 20 rads/d. In contrast, individuals from a reference population lying outside of the exclusion zone registered negligible levels of contamination. The authors used the micronucleus test in a double-blind study to analyze blood samples from 58 individuals. They scored more than 600,000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) but could not reject the null hypothesis that the frequency of micronucleated PCEs in voles exposed to radiation was equal to the frequency in unexposed voles. Results of their study stand in sharp contrast to earlier reports of increased frequencies of micronuclei in rodents exposed to fallout of the Chernobyl accident, but with radiation doses that were orders of magnitude lower than those reported here. Radio resistance and experimental methods are possible explanations for these differences in the results.

  1. Urine 1,6-Hexamethylene Diamine (HDA) Levels Among Workers Exposed to 1,6-Hexamethylene Diisocyanate (HDI)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Linda G. T.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Flack, Sheila L.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Ball, Louise M.; Richardson, David B.; Ding, Kai; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Nylander-french, Leena A.

    2010-01-01

    Urinary 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) may serve as a biomarker for systemic exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in occupationally exposed populations. However, the quantitative relationships between dermal and inhalation exposure to HDI and urine HDA levels have not been established. We measured acid-hydrolyzed urine HDA levels along with dermal and breathing-zone levels of HDI in 48 automotive spray painters. These measurements were conducted over the course of an entire workd...

  2. Fault zone architecture of the San Jacinto fault zone in Horse Canyon, southern California: A model for focused post-seismic fluid flow and heat transfer in the shallow crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Nissa; Girty, Gary H.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    2012-05-01

    We report results of a new study of the architecture of the San Jacinto fault zone in Horse Canyon, California, where stream incision has exposed a nearly continuous outcrop of the fault zone at ~ 0.4 km depth. The fault zone at this location consists of a fault core, transition zone, damage zone, and tonalitic wall rocks. We collected and analyzed samples for their bulk and grain density, geochemical data, clay mineralogy, and textural and modal mineralogy. Progressive deformation within the fault zone is characterized by mode I cracking, subsequent shearing of already fractured rock, and cataclastic flow. Grain comminution advances towards the strongly indurated cataclasite fault core. Damage progression towards the core is accompanied by a decrease in bulk and grain density, and an increase in porosity and dilational volumetric strain. Palygorskite and mixed-layer illite/smectite clay minerals are present in the damage and transition zones and are the result of hydrolysis reactions. The estimated percentage of illite in illite/smectite increases towards the fault core where the illite/smectite to illite conversion is complete, suggesting elevated temperatures that may have reached 150 °C. Chemical alteration and elemental mass changes are observed throughout the fault zone and are most pronounced in the fault core. We conclude that the observed chemical and mineralogical changes can only be produced by the interaction of fractured wall rocks and chemically active fluids that are mobilized through the fault zone by thermo-pressurization during and after seismic events. Based on the high element mobility and absence of illite/smectite in the fault core, we expect that the greatest water/rock ratios occur within the fault core. These results indicate that hot pore fluids circulate upwards through the fractured fault core and into the surrounding damage zone. Though difficult to constrain, we speculate that the site studied during this investigation may represent

  3. Mechanical and Microstructural Evaluations of Lightweight Aggregate Geopolymer Concrete before and after Exposed to Elevated Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Omar A; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Binhussain, Mohammed

    2013-10-09

    This paper presents the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of a lightweight aggregate geopolymer concrete (LWAGC) synthesized by the alkali-activation of a fly ash source (FA) before and after being exposed to elevated temperatures, ranging from 100 to 800 °C. The results show that the LWAGC unexposed to the elevated temperatures possesses a good strength-to-weight ratio compared with other LWAGCs available in the published literature. The unexposed LWAGC also shows an excellent strength development versus aging times, up to 365 days. For the exposed LWAGC to the elevated temperatures of 100 to 800 °C, the results illustrate that the concretes gain compressive strength after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Afterward, the strength of the LWAGC started to deteriorate and decrease after being exposed to elevated temperatures of 400 °C, and up to 800 °C. Based on the mechanical strength results of the exposed LWAGCs to elevated temperatures of 100 °C to 800 °C, the relationship between the exposure temperature and the obtained residual compressive strength is statistically analyzed and achieved. In addition, the microstructure investigation of the unexposed LWAGC shows a good bonding between aggregate and mortar at the interface transition zone (ITZ). However, this bonding is subjected to deterioration as the LWAGC is exposed to elevated temperatures of 400, 600 and 800 °C by increasing the microcrack content and swelling of the unreacted silicates.

  4. A reworked Lake Zone margin: Chronological and geochemical constraints from the Ordovician arc-related basement of the Hovd Zone (western Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejono, Igor; Buriánek, David; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Svojtka, Martin; Čáp, Pavel; Erban, Vojtěch; Ganpurev, Nyamtsetseg

    2017-12-01

    The primary relationships and character of the boundaries between principal lithotectonic domains in the Mongolian tract of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still poorly constrained. This brings much uncertainty in understanding of the orogeny configuration and the complete accretionary history. The plutonic Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex and the mainly metasedimentary Bij Group represent associated medium- to high-grade basement complexes exposed in the Hovd Zone close to its boundary with the Lake Zone in western Mongolia. The Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex is composed of variously deformed acid to basic magmatic rocks intimately associated with the metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Bij Group. Results of our field work, new U-Pb zircon ages and whole-rock geochemical data suggest an existence of two separate magmatic events within the evolution of the Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex. Early to Mid-Ordovician (476 ± 5 Ma and 467 ± 4 Ma protoliths) normal- to high-K calc-alkaline orthogneisses, metadiorites and metagabbros predominate over Mid-Silurian (430 ± 3 Ma) tholeiitic-mildly alkaline quartz monzodiorites. Whereas the geochemical signature of the former suite unequivocally demonstrates its magmatic-arc origin, that of the latter quartz monzodiorite suggests an intra-plate setting. As shown by Sr-Nd isotopic data, the older arc-related magmas were derived from depleted mantle and/or were generated by partial melting of juvenile metabasic crust. Detrital zircon age populations of the metasedimentary rocks together with geochemical signatures of the associated amphibolites imply that the Bij Group was a volcano-sedimentary sequence, formed probably in the associated fore-arc wedge basin. Moreover, our data argue for an identical provenance of the Altai and Hovd domains, overall westward sediment transport during the Early Palaeozoic and the east-dipping subduction polarity. The obvious similarities of the Khuurai Tsenkher Gol Complex

  5. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  6. Multi-pollutant interactions in hyporheic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, S.; Weatherill, J.; Bonet, B.; Blaen, P.; Khamis, K.; Cassidy, N. J.; Hannah, D. M.; Rivett, M. O.; Lynch, I.; Ullah, S.

    2017-12-01

    Hyporheic zones represent hotspots of biogeochemical reactivity, with the potential to attenuate pollutants and ameliorate their impact on ecosystem functioning. Sources and types of pollutants in streambed environments are manifold, with legacy industry contaminants, agricultural pollution and emerging pollutants such as pharmaceuticals or engineered nanoparticles entering hyporheic zones along different flow paths where they mix and potentially react with each other. Current conceptualizations of drivers and controls of biogeochemical turnover in hyporheic zones highlight primarily the role of transport and reaction times but do not account for potential interactions between different pollutants. This study presents two case studies of multi-pollutant interactions to illustrate the need to consider interferences between different pollutants, their transport and reaction pathways for adequate impact assessment. We discuss in the first instance how the natural attenuation of a Trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume in an agricultural catchment is limited by high riparian and hyporheic nitrate concentrations. As nitrate outcompeted TCE in its reaction with organic carbon as electron donor, TCE attenuation was in this case limited to hyporheic denitrification hotspots. Hence any pollution control measures to reduce the impact of this TCE plume require a reduction of agricultural nitrate loads, highlighting the connectedness of legacy (TCE) and more recent (nitrate) pollution problems. In the second case, we investigate how the labile organic carbon content of streambed sediments as main control of hyporheic respiration is overridden by exposure to different silver nanoparticle concentrations, representing emerging pollutants in many of our rivers. Also in this case, the impacts of different stressors (nanoparticle exposure) and drivers (availability of organic matter, water temperature) are interacting in their impacts on hyporheic zone functioning. We argue that

  7. Metasomatic Reaction Zones as Monitors of Trace Element Transfer at the Slab-Mantle Interface: the Case of the Hochwart Peridotite (Ulten Zone, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocchi, M.; Hermann, J.; Bargossi, G. M.; Mair, V.; Morten, L.

    2006-12-01

    Ultramafic blocks belonging to the Hochwart peridotite outcrop (Ulten Zone, Italian Alps) preserve a series of metasomatic mineral zones generated by infiltration of Si-rich hydrous fluids which occurred at the gneiss- peridotite interface. The age of the high pressure metamorphism for the Hochwart complex has been constrained at 330 Ma (Tumiati et al., 2003, EPSL, 210, 509-526). The country rocks are stromatic gneisses consisting mainly of quartz, K-feldspar, garnet, kyanite, biotite and muscovite. The ultramafic body consists of strongly serpentinized metaperidotites which are exposed as a hectometre-size lens along a steep gully, associated to monomineralic zones that developed at the contact between the peridotite body and the garnet gneiss country rocks. The composition of the metasomatic zones has been investigated in detail and records an order of metasomatic zoning formed by phlogopite-rich to tremolite-anthophyllite-rich rocks going from the host gneiss towards the peridotite. In some cases, the ultramafics fade into the gneisses developing serpentine and talc which has replaced, presumably at lower temperatures, the serpentine matrix and occurs in association with chlorite. Phlogopite aggregates (phlogopitite) with accessory minerals (quartz + zircon + apatite) and metabasic pods (phlogopite and hornblende) also occur. Black tourmaline (schorl-dravite solid solution) has been found for the first time in the contact near the phlogopite zone, suggesting an external addition of elements (boron and fluorine) to the system at high temperature. The formation of the metasomatic zones composed exclusively of hydrous phases must have involved extensive H2O-metasomatism as already documented for the Ulten peridotites. The source for these fluids can be a system of trondhjemitic-pegmatitic dikes cutting the peridotite that would have channelled aqueous fluids into the ultramafic rocks. Whole-rock geochemistry and trace element (LA ICP-MS) composition of hydrous

  8. Comparative effects of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on nitrogen uptake in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huiqun; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2009-01-01

    The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) as compared with deficit irrigation (DI) and full irrigation (FI) on nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were investigated. Potato plants were grown in split-root pots and were exposed to FI, PRD, and DI treatments...

  9. Ecological impacts of winter water level drawdowns on lake littoral zones: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater littoral zones harbor diverse ecological communities and serve numerous ecosystem functions that are controlled, in part, by natural water level fluctuations. However, human alteration of lake hydrologic regimes beyond natural fluctuations threaten littoral zone ecological integrity. One type of hydrologic alteration in lakes is winter water level drawdowns, which are frequently employed for hydropower, flood control, and macrophyte control, among other purposes. Here, we synthesize the abiotic and biotic responses to annual and novel winter water level drawdowns in littoral zones of lakes and reservoirs. The dewatering, freezing, and increased erosion of exposed lakebeds drive changes in the littoral zone. Shoreline-specific physicochemical conditions such as littoral slope and shoreline exposure further induce modifications. Loss of fine sediment decreases nutrient availability over time, but desiccation may promote a temporary nutrient pulse upon re-inundation. Annual winter drawdowns can decrease taxonomic richness of macrophytes and benthic invertebrates and shift assemblage composition to favor taxa with r-selected life history strategies and with functional traits resistant to direct and indirect drawdown effects. Fish assemblages, though less directly affected by winter drawdowns (except where there is critically low dissolved oxygen), experience negative effects via indirect pathways like decreased food resources and spawning habitat. We identify eight general research gaps to guide future research that could improve our understanding about the complex effects of winter drawdowns on littoral zone ecology.

  10. Fuel conditioning facility zone-to-zone transfer administrative controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    The administrative controls associated with transferring containers from one criticality hazard control zone to another in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) are described. FCF, located at the ANL-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, is used to remotely process spent sodium bonded metallic fuel for disposition. The process involves nearly forty widely varying material forms and types, over fifty specific use container types, and over thirty distinct zones where work activities occur. During 1999, over five thousand transfers from one zone to another were conducted. Limits are placed on mass, material form and type, and container types for each zone. Ml material and containers are tracked using the Mass Tracking System (MTG). The MTG uses an Oracle database and numerous applications to manage the database. The database stores information specific to the process, including material composition and mass, container identification number and mass, transfer history, and the operators involved in each transfer. The process is controlled using written procedures which specify the zone, containers, and material involved in a task. Transferring a container from one zone to another is called a zone-to-zone transfer (ZZT). ZZTs consist of four distinct phases, select, request, identify, and completion

  11. Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Carlsson, Jessica; Gerke, Travis; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Penney, Kathryn L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Fall, Katja; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Pawitan, Yudi; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Andrén, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20–30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research. PMID:25870172

  12. Space-time evolution of cataclasis in carbonate fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Francesco; Grieco, Donato Stefano; Agosta, Fabrizio; Prosser, Giacomo

    2018-05-01

    The present contribution focuses on the micro-mechanisms associated to cataclasis of both calcite- and dolomite-rich fault rocks. This work combines field and laboratory data of carbonate fault cores currently exposed in central and southern Italy. By first deciphering the main fault rock textures, their spatial distribution, crosscutting relationships and multi-scale dimensional properties, the relative timing of Intragranular Extensional Fracturing (IEF), chipping, and localized shear is inferred. IEF was predominant within already fractured carbonates, forming coarse and angular rock fragments, and likely lasted for a longer period within the dolomitic fault rocks. Chipping occurred in both lithologies, and was activated by grain rolling forming minute, sub-rounded survivor grains embedded in a powder-like carbonate matrix. The largest fault zones, which crosscut either limestones or dolostones, were subjected to localized shear and, eventually, to flash temperature increase which caused thermal decomposition of calcite within narrow (cm-thick) slip zones. Results are organized in a synoptic panel including the main dimensional properties of survivor grains. Finally, a conceptual model of the time-dependent evolution of cataclastic deformation in carbonate rocks is proposed.

  13. Fracture-zone tectonics at Zabargad Island, Red Sea (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Stephen; Bonatti, Enrico; Brueckner, Hannes; Paulsen, Timothy

    1992-12-01

    Zabargad Island, which lies along the western margin of the Red Sea rift, is a remarkable place because it provides fresh exposures of undepleted mantle peridotite. How this peridotite came to be exposed on Zabargad remains unclear. Our field mapping indicates that most of the contacts between peridotite and the adjacent bodies of Pan-African gneiss and Cretaceous(?) Zabargad Formation on the island are now high-angle brittle faults. Zabargad Formation strata have been complexly folded, partly in response to this faulting. Overall, the array of high-angle faults and associated folds on the island resembles those found in cross-rift transfer zones. We suggest, therefore, that the Zabargad fracture zone, a band of submarine escarpments on the floor of the Red Sea north of the island, crosses Zabargad Island and has actively resolved differential movement between the central Red Sea rift and the northern Red Sea rift. The final stage of uplift that brought the unusual peridotite to the earth's surface is related to shallow crustal transpression, which may have inverted an earlier transtensional regime.

  14. Sexual function of male rats exposed to the factors of the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpenko, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    Using sexually active rats for experiments the influence of chronic combined internal and external irradiation at low doses on sexual behavior and fertility of sexual active animals keeping within the 30-km Chernobyl external zone studied. After the 1.5 month consumption of drinking water containing radionuclides of natural Chernobyl spectrum the decrease in proportion of sexually active animals and suppression sexual motivation and erection were observed. This deviations resulted in the reducing of the inseminated females number. Dependence between the magnitude of total absorbed dose and the function of the sexual behavior regulatory mechanisms was obtained. In addition, the reduction of rat fertility took place because of the increase of preimplantation, but not post-implantation death in clean females coupled with irradiated males. Irradiation of males at total absorbed dose to gonads 0.23 c Gy decreased the fertility because of sexual behavior disturbance, and this effect was intensified by negative influence of ionizing radiation in the range of 0.7-7.0 c Gy on male gametes [ru

  15. WorkZoneQ user guide for two-lane freeway work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    WorkZoneQ was developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to implement the results of the previous study, : Queue and Users Costs in Highway Work Zones. This report contains the WorkZoneQ user guide. WorkZoneQ : consists of eight Excel ...

  16. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  17. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_EnterpriseZone

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class of Miami Dade County Enterprise Zones. Enterprise Zones are special areas in the county where certain incentives from the State are available...

  18. Slip Zone versus Damage Zone Micromechanics, Arima-Takasuki Tectonic Line, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. C.; Lin, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Arima-Takasuki Tectonic Line (ATTL) of southern Honshu, Japan is defined by historically active faults and multiple splays producing M7 earthquakes. The damage zone of the ATTL comprises a broad zone of crushed, comminuted and pulverized granite/rhyolite1,2containing cm-scale slip zones and highly comminuted injection veins. In this presentation, prior work on the ATTL fault rocks is extending to include microstructural characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) from recent trenching of the primary slip zone, as well as secondary slip zones. This is necessary to adequately characterize the extremely fine-grained material (typically less than 1mm) in both damage and core zones. Damage zone material exhibits generally random textures3 whereas slip zones are macroscopically foliated, and compositionally layered, notwithstanding a fairly homogeneous protolith. The latter reflects fluid-rock interaction during both coseismic and interseismic periods. The slip zones are microstructurally heterogeneous at all scales, comprising not only cataclasites and phyllosilicate (clay)-rich gouge zones, but Fe/Mn pellets or clasts that are contained within gouge. These structures appear to have rolled and would suggest rapid recrystallization and/or growth. A central question related to earthquake recurrence along existing faults is the nature of the gouge. In both near-surface exposures and ongoing drilling at depth, "plastic" or "viscous" gouge zones comprise ultra-fine-grained clay-siliciclastic particles that would not necessarily respond in a simple frictional manner. Depending on whether the plastic nature of these slip zones develops during or after slip, subsequent focusing of slip within them could be complicated. 1 Mitchell, T.A., Ben-Zion, Y., Shimamoto, T., 2011. Ear. Planet. Sci. Lett. 308, 284-297. 2 Lin, A., Yamashita, K, Tanaka, M. J., 2013. Struc. Geol. 48, 3-13. 3 White, J.C., Lin, A. 2016. Proc. AGU Fall Mtg., T42-02 San Francisco.

  19. Evaluation of Ohio work zone speed zones process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of analyses performed to determine the effectiveness of Ohio Department of Transportation processes for establishing work zone speed zones. Researchers observed motorists speed choice upstream of a...

  20. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca 2+ ] i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca 2+ ], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers showed higher PS

  1. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  2. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca(2+)], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrodynamics and PIV study in the impingement zone formed by a droplet train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjirakat, Anoop; Sadr, Reza; Zhang, Taolue; Muthusamy, Jayaveera; Alvarado, Jorge; Texas A; M University at Qatar Collaboration; Texas A; M University College Station Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Droplet impingement is encountered in numerous technical applications, such as ink jet printing, spray cooling, and fuel injection in internal combustion engines. Even though many studies in droplet impingement were conducted in past, not many have measured the near-wall velocities in the droplet impingement zone. With the goal of gaining a better understanding of the hydrodynamics in the impingement zone, well-controlled experiments are performed in combination with micro-PIV measurements and numerical simulations. Hydrodynamics of HFE-7100 droplets generated using a piezoelectric droplet generator, impinging on a pre-wetted surface is investigated. Micro-PIV studies in the high-velocity impingement zone are performed using one-micron meter fluorescent particles dispersed in HFE-7100 along with the double exposed images. Three-dimensional and 2D-axisymmetric numerical modeling for a transient droplet crown development is performed. The interface between the gas and the liquid is modeled using a Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. Numerical simulation results obtained are observed to be in good agreement with that of the experimental observations. Supported by National Priority Research Program (NPRP) of Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF), Grant No.: NPRP 6-1304-2-525.

  5. Microscopic investigations of palynological features of convolvulaceous species from arid zone of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashfaq, Shomaila; Zafar, Muhammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Sultana, Shazia; Bahadur, Siraj; Khan, Adeel; Shah, Amin

    2018-02-01

    The pollen morphology of some species of glamorous family Convolvulaceae from arid zones of Pakistan has been evaluated. The pollen grains were acetolyzed, measured, described qualitatively, and illustrated using Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The examined species have differences in shape, size, polarity and exine ornamentation, confirming the eurypalynous character. The pollen types varies from psilate to echinate and colpi to tricolporate, tetracolporate and pantocolporate. Exine ornamentation was exposed as perforate, reticulate and echinate. Spine morphology and exine sculpture are vital for the distinction of species. Pollen fertility shows that selected plants species are well-known in the Arid Zone. A taxonomic key is prepared to use these variations in the identification of species. Statistical analysis by using the Software XLSTAT exhibited that some morphological features is the main characters in identification of the taxa. These studied taxa were separated from each other using cluster Analysis. Our results constructed on MVSP ver. 3.22 software analyses that show morphological explanation; thus, the results highlight the importance of pollen morphology in the identification and characterization of species of the family convolvulacae in arid zone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Morphological peculiarities of duodenal peptic ulcer and leucocytes functional activity in the persons who were present in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, O.Ya.; Kushnyir, Yi.E.; Bobro, L.M.; Karamishev, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    36 persons with duodenal peptic ulcer (DPU) who were in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station (experimental group) and 20 patients who were not exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation were examined to study morphological peculiarities of DPU and blood leucocytes functional activity in the persons who were present in the zone of the accident. The finding have shown that in the persons, exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation, peptic ulcer is often accompanied by erosive changes of gastric and duodenal mucosa. Disturbance of mucus formation in myocytes and secret evacuation from the cells, epithelium large-intestine-type metaplasia, were revealed. Shift of cellular correlation balance in inflammatory infiltrate to the side of monocytes number increase as well as decrease of leucocytes functional activity, manifesting itself by slowing a granulocytes migration to the focus of inflammation, were noted, which is necessary to take into account at administration of effective peptic ulcer therapy in the persons who were in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

  7. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  8. Pollution of the sediments of the coastal zone of the Sambia Peninsula and the Curonian Spit (Southeastern Baltic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krek, Alexander; Krechik, Viktor; Danchenkov, Aleksandr; Krek, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The detailed environmental survey of the coastal zone of the Kaliningrad Region northern coast was carried out. The pollutants distribution in the silty clay fraction and calculation of ecological indexes allowed the evaluation of distribution of potentially harmful elements (PHEs). The sources of pollution in the most intensively used areas were identified, and transit and accumulation zones were allocated. A large area of anomalous content of PHEs was revealed on the underwater coastal slope of the Curonian Spit National Park, which is situated far from the sources of pollution. The alongshore bed load transport provides the contamination of the underwater slope whereas the beaches are less exposed to pollution.

  9. Geophysical evidence for widespread reversely magnetised pyroclastics in the western Taupo Volcanic Zone (New Zealand)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soengkono, S.; Hochstein, M.P.; Smith, I.E.M.; Itaya, T.

    1992-01-01

    Low-altitude aeromagnetic data show that negative residual anomalies are widespread over the western Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Paleomagnetic study of eight rhyolitic ignimbrite units and two lava flows which are exposed in this area, together with new K-Ar dates of four of the ignimbrite units, indicate that the two lava units and seven of the ignimbrite units were erupted during the Matuyama geomagnetic epoch (>0.73 Ma B.P.) and suggest that rhyolitic volcanism in the western Taupo Volcanic Zone began as early as 1.6 Ma B.P. These results provide the basis for an interpretation of our aeromagnetic data which confirms the hypothesis that the magnetic anomalies observed in the western Taupo Volcanic Zone are caused by widespread, thick, reversely magnetised pyroclastic and lava flows. Magnetic modelling also allows thickness estimates of the younger, normally magnetised cover rocks which reach a maximum thickness of the order of 0.5 km in the Mangakino area. The magnetic structure of these volcanic rocks defines approximately the lateral extent of the Mangakino Volcanic Centre. (author). 41 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Zonation of macrofauna across sandy beaches and surf zones along the Dutch coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Janssen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available On nine beaches and two transects in the surf zone along the Dutch coast the presence of benthic macrofauna was studied in relation to basic abiotic characteristics. According to Short's classification system, Dutch beaches are mesotidal and dissipative (Ω = 8.6, and the RTR is low (1.52-1.27, which means that they are not tide-dominated. BSI ranged from 1.4 to 1.1 for the northern and western Dutch coasts respectively and had an overall value of 1.2. The rates of exposure of the beaches varied between 8 and 12, and are therefore regarded as sheltered to moderately exposed. The Dutch beaches display a geographical trend in beach types. Those of the Wadden Sea islands in the northern part of the Netherlands are dissipative, flat, fine-grained, and host high densities of many species of benthic macrofauna. The beaches along the western Dutch coast are less dissipative, steeper, with a higher mean grain size; the species diversity and abundance there are lower. Species diversity and abundance on the beaches increase from the high- to the low-water line. The maximum number of species was found between 0 and -1 m relative to the mean tidal level. The abundance peaks just above the mean tidal level, while the biomass reaches a maximum at the mean tidal level.     Species diversity and abundance are low in the surf zone, but increase towards deeper water. Species numbers are high and the abundance is very high in the trough between the two bars.     The relation between the diversity and abundance of macrobenthic species on the one hand, and the sediment composition, water column depth, and position between the bars on the other show a clear pattern of zonation for the beach, surf zone and near-shore: (1 a supralittoral zone with insects and air-breathing crustaceans, (2 a midshore zone, with intertidal species, (3 a lower shore zone, whose species extend into the shallow surf zone, and (4 a zone of sublittoral fauna in the trough between the

  11. Kinematics and Dynamics of the Makran Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, C.; Tavakoli, F.; Sobouti, F.; Copley, A.; Priestley, K. F.; Jackson, J. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Makran subduction zone, along the southern coasts of Iran and Pakistan, hosts the world's largest exposed accretionary prism. In contrast to the circum-Pacific subduction zones, the Makran has not been extensively studied, with seismic data collected in the offshore region presenting only a time-integrated picture of the deformation. We investigate spatio-temporal variations in the deformation of the accretionary prism and the insights these offer into subduction zone driving forces and megathrust rheology. We combine seismology, geodesy and field observations to study the 2013 Mw 6.1 Minab earthquake, which occurred at the western end of the accretionary prism. We find that the earthquake was a left-lateral rupture on an ENE-WSW plane, approximately perpendicular to the previously mapped faults in the region. The causative fault of the Minab earthquake is one of a series of left-lateral faults in the region which accommodate a velocity field equivalent to right-lateral shear on N-S planes by rotating clockwise about vertical axes. Another recent strike-slip event within the Makran accretionary wedge was the 2013 Mw 7.7 Balochistan earthquake, which occurred on a fault optimally oriented to accommodate the regional compression by thrusting. The dominance of strike-slip faulting within the onshore prism, on faults perpendicular to the regional compression, suggests that the prism may have reached the maximum elevation which the megathrust can support, with the compressional forces which dominated in the early stages of the collision now balanced by gravitational forces. This observation allows us to estimate the mean shear stress on the megathrust interface and its effective coefficient of friction.

  12. Fault zone processes in mechanically layered mudrock and chalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrill, David A.; Evans, Mark A.; McGinnis, Ronald N.; Morris, Alan P.; Smart, Kevin J.; Wigginton, Sarah S.; Gulliver, Kirk D. H.; Lehrmann, Daniel; de Zoeten, Erich; Sickmann, Zach

    2017-04-01

    A 1.5 km long natural cliff outcrop of nearly horizontal Eagle Ford Formation in south Texas exposes northwest and southeast dipping normal faults with displacements of 0.01-7 m cutting mudrock, chalk, limestone, and volcanic ash. These faults provide analogs for both natural and hydraulically-induced deformation in the productive Eagle Ford Formation - a major unconventional oil and gas reservoir in south Texas, U.S.A. - and other mechanically layered hydrocarbon reservoirs. Fault dips are steep to vertical through chalk and limestone beds, and moderate through mudrock and clay-rich ash, resulting in refracted fault profiles. Steeply dipping fault segments contain rhombohedral calcite veins that cross the fault zone obliquely, parallel to shear segments in mudrock. The vertical dimensions of the calcite veins correspond to the thickness of offset competent beds with which they are contiguous, and the slip parallel dimension is proportional to fault displacement. Failure surface characteristics, including mixed tensile and shear segments, indicate hybrid failure in chalk and limestone, whereas shear failure predominates in mudrock and ash beds - these changes in failure mode contribute to variation in fault dip. Slip on the shear segments caused dilation of the steeper hybrid segments. Tabular sheets of calcite grew by repeated fault slip, dilation, and cementation. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope geochemistry analyses of fault zone cements indicate episodic reactivation at 1.4-4.2 km depths. The results of these analyses document a dramatic bed-scale lithologic control on fault zone architecture that is directly relevant to the development of porosity and permeability anisotropy along faults.

  13. Economic costs of endemic non-filarial elephantiasis in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekola, Fasil; Mariam, Damen H; Davey, Gail

    2006-07-01

    Endemic non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis is a chronic and debilitating geochemical disease occurring in individuals exposed to red clay soil derived from alkalic volcanic rock. It is a major public health problem in countries in tropical Africa, Central America and North India. To estimate the direct and the average productivity cost attributable to podoconiosis, and to compare the average productivity time of podoconiosis patients with non-patients. Matched comparative cross sectional survey involving 702 study subjects (patients and non-patients) supplemented by interviews with key informants in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Total direct costs of podoconiosis amounted to the equivalent of US$ 143 per patient per year. The total productivity loss for a patient amounted to 45% of the total working days per year, causing a monetary loss equivalent to US$ 63. In Wolaita zone, the overall cost of podoconiosis exceeds US$ 16 million per year. Podoconiosis has enormous economic impact in affected areas. Simple preventive measures (such as use of robust footwear) must be promoted by health policy makers.

  14. INDICATION OF INSENSITIVITY OF PLANETARY WEATHERING BEHAVIOR AND HABITABLE ZONE TO SURFACE LAND FRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbot, Dorian S.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2012-01-01

    It is likely that unambiguous habitable zone terrestrial planets of unknown water content will soon be discovered. Water content helps determine surface land fraction, which influences planetary weathering behavior. This is important because the silicate-weathering feedback determines the width of the habitable zone in space and time. Here a low-order model of weathering and climate, useful for gaining qualitative understanding, is developed to examine climate evolution for planets of various land-ocean fractions. It is pointed out that, if seafloor weathering does not depend directly on surface temperature, there can be no weathering-climate feedback on a waterworld. This would dramatically narrow the habitable zone of a waterworld. Results from our model indicate that weathering behavior does not depend strongly on land fraction for partially ocean-covered planets. This is powerful because it suggests that previous habitable zone theory is robust to changes in land fraction, as long as there is some land. Finally, a mechanism is proposed for a waterworld to prevent complete water loss during a moist greenhouse through rapid weathering of exposed continents. This process is named a 'waterworld self-arrest', and it implies that waterworlds can go through a moist greenhouse stage and end up as planets like Earth with partial ocean coverage. This work stresses the importance of surface and geologic effects, in addition to the usual incident stellar flux, for habitability.

  15. INDICATION OF INSENSITIVITY OF PLANETARY WEATHERING BEHAVIOR AND HABITABLE ZONE TO SURFACE LAND FRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbot, Dorian S.; Ciesla, Fred J. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B., E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    It is likely that unambiguous habitable zone terrestrial planets of unknown water content will soon be discovered. Water content helps determine surface land fraction, which influences planetary weathering behavior. This is important because the silicate-weathering feedback determines the width of the habitable zone in space and time. Here a low-order model of weathering and climate, useful for gaining qualitative understanding, is developed to examine climate evolution for planets of various land-ocean fractions. It is pointed out that, if seafloor weathering does not depend directly on surface temperature, there can be no weathering-climate feedback on a waterworld. This would dramatically narrow the habitable zone of a waterworld. Results from our model indicate that weathering behavior does not depend strongly on land fraction for partially ocean-covered planets. This is powerful because it suggests that previous habitable zone theory is robust to changes in land fraction, as long as there is some land. Finally, a mechanism is proposed for a waterworld to prevent complete water loss during a moist greenhouse through rapid weathering of exposed continents. This process is named a 'waterworld self-arrest', and it implies that waterworlds can go through a moist greenhouse stage and end up as planets like Earth with partial ocean coverage. This work stresses the importance of surface and geologic effects, in addition to the usual incident stellar flux, for habitability.

  16. 33 CFR 165.169 - Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: New... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.169 Safety and Security Zones: New York Marine Inspection Zone...

  17. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  18. 33 CFR 165.814 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Port Houston-Galveston Zone. 165.814 Section 165.814 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.814 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Houston-Galveston Zone. (a) Location. The following areas are designated as security zones: (1) Houston, Texas. The Houston Ship Channel and all associated...

  19. Agricultural adaptation to water scarcity in the Sri Lankan dry zone: A comparison of two water managment regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The island nation of Sri Lanka is divided into two agro-climatic zones: the southwestern wet zone and the northeastern dry zone. The dry zone is exposed to drought-like conditions for several months each year. Due to the sporadic nature of rainfall, dry zone livelihoods depend on the successful storage, capture, and distribution of water. Traditionally, water has been captured in rain-fed tanks and distributed through a system of dug canals. Recently, the Sri Lankan government has diverted the waters of the nation's largest river through a system of centrally managed reservoirs and canals and resettled farmers to cultivate this newly irrigated land. This study uses remotely sensed MODIS and LANDSAT imagery to compare vegetation health and cropping patterns in these distinct water management regimes under different conditions of water scarcity. Of particular interest are the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and institutional factors that affect cropping patterns, including field position, water storage capacity, and control of water resources. Results suggest that under known conditions of water scarcity, farmers cultivate other field crops in lieu of paddy. Cultivation changes depend to a large extent on the institutional distance between water users and water managers as well as the fragmentation of water resources within the system.

  20. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2, and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply could fuel bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean considerably. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a down-regulation of ammonium excretion. We exposed calanoid copepods from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA; Undinula vulgaris and Pleuromamma abdominalis) and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP; Euphausia mucronata) and the ETNA (Euphausia gibboides) to different temperatures, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to study their survival, respiration and excretion rates at these conditions. An increase in temperature by 10 °C led to an approximately 2-fold increase of the respiration and excretion rates of U. vulgaris (Q10, respiration = 1.4; Q10, NH4-excretion = 1.6), P. abdominalis (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4) and

  1. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  2. Crestal unconformities on an exposed Jurassic tilted fault block, Wollaston Forland, East Greenland as an analogue for buried hydrocarbon traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlyk, Finn; Korstgård, J.

    2013-01-01

    The stratigraphy of successions exposed in footwall crests of tilted fault blocks is commonly highly complex. Crestal stratigraphy and structure are particularly difficult to unravel in the subsurface due to poor seismic resolution across fault zones, footwall collapse, and coalescing syn- and post......-rift unconformities. Crestal ridges are important elements in basin evolution, as they form drainage divides and sediment sources for aprons along footwall scarps and hangingwall deltas. A Middle Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous footwall crest is exceptionally well exposed in the mountain Stratumbjerg in Wollaston...... Forland, East Greenland. Rifting and block tilting was initiated in the (?)Bajocian, intensified in the Oxfordian–Kimmeridgian, culminated in latest Jurassic, Volgian, time and faded out in the earliest Cretaceous. The main border faults of the westward tilted blocks trend roughly N–S. The first early syn...

  3. Ionizing radiation and frequency of chromosomal aberrations in exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic-Tisma, Vera; Pavlovic, Snezana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood were investigated among the observed groups of subjects who were exposed to low radiation doses (external exposure) in comparison with the control group. The first group of subjects is involved in the production of radioisotope technetium, whose accumulated work exposure time ranges between 3 and 30 years. The second group works on inspection of the medical X-ray equipment, whose accumulated work exposure time is between 2 and 34 years. The third group worked on decontamination of the terrain from depleted uranium radioactive ammunition. These workers were involved in mechanical removal of the surface soil layer to a depth of 50 cm. They were selected out of a group of professionals otherwise exposed to radiation from confined sources in their daily work. The accumulated work exposure of this group ranged from 2 to 34 years. The control group consisted of individuals not working in the ionizing radiation zone. The average yearly absorbed dose measured by TL dosimeters for all three observed groups did not exceed 2 mSv. The chromosomal aberrations were analyzed by a modified Moorhead method. The objective of the study was to establish the existence of differences in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations change with respect to the source type, i.e. type of radioactive emission. Comparisons of the chromosomal changes in the observed groups revealed that the group working on technetium production had an increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations with respect to control. The aberrations found were of the acentric fragment and chromosomal break types. A comparison of the exposed groups between each other, no statistically significant differences in the numbers of chromosomal aberrations were found. Soil decontamination from depleted uranium did not contribute to the relative radiation risk, since it lasted only a few months, and was done by the professionals fully clothed

  4. A two-dimensional time domain near zone to far zone transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Ryan, Deirdre; Beggs, John H.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    In a previous paper, a time domain transformation useful for extrapolating 3-D near zone finite difference time domain (FDTD) results to the far zone was presented. In this paper, the corresponding 2-D transform is outlined. While the 3-D transformation produced a physically observable far zone time domain field, this is not convenient to do directly in 2-D, since a convolution would be required. However, a representative 2-D far zone time domain result can be obtained directly. This result can then be transformed to the frequency domain using a Fast Fourier Transform, corrected with a simple multiplicative factor, and used, for example, to calculate the complex wideband scattering width of a target. If an actual time domain far zone result is required it can be obtained by inverse Fourier transform of the final frequency domain result.

  5. Root zone effects on tracer migration in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.W.; Walker, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    The study of groundwater recharge and soil water movement in arid regions has received increased attention in the search for safe disposal sites for hazardous wastes. In passing through the upper 1 to 2 m of most soil profiles, tracers indicative of recharge such as Cl, 2 H, 18 O, Br, 3 H, and 56 Cl are subjected to a wide range of processes not encountered deeper in the profile. This transition zone, where water enters as precipitation and leaves as recharge, is often ignored when environmental tracers are used to estimate deep soil water flux and recharge, yet its effect may be profound. In this work, we reexamine the processes of root extraction and its effect on the velocity and distribution of tracers. Examples are presented for idealized conditions, which show clearly the relation between the root zone processes and the deep drainage or recharge. The results indicate that, when recharge is small and root zone processes are not accounted for, tracer techniques can significantly overestimate recharge until the tracer has moved well below the root zone. By incorporating simple models of root zone processes, a clearer understanding of tracer distributions and a more accurate estimate of recharge can then be made. 11 refs., 9 figs

  6. 75 FR 50700 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, and Drawbridge Operation... notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local regulations, and drawbridge operation... responsive to the safety and security needs within their jurisdiction; therefore, District Commanders and...

  7. Zoning the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan as to the risk of rabies among various categories of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrakhmanov, Sarsenbay K; Sultanov, Akhmetzhan A; Beisembayev, Kanatzhan K; Korennoy, Fedor I; Кushubaev, Dosym B; Каdyrov, Ablaikhan S

    2016-05-31

    This paper presents the zoning of the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan with respect to the risk of rabies outbreaks in domestic and wild animals considering environmental and climatic conditions. The national database of rabies outbreaks in Kazakhstan in the period 2003-2014 has been accessed in order to find which zones are consistently most exposed to the risk of rabies in animals. The database contains information on the cases in demes of farm livestock, domestic animals and wild animals. To identify the areas with the highest risk of outbreaks, we applied the maximum entropy modelling method. Designated outbreaks were used as input presence data, while the bioclim set of ecological and climatic variables, together with some geographic factors, were used as explanatory variables. The model demonstrated a high predictive ability. The area under the curve for farm livestock was 0.782, for domestic animals -0.859 and for wild animals - 0.809. Based on the model, the map of integral risk was designed by following four categories: negligible risk (disease-free or favourable zone), low risk (surveillance zone), medium risk (vaccination zone), and high risk (unfavourable zone). The map was produced to allow developing a set of preventive measures and is expected to contribute to a better distribution of supervisory efforts from the veterinary service of the country.

  8. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  9. Twenty-one days of isolation: A prospective observational cohort study of an Ebola-exposed hot zone community in Liberia

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, George Sie; Naiene, Jeremias; Gayflor, Joseph; Malibiche, Theophil; Zoogley, Bentoe; Frank Jr., Wimot G.; Nayeri, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As West Africa continues to suffer from a deadly Ebola epidemic, the national health sectors struggle to minimize the damages and stop the spread of disease. METHODS: A cohort of inhabitants of a small village and an Ebola hot zone in Sinoe County of Liberia was followed on a day-by-day basis to search for new cases and to minimize the spread of Ebola to the other community members or to other regions. Technical, clinical, and humanistic aspects of the response are discussed in th...

  10. Surface and microstructural characterization of commercial breeder reactor candidate alloys exposed to 7000C sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.; Brehm, W.F.

    1979-03-01

    Sodium compatibility screening tests were performed on several commercial austenitic alloys at 700 0 C for 2000 hours for applications as breeder reactor fuel cladding. The sodium-exposed surfaces were characterized by Optical Metallography, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). Sodium exposure generally resulted in the depletion of Ni, Cr, Ti, Si, Mn and Nb, and enrichment of Fe and Mo at the surface. The average thickness of the depleted zone was 5 μm. The alloys can be divided into three groups based on corrosion rate, and each group has its own characteristic surface structure. Grain-orientation dependent striations were seen in alloys with low corrosion rates, while alloys with intermediate corrosion rates displayed micron-size nodes enriched with Fe and Mo. The high corrosion rate alloys exhibited scale-like formations on the surface with irregularly shaped holes. In addition, the data importantly point out that a ferrite layer will form at the sodium-exposed surface of these austenitic alloys after prolonged exposure

  11. Cytomorphometric changes in hippocampal CA1 neurons exposed to simulated microgravity using rats as model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit eRanjan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity and sleep loss lead to cognitive and learning deficits. These behavioral alterations are likely to be associated with cytomorphological changes and loss of neurons. To understand the phenomenon, we exposed rats (225-275g to 14 days simulated microgravity (SMg and compared its effects on CA1 hippocampal neuronal plasticity, with that of normal cage control rats. We observed that the mean area, perimeter, synaptic cleft and length of active zone of CA1 hippocampal neurons significantly decreased while dendritic arborization and number of spines significantly increased in SMg group as compared with controls. The mean thickness of the post synaptic density and total dendritic length remained unaltered. The changes may be a compensatory effect induced by exposure to microgravity; however, the effects may be transient or permanent, which need further study. These findings may be useful for designing effective prevention for those, including the astronauts, exposed to microgravity. Further, subject to confirmation we propose that SMg exposure might be useful for recovery of stroke patients.

  12. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  13. 76 FR 70342 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security zones, special local... Commanders and Captains of the Port (COTP) must be immediately responsive to the safety and security needs...

  14. 76 FR 48751 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Jardine Water Filtration Plant security zone would encompass all U.S. navigable waters of Lake Michigan... areas near shore to Chicago's water filtration plants; the security zones have been designed to allow.... 165.910 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan. (a) * * * (1) Jardine Water Filtration...

  15. Environmental drivers of soil microbial community structure and function at the Avon River Critical Zone Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Deirdre; Mathes, Falko; Farrell, Mark; Leopold, Matthias

    2016-11-15

    The Critical Zone is defined as the thin, permeable layer from the tops of the trees to the bottom of the bedrock that sustains terrestrial life on Earth. The geometry and shape of the various weathering zones are known as the critical zone architecture. At the centre of the Critical Zone are soils and the microorganisms that inhabit them. In Western Australia, the million-year-old stable weathering history and more recent lateral erosion during the past hundreds of thousands of years have created a geomorphic setting where deep weathering zones are now exposed on the surface along the flanks of many lateritic hills. These old weathering zones provide diverse physical and chemical properties that influence near surface pedologic conditions and thus likely shape current surface microbiology. Here, we present data derived from a small lateritic hill on the UWA Farm Ridgefield. Spatial soil sampling revealed the contrasting distribution patterns of simple soil parameters such as pH (CaCl2) and electric conductivity. These are clearly linked with underlying changes of the critical zone architecture and show a strong contrast with low values of pH3.3 at the top of the hill to pH5.3 at the bottom. These parameters were identified as major drivers of microbial spatial variability in terms of bacterial and archaeal community composition but not abundance. In addition, we used sensitive (14)C labelling to assess turnover of three model organic nitrogen compounds - an important biogeochemical functional trait relating to nutrient availability. Though generally rapid and in the order of rates reported elsewhere (t½10h). In conclusion, we have shown that the weathering and erosion history of ancient Western Australia affects the surface pedology and has consequences for microbial community structure and function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Petrology and geochemistry at the Lower zone-Middle zone transition of the Panzhihua intrusion, SW China: Implications for differentiation and oxide ore genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan-Nang Pang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A sequence of gabbros showing isotropic, layered and fine-grained textures is exposed in the Nalaqing mine at the southern tip of the ∼260 Ma Panzhihua intrusion, SW China. The field relations, structure, texture and mineralogy of the rocks indicate that the sequence represents the transition between the Lower zone and Middle zone of the intrusion. Isotropic gabbros characteristic of the Lower zone pass upward to layered gabbros of the Middle zone through a ∼5 m-thick microgabbro sheet, within and close to which small-scaled, concordant Fe-Ti oxide ore horizons are identified. Strong fractionation between HFSE and REE in a subset of samples is ascribed to cumulus titanomagnetite into which HFSE are preferentially incorporated over REE, as reflected in the parallel relations between Nb/La, Hf/Sm and Ti/Ti*. Both the isotropic and layered gabbros display cumulate textures and have similar mineral compositions (Mg# of clinopyroxene = ∼76–79 and An59–61, isotopic compositions [(87Sr/86Sri = 0.7044–0.7045 and εNd(t = +2.4 to +3.9] and trapped liquid contents inferred from Zr abundance (∼17–34 ppm. However, there are substantial variations in elemental abundances (V, Cr and PGE and ratios (Ti/V, La/Yb, Ba/Y and Cu/Pd between the two types of gabbros, features that cannot be explained by cumulate formation from a common magma in a closed system. The microgabbros generally resemble high-Ti Emeishan basalts in major element compositions, but their low trace element abundances indicate some lost of residual liquid is inevitable despite rapid nucleation and cooling. Combined with available data and observations, we propose a model involving in-situ crystallization, followed by magma recharge and closed-system fractionation to explain the formation of texturally distinctive gabbros at Nalaqing and the evolution of the lower part of the Panzhihua intrusion.

  17. 76 FR 44803 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... USCG-2009-1081 New Orleans, LA Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 12/23/2009 USCG-2009-1084 Rio Vista, CA...-1096 Port Portland Zone......... Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 7/3/2010 USCG-2009-0040 La Push, WA Safety...-0950 Madisonville, LA Safety Zone (Part 165)..... 12/31/2009 USCG-2009-0951 Lower Mississippi River...

  18. RADIATION ACCESS ZONE AND VENTILATION CONFINEMENT ZONE CRITERIA FOR THE MGR SURFACE FACILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. A. Padula

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this technical report are to: (1) Establish the criteria for Radiation Access Zone (RAZ) designation. (2) Establish the criteria for the Ventilation Confinement Zone (VCZ) designation. The scope will be to formulate the RAZ and VCZ zoning designation for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface facilities and to apply the zoning designations to the current Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), and Carrier Preparation Building (CPB) configurations

  19. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  20. Heterogeneity in the Fault Damage Zone: a Field Study on the Borrego Fault, B.C., Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermeijer, G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Dorsey, M. T.; Browning, J.; Rockwell, T. K.; Aben, F. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Brantut, N.

    2017-12-01

    The nature and distribution of damage around faults, and its impacts on fault zone properties has been a hot topic of research over the past decade. Understanding the mechanisms that control the formation of off fault damage can shed light on the processes during the seismic cycle, and the nature of fault zone development. Recent published work has identified three broad zones of damage around most faults based on the type, intensity, and extent of fracturing; Tip, Wall, and Linking damage. Although these zones are able to adequately characterise the general distribution of damage, little has been done to identify the nature of damage heterogeneity within those zones, often simplifying the distribution to fit log-normal linear decay trends. Here, we attempt to characterise the distribution of fractures that make up the wall damage around seismogenic faults. To do so, we investigate an extensive two dimensional fracture network exposed on a river cut platform along the Borrego Fault, BC, Mexico, 5m wide, and extending 20m from the fault core into the damage zone. High resolution fracture mapping of the outcrop, covering scales ranging three orders of magnitude (cm to m), has allowed for detailed observations of the 2D damage distribution within the fault damage zone. Damage profiles were obtained along several 1D transects perpendicular to the fault and micro-damage was examined from thin-sections at various locations around the outcrop for comparison. Analysis of the resulting fracture network indicates heterogeneities in damage intensity at decimetre scales resulting from a patchy distribution of high and low intensity corridors and clusters. Such patchiness may contribute to inconsistencies in damage zone widths defined along 1D transects and the observed variability of fracture densities around decay trends. How this distribution develops with fault maturity and the scaling of heterogeneities above and below the observed range will likely play a key role in

  1. 33 CFR 165.1315 - Safety Zones: Fireworks displays in the Captain of the Port Portland Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zones: Fireworks displays... Coast Guard District § 165.1315 Safety Zones: Fireworks displays in the Captain of the Port Portland Zone. (a) Safety zones. The following areas are designated safety zones: (1) Cinco de Mayo Fireworks...

  2. 77 FR 30245 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ...'' N, 082-51'-18.70'' W (NAD 83). This proposed zone would be enforced one evening during the last week...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... by adding three permanent safety zones within the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone. This action is...

  3. Fixed-nitrogen loss associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses in a coastal oxygen minimum zone (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stief, Peter; Lundgaard, Ann Sofie Birch; Morales Ramirez, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean are of key importance for pelagic fixed-nitrogen loss (N-loss) through microbial denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Recent studies document that zooplankton is surprisingly abundant in and around OMZs and that the microbial community...... associated with carcasses of a large copepod species mediates denitrification. Here, we investigate the complex N-cycling associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses exposed to the steep O2 gradient in a coastal OMZ (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica). 15N-stable-isotope enrichment experiments revealed...... that the carcasses of abundant copepods and ostracods provide anoxic microbial hotspots in the pelagic zone by hosting intense anaerobic N-cycle activities even in the presence of ambient O2. Carcass-associated anaerobic N-cycling was clearly dominated by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) at up...

  4. Characteristics comparison of weld metal zones welded to cast and forged steels for piston crown material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyung-Man; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-03-01

    An optimum repair welding for the piston crown which is one of the engine parts exposed to the combustion chamber is considered to be very important to prolong the engine lifetime from an economical point of view. In this study, two types of filler metals such as 1.25Cr-0.5Mo, 0.5Mo were welded with SMAW method and the other two types of filler metals such as Inconel 625 and 718 were welded with GTAW method, respectively, and the used base metals were the cast and forged steels of the piston crown material. The weld metal zones welded with Inconel 625 and 718 filler metals exhibited higher corrosion resistance compared to 1.25Cr-0.5Mo and 0.5Mo filler metals. In particular, the weld metal zone welded with Inconel 718 and 0.5Mo, filler metals indicated the best and worst corrosion resistance, respectively. Consequently, it is suggested that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal zone surely depends on the chemical components of each filler metal and welding method irrespective of the types of piston crown material.

  5. Health surveillance of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation sources: Biomonitoring and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumen, V.; Prlic, I.; Radalj, Z.; Horvat, D.; Cerovac, H.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the complete results of periodical health surveillance of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation sources, conducted according to established law regulations in Croatia. The report comprises a total of 21 examinees (11 female, 10 male), mean age 43,19 ± 9,85 years, originating from different professional groups and working in a radiation zone 14,7 ± 8,27 years on the average. Within the framework of this study, the results of their biomonitoring, including haematological parameters (whole blood count), ophthalmological findings (fundus oculi), cytogenetic test (conventional structural chromosomal aberration analysis) and peripheral blood flow survey (capillaroscopy and dermothermometry) will be presented. Filmdosimetric data for the referred period will also be reported. (author)

  6. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaul Karim, Mohammad; Ahmad, Sk Akhtar

    2014-12-01

    To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas. It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method. The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49%) in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%). Stunting (p < 0.01), wasting (p < 0.05) and underweight (p < 0.05) were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children. In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  7. 33 CFR 165.503 - Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Port Hampton Roads Zone. 165.503 Section 165.503 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.503 Security Zone; Captain of the Port Hampton Roads Zone. (a) Definitions. As used in this... been authorized by the Captain of the Port (COTP), Hampton Roads, Virginia to act on his or her behalf...

  8. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Near-surface clay authigenesis in exhumed fault rock of the Alpine Fault Zone (New Zealand); O-H-Ar isotopic, XRD and chemical analysis of illite and chlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Austin; Mulch, Andreas; van der Pluijm, Ben

    2018-06-01

    Exhumed fault rock of the central Alpine Fault Zone (South Island, New Zealand) shows extensive clay mineralization, and it has been the focus of recent research that aims to describe the evolution and frictional behavior of the fault. Using Quantitative X-ray powder diffraction, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, hydrogen isotope (δD) geochemistry, and electron microbeam analysis, we constrain the thermal and fluid conditions of deformation that produced two predominant clay phases ubiquitous to the exposed fault damage zone, illite and chlorite. Illite polytype analysis indicates that most end-member illite and chlorite material formed in equilibrium with meteoric fluid (δD = -55 to -75‰), but two locations preserve a metamorphic origin of chlorite (δD = -36 to -45‰). Chlorite chemical geothermometry constrains crystal growth to T = 210-296 °C. Isotopic analysis also constrains illite growth to T < 100 °C, consistent with the mineralogy, with Ar ages <0.5 Ma. High geothermal gradients in the study area promoted widespread, near-surface mineralization, and limited the window of clay authigenesis in the Alpine Fault Zone to <5 km for chlorite and <2 km for illite. This implies a significant contrast between fault rock exposed at the surface and that at depth, and informs discussions about fault strength, clays and frictional behavior.

  10. 77 FR 6007 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ...] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation... they could be published in the Federal Register. This notice lists temporary safety zones, security... the safety and security needs within their jurisdiction; therefore, District Commanders and COTPs have...

  11. Nutritional Status among the Children of Age Group 5-14 Years in Selected Arsenic Exposed and Non-Exposed Areas of Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the nutritional status of children aged 5-14 years in arsenic exposed and non- exposed areas.It was a cross sectional study conducted on 600 children of age 5-14 years from arsenic exposed and non-exposed areas in Bangladesh. Designed questionnaire and check list were used for collection of data. To estimate BMI necessary anthropometric measurements of the studied children were done. Dietary intakes of the study children were assessed using 24-hours recall method.The difference of socio-economic conditions between the children of exposed area and non-exposed area was not significant. On an average the body mass index was found to be significantly (p < 0.01 lower among the children of arsenic exposed area (49% in comparison to that of children in non-exposed area (38%. Stunting (p < 0.01, wasting (p < 0.05 and underweight (p < 0.05 were significantly higher in exposed group in comparison to non-exposed group. No significant difference of nutrition intake was found between exposed and non-exposed children as well as thin and normal children.In this study children exposed to arsenic contaminated water were found to be suffered from lower nutritional status.

  12. 78 FR 26508 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Harbor located in approximate Safety Zone, 33 CFR 165.160(3.8). position 40[deg]51'58'' N, 073[deg]39'34... Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zones in the Captain of the Port New...

  13. The distinguishing characteristics of interlayer oxidation zone and burial ancient ground oxidation zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanshi; Zhou Wenbin

    1998-01-01

    The author discusses the main characteristics of interlayer oxidation zones and the burial ancient ground oxidation zones of Uranium deposit No. 512 in Xinjiang Uigur municipality. The epigenetic genesis, depending on some aquifer, the tongue-like in section, having the zonation along dip direction and having certain mineral assemblage are the typical features for interlayer oxidation zones

  14. Zoning Districts - Volusia County HUB Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Historically Underutilized Business (HUB) Zones in Volusia County. Go to http://www.sba.gov/hubzone or contact the Department of Economic Development (386) 248-8048...

  15. VT Data - Zoning 20120709, Huntington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning district data for the Town of Huntington, Vermont. For details regarding each zoning district refer to the current zoning regulations on town of Huntington's...

  16. Habitat use by larval fishes in a temperate South African surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt-Pringle, Peter; Strydom, Nadine A.

    2003-12-01

    Larval fishes were sampled in the Kwaaihoek surf zone on the south east coast of South Africa. On six occasions between February and May 2002, larval fishes were collected in two habitat types identified in the inner surf zone using a modified beach-seine net. The surf zone habitats were classified as either sheltered trough areas or adjacent exposed surf areas. Temperature, depth and current measurements were taken at all sites. Trough habitats consisted of a depression in surf topography characterised by reduced current velocities and greater average depth than adjacent surf areas. In total, 325 larval fishes were collected. Of these, 229 were collected in trough and 96 in surf habitats. At least 22 families and 37 species were represented in the catch. Dominant families were the Mugilidae, Sparidae, Atherinidae, and Engraulidae. Dominant species included Liza tricuspidens and Liza richardsonii (Mugilidae), Rhabdosargus holubi and Sarpa salpa (Sparidae), Atherina breviceps (Atherinidae) and Engraulis japonicus (Engraulide). Mean CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent species was significantly greater in trough areas. The proportion of postflexion larval fishes in trough habitat was significantly greater than that of preflexion stages, a result that was not apparent in surf habitat sampled. CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent fishes was negatively correlated with current magnitude and positively correlated with habitat depth. Mean body length of larval fishes was significantly greater in trough than in surf habitats. These results provide evidence that the CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent fishes is higher in trough habitat in the surf zone and this may be indicative of active habitat selection for areas of reduced current velocity/wave action. The implications of this behaviour for estuarine recruitment processes are discussed.

  17. Parametric study of the thermal performance of a typical administrative building in the six thermal zones according to the RTCM, using TRNSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghafour LAMRANI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present a parametric study of a new administrative building, located in El-Ksar El Kebir region (Morocco. In order to have a building that complies with the RTCM in a technically and economically sound manner, we have carried out a number of interventions to insulate the components of the building, namely external walls, exposed roofs and openings. In this perspective, we have modelled the building envelope as a multi-zone building in TRNSYS and we have adopted an occupation scenario for this type of building. After determining the optimal insulation solutions, we simulated the administrative building in the five other thermal zones, to determine its feasibility in the latter.

  18. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  19. Inherent mineralization of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in unsaturated zone and aquifers - Effect of initial concentrations and adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janniche, Gry Sander, E-mail: gsja@env.dtu.dk [DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Clausen, Liselotte; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jorgen [DTU Environment, Technical University of Denmark, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-10-15

    The dichlobenil metabolite BAM (2,6-dichlorobenzamide) is frequently detected in aquifers e.g. in Denmark despite the mother compound dichlobenil was banned here since 1997. BAM mineralization was investigated at environmentally relevant concentrations in sediment samples. Undisturbed sediment cores with known dichlobenil application were collected from topsoil to 8.5 m below surface resulting in 57 samples hereof 4 aquifer samples. Mineralization was only substantial (>10%) in the uppermost meter of the unsaturated zone. Microbial adaptation, observed as faster mineralization in pre-exposed than in pristine sediments from the same location, was only evident in sandy sediment where dichlobenil was still present, but not in clayey sediments. Higher initial concentrations (1-5000 {mu}g/kg) did not stimulate mineralization in pristine clayey or sandy sediments, or in pre-exposed sand. However, in pre-exposed clay mineralization was stimulated at high concentrations. Furthermore BAM was for the first time mineralized in aerobic aquifer sediments from different BAM-contaminated groundwater locations. - Highlights: > BAM mineralized in BAM-contaminated aerobic aquifer sediments. > In subsurface, fastest BAM mineralization in pre-exposed sandy sediments. > Increased mineralization (adaptation) only observed in contaminated sandy sediment. > In pristine sediments mineralization ratio increased with decreasing concentrations. - BAM mineralization in subsurface and groundwater was demonstrated.

  20. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  1. 78 FR 24679 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... zones for fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound (LIS) Zone. This... Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective from April 27, 2013, until June 22, 2013. This...

  2. 76 FR 34867 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ....941(a)(51) Target Fireworks, Detroit, MI The first safety zone will be enforced from 7 a.m. on June 24... Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce various safety zones for...

  3. Disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Motyka, T.

    1991-01-01

    A plan has been established for disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydrides used in Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium production or Materials Test Facility (MTF) R ampersand D operations. The recommended plan assumes that the first tritium-exposed metal hydrides will be disposed of after startup of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) Expansion Project in 1992, and thus the plan is consistent with the new disposal requiremkents that will be in effect for the SWDF Expansion Project. Process beds containing tritium-exposed metal hydride powder will be disposed of without removal of the powder from the bed; however, disposal of tritium-exposed metal hydride powder that has been removed from its process vessel is also addressed

  4. Theoretical analysis of recirculation zone and buffer zone in the ADS windowless spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Pan, Chang-zhao; Tong, Jian-fei; Lu, Wen-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Height of recirculation zone is very important in windowless target design. • A theoretical formula for the height is derived based on the Bernoulli equation. • Numerical simulation for the LBE is performed and the height of recirculation zone is also obtained. • The theoretically-derived simulation-predicted recirculation zone heights agree with each other very well and the theoretical derivation is proved to be correct. - Abstract: The thermo-hydraulic analysis including reduction of the height of recirculation zone and stability of the free surface is very important in the design and optimization of ADS windowless spallation targets. In the present study, the Bernoulli equation is used to analyze the entire flow process in the target. Formulae for the height of the recirculation zone and the buffer zone are both obtained explicitly. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the heavy metal lead–bismuth eutectic liquid and vapor with cavitation phase change is also performed, and a novel method to calculate the height of the recirculation zone is put forward. By comparison of the theoretical formulae and numerical results, it is clearly shown that they agree with each other very well, and the heights predicted by the two methods are both determined by their own upstream flow parameters

  5. 76 FR 42048 - Safety Zones; Swimming Events in Captain of the Port Boston Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Swimming Events in Captain of the Port Boston Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Boston Zone for swimming events. This action is necessary to... property on navigable waters from the hazardous nature of swimming events such as large numbers of swimmers...

  6. Habitable Zones in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review...

  7. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the eastern and central Alaska Range: Progressive basin development and deformation in a suture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Trop, J.M.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Davidson, C.M.; Eastham, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic rocks, and major faults in the eastern and central Alaska Range documents the progressive development of a suture zone that formed as a result of collision of an island-arc assemblage (the Wrangellia composite terrane) with the former North American continental margin. New basin-analysis, structural, and geochronologic data indicate the following stages in the development of the suture zone: (1) Deposition of 3-5 km of Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous marine strata (the Kahiltna assemblage) recorded the initial collision of the island-arc assemblage with the continental margin. The Kahiltna assemblage exposed in the northern Talkeetna Mountains represents a Kimmeridgian-Valanginian backarc basin that was filled by northwestward-flowing submarine-fan systems that were transporting sediment derived from Mesozoic strata of the island-arc assemblage. The Kahiltna assemblage exposed in the southern Alaska Range represents a Valanginian-Cenomanian remnant ocean basin filled by west-southwestward-flowing submarine-fan systems that were transporting sediment derived from Paleozoic continental-margin strata uplifted in the along-strike suture zone. A belt of retrograde metamorphism and a regional anticlinorium developed along the continental margin from 115 to 106 Ma, roughly coeval with the end of widespread deposition in the Kahiltna sedimentary basins. (2) Metamorphism of submarine-fan deposits of the Kahiltna basin, located near the leading edge of the island-arc assemblage, occurred at ca. 74 Ma, as determined from a new U-Pb zircon age for a synkinematic sill. Coeval with metamorphism of deposits of the Kahiltna basin in the southern part of the suture zone was development of a thrust-top basin, the Cantwell basin, in the northern part of the suture zone. Geologic mapping and compositional data suggest that the 4 km of Upper Cretaceous nonmarine and marginal marine sedimentary strata in this basin

  8. Mechanical properties of fracture zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijon, B.

    1993-05-01

    Available data on mechanical characteristics of fracture zones are compiled and discussed. The aim is to improve the basis for adequate representation of fracture zones in geomechanical models. The sources of data researched are primarily borehole investigations and case studies in rock engineering, involving observations of fracture zones subjected to artificial load change. Boreholes only yield local information about the components of fracture zones, i.e. intact rock, fractures and various low-strength materials. Difficulties are therefore encountered in evaluating morphological and mechanical properties of fracture zones from borehole data. Although often thought of as macroscopically planar features, available field data consistently show that fracture zones are characterized by geometrical irregularities such as thickness variations, surface undulation and jogs. These irregularities prevail on all scales. As a result, fracture zones are on all scales characterized by large, in-plane variation of strength- and deformational properties. This has important mechanical consequences in terms of non-uniform stress transfer and complex mechanisms of shear deformation. Field evidence for these findings, in particular results from the underground research laboratory in Canada and from studies of induced fault slip in deep mines, is summarized and discussed. 79 refs

  9. Brackish marsh zones as a waterfowl habitat resource in submerged aquatic vegetation beds in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Kristin; Hillmann, Eva R.; Brasher, Michael G.; LaPeyre, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) beds are shallow coastal habitats that are increasingly exposed to the effects of sea-level rise (SLR). In the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM), an area especially vulnerable to SLR, the abundance and distribution of SAV food resources (seeds, rhizomes, and tissue) can influence the carrying capacity of coastal marshes to support wintering waterfowl. Despite the known importance of SAV little is known about their distribution across coastal landscapes and salinity zones or how they may be impacted by SLR. We estimated SAV cover and seed biomass in coastal marshes from Texas to Alabama from 1 June – 15 September 2013 to assess variation in SAV and seed resource distribution and abundance across the salinity gradient. Percent cover of SAV was similar among salinity zones (10%–20%) although patterns of distribution differed. Specifically, SAV occurred less frequently in saline zones, but when present the percent coverage was greater than in fresh, intermediate and brackish. Mean seed biomass varied greatly and did not differ significantly among salinity zones. However, when considering only seed species identified as waterfowl foods, the mean seed biomass was lower in saline zones (1.2 g m–2). Alteration of nGoM marshes due to SLR will likely shift the distribution and abundance of SAV resources, and these shifts may affect carrying capacity of coastal marshes for waterfowl and other associated species.

  10. STRATIGRAPHY AND STURUCTURAL EVOLUTION OF PONTID/ANATOLID SUTURE ZONE IN NE ANATOLIA (BETWEEN OLTU-NARMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet BOZKUŞ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The rock units formed in Late Cretaceous to recent, outcrop in the investigated area. The oldest rock unit of the suture zone is a flysch (Alıcık formatıon of Upper Cretaceous (Santonıan-Maastrichtıan age containing volcanic intercalations. Ophiolitic melange tectonically set on the flysch. The initial emplacement of the ophioli- tic melange sheets in this area occur between Late Cretaceous and pre early Eocene. Lower-Midlle Eocene aged, fine grained continental to shallow marine sediments (Dağdibi formatıon cover all the units with an angular unconformity. On these sediments, Upper Eocene basic (basalt, basaltic andesite, tuff volcanics (Karataş formatıon are observed. Oligocene aged continental molasse sediments (Narman group which lie on the older units with an angular unconformity are; continental clastics, volcanic products and gypsum at the top displaying a thinning and fining upward motif of sequence. Pliocene-Pleistocene aged conglomerates represent river environments, cover all the units with an angular unconformity. Recent deposits are slope debris and alluvium. All the rocks exposed in the investigated area which take place Pontid /Anatolid suture zone and developed under the control of collisional tectonic processes of these two continents. In Upper Cretaceous age, the flysch is formed in a trench developed along a nortward dipping subductıon zone.. Ophiolitic melange which limits the suture zone at the south, is formed by slicing of oceanic crust and mixing of these slices with trench sediments by means of a tectono-sedimentary system.The collosion of Pontid/Anatolid continents (happened after Late Cretaceous and before Early Eocene. Lower-Mıddle Eocene (Ipresian-Lutetian aged continental, to shallow marine deposits were formed in an asimetric forearc molassic basin which developed along the suture zone. Oligocene aged continental deposits were developed together with volcanics in continental intermountain molassic

  11. Geological modeling of a fault zone in clay rocks at the Mont-Terri laboratory (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurina, M.; Guglielmi, Y.; Nussbaum, C.; Valley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Clay-rich formations are considered to be a natural barrier for radionuclides or fluids (water, hydrocarbons, CO2) migration. However, little is known about the architecture of faults affecting clay formations because of their quick alteration at the Earth's surface. The Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory provides exceptional conditions to investigate an un-weathered, perfectly exposed clay fault zone architecture and to conduct fault activation experiments that allow explore the conditions for stability of such clay faults. Here we show first results from a detailed geological model of the Mont Terri Main Fault architecture, using GoCad software, a detailed structural analysis of 6 fully cored and logged 30-to-50m long and 3-to-15m spaced boreholes crossing the fault zone. These high-definition geological data were acquired within the Fault Slip (FS) experiment project that consisted in fluid injections in different intervals within the fault using the SIMFIP probe to explore the conditions for the fault mechanical and seismic stability. The Mont Terri Main Fault "core" consists of a thrust zone about 0.8 to 3m wide that is bounded by two major fault planes. Between these planes, there is an assembly of distinct slickensided surfaces and various facies including scaly clays, fault gouge and fractured zones. Scaly clay including S-C bands and microfolds occurs in larger zones at top and bottom of the Mail Fault. A cm-thin layer of gouge, that is known to accommodate high strain parts, runs along the upper fault zone boundary. The non-scaly part mainly consists of undeformed rock block, bounded by slickensides. Such a complexity as well as the continuity of the two major surfaces are hard to correlate between the different boreholes even with the high density of geological data within the relatively small volume of the experiment. This may show that a poor strain localization occurred during faulting giving some perspectives about the potential for

  12. Track treeing mechanism and plastic zone in solid Part 1: Initial development of plastic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Boyang

    2008-01-01

    After neutron exposure and chemical etching in advance, latent tracks of recoil nucleon develop into pits on CR39 surface. During electrochemical etching, plastic zone is formed at top of pits. Some pits develop into tree cracks in the initial stage of plastic zone development. Physical and mathematical model of crack and plastic zone is proposed; parameter of development free path of plastic zone is presented. Based on integration of elementary theories the stress analysis is build up; based on analyses of measured parameters, a set of common relations between parameters is obtained. Integrate parameter analysis and stress analysis, depth of plastic zone development, law and phenomenon in experimental data can be interpreted completely

  13. 77 FR 42176 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... fireworks launch site located at position 41-34'-18.10'' N, 082-51'-18.70'' W (NAD 83). This zone will be... at position 41-34'-18.10'' N, 082- 51'-18.70'' W (NAD 83). (ii) Expected date. This safety zone will...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard...

  14. Comparative Sediment Transport Between Exposed and Reef Protected Beaches Under Different Hurricane Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, D.; Enriquez, C.; Marino-Tapia, I.

    2016-12-01

    Many world coast regions are subjected to tropical cyclone activity, which can cause major damage to beaches and infrastructure on sediment dominated coasts. The Caribbean Sea has on average 4 hurricanes per year, some of them have caused major damage to coastal cities in the past 25 years. For example, Wilma, a major hurricane that hit SE Mexico in October 2005 generated strong erosion at an exposed beach (Cancun), while beach accretion was observed 28 km south at a fringing reef protected beach (Puerto Morelos). Hurricanes with similar intensity and trajectory but different moving speeds have been reported to cause a different morphological response. The present study analyses the morphodynamic response to the hydrodynamic conditions of exposed and reef protected beaches, generated by hurricanes with similar intensities but different trajectories and moving speeds. A non-stationary Delft3D Wave model is used to generate large scale wind swell conditions and local sea wind states and coupled with Delft3D Flow model to study the connection between the continental shelf and surf zones exchanges. The model is validated with hydrodynamic data gathered during Wilma, and morphological conditions measured before and after the event. Preliminary results show that erosion appears at the exposed beach and a predominant exchange between north and south dominates the shelf sediment transport (figure 1). Onshore driven flows over the reef crest input sediment in the reef protected beach. It is expected that for a same track but faster moving speed, southward sediment transport will have less time to develop and accretion at the reef protected site would be less evident or inexistent. The study can be used as a prediction tool for shelf scale sediment transport exchange driven by hurricanes.

  15. The role of bed-parallel slip in the development of complex normal fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogkos, Efstratios; Childs, Conrad; Manzocchi, Tom; Walsh, John J.; Pavlides, Spyros

    2017-04-01

    Normal faults exposed in Kardia lignite mine, Ptolemais Basin, NW Greece formed at the same time as bed-parallel slip-surfaces, so that while the normal faults grew they were intermittently offset by bed-parallel slip. Following offset by a bed-parallel slip-surface, further fault growth is accommodated by reactivation on one or both of the offset fault segments. Where one fault is reactivated the site of bed-parallel slip is a bypassed asperity. Where both faults are reactivated, they propagate past each other to form a volume between overlapping fault segments that displays many of the characteristics of relay zones, including elevated strains and transfer of displacement between segments. Unlike conventional relay zones, however, these structures contain either a repeated or a missing section of stratigraphy which has a thickness equal to the throw of the fault at the time of the bed-parallel slip event, and the displacement profiles along the relay-bounding fault segments have discrete steps at their intersections with bed-parallel slip-surfaces. With further increase in displacement, the overlapping fault segments connect to form a fault-bound lens. Conventional relay zones form during initial fault propagation, but with coeval bed-parallel slip, relay-like structures can form later in the growth of a fault. Geometrical restoration of cross-sections through selected faults shows that repeated bed-parallel slip events during fault growth can lead to complex internal fault zone structure that masks its origin. Bed-parallel slip, in this case, is attributed to flexural-slip arising from hanging-wall rollover associated with a basin-bounding fault outside the study area.

  16. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  17. 9 CFR 78.8 - Brucellosis exposed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed cattle. 78.8... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.8 Brucellosis exposed cattle. Brucellosis exposed cattle may be moved interstate only as follows: (a) Movement to recognized slaughtering...

  18. Leukemias in the progeny of exposed parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosenko, M.M.; Gudkova, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of leukemias among the progeny of exposed parents. The parents were exposed as a result of discharge of radioactive waste from the Mayak atomic plant into the Techa river in the Southern Urals. The doses per parents gonads, ranging from 0.035 to 1.27 Sv, were due to external exposure in 1950-1956 and to incorporation of Cs-137. Nine cases with leukemia and four with lympohoma were recorded in 13.500 antenatally exposed subjects and descendants of exposed parents over the period of 1950 to 1988. The leukemia morbidity index for the progeny of exposed parents was 2.51, which virtually not statistically differ from that in control group. Refs. 7, figs. 3, tabs. 3

  19. 33 CFR 165.154 - Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones: Long... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY... Areas First Coast Guard District § 165.154 Safety and Security Zones: Long Island Sound Marine...

  20. 33 CFR 165.20 - Safety zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zones. 165.20 Section 165... WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Safety Zones § 165.20 Safety zones. A Safety Zone is a water area, shore area, or water and shore area to which, for safety or environmental...

  1. Zone distillation: a new purification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    The features of zone distillation (with zone melting of refined material and with pulling of condensate) as a new purification method are shown. The method is based on similarity of equations of distillation and crystallization refining. The analogy between some distillation and condensation methods (particularly between zone distillation and zone recrystallization) is should up

  2. Structure and properties of melt-spun high acrylonitrile copolymer fibers via continuous zone-drawing and zone-annealing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongquan; Zhang Anqiu; Percec, Simona; Jin Shi; Jing, Alexander J.; Ge, Jason J.; Cheng, Stephen Z.D.

    2003-01-01

    Continuous zone-drawing and zone-annealing processes have been utilized to probe improvements in mechanical performance of melt-spun high acrylonitrile copolymer fibers (AMLON TM ). The as-spun fibers were zone-drawn at different ratios in a narrow temperature range of 100-105 deg. C and then zone-annealed. As a result of these processes, the fibers show substantial increases in tensile strength and tensile modulus (about three times) and significant improvements in elongation-at-break (about two times) after zone annealing. The thermal transition behavior, dimensional stability and dynamic relaxation properties of the as-spun, zone-drawn and zone-annealed fibers have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, thermal mechanical and dynamic mechanical experiments. Their mechanical and thermal property changes after the zone-drawing and zone-annealing processes can be associated with the microscopic structural evolution including crystallinity, crystal orientation and apparent crystallite size detected by wide angle X-ray diffraction experiments

  3. The nature of a deformation zone and fault rock related to a recent rockburst at Western Deep Levels Gold Mine, Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. A.; Reimold, W. U.; Charlesworth, E. G.; Ortlepp, W. D.

    2001-07-01

    In August 1998, a major deformation zone was exposed over several metres during mining operations on 87 Level (2463 m below surface) at Western Deep Levels Gold Mine, southwest of Johannesburg, providing a unique opportunity to study the products of a recent rockburst. This zone consists of three shear zones, with dip-slip displacements of up to 15 cm, that are oriented near-parallel to the advancing stope face. Jogs and a highly pulverised, cataclastic 'rock-flour' are developed on the displacement surfaces, and several sets of secondary extensional fractures occur on either side of the shear zones. A set of pinnate (feather) joints intersects the fault surfaces perpendicular to the slip vector. Microscopically, the shear zones consist of two pinnate joint sets that exhibit cataclastic joint fillings; quartz grains display intense intragranular fracturing. Secondary, intergranular extension fractures are associated with the pinnate joints. Extensional deformation is also the cause of the breccia fill of the pinnate joints. The initial deformation experienced by this zone is brittle and tensile, and is related to stresses induced by mining. This deformation has been masked by later changes in the stress field, which resulted in shearing. This deformation zone does not appear to be controlled by pre-existing geological features and, thus, represents a 'burst fracture', which is believed to be related to a seismic event of magnitude ML=2.1 recorded in July 1998, the epicentre of which was located to within 50 m of the study locality.

  4. Inherent mineralization of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) in unsaturated zone and aquifers – Effect of initial concentrations and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Clausen, Liselotte; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    cores with known dichlobenil application were collected from topsoil to 8.5 m below surface resulting in 57 samples hereof 4 aquifer samples. Mineralization was only substantial (>10%) in the uppermost meter of the unsaturated zone. Microbial adaptation, observed as faster mineralization in pre......, in pre-exposed clay mineralization was stimulated at high concentrations. Furthermore BAM was for the first time mineralized in aerobic aquifer sediments from different BAM-contaminated groundwater locations. BAM mineralization in subsurface and groundwater was demonstrated....

  5. 46 CFR 76.23-5 - Zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... deck, large common areas may be zoned in accordance with table 76.23-5(b). All such zones within one common area shall be of approximately the same size. Zones of this type shall overlap in such a manner that the end sprinkler heads of both adjoining zones will cover the identical area. Table 76.23-5(b...

  6. The estimated evacuation time for the emergency planning zone of the Kori nuclear site, with a focus on the precautionary action zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Hee; Jeong, Jae Jun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Won Ki; Song, Eun Young; Cho, Cheol Woo [Div. of Nuclear Safety, Busan Metropolitan City, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The emergency planning zone (EPZ) of the city of Busan is divided into the precautionary actions zone (PAZ) and the urgent protective action planning zone; which have a 5-km radius and a 20-km to 21-km radius from the nuclear power plant site, respectively. In this study, we assumed that a severe accident occurred at Shin-Kori nuclear unit 3 and evaluated the dispersion speed of radiological material at each distance at various wind speeds, and estimated the effective dose equivalent and the evacuation time of PAZ residents with the goal of supporting off-site emergency action planning for the nuclear site. The total effective dose equivalent, which shows the effect of released radioactive materials on the residents, was evaluated using the RASCAL 4.2 program. In addition, a survey of 1,036 residents was performed using a standardized questionnaire, and the resident evacuation time according to road and distance was analyzed using the VISSIM 6.0 program. According to the results obtained using the VISSIM and RASCAL programs, it would take approximately 80 to 252.2 minutes for permanent residents to move out of the PAZ boundary, 40 to 197.2 minutes for students, 60 to 232.2 minutes for the infirm, such as elderly people and those in a nursing home or hospital, and 30 to 182.2 minutes for those temporarily within the area. Consequently, in the event of any delay in the evacuation, it is estimated that the residents would be exposed to up to 10 mSv·h-1 of radiation at the Exclusion Area Boundaries (EAB) boundary and 4-6 mSv·h-1 at the PAZ boundary. It was shown that the evacuation time for the residents is adequate in light of the time lapse from the initial moment of a severe accident to the radiation release. However, in order to minimize the evacuation time, it is necessary to maintain a system of close collaboration to avoid traffic congestion and spontaneous evacuation attempts.

  7. The estimated evacuation time for the emergency planning zone of the Kori nuclear site, with a focus on the precautionary action zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang Hee; Jeong, Jae Jun; Shin, Won Ki; Song, Eun Young; Cho, Cheol Woo

    2016-01-01

    The emergency planning zone (EPZ) of the city of Busan is divided into the precautionary actions zone (PAZ) and the urgent protective action planning zone; which have a 5-km radius and a 20-km to 21-km radius from the nuclear power plant site, respectively. In this study, we assumed that a severe accident occurred at Shin-Kori nuclear unit 3 and evaluated the dispersion speed of radiological material at each distance at various wind speeds, and estimated the effective dose equivalent and the evacuation time of PAZ residents with the goal of supporting off-site emergency action planning for the nuclear site. The total effective dose equivalent, which shows the effect of released radioactive materials on the residents, was evaluated using the RASCAL 4.2 program. In addition, a survey of 1,036 residents was performed using a standardized questionnaire, and the resident evacuation time according to road and distance was analyzed using the VISSIM 6.0 program. According to the results obtained using the VISSIM and RASCAL programs, it would take approximately 80 to 252.2 minutes for permanent residents to move out of the PAZ boundary, 40 to 197.2 minutes for students, 60 to 232.2 minutes for the infirm, such as elderly people and those in a nursing home or hospital, and 30 to 182.2 minutes for those temporarily within the area. Consequently, in the event of any delay in the evacuation, it is estimated that the residents would be exposed to up to 10 mSv·h-1 of radiation at the Exclusion Area Boundaries (EAB) boundary and 4-6 mSv·h-1 at the PAZ boundary. It was shown that the evacuation time for the residents is adequate in light of the time lapse from the initial moment of a severe accident to the radiation release. However, in order to minimize the evacuation time, it is necessary to maintain a system of close collaboration to avoid traffic congestion and spontaneous evacuation attempts

  8. 33 CFR 3.25-10 - Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector Hampton Roads Marine... ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Fifth Coast Guard District § 3.25-10 Sector Hampton Roads Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Hampton Roads' office is located in Portsmouth, VA. The...

  9. Irradiation damage 'displacement zone'; Dommages sous irradiation zone de deplacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genthon, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    It is well known that a charged particle (ion, primary atom, etc...) moving in a solid slows down and can cause a cascade of displacements of the atoms in the solid. A study is made here of the extent to which the cascade is made up, or not, of independent collisions, as a function of the energy of the initial charged particle. When the distance between the collisions is small, these latter are no longer independent; the cascade, which then has to be considered as a whole, perturbs and locates, in the irradiated solid , a zone which has been named a 'displacement zone'. It is shown that the proportion of displacement zones increases with increasing atom size (high atomic number Z), with decreasing atomic distance D in the substance considered and with decreasing energy of the ion undergoing the slowing down process (although always remaining above a few hundred eV). The proportions obtained are higher than those corresponding to the calculations of J. A. Brinkman [3]. An interatomic potential required for this work has also been determined. (author) [French] On sait qu'une particule chargee (ions, atomes primaires, etc...) en mouvement dans un solide se ralentit, avec eventuellement deplacement en cascade d'atomes du solide. On etudie ici dans quelle proportion, en fonction de l'energie de la particule chargee initiale, la cascade est constituee, ou non, de 'chocs independants'. Lorsque la distance entre chocs est petite, ceux-ci ne sont plus independants; la cascade, qui doit alors etre consideree dans son ensemble, perturbe et definit dans le solide irradie, une zone qu'on a appele zone de deplacements. On montre que la proportion de zones de deplacements est d'autant plus grande que les atomes sont gros (nombre atomique Z grand), que la distance interatomique D est petite dans le corps considere, et que l'energie de l'ion en ralentissement est petite (tout en restant superieure a quelques centaines d'eV). Les proportions obtenues sont superieures a celles qui

  10. Oxygenated gasoline release in the unsaturated zone - Part 1: Source zone behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

    2011-11-01

    Oxygenates present in gasoline, such as ethanol and MTBE, are a concern in subsurface contamination related to accidental spills. While gasoline hydrocarbon compounds have low solubility, MTBE and ethanol are more soluble, ethanol being completely miscible with water. Consequently, their fate in the subsurface is likely to differ from that of gasoline. To evaluate the fate of gasoline containing oxygenates following a release in the unsaturated zone shielded from rainfall/recharge, a controlled field test was performed at Canadian Forces Base Borden, in Ontario. 200L of a mixture composed of gasoline with 10% ethanol and 4.5% MTBE was released in the unsaturated zone, into a trench 20cm deep, about 32cm above the water table. Based on soil cores, most of the ethanol was retained in the source, above the capillary fringe, and remained there for more than 100 days. Ethanol partitioned from the gasoline to the unsaturated pore-water and was retained, despite the thin unsaturated zone at the site (~35cm from the top of the capillary fringe to ground surface). Due to its lower solubility, most of the MTBE remained within the NAPL as it infiltrated deeper into the unsaturated zone and accumulated with the gasoline on top of the depressed capillary fringe. Only minor changes in the distribution of ethanol were noted following oscillations in the water table. Two methods to estimate the capacity of the unsaturated zone to retain ethanol are explored. It is clear that conceptual models for sites impacted by ethanol-fuels must consider the unsaturated zone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Are radiosensitivity data derived from natural field conditions consistent with data from controlled exposures? A case study of Chernobyl wildlife chronically exposed to low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Geras’kin, S.; Della-Vedova, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Hinton, T.G.; Real, A.; Oudalova, A.

    2013-01-01

    The discrepancy between laboratory or controlled conditions ecotoxicity tests and field data on wildlife chronically exposed to ionising radiation is presented for the first time. We reviewed the available chronic radiotoxicity data acquired in contaminated fields and used a statistical methodology to support the comparison with knowledge on inter-species variation of sensitivity to controlled external γ irradiation. We focus on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and effects data on terrestrial wildlife reported in the literature corresponding to chronic dose rate exposure situations (from background∼100 nGy/h up to ∼10 mGy/h). When needed, we reconstructed the dose rate to organisms and obtained consistent unbiased data sets necessary to establish the dose rate–effect relationship for a number of different species and endpoints. Then, we compared the range of variation of radiosensitivity of species from the Chernobyl-Exclusion Zone with the statistical distribution established for terrestrial species chronically exposed to purely gamma external irradiation (or chronic Species radioSensitivity Distribution – SSD). We found that the best estimate of the median value (HDR 50 ) of the distribution established for field conditions at Chernobyl (about 100 μGy/h) was eight times lower than the one from controlled experiments (about 850 μGy/h), suggesting that organisms in their natural environmental were more sensitive to radiation. This first comparison highlights the lack of mechanistic understanding and the potential confusion coming from sampling strategies in the field. To confirm the apparent higher sensitive of wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, we call for more a robust strategy in field, with adequate design to deal with confounding factors. -- Highlights: ► Discrepancy between controlled tests and Chernobyl effects data on wildlife was examined. ► We proposed a method to correct the dosimetry used for Chernobyl wildlife. ► Wildlife from the

  12. Work zone safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents research performed analyzing crashes in work zones in the state of New Jersey so as to : identify critical areas in work zones susceptible to crashes and key factors that contribute to these crashes. A field : data collection on ...

  13. Are radiosensitivity data derived from natural field conditions consistent with data from controlled exposures? A case study of Chernobyl wildlife chronically exposed to low dose rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier-Laplace, J; Geras'kin, S; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Hinton, T G; Real, A; Oudalova, A

    2013-07-01

    The discrepancy between laboratory or controlled conditions ecotoxicity tests and field data on wildlife chronically exposed to ionising radiation is presented for the first time. We reviewed the available chronic radiotoxicity data acquired in contaminated fields and used a statistical methodology to support the comparison with knowledge on inter-species variation of sensitivity to controlled external γ irradiation. We focus on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and effects data on terrestrial wildlife reported in the literature corresponding to chronic dose rate exposure situations (from background ~100 nGy/h up to ~10 mGy/h). When needed, we reconstructed the dose rate to organisms and obtained consistent unbiased data sets necessary to establish the dose rate-effect relationship for a number of different species and endpoints. Then, we compared the range of variation of radiosensitivity of species from the Chernobyl-Exclusion Zone with the statistical distribution established for terrestrial species chronically exposed to purely gamma external irradiation (or chronic Species radioSensitivity Distribution - SSD). We found that the best estimate of the median value (HDR50) of the distribution established for field conditions at Chernobyl (about 100 μGy/h) was eight times lower than the one from controlled experiments (about 850 μGy/h), suggesting that organisms in their natural environmental were more sensitive to radiation. This first comparison highlights the lack of mechanistic understanding and the potential confusion coming from sampling strategies in the field. To confirm the apparent higher sensitive of wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, we call for more a robust strategy in field, with adequate design to deal with confounding factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (Italian Southern Alps) through the seismic cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, A.; Mittempergher, S.; Di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A. F.; Garofalo, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    The 600 m-thick, strike slip Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ) experienced several hundred seismic slip events at c. 8 km depth, well-documented by numerous pseudotachylytes, was then exhumed and is now exposed in beautiful and very continuous outcrops. The fault zone was also characterized by hydrous fluid flow during the seismic cycle, demonstrated by alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and cataclasites. We have characterized the GLFZ with > 2 km of scanlines and semi-automatic mapping of faults and fractures on several photogrammetric 3D Digital Outcrop Models (3D DOMs). This allowed us obtaining 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) models, based on robust probability density functions for parameters of fault and fracture sets, and simulating the fault zone hydraulic properties. In addition, the correlation between evidences of fluid flow and the fault/fracture network parameters have been studied with a geostatistical approach, allowing generating more realistic time-varying permeability models of the fault zone. Based on this dataset, we have developed a FEM hydraulic model of the GLFZ for a period of some tens of years, covering one seismic event and a postseismic period. The higher permeability is attained in the syn- to early post-seismic period, when fractures are (re)opened by off-fault deformation, then permeability decreases in the postseismic due to fracture sealing. The flow model yields a flow pattern consistent with the observed alteration/mineralization pattern and a marked channelling of fluid flow in the inner part of the fault zone, due to permeability anisotropy related to the spatial arrangement of different fracture sets. Amongst possible seismological applications of our study, we will discuss the possibility to evaluate the coseismic fracture intensity due to off-fault damage, and the heterogeneity and evolution of mechanical parameters due to fluid-rock interaction.

  15. The properties degradation of exposed GFRP roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohammad; Diharjo, Kuncoro; Kaavessina, Mujtahid; Setyanto, Djoko

    2018-02-01

    There is much consideration of roof selection as a protector of a building against the outside weather, such as lightweight, strong stiff, corrosion resistant and guarantee for the availability of products. Based on these considerations, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) roof is a roof which can fulfill the requirement. The objective of this research is to investigate the degradation of physical and mechanical properties of GFRP roof exposed in outside weather. This GFRP roof composite was produced using a sheet molding compound (SMC) supplied by PT Intec Persada, Tangerang, Indonesia. There are two kinds GFRP roofs evaluated in this research that are GFRP roof exposed within 7 years and new GFRP roof that has not been exposed. The GFRP roofs were cut manually for preparing the specimens for hardness test, tensile test, SEM and FTIR test. The results show that the GFRP roof exposed within 7 years had the degradation of properties compared to the new GFRP roof. The exposed GFRP roof had lower strength and hardness compared to the new GFRP roof. The SEM observation indicates that exposed GFRP roof had the debonding of fiber on the surface, and in contrast, there are no debonding of fiber in the new GFRP roof surface. It can be recommended that the exposed GFRP roof may be repaired to enhance its performance and can re-increase its properties using the coating.

  16. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  17. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.

    2000-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion

  18. Diatoms dominate the eukaryotic metatranscriptome during spring in coastal 'dead zone' sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Elias; Sachpazidou, Varvara; Dopson, Mark; Hylander, Samuel

    2017-10-11

    An important characteristic of marine sediments is the oxygen concentration that affects many central metabolic processes. There has been a widespread increase in hypoxia in coastal systems (referred to as 'dead zones') mainly caused by eutrophication. Hence, it is central to understand the metabolism and ecology of eukaryotic life in sediments during changing oxygen conditions. Therefore, we sampled coastal 'dead zone' Baltic Sea sediment during autumn and spring, and analysed the eukaryotic metatranscriptome from field samples and after incubation in the dark under oxic or anoxic conditions. Bacillariophyta (diatoms) dominated the eukaryotic metatranscriptome in spring and were also abundant during autumn. A large fraction of the diatom RNA reads was associated with the photosystems suggesting a constitutive expression in darkness. Microscope observation showed intact diatom cells and these would, if hatched, represent a significant part of the pelagic phytoplankton biomass. Oxygenation did not significantly change the relative proportion of diatoms nor resulted in any major shifts in metabolic 'signatures'. By contrast, diatoms rapidly responded when exposed to light suggesting that light is limiting diatom development in hypoxic sediments. Hence, it is suggested that diatoms in hypoxic sediments are on 'standby' to exploit the environment if they reach suitable habitats. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Correlation Between Intercritical Heat-Affected Zone and Type IV Creep Damage Zone in Grade 91 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiyu; Kannan, Rangasayee; Li, Leijun

    2018-04-01

    A soft zone in Cr-Mo steel weldments has been reported to accompany the infamous Type IV cracking, the highly localized creep damage in the heat-affected zone of creep-resistant steels. However, the microstructural features and formation mechanism of this soft zone are not well understood. In this study, using microhardness profiling and microstructural verification, the initial soft zone in the as-welded condition was identified to be located in the intercritical heat-affected zone of P91 steel weldments. It has a mixed structure, consisting of Cr-rich re-austenitized prior austenite grains and fine Cr-depleted, tempered martensite grains retained from the base metal. The presence of these further-tempered retained grains, originating from the base metal, is directly responsible for the hardness reduction of the identified soft zone in the as-welded condition. The identified soft zone exhibits a high location consistency at three thermal stages. Local chemistry analysis and thermodynamic calculation show that the lower chromium concentrations inside these retained grains thermodynamically decrease their potentials for austenitic transformation during welding. Heterogeneous grain growth is observed in the soft zone during postweld heat treatment. The mismatch of strengths between the weak Cr-depleted grains and strong Cr-rich grains enhances the creep damage. Local deformation of the weaker Cr-depleted grains accelerates the formation of creep cavities.

  20. Women in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashevska, Y.; Kireev, S.; Navalikhin, V.

    2015-01-01

    Today, 29 years after the Chernobyl accident, the Exclusion Zone still remains an areal unsealed radiation source of around 2600 km"2. It is not just a gigantic radioactive waste storage facility (the amount of radioactive waste accumulated within the Zone, except for the Shelter, is estimated at about 2.8 million m"3), but also a unique research and engineering platform for biologists, radiologists, chemists and physicists. Taking into account the amount of the radionuclides released during the accident, it becomes quite understood that the radiological environment in the Exclusion Zone is far from favorable. However, among the Exclusion Zone personnel who numbers 5000, there are female workers. The poster represents the results of the research performed among the female employees of the largest enterprise of the Exclusion Zone, “Chornobyl Spetskombinat”. The survey was performed with the view to knowing what makes women work in the most radioactively contaminated area in Europe, and what their role is, to revealing their fears and hopes, and to estimating the chances of the brave women of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to succeed in their careers. (author)

  1. Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.Yi.

    2014-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone

  2. 75 FR 19304 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... previously published in Coast Guard regulations. These safety zones are necessary to protect spectators...-AA00 Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishment of safety...

  3. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for episodic slow slip events in oceanic subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Meng, L.

    2016-12-01

    Episodic slow slip events occur widely along oceanic subduction zones at the brittle-ductile transition depths ( 20-50 km). Although efforts have been devoted to unravel their mechanical origins, it remains unclear about the physical controls on the wide range of their recurrence intervals and slip durations. In this study we present a simple mechanical model that attempts to account for the observed temporal evolution of slow slip events. In our model we assume that slow slip events occur in a viscoplastic shear zone (i.e., Bingham material), which has an upper static and a lower dynamic plastic yield strength. We further assume that the hanging wall deformation is approximated as an elastic spring. We envision the shear zone to be initially locked during forward/landward motion but is subsequently unlocked when the elastic and gravity-induced stress exceeds the static yield strength of the shear zone. This leads to backward/trenchward motion damped by viscous shear-zone deformation. As the elastic spring progressively loosens, the hanging wall velocity evolves with time and the viscous shear stress eventually reaches the dynamic yield strength. This is followed by the termination of the trenchward motion when the elastic stress is balanced by the dynamic yield strength of the shear zone and the gravity. In order to account for the zig-saw slip-history pattern of typical repeated slow slip events, we assume that the shear zone progressively strengthens after each slow slip cycle, possibly caused by dilatancy as commonly assumed or by progressive fault healing through solution-transport mechanisms. We quantify our conceptual model by obtaining simple analytical solutions. Our model results suggest that the duration of the landward motion increases with the down-dip length and the static yield strength of the shear zone, but decreases with the ambient loading velocity and the elastic modulus of the hanging wall. The duration of the backward/trenchward motion depends

  4. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  5. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision Special Economic Zones, UTM Zone 15N NAD83, Louisiana Recovery Authority (2007), [louisiana_speaks_vision_special_economic_zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS shapefile data illustrates special economic zones included in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Vision. Special economic zones include existing national,...

  6. 77 FR 9528 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Waterway Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6 a.m. on February 17, 2012, through 11...

  7. 78 FR 40396 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup Safety Zone and No Loitering Area, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast... America's Cup races. This safety zone and no loitering area are established to enhance the safety of spectators and mariners near the north east corner of the America's Cup regulated area. All persons or...

  8. Analysis of early mortality rates of survivors exposed within Japanese wooden houses in Hiroshima by exposed distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Ohkita, Takeshi.

    1986-01-01

    Mortality for 3,215 A-bomb survivors who were exposed in Japanese wooden houses at ≤ 1,300 m from the hypocenter on August 6, 1945 was examined. An overall mortality was 51 % (1,640/3,215 survivors) within 61 days after the exposure. According to the distance from the hypocenter, it was 100 % in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m, and 20 % in those exposed between 1,201 m and 1,300 m. The mortality decreased with increasing the distance from the hypocenter. In conjunction with the duration after the exposure and the distance from the hypocenter, the mortality was 100 % 12 days after the exposure in survivors exposed at ≤ 600 m. In survivors exposed at > 800 m, the mortality tended to be higher two weeks after the exposure than immediately after that. The distance from the hypocenter causing 50 per cent mortality was estimated to be 1,026 m from August 6 to October 5; 1,002 m from August 6 to September 10; 887 m from August 7 to September 10; and 867 m from August 20 to September 16. However, these figures were probably lower than the real mortality rates, since no information was available when whole family died. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. 78 FR 54588 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6:00 a.m. on September 2, 2013 through 11:59 p.m...

  10. 78 FR 57485 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6 a.m. on September 12, 2013 through 11:59 p.m...

  11. Giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar: Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Steven; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    The orbitally-controlled cyclic lacustrine successions of the Middle Devonian in Northern Scotland contains repeated developments of shore zone sandstones. However, due to the cliff-forming nature of the succession and the attitude of the sections through these sandstones, interpretation of this facies has been problematic. To better understand the shore zone systems, we carried out very high resolution sedimentary logging and constructed photo-panels which were combined with high resolution GPR profiling (250 MHz). To ensure close ties between the sedimentary logs and the GPR data, the cliffs were accessed using rope access techniques while GPR grids were shot directly above. The profiles were shot mainly in the strike direction of what was thought to be the shore elongation every 5-10 m and every 20-30 m in the dip direction. Shore zone systems of 3 different sequences have been imaged for a total of 1155 m of GPR profile collected. This configuration has allowed 3D visualisation of the architecture of the shore zone systems and, in combination with detailed sedimentology, provided insights into the generation of the dynamic shore zone environments. The coastal cliffs of northern Scotland expose sedimentary cycles on average 16-m-thick which record deep lake, perennial lake and playa environments. The shore zone deposits reach 2 to 3.5 m in thickness. Loading and discrete channel forms are recognised in both the GPR data and sedimentary logs through the lower portion of the lake shore zone successions. Up-section the sandstone beds appear to become amalgamated forming subtle low angle accretionary bar complexes which although visible in outcrop, after careful investigation, can be fully visualised and examined in the GPR data. The 3D visualisation allowed mapping the architecture and distribution of the bars . The orientation of these features, recognised from the survey, is consistent with extensive palaeocurrent measurements from oscillation ripples. Further

  12. Global correlations between maximum magnitudes of subduction zone interface thrust earthquakes and physical parameters of subduction zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.

    2013-01-01

    The maximum earthquake magnitude recorded for subduction zone plate boundaries varies considerably on Earth, with some subduction zone segments producing giant subduction zone thrust earthquakes (e.g. Chile, Alaska, Sumatra-Andaman, Japan) and others producing relatively small earthquakes (e.g.

  13. 5-HTTLPR genotype potentiates the effects of war zone stressors on the emergence of PTSD, depressive and anxiety symptoms in soldiers deployed to iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telch, Michael J; Beevers, Christopher G; Rosenfield, David; Lee, Han-Joo; Reijntjes, Albert; Ferrell, Robert E; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to war zone stressors is common, yet only a minority of soldiers experience clinically meaningful disturbance in psychological function. Identification of biomarkers that predict vulnerability to war zone stressors is critical for developing more effective treatment and prevention strategies not only in soldiers but also in civilians who are exposed to trauma. We investigated the role of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotype in predicting the emergence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive and anxiety symptoms as a function of war zone stressors. A prospective cohort of 133 U.S. Army soldiers with no prior history of deployment to a war zone, who were scheduled to deploy to Iraq, was recruited. Multilevel regression models were used to investigate associations between 5-HTTLPR genotype, level of war zone stressors, and reported symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety while deployed to Iraq. Level of war zone stressors was associated with symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Consistent with its effects on stress responsiveness, 5-HTTLPR genotype moderated the relationship between level of war zone stressors and symptoms of emotional disturbance. Specifically, soldiers carrying one or two low functioning alleles (S or LG ) reported heightened symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety in response to increased levels of exposure to war zone stressors, relative to soldiers homozygous for the high functioning allele (LA ). These data suggest that 5-HTTLPR genotype moderates individual sensitivity to war zone stressors and the expression of emotional disturbance including PTSD symptoms. Replication of this association along with identification of other genetic moderators of risk can inform the development of biomarkers that can predict relative resilience vs. vulnerability to stress. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  14. A broader classification of damage zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, D. C. P.; Dimmen, V.; Rotevatn, A.; Sanderson, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    Damage zones have previously been classified in terms of their positions at fault tips, walls or areas of linkage, with the latter being described in terms of sub-parallel and synchronously active faults. We broaden the idea of linkage to include structures around the intersections of non-parallel and/or non-synchronous faults. These interaction damage zones can be divided into approaching damage zones, where the faults kinematically interact but are not physically connected, and intersection damage zones, where the faults either abut or cross-cut. The damage zone concept is applied to other settings in which strain or displacement variations are taken up by a range of structures, such as at fault bends. It is recommended that a prefix can be added to a wide range of damage zones, to describe the locations in which they formed, e.g., approaching, intersection and fault bend damage zone. Such interpretations are commonly based on limited knowledge of the 3D geometries of the structures, such as from exposure surfaces, and there may be spatial variations. For example, approaching faults and related damage seen in outcrop may be intersecting elsewhere on the fault planes. Dilation in intersection damage zones can represent narrow and localised channels for fluid flow, and such dilation can be influenced by post-faulting stress patterns.

  15. 33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to the...

  16. Realization of the Zone Length Measurement during Zone Refining Process via Implementation of an Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo C. Curtolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zone refining, as the currently most common industrial process to attain ultrapure metals, is influenced by a variety of factors. One of these parameters, the so-called “zone length”, affects not only the ultimate concentration distribution of impurities, but also the rate at which this distribution is approached. This important parameter has however neither been investigated experimentally, nor ever varied for the purpose of optimization. This lack of detections may be due to the difficult temperature measurement of a moving molten area in a vacuum system, of which the zone refining methodology is comprised. Up to now, numerical simulation as a combination of complex mathematical calculations, as well as many assumptions has been the only way to reveal it. This paper aims to propose an experimental method to accurately measure the molten zone length and to extract helpful information on the thermal gradient, temperature profile and real growth rate in the zone refining of an exemplary metal, in this case aluminum. This thermographic method is based on the measurement of the molten surface temperature via an infrared camera, as well as further data analysis through the mathematical software MATLAB. The obtained results show great correlation with the visual observations of zone length and provide helpful information to determine the thermal gradient and real growth rate during the whole process. The investigations in this paper approved the application of an infrared camera for this purpose as a promising technique to automatically control the zone length during a zone refining process.

  17. VT Data - Zoning 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning districts, Marlboro, Vermont. Surface water buffer overlay is in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created by WRC in 2005. Marlboro's zoning bylaw...

  18. Reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene DNAPL source zones: source zone architecture versus electron donor availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M.; Kokkinaki, A.; Sleep, B.

    2014-12-01

    The persistence of dense-non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs) in the subsurface has led practitioners and regulatory agencies to turn towards low-maintenance, low-cost remediation methods. Biological degradation has been suggested as a possible solution, based on the well-proven ability of certain microbial species to break down dissolved chlorinated ethenes under favorable conditions. However, the biodegradation of pure phase chlorinated ethenes is subject to additional constraints: the continuous release of electron acceptor at a rate governed by mass transfer kinetics, and the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of DNAPL source zones which leads to spatially and temporally variable availability of the reactants for reductive dechlorination. In this work, we investigate the relationship between various DNAPL source zone characteristics and reaction kinetics using COMPSIM, a multiphase groundwater model that considers non-equilibrium mass transfer and Monod-type kinetics for reductive dechlorination. Numerical simulations are performed for simple, homogeneous trichloroethene DNAPL source zones to demonstrate the effect of single source zone characteristics, as well as for larger, more realistic heterogeneous source zones. It is shown that source zone size, and mass transfer kinetics may have a decisive effect on the predicted bio-enhancement. Finally, we evaluate the performance of DNAPL bioremediation for realistic, thermodynamically constrained, concentrations of electron donor. Our results indicate that the latter may be the most important limitation for the success of DNAPL bioremediation, leading to reduced bio-enhancement and, in many cases, comparable performance with water flooding.

  19. Multichannel imager for littoral zone characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobna, Yuliya; Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joe; Sofianos, James; Boucher, Cynthia; Gilbert, Gary

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes an approach to utilize a multi-channel, multi-spectral electro-optic (EO) system for littoral zone characterization. Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT) presents their EO sensor systems for the surf zone environmental assessment and potential surf zone target detection. Specifically, an approach is presented to determine a Surf Zone Index (SZI) from the multi-spectral EO sensor system. SZI provides a single quantitative value of the surf zone conditions delivering an immediate understanding of the area and an assessment as to how well an airborne optical system might perform in a mine countermeasures (MCM) operation. Utilizing consecutive frames of SZI images, ACT is able to measure variability over time. A surf zone nomograph, which incorporates targets, sensor, and environmental data, including the SZI to determine the environmental impact on system performance, is reviewed in this work. ACT's electro-optical multi-channel, multi-spectral imaging system and test results are presented and discussed.

  20. The fracture zone project - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Peter

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes the work and the experiences gained during the fracture zone project at the Finnsjoen study site. The project is probably the biggest effort, so far, to characterize a major fracture zone in crystalline bedrock. The project was running between 1984-1990 involving a large number of geological, geohydrological, geochemical, and geomechanical investigation. The methods used for identification and characterization are reviewed and discussed in terms of applicability and possible improvements for future investigations. The discussion is exemplified with results from the investigation within the project. Flow and transport properties of the zone determined from hydraulic tests and tracer tests are discussed. A large number of numerical modelling efforts performed within the fracture zone project, the INTRAVAL project, and the SKB91-study are summarized and reviewed. Finally, occurrence of similar zones and the relevance of major low angle fracture zones in connection to the siting of an underground repository is addressed

  1. [A survey of occupational health among polyether-exposed workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xu-ying; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Chun-ping; Zheng, Guan-hua; Bai, Lan; Zhang, Pan-pan

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the occupational health of the workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 70 front-line workers simultaneously exposed to acrylonitrile, epoxyethane, epoxypropane, and styrene (exposure group) and 50 managers (control group) in a polyether manufacturer; in addition, air monitoring at workplace and occupational health examination were also performed. The obtained data were analyzed. The female workers in exposure group and the spouses of male workers in exposure group had significantly higher spontaneous abortion rates than their counterparts in control group (P polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean levels of DNA damage than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years and those with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than the control group (P polyether-exposed working years (P > 0.05); the workers with not less than 5 and less than 20 polyether-exposed working years and workers with not less than 20 polyether-exposed working years had significantly higher mean micronucleus rates than those with less than 5 polyether-exposed working years (P polyether manufacturer.

  2. Structural analysis of the Hasan-Robat marbles as traces of folded basement in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Alireza

    2015-11-01

    Cherty marbles of Hasan-Robat area, northwest of Isfahan, in the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone of Iran preserves evidences of multiple deformational events. The Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone is the inner crystalline zone of the Zagros Orogen, which has been highly deformed and exhumed during continental collision between the Arabian Plate and Central Iran. The Hasan-Robat area is an example of the exposed Precambrian-Paleozoic basement rocks that stretched along two NW-SE-trending faults and located in the inner part of the HasanRobat positive flower strcuture. The Hasan-Robat marbles record a complex shortening and shearing history. This lead to the development of disharmonic ptygmatic folds with vertical to sub-vertical axes and some interference patterns of folding that may have been created from deformations during the Pan-African Orogeny and later phases. Based on this research, tectonic evolution of the Hasan-Robat area is interpreted as the product of three major geotectonic events that have been started after Precambrian to Quaternary: (1) old deformation phases (2) contractional movements and (3) strike-slip movements. Different sets and distributions of joints, faults and folds are confirmed with effect of several deformational stages of the area and formation of the flower structure.

  3. Epidemiology of hematological diseases of adult population living in a zone of Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, 1994-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akilzhanova, A.; Urazalina, Z.; Urazalin, M.

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of the dynamics of frequency of hematological diseases were conducted in the area of former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and in different zones of radiation risk during the period of 1994-2003. Hematological diseases were diagnosed in 1,667 persons who were directly exposed to radiation, including their second and third generations. General morbidity of hematological diseases in this period gradually increased from 19.8 to 23.8 per 100,000 population. To observe dynamics of structure of hematological morbidity for the 10-year period we compared the proportion of each disease in 1994, 1999, 2003, i.e., at the beginning, the middle and the end of the observation period. In the analyses, the specific weight of chronic lymphoid leukemia for this period was reduced, the specific weight of acute leukemia increased in 1999 and then decreased in 2003, while chronic myeloid leukemia had no positive dynamics. The increasing tendency of specific weight of autoimmune diseases and pernicious anaemias was marked. There was still a high frequency of blood diseases in the zones of extreme and maximal radiation risk. The changes in structure of hematological diseases in a zone of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site are probably related to a hereditable predisposition of radiation induced immune imbalances. (author)

  4. Intellectual development of children exposed to radioactive iodine in utero and up to the age of 1.5 years old as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazylchik, S.V.; Drozd, V.M.; Gavrilin, Yu.I.; Reiners, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    Study of intellectual development of 235 children who were irradiated with radioiodine in utero and within the first year of life was performed in 1998-1999. The control group consisted of 105 children examined in ecologically clean zone. The study of intelligence was performed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - WISC-III UK. In the group exposed to radiation prenatally (mean thyroid dose = 18.77 cGy, SD=28.77), comparisons of test scores didn't show statistically significant differences as compared with the control group. In the group exposed to radiation after birth (mean thyroid dose = 83.02 cGy, SD=66.05), significantly lower scores of the subtests Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design and level of Performance IQ as compared to the controls were detected

  5. Do "Some" Enterprise Zones Create Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, Jed; Neumark, David

    2010-01-01

    We study how the employment effects of enterprise zones vary with their location, implementation, and administration, based on evidence from California. We use new establishment-level data and geographic mapping methods, coupled with a survey of enterprise zone administrators. Overall, the evidence indicates that enterprise zones do not increase…

  6. SEMIAUTOMATIC DETECTION OF TUMORAL ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Zagrouba

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a robust method based on the cooperation of fuzzy classification and regions segmentation algorithms, in order to detect the tumoral zone in the brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. On one hand, the classification in fuzzy sets is done by the Fuzzy C-Means algorithm (FCM, where a study of its different parameters and its complexity has been previously realised, which led us to improve it. On the other hand, the segmentation in regions is obtained by an hierarchical method through adaptive thresholding. Then, an operator expert selects a germ in the tumoral zone, and the class containing the sick zone is localised in return for the FCM algorithm. Finally, the superposition of the two partitions of the image will determine the sick zone. The originality of our approach is the parallel exploitation of different types of information in the image by the cooperation of two complementary approaches. This allows us to carry out a pertinent approach for the detection of sick zone in MRI images.

  7. Proximally exposed A-bomb survivors. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    Methods for observing chromosomes can be chronologically divided into the era of non-differential staining technique (1962-1975) and the era of differential staining method (since 1976). This paper reviews the literature of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells found in the two eras. Findings during the era of 1962-1975 include the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells, comparison of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and T lymphocytes, and annual variation of chromosomal aberrations. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was high in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors (90.5% and 52.6% in A-bomb survivors exposed within 500 m and at 501-1,000 m, respectively); on the contrary, it was low in those exposed far from 1,000 m (6.2% or less). The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells was lower than that in T lymphocytes (21.5% vs 27.1% in those exposed within 500 m and 14.1% vs 23% in those exposed at 501-1,000 m). Annual analysis for chromosomal aberrations has shown the somewhat dependence upon medullary hematopoiesis and virus infection. The advent of differential staining technique since 1976 has made it possible to clarify the type of chromosomal aberrations and site of breakage. Of 710 bone marrow cells taken from 13 A-bomb survivors exposed within 1,000 m, 121 cells (from 11 A-bomb survivors) exhibited chromosomal aberrations. In differential staining analysis, all 121 cells but one were found to be of stable type, such as translocation and inversion. Furthermore, the site of breakage was found to be non-randomly distributed. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells has advantages of reflecting dynamic condition of these cells and determining gradual progression into leukemia. (N.K.)

  8. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  10. Acid-base status of soils in groundwater discharge zones — relation to surface water acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrström, Ann Catrine

    1995-08-01

    Critical load calculations have suggested that groundwater at depth of 2 m in Sweden is very sensitive to acid load. As environmental isotope studies have shown that most of the runoff in streams has passed through the soil, there is a risk in the near future of accelerated acidification of surface waters. To assess the importance of the last soil horizon of contact before discharge, the upper 0-0.2m of soils in seven discharge zones were analysed for pools of base cations, acidity and base saturation. The sites were about 3-4 m 2 in size and selected from two catchments exposed to different levels of acid deposition. The soils in the seven sites had high concentrations of exchangeable base cations and consequently high base saturation. The high correlation ( r2 = 0.74) between base saturation in the soils of the discharge zones and mean pH of the runoff waters suggested that the discharge zone is important for surface water acidification. The high pool of exchangeable base cations will buffer initially against the acid load. As the cation exchange capacity (meq dm -3) and base saturation were lower in the sites from the catchment receiving lower deposition, these streams may be more vulnerable to acidification in the near future. The high concentration of base cations in non-exchangeable fractions may also buffer against acidification as it is likely that some of these pools will become exchangeable with time.

  11. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blossom, Sarah J., E-mail: blossomsarah@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, 13 Children' s Way, Little Rock, AR 72202 (United States); Cooney, Craig A. [Department of Research and Development, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, John L. McClellan Memorial Veterans Hospital, 4300 West 7th St., Little Rock, AR 72205-5484 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, 13 Children' s Way, Little Rock, AR 72202 (United States); Wessinger, William D. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, 4301 West Markham St., Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  12. Metabolic changes and DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum are associated with behavioral alterations in mice exposed to trichloroethylene postnatally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blossom, Sarah J.; Cooney, Craig A.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Rau, Jenny L.; Swearingen, Christopher J.; Wessinger, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL +/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice. Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice. - Highlights: • We exposed male mice to low-level trichloroethylene from postnatal days 1 through 42. • This exposure altered redox potential and increased oxidative stress in cerebellum. • This exposure altered metabolites important in cellular methylation in cerebellum. • This exposure promoted DNA hypomethylation in cerebellum. • This exposure enhanced locomotor

  13. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, R.; Hauss, H.; Buchholz, F.; Melzner, F.

    2015-10-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2 and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply considerably fuels bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a downregulation of ammonium excretion. Here we show that exposure to OMZ conditions can result in strong depression of respiration and ammonium excretion in calanoid copepods and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic and the Eastern Tropical South Pacific. These physiological responses need to be taken into account when estimating DVM-mediated fluxes of carbon and nitrogen into OMZs.

  14. Drug-Free School Zones: Taking Charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Carol F.

    Information for planning and implementing drug-free school zones within a broader school-community prevention and intervention program is provided in this guidebook. The first section provides background information on drug-free school zone legislation and common elements of drug-free school zones. The risk and protective factors for alcohol and…

  15. State Enterprise Zone Programs: Have They Worked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Alan H.; Fisher, Peter S.

    The effectiveness of state enterprise zone programs was examined by using a hypothetical-firm model called the Tax and Incentives Model-Enterprise Zones (TAIM-ez) model to analyze the value of enterprise zone incentives to businesses across the United States and especially in the 13 states that had substantial enterprise zone programs by 1990. The…

  16. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  17. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  18. Evidence for Complex P-T-t Histories in Subduction Zone Rocks: A Case Study from Syros, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorce, J. S.; Kendall, J.; Caddick, M. J.; Baxter, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    Numerical models predict that material can move freely at the interface between the subducting slab and the overlying mantle wedge (mélange zone) independent of the motion of the subducting slab (i.e. Cloos 1982, Gerya et al. 2002). This is possible because the mélange zone consists of rigid blocks of metagabbroic and metabasic material suspended in a strongly sheared matrix of serpentinite, talc, and chlorite. The implication of this is that blocks of subducted material exposed in outcrops at the earth's surface could experience complex Pressure-Temperature-time (P-T-t) paths due to the cycling and recycling of subducted material within the mélange zone. Such behavior can affect the expulsion and retention of fluid during metamorphism and thus affect elemental cycles, geodynamics, mineral phase equilibra and mass transport of materials in the mélange zone depending on the physical properties and location of the blocks. The island of Syros, Greece preserves rocks that experienced blueschist-eclogite grade metamorphism during the subduction of the Pindos Oceanic Unit and thus provides a natural laboratory for investigating the evolution of subducted lithologies. Complex compositional zoning in a garnet-bearing quartz mica schist indicates that garnet crystals grew in two distinct stages. The presence of distinct cores and rims is interpreted as the result of a complex P-T-t history. Through the use of thermodynamic modeling, we calculate that the core of the garnet equilibrated at 485oC and 22.5 kbars. The edge of the first growth zone is predicted to stop growing at approximately 530oC and 20.5 kbars. We calculate that the rim began to grow at 21.7 kbars and 560oC and that the end of garnet growth occurred at approximately 16 kbars and 500oC. Sm/Nd garnet geochronology was used to date the cores of the garnets at 47 ± 3 Ma, with preliminary results suggesting that the rims grew at a significantly younger age. These data support the hypothesis that the cycling

  19. 76 FR 3014 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Coast Guard will enforce the Blair Waterway security zone in Commencement Bay, WA for protection of... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0015] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS...

  20. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  1. 76 FR 9646 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100, 117, 147, and 165 [USCG-2010-0399] Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation Regulations and Regulated Navigation Areas AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of expired temporary rules...

  2. Tracing the influence of the Trans-European Suture Zone into the mantle transition zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knapmeyer-Endrun, B.; Krüger, F.; Legendre, C. P.; Geissler, W.H.; Plomerová, Jaroslava; Babuška, Vladislav; Gaždová, Renata; Jedlička, Petr; Kolínský, Petr; Málek, Jiří; Novotný, Oldřich; Růžek, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 363, FEB 1 (2013), s. 73-87 ISSN 0012-821X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : mantle transition zone * Trans-European Suture Zone * East European Craton Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 4.724, year: 2013

  3. Geology of the Elephanta Island fault zone, western Indian rifted margin, and its significance for understanding the Panvel flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Hrishikesh; Pundalik, Ashwin; D'souza, Joseph; Sheth, Hetu; Lobo, Keegan Carmo; D'souza, Kyle; Patel, Vanit

    2017-02-01

    The Panvel flexure is a 150-km long tectonic structure, comprising prominently seaward-dipping Deccan flood basalts, on the western Indian rifted margin. Given the active tectonic faulting beneath the Panvel flexure zone inferred from microseismicity, better structural understanding of the region is needed. The geology of Elephanta Island in the Mumbai harbour, famous for the ca. mid-6th century A.D. Hindu rock-cut caves in Deccan basalt (a UNESCO World Heritage site) is poorly known. We describe a previously unreported but well-exposed fault zone on Elephanta Island, consisting of two large faults dipping steeply east-southeast and producing easterly downthrows. Well-developed slickensides and structural measurements indicate oblique slip on both faults. The Elephanta Island fault zone may be the northern extension of the Alibag-Uran fault zone previously described. This and two other known regional faults (Nhava-Sheva and Belpada faults) indicate a progressively eastward step-faulted structure of the Panvel flexure, with the important result that the individual movements were not simply downdip but also oblique-slip and locally even rotational (as at Uran). An interesting problem is the normal faulting, block tectonics and rifting of this region of the crust for which seismological data indicate a normal thickness (up to 41.3 km). A model of asymmetric rifting by simple shear may explain this observation and the consistently landward dips of the rifted margin faults.

  4. VT Data - Zoning Stream Buffers 20081014, Hartford

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — OVERLAY DISTRICT. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator....

  5. New insight into the levels, distribution and health risk diagnosis of indoor and outdoor dust-bound FRs in colder, rural and industrial zones of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Usman; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    This is the first robust study designed to probe selected flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones of Pakistan with special emphasis upon their occurrence, distribution and associated health risk. For this purpose, we analyzed FRs such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the total of 82 dust samples (indoor and outdoor) collected three from each zone: industrial, rural and background. We found higher concentrations of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) in industrial zones as compared to the rural and background zones. Our results reveal that the concentrations of studied FRs are relatively higher in the indoor dust samples being compared with the outdoor dust and they are ranked as: ∑OPFRs > ∑NBFRs > ∑PBDEs > ∑DP. A significant correlation in the FRs levels between the indoor and outdoor dust suggest the potential intermixing of these compounds between them. The principal component analysis/multiple linear regression predicts the percent contribution of FRs from different consumer products in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones to trace their source origin. The FRs detected in the background zones reveal the dust-bound FRs suspended in the air might be shifted from different warmer zones or consumers products available/used in the same zones. Hazard quotient (HQ) for FRs via indoor and outdoor dust intake at mean and high dust scenarios to the exposed populations (adults and toddlers) are found free of risk (HQ < 1) in the target zones. Furthermore, our nascent results will provide a baseline record of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) concentrations in the indoor and outdoor dust of Pakistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GAMMA RAYS FROM THE TYCHO SUPERNOVA REMNANT: MULTI-ZONE VERSUS SINGLE-ZONE MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atoyan, Armen [Department of Mathematics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Dermer, Charles D., E-mail: atoyan@mathstat.concordia.ca, E-mail: charles.dermer@nrl.navy.mil [Code 7653, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Recent Fermi and VERITAS observations of the prototypical Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) Tycho have discovered {gamma}-rays with energies E in the range 0.4 GeV {approx}< E {approx}< 10 TeV. Crucial for the theory of Galactic cosmic-ray origin is whether the {gamma}-rays from SNRs are produced by accelerated hadrons (protons and ions) or by relativistic electrons. Here we show that strong constraints on the leptonic model imposed in the framework of the commonly used single-zone model are essentially removed if the analysis of the broadband radiation spectrum of Tycho is done in the two-zone (or, in general, multi-zone) approach, which is likely to apply to every SNR. Importantly, we show that the single-zone approach may underpredict the {gamma}-ray fluxes by an order of magnitude. A hadronic model can, however, also fit the detected {gamma}-ray spectrum. The difference between {gamma}-ray fluxes of hadronic and leptonic origins becomes significant only at {approx}<300 MeV, which could be revealed by spectral measurements of Tycho and other SNRs at these energies.

  7. Chaotic Zones around Rotating Small Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lages, José; Shevchenko, Ivan I. [Institut UTINAM, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers THETA, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon F-25030 (France); Shepelyansky, Dima L., E-mail: jose.lages@utinam.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique du CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, Toulouse F-31062 (France)

    2017-06-01

    Small bodies of the solar system, like asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, cometary nuclei, and planetary satellites, with diameters smaller than 1000 km usually have irregular shapes, often resembling dumb-bells or contact binaries. The spinning of such a gravitating dumb-bell creates around it a zone of chaotic orbits. We determine its extent analytically and numerically. We find that the chaotic zone swells significantly if the rotation rate is decreased; in particular, the zone swells more than twice if the rotation rate is decreased 10 times with respect to the “centrifugal breakup” threshold. We illustrate the properties of the chaotic orbital zones in examples of the global orbital dynamics about asteroid 243 Ida (which has a moon, Dactyl, orbiting near the edge of the chaotic zone) and asteroid 25143 Itokawa.

  8. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patricia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Mayan, Olga; Silva Santos, Luis; Gaspar, Jorge; Teixeira, Joao Paulo

    2008-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was

  9. Self-reported hearing performance in workers exposed to solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Fuente

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare hearing performance relating to the peripheral and central auditory system between solvent-exposed and non-exposed workers. METHODS: Forty-eight workers exposed to a mixture of solvents and 48 non-exposed control subjects of matched age, gender and educational level were selected to participate in the study. The evaluation procedures included: pure-tone audiometry (500 - 8,000 Hz, to investigate the peripheral auditory system; the Random Gap Detection test, to assess the central auditory system; and the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap, to investigate subjects' self-reported hearing performance in daily-life activities. A Student t test and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA were computed to determine possible significant differences between solvent-exposed and non-exposed subjects for the hearing level, Random Gap Detection test and Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap. Pearson correlations among the three measures were also calculated. RESULTS: Solvent-exposed subjects exhibited significantly poorer hearing thresholds for the right ear than non-exposed subjects. Also, solvent-exposed subjects exhibited poorer results for the Random Gap Detection test and self-reported poorer listening performance than non-exposed subjects. Results of the Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability and Handicap were significantly correlated with the binaural average of subject pure-tone thresholds and Random Gap Detection test performance. CONCLUSIONS: Solvent exposure is associated with poorer hearing performance in daily life activities that relate to the function of the peripheral and central auditory system.

  10. 76 FR 55566 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone... zones for marine events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone for a surfing event... unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on...

  11. Light-zone(s: as Concept and Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Madsen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Daylight is essential to the experience of an architectural space. Nevertheless, amongst the handful of predominantly scientific methods available to assess daylight in architecture, there are only a few considering the spatial and form-giving characteristics of daylight. This paper investigates light-zone(s as concept and tool, which can be taken as a point of departure for a new method to perceive, consider and analyse daylight in architecture. As concept, light-zone(s are areas, fields or zones of light. It is a way of considering a space’s daylight as (forms of bubbles or spheres of light, which as light-zones can be compressed, expanded, combined, exploded, etc., all according to the character of 'the meeting' between the light-zone(s and the space itself (inclusive of the space’scontent. Thus, the daylight in a space can be regarded asa composition of light-zones.As tool, light-zone(s are (spatial groupings of the lightingvariables (intensity, direction, distribution and colour, whichare significant to the space and form-giving characteristicsof light. That is to say, the light-zone(s tool is the point ofdeparture for a method of creating a spatial ‘grasp’ on daylighting variables in a given space. The relation between the light-zone(s concept and tool respectively can be described as follows: On the one level light-zone(s can be explored as an architectural idea or notion, thus belonging more to the field of architectural theory. On another more practice-driven level, light-zone(s can be articulated and specified in relation to lighting technology.

  12. Quantitative Determination of Serum Proteins in Persons Occupationally Exposed to Radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuba, V.; Garaj-Vrhovac, V.

    1998-01-01

    Radio-wave communications are used extensively in the modern society. We are all subject to radio frequency radiation (RFR) created by a radio, television, wireless telephony, emergency communications, and radar. The interest in the health effects of RFR has been motivated the rapid growth in wireless communications. Recently, many investigations are headed to the influence of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation to people. The interpretation of nonionizing radiation effects depends on apsorption characteristics of biological material and on thermoregulative system of exposed persons. This article includes serum protein analysis of 14 people who work in a radar zone. All the examinees are men aged 39 in average. The average exposure period in the radar zone was 16 years (twelve hours each second day). Human serum proteins in all samples were detected by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate membranes (Cellogel 500, Chemeton, Italy) in sodium-Veronal-Veronal-TRIS buffer pH 8.6. The duration of electrophoresis was two hours at 130-140 V at 11 cm bridge. Electroferograms were stained with 0.1 % Ponceau,s (w/v) (Chemetron, Italy) in 5% trichloracetic acid (v/v). Quantitative determination, i.e. densitometry of five serum protein fractions (albumin, α 1 - , α 2 - , β 1 - and γ -globulin) was carried out by photometry at multipolar densitometer. The results show gradual decrease of albumin 58.0 - 44.0 g/l versus control (64.05 g/l), except in three examinees where the values were almost equal to the normal value. One can also observe the changes in γ -globulin levels. All examinees except one showed increase in g -globulin levels (19.0 - 30.0 g/l vs. normal 15.0 g/l). The effect of nonionizing electromagnetic and microwave radiation on those who work in related field certainly needs much more investigation. (author)

  13. Petrology and geochemistry of samples from bed-contact zones in Tunnel Bed 5, U12g-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, J.R.; Keil, K.; Mansker, W.L.; Allen, C.C.; Husler, J.; Lowy, R.; Fortney, D.R.; Lappin, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    This report summarizes the detailed geologic characterization of samples of bed-contact zones and surrounding nonwelded bedded tuffs, both within Tunnel Bed 5, that are exposed in the G-Tunnel complex beneath Rainier Mesa on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Original planning studies treated the bed-contact zones in Tunnel Bed 5 as simple planar surfaces of relatively high permeability. Detailed characterization, however, indicates that these zones have a finite thickness, are depositional in origin, vary considerably over short vertical and horizontal distances, and are internally complex. Fluid flow in a sequence of nonwelded zeolitized ash-flow or bedded tuffs and thin intervening reworked zones appears to be a porous-medium phenomenon, regardless of the presence of layering. There are no consistent differences in either bulk composition or detailed mineralogy between bedded tuffs and bed-contact zones in Tunnel Bed 5. Although the original bulk composition of Tunnel Bed 5 was probably peralkaline, extensive zeolitization has resulted in a present peraluminous bulk composition of both bedded tuffs and bed-contact zones. The major zeolite present, clinoptilolite, is intermediate (Ca:K:Na = 26:35:39) and effectively uniform in composition. This composition is similar to that of clinoptilolite from the tuffaceous beds of Calico Hills above the static water level in hole USW G-1, but somewhat different from that reported for zeolites from below the static water level in USW G-2. Tunnel Bed 5 also contains abundant hydrous manganese oxides. The similarity in composition of the clinoptilolites from Tunnel Bed 5 and those above the static water level at Yucca Mountain indicates that many of the results of nuclide-migration experiments in Tunnel Bed 5 would be transferrable to zeolitized nonwelded tuffs above the static water level at Yucca Mountain

  14. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - Volusia County Enterprise Zones

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Florida's Enterprise Zone Program encourages economic growth and investment in distressed areas by offering tax advantages and incentives to businesses that are...

  15. 78 FR 7265 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6 a.m. on February 1, 2013, through 11:59 p.m...

  16. 78 FR 11981 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0087] Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Security Zone in Commencement Bay, Tacoma, Washington from 6 a.m. on February 23, 2013, through 11:59 p.m...

  17. Automatic detection and classification of damage zone(s) for incorporating in digital image correlation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudipta; Deb, Debasis

    2016-07-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a technique developed for monitoring surface deformation/displacement of an object under loading conditions. This method is further refined to make it capable of handling discontinuities on the surface of the sample. A damage zone is referred to a surface area fractured and opened in due course of loading. In this study, an algorithm is presented to automatically detect multiple damage zones in deformed image. The algorithm identifies the pixels located inside these zones and eliminate them from FEM-DIC processes. The proposed algorithm is successfully implemented on several damaged samples to estimate displacement fields of an object under loading conditions. This study shows that displacement fields represent the damage conditions reasonably well as compared to regular FEM-DIC technique without considering the damage zones.

  18. New geometrical compactness measures for zones design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alfredo Rincón-García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of compact zones has been studied because of its influence in the creation of zones with regular forms, which are easier to analyze, to investigate or to administer. This paper propose a new method to measure compactness,by means of the transformation of the original geographical spaces, into figures formed with square cells, which are used to measure the similarity between the original zone and an ideal zone with straight forms. The proposed method was applied to design electoral zones, which must satisfy constraints of compactness, contiguity and population balance, in a topographical configuration that favors the creation of twisted and diffuse shapes. The results show that the new method favors the creation of zones with straight forms, without an important effect to the population balance, which are considered zones of high quality. Keywords: Redistricting, compactness, simulated annealing, GIS. Mathematics Subject Classification: 90C59, 90C29, 68T20.

  19. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  20. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide—U.S. Geological Survey subduction zone science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.; Bekins, Barbara; Brocher, Thomas M.; Brock, John C.; Brothers, Daniel; Chaytor, Jason D.; Frankel, Arthur; Geist, Eric L.; Haney, Matt; Hickman, Stephen H.; Leith, William S.; Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Schulz, William H.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Wallace, Kristi; Watt, Janet; Wein, Anne M.

    2017-06-19

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information and tools to build resilience in communities exposed to subduction zone earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions. Improving the application of USGS science to successfully reduce risk from these events relies on whole community efforts, with continuing partnerships among scientists and stakeholders, including researchers from universities, other government labs and private industry, land-use planners, engineers, policy-makers, emergency managers and responders, business owners, insurance providers, the media, and the general public.Motivated by recent technological advances and increased awareness of our growing vulnerability to subduction-zone hazards, the USGS is uniquely positioned to take a major step forward in the science it conducts and products it provides, building on its tradition of using long-term monitoring and research to develop effective products for hazard mitigation. This science plan provides a blueprint both for prioritizing USGS science activities and for delineating USGS interests and potential participation in subduction zone science supported by its partners.The activities in this plan address many USGS stakeholder needs:High-fidelity tools and user-tailored information that facilitate increasingly more targeted, neighborhood-scale decisions to mitigate risks more cost-effectively and ensure post-event operability. Such tools may include maps, tables, and simulated earthquake ground-motion records conveying shaking intensity and frequency. These facilitate the prioritization of retrofitting of vulnerable infrastructure;Information to guide local land-use and response planning to minimize development in likely hazardous zones (for example, databases, maps, and scenario documents to guide evacuation route planning in communities near volcanoes, along coastlines vulnerable to tsunamis, and built on landslide-prone terrain);New tools

  1. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc, E-mail: jean-marc.bonzom@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Hättenschwiler, Stephan [Centre d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive (CEFE UMR 5175, CNRS–Université de Montpellier–Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier–EPHE), 1919 Route de Mende, F-34293 Montpellier (France); Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chauvet, Eric [EcoLab, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, INPT, 118 Route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France); Gaschak, Sergey [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-ENV/SERIS, Cadarache, Bât. 183, BP 3, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Maksimenko, Andrey [Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology, International Radioecology Laboratory, 07100 Slavutych (Ukraine); and others

    2016-08-15

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22–15 μGy h{sup −1}) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2–29 μGy h{sup −1}) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150 μGy h{sup −1}. This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. - Highlights: • The effects of radioactivity on

  2. Effects of radionuclide contamination on leaf litter decomposition in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Chauvet, Eric; Gaschak, Sergey; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Dubourg, Nicolas; Maksimenko, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The effects of radioactive contamination on ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition remain largely unknown. Because radionuclides accumulated in soil and plant biomass can be harmful for organisms, the functioning of ecosystems may be altered by radioactive contamination. Here, we tested the hypothesis that decomposition is impaired by increasing levels of radioactivity in the environment by exposing uncontaminated leaf litter from silver birch and black alder at (i) eleven distant forest sites differing in ambient radiation levels (0.22–15 μGy h −1 ) and (ii) along a short distance gradient of radioactive contamination (1.2–29 μGy h −1 ) within a single forest in the Chernobyl exclusion zone. In addition to measuring ambient external dose rates, we estimated the average total dose rates (ATDRs) absorbed by decomposers for an accurate estimate of dose-induced ecological consequences of radioactive pollution. Taking into account potential confounding factors (soil pH, moisture, texture, and organic carbon content), the results from the eleven distant forest sites, and from the single forest, showed increased litter mass loss with increasing ATDRs from 0.3 to 150 μGy h −1 . This unexpected result may be due to (i) overcompensation of decomposer organisms exposed to radionuclides leading to a higher decomposer abundance (hormetic effect), and/or (ii) from preferred feeding by decomposers on the uncontaminated leaf litter used for our experiment compared to locally produced, contaminated leaf litter. Our data indicate that radio-contamination of forest ecosystems over more than two decades does not necessarily have detrimental effects on organic matter decay. However, further studies are needed to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the results reported here, in order to draw firmer conclusions on how radio-contamination affects decomposition and associated ecosystem processes. - Highlights: • The effects of radioactivity on ecosystem processes

  3. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  4. Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.; Komarov, V.I.; Zverkov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

  5. Planktonic Subsidies to Surf-Zone and Intertidal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steven G.; Shanks, Alan L.; MacMahan, Jamie H.; Reniers, Ad J. H. M.; Feddersen, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Plankton are transported onshore, providing subsidies of food and new recruits to surf-zone and intertidal communities. The transport of plankton to the surf zone is influenced by wind, wave, and tidal forcing, and whether they enter the surf zone depends on alongshore variation in surf-zone hydrodynamics caused by the interaction of breaking waves with coastal morphology. Areas with gently sloping shores and wide surf zones typically have orders-of-magnitude-higher concentrations of plankton in the surf zone and dense larval settlement in intertidal communities because of the presence of bathymetric rip currents, which are absent in areas with steep shores and narrow surf zones. These striking differences in subsidies have profound consequences; areas with greater subsidies support more productive surf-zone communities and possibly more productive rocky intertidal communities. Recognition of the importance of spatial subsidies for rocky community dynamics has recently advanced ecological theory, and incorporating surf-zone hydrodynamics would be an especially fruitful line of investigation.

  6. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved

  7. Problems of Chornobyl Exclusion Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashparov, V.A.

    2009-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved.

  8. Numerical calculation procedure for criticality parameters of the two-zone reflected reactor with flat central zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, T.; Strugar, P.

    1966-10-01

    In determining the criticality parameters of a two-zone reactor with flat central zone one encounters a numerical problem requiring the solution of a system of two non-linear equations. To solve them the Newton method, which proved convenient, was used n this work. By comparing our results with those reported one obtains about 5% smaller values of both the radius of the flat zone and of the radial buckling of the outer zone. This discrepancy probably results from some approximations used in solving the same system of equations used in solving the same system of equations where the procedure form was applied, whereas the calculation time is by one order of magnitude smaller

  9. Nuclear weapons free zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The article analyses the concept and problems of the two nuclear weapons free zones in Latin America and in the South Pacific established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco and the Treaty of Rarotonga. So far the nuclear weapons states except China have refused to sign the additional protocols of the Treaties or have signed them only with considerable provisos. Therefore they don't fully recognize the nuclear weapons free status of those zones, or they don't recognize it at all. Both Treaties contain no provisions to regulate the transit of nuclear weapons through the zones. This allows de facto the stationing of nuclear weapons in the military bases of the US which are located within the nuclear weapons free zone of Latin America. The Treaty of Tlatelolco contains also the right of the states, party to the Treaty, to explode nuclear devices for peaceful purposes. Since peaceful and military nuclear explosions cannot be distinguished technically, this right could also undermine the nuclear weapons free status of the region. Important nuclear threshold countries like Argentina and Brazil have furthermore refrained from putting the Treaty into force. (orig.) [de

  10. Instrumentation for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_91.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  11. Management of coastal zone vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    stream_size 14 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_22.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  12. Infrastructure and mechanical properties of a fault zone in sandstone as an outcrop analogue of a potential geothermal reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, J. F.; Meier, S.; Philipp, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Due to high drilling costs of geothermal projects, it is economically sensible to assess the potential suitability of a reservoir prior to drilling. Fault zones are of particular importance, because they may enhance fluid flow, or be flow barriers, respectively, depending on their particular infrastructure. Outcrop analogue studies are useful to analyze the fault zone infrastructure and thereby increase the predictability of fluid flow behavior across fault zones in the corresponding deep reservoir. The main aims of the present study are to 1) analyze the infrastructure and the differences of fracture system parameters in fault zones and 2) determine the mechanical properties of the faulted rocks. We measure fracture frequencies as well as orientations, lengths and apertures and take representative rock samples for each facies to obtain Young's modulus, compressive and tensile strengths in the laboratory. Since fractures reduce the stiffnesses of in situ rock masses we use an inverse correlation of the number of discontinuities to calculate effective (in situ) Young's moduli to investigate the variation of mechanical properties in fault zones. In addition we determine the rebound hardness, which correlates with the compressive strength measured in the laboratory, with a 'Schmidt-Hammer' in the field because this allows detailed maps of mechanical property variations within fault zones. Here we present the first results for a fault zone in the Triassic Lower Bunter of the Upper Rhine Graben in France. The outcrop at Cleebourg exposes the damage zone of the footwall and a clear developed fault core of a NNW-SSE-striking normal fault. The approximately 15 m wide fault core consists of fault gouge, slip zones, deformation bands and host rock lenses. Intensive deformation close to the core led to the formation of a distal fault core, a 5 m wide zone with disturbed layering and high fracture frequency. The damage zone also contains more fractures than the host rock

  13. White Light Photorefractive Phase Zone Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan-Mei, Gao; Si-Min, Liu

    2008-01-01

    Incoherent white light from an incandescent source is employed to fabricate volume phase zone plates in LiNbO 3 : Fe, for the first time to our knowledge, which can guide and modulate the input white light or laser light. The diffractive efficiency of the white light volume phase zone plates fabricated can reach as high as 12%. In addition, we test the volume phase zone plates by a probe beam and find that the volume phase zone plate is present in the direction perpendicular to the c-axis and absent in the direction parallel to the c-axis. This directly proves the existence of photovoltaic photorefractive anisotropy of white light

  14. Contaminations of inner surface of magnesium fluoride windows in the `Expose-R' experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurat, V. E.

    2017-10-01

    A series of experiments was carried out previously on board of the International Space Station in `EXPOSE-R', a multi-user expose facility, provided by European Space Agency attached to the external surface of the Russian Segment. In one experiment, spores of microorganisms and species of higher plant seeds, in heat-sealed polymer bags were irradiated by solar radiation passed through MgF2 windows in a high space vacuum. After sample exposure, it was found that in many cases the inner surfaces of windows were contaminated. Analysis of the contamination revealed the presence of chemical groups CH2, CH3, NH, OH, C═O, Si-CH3 (Demets et al. in 2015). Their presence in deposits was explained by photofixation of gaseous precursors - some of the vapours of glues and additives in polymeric materials in the core facility of `Expose-R'. Carbon-, oxygen- and silicon-containing groups may be deposited from outer intrinsic atmosphere. This atmosphere is connected with sample compartments and core facility. However, the presence of NH groups on inner surfaces of windows was not expected. This paper shows that the process responsible for carbon-, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing group formation can be a photopolymerization of caprolactam, which is released from the outer Nylon 6 layer of polymer bags under Solar vacuum ultraviolet radiation.

  15. Radiopaque zones in the dentin beneath amalgam restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Young Jun; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is determine how frequently radiopaque zones are seen on standard intraoral film and to research some other things about radiopaque bones. This study obtained the following results: 1. According to the standard intraoral films of the charts that were kept at the Dept. of Oral Diagnosis in Seoul National University Hospital, radiopaque zones were found in the rate of 4.1% among 1150 cases of amalgam-restored teeth that were treated at least two years ago. 2. Out of teeth that possessed radiopaque zones, 38.3% had radiolucent area between amalgam restoration and radiopaque zone. 3. Out of teeth that possessed radiopaque zones, 36.2% had cement base between amalgam restoration and radiopaque zone. 4. Out of teeth that possessed radiopaque zones, no tooth had periapical radiolucency. 5. Radiopaque zones were found more frequently in the mandibular teeth than the maxillary teeth. 6. According to the result of direct x-ray taking of 50 teeth that were treated at least 2 years ago, 6% had radiopaque zone.

  16. Seismotectonic zoning of Azerbaijan territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangarli, Talat; Aliyev, Ali; Aliyev, Fuad; Rahimov, Fuad

    2017-04-01

    Studying of the space-time correlation and consequences effect between tectonic events and other geological processes that have created modern earth structure still remains as one of the most important problems in geology. This problem is especially important for the East Caucasus-South Caspian geodynamic zone. Being situated at the eastern part of the Caucasian strait, this zone refers to a center of Alpine-Himalayan active folded belt, and is known as a complex tectonic unit with jointing heterogeneous structural-substantial complexes arising from different branches of the belt (Doburja-Caucasus-Kopetdag from the north and Pyrenean-Alborz from the south with Kura and South Caspian zone). According to GPS and precise leveling data, activity of regional geodynamic processes shows intensive horizontal and vertical movements of the Earth's crust as conditioned by collision of the Arabian and Eurasian continental plates continuing since the end of Miocene. So far studies related to the regional of geology-geophysical data, periodically used for the geological and tectonic modeling of the environment mainly based on the fixing ideology. There still remains a number of uncertainties in solution of issues related to regional geology, tectonics and magmatism, structure and interrelation of different structural zones, space-time interrelations between onshore and offshore complexes, etc. At the same time large dataset produced by surface geological surveys, deep geological mapping of on- and offshore areas with the use of seismic and electrical reconnaissance and geophysical field zoning methods, deep well drilling and remote sensing activities. Conducted new studies produced results including differentiation of formerly unknown nappe complexes of the different ages and scales within the structure of mountain-fold zones, identification of new zones containing ophiolites in their section, outlining of currently active faulting areas, geophysical interpretation of the deep

  17. Application of the zone-melting technique to metal chelate systems-VI A new apparatus for zone-melting chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, S; Kobayashi, H; Ueno, K

    1973-07-01

    An improved apparatus has been constructed for zone-melting chromatography. An essential feature of the apparatus is that the length of the molten zone can be kept constant during a zone-melting operation, by employing heating and cooling compartments which are separated from each other by double partition plates. Each compartment is heated or cooled with jets of hot or cold air. The apparatus is suitable for organic materials melting in the range between 40 degrees and 180 degrees . The distribution of metal ion along the column after zone melting of copper acetylacetonate in 2-methoxynaphthalene was a smooth curve. The plot of the position of maximum concentration, x(max), against the number of zone passes, n, gave a relationship in accordance with theoretical prediction.

  18. 9 CFR 78.23 - Brucellosis exposed bison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed bison. 78.23... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.23 Brucellosis exposed bison...

  19. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a...

  20. Differences in quantitative assessment of myocardial scar and gray zone by LGE-CMR imaging using established gray zone protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesubi, Olurotimi; Ego-Osuala, Kelechi; Jeudy, Jean; Purtilo, James; Synowski, Stephen; Abutaleb, Ameer; Niekoop, Michelle; Abdulghani, Mohammed; Asoglu, Ramazan; See, Vincent; Saliaris, Anastasios; Shorofsky, Stephen; Dickfeld, Timm

    2015-02-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging is the gold standard for myocardial scar evaluation. Heterogeneous areas of scar ('gray zone'), may serve as arrhythmogenic substrate. Various gray zone protocols have been correlated to clinical outcomes and ventricular tachycardia channels. This study assessed the quantitative differences in gray zone and scar core sizes as defined by previously validated signal intensity (SI) threshold algorithms. High quality LGE-CMR images performed in 41 cardiomyopathy patients [ischemic (33) or non-ischemic (8)] were analyzed using previously validated SI threshold methods [Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), n-standard deviation (NSD) and modified-FWHM]. Myocardial scar was defined as scar core and gray zone using SI thresholds based on these methods. Scar core, gray zone and total scar sizes were then computed and compared among these models. The median gray zone mass was 2-3 times larger with FWHM (15 g, IQR: 8-26 g) compared to NSD or modified-FWHM (5 g, IQR: 3-9 g; and 8 g. IQR: 6-12 g respectively, p zone extent (percentage of total scar that was gray zone) also varied significantly among the three methods, 51 % (IQR: 42-61 %), 17 % (IQR: 11-21 %) versus 38 % (IQR: 33-43 %) for FWHM, NSD and modified-FWHM respectively (p zone and scar core. Infarct core and total myocardial scar mass also differ using these methods. Further evaluation of the most accurate quantification method is needed.

  1. Fracture zones constrained by neutral surfaces in a fault-related fold: Insights from the Kelasu tectonic zone, Kuqa Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuai; Hou, Guiting; Zheng, Chunfang

    2017-11-01

    Stress variation associated with folding is one of the controlling factors in the development of tectonic fractures, however, little attention has been paid to the influence of neutral surfaces during folding on fracture distribution in a fault-related fold. In this study, we take the Cretaceous Bashijiqike Formation in the Kuqa Depression as an example and analyze the distribution of tectonic fractures in fault-related folds by core observation and logging data analysis. Three fracture zones are identified in a fault-related fold: a tensile zone, a transition zone and a compressive zone, which may be constrained by two neutral surfaces of fold. Well correlation reveals that the tensile zone and the transition zone reach the maximum thickness at the fold hinge and get thinner in the fold limbs. A 2D viscoelastic stress field model of a fault-related fold was constructed to further investigate the mechanism of fracturing. Statistical and numerical analysis reveal that the tensile zone and the transition zone become thicker with decreasing interlimb angle. Stress variation associated with folding is the first level of control over the general pattern of fracture distribution while faulting is a secondary control over the development of local fractures in a fault-related fold.

  2. 76 FR 7107 - Quarterly Listings; Safety Zones, Security Zones, Special Local Regulations, Drawbridge Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... defined boundary for which regulations for vessels navigating within the area have been established by the...)...... 9/19/2008 USCG-2008-0814 San Diego, CA Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 9/6/2008 USCG-2008-0827 Ocean... (Part 165). USCG-2009-0402 Ocean City, NJ Safety Zones (Part 165)...... 10/10/2009 USCG-2009-0403...

  3. Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness ( ADA ) flights of opportunity in the summers of 2012- 2014. In...measurements across the Beaufort-Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness ( ADA ) flights of...such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where sea ice interacts with open water. In addition to SIZRS

  4. Environmental Zoning: Some methodological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ike, Paul; Voogd, Henk

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss some methodological problems of environmental zoning. The principle of environmental zoning will be elaborated. In addition an overview is given of a number of approaches that have been followed in practice to arrive at an integral judgement. Finally some

  5. Growth with Time Zone Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Kikuchi; Sugata Marjit

    2010-01-01

    We propose a two-country growth model of intermediate business-services trade that captures the role of time zone differences. It is shown that a time-saving improvement in intermediate business-services trade involving production in different time zones can have a permanent impact on productivity.

  6. The segmentation of zones with increased autofluorescence in the junctional zone of parapapillary atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolář, R; Jan, J; Laemmer, R; Mardin, Ch Y

    2009-01-01

    The autofluorescence (AF) derived from the retinal pigment epithelium has the potential to be used as a feature for early glaucoma diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to design and evaluate the method used for semi-automatic segmentation of the zones with increased autofluorescence. A randomized sample of 20 patients (age: 56 ± 10 years) with open angle glaucoma was used. A new method for semi-automatic detection and segmentation of the zones with a higher level of autofluorescence in the junctional zone of parapapillary atrophy has been evaluated. Good agreement has been observed between manually and semi-automatically segmented zones for most of the images, but higher differences may occur for larger hyperfluorescent regions. The data were evaluated using the limits of agreement, with a 2σ border. The described method allows fast and objective evaluation of AF images, preventing undesirable inter-expert variance. A large proportion of AF images could be evaluated successfully by the developed procedure, and the obtained results are comparable to the manual procedure in most cases

  7. UDS in lymphocytes of occupationally radiation exposed persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.

    1982-01-01

    To determine a possible effect of low dose radiation on DNA repair processes, peripheral lymphocytes of mine workers exposed to 222 Rn in the thermal gallery of Badgastein (Austria) and employees of the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf, exposed to varying doses of gamma radiation, were investigated. The capacity for unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by in vitro UV irradiation was measured by autoradiography of isolated lymphocytes of exposed persons and unexposed controls. In all 222 Rn-exposed mine workers a significant increase of UDS above control values could be observed. Gamma irradiation 31 mrad had a significant effect on UDS, indicating a stimulation of DNA repair capability by chronic low dose exposure. (Author)

  8. Double seismic zone for deep earthquakes in the izu-bonin subduction zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, T; Furukawa, Y

    1994-02-25

    A double seismic zone for deep earthquakes was found in the Izu-Bonin region. An analysis of SP-converted phases confirms that the deep seismic zone consists of two layers separated by approximately 20 kilometers. Numerical modeling of the thermal structure implies that the hypocenters are located along isotherms of 500 degrees to 550 degrees C, which is consistent with the hypothesis that deep earthquakes result from the phase transition of metastable olivine to a high-pressure phase in the subducting slab.

  9. Purification by using the zone melting technique; Purification par la technique de la zone fondue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, Michel

    1962-06-22

    The zone melting technique has first been used in metallurgy, and has been developed for the preparation of silicon and germanium for semiconductors, and then for the preparation of organic bodies of high purity. In this research thesis, the author first presents the principle of this technique, and then discusses the influence of agitation in liquid phase, and the influence of the number of passages over the zone. He discusses issues related to matter transport, and some technical details which intervene in the design of an apparatus for purification by zone melting. He finally presents examples.

  10. Optical Benson: Following the Impact of Melt Season Progression Using Landsat and Sentinel 2 - Snow Zone Formation Imaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, M. A.; Shuman, C. A.; Alley, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Snow pit observations on a glaciologically-focussed surface traverse in Greenland allowed Benson [1962, SIPRE (now CRREL) Research Report 70] to define a series of snow zones based on the extent of post-depositional diagenesis of the snowpack. At high elevations, Benson found fine-grained "dry snow" where melt (at that time) was absent year-round, followed down-elevation by a "percolation zone" where surface melt penetrated the snowpack, then a "wet snow zone" where firn became saturated during the peak of the melt season, and finally "superimposed ice" and "bare ice" zones where refrozen surface melt and glacier ice were exposed in the melt season. These snow zones can be discriminated in winter synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the ice sheet (e.g. Fahnestock et al. 2001), but summer melt reduces radar backscatter and makes it difficult to follow the progression of diagenesis beyond the initial indications of surface melting. While some of the impacts of surface melt (especially bands of blue water-saturated firn) are observed from time to time in optical satellite imagery, it has only become possible to map effects of melt over the course of a summer season with the advent of large-data analysis tools such as Google Earth Engine and the inclusion of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data streams in these tools. A map of the maximum extent of this blue saturated zone through the 2016 melt season is shown in the figure. This image is a true color (RGB) composite, but each pixel in the image shows the color of the surface when the "blueness" of the pixel was at a maximum. This means each pixel can be from a different satellite image acquisition than adjacent pixels - but it also means that the maximum extent of the saturated firn (Benson's wet snow zone) is visible. Also visible are percolation, superimposed and bare ice zones. This analysis, using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager data, was performed using Google Earth Engine to access and analyze the entire melt

  11. ZONING DESIGN FOR HAND­WRITTEN NUMERAL RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecce Di, V.; Dimauro, G.; Guerriero, A.; Impedovo, S.; Pirlo, G.; Salzo, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the field of Optical Character Recognition (OCR), zoning is used to extract topological information from patterns. In this paper zoning is considered as the result of an optimisation problem and a new technique is presented for automatic zoning. More precisely, local analysis of feature

  12. Development of paper-based microfluidic analytical device for iron assay using photomask printed with 3D printer for fabrication of hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones on paper by photolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hitoshi; Shiraishi, Yukihide

    2015-07-09

    This paper describes a paper-based microfluidic analytical device for iron assay using a photomask printed with a 3D printer for fabrication of hydrophilic and hydrophobic zones on the paper by photolithography. Several designed photomasks for patterning paper-based microfluidic analytical devices can be printed with a 3D printer easily, rapidly and inexpensively. A chromatography paper was impregnated with the octadecyltrichlorosilane n-hexane solution and hydrophobized. After the hydrophobic zone of the paper was exposed to the UV light through the photomask, the hydrophilic zone was generated. The smallest functional hydrophilic channel and hydrophobic barrier were ca. 500 μm and ca. 100 μm in width, respectively. The fabrication method has high stability, resolution and precision for hydrophilic channel and hydrophobic barrier. This test paper was applied to the analysis of iron in water samples using a colorimetry with phenanthroline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Radially converging tracer test in a low-angle fracture zone at the Finnsjoen site, central Sweden. The fracture zone project - phase 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, E.; Nordqvist, R.

    1993-10-01

    The performance and results of a radially converging tracer test in a low-angle major fracture zone in crystalline rock are described. The extensive, about 100 m thick, zone 2 was encountered by means of borehole investigations at depths ranging from 100 to 250 metres at the Finnsjon site, central eastern Sweden. The zone studied (zone 2) consists of highly conductive, metre thick interconnected minor shear and fracture zones (sub-zones) with low conductive rock in between. The objective of the tracer test was primarily to determine flow and transport characteristics in a major fracture zone. Secondly new equipment, experimental design and methods of interpretation were developed, tested and improved. The converging flow field was created by pumping in a central borehole from a packed-off interval enclosing the whole thickness of zone 2. Tracer breakthrough was registered from all nine injection points, with first arrivals ranging from 24 to 3200 hours. Evaluated flow and transport parameters included; flow porosity, dispersivity, flow wetted surface, fracture aperture and hydraulic conductivity in fracture flow paths. Directional variations were found in the flow and transport parameters determined, which is concluded to be due to heterogeneity and/or anisotropy. This conditions is more pronounced at depth in zone 2. The results from the tracer test also clearly show that the upper boundary of zone 2 is highly conductive and consistent over hundreds of metres. Within zone 2, and between upper and lower margins, interconnected discrete minor shear and fracture zones (sub-zones) constitute flow paths of considerable variable residence times. The dispersion within the sub-zones of zone 2, expressed as Peclet numbers ranged from 16 to 40. Flow porosity was determined to be 0.001-0.05 in the upper sub-zone and 0.01-0.1 in the intermediate and lower ones and flow wetted surface area per volume of rock was calculated to be within 1-92 m 2 /m 3 . 68 refs, 61 figs, 40 tabs

  14. Large-scale hydraulic structure of a seismogenic fault at 10 km depth (Gole Larghe Fault Zone, Italian Southern Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Di Toro, Giulio; Smith, Steve; Mittempergher, Silvia; Garofalo, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The definition of hydraulic properties of fault zones is a major issue in structural geology, seismology, and in several applications (hydrocarbons, hydrogeology, CO2 sequestration, etc.). The permeability of fault rocks can be measured in laboratory experiments, but its upscaling to large-scale structures is not straightforward. For instance, typical permeability of fine-grained fault rock samples is in the 10-18-10-20 m2 range, but, according to seismological estimates, the large-scale permeability of active fault zones can be as high as 10-10 m2. Solving this issue is difficult because in-situ measurements of large-scale permeability have been carried out just at relatively shallow depths - mainly in oil wells and exceptionally in active tectonic settings (e.g. SAFOD at 3 km), whilst deeper experiments have been performed only in the stable continental crust (e.g. KTB at 9 km). In this study, we apply discrete fracture-network (DFN) modelling techniques developed for shallow aquifers (mainly in nuclear waste storage projects like Yucca Mountain) and in the oil industry, in order to model the hydraulic structure of the Gole Larghe Fault Zone (GLFZ, Italian Southern Alps). This fault, now exposed in world-class glacier-polished outcrops, has been exhumed from ca. 8 km, where it was characterized by a well-documented seismic activity, but also by hydrous fluid flow evidenced by alteration halos and precipitation of hydrothermal minerals in veins and along cataclasites. The GLFZ does not show a classical seal structure that in other fault zones corresponds to a core zone characterized by fine-grained fault rocks. However, permeability is heterogeneous and the permeability tensor is strongly anisotropic due to fracture preferential orientation. We will show with numerical experiments that this hydraulic structure results in a channelized fluid flow (which is consistent with the observed hydrothermal alteration pattern). This results in a counterintuitive situation

  15. To be a worker (exposed?) or not to be a worker (exposed?) that is the question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammerich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The notion of personnel is detailed in this article in order to know exactly what personnel is considered as exposed and what radiation doses are under this term. The regulatory texts are studied in different articles of the French law and show that different kind of exposed personnel are considered. The definitions are varying with the notion of risk, of radiation doses and the work itself. This article asks for a better and more precise definition that will help the actors of radiation protection. (N.C.)

  16. Conodont dating of some Telychian (Silurian sections in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Männik, Peep

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Several Telychian–Sheinwoodian strata exposed in Estonia are precisely dated using conodont biostratigraphy. The beds in the Valgu-1 section correspond to the uppermost Distomodus staurognathoides and Pterospathodus eopennatus ssp. n. 1 zones. In the Valgu-2 and Valgu-3 sections only the P. eopennatus ssp. n. 1 Zone is exposed. The strata in the Velise-Kõrgekalda section correspond to the Lower subzone of the P. amorphognathoides angulatus Zone. Marlstones in the Jädivere section are assigned to the P. a. lennarti Zone. In the Avaste section part of the P. a. lithuanicus Zone is exposed. On the Saastna Peninsula two stratigraphical intervals, the lower corresponding to the Upper subzone of the P. a. amorphognathoides Zone and the upper to the Upper Kockelella ranuliformis Zone, crop out along the shoreline. In Saastna the exposed strata are separated by a covered interval corresponding to five conodont zones, from the Lower Pseudooneotodus bicornis Zone to the Lower K. ranuliformis Zone.

  17. Drivers׳ merging behavior data in highway work zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Shakouri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been growing research interests in finding a suitable work zone layout to improve work zone safety and traffic efficiency. This paper contains data supporting the research article entitled: Effects of work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload (Shakouri et al., 2014 [1]. A full factorial experiment was conducted to compare the efficiency of two work zone configurations by using a driving simulator with two levels of work zone configuration, two levels of traffic density and three levels of sign placement as fixed factors. Seven female and 23 male participants completed the experiment. In this paper we present the data relating to demographic information of participants, driving simulator data and subjective workload evaluation of participants for each work zone. Keywords: Work zone, Merging behavior, Subjective workload, Safety

  18. Export Processing Zones and Global Class Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neveling, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with one of the most striking developments in the global political economy of capitalism after the Second World War; the rise of export processing zones and special economic zones. Building on long-term ethnohistorical research on the zones’ global spread from one zone in

  19. Finite Strain Analysis of the Wadi Fatima Shear Zone in Western Arabia, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, O. M. K.; Hamimi, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Neoproterozoic rocks, Oligocene to Neogene sediments and Tertiary Red Sea rift-related volcanics (Harrat) are three dominant major groups exposed in the Jeddah tectonic terrane in Western Arabia. The basement complex comprises amphibolites, schists, and older and younger granites unconformably overlain by a post-amalgamation volcanosedimentary sequence (Fatima Group) exhibiting post-accretionary thrusting and thrust-related structures. The older granites and/or the amphibolites and schists display mylonitization and shearing in some outcrops, and the observed kinematic indicators indicate dextral monoclinic symmetry along the impressive Wadi Fatima Shear Zone. Finite strain analysis of the mylonitized lithologies is used to interpret the deformation history of the Wadi Fatima Shear Zone. The measured finite strain data demonstrate that the amphibolites, schists, and older granites are mildly to moderately deformed, where XZ (axial ratios in XZ direction) vary from 2.76 to 4.22 and from 2.04 to 3.90 for the Rf/φ and Fry method respectively. The shortening axes ( Z) have subvertical attitude and are associated with subhorizontal foliation. The data show oblate strain ellipsoids in the different rocks in the studied area and indication bulk flattening strain. We assume that the different rock types have similar deformation behavior. In the deformed granite, the strain data are identical in magnitude with those obtained in the Fatima Group volcanosedimentary sequence. Finite strain accumulated without any significant volume change contemporaneously with syn-accretionary transpressive structures. It is concluded that a simple-shear deformation with constant-volume plane strain exists, where displacement is strictly parallel to the shear plane. Furthermore, the contacts between various lithological units in the Wadi Fatima Shear Zone were formed under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions.

  20. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  1. A geophysical cross-section of the Hockai Fault Zone (Eastern Belgium): imaging an intraplate weak crustal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, T.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Hockai Fault Zone (HFZ) is a NNW-SSE trending structure visible in the regional geomorphology in the Ardennes, Eastern-Belgium. It is situated, between the Pays de Herve (Graben de la Minerie) to the North and the Amblève river, to the South. It crosses the Stavelot Massif, almost perpendicular to the Crête de la Vecquée (Vecquée crest), i.e. the highest crest of the Venn. Faults have been identified or suspected on a contour map of the base of the Tertiary cover (Eocene or Oligocene) in the north western and central Rhenish Massif. These faults are necessary to account for the altitude difference of the base of the cover. The deflection or capture of local rivers show a remarkable alignments on more than 42 km N-S. The alignments are mostly trending SSE-NNW, between N140 and N170, with some potential segments with slightly different orientations. This general orientation has been also evidenced from the analyses of Landsat-1 imagery products. At its crossing with the Vecquée Crest, Demoulin locates the HFZ where the Hoëgne river turns sharply towards the north and crosscuts the quarzitic crest. Demoulin identifies three subparallel faults or fault zones on the Hautes-Fagnes plateau, from East to West: the Eupen faulting zone, the Baelen faulting zone and Hockai faulted zone. In this communication, we report on a large-scale geophysical survey that was conducted in order to search of the Hockai fault zone expression at the surface. The locations to search for the Hockai Fault Zone are based on the surface projection of the 1989/1990 seismic swarm that occurred under the Stavelot Massif, geomorphological evidences and past geophysical surveys in the region. Our objective is not to prove a Quaternary movement of faults, but rather to find reliable evidences of their presence and to analyse their lateral extension. In total, 31 ERT profiles were executed almost parallel to the Vecquée Crest, i.e. a total of 10679 meters of profiles. Four zones are imaged

  2. Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Doughty, C.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Moridis, G.J.; Pan,L.; Xu, T.; Zhang, Y.; Pruess, K.

    2007-02-01

    The vadose zone can be characterized as a complex subsurfacesystem in which intricate physical and biogeochemical processes occur inresponse to a variety of natural forcings and human activities. Thismakes it difficult to describe, understand, and predict the behavior ofthis specific subsurface system. The TOUGH nonisothermal multiphase flowsimulators are well-suited to perform advanced vadose zone studies. Theconceptual models underlying the TOUGH simulators are capable ofrepresenting features specific to the vadose zone, and of addressing avariety of coupled phenomena. Moreover, the simulators are integratedinto software tools that enable advanced data analysis, optimization, andsystem-level modeling. We discuss fundamental and computationalchallenges in simulating vadose zone processes, review recent advances inmodeling such systems, and demonstrate some capabilities of the TOUGHsuite of codes using illustrative examples.

  3. Metasomatic zoning at some stratiform rare metal deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altyntsev, Yu.V.; Bazhenov, M.I.; Bepeshov, G.V.; Komarnitskij, G.M.; Petrov, I.Ya.; Serykh, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Metasomatic zoning of stratiform deposits of rare metals (Mo, Pb, As, V, Se, U, etc.) in intermontane depresions, deposited at the postorogenic stage of Paleozoic geosyncline region development, is considered. Geochemical and geophysical characteristics of metasomatic zoning in the case of sloping and steep rock deposition are given. It is established, that in rare metal deposits in variegated deposits of molassoid formation of Middle-Upper Paleozoic the external and internal zones of metasomatic alterations are distinctly separated. The external zone is presented by mineral association: quartz + -albile + -calcite + -epidote; the internal one - by hydromica + -chlorite + -analcite, laumontite + -hematite + -ankerite + -kaolinite. Geochemical zoning is manifested quite regularly at all the deposits and it is subjected to metasomatic zoning. Changes in physical properties of rocks reflect the metasomatic zoning. The character of metasomatic alterations of rocks, geochemical zoning of metasomatites at rare metal deposits in molassoid deposits and spatially contiguous deposits in volcanogenic complexes have common features. A supposition is made on polygenic ore formation in sedimentary rocks of the depressions

  4. Recent findings relating to firefighter safety zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler; Russ Parsons; William Mell

    2015-01-01

    Designation of safety zones is a primary duty of all wildland firefighters. Unfortunately, information regarding what constitutes an adequate safety zone is inadequately defined. Measurements of energy release from wildland fires have been used to develop an empirically based safety zone guideline. The basis for this work is described here.

  5. 78 FR 15883 - Standard Time Zone Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ...] RIN 2105-AE20 Standard Time Zone Boundaries AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... time zone boundaries regulations to reflect changes that Congress made to the Uniform Time Act. The... regulations on standard time zone boundaries, 49 CFR Part 71, need to be updated in order to ensure their...

  6. 32 CFR 643.33 - Policy-Coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Coastal zone management. 643.33 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.33 Policy—Coastal zone management. (a) The Coastal Zone Management Act of... affecting the coastal zone of a state, to conduct or support those activities in a manner which is, to the...

  7. Corrosion Characteristics of Welding Zones Welded with 1.25Cr-0.5 Mo Filler Metal to Forged Steel for Piston Crown Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Yul; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man; Baek, Tae-Sil

    2015-01-01

    A heavy oil of low quality has been mainly used in the diesel engine of the merchant ship as the oil price has been significantly jumped for several years. Thus, a combustion chamber of the engine has been often exposed to severely corrosive environment more and more because temperature of the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber has been getting higher and higher with increasing of using the heavy oil of low quality. As a result, wear and corrosion of the engine parts such as exhaust valve, piston crown and cylinder head surrounded with combustion chamber are more serious compared to the other parts of the engine. Therefore, an optimum repair welding for these engine parts is very important to prolong their lifetime in a economical point of view. In this study, 1.25Cr-0.5Mo filler metal was welded with SMAW method in the forged steel which would be generally used with piston crown material. And the corrosion properties of weld metal, heat affected and base metal zones were investigated using electrochemical methods such as measurement of corrosion potential, anodic polarization curves, cyclic voltammogram and impedance etc. in 35% H 2 SO 4 solution. The weld metal and base metal zones exhibited the highest and lowest values of hardness respectively. And, the corrosion resistance of the heat affected and weld metal zones was also increased than that of the base metal zone. Furthermore, it appeared that the corrosive products with red color and local corrosion like as a pitting corrosion were more frequently observed on the surface of the base metal zone compared to the heat affected and weld metal zones. Consequently, it is suggested that the mechanical and corrosion characteristics of the piston crown can be predominantly improved by repair welding method using the 1.25Cr-0.5Mo electrode

  8. Corrosion Characteristics of Welding Zones Welded with 1.25Cr-0.5 Mo Filler Metal to Forged Steel for Piston Crown Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sung-Yul; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man [Korea Maritime University, Dong Sam-Dong,Yong Do-ku, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Tae-Sil [Pohang College, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    A heavy oil of low quality has been mainly used in the diesel engine of the merchant ship as the oil price has been significantly jumped for several years. Thus, a combustion chamber of the engine has been often exposed to severely corrosive environment more and more because temperature of the exhaust gas of the combustion chamber has been getting higher and higher with increasing of using the heavy oil of low quality. As a result, wear and corrosion of the engine parts such as exhaust valve, piston crown and cylinder head surrounded with combustion chamber are more serious compared to the other parts of the engine. Therefore, an optimum repair welding for these engine parts is very important to prolong their lifetime in a economical point of view. In this study, 1.25Cr-0.5Mo filler metal was welded with SMAW method in the forged steel which would be generally used with piston crown material. And the corrosion properties of weld metal, heat affected and base metal zones were investigated using electrochemical methods such as measurement of corrosion potential, anodic polarization curves, cyclic voltammogram and impedance etc. in 35% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution. The weld metal and base metal zones exhibited the highest and lowest values of hardness respectively. And, the corrosion resistance of the heat affected and weld metal zones was also increased than that of the base metal zone. Furthermore, it appeared that the corrosive products with red color and local corrosion like as a pitting corrosion were more frequently observed on the surface of the base metal zone compared to the heat affected and weld metal zones. Consequently, it is suggested that the mechanical and corrosion characteristics of the piston crown can be predominantly improved by repair welding method using the 1.25Cr-0.5Mo electrode.

  9. Zoning Districts, The zoning districts dataset includes the towns in Manitowoc County, WI that have adopted the county's zoning ordinance., Published in 2013, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Manitowoc County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Zoning Districts dataset current as of 2013. The zoning districts dataset includes the towns in Manitowoc County, WI that have adopted the county's zoning ordinance..

  10. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  11. Rift Valley fever in a zone potentially occupied by Aedes vexans in Senegal: dynamics and risk mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Vignolles

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the interaction between the various variables associated with Rift Valley fever (RVF such as the mosquito vector, available hosts and rainfall distribution. To that end, the varying zones potentially occupied by mosquitoes (ZPOM, rainfall events and pond dynamics, and the associated exposure of hosts to the RVF virus by Aedes vexans, were analyzed in the Barkedji area of the Ferlo, Senegal, during the 2003 rainy season. Ponds were identified by remote sensing using a high-resolution SPOT-5 satellite image. Additional data on ponds and rainfall events from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission were combined with in-situ entomological and limnimetric measurements, and the localization of vulnerable ruminant hosts (data derived from QuickBird satellite. Since “Ae. vexans productive events” are dependent on the timing of rainfall for their embryogenesis (six days without rain are necessary to trigger hatching, the dynamic spatio-temporal distribution of Ae. vexans density was based on the total rainfall amount and pond dynamics. Detailed ZPOM mapping was obtained on a daily basis and combined with aggressiveness temporal profiles. Risks zones, i.e. zones where hazards and vulnerability are combined, are expressed by the percentages of parks where animals are potentially exposed to mosquito bites. This new approach, simply relying upon rainfall distribution evaluated from space, is meant to contribute to the implementation of a new, operational early warning system for RVF based on environmental risks linked to climatic and environmental conditions.

  12. THE LANDSCAPE STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF NATINAL PARK OF SUPERAGÜI, PARANÁ STATE AND THE BUFFER’S ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayssa Mascarenhas Grise

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050985076The National Park of Superagüi is located on the north coast of Paraná state. It is the largest continuous area of the Atlantic Forest remaining in the country and this biome is among the most threatened ones in the world. This area covers the north coast of the state and includes several conservation units of different categories, and the Environmental Protection Area of Guaraqueçaba, is the largest one. The objective of this study was to analyze the landscape structure (matrix and patches of the National Park of Superagüi, and its buffer zone. The classification of land cover and the definition of the attributes of the area and perimeter were made using a digital image Landsat 5 TM. According to the landscape structure analysis, it was observed that the Park matrix is formed by native vegetation interrupted by the presence of patches. Approximately 7% of the studied area is composed by fragments, which belong to class of changed vegetation, exposed soil, urban areas, sand and water; mostly have less than one hectare and have a regular shape. The Park buffer zone is not fully incorporated within the limits of Environmental Protection Area of Guaraqueçaba, where marine areas form a great portion. It follows that landscape structure analysis, through its structural components matrix and patches, is an efficient subsidy to verify the park land cover functionality and its buffer zone.

  13. 77 FR 38484 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... zone will be enforced from 10:00 p.m. to 11:00 p.m. on July 5, 2012. (8) Grosse Isle Yacht Club.... (16) Grosse Pointe Yacht Club 4th of July Fireworks, Grosse Pointe Shores, MI. The safety zone listed...

  14. Fabrication techniques of X-ray spiral zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Nan; Zhu Xiaoli; Li Hailiang; Xie Changqing

    2010-01-01

    The techniques to make X-ray spiral zone plates using electron beam and X-ray lithography were studied. A master mask was fabricated on polyimide membrane by E-beam lithography and micro-electroplating. Spiral zone plates were efficiently replicated by X-ray lithography and micro-electroplating. By combining the techniques, spiral zone plates at 1 keV were successfully fabricate. With an outermost zone width of the 200 nm, and the gold absorbers thickness of 700 nm, the high quality zone plates can be used for X-ray phase contrast microscopy.(authors)

  15. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  16. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  17. Zone Denmark - gasell Taanist / Reet Krause

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krause, Reet, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Taanis Viborgis asuva firma Zone Company Denmark, kaubamärgi Zone Denmark ja firma disainerite tutvustus. Ettevõte valmistab disainitooteid roostevabast terasest, klaasist, puidust, kummist jm. Disainer Naja Utzon Popov endast, oma loomingust

  18. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  19. Exposure of zebra mussels to extracorporeal shock waves demonstrates formation of new mineralized tissue inside and outside the focus zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternecker, Katharina; Geist, Juergen; Beggel, Sebastian; Dietz-Laursonn, Kristin; de la Fuente, Matias; Frank, Hans-Georg; Furia, John P; Milz, Stefan; Schmitz, Christoph

    2018-04-03

    The success rate of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for fracture nonunions in human medicine (i.e., radiographic union at six months after ESWT) is only approximately 75%. Detailed knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms that induce bio-calcification after ESWT is limited. We analyzed the biological response within mineralized tissue of a new invertebrate model organism, the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha , after exposure with extracorporeal shock waves (ESWs). Mussels were exposed to ESWs with positive energy density of 0.4 mJ/mm 2 (A) or were sham exposed (B). Detection of newly calcified tissue was performed by exposing the mussels to fluorescent markers. Two weeks later, the A-mussels showed a higher mean fluorescence signal intensity within the shell zone than the B-mussels (pmussels was independent of the size and position of the focal point of the ESWs. These data demonstrate that induction of bio-calcification after ESWT may not be restricted to the region of direct energy transfer of ESWs into calcified tissue. The results of the present study are of relevance for better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that induce formation of new mineralized tissue after ESWT. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  1. Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology

  2. Standardized precipitation index zones for Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, L.; Soto, M. [Instituto de Ecologia, A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Rutherford, B.M.; Maarouf, A. [Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation zone systems exists for Mexico based on seasonality, quantity of precipitation, climates and geographical divisions, but none are convenient for the study of the relation of precipitation with phenomena such as El nino. An empirical set of seven exclusively Mexican and six shared zones was derived from three series of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) images, from 1940 through 1989: a whole year series (SPI-12) of 582 monthly images, a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for winter months (November through April), and a six month series (SPI-6) of 50 images for summer months (May through October). By examination of principal component and unsupervised classification images, it was found that all three series had similar zones. A set of basic training fields chosen from the principal component images was used to classify all three series. The resulting thirteen zones, presented in this article, were found to be approximately similar, varying principally at zones edges. A set of simple zones defined by just a few vertices can be used for practical operations. In general the SPI zones are homogeneous, with almost no mixture of zones and few outliers of one zone in the area of others. They are compared with a previously published map of climatic regions. Potential applications for SPI zones are discussed. [Spanish] Existen varios sistemas de zonificacion de Mexico basados en la estacionalidad, cantidad de precipitacion, climas y divisiones geograficas, pero ninguno es conveniente para el estudio de la relacion de la precipitacion con fenomenos tales como El Nino. En este trabajo se presenta un conjunto de siete zonas empiricas exclusivamente mexicanas y seis compartidas, derivadas de tres series de imagenes de SPI (Indice Estandarizado de la Precipitacion), desde 1940 a 1989: una serie de 582 imagenes mensuales (SPI-12), una series de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de invierno (noviembre a abril), y otra de 50 imagenes (SPI-6) de meses de verano

  3. Pulmonary function and oxidative stress in workers exposed to styrene in plastic factory: occupational hazards in styrene-exposed plastic factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Prakash Chandra; Khaliq, Farah; Vaney, Neelam; Ahmed, Tanzeel; Tripathi, Ashok K; Banerjee, Basu Dev

    2011-11-01

    Styrene is a volatile organic compound used in factories for synthesis of plastic products. The pneumotoxicity of styrene in experimental animals is known. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of styrene on lung function and oxidative stress in occupationally exposed workers in plastic factory. Thirty-four male workers, between 18 and 40 years of age, exposed to styrene for atleast 8 hours a day for more than a year were studied, while 30 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects not exposed to styrene served as controls. Assessment of lung functions showed a statistically significant reduction (p volumes, capacities (FVC, FEV(1), VC, ERV, IRV, and IC) and flow rates (PEFR, MEF(75%), and MVV) in the study group (workers) as compared to controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was observed to be significantly high (p < 0.05) while ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was significantly low (p < 0.05) in styrene-exposed subjects. Reduced glutathione (GSH) level was significantly depleted in exposed subjects as compared to control group. The mean value of serum cytochrome c in styrene-exposed subjects was found to be 1.1 ng/ml (0.89-1.89) while in control its levels were under detection limit (0.05 ng/ml). It shows that styrene inhalation by workers leads to increased level of oxidative stress, which is supposed to be the cause of lung damage.

  4. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  5. System zones in capillary zone electrophoresis: Moving boundaries caused by freely migrating hydrogen ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2005), s. 446-452 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0023; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031401; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * system zone s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  6. Spectral zone selection methodology for pebble bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mphahlele, Ramatsemela; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Ivanov, Kostadin N.; Gougar, Hans D.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology is developed for determining boundaries of spectral zones for pebble bed reactors. A spectral zone is defined as a region made up of a number of nodes whose characteristics are collectively similar and that are assigned the same few-group diffusion constants. The spectral zones are selected in such a manner that the difference (error) between the reference transport solution and the diffusion code solution takes a minimum value. This is achieved by choosing spectral zones through optimally minimizing this error. The objective function for the optimization algorithm is the total reaction rate error, which is defined as the sum of the leakage, absorption and fission reaction rates errors in each zone. The selection of these spectral zones is such that the core calculation results based on diffusion theory are within an acceptable tolerance as compared to a proper transport reference solution. Through this work, a consistent approach for identifying spectral zones that yield more accurate diffusion results is introduced.

  7. Regional Survey of Structural Properties and Cementation Patterns of Fault Zones in the Northern Part of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico - Implications for Ground-Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the need to document and evaluate the types and variability of fault zone properties that potentially affect aquifer systems in basins of the middle Rio Grande rift, we systematically characterized structural and cementation properties of exposed fault zones at 176 sites in the northern Albuquerque Basin. A statistical analysis of measurements and observations evaluated four aspects of the fault zones: (1) attitude and displacement, (2) cement, (3) lithology of the host rock or sediment, and (4) character and width of distinctive structural architectural components at the outcrop scale. Three structural architectural components of the fault zones were observed: (1) outer damage zones related to fault growth; these zones typically contain deformation bands, shear fractures, and open extensional fractures, which strike subparallel to the fault and may promote ground-water flow along the fault zone; (2) inner mixed zones composed of variably entrained, disrupted, and dismembered blocks of host sediment; and (3) central fault cores that accommodate most shear strain and in which persistent low- permeability clay-rich rocks likely impede the flow of water across the fault. The lithology of the host rock or sediment influences the structure of the fault zone and the width of its components. Different grain-size distributions and degrees of induration of the host materials produce differences in material strength that lead to variations in width, degree, and style of fracturing and other fault-related deformation. In addition, lithology of the host sediment appears to strongly control the distribution of cement in fault zones. Most faults strike north to north-northeast and dip 55? - 77? east or west, toward the basin center. Most faults exhibit normal slip, and many of these faults have been reactivated by normal-oblique and strike slip. Although measured fault displacements have a broad range, from 0.9 to 4,000 m, most are internal structure of, and cement

  8. 33 CFR 165.103 - Safety and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... within a 500-yard radius of any Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) vessel while it is moored at the LPG... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; LPG... and Security Zones; LPG Vessel Transits in Portland, Maine, Captain of the Port Zone, Portsmouth...

  9. Response of exposed bark and exposed lichen to an urban area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, A.M.J. [Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Oliveira do Hospital (Portugal). Oliveira do Hospital College of Technology and Management; Freitas, M.C.; Canha, N. [URSN, Sacavem (Portugal). Inst. Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN); Verburg, T.G.; Wolterbeek, H.T. [Technical Univ. of Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation, Radionuclides and Reactors

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study is to understand emission sources of chemical elements using biomonitoring as a tool. The selected lichen and bark were respectively Parmotrema bangii and Criptomeria japonica, sampled in the pollution-free atmosphere of Azores (Sao Miguel island), Portugal, and were exposed in the courtyards of 22 basic schools of Lisbon. The exposure was from January to May 2008 and from June to October 2008 (designated through the text as winter and summer respectively). The chemical element concentrations were determined by INAA. Conductivity of the lichen samples was measured. Factor analysis (MCTTFA) was applied to winter/summer bark/lichen exposed datasets. Arsenic emission sources, soil with anthropogenic contamination, a Se source, traffic, industry, and a sea contribution, were identified. In lichens, a physiological source based on the conductivity values was found. The spatial study showed contribution of sources to specific school positioning. Conductivity values were high in summer in locations as international Lisbon airport and downtown. Lisbon is spatially influenced by marine air mass transportation. It is concluded that one air sampler in Lisbon might be enough to define the emission sources under which they are influenced. (orig.)

  10. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  11. THE ASTROSPHERE OF THE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR IRC+10216

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Chronopoulos, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered a very extended shock structure (i.e., with a diameter of about 24') surrounding the well-known carbon star IRC+10216 in ultraviolet images taken with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite. We conclude that this structure results from the interaction of IRC+10216's molecular wind with the interstellar medium (ISM), as it moves through the latter. All important structural features expected from theoretical models of such interactions are identified: the termination shock, the astrosheath, the astropause, the bow shock, and an astrotail (with vortices). The extent of the astropause provides new lower limits to the envelope age (69,000 years) and mass (1.4 M sun , for a mass-loss rate of 2 x 10 -5 M sun yr -1 ). From the termination-shock standoff distance, we find that IRC+10216 is moving at a speed of about ∼>91 km s -1 (1 cm -3 /n ISM ) 1/2 through the surrounding ISM.

  12. Serum-thyroxine levels in microwave-exposed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.T.; Lebda, N.; Michaelson, S.M.; Pettit, S.

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the response of the thyroid gland in animals exposed to microwave irradiation is controversial. Animal experimentation has contributed to the controversy because both increased and decreased thyroid functions have been reported. The thyroxine concentration in rats as representative of thyroid function in animals exposed to 2.45-GHz, 120-Hz amplitude-modulated microwaves has been studied. These studies covered a long time span; rats from two commercial sources (BS and CR) were used and subjected to different numbers of exposures, and therefore these data were evaluated for their stability. Two factors could influence in the result significantly, i.e., source of animal and number of sham exposures. Rats used in the 2-hr exposures were from two different commercial sources; rats from CR had a higher (but normal) thyroxine concentration than did rats from BS. Therefore the data of these animals were separated by commercial source for reevaluation. Instead of increased thyroxine concentration in rats exposed at 25, 30, and 40 mW/cm 2 , changes were not noted in any microwave-exposed rats. The influence of sham exposure revealed that appropriate concurrent control and specification of animal source are needed in longitudinal studies. Furthermore, statistical procedures used can greatly influence the conclusions. Thus the specificity of changes in thyroxine concentration in rats exposed to microwaves because of its sporadic occurrence and because of inconsistencies among experiments was doubted

  13. Geometry of the Aegean Benioff zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Knapmeyer

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the Aegean Benioff zone was reconstructed using 1366 hypocentres from the PDE catalogue 1973-1997. Two such zones are identified under the Aegean area, a large one (Main Aegean Subduction, MAS spanning the whole Hellenic arc and a smaller and younger one under the Western Peloponnesus. The geometry of the MAS suggests that it blocks its own subduction and, therefore, causes the development of the smaller western zone as a result of a step back process in the Pliocene.

  14. The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

    2012-10-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology.

  15. Geologic map and cross sections of the Embudo Fault Zone in the Southern Taos Valley, Taos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Paul W.; Kelson, Keith I.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Johnson, Peggy S.; Aby, Scott B.; Felix, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The southern Taos Valley encompasses the physiographic and geologic transition zone between the Picuris Mountains and the San Luis Basin of the Rio Grande rift. The Embudo fault zone is the rift transfer structure that has accommodated the kinematic disparities between the San Luis Basin and the Española Basin during Neogene rift extension. The eastern terminus of the transfer zone coincides with the intersection of four major fault zones (Embudo, Sangre de Cristo, Los Cordovas, and Picuris-Pecos), resulting in an area of extreme geologic and hydrogeologic complexities in both the basin-fill deposits and the bedrock. Although sections of the Embudo fault zone are locally exposed in the bedrock of the Picuris Mountains and in the late Cenozoic sedimentary units along the top of the Picuris piedmont, the full proportions of the fault zone have remained elusive due to a pervasive cover of Quaternary surficial deposits. We combined insights derived from the latest geologic mapping of the area with deep borehole data and high-resolution aeromagnetic and gravity models to develop a detailed stratigraphic/structural model of the rift basin in the southern Taos Valley area. The four fault systems in the study area overlap in various ways in time and space. Our geologic model states that the Picuris-Pecos fault system exists in the basement rocks (Picuris formation and older units) of the rift, where it is progressively down dropped and offset to the west by each Embudo fault strand between the Picuris Mountains and the Rio Pueblo de Taos. In this model, the Miranda graben exists in the subsurface as a series of offset basement blocks between the Ponce de Leon neighborhood and the Rio Pueblo de Taos. In the study area, the Embudo faults are pervasive structures between the Picuris Mountains and the Rio Pueblo de Taos, affecting all geologic units that are older than the Quaternary surficial deposits. The Los Cordovas faults are thought to represent the late Tertiary to

  16. Secondary expansion of the transient subplate zone in the developing cerebrum of human and nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Alvaro; Krsnik, Zeljka; Kostović, Ivica; Rakic, Pasko

    2016-01-01

    The subplate (SP) was the last cellular compartment added to the Boulder Committee’s list of transient embryonic zones [Bystron I, Blakemore C, Rakic P (2008) Nature Rev Neurosci 9(2):110–122]. It is highly developed in human and nonhuman primates, but its origin, mode, and dynamics of development, resolution, and eventual extinction are not well understood because human postmortem tissue offers only static descriptive data, and mice cannot serve as an adequate experimental model for the distinct regional differences in primates. Here, we take advantage of the large and slowly developing SP in macaque monkey to examine the origin, settling pattern, and subsequent dispersion of the SP neurons in primates. Monkey embryos exposed to the radioactive DNA replication marker tritiated thymidine ([3H]dT, or TdR) at early embryonic ages were killed at different intervals postinjection to follow postmitotic cells' positional changes. As expected in primates, most SP neurons generated in the ventricular zone initially migrate radially, together with prospective layer 6 neurons. Surprisingly, mostly during midgestation, SP cells become secondarily displaced and widespread into the expanding SP zone, which becomes particularly wide subjacent to the association cortical areas and underneath the summit of its folia. We found that invasion of monoamine, basal forebrain, thalamocortical, and corticocortical axons is mainly responsible for this region-dependent passive dispersion of the SP cells. Histologic and immunohistochemical comparison with the human SP at corresponding fetal ages indicates that the same developmental events occur in both primate species. PMID:27503885

  17. 76 FR 38077 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port New York Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...: All Zone. waters of Long Island Sound in an area bound by the following points: 40[deg]51'43.5'' N 073... Zone. located in approximate position 40[deg]51'52'' N 073[deg]56'24'' W (NAD 1983), approximately 1750...] RIN 1625-AA00; 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of...

  18. 49 CFR 222.41 - How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and Pre-Rule Partial Quiet Zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Rule Quiet Zone may be established by automatic approval and remain in effect, subject to § 222.51, if... Zone may be established by automatic approval and remain in effect, subject to § 222.51, if the Pre... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How does this rule affect Pre-Rule Quiet Zones and...

  19. Risk-based zoning for urbanizing floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Urban floodplain development brings economic benefits and enhanced flood risks. Rapidly growing cities must often balance the economic benefits and increased risks of floodplain settlement. Planning can provide multiple flood mitigation and environmental benefits by combining traditional structural measures such as levees, increasingly popular landscape and design features (green infrastructure), and non-structural measures such as zoning. Flexibility in both structural and non-structural options, including zoning procedures, can reduce flood risks. This paper presents a linear programming formulation to assess cost-effective urban floodplain development decisions that consider benefits and costs of development along with expected flood damages. It uses a probabilistic approach to identify combinations of land-use allocations (residential and commercial development, flood channels, distributed runoff management) and zoning regulations (development zones in channel) to maximize benefits. The model is applied to a floodplain planning analysis for an urbanizing region in the Baja Sur peninsula of Mexico. The analysis demonstrates how (1) economic benefits drive floodplain development, (2) flexible zoning can improve economic returns, and (3) cities can use landscapes, enhanced by technology and design, to manage floods. The framework can incorporate additional green infrastructure benefits, and bridges typical disciplinary gaps for planning and engineering.

  20. Methylation patterns in marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Alberto J; Bertoni, Francesco

    Promoter DNA methylation is a major regulator of gene expression and transcription. The identification of methylation changes is important for understanding disease pathogenesis, for identifying prognostic markers and can drive novel therapeutic approaches. In this review we summarize the current knowledge regarding DNA methylation in MALT lymphoma, splenic marginal zone lymphoma, nodal marginal zone lymphoma. Despite important differences in the study design for different publications and the existence of a sole large and genome-wide methylation study for splenic marginal zone lymphoma, it is clear that DNA methylation plays an important role in marginal zone lymphomas, in which it contributes to the inactivation of tumor suppressors but also to the expression of genes sustaining tumor cell survival and proliferation. Existing preclinical data provide the rationale to target the methylation machinery in these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncio, Paolo; Liberi, Francesca; Caldarella, Martina; Nurminen, Fiia-Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    The criteria for zoning the surface fault rupture hazard (SFRH) along thrust faults are defined by analysing the characteristics of the areas of coseismic surface faulting in thrust earthquakes. Normal and strike-slip faults have been deeply studied by other authors concerning the SFRH, while thrust faults have not been studied with comparable attention. Surface faulting data were compiled for 11 well-studied historic thrust earthquakes occurred globally (5.4 ≤ M ≤ 7.9). Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the analysed earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials (simple and hanging wall collapse scarps, pressure ridges, fold scarps and thrust or pressure ridges with bending-moment or flexural-slip fault ruptures due to large-scale folding). For all the earthquakes, the distance of distributed ruptures from the principal fault rupture (r) and the width of the rupture zone (WRZ) were compiled directly from the literature or measured systematically in GIS-georeferenced published maps. Overall, surface ruptures can occur up to large distances from the main fault ( ˜ 2150 m on the footwall and ˜ 3100 m on the hanging wall). Most of the ruptures occur on the hanging wall, preferentially in the vicinity of the principal fault trace ( > ˜ 50 % at distances guidelines). In the absence of such a very detailed study (basic SM, i.e. Level 1 SM of Italian guidelines) a width of ˜ 840 m (90 % probability from "simple thrust" database of distributed ruptures, excluding B-M, F-S and Sy fault ruptures) is suggested to be sufficiently precautionary. For more detailed SM, where the fault is carefully mapped, one must consider that the highest SFRH is concentrated in a narrow zone, ˜ 60 m in width, that should be considered as a fault avoidance zone (more than one-third of the distributed ruptures are expected to occur within this zone). The fault rupture hazard zones should be asymmetric compared to the trace

  2. Zone memories and pseudorandom addressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, D.; Mirizzi, N.; Stella, R.; Visaggio, G.

    1975-01-01

    A quantitative comparison between zone memories, pseudorandom addressed memories and an alternative special purpose memory (spread zone memory) in which the distance between any two transformed descriptors, at first adjacent, is independent of the descriptors pair and results the maximum one is presented. This memory has not been particularly considered at present in spite of its efficiency and its simple implementation

  3. Improving the effectiveness of smart work zone technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of sensor network systems for work zone traffic estimation. The comparative analysis is : performed on a work zone modeled in microsimulation and calibrated with field data from two Illinois work zones. Realis...

  4. Survey on Urinary Levels of Aflatoxins in Professionally Exposed Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Ferri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed mill workers may handle or process maize contaminated with aflatoxins (AFs. This condition may lead to an unacceptable intake of toxins deriving from occupational exposure. This study assessed the serological and urinary levels of AFs in workers exposed to potentially contaminated dusts in two mills. From March to April 2014, blood and urine samples were collected, on Monday and Friday morning of the same working week from 29 exposed workers and 30 non-exposed controls. AFs (M1, G2, G1, B1, B2 and aflatoxicol (AFOH A were analyzed. Each subject filled in a questionnaire to evaluate potential food-borne exposures to mycotoxins. AFs contamination in environmental dust was measured in both plants. No serum sample was found to be positive. Seventy four percent of urine samples (73.7% revealed AFM1 presence. AFM1 mean concentration was 0.035 and 0.027 ng/mL in exposed and non-exposed workers, respectively (p = 0.432; the concentration was slightly higher in Friday’s than in Monday’s samples, in exposed workers, 0.040 versus (vs. 0.031 and non-exposed controls (0.030 vs. 0.024, p = 0.437. Environmental AFs contamination ranged from 7.2 to 125.4 µg/kg. The findings of this study reveal the presence of higher AFs concentration in exposed workers than in non-exposed controls, although these differences are to be considered consistent with random fluctuations.

  5. Going beyond the most exposed people in a dose assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerpe, Thomas; Broed, Robert [Facilia AB, Gustavslundsvaegen 151C, SE-167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment, EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, FI-28 100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    The dose assessment in a long-term radiation safety assessment often focus on assessing dose of a representative person to be used for determining compliance with a radiation dose constraint. This representative person is often assumed to receive a dose that is representative of the most exposed people, i.e., the more highly exposed individuals in the population. This is not always sufficient, the Finnish regulations for disposal of nuclear waste has radiation dose constraint to the most exposed people as well as for larger groups of exposed people. This work presents the methodology to assessing dose of a representative person for a larger group of exposed people as applied by Posiva in the TURVA-2012 safety case for the spent nuclear fuel disposal at Olkiluoto. In addition, annual doses from the set of biosphere calculation cases analysed in TURVA-2012 are presented and discussed. Special focus is given on explaining the differences in exposure levels and exposure routes between the estimated annual doses to representative persons for most exposed people and a larger exposed group. The results show that the annual doses to a larger group of people ranges from one to three orders of magnitude below the annual doses to the most exposed people. Furthermore, the exposure route related to food ingestion is less significant for the larger group of people compared to the most exposed people and that the exposure route related to water ingestion shows the opposite behaviour. (authors)

  6. Sulfide enrichment at an oceanic crust-mantle transition zone: Kane Megamullion (23°N, MAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciazela, Jakub; Koepke, Juergen; Dick, Henry J. B.; Botcharnikov, Roman; Muszynski, Andrzej; Lazarov, Marina; Schuth, Stephan; Pieterek, Bartosz; Kuhn, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    The Kane Megamullion oceanic core complex located along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (23°30‧N, 45°20‧W) exposes lower crust and upper mantle directly on the ocean floor. We studied chalcophile elements and sulfides in the ultramafic and mafic rocks of the crust-mantle transition and the mantle underneath. We determined mineralogical and elemental composition and the Cu isotope composition of the respective sulfides along with the mineralogical and elemental composition of the respective serpentines. The rocks of the crust-mantle transition zone (i.e., plagioclase harzburgite, peridotite-gabbro contacts, and dunite) overlaid by troctolites are by one order of magnitude enriched in several chalcophile elements with respect to the spinel harzburgites of the mantle beneath. Whereas the range of Cu concentrations in spinel harzburgites is 7-69 ppm, the Cu concentrations are highly elevated in plagioclase harzburgites with a range of 90-209 ppm. The zones of the peridotite-gabbro contacts are even more enriched, exhibiting up to 305 ppm Cu and highly elevated concentrations of As, Zn, Ga, Sb and Tl. High Cu concentrations show pronounced correlation with bulk S concentrations at the crust-mantle transition zone implying an enrichment process in this horizon of the oceanic lithosphere. We interpret this enrichment as related to melt-mantle reaction, which is extensive in crust-mantle transition zones. In spite of the ubiquitous serpentinization of primary rocks, we found magmatic chalcopyrites [CuFeS2] as inclusions in plagioclase as well as associated with pentlandite [(Fe,Ni)9S8] and pyrrhotite [Fe1-xS] in polysulfide grains. These chalcopyrites show a primary magmatic δ65Cu signature ranging from -0.04 to +0.29 ‰. Other chalcopyrites have been dissolved during serpentinization. Due to the low temperature (enrichment, increased sulfide modes, and potentially formation of small sulfide deposits could be expected globally along the petrological Moho.

  7. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Burchardt, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other. Such ...... given credit for and may be responsible for some reverse kinematics reported in shear zones....... or wakes, elongated bodies (vertical plates or horizontal rod-like bodies) produce tabular shear zones or wakes. Unlike conventional shear zones across which shear indicators usually display consistent symmetries, shear indicators on either side of the shear zone or wake reported here show reverse...... kinematics. Thus profiles exhibit shear zones with opposed senses of movement across their center-lines or -planes.We have used field observations and results from analytical and numerical models to suggest that examples of wakes are the transit paths that develop where denser blocks sink within salt...

  8. The Development Evaluation of Economic Zones in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhai, Yuming; Chen, Quan; Wang, Jiangtao

    2018-01-01

    After the Chinese reform and opening up, the construction of economic zones, such as Special Economic Zones, Hi-tech Zones and Bonded Zones, has played an irreplaceable role in China’s economic development. Currently, against the background of Chinese economic transition, research on development evaluation of economic zones has become popular and necessary. Similar research usually focuses on one specific field, and the methods that are used to evaluate it are simple. This research aims to analyse the development evaluation of zones by synthesis. A new hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) model that combines the DEMATEL technique and the DANP method is proposed. After establishing the evaluation criterion system and acquiring data, the influential weights of dimensions and criteria can be calculated, which will be a guide for forming measures of development. Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone is used in the empirical case analysis. The results show that Transportation Conditions, Industrial Structure and Business Climate are the main influencing criteria and measures based on these criteria are proposed. PMID:29301304

  9. Work Zone Intrusion Report Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    While necessary for roadways, work zones present a safety risk to crew. Half of road workers deaths between 2005 and 2010 were due to collisions with motorists intruding on the work zone. Therefore, addressing intrusions is an important step for ensu...

  10. Work zone performance measures pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  11. FIGHT ZONE WITH POINTS OF THE SHOTOKAN KARATE FEMALE COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the fight zone with point during the female kumite of competition. This study used a quantitative research for identify the fight zone with point (ippon or waza-ari or not during the female kumite of competition. Were selected on the Internet several championship of kumite of the JKA and of the ITKF. The study detected a high probability of point in the zone 7 and in the zone 2. The study determined that the most points at the corner occurred when the karateka practiced the attack in fight zone. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA verified significant difference between the fight zone with points, H (10 = 29,49, p = 0,001. The Mann Whitney U test detected significant difference between the zone 5 with waza-ari versus all the zone. The greatest number of points in the fight zone was in agreement with the size of the fight zone. The central zone or zone 5 has 6x6 m, during the female kumite occurred more points, total of 68 waza-aris and 5 ippons. The study on the fight zone with points of the female kumite permits that the karateka has knowledge about the combat zones and guides the karateka before, during and after the female kumite. However, more studies should be done to confirm these findings.

  12. 75 FR 16370 - Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports in Boston Captain of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rule under Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and would not create an environmental risk to...] RIN 1625-AA00, RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Areas, Safety Zones, Security Zones; Deepwater Ports...

  13. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Boncio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The criteria for zoning the surface fault rupture hazard (SFRH along thrust faults are defined by analysing the characteristics of the areas of coseismic surface faulting in thrust earthquakes. Normal and strike–slip faults have been deeply studied by other authors concerning the SFRH, while thrust faults have not been studied with comparable attention. Surface faulting data were compiled for 11 well-studied historic thrust earthquakes occurred globally (5.4 ≤ M ≤ 7.9. Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the analysed earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials (simple and hanging wall collapse scarps, pressure ridges, fold scarps and thrust or pressure ridges with bending-moment or flexural-slip fault ruptures due to large-scale folding. For all the earthquakes, the distance of distributed ruptures from the principal fault rupture (r and the width of the rupture zone (WRZ were compiled directly from the literature or measured systematically in GIS-georeferenced published maps. Overall, surface ruptures can occur up to large distances from the main fault ( ∼ 2150 m on the footwall and  ∼  3100 m on the hanging wall. Most of the ruptures occur on the hanging wall, preferentially in the vicinity of the principal fault trace ( >   ∼  50 % at distances  <   ∼  250 m. The widest WRZ are recorded where sympathetic slip (Sy on distant faults occurs, and/or where bending-moment (B-M or flexural-slip (F-S fault ruptures, associated with large-scale folds (hundreds of metres to kilometres in wavelength, are present. A positive relation between the earthquake magnitude and the total WRZ is evident, while a clear correlation between the vertical displacement on the principal fault and the total WRZ is not found. The distribution of surface ruptures is fitted with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to

  14. Toward an Integrated Model for the Composition, Structure, and Physical Properties of the Crust in Icelandic Rift Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, D. F.; Panero, W. R.; Barton, M.

    2009-05-01

    The rift zones that extend across Iceland roughly southwest to northeast are the only portion of the mid-Atlantic Ridge that is exposed above sea level. This reflects anomalously high melt productivity in the mantle leading to anomalously thick oceanic crust. There are 30 active volcanic centers in the rift zones. Petrologic studies of the 30 volcanic centers in the active rift zones show that, magmas pond at a mid-crustal level as well as at the base of the crust prior to eruption. The depth of magma chambers at the base of the crust provides an estimate of crustal thickness of (20 ± 2.5 km) in these zones. Melts erupting to the surface directly from chambers at the base of the crust provide one constraint on the composition of the crust because any compositional variations within the crust must be the result of differentiation of these melts. However, the glass compositions indicate that relatively evolved magmas erupted from the deep chambers, suggesting that crystallization of compositionally more primitive magmas also occurred at the base of the crust. Knowledge of crustal thickness, the temperature of melts at the base of the crust, and the compositions of these melts allows development of comprehensive models of the composition, structure and properties of crust within the rift zones. We have developed two end member models: one with variation of mineralogy with depth in the crust due to metamorphism, and one with variation of crustal composition with depth due to fractionation processes. We have also considered models that are plausible combinations of these two end member models. We have calculated well constrained geothermal gradients and used these to predict variations in density, seismic velocity, and bulk modulus with depth. These models which include petrologic and geochemical data are consistent with published geophysical data, therefore provide important constraints on interpretation of geophysical data. In particular, results of this work provide

  15. Presynaptic Active Zone Density during Development and Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gwenaëlle L; Chen, Jie; Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Neural circuits transmit information through synapses, and the efficiency of synaptic transmission is closely related to the density of presynaptic active zones, where synaptic vesicles are released. The goal of this review is to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the number of active zones per presynaptic terminal (active zone density) during developmental and stimulus-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy. At the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), the active zone density is preserved across species, remains constant during development, and is the same between synapses with different activities. However, the NMJ active zones are not always stable, as exemplified by the change in active zone density during acute experimental manipulation or as a result of aging. Therefore, a mechanism must exist to maintain its density. In the central nervous system (CNS), active zones have restricted maximal size, exist in multiple numbers in larger presynaptic terminals, and maintain a constant density during development. These findings suggest that active zone density in the CNS is also controlled. However, in contrast to the NMJ, active zone density in the CNS can also be increased, as observed in hippocampal synapses in response to synaptic plasticity. Although the numbers of known active zone proteins and protein interactions have increased, less is known about the mechanism that controls the number or spacing of active zones. The following molecules are known to control active zone density and will be discussed herein: extracellular matrix laminins and voltage-dependent calcium channels, amyloid precursor proteins, the small GTPase Rab3, an endocytosis mechanism including synaptojanin, cytoskeleton protein spectrins and β-adducin, and a presynaptic web including spectrins. The molecular mechanisms that organize the active zone density are just beginning to be elucidated.

  16. Zones of emotional labour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig

    2011-01-01

    The paper suggests that due to the difficult nature of their work public family law caseworkers are to be included in the definition of emotional labour even though they are omitted by Hochschild. Based upon a review of the structures involved in emotional labour an explorative qualitative study...... is put forth among 25 Danish public family law caseworkers. The study points to personal, professional, and social zones of emotional labour through which the caseworkers carry out their work. Emotional labour zones mark emotion structures that may be challenging due to complex emotional intersections...

  17. Dike zones on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  18. Reprocessing of nonoptimally exposed holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, G.S.; Robertson, C.E.; Tamashiro, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    Two reprocessing techniques have been investigated that are capable of correcting the effects of nonoptimum optical density of photographic amplitude holograms recorded on Agfa-Gevaert type 10E75 plates. In some cases a reprocessed hologram will exhibit a diffraction efficiency even higher than that obtainable from a hologram exposed and processed to the optimum density. The SNR of the reprocessed holograms is much higher than that of the same holograms belached with cupric bromide. In some cases the SNR approaches the optimum value for a properly exposed amplitude hologram. Subjective image quality and resolution of reprocessed hologram reconstructins appear to be no different than for normal single-development holograms. Repeated reprocessing is feasible and in some cases desirable as a means of increasing diffraction efficiency

  19. ZONE: a finite element mesh generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, M.J.

    1976-05-01

    The ZONE computer program is a finite-element mesh generator which produces the nodes and element description of any two-dimensional geometry. The geometry is subdivided into a mesh of quadrilateral and triangular zones arranged sequentially in an ordered march through the geometry. The order of march can be chosen so that the minimum bandwidth is obtained. The node points are defined in terms of the x and y coordinates in a global rectangular coordinate system. The zones generated are quadrilaterals or triangles defined by four node points in a counterclockwise sequence. Node points defining the outside boundary are generated to describe pressure boundary conditions. The mesh that is generated can be used as input to any two-dimensional as well as any axisymmetrical structure program. The output from ZONE is essentially the input file to NAOS, HONDO, and other axisymmetric finite element programs. 14 figures

  20. 78 FR 11798 - Safety Zones; Annual Fireworks Events in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... later notice in the Federal Register. B. Regulatory History and Information On June 18, 2008, the Coast... coordinates for the safety zones corresponding with the Browns Football Half time Fireworks and the Lorain... Football Half time and the Lorain Port Fest safety zones, to include changing the format of the coordinates...

  1. 77 FR 35852 - Safety Zones; Multiple Firework Displays in Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not create an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may... 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Multiple Firework Displays in Captain of the Port, Puget Sound Zone AGENCY...

  2. 77 FR 8219 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management... ICMP constitutes an approvable program and that requirements of the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA..., submitted a coastal management program to NOAA for approval under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), 16...

  3. 33 CFR 165.755 - Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto Rico (a) The following area is established as a safety zone during the... the Eco-Electrica waterfront facility in Guayanilla Bay, Puerto Rico. The safety zone remains in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Guayanilla, Puerto...

  4. The Affect of the Space Environment on the Survival of Halorubrum Chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nageli): Data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nageli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (lambda is greater than 110 nm or lambda is greater than 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested approximately 10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life

  5. Deficiencies in Vadose Zone Understanding at the INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas Ronald; Bates, Dona Louise; Bishop, Carolyn Wagoner; Heard, Robert Eugene; Hubbell, Joel Michael; Hull, Laurence Charles; Lehman, Richard Michael; Magnuson, Swen O; Mattson, Earl Douglas; Mccarthy, James Michael; Porro, Indrek; Ritter, Paul David; Roddy, Michael Scott; Singler, Robert Edward; Smith, Richard Paul

    2000-08-01

    Subsurface contamination in the vadose zone, that portion of the subsurface pathway between land surface and an underlying aquifer, poses environmental problems at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in eastern Idaho and across the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Assessing potential adverse impacts from these contaminated sites requires an understanding of the mechanisms controlling contaminant transport. Currently, vadose zone experts at the INEEL cannot with confidence predict the movement of water and contaminants in the complex, heterogeneous, fractured subsurface at the INEEL, especially within the vadose zone. In the draft version (Revision 1) of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, deficiencies in scientific understanding of flow and transport processes in the vadose zone at the INEEL were identified and grouped into 13 categories and recommendations were provided to address each of the deficiencies. The draft document provided the basis for an INEEL Vadose Zone Workshop that was conducted October 20 and 21, 1999, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The workshop was conducted to group and rank the previously identified deficiencies and for the subsequent development of science plans to address the deficiencies that limit reliable predictions of water and contaminant movement in the subsurface. The workshop participants, comprising INEEL and scientists and project managers and non-INEEL scientists knowledgeable about the vadose zone, developed science- and technology-based recommendations derived through a series of technical sessions at the workshop. In this document, the final version of the Vadose Zone Deficiencies document, the draft document has been incorporated, largely intact, as well as the results from the workshop. The workshop participants grouped the deficiencies in vadose zone understanding at the INEEL into seven categories. These seven categories will be the focus areas of five science plans that are being developed to

  6. Psychopharmacologic treatment of children prenatally exposed to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. The Devils Mountain Fault zone: An active Cascadia upper plate zone of deformation, Pacific Northwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, J. Vaughn; Greene, H. Gary

    2018-02-01

    The Devils Mountain Fault Zone (DMFZ) extends east to west from Washington State to just south of Victoria, British Columbia, in the northern Strait of Juan de Fuca of Canada and the USA. Recently collected geophysical data were used to map this fault zone in detail, which show the main fault trace, and associated primary and secondary (conjugate) strands, and extensive northeast-southwest oriented folding that occurs within a 6 km wide deformation zone. The fault zone has been active in the Holocene as seen in the offset and disrupted upper Quaternary strata, seafloor displacement, and deformation within sediment cores taken close to the seafloor expression of the faults. Data suggest that the present DMFZ and the re-activated Leech River Fault may be part of the same fault system. Based on the length and previously estimated slip rates of the fault zone in Washington State, the DMFZ appears to have the potential of producing a strong earthquake, perhaps as large as magnitude 7.5 or greater, within 2 km of the city of Victoria.

  8. 76 FR 80342 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management... program under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), as amended at 16 U.S.C. 1451-1466, and the...). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coastal Zone Management Act authorizes the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary) to...

  9. GEODESIC RECONSTRUCTION, SADDLE ZONES & HIERARCHICAL SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Beucher

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The morphological reconstruction based on geodesic operators, is a powerful tool in mathematical morphology. The general definition of this reconstruction supposes the use of a marker function f which is not necessarily related to the function g to be built. However, this paper deals with operations where the marker function is defined from given characteristic regions of the initial function f, as it is the case, for instance, for the extrema (maxima or minima but also for the saddle zones. Firstly, we show that the intuitive definition of a saddle zone is not easy to handle, especially when digitised images are involved. However, some of these saddle zones (regional ones also called overflow zones can be defined, this definition providing a simple algorithm to extract them. The second part of the paper is devoted to the use of these overflow zones as markers in image reconstruction. This reconstruction provides a new function which exhibits a new hierarchy of extrema. This hierarchy is equivalent to the hierarchy produced by the so-called waterfall algorithm. We explain why the waterfall algorithm can be achieved by performing a watershed transform of the function reconstructed by its initial watershed lines. Finally, some examples of use of this hierarchical segmentation are described.

  10. Zone-refining of beryllium(II) acetylacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Isao; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Keihei

    1975-01-01

    Zone melting was applied to bis (acetylacetonato) beryllium(II), Be(AA) 2 , to remove trace metal constiutents. The effective distribution coefficient, k, of a minor component measured in a binary mixture with the majority of Be(AA) 2 , fell in the range of 0.4 to 0.8, while the value obtained in a multiple component mixture fell in the range of 0.8 to 0.9 except Zn(II)- and Ni(II) chelates. Cr(AA) 3 was concentrated upward in the direction of the zone travelling, and similar results were obtained with Cu(II)-, Co(III)- Fe(III)- and Al(III) acetylacetonates, while Zn(II)-, Ni(II)- and Mn(III) chelates were fractionated in the both ends of the column. On the other hand, when the zone was moved downward, the minor components were concentrated in the lower end of a column. Efficiency in zone refining was compared to each other between the upward- and downward zone travelling modes on the crude beryllium acetylacetonates obtained from a commercial reagent of beryllium nitrate, and the latter mode was found more effective in the concentration of trace components. Discussion was given on possible mechanisms resulting in the difference in the refining efficiency. (author)

  11. Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    1.73 $.") http://www.w3.org/2006/07/SWD/ SKOS /reference/20081001/ Spiteri, L.F. (2007) "The structure and form of folksonomy tags: The road to the...Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning January 14, 2010 Sponsored by Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DOD...DATES COVERED (From - To! 4/14/2009-12/23/2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exposing Latent Information in Folksonomies for Reasoning Sa. CONTRACT

  12. [Transfer characteristic and source identification of soil heavy metals from water-level-fluctuating zone along Xiangxi River, three-Gorges Reservoir area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Fei; Guo, Qiang; Nie, Xiao-Qian; Huang, Ying-Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Transfer characteristics of heavy metals and their evaluation of potential risk were studied based on determining concentration of heavy metal in soils from water-level-fluctuating zone (altitude:145-175 m) and bank (altitude: 175-185 m) along Xiangxi River, Three Gorges Reservoir area. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) was employed for heavy metal source identification and source apportionment. Results demonstrate that, during exposing season, the concentration of soil heavy metals in water-level-fluctuation zone and bank showed the variation, and the concentration of soil heavy metals reduced in shallow soil, but increased in deep soil at water-level-fluctuation zone. However, the concentration of soil heavy metals reduced in both shallow and deep soil at bank during the same period. According to the geoaccumulation index,the pollution extent of heavy metals followed the order: Cd > Pb > Cu > Cr, Cd is the primary pollutant. FA and FA-MLR reveal that in soils from water-level-fluctuation zone, 75.60% of Pb originates from traffic, 62.03% of Cd is from agriculture, 64.71% of Cu and 75.36% of Cr are from natural rock. In soils from bank, 82.26% of Pb originates from traffic, 68.63% of Cd is from agriculture, 65.72% of Cu and 69.33% of Cr are from natural rock. In conclusion, FA-MLR can successfully identify source of heavy metal and compute source apportionment of heavy metals, meanwhile the transfer characteristic is revealed. All these information can be a reference for heavy metal pollution control.

  13. 32 CFR 256.7 - Accident potential zone guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accident potential zone guidelines. 256.7 Section 256.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS AIR INSTALLATIONS COMPATIBLE USE ZONES § 256.7 Accident potential zone guidelines...

  14. 33 CFR 147.801 - Boxer Platform safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boxer Platform safety zone. 147.801 Section 147.801 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES § 147.801 Boxer Platform safety zone. (a...

  15. Subspace exclusion zones for damage localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, Dionisio; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard

    2018-01-01

    , this is exploited in the context of structural damage localization to cast the Subspace Exclusion Zone (SEZ) scheme, which locates damage by reconstructing the captured field quantity shifts from analytical subspaces indexed by postulated boundaries, the so-called exclusion zones (EZs), in a model of the structure...

  16. EPA Region 1 No Discharge Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset details No Discharge Zones (NDZ) for New England. Boaters may not discharge waste into these areas. Boundaries were determined mostly by Federal Register Environmental Documents in coordination with Massachusetts Coastal Zone Management (MA CZM) and EPA Region 1 Office of Ecosystem Protection (OEP) staff.

  17. Understanding Fluid and Contaminant Movement in the Unsaturated Zone Using the INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J. M.; Mattson, E. D.; Sisson, J. B.; Magnuson, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    DOE has hundreds of contaminated facilities and waste sites requiring cleanup and/or long-term monitoring. These contaminated sites reside in unsaturated soils (i.e. the vadose zone) above the water table. Some of these sites will require active remediation activities or removal while other sites will be placed under institutional controls. In either case, evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation strategy or institutional controls will require monitoring. Classical monitoring strategies implemented at RCRA/CERCLA sites require ground water sampling for 30 years following closure. The overall effectiveness of ground water sampling is diminished due to the fact that by the time you detect chemical transport from a waste site, a major contamination plume likely exists in the vadose zone and the aquifer. This paper suggests a more effective monitoring strategy through monitoring near the contaminant sites within the vadose zone. Vadose zone monitoring allows for quicker detection of potential contaminant transport. The INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is becoming an accepted, cost effective monitoring technology for assessing contaminant transport at DOE facilities. This paper describes the technologies employed in the VZMS and describes how it was used at several DOE facilities. The INEEL VZMS has provided the information in developing and validating both conceptual and risk assessment models of contaminant transport at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford site. These DOE sites exhibit a broad range of meteorologic, hydrologic and geologic conditions representative of various common geologic environments. The VZMS is comprised of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, temperature sensors and soil and gas samplers. These instruments are placed at multiple depths in boreholes and allows for the detection of water movement in the

  18. The relationship between Anopheles gambiae density and rice cultivation in the savannah zone and forest zone of Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Dossou-Yovo, Joel; Akodo, Elena; van de Giesen, Nick; Teuscher, Thomas M

    2003-05-01

    In 13 villages in the savannah zone and 21 villages in the forest zone of Côte d'Ivoire, the biting density of the principal malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, was studied as a function of rice cultivation in the inland valleys in a 2-km radius around each village. In the savannah villages, during the main season cropping period, surface water on rice-cultivated and to a lesser extent on uncultivated inland valleys seems to contribute strongly to the A. gambiae population density. For the off-season cropping period (which starts after the first light rains in the savannah zone), correlations were weaker. Breeding sites other than in inland valleys may play an important role in the savannah zone. In the forest zone, however, the A. gambiae population density was strongly correlated with the surface water availability (SWA) in the rice-cultivated inland valleys, whereas the correlation with the SWA in other (uncultivated) inland valleys was weak. The requirement of sunlit breeding sites for A. gambiae might explain this difference between zones. In the forest zone, only inland valleys cleared for rice cultivation meet this requirement, whereas all other inland valleys are covered with dense vegetation. In the savannah zone, however, most undergrowth is burnt during the dry season, which permits sunlight to reach puddles resulting from the first rains.

  19. 27 CFR 28.290 - Receipt in foreign trade zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt in foreign trade zone. 28.290 Section 28.290 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... in Foreign-Trade Zone § 28.290 Receipt in foreign trade zone. On receipt at the zone, the shipment...

  20. 49 CFR 1105.9 - Coastal Zone Management Act requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coastal Zone Management Act requirements. 1105.9... ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS § 1105.9 Coastal Zone Management Act requirements. (a) If the proposed action affects land or water uses within a State coastal zone designated pursuant to the Coastal Zone Management Act (16 U.S.C...

  1. Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, lower east rift zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard B.

    1992-08-01

    Detailed geologic mapping and radiocarbon dating of tholeiitic basalts covering about 275 km2 on the lower east rift zone (LERZ) and adjoining flanks of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, show that at least 112 separate eruptions have occurred during the past 2360 years. Eruptive products include spatter ramparts and cones, a shield, two extensive lithic-rich tuff deposits, aa and pahoehoe flows, and three littoral cones. Areal coverage, number of eruptions and average dormant interval estimates in years for the five age groups assigned are: (I) historic, i.e. A D 1790 and younger: 25%, 5, 42.75; (II) 200 400 years old: 50%, 15, 14.3: (III) 400 750 years old: 20%, 54, 6.6; (IV) 750 1500 years old: 5%, 37, 20.8; (V) 1500 3000 years old: LERZ during the past 1500 years. Estimated volumes of the exposed products of individual eruptions range from a few tens of cubic meters for older units in small kipukas to as much as 0.4 km3 for the heiheiahulu shield. The average dormant interval has been about 13.6 years during the past 1500 years. The most recent eruption occurred in 1961, and the area may be overdue for its next eruption. However, eruptive activity will not resume on the LERZ until either the dike feeding the current eruption on the middle east rift zone extends farther down rift, or a new dike, unrelated to the current eruption, extends into the LERZ.

  2. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    : Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17-76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected...... and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal......, probably related to exposure to pesticides. Due to the potentially negative long term health effects of genetic damage on reproduction and the development of cancer, preventive measures are recommended. Effective control with imports and sales, banning of the most toxic pesticides, education...

  3. Introduction to the structures and processes of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2017-09-01

    Subduction zones have been the focus of many studies since the advent of plate tectonics in 1960s. Workings within subduction zones beneath volcanic arcs have been of particular interest because they prime the source of arc magmas. The results from magmatic products have been used to decipher the structures and processes of subduction zones. In doing so, many progresses have been made on modern oceanic subduction zones, but less progresses on ancient oceanic subduction zones. On the other hand, continental subduction zones have been studied since findings of coesite in metamorphic rocks of supracrustal origin in 1980s. It turns out that high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens provide a direct target to investigate the tectonism of subduction zones, whereas oceanic and continental arc volcanic rocks in accretionary orogens provide an indirect target to investigate the geochemistry of subduction zones. Nevertheless, metamorphic dehydration and partial melting at high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure conditions are tectonically applicable to subduction zone processes at forearc to subarc depths, and crustal metasomatism is the physicochemical mechanism for geochemical transfer from the slab to the mantle in subduction channels. Taken together, these provide us with an excellent opportunity to find how the metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic products are a function of the structures and processes in both oceanic and continental subduction zones. Because of the change in the thermal structures of subduction zones, different styles of metamorphism, metasomatism and magmatism are produced at convergent plate margins. In addition, juvenile and ancient crustal rocks have often suffered reworking in episodes independent of either accretionary or collisional orogeny, leading to continental rifting metamorphism and thus rifting orogeny for mountain building in intracontinental settings. This brings complexity to distinguish the syn

  4. Integrated seismic interpretation of the Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans; Jørgensen, Mette Iwanouw

    2005-01-01

    the fault zone. The fault zone is a shadow zone to shots detonated outside the fault zone. Finite-difference wavefield modelling supports the interpretations of the fan recordings. Our fan recording approach facilitates cost-efficient mapping of fault zones in densely urbanized areas where seismic normal......We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone along a 12-km-long trace in the Copenhagen city centre by seismic refraction, reflection and fan profiling. The Carlsberg Fault is located in a NNW-SSE striking fault system in the border zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent...... earthquakes indicate that this area is tectonically active. A seismic refraction study across the Carlsberg Fault shows that the fault zone is a low-velocity zone and marks a change in seismic velocity structure. A normal incidence reflection seismic section shows a coincident flower-like structure. We have...

  5. Turbulent viscosity in natural surf zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasso, F.R.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Waves breaking in the shallow surf zone near the shoreline inject turbulence into the water column that may reach the bed to suspend sediment. Breaking-wave turbulence in the surf zone is, however, poorly understood, which is one of the reasons why many process-based coastal-evolution models

  6. Optimization of remediation strategies using vadose zone monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    In-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change the subsurface hydrological, physical and chemical conditions in order to enable development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria. As such the remediation efficiency is much dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. These conditions are usually determined in laboratory experiments where parameters such as the chemical composition of the soil water solution, redox potential and water content of the sediment are fully controlled. Usually, implementation of desired optimal degradation conditions in deep vadose zone at full scale field setups is achieved through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives on the land surface. It is assumed that deep percolation into the vadose zone would create chemical conditions that promote biodegradation of specific compounds. However, application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily results in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) that was recently developed allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of deep sections of the unsaturated zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes which allow continuous monitoring of the temporal variation of the vadose zone water content, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) which are designed to allow frequent sampling of the sediment pore-water and gas at multiple depths. Implementation of the vadose zone monitoring system in sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the actual chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Up-to-date the system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and contaminant transport in

  7. Friction of Shear-Fracture Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riikilä, T. I.; Pylväinen, J. I.; Åström, J.

    2017-12-01

    A shear fracture of brittle solids under compression undergoes a substantial evolution from the initial microcracking to a fully formed powder-filled shear zone. Experiments covering the entire process are relatively easy to conduct, but they are very difficult to investigate in detail. Numerically, the large strain limit has remained a challenge. An efficient simulation model and a custom-made experimental device are employed to test to what extent a shear fracture alone is sufficient to drive material to spontaneous self-lubrication. A "weak shear zone" is an important concept in geology, and a large number of explanations, specific for tectonic conditions, have been proposed. We demonstrate here that weak shear zones are far more general, and that their emergence only demands that a microscopic, i.e., fragment-scale, stress relaxation mechanism develops during the fracture process.

  8. 15 CFR 400.41 - Zone operations; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... district and is responsible for enforcement, including physical security and access requirements, as... operation. Zone grantees shall ensure that the reasonable zone needs of the business community are served by...

  9. Fault zone architecture of a major oblique-slip fault in the Rawil depression, Western Helvetic nappes, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, D.; Mancktelow, N. S.

    2009-04-01

    The Helvetic nappes in the Swiss Alps form a classic fold-and-thrust belt related to overall NNW-directed transport. In western Switzerland, the plunge of nappe fold axes and the regional distribution of units define a broad depression, the Rawil depression, between the culminations of Aiguilles Rouge massif to the SW and Aar massif to the NE. A compilation of data from the literature establishes that, in addition to thrusts related to nappe stacking, the Rawil depression is cross-cut by four sets of brittle faults: (1) SW-NE striking normal faults that strike parallel to the regional fold axis trend, (2) NW-SE striking normal faults and joints that strike perpendicular to the regional fold axis trend, and (3) WNW-ESE striking normal plus dextral oblique-slip faults as well as (4) WSW-ENE striking normal plus dextral oblique-slip faults that both strike oblique to the regional fold axis trend. We studied in detail a beautifully exposed fault from set 3, the Rezli fault zone (RFZ) in the central Wildhorn nappe. The RFZ is a shallow to moderately-dipping (ca. 30-60˚) fault zone with an oblique-slip displacement vector, combining both dextral and normal components. It must have formed in approximately this orientation, because the local orientation of fold axes corresponds to the regional one, as does the generally vertical orientation of extensional joints and veins associated with the regional fault set 2. The fault zone crosscuts four different lithologies: limestone, intercalated marl and limestone, marl and sandstone, and it has a maximum horizontal dextral offset component of ~300 m and a maximum vertical normal offset component of ~200 m. Its internal architecture strongly depends on the lithology in which it developed. In the limestone, it consists of veins, stylolites, cataclasites and cemented gouge, in the intercalated marls and limestones of anastomosing shear zones, brittle fractures, veins and folds, in the marls of anastomosing shear zones, pressure

  10. 9 CFR 73.8 - Cattle infected or exposed during transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle infected or exposed during... SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.8 Cattle infected or exposed during transit. (a) Healthy cattle from unquarantined State exposed en route. Should healthy cattle in transit from a State not quarantined by the Secretary...

  11. Vadose zone studies at an industrial contaminated site: the vadose zone monitoring system and cross-hole geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Beaujean, Jean; Jamin, Pierre; Nguyen, Frédéric; Dahan, Ofer; Vanclooster, Marnik; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination, there is a need to improve in situ vadose zone characterization. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Such methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. In addition, most technologies are applicable only in the first meters of soils, leaving deeper vadose zones with lack of information, in particular on field scale heterogeneity. In order to overcome such difficulties, a vadose zone experiment has been setup at a former industrial site in Belgium. Industrial activities carried out on site left a legacy of soil and groundwater contamination in BTEX, PAH, cyanide and heavy metals. The experiment comprises the combination of two techniques: the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS) and cross-hole geophysics. The VMS allows continuous measurements of water content and temperature at different depths of the vadose zone. In addition, it provides the possibility of pore water sampling at different depths. The system is formed by a flexible sleeve containing monitoring units along its depth which is installed in a slanted borehole. The flexible sleeve contains three types of monitoring units in the vadose zone: Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT), which allows water content measurements; Vadose Sampling Ports (VSP), used for collecting water samples coming from the matrix; the Fracture Samplers (FS), which are used for retrieving water samples from the fractures. Cross-hole geophysics techniques consist in the injection of an electrical current using electrodes installed in vertical boreholes. From measured potential differences, detailed spatial patterns about electrical properties of the subsurface can be inferred. Such spatial patterns are related with subsurface heterogeneities, water content and solute concentrations. Two VMS were

  12. Unintentional contaminant transfer from groundwater to the vadose zone during source zone remediation of volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Andrea D; Mayer, K Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Historical heavy use of chlorinated solvents in conjunction with improper disposal practices and accidental releases has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and groundwater in North America and worldwide. As a result, remediation of chlorinated solvents is required at many sites. For source zone treatment, common remediation strategies include in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using potassium or sodium permanganate, and the enhancement of biodegradation by primary substrate addition. It is well known that these remediation methods tend to generate gas (carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the case of ISCO using permanganate, CO 2 and methane (CH 4 ) in the case of bioremediation). Vigorous gas generation in the presence of chlorinated solvents, which are categorized as volatile organic contaminants (VOCs), may cause gas exsolution, ebullition and stripping of the contaminants from the treatment zone. This process may lead to unintentional 'compartment transfer', whereby VOCs are transported away from the contaminated zone into overlying clean sediments and into the vadose zone. To this extent, benchtop column experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of gas generation during remediation of the common chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE/C 2 Cl 3 H). Both ISCO and enhanced bioremediation were considered as treatment methods. Results show that gas exsolution and ebullition occurs for both remediation technologies. Facilitated by ebullition, TCE was transported from the source zone into overlying clean groundwater and was subsequently released into the column headspace. For the case of enhanced bioremediation, the intermediate degradation product vinyl chloride (VC) was also stripped from the treatment zone. The concentrations measured in the headspace of the columns (TCE ∼300ppm in the ISCO column, TCE ∼500ppm and VC ∼1380ppm in the bioremediation column) indicate that substantial transfer of VOCs to the vadose zone is possible. These findings

  13. Educator Sexual Misconduct: Exposing or Causing Learners to Be Exposed to Child Pornography or Pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coetzee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he law recognises that non-contact sexual offences can cause harm and several offences were created to regulate non-contact sexual child abuse offences. Several of these offences deal with the exposure or causing exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Sexual grooming of children and the “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” are criminalised in sections 18(2 and 19 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007. And offences in relation to exposing children to disturbing, harmful and age-inappropriate materials are criminalised in sections 24A(2 and (4 of the Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996. In this article the author considered the content of the offences of “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” in relation to the other offences dealing with exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Benchmarked against these criminal offences the author then conceptualised exposing learners, or causing the exposure of learners to child pornography or pornography as forms of educator misconduct. The seriousness that should be attached to these forms of misconduct was considered in light of the various criminal offences. The review of the criminal offences and the forms of educator misconduct brought the ineffectiveness of current forms of serious educator misconduct to the fore. There is no form of serious misconduct that covers the transgression of educators who expose learners to child pornography or pornography that can be classified as “XX”. In conclusion a suggestion is made with regard to how a new form of serious misconduct could be worded so as to cover this gap, eg An educator must be dismissed if he or she is found guilty of – (g exposing a learner to or causing exposure of a learner to material classified as “Refused” or

  14. Embodied Archives as Contact Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vidiella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection about affective politics from locating some theoretical and conceptual genealogies like «emotion», «affection», «zones of contact»…, that understand them as action and force fields. These contributions allow us to rethink the relation of affects with politics and strategies of archive linked to performance, and understood as zones of friction, collision, circulation and contact: performative writing, repertoire, memes…

  15. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  16. Gravity field and structure of the Sorong Fault Zone, eastern Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardjono

    Gravity surveys along coastlines of islands in the region Banggai-Sula, Eastern Sulawesi, Halmahera, Bacan and Obi were carried out as part of the Sorong Fault Zone Project. Results of the Surveys were integrated with gravity data previously acquired by other projects, including on-land gravity data from the Bird Head area Irian Jaya (Dow et al 1986), Seram Island (Milsom 1977), Buru Island (Oemar and Reminton 1993) and Central Sulawesi (Silver et al. 1983) as well as marine gravity information within and surrounding the Sorong Fault Zone (Bowin et al. 1980). Gravity expeditions of the Sorong Fault Zone Project also include measurements in Mayu Island and the island group of Talaud, situated further north in the Central Molucca Sea region. A total of one hundred and forty two gravity data were acquired in the region of Banggai-Sula islands, forty seven in eastern part of Central Sulawesi, about four hundred in Halmahera, Bacan and Obi, and seventy nine in Mayu and Talaud. Surveys in the eastern part of Central Sulawesi were carried out for the purpose of tieing the older gravity data obtained from Silver et al. (1983) and the more recent data of the Sorong Fault Zone Project. About one thousand thirty hundred and thirty gravity data were acquired as part of the Irian Jaya Geological Mapping Project (IJGMP) in the period of 1978-1983, a project commissioned by the Indonesian Geological Research and Development Centre (GRDC) and the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR). The remoteness of the survey areas of the Sorong Fault Zone Project necessitated a careful planning for travel arrangements and provision of logistics. A wide range of magnitude of gravity field was observed in the Sorong Fault Zone, extending from values below -250 mGal recorded in the southern part of the Molucca Sea to values in excess of +320 mGal measured near to sea level in the coastal areas south of Mangole and north of Sulabesi, the two islands of the Sula Group. Steep gradients of

  17. Empowering the child and caregiver: yellow zone Asthma Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.

  18. Mapping Of The Hydrothermal Alteration Zones At Haimur Gold Mine Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.A.; Abdel Rahman, E.M.; FA WZY, Kh.M.; EMAM, A.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of the Landsat-7 ETM+ imagery and scanned aerial photograph for mapping hydrothermal alteration zones at the Haimur gold mine area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt and the production of large scale geologic image map, scale 1 :20 000, using fusion technique are the main tasks of this article. The study area lies at the conjunction of two shear zones, namely the Allaqi shear zone (NW-SE) and the Haimur shear zone (NE-SW). The basement rocks covering Haimur gold mine area include ophiolitic blocks and sheets that were tectonically thrusted over and mixed within a matrix of island arc rocks. Principal Component Analysis, band ratios and data fusion are the main remote sensing techniques applied in the present work. The eigenvalue of the first principal component (PCl) includes 95.9% of the information content of the image whereas PC2 and PC5 mark 3.03% and 0.10%, respectively. The PC5 image was found to represent the highly altered rocks in the study area (serpentinites and carbonates), which display dark image signatures. The metagabbros and metapyroclastics can be easily discriminated on the PC1:R, PC2:G and PC5:B false color composite image in which they have dark red and blue image signatures, respectively. The talc carbonates and the serpentinites have bright image signatures on 5/7 band ratio image whereas metapyroxenites have dark image signatures. The talc carbonates are composed mainly of talc, magnesite and calcite with subordinate amounts of fibrous antigorite. These minerals have absorption features near 2.35 m which lead to increase 5/7 band ratio value. The false color composite ratio image 5/7:R, 4/5:G and 3/1:B was merged with scanned high spatial resolution aerial photograph using IHS transformation method. The resultant fused image was then used to delineate the hydrothermal alteration zones as well as listwaenite ridges exposed at the Haimur gold mine area

  19. Impact of loudspeaker nonlinear distortion on personal sound zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiaohui; J. Hegarty, Patrick; Abildgaard Pedersen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Personal sound zone systems aim at creating multiple listening zones within a shared space with minimum interference between zones, but the performance is often poorer than simulations predict and effects of nonlinear distortion are sometimes audible. This paper assesses the impact of nonlinear...... distortion on sound zones through simulations and measurements performed under anechoic conditions. Two sound zones, one bright and one dark, are created with acoustic contrast control using two loudspeaker arrays driven at 250 Hz. Nonlinear distortion is modelled using second or third order nonlinearities....... Simulations show that nonlinear distortion degrades the acoustic contrast, which is confirmed by experimental measurements. The harmonic distortion is audible in the dark zone. Frequency resolved measurements reveal that harmonic distortion contributes to contrast loss, but nonlinear effects...

  20. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, David A.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2016-04-26

    Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetland hydrologic regimes at different locations on the river floodplain. A new predictive tool is introduced and validated, the potential SEV (pSEV), which can reduce the need for extensive new data collection in wetland restoration planning. Models of water levels and inundation frequency distinguish four zones encompassing eight reaches. The system zones are the wave- and current-dominated Entrance to river kilometer (rkm) 5; the Estuary (rkm-5 to 87), comprised of a lower reach with salinity, the energy minimum (where the turbidity maximum normally occurs), and an upper estuary reach without salinity; the Tidal River (rkm-87 to 229), with lower, middle, and upper reaches in which river flow becomes increasingly dominant over tides in determining water levels; and the steep and weakly tidal Cascade (rkm-229 to 234) immediately downstream from Bonneville Dam. The same zonation is seen in the water levels of floodplain stations, with considerable modification of tidal properties. The system zones and reaches defined here reflect geological features and their boundaries are congruent with five wetland vegetation zones

  1. Vadose Zone Journal: The first ten years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, J.A.; Or, D.; Young, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Celebrating ten years of publication, the authors introduce a special section commemorating the anniversary of Vadose Zone Journal and reviewing the journal’s role in an evolving understanding of vadose zone science.

  2. Social economic zones as an instrument of regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Lizińska

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper was the analysis of the main aspects o f Special Economic Zones (SEZ activity. It refers especially to the goals for establishment, operational models of these zones, SEZ based on examples of selected countries and Poland in the context o f integration with the European Union. The Special Economic Zones to create more attractive conditions for business operations, to contribute mainly to the development of small and medium enterprises and variety of services, consequently to improve employment. However, the consequences of the zones existence can be negative for economy of the region. The Special Economic Zones that are functioning worldwide are different. In Poland, they were first designed by the Irish and based on the example of the zone in Shannon. The existence and principles of the Special Economic Zones operations in Poland are one of the contradiction points in the negotiations with the European Union.

  3. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of the base metal, shielding medium and the nature of the electrode metal transfer to a great extent determine the penetration area formation in gas-arc welding. It is not always possible to take into account the influence of these factors on penetration front forming within the existing models. The aim of the work was to research the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding. The research of the penetration area forming in gas-arc welding of CrNi austenitic steels was made. The parameters of the regime as well as the kind of the gaseous medium influence on the formation of the penetration zone were studied. The article shows a linear proportional relationship between the electrode feed rate and the size of the base metal plate. The penetration area formation mode for welding in argon and carbon dioxide have been worked out. Diameter, feed rate and the speed of the electrode movement have been chosen as the main input parameters. Multiple regression analysis method was used to make up the modes. The relations of the third order that make it possible to take into account the electrode metal transfer and thermal properties change of the materials to be welded were used. These relationships show quite good agreement with the experimental measurements in the calculation of the fusion zone shape with consumable electrode in argon and carbon dioxide. It was determined that the shape of the melting front curve can be shown as a generalized function in which the front motion parameters depend on feed rate and the diameter of the electrode. Penetration zone growth time is determined by the welding speed and is calculated as a discrete function of the distance from the electrode with the spacing along the movement coordinate. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The modes can be used to develop

  4. The affect of the space environment on the survival of Halorubrum chaoviator and Synechococcus (Nägeli): data from the Space Experiment OSMO on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, R. L.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown using ESA's Biopan facility flown in Earth orbit that when exposed to the space environment for 2 weeks the survival rate of Synechococcus (Nägeli), a halophilic cyanobacterium isolated from the evaporitic gypsum-halite crusts that form along the marine intertidal, and Halorubrum chaoviator a member of the Halobacteriaceae isolated from an evaporitic NaCl crystal obtained from a salt evaporation pond, were higher than all other test organisms except Bacillus spores. These results led to the EXPOSE-R mission to extend and refine these experiments as part of the experimental package for the external platform space exposure facility on the ISS. The experiment was flown in February 2009 and the organisms were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years. Samples were either exposed to solar ultraviolet (UV)-radiation (λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm, cosmic radiation (dosage range 225-320 mGy), or kept in darkness shielded from solar UV-radiation. Half of each of the UV-radiation exposed samples and dark samples were exposed to space vacuum and half kept at 105 pascals in argon. Duplicate samples were kept in the laboratory to serve as unexposed controls. Ground simulation control experiments were also performed. After retrieval, organism viability was tested using Molecular Probes Live-Dead Bac-Lite stain and by their reproduction capability. Samples kept in the dark, but exposed to space vacuum had a 90 +/- 5% survival rate compared to the ground controls. Samples exposed to full UV-radiation for over a year were bleached and although results from Molecular Probes Live-Dead stain suggested ~10% survival, the data indicate that no survival was detected using cell growth and division using the most probable number method. Those samples exposed to attenuated UV-radiation exhibited limited survival. Results from of this study are relevant to understanding adaptation and evolution of life, the future of life beyond earth, the potential for interplanetary

  5. Investigating the influence of DNAPL spill characteristics on source zone architecture and mass removal in pool-dominated source zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K. A.; Abriola, L.; Chen, M.; Ramsburg, A.; Pennell, K. D.; Christ, J.

    2009-12-01

    Multiphase, compositional simulators were employed to investigate the spill characteristics and subsurface properties that lead to pool-dominated, dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) source zone architectures. DNAPL pools commonly form at textural interfaces where low permeability lenses restrict the vertical migration of DNAPL, allowing for DNAPL to accumulate, reaching high saturation. Significant pooling has been observed in bench-scale experiments and field settings. However, commonly employed numerical simulations rarely predict the pooling suspected in the field. Given the importance of pooling on the efficacy of mass recovery and the down-gradient contaminant signal, it is important to understand the predominant factors affecting the creation of pool-dominated source zones and their subsequent mass discharge. In this work, contaminant properties, spill characteristics and subsurface permeability were varied to investigate the factors contributing to the development of a pool-dominated source zone. DNAPL infiltration and entrapment simulations were conducted in two- and three-dimensional domains using the University of Texas Chemical Compositional (UTCHEM) simulator. A modified version of MT3DMS was then used to simulate DNAPL dissolution and mass discharge. Numerical mesh size was varied to investigate the importance of numerical model parameters on simulations results. The temporal evolution of commonly employed source zone architecture metrics, such as the maximum DNAPL saturation, first and second spatial moments, and fraction of DNAPL mass located in pools, was monitored to determine how the source zone architecture evolved with time. Mass discharge was monitored to identify the link between source zone architecture and down-gradient contaminant flux. Contaminant characteristics and the presence of extensive low permeability lenses appeared to have the most influence on the development of a pool-dominated source zone. The link between DNAPL mass

  6. 23 CFR 750.708 - Acceptance of state zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance of state zoning. 750.708 Section 750.708... BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.708 Acceptance of state zoning. (a) 23 U.S.C. 131(d) provide... within areas . . . which are zoned industrial or commercial under authority of State law.” Section 131(d...

  7. Satellite observation of bio-optical indicators related to North-Western Black Sea coastal zone changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    Satellite remote sensing provides a means for locating, identifying and mapping certain coastal zone features and assessing of spatio-temporal changes.The Romanian coastal zone of the Black Sea is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, exposed to dramatic changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on the fusion of satellite remote sensing data.The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. Based on different satellite data (Landsat TM, ETM, SAR ERS, IKONOS, Quickbird, and MODIS) was performed object recognition for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone. Preliminary results show significant coastline position changes of North Western Black Sea during the period of 1987-2007 and urban growth of Constantza town. Also the change in the position of the coastline is examined and linked to the urban expansion in order to determine if the changes are natural or anthropogenic. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. Waves play an important role for shoreline configuration. Wave pattern could induce erosion and sedimentation. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change. The vectors of shoreline were used to compare with wave spectra model in order to examine the accuracy of the coastal erosion model. The shoreline rate modeled from vectors data of SAR ERS-1 has a good correlation with a quasi-linear model. Wave refraction patterns are a good index for shoreline erosion. A coast

  8. A/M Area Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupar, J.; Jarosch, T.R.; Jackson, D.G. Jr.; Looney, B.B.; Jerome, K.M.; Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Van Pelt, R.S.

    1998-03-01

    Characterization and monitoring data from implementation and the first two and one half years of vadose zone remediation operations indicate that this activity has substantially improved the performance of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Program. During this period, vadose zone remediation removed approximately 225, 000 lbs (100,000 Kg) of chlorinated solvents (CVOCs) from the subsurface. Further, vadose zone remediation system operation increased the overall CVOC removal rate of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action by 300% to 500% during this period versus the groundwater pump and treat system along. Various support activities have been performed to support operation and documentation of performance of the vadose zone remediation system. These activities address performance of existing systems (contaminant distributions, zone of influence, and process monitoring data), evaluation of suspect sources, evaluation of alternative/enhancement technologies, and initial development of remediation goals. In particular, the most recent A/M vadose zone remediation support activities (described in WSRC-RP-97-109) were completed and the results provide key documentation about system performance

  9. Of floating-zone uranium; Sur l'uranium de zone flottante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clottes, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-01-01

    The floating zone method has been chosen in order to purify uranium. The various parameters occurring in this purification technique, have been studied theoretically and technologically. The speed that proves to be the most efficient is 0,7 cm/h, the direction can only upwards, and the fusion must take place under pressure of 10{sup -7} Torr or so. Besides such problems concerning purification, the study of the floating zone stability led us to define a field touching the size and diameter of uranium drops, which, on the one hand coincides with Heywang's conditions and, on the other hand, is compatible with a fusion in the core of the bar. Such field shows that the floating zone can easily apply to bars whose diameter is included between 5 and 10 mm, and that it cannot work out when the diameter exceeds 21 mm. The apparatus, consisting in a means of heating by electronic bombardment under ultra-vacuum is conditioned by the various parameters that have been studied. As the analysis results were insufficient, the uranium thus dealt with has been characterized by metallurgic and physical tests: micrographic tests, measures of microhardness, measures of electric resistivity at a low temperature, have shown a definite purification at the bar-head; these results have been confirmed by the lowering at 270 C of the temperature of recrystallization together with the definite tendency of the refined metal to polygonize. The measures of electric resistivity constitute an easy and quantitative way of figuring out the metal purity. The influence of an impurity on the electric resistivity of uranium has been studied by U-Au alloys with a weak concentration of gold. The two important following points are brought out be these experiences: 1 - the measure of electric resistivity should be worked out on anneal bars in {gamma} phase and cooled. 2 - Gold has a very strong influence on uranium; the value 500 {mu}{omega}cm per cent of gold enabled us to give a total concentration of 20

  10. 76 FR 38297 - Safety Zone; Marine Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Sault Sainte Marie Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... spectators. Such hazards include obstructions to navigable channels, explosive dangers associated with...: NAD 83], with the West Bay shoreline forming the South and West boundaries of the zone. (ii...

  11. Clinical findings on in utero exposed microcephalic children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabuchi, Akira; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Nakagawa, Shigeru; Shimada, Katsunobu; Fujito, Junro

    1966-12-24

    Since animal experiments have shown that microcephaly is induced by fetal exposure to radiation and microcephaly has been found in children of mothers exposed to x-ray therapy during pregnancy (Murphy et al), the main cause of microcephaly in children exposed in utero to the A-bomb is considered to be ionizing radiation. Wood et al reported the increased incidence of microcephaly and mental retardation in children exposed in utero at proximal distances which they felt could not be attributed to any other known variable. ABCC has recently concluded that the effect of in utero exposure is primarily due to the immediate effect of radiation upon the fetuses although in A-bomb exposure the physical injury to the mother due to the A-bomb cannot be completely ignored. Our survey likewise revealed an increase of microcephaly in children exposed early in pregnancy at less than 15 weeks at closer distances than 1500 m. Thus, we presume that A-bomb radiation increases the incidence of microcephaly. 16 references, 8 tables.

  12. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  13. Weaving the history of the solar wind with magnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado Gomez, Julian

    2017-08-01

    Despite its fundamental role for the evolution of the solar system, our observational knowledge of the wind properties of the young Sun comes from a single stellar observation. This unexpected fact for a field such as astrophysics arises from the difficulty of detecting Sun-like stellar winds. Their detection relies on the appearance of an astrospheric signature (from the stellar wind-ISM interaction region), visible only with the aid of high-resolution HST Lyman-alpha spectra. However, observations and modelling of the present day Sun have revealed that magnetic fields constitute the main driver of the solar wind, providing guidance on how such winds would look like back in time. In this context we propose observations of four young Sun-like stars in order to detect their astrospheres and characterise their stellar winds. For all these objects we have recovered surface magnetic field maps using the technique of Zeeman Doppler Imaging, and developed detailed wind models based on these observed field distributions. Even a single detection would represent a major step forward for our understanding of the history of the solar wind, and the outflows in more active stars. Mass loss rate estimates from HST will be confronted with predictions from realistic models of the corona/stellar wind. In one of our objects the comparison would allow us to quantify the wind variability induced by the magnetic cycle of a star, other than the Sun, for the first time. Three of our targets are planet hosts, thus the HST spectra would also provide key information on the high-energy environment of these systems, guaranteeing their legacy value for the growing field of exoplanet characterisation.

  14. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  15. Using the Vertical Component of the Surface Velocity Field to Map the Locked Zone at Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulas, E.; Brandon, M. T.; Podladchikov, Y.; Bennett, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    At present, our understanding of the locked zone at Cascadia subduction zone is based on thermal modeling and elastic modeling of horizontal GPS velocities. The thermal model by Hyndman and Wang (1995) provided a first-order assessment of where the subduction thrust might be cold enough for stick-slip behavior. The alternative approach by McCaffrey et al. (2007) is to use a Green's function that relates horizontal surface velocities, as recorded by GPS, to interseismic elastic deformation. The thermal modeling approach is limited by a lack of information about the amount of frictional heating occurring on the thrust (Molnar and England, 1990). The GPS approach is limited in that the horizontal velocity component is fairly insensitive to the structure of the locked zone. The vertical velocity component is much more useful for this purpose. We are fortunate in that vertical velocities can now be measured by GPS to a precision of about 0.2 mm/a. The dislocation model predicts that vertical velocities should range up to about 20 percent of the subduction velocity, which means maximum values of ~7 mm/a. The locked zone is generally entirely offshore at Cascadia, except for the Olympic Peninsula region, where the underlying Juan De Fuca plate has an anomalously low dip. Previous thermal and GPS modeling, as well as tide gauge data and episodic tremors indicate the locked zone there extends about 50 to 75 km onland. This situation provides an opportunity to directly study the locked zone. With that objective in mind, we have constructed a full 3D geodynamic model of the Cascadia subduction zone. At present, the model provides a full representation of the interseismic elastic deformation due to variations of slip on the subduction thrust. The model has been benchmarked against the Savage (2D) and Okada (3D) analytical solutions. This model has an important advantage over traditional dislocation modeling in that we include temperature-sensitive viscosity for the upper and

  16. Animal Cruelty by Children Exposed to Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to determine if children exposed to domestic violence were significantly more likely to be cruel to animals than children not exposed to violence. The second was to determine if there were significant age and gender differences between children who were and were not cruel to animals. Method: A…

  17. Dual-zone boiling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Schwarz, A.; Thorogood, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a process for boiling flowing liquids in a heat exchanger wherein the flowing liquids is heated in a single heat exchanger to vaporize the liquid. The improvement described here comprises: (a) passing the boiling flowing liquid through a first heat transfer zone of the heat exchanger comprising a surface with a high-convective-heat-transfer characteristic and a higher pressure drop characteristic; and then (b) passing the boiling flowing liquid through a second heat transfer zone of the heat exchanger comprising an essentially open channel with only minor obstructions by secondary surfaces, with an enhanced nucleate boiling heat transfer surface and a lower pressure drop characteristic

  18. Pathology of nodal marginal zone lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileri, Stefano; Ponzoni, Maurilio

    Nodal marginal zone B cell lymphomas (NMZLs) are a rare group of lymphoid disorders part of the spectrum of marginal zone B-cell lymphomas, which encompass splenic marginal one B-cell lymphoma (SMZL) and extra nodal marginal zone of B-cell lymphoma (EMZL), often of MALT-type. Two clinicopathological forms of NMZL are recognized: adult-type and pediatric-type, respectively. NMZLs show overlapping features with other types of MZ, but distinctive features as well. In this review, we will focus on the salient distinguishing features of NMZL mostly under morphological/immunophenotypical/molecular perspectives in views of the recent acquisitions and forthcoming updated 2016 WHO classification of lymphoid malignancies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ionization dual-zone static detector having single radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L. Jr.; Wade, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    This ionization detector or combustion product detector includes a single radioactive source located in an ionization chamber, and the ionization chamber includes portions comprising a reference zone and a signal zone. Electrical circuitry connected to the reference and signal zones provides an output signal directly related to changes in voltages across the signal zone in relation to the amount of particulates of combustion present in the ionization chamber

  20. Fostering Women's Economic Empowerment through Special Economic Zones : Comparative Analysis of Eight Countries and Implications for Governments, Zone Authorities and Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    This global report examines the opportunity for special economic zones to promote women's economic empowerment and boost zone and enterprise competitiveness in developing countries. The research covers Bangladesh, China, Costa Rica, Egypt, El Salvador, Jordan, Kenya, and the Philippines. The study focuses on women's economic empowerment in the context of zones at three levels: (i) fair emp...

  1. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-01-01

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone is the one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  2. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-03-31

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone isthe one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  3. Effectiveness of work zone intelligent transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have increasingly been deployed in work zones by state departments of transportation. Also known as smart work zone systems they improve traffic operations and safety by providing real-time...

  4. Urine nickel concentrations in nickel-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacki, E J; Parsons, G E; Roy, B R; Mikac-Devic, M; Kennedy, C D; Sunderman, F W

    1978-01-01

    Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was employed for analyses of nickel concentrations in urine samples from nickel-exposed workers in 10 occupational groups and from non-exposed workers in two control groups. Mean concentrations of nickel in urine were greatest in workers who were exposed to inhalation of aerosols of soluble nickel salts (e.g., workers in nickel plating operations and in an electrolytic nickel refinery). Less marked increases in urine nickel concentrations were found in groups of metal sprayers, nickel battery workers, bench mechanics and are welders. No significant increases in mean concentrations of nickel were found in urine samples from workers who performed grinding, buffing and polishing of nickel-containing alloys or workers in a coal gasification plant who employed Raney nickel as a hydrogenation catalyst. Measurements of nickel concentrations in urine are more sensitive and practical than measurements of serum nickel concentrations for evaluation of nickel exposures in industrial workers.

  5. Twenty-one days of isolation: A prospective observational cohort study of an Ebola-exposed hot zone community in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George Sie; Naiene, Jeremias; Gayflor, Joseph; Malibiche, Theophil; Zoogley, Bentoe; Frank, Wimot G; Nayeri, Fariba

    2015-08-01

    As West Africa continues to suffer from a deadly Ebola epidemic, the national health sectors struggle to minimize the damages and stop the spread of disease. A cohort of inhabitants of a small village and an Ebola hot zone in Sinoe County of Liberia was followed on a day-by-day basis to search for new cases and to minimize the spread of Ebola to the other community members or to other regions. Technical, clinical, and humanistic aspects of the response are discussed in this report. Of the 22 confirmed Ebola cases in Sinoe County since the beginning of outbreak (June 16, 2014), 7 cases were inhabitants of Polay Town, a small village 5.5 miles east of Greenville, the Sinoe County capital. After the last wave of outbreak at the beginning of December, enhanced response activity provided essential coordination and mobilized the resources to stop the epidemic. Despite unprotected contacts in crowded houses, no new cases were detected among the contact families, or in the surrounding houses or communities. Strong national mobilization in a decentralized but harmonized system at the community level has been of great value in controlling the epidemic in Liberia. The major interventions include epidemiological surveillance, public information dissemination, effective communication, case management, and infection control. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction by numerical modeling of the risk zone along a riverside exposed to a dam failure; Prevision par modelisation numerique de la zone de risque bordant un troncon de riviere subissant une rupture de barrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdi, T.F.

    2004-07-01

    The risk zone associated with the surge wave following dam failure is defined in this study using a newly developed methodology that incorporates the conventionally used maximum water levels, the sediment movement in the river bed and the possibility of bank failure. Although the risk zone is typically defined as the inundated area, extensive lateral erosion that causes landslides could also accompany the inundation. This study demonstrates that the stability of the riverbank (in terms of geotechnical considerations) can influence the delineation of the risk area. The combined disciplines of geotechnics and hydraulics can be used to follow the evolution of the riverbed and riverbanks during a flood event. This study also presents a structured methodology for the St. Venant shallow water wave equations which were used to determine the area likely to be flooded without taking into account sediment transport. It also discusses aspects of the sediment transport theory. Fluvial erosion and lateral bank failure are the basic physical processes responsible for bank retreat. The minimum energy dissipation rate theory is applied for fluvial erosion, while Bishop's modified method is used to analyze slope stability when evaluating lateral bank failures. A numerical modeling of flows over movable beds is presented along with a review of some of the available numerical models. A diagnostic phase that provides information needed to qualify the extent of the damage after a flood is also presented. Some of the numerical models to evaluate risk area were validated on a portion of the HaHa River which was affected in the 1996 Saguenay flood. The new methodology, applied to the Outaouais River at Notre Dame du Nord in Quebec, produces a risk area much greater than that obtained when only the inundated area is considered.

  7. Map of regions - zones and sub-zones with coal in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido Gonzalez, Orlando; Mejia Umana, Luis Jorge

    1999-01-01

    This map has as objective to show and to categorize the distribution of the Colombian coal for regions, zones and sub-zones, the map has the different locations in possible mining projects that could be developed to supply international markets or for national, regional or local consumption; for this reason the current knowledge in quality like in the potential of the resource, it is useful to establish priorities in the mining development, in the exploration and evaluation especially in those regions of low geologic knowledge and to obtain this way a better use in function of the community and the industry. In the description that accompanies the map and in the summary, some geologic parameters and physical-chemical settle down; as well as of reserves measures and indicates and hypothetical resources that summarize the characteristics of the coal of the country

  8. Moving not staying still in time to the zone

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Kath

    2017-01-01

    Time and temporality are central to being in the zone. Along with harmony and synchrony, the experience of the zone, whether individual or collective is located within a time when everything comes together in a moment, even if the moment is immeasurable and often experienced as timeless. This chapter explores the phenomenon and experience of the zone in boxing, as a powerfully enfleshed sport in which the zone is frequently invoked, both positively and negatively.

  9. Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone (SW Turkey): a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis; Özkaptan, Murat; Özacar, Arda A.; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2017-04-01

    Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) is first proposed by Dumont et al. (1979) as a sinistral strike-slip fault zone as the NE continuation of Pliny-Strabo trench in to the Anatolian Block. The fault zone supposed to accommodate at least 100 km sinistral displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. Based on GPS velocities Barka and Reilinger (1997) proposed that the fault zone is still active and accommodates sinistral displacement. In order to test the presence and to unravel its kinematics we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic study containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations and 11700 fault slip data collected from 198 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia spanning from Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene. The obtained rotation senses and amounts indicate slight (around 20°) counter-clockwise rotations distributed uniformly almost whole SW Anatolia and there is no change in the rotation senses and amounts on either side of the FBFZ implying no differential rotation within the zone. Additionally, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations, along the so called FBFZ and also within the 300 km diameter of the proposed fault zone, indicated that almost all the faults, oriented parallel to subparallel to the zone, are normal in character. The fault slip measurements are also consistent with earthquake focal mechanisms suggesting active extension in the region. We have not encountered any significant strike-slip motion in the region to support presence and transcurrent nature of the FBFZ. On the contrary, the region is dominated by extensional deformation and strike-slip components are observed only on the NW-SE striking faults which are transfer faults that accommodated extension and normal motion. Therefore, we claim that the sinistral Fethiye Burdur Fault (Zone) is a myth and there is no tangible

  10. The Biomantle-Critical Zone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Lin, H.

    2006-12-01

    It is a fact that established fields, like geomorphology, soil science, and pedology, which treat near surface and surface processes, are undergoing conceptual changes. Disciplinary self examinations are rife. New practitioners are joining these fields, bringing novel and interdisciplinary ideas. Such new names as "Earth's critical zone," "near surface geophysics," and "weathering engine" are being coined for research groups. Their agendas reflect an effort to integrate and reenergize established fields and break new ground. The new discipline "hydropedology" integrates soil science with hydrologic principles, and recent biodynamic investigations have spawned "biomantle" concepts and principles. One force behind these sea shifts may be retrospectives whereby disciplines periodically re-invent themselves to meet new challenges. Such retrospectives may be manifest in the recent Science issue on "Soils, The Final Frontier" (11 June, 2004), and in recent National Research Council reports that have set challenges to science for the next three decades (Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Science, and Grand Challenges for the Environmental Sciences, both published in 2001). In keeping with such changes, we advocate the integration of biomantle and critical zone concepts into a general model of Earth's soil. (The scope of the model automatically includes the domain of hydropedology.) Our justification is that the integration makes for a more appealing holistic, and realistic, model for the domain of Earth's soil at any scale. The focus is on the biodynamics of the biomantle and water flow within the critical zone. In this general model the biomantle is the epidermis of the critical zone, which extends to the base of the aquifer. We define soil as the outer layer of landforms on planets and similar bodies altered by biological, chemical, and/or physical agents. Because Earth is the only planet with biological agents, as far as we know, it is the only one that has all

  11. Making SPC easier with zone control charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, B.

    1995-01-01

    The zone control chart is a simple, easy to learn statistical process control (SPC) tool that can be applied to any process where the data are normally distributed. Several Shewhart runs rules are incorporated into a simple scoring system, with a single rule to determine when a process is out of control. Zone charts have average run lengths (ARLs) for detecting shifts in the process mean which, for most cases, are uniformly better than the standard control charts. This paper presents the simplified methodology behind the zone control chart

  12. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...

  13. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1321 - Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of the Port Zone Puget Sound, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Protection of... Areas Thirteenth Coast Guard District § 165.1321 Security Zone; Protection of Military Cargo, Captain of... Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY...

  15. Development of background reduced Fresnel phase zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamari, Yohei; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    In study of hot and dense plasma, a high spatial resolution (a few microns) x-ray imaging is very important to observe these plasmas. The Fresnel phase zone plate (FPZP) consists of alternately material and transparent circular annuli placed concentrically, which image x rays using diffraction x rays from all annuli. FPZP have imaged 4.7-4.77 keV x rays with 2.2 μm spatial resolution. However FPZP has a problem that background level is comparable to signal level. In subtraction of background, the error of 10% is caused. For the accurate background subtraction, we designed new FPZP, which consist of three β layers of a transparent zone and two material zones. The new design FPZP parameters (thickness of material zones, each zone width) have been optimized, and in that optimum design signal-to-background ratio is 4 times better than conventional two layers FPZP

  16. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  17. Generation of sound zones in 2.5 dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Olsen, Martin; Møller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    in a certain direction within a certain region of a room and at the same time suppress sound in another region. The method is examined through simulations and experiments. For comparison a simpler method based on the idea of maximising the ratio of the potential acoustic energy in an ensonified zone......Amethod for generating sound zones with different acoustic properties in a room is presented. The method is an extension of the two-dimensional multi-zone sound field synthesis technique recently developed by Wu and Abhayapala; the goal is, for example, to generate a plane wave that propagates...... to the potential acoustic energy in a quiet zone is also examined....

  18. Taxes and free economic zones: Russian practice and China experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Shibanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Special economic zone – the tool of regional policy of the state used in regions where increase of an economic and social level of development is required, and questions of application of tax benefits and preferences in the territory of a special economic zone acquire special relevance. The purpose of this article is research of the questions concerning the mode of the taxation of special economic zones. In Russia still there is no consensus about the sizes and the special economic zone types, the mechanism of their activity and approach to management. Development of uniform methodology is necessary for the Russian legislation for effective creation of activity of special economic zones taking into account features of a territorial arrangement. This methodology can be developed on the basis of positive experience of functioning of free economic zones of the different countries of the world. In the real work with the help of economic and statistical methods data on development and results of activity of a special economic zone in the territory of the Russian Federation and the China are collected and considered. As an example of successful functioning of the Russian special economic zone the special economic zone "Alabuga" is considered, as an example of functioning in the territory of the China special economic zone Shenzhen and joint industrial park of China and Singapore in the city of Suzhou are considered. The analysis of experience of the China has allowed to draw conclusions on efficiency of development of certain territories of the China through introduction of special economic zones. This fact substantially depends on efficiency of mechanisms of creation and development of economic educations, a possibility of self-government and financial independence in these territories, attraction of the foreign investment capital. There aren't enough these mechanisms in functioning of the Russian special economic zones where concept special

  19. Buffer Zone, Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Marie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  20. Arid Zone Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arid zone hydrology encompasses a wide range of topics and hydro-meteorological and ecological characteristics. Although arid and semi-arid watersheds perform the same functions as those in humid environments, their hydrology and sediment transport characteristics cannot be readily predicted by inf...

  1. Palaeopermeability anisotropies of a strike-slip fault damage zone: 3D Insights of quantitative fluid flow from µCT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomila, R.; Arancibia, G.; Nehler, M.; Bracke, R.; Morata, D.

    2017-12-01

    Fault zones and their related structural permeability are a key aspect in the migration of fluids through the continental crust. Therefore, the estimation of the hydraulic properties (palaeopermeability conditions; k) and the spatial distribution of the fracture mesh within the damage zone (DZ) are critical in the assessment of fault zones behavior for fluids. The study of the real spatial distribution of the veinlets of the fracture mesh (3D), feasible with the use of µCT analyses, is a first order factor to unravel both, the real structural permeability conditions of a fault-zone, and the validation of previous (and classical) estimations made in 2D analyses in thin-sections. This work shows the results of a fault-related fracture mesh and its 3D spatial distribution in the damage-zone of the Jorgillo Fault (JF), an ancient subvertical left-lateral strike-slip fault exposed in the Atacama Fault System in northern Chile. The JF is a ca. 20 km long NNW-striking strike-slip fault with sinistral displacement of ca. 4 km. The methodology consisted of drilling 5 mm vertically oriented plugs at several locations within the JF damage zone. Each specimen was scanned with an X-Ray µCT scanner, to assess the fracture mesh, with a voxel resolution of ca. 4.5 µm in the 3D reconstructed data. Tensor permeability modeling, using Lattice-Boltzmann Method, through the segmented microfracture mesh show GMkmin (geometric mean values) of 2.1x10-12 and 9.8x10-13 m2, and GMkmax of 6.4x10-12 and 2.1x10-12 m2. A high degree of anisotropy of the DZ permeability tensor both sides of the JF (eastern and western side, respectively) is observed, where the k values in the kmax plane are 2.4 and 1.9 times higher than the kmin direction at the time of fracture sealing. This style of anisotropy is consistent with the obtained for bedded sandstones supporting the idea that damage zones have an analogous effect - but vertically orientated - on bulk permeability (in low porosity rocks) as

  2. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-08-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: {yields} Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological

  3. Evaluation of selenium in biological sample of arsenic exposed female skin lesions and skin cancer patients with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolachi, Nida F.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Wadhwa, Sham K.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Baig, Jameel A.; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem

    2011-01-01

    The antagonistic effects between selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) suggest that low Se status plays an important role in arsenism development. The objective of present study was to assess Se contents in biological samples of As exposed females have skin lesions and cancer with related to non-exposed skin cancer patients. The biological samples (blood and scalp hair) of As exposed group comprises, female skin cancer (ESC) patients admitted in cancer hospitals have skin lesions (ESL) and exposed referents have not both diseases (ER), belongs to As exposed area of Pakistan. For comparative purposes, age matched female skin cancerous patient (RP) and non-cancerous females (NER) belong to non-exposed areas were also selected. The As and Se in acid digests of biological samples were pre-concentrated by complexing with chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate), and resulted complexes were extracted into non-ionic extractant (Triton X-114), prior to analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The enhancement factor of about 25 was obtained by pre-concentrating 10 mL of sample solutions. The accuracy of the optimized procedure was evaluated by using certified reference material (BCR 397) with certified values for Se and As and standard addition method at three concentration levels in real samples. No significant differences was observed (p > 0.05) when comparing the values obtained by the proposed method, added and certified values of both elements. The biological samples of ESC patients had 2-3 folds higher As and lower Se levels as compared to RP (p < 0.001). Understudied exposed referents have high level of As and lower Se contents as compared to referents subjects of non-exposed area (p < 0.01). The higher concentration of As and lower levels of Se in biological samples of cancerous patients are consisted with reported studies. - Research Highlights: → Advance extraction method for the enrichment of arsenic and selenium in biological matrices

  4. Remote sensing applications for coastal zone management

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, L.V.G.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Trg_Course_Coast_Zone_Manage_1993_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1141 - Safety Zone; San Clemente 3 NM Safety Zone, San Clemente Island, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Pacific Ocean surrounding San Clemente Island, from surface to bottom, extending from the high tide line on the island seaward 3 NM. The zone... 3 NM from the high tide line to 33°02.82′ N, 118°30.65′ W; thence 33°01.29′ N, 118°33.88′ W; thence...

  6. Use of Interface Treatment to Reduce Emissions from Residuals in Lower Permeability Zones to Groundwater flowing Through More Permeable Zones (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P.; Cavanagh, B.; Clifton, L.; Daniels, E.; Dahlen, P.

    2013-12-01

    Many soil and groundwater remediation technologies rely on fluid flow for contaminant extraction or reactant delivery (e.g., soil vapor extraction, pump and treat, in situ chemical oxidation, air sparging, enhanced bioremediation). Given that most unconsolidated and consolidated settings have permeability contrasts, the outcome is often preferential treatment of more permeable zones and ineffective treatment of the lower permeability zones. When this happens, post-treatment contaminant emissions from low permeability zone residuals can cause unacceptable long-term impacts to groundwater in the transmissive zones. As complete remediation of the impacted lower permeability zones may not be practicable with conventional technologies, one might explore options that lead to reduction of the contaminant emissions to acceptable levels, rather than full remediation of the lower permeability layers. This could be accomplished either by creating a sustained emission reaction/attenuation zone at the high-low permeability interface, or by creating a clean soil zone extending sufficiently far into the lower permeability layer to cause the necessary reduction in contaminant concentration gradient and diffusive emission. These options are explored in proof-of-concept laboratory-scale physical model experiments. The physical models are prepared with two layers of contrasting permeability and either dissolved matrix storage or nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in the lower permeability layer. A dissolved oxidant is then delivered to the interface via flow across the higher permeability layer and changes in contaminant emissions from the low permeability zone are monitored before, during, and after oxidant delivery. The use of three oxidants (dissolved oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and sodium persulfate) for treatment of emissions from petroleum hydrocarbon residuals is examined.

  7. Equilibrium disorders in workers exposed to mixed solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgianni, Concetto; Tanzariello, Mariagiuseppina; De Pasquale, Domenico; Brecciaroli, Renato; Spatari, Giovanna

    2018-02-06

    Organic solvents cause diseases of the vestibular system. However, little is known regarding the correlation between vestibular damage and exposure to organic solvents below threshold limit values. The best measure by which to evaluate vestibular disorders is static and dynamic posturography. The aim of this study was to evaluate equilibrium disorders via static and dynamic posturography in workers without clear symptoms and exposed to low doses of mixed solvents. 200 subjects were selected. Using an Otometrics device (Madsen, Denmark), all subjects endured static and dynamic posturography testing with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Results were compared with a control group of unexposed individuals. Based on the obtained data, the following results can be drawn: (a) subjects exposed to mixtures of solvents show highly significant differences regarding all static and dynamic posturography parameters in comparison to the control group; (b) posturography testing has proven to be a valid means by which to detect subliminal equilibrium disorders in subjects exposed to solvents. We can confirm that refinery workers exposed to mixtures of solvents can present subliminal equilibrium disorders. Early diagnosis of the latter is made possible by static and dynamic posturography.

  8. Studies on persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Haxton, L.K.; York, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of four studies of persons exposed, or potentially exposed, to plutonium are summarized. The studies are: a five-year update on clinical examinations and health experience of 26 Manhattan District workers heavily exposed at Los Alamos in 1944 to 1945; a 30-year mortality follow-up of 224 white male workers with plutonium body burdens of 10 nCi or more; a review of cancer mortality rates between 1950 and 1969 among Los Alamos County, New Mexico, male residents, all of whom have worked in or have lived within a few kilometers of a major plutonium plant and other nuclear facilities; and a review of cancer incidence rates between 1969 and 1974 in male residents of Los Alamos County. No excess of mortality due to any cause was observed in the 224 male subjects with the highest plutonium exposures at Los Alamos. Clinical examinations of the Manhattan District workers, whose average age in 1976 was 56 years, show them to be active persons with diseases that are not unusual for their ages. The two deaths in this group over the past 30 years have not been due to cancer. Mortality and incidence data indicate no excess of lung cancer in Los Alamos County males

  9. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  10. Distribution of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanchang; Yang, Huiqin; Wu, Linying

    2017-03-01

    Dilemma zone refers to an area where vehicles can neither clear the intersection during the yellow interval nor stop safely before the stop line. The purpose of this paper is to analyzing the distribution of two types of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system (ITS) established at Outer Ring Roads signalized intersections in Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center. To collect field data a drone aircraft was used. When calculating the type II dilemma zone's distribution, we considered the information of drivers' aggressiveness, which was classified by driving speed and type I dilemma zone as well. We also compared the two types dilemma zone's distribution before and after ITS established and analyzed the changes, which was brought by ITS.

  11. Crystallization Temperatures of Lower Crustal Gabbros from the Oman Ophiolite and the Persistence of the 'Mush Zone' at Intermediate/Fast Spreading Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Oceanic crust is formed when mantle-derived magmas are emplaced at the ridge axis, a zone of intense rifting and extension. Magmas begin to cool and crystallize on-axis, forming what is termed the "Mush Zone", a region of partially molten rocks. Several attempts have been made to understand the nature of the Mush Zone at fast spreading mid-ocean ridges, specifically how much partial melt exists and how far off-axis the Mush Zone extends. Geophysical estimates of P-wave velocity perturbations at the East Pacific Rise show a region of low velocity approximately 1.5-2.5 km off-axis, which can be interpreted to be the result of higher temperature [e.g. Dunn et al., 2000, JGR] or the existence of partial melt. New petrological and geochemical data and methods allow for the calculation of the lateral extent of the Mush Zone in the lower oceanic crust on exposed sections collected from the Oman ophiolite, a paleo-fast/intermediate spreading center. I will present new data quantifying the crystallization temperatures of gabbros from the Wadi Khafifah section of lower oceanic gabbros from the Oman ophiolite. Crystallization temperatures are calculated with the newly developed plagioclase-pyroxene REE thermometer of Sun and Liang [2017, Contrib. Min. Pet.]. There does not appear to be any systematic change in the crystallization temperature of lower crustal gabbros with depth in the crust. In order to quantify the duration of crystallization and the lateral extent of the Mush Zone of the lower crust, crystallization temperatures are paired with estimates of the solidus temperature and cooling rate determined from the same sample, previously constrained by the Ca diffusion in olivine geothermometer/ geospeedometer [e.g. VanTongeren et al., 2008 EPSL]. There is no systematic variation in the closure temperature of Ca in olivine, or the cooling rate to the 800°C isotherm. These results show that gabbros throughout the lower crust of the Oman ophiolite remain in a partially

  12. [Hepatotoxicity in healthy infants exposed to nevirapine during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveli, Pablo; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Rovira-Girabal, Núria; Fortuny-Guasch, Clàudia; Figueras-Nadal, Concepció

    2016-01-01

    The use of nevirapine in HIV-infected pregnant women is discouraged due to its potential to cause hepatotoxicity. There is limited information available on the toxicity in non-HIV infected newborn exposed to this drug during pregnancy. The aim of the study is to determine the extent of hepatotoxicity in the newborn exposed to nevirapine and HIV during pregnancy. A cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study was conducted on a cohort of healthy infants born to HIV-infected mothers, in whom the first determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), before 6weeks of age, was collected. Patients were allocated to 2groups according to exposure to nevirapine during pregnancy. Hepatotoxicity was rated according to the AIDS Table for Grading the Severity of Adult and Pediatric Adverse Events (DAIDS). This study included 160newborns from 159pregnancies (88exposed to nevirapine-based regimens and 71 exposed to protease inhibitors-based therapies). No cases of hepatotoxicity were observed according to the DAIDS Table for Grading. Two cases of ALT above normal values (2.8%; 95%CI: 0.3-9.8%) were observed in patients not exposed to nevirapine, and one case (1.1%; 95%CI: 0.0-6.1%) in the group exposed to nevirapine (P=.585). The lack of differences between groups suggests that highly active antiretroviral treatment regimens including nevirapine administered during pregnancy do not involve a higher risk of liver disease compared to other treatment combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. SimZones: An Organizational Innovation for Simulation Programs and Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussin, Christopher J; Weinstock, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The complexity and volume of simulation-based learning programs have increased dramatically over the last decade, presenting several major challenges for those who lead and manage simulation programs and centers. The authors present five major issues affecting the organization of simulation programs: (1) supporting both single- and double-loop learning experiences; (2) managing the training of simulation teaching faculty; (3) optimizing the participant mix, including individuals, professional groups, teams, and other role-players, to ensure learning; (4) balancing in situ, node-based, and center-based simulation delivery; and (5) organizing simulation research and measuring value. They then introduce the SimZones innovation, a system of organization for simulation-based learning, and explain how it can alleviate the problems associated with these five issues.Simulations are divided into four zones (Zones 0-3). Zone 0 simulations include autofeedback exercises typically practiced by solitary learners, often using virtual simulation technology. Zone 1 simulations include hands-on instruction of foundational clinical skills. Zone 2 simulations include acute situational instruction, such as clinical mock codes. Zone 3 simulations involve authentic, native teams of participants and facilitate team and system development.The authors also discuss the translation of debriefing methods from Zone 3 simulations to real patient care settings (Zone 4), and they illustrate how the SimZones approach can enable the development of longitudinal learning systems in both teaching and nonteaching hospitals. The SimZones approach was initially developed in the context of the Boston Children's Hospital Simulator Program, which the authors use to illustrate this innovation in action.

  14. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  15. Development of gravity theory application in the internalregional inter-zone commodity movement distribution with the origin zone movement generation boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbardin, J.; Parikesit, D.; Riyanto, B.; TMulyono, A.

    2018-05-01

    Zones that produce land fishery commodity and its yields have characteristics that is limited in distribution capability because infrastructure conditions availability. High demand for fishery commodities caused to a growing distribution at inefficient distribution distance. The development of the gravity theory with the limitation of movement generation from the production zone can increase the interaction inter-zones by distribution distances effectively and efficiently with shorter movement distribution distances. Regression analysis method with multiple variable of transportation infrastructure condition based on service level and quantitative capacity is determined to estimate the 'mass' of movement generation that is formed. The resulting movement distribution (Tid) model has the equation Tid = 27.04 -0.49 tid. Based on barrier function of power model with calibration value β = 0.0496. In the way of development of the movement generation 'mass' boundary at production zone will shorten the distribution distance effectively with shorter distribution distances. Shorter distribution distances will increase the accessibility inter-zones to interact according to the magnitude of the movement generation 'mass'.

  16. Feasibility of shoulder use for highway work zone optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Du

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Highway maintenance, often requiring lane closure, is very expensive in terms of the costs associated with transportation agencies (i. e. work zone setups and road users (i. e. delay. Longer work zones tend to increase the user delay but will be efficient because of fewer repeated setups. To increase road capacity and mitigate congestion impact for a short-term work zone, temporary shoulder use may be applied. This study develops an analytical model to optimize work zone length on a multi-lane highway considering time-varying traffic volume and road capacity affected by light condition, heavy vehicle percentage, and lane width. The results can be used to evaluate the work zone impact (i. e. delay and cost and assist engineers/planners to prepare and develop a cost-effective highway maintenance plan. A case study for a highway work zone in New Jersey has been conducted, in which the optimized solution is found. A guideline of using road shoulder under various circumstances is developed.

  17. Dynamics of the transition zone in coastal zone color scanner-sensed ocean color in the North Pacific during oceanographic spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, David M.; Wroblewski, J. S.; Mcclain, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    A transition zone in phytoplankton concentration running across the North Pacific basin at 30 deg to 40 deg north latitude corresponds to a basin-wide front in surface chlorophyll observed in a composite of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images for May, June, and July 1979-1986. This transition zone with low chlorophyll to the south and higher chlorophyll to the north can be simulated by a simple model of the concentration of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and dissolved nutrient (nitrate) in the surface mixed layer of the ocean applied to the North Pacific basin for the climatological conditions during oceanographic springtime (May, June, and July). The model is initialized with a 1 deg x 1 deg gridded estimate of wintertime (February, March, and April) mixed layer nitrate concentrations calculated from an extensive nutrient database and a similarly gridded mixed layer depth data set. Comparison of model predictions with CZCS data provides a means of evaluating the dynamics of the transition zone. We conclude that in the North Pacific, away from major boundary currents and coastal upwelling zones, wintertime vertical mixing determines the total nutrient available to the plankton ecosystem in the spring. The transition zone seen in basin-scale CZCS images is a reflection of the geographic variation in the wintertime mixed layer depth and the nitracline, leading to a latitudinal gradient in phytoplankton chlorophyll.

  18. Small-Scale Surf Zone Geometric Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    using stereo imagery techniques. A waterproof two- camera system with self-logging and internal power was developed using commercial-off-the-shelf...estimates. 14. SUBJECT TERMS surface roughness, nearshore, aerodynamic roughness, surf zone, structure from motion, 3D imagery 15. NUMBER OF... power was developed using commercial-off-the- shelf components and commercial software for operations 1m above the sea surface within the surf zone

  19. DEEP VADOSE ZONE TREATABILITY TEST PLAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronister, G.B.; Truex, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    (sm b ullet) Treatability test plan published in 2008 (sm b ullet) Outlines technology treatability activities for evaluating application of in situ technologies and surface barriers to deep vadose zone contamination (technetium and uranium) (sm b ullet) Key elements - Desiccation testing - Testing of gas-delivered reactants for in situ treatment of uranium - Evaluating surface barrier application to deep vadose zone - Evaluating in situ grouting and soil flushing

  20. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  1. The role of chemical processes and brittle deformation during shear zone formation and its potential geophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Leydier, Thomas; Mahan, Kevin; Albaric, Julie; Trap, Pierre; Marquer, Didier

    2017-04-01

    Ductile shear zones in the middle and lower continental crust are the locus of interactions between mechanical and chemical processes. Chemical processes encompass metamorphic reactions, fluid-rock interactions, fluid flow and chemical mass-transfer. Studying these processes at the grain scale, and even the atom scale, on exposed inactive shear zones can give insights into large-scale geodynamics phenomena (e.g. crustal growth and mountain building through the reconstruction of P-T-t-D-Ɛ evolutionary paths. However, other major issues in earth sciences can be tackled through these studies as well. For instance, the mechanism of fluid flow and mass transfer in the deep crust where permeability should be small and transient is still largely debated. Studying exhumed inactive shear zones can also help to interpret several new geophysical observations like (1) the origin of tremor and very low frequency earthquakes observed in the ductile middle and lower crust, (2) mechanisms for generating slow slip events and (3) the physical origin of puzzling crustal anisotropy observed in major active crustal shear zones. In this contribution, we present a collection of data (deformation, petrology, geochemistry, microtexture) obtained on various shear zones from the Alps that were active within the viscous regime (T > 450°C). Our observations show that the development of a shear zone, from its nucleation to its growth and propagation, is not only governed by ductile deformation coeval with reactions but also involves brittle deformation. Although brittle deformation is a very short-lived phenomenon, our petrological and textural observations show that brittle failure is also associated with fluid flow, mass transfer, metasomatic reactions and recrystallization. We speculate that the fluids and the associated mineralogical changes involved during this brittle failure in the ductile crust might play a role in earthquake / tremor triggering below the brittle - ductile transition

  2. Optimization of Remediation Conditions using Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, O.; Mandelbaum, R.; Ronen, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Success of in-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change and control hydrological, physical and chemical conditions of subsurface. These manipulations enables the development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria or set the environmental conditions for seeded bacteria. As such, the remediation efficiency is dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. Enhanced bioremediation of the vadose zone is achieved under field conditions through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives. Yet, water percolation and solute transport in unsaturated conditions is a complex process and application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily result in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deeper sections of the vadose zone. A newly developed vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water along deep sections of the vadose zone. Implementation of the VMS at sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Manipulating subsurface conditions for optimal biodegradation of hydrocarbons is demonstrated through enhanced bio-remediation of the vadose zone at a site that has been contaminated with gasoline products in Tel Aviv. The vadose zone at the site is composed of 6 m clay layer overlying a sandy formation extending to the water table at depth of 20 m bls. The upper 5 m of contaminated soil were removed for ex-situ treatment, and the remaining 15 m vadose zone is treated in-situ through enhanced bioremedaition. Underground drip irrigation system was installed below the surface on the bottom of the excavation. Oxygen and nutrients releasing powder (EHCO, Adventus) was spread below the

  3. Origin and cross-century dynamics of an avian hybrid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Rozo, Andrea; Tenorio, Elkin A; Carling, Matthew D; Cadena, Carlos Daniel

    2017-12-15

    Characterizations of the dynamics of hybrid zones in space and time can give insights about traits and processes important in population divergence and speciation. We characterized a hybrid zone between tanagers in the genus Ramphocelus (Aves, Thraupidae) located in southwestern Colombia. We evaluated whether this hybrid zone originated as a result of secondary contact or of primary differentiation, and described its dynamics across time using spatial analyses of molecular, morphological, and coloration data in combination with paleodistribution modeling. Models of potential historical distributions based on climatic data and genetic signatures of demographic expansion suggested that the hybrid zone likely originated following secondary contact between populations that expanded their ranges out of isolated areas in the Quaternary. Concordant patterns of variation in phenotypic characters across the hybrid zone and its narrow extent are suggestive of a tension zone, maintained by a balance between dispersal and selection against hybrids. Estimates of phenotypic cline parameters obtained using specimens collected over nearly a century revealed that, in recent decades, the zone appears to have moved to the east and to higher elevations, and may have become narrower. Genetic variation was not clearly structured along the hybrid zone, but comparisons between historical and contemporary specimens suggested that temporal changes in its genetic makeup may also have occurred. Our data suggest that the hybrid zone likey resulted from secondary contact between populations. The observed changes in the hybrid zone may be a result of sexual selection, asymmetric gene flow, or environmental change.

  4. 75 FR 28202 - Security Zone; Escorted U.S. Navy Submarines in Sector Seattle Captain of the Port Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... (1) the security zone is only in effect for the short periods of time when submarines are operating... impact on a substantial number of small entities because (1) the security zone is only in effect for the... its effects on them and participate in the rulemaking process. Small businesses may send comments on...

  5. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

  6. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Gisladottir

    Full Text Available There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence.We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR. Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068. For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126 matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women. Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79, prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88, antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07 and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34. Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21, except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93. Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates.Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  7. Obstetric Outcomes of Mothers Previously Exposed to Sexual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Agnes; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Harlow, Bernard L; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Jonsdottir, Eyrun; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Hauksdottir, Arna; Aspelund, Thor; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A

    2016-01-01

    There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR). Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later) at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068). For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126) matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI) was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women). Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79), prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88), antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07) and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34). Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21), except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93). Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates. Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.

  8. The relationship between target quality and interference in sound zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykaner, Khan; Coleman, Phillip; Mason, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Sound zone systems aim to control sound fields in such a way that multiple listeners can enjoy different audio programs within the same room with minimal acoustic interference. Often, there is a trade-off between the acoustic contrast achieved between the zones and the fidelity of the reproduced...... audio program in the target zone. A listening test was conducted to obtain subjective measures of distraction, target quality, and overall quality of listening experience for ecologically valid programs within a sound zoning system. Sound zones were reproduced using acoustic contrast control, planarity...

  9. How weak is the subduction zone interface?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that subduction zones are weak and that the unique availability of water on Earth is a critical factor in the weakening process. We have evaluated the strength of subduction zone interfaces using two approaches: (i) from empirical relationships between shear stress

  10. 26 CFR 1.1394-1 - Enterprise zone facility bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business definition. City J issues enterprise zone facility bonds, the proceeds of which are loaned to... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Definitions; Special Rules § 1.1394-1 Enterprise zone facility bonds. (a... (zones). See sections 1394, 1397B, and 1397C for other rules and definitions. (b) Period of compliance—(1...

  11. Body size structure, biometric relationships and density of Chiton albolineatus (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) on the intertidal rocky zone of three islands of Mazatlan Bay, SE of the Gulf of California

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Campaña, Luis Miguel; Arzola-González, Juan Francisco; de León-Herrera, Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Populations of the polyplacophoran mollusk Chiton albolineatus were studied at 6 sites with different wave exposure of the rocky shores of 3 islands of Mazatlan Bay (southeastern side of the Gulf of California). This chiton species is endemic to the Mexican Pacific coast. Chitons were sampled on wave-exposed and wave-protected sites in the intertidal zone of these islands from January to December 2008 to determine its demographic patterns based on density and body size. Length (L), breadth (B...

  12. Multiscale Geoscene Segmentation for Extracting Urban Functional Zones from VHR Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban functional zones, such as commercial, residential, and industrial zones, are basic units of urban planning, and play an important role in monitoring urbanization. However, historical functional-zone maps are rarely available for cities in developing countries, as traditional urban investigations focus on geographic objects rather than functional zones. Recent studies have sought to extract functional zones automatically from very-high-resolution (VHR satellite images, and they mainly concentrate on classification techniques, but ignore zone segmentation which delineates functional-zone boundaries and is fundamental to functional-zone analysis. To resolve the issue, this study presents a novel segmentation method, geoscene segmentation, which can identify functional zones at multiple scales by aggregating diverse urban objects considering their features and spatial patterns. In experiments, we applied this method to three Chinese cities—Beijing, Putian, and Zhuhai—and generated detailed functional-zone maps with diverse functional categories. These experimental results indicate our method effectively delineates urban functional zones with VHR imagery; different categories of functional zones extracted by using different scale parameters; and spatial patterns that are more important than the features of individual objects in extracting functional zones. Accordingly, the presented multiscale geoscene segmentation method is important for urban-functional-zone analysis, and can provide valuable data for city planners.

  13. 77 FR 31493 - Safety Zones; Fourth of July Fireworks Displays Within the Captain of the Port Charleston Zone, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... temporary safety zones during Fourth of July Fireworks Displays on certain navigable waterways in Hilton... below. 1. Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. All waters within a 500 yard radius around the barge from... each safety zone. All coordinates are North American Datum 1983. [[Page 31496

  14. Geodynamic evolution of the Sabzevar zone, northern central Iranian micro-continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Hadi; Moazzen, Mohssen; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2018-02-01

    The Northern Central Iranian Micro-continent (CIM) represents Neotethys-related oceanic crust remnants, emplaced due to convergence between CIM and Eurasia plates during Eocene. Mafic and ultramafic units are exposed along the northern part of the CIM in the Sabzevar area. The geology and field relation of Sabzevar ophiolite indicate northward subduction of the Sabzevar basin. The average whole rock chemistry of mafic (gabbros) and ultramafic samples (lherzolite, harzburgite and dunite) is characterized by a range of MgO of 11.16-31.88, CaO 5.22-11.53 and Al2O3 2.77-14.57, respectively. Low LREE/HREE ratio of ultramafic samples is accompanied by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Sr, Pb and K. Mafic samples show two distinct groups with low and high LREE/HREE ratios. The spider diagram of mafic samples indicates enrichment in Sr, Pb and K and depletion in REE. Petrological and geochemical evidence and field relations show that the mafic rocks formed in a supra-subduction zone setting. Petrological studies reveal the role of fractional crystallization and assimilation effect by released fluids during subduction related generation of the Sabzevar mafic rocks. We suggest that the studied mafic rocks likely represent the basement of an initial island arc, which was generated in a supra-subduction zone setting within the Neotethys branch of the Sabzevar Ocean at the north of CIM. Copper, gold and chromite mineralizations are studied in relation to island arc setting and supra-subduction environment. Similarities in lithology, ophiolite age and mineralization between Sabzevar ophiolite and Bardaskan-Torbat Heydariyeh ophiolites testify for their separation due to rotation (or faulting) of the Central Iranian Micro-continent.

  15. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Schmeling, H.; Burchardt, S.

    2012-01-01

    , elongated bodies (vertical plates or horizontal rod-like bodies) produce tabular shear zones. Unlike conventional shear zones across which shear indicators ideally display consistent symmetries, shear indicators on either sides of the shear zone reported here show reverse kinematics. Thus profiles exhibit...... by progressive extension and (perhaps) where slabs of subducted oceanic lithosphere delaminate from the continental crust and sink into the asthenosphere. We also argue that such shear zones may be more common than they have been given the credit for and may be responsible for some of the kinematic reversals...

  16. Far-zone contributions of airborne gravity anomalies' upward/downward continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne gravimetry has become a vital technique in local gravity field approximation, and upward/downward continuation of gravity data is a key process of airborne gravimetry. In these procedures, the integral domain is divided into two parts, namely the near-zone and the far-zone. The far-zone contributions are approximated by the truncation coefficients and a global geo-potential model, and their values are controlled by several issues. This paper investigates the effects of flight height, the size of near-zone cap, and Remove-Compute-Restore (RCR technique upon far-zone contributions. Results show that at mountainous area the far-zone contributions can be ignored when EIGEN-6C of 360 degree is removed from the gravity data, together with a near-zone cap of 1° and a flight height less than 10 km, while at flat area EIGEN-6C of 180 degree is feasible.

  17. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  18. Combining criteria for delineating lahar- and flash-flood-prone hazard and risk zones for the city of Arequipa, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, J.-C.; Enjolras, G.; Martelli, K.; Santoni, O.; Luque, J. A.; Nagata, M.; Arguedas, A.; Macedo, L.

    2013-02-01

    Arequipa, the second largest city in Peru, is exposed to many natural hazards, most notably earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, lahars (volcanic debris flows), and flash floods. Of these, lahars and flash floods, triggered by occasional torrential rainfall, pose the most frequently occurring hazards that can affect the city and its environs, in particular the areas containing low-income neighbourhoods. This paper presents and discusses criteria for delineating areas prone to flash flood and lahar hazards, which are localized along the usually dry (except for the rainy season) ravines and channels of the Río Chili and its tributaries that dissect the city. Our risk-evaluation study is based mostly on field surveys and mapping, but we also took into account quality and structural integrity of buildings, available socio-economic data, and information gained from interviews with risk-managers officials. In our evaluation of the vulnerability of various parts of the city, in addition to geological and physical parameters, we also took into account selected socio-economic parameters, such as the educational and poverty level of the population, unemployment figures, and population density. In addition, we utilized a criterion of the "isolation factor", based on distances to access emergency resources (hospitals, shelters or safety areas, and water) in each city block. By combining the hazard, vulnerability and exposure criteria, we produced detailed risk-zone maps at the city-block scale, covering the whole city of Arequipa and adjacent suburbs. Not surprisingly, these maps show that the areas at high risk coincide with blocks or districts with populations at low socio-economic levels. Inhabitants at greatest risk are the poor recent immigrants from rural areas who live in unauthorized settlements in the outskirts of the city in the upper parts of the valleys. Such settlements are highly exposed to natural hazards and have little access to vital resources. Our

  19. Zone refining of sintered, microwave-derived YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrier, K.G.K.; Varma, H.K.; Mani, T.V.; Damodaran, A.D.; Balachandran, U.

    1993-07-01

    Post-sintering treatments such as zone melting under thermal gradient has been conducted on sintered YBCO tape cast films. YBCO precursor powder was derived through decomposition of a mixture of nitrates of cations in a microwave oven for ∼4 min. The resulting powder was characterized and made into thin sheets by tape casting and then sintered at 945 C for 5 h. The sintered tapes were subjected to repeated zone refining operations at relatively high speeds of ∼30 mm/h. A microstructure having uniformly oriented grains in the a-b plane throughout the bulk of the sample was obtained by three repeated zone refining operations. Details of precursor preparation, microwave processing and its advantages, zone refining conditions, and microstructural features are presented in this paper

  20. Volcanic avalanche fault zone with pseudotachylite and gouge in French Massif Central

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Karine; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2017-11-01

    Structures and textures with sedimentological variations at different scales of the lithofacies assemblage help us to constrain the basal kinematic transition from non-depositional to depositional conditions during volcanic avalanche emplacement. In the well-exposed impact-sheared contact along volcanic avalanche fault zone in the French Massif Central, we observe how the granular textures of the pseudotachylite and fault gouge have recorded the propagation of shock wave with granular oscillatory stress. Sequential events of basal aggradation along avalanche fault zone have been established related to fractal D-values, temperature pressure regime and oscillatory stress during slow wave velocity. A typical lithofacies assemblage with a reverse grading shows the pseudotachylite and fault gouge. A cataclastic gradient is characterised by the fractal D-values from 2.7 in jigsaw breccias with pseudotachylite partial melt, to 2.6 in the polymodal gouge. Shock, brecciation and comminution produce cataclastic shear bands in the pseudotachylite and quartz microstructures along the basal contact of the volcanic debris-avalanche deposit. Gouge microstructures show granular segregation, cataclasis with antithetic rotational Riedel shear, and an arching effect between the Riedel shear bands. X-ray microtomography provided 3D microfabrics along the clastic vein in the sandy-gouge. From the available statistical dataset, a few equations have been developed implicating the same cataclastic origin with a co-genetic evolution of lithofacies. An impact wave during primary shear propagation may contribute to produce hydroclastic matrix, pseudotachylite partial melt and proximal gouge thixotropy with v 50m/s and a T < 654 °C. The interseismic period with oscillatory stress is related to crushed clasts and basaltic melt around 800 °C, Riedel shear bands with granular segregation along the fault gouge. The secondary shock by matrix-rich avalanche (ΔP = 10GPa, T ≥ 1000-1500

  1. Implications of different digital elevation models and preprocessing techniques to delineate debris flow inundation hazard zones in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Heavy rains and steep, volcanic slopes in El Salvador cause numerous landslides every year, posing a persistent threat to the population, economy and environment. Although potential debris inundation hazard zones have been delineated using digital elevation models (DEMs), some disparities exist between the simulated zones and actual affected areas. Moreover, these hazard zones have only been identified for volcanic lahars and not the shallow landslides that occur nearly every year. This is despite the availability of tools to delineate a variety of landslide types (e.g., the USGS-developed LAHARZ software). Limitations in DEM spatial resolution, age of the data, and hydrological preprocessing techniques can contribute to inaccurate hazard zone definitions. This study investigates the impacts of using different elevation models and pit filling techniques in the final debris hazard zone delineations, in an effort to determine which combination of methods most closely agrees with observed landslide events. In particular, a national DEM digitized from topographic sheets from the 1970s and 1980s provide an elevation product at a 10 meter resolution. Both natural and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain limit the accuracy of current landslide hazard assessments derived from this source. Global products from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER GDEM) offer more recent data but at the cost of spatial resolution. New data derived from the NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) in 2013 provides the opportunity to update hazard zones at a higher spatial resolution (approximately 6 meters). Hydrological filling of sinks or pits for current hazard zone simulation has previously been achieved through ArcInfo spatial analyst. Such hydrological processing typically only fills pits and can lead to drastic modifications of original elevation values

  2. Estimation of CANDU reactor zone controller level by generalized perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung; Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong; Yang, Won Sik

    1998-01-01

    The zone controller level change due to refueling operation has been studied using a generalized perturbation method. The generalized perturbation method provides sensitivity of zone power to individual refueling operation and incremental change of zone controller level. By constructing a system equation for each zone power, the zone controller level change was obtained. The details and a proposed model for future work are described

  3. Prediction of permeability changes in an excavation response zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Naoto; Ishii, Takashi; Kuroda, Hidetaka; Tada, Hiroyuki

    1992-01-01

    In geologic disposal of radioactive wastes, stress changes due to cavern excavation may expand the existing fractures and create possible bypasses for groundwater. This paper proposes a simple method for predicting permeability changes in the excavation response zones. Numerical analyses using this method predict that the response zones created by cavern excavation would differ greatly in thickness and permeability depending on the depth of the cavern site and the initial in-situ stress, that when the cavern site is deeper, response zones would expand more and permeability would increases more, and that if the ratio of horizontal to vertical in-situ stress is small, extensive permeable zones at the crown and the bottom would occur, whereas if the ratio is large, extensive permeable zones would occur in the side walls. (orig.)

  4. PERSONAL FEATURES OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS ILL WITH RESPIRATORY TUBERCULOSIS EXPOSED AND NOT EXPOSED TO THE SOURCE OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Zolotova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific personal features of 296 children and adolescents exposed to tuberculosis and those with unidentified exposure were comparatively analyzed. Children with unidentified exposure demonstrated psychic tension, poor self-control, poorly developed social communication skills which determined disruptive interpersonal relations and uneasy personal growth. Children exposed to tuberculosis in their families were characterized by judging didactive position towards their neighbors which was formed by dysfunctional patterns of relations in their parental families. Adolescent with unidentified exposure manifested the contrast combination of pre-morbid personal attitudes which had certain etiologic contribution to the development of borderline neurotic states. The higher level of destructive reactions in the interpersonal communication was observed in the adolescents exposed to tuberculosis in their families. Identified personal features are considered to be psychological factors determining the hyperactivation of adaptive systems at the pre-morbid state and consequent development of structural functional disorders in various systems of the host, as well as providing impact on the course of tuberculosis.

  5. Architecture of buried reverse fault zone in the sedimentary basin: A case study from the Hong-Che Fault Zone of the Junggar Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Wu, Kongyou; Wang, Xi; Liu, Bo; Guo, Jianxun; Du, Yannan

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the faults can act as the conduits or the barrier for oil and gas migration. Years of studies suggested that the internal architecture of a fault zone is complicated and composed of distinct components with different physical features, which can highly influence the migration of oil and gas along the fault. The field observation is the most useful methods of observing the fault zone architecture, however, in the petroleum exploration, what should be concerned is the buried faults in the sedimentary basin. Meanwhile, most of the studies put more attention on the strike-slip or normal faults, but the architecture of the reverse faults attracts less attention. In order to solve these questions, the Hong-Che Fault Zone in the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Province, is chosen for an example. Combining with the seismic data, well logs and drill core data, we put forward a comprehensive method to recognize the internal architectures of buried faults. High-precision seismic data reflect that the fault zone shows up as a disturbed seismic reflection belt. Four types of well logs, which are sensitive to the fractures, and a comprehensive discriminated parameter, named fault zone index are used in identifying the fault zone architecture. Drill core provides a direct way to identify different components of the fault zone, the fault core is composed of breccia, gouge, and serpentinized or foliated fault rocks and the damage zone develops multiphase of fractures, which are usually cemented. Based on the recognition results, we found that there is an obvious positive relationship between the width of the fault zone and the displacement, and the power-law relationship also exists between the width of the fault core and damage zone. The width of the damage zone in the hanging wall is not apparently larger than that in the footwall in the reverse fault, showing different characteristics with the normal fault. This study provides a

  6. Progress Report on the US Critical Zone Observatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) program supported by the National Science Foundation originated from the recommendation of the Earth Science community published in the National Research Council report "Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Sciences" (2001) to establish natural laboratories to study processes and systems of the Critical Zone - the surface and near-surface environment sustaining nearly all terrestrial life. After a number of critical zone community workshops to develop a science plan, the CZO program was initiated in 2007 with three sites and has now grown to 10 sites and a National Office, which coordinates research, education and outreach activities of the network. Several of the CZO sites are collocated with sites supported by the US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and the Long Term Agricultural Research (LTAR) programs, and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Future collaboration with additional sites of these networks will add to the potential to answer questions in a more comprehensive manner and in a larger regional scale about the critical zone form and function. At the international level, CZOs have been established in many countries and strong collaborations with the US program have been in place for many years. The next step is the development of a coordinated international program of critical zone research. The success of the CZO network of sites can be measured in transformative results that elucidate properties and processes controlling the critical zone and how the critical zone structure, stores and fluxes respond to climate and land use change. This understanding of the critical zone can be used to enhance resilience and sustainability, and restore ecosystem function. Thus, CZO science can address major societal challenges. The US CZO network is a facility open to research of the critical zone community at large. Scientific data and information about the US program are available at www.criticalzone.org.

  7. Beta-Zone parapapillary atrophy and the velocity of glaucoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Christopher C; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo V; Prata, Tiago S; Tello, Celso; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2010-05-01

    Beta-Zone parapapillary atrophy (PPA) occurs more commonly in eyes with glaucoma. Rates of glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression in eyes with and without beta-zone PPA at the time of baseline assessment were compared. Retrospective, comparative study. Two hundred forty-five patients from the New York Glaucoma Progression Study. Subjects with glaucomatous optic neuropathy and repeatable VF loss were assessed for eligibility. Eyes with a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT) examination, at least 5 visual field tests after the HRT in either eye, optic disc photographs, and Zone PPA was defined as a region of chorioretinal atrophy with visible sclera and choroidal vessels adjacent to the optic disc. Global rates of VF progression were determined by automated pointwise linear regression analysis. Univariate analysis included age, gender, ethnicity, central corneal thickness (CCT), refractive error, baseline mean deviation, baseline intraocular pressure (IOP), mean IOP, IOP fluctuation, disc area, rim area, rim area-to-disc area ratio, beta-zone PPA area, beta-zone PPA area-to-disc area ratio, and presence or absence of beta-zone PPA. The relationship between beta-zone PPA and the rate and risk of glaucoma progression. Two hundred forty-five eyes of 245 patients (mean age, 69.6+/-12.3 years) were enrolled. The mean follow-up was 4.9+/-1.4 years and the mean number of VFs after HRT was 9.3+/-2.7. beta-Zone PPA was present in 146 eyes (65%). Eyes with beta-zone PPA progressed more rapidly (-0.84+/-0.8 dB/year) than eyes without it (-0.51+/-0.6 dB/year; Pzone PPA (HR, 2.59; P1.5 dB/year; P = 0.08) global rates of progression occurred more commonly in eyes with beta-zone PPA than in eyes without it. Thinner CCT (zone PPA (kappa = 0.13). Eyes with beta-zone PPA are at increased risk for glaucoma progression and warrant close clinical surveillance. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Island; thence the rhumb line to Black Rock Point on Stewart Island; thence the rhumb line to the point... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...

  9. Handling zone dividing method in packed bed liquid desiccant dehumidification/regeneration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.H.; Jiang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Dehumidifier and regenerator are the most significant components in liquid desiccant air-conditioning systems, in which air directly contacts liquid desiccant and heat and mass transfer process occurs between the two fluids. Heat transfer process and mass transfer process within dehumidifier/regenerator influence each other and should not be separately considered. Based on the previous reachable handling region analysis, a zonal method is proposed in present study. Four zones are divided in the psychrometric chart according to the relative position of inlet air to inlet desiccant including two dehumidification zones, zone A and zone D, and two regeneration zones, zone B and zone C. In zone A or C, mass transfer is key process, and counter-flow configuration has the best mass transfer performance and parallel-flow is the poorest in the same operating conditions. In zone B or D, heat transfer is governing process, parallel-flow has the best mass transfer performance and counter-flow is the poorest. In order to obtain better mass transfer performance, liquid desiccant should be cooled (in zone A) rather than air (in zone D) in dehumidifier, and liquid desiccant should be heated (in zone C) rather than air (in zone B) in regenerator. The divided zones and the corresponding zonal properties will be helpful to the design and optimization of dehumidifiers and regenerators.

  10. Nuclear weapon-free zone, non-proliferation treaty and South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaramu, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Emergence of and the motivations behind the concept of nuclear weapon free zone, the conceptual linkage between the nuclear weapon free zone and the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the problems involved in the implementation of nuclear weapon free zone proposals put forward from time to time are discussed. Pakistan's proposal for a nuclear weapon free zone in South Asia, motivations behind the proposal, and India's response to it are examined. It is pointed out that both the NPT and nuclear weapon free zone indirectly grant a certain amount of legitimacy to the use of nuclear weapons. (M.G.B.)

  11. An investigation of the damaged zone created by perforating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucknell, J.K.; Behrmann, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on underbalance perforation flow experiments performed on reservoir and outcrop sandstones to investigate the perforation damaged zone. Cores from several different formations were perforated under reservoir conditions. After perforating, the cores were examined using CAT scans (Computer Aided tomography), thin sections and mercury porosimetry. In conjunction with these measurements, permeabilities in the damaged zone were measured using a minipermeameter and radial flow permeameter or were estimated from pore size distribution. The density and porosity of the damaged zone (at least for saturated rocks) is essentially the same as that in the undamaged rock. The damaged zone is not compacted, contrary to suggestions made in earlier work. However, the creation of this zone involves the destruction of large pores. The volume lost from these pores is replaced by microfractures created when rock grains are fractured by penetration of the shaped charge jet. This reduction in the average pore size causes a reduction in the permeability with the damaged zone. Although direct measurement of this permeability was made difficult by naturally occurring permeability variations, unambiguous measurements were obtained

  12. 15 CFR 30.52 - Foreign Trade Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign Trade Zones. 30.52 Section 30.52 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Import Requirements § 30.52 Foreign Trade Zones. Foreign...

  13. VADOSE ZONE STUDIES AT AN INDUSTRIAL CONTAMINATED SITE: THE VADOSE ZONE MONITORING SYSTEM AND CROSS-HOLE GEOPHYSICS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Beaujean, Jean; Jamin, Pierre; Nguyen, Frédéric; Dahan, Ofer; Vanclooster, Marnik; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-01-01

    In situ vadose zone characterization is essential to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Most of these methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. In addition, they are applicable only in the first meters of soils, leaving deeper vadose zones with lack of informatio...

  14. Pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Y.N. [Mexico City Univ. (Mexico). Center for Atmospheric Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Method based on using the pollutant transport equation and the adjoint technique is described here for estimating the pollutant concentration level in ecologically important zones. The method directly relates the pollution level in such zones with the power of the pollution sources and the initial pollution field. Assuming that the wind or current velocities are known (from climatic data or dynamic model), the main and adjoint pollutant transport equations can be considered in a limited area to solve such theoretically and practically important problems as: (1) optimal location of new industries in a given region with the aim to minimize the pollution concentration in certain ecologically important zones, (2) optimization of emissions from operating industries, (3) detection of the plants violating sanitary regulations, (4) analysis of the emissions coming from the vehicle traffic (such emissions can be included in the model by means of the linear pollution sources located along the main roadways), (5) estimation of the oil pollution in various ecologically important oceanic (sea) zones in case of accident with the oil tanker, (6) evaluation of the sea water desalination level in estuary regions, and others. These equations considered in a spherical shell domain can also be applied to the problems of transporting the pollutants from a huge industrial complex, or from the zone of an ecological catastrophe similar to the Chernobyl one

  15. Pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, Y N [Mexico City Univ. (Mexico). Center for Atmospheric Sciences

    1996-12-31

    Method based on using the pollutant transport equation and the adjoint technique is described here for estimating the pollutant concentration level in ecologically important zones. The method directly relates the pollution level in such zones with the power of the pollution sources and the initial pollution field. Assuming that the wind or current velocities are known (from climatic data or dynamic model), the main and adjoint pollutant transport equations can be considered in a limited area to solve such theoretically and practically important problems as: (1) optimal location of new industries in a given region with the aim to minimize the pollution concentration in certain ecologically important zones, (2) optimization of emissions from operating industries, (3) detection of the plants violating sanitary regulations, (4) analysis of the emissions coming from the vehicle traffic (such emissions can be included in the model by means of the linear pollution sources located along the main roadways), (5) estimation of the oil pollution in various ecologically important oceanic (sea) zones in case of accident with the oil tanker, (6) evaluation of the sea water desalination level in estuary regions, and others. These equations considered in a spherical shell domain can also be applied to the problems of transporting the pollutants from a huge industrial complex, or from the zone of an ecological catastrophe similar to the Chernobyl one

  16. Intensified coastal development in beach-nourishment zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, E.; Armstrong, S.; Limber, P. W.; Goldstein, E. B.; Ballinger, R.

    2016-12-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. To quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing zones, we examine the parcel-scale housing stock of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida. We find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. Florida represents both an advanced case of coastal risk and an exemplar of ubiquitous, fundamental challenges in coastal management. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones indicates a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability. We offer that this phenomenon represents a variant of Jevons' paradox, a theoretical argument from environmental economics in which more efficient use of a resource spurs an increase in its consumption. Here, we suggest reductions in coastal risk through hazard protection are ultimately offset or reversed by increased coastal development.

  17. Zoning for Distributed Wind Power - Breaking Down Barriers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Sagrillo, M.

    2005-08-01

    Zoning regulations for the use of small wind turbines vary from state to state and from one local jurisdiction to the next. This paper examines the zoning experiences of small wind turbine owners, options for local actions, and examples of state and federal limited preemption of local zoning authority as a means of promoting the implementation of new technologies.

  18. The role of the hyporheic zone across stream networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven M. Wondzell

    2011-01-01

    Many hyporheic papers state that the hyporheic zone is a critical component of stream ecosystems, and many of these papers focus on the biogeochemical effects of the hyporheic zone on stream solute loads. However, efforts to show such relationships have proven elusive, prompting several questions: Are the effects of the hyporheic zone on stream ecosystems so highly...

  19. Methods for converting industrial zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talipova, L.; Kosyakov, E.; Polyakova, Irina

    2017-10-01

    In this article, industrial zones of Saint Petersburg and Hong Kong were considered. Competitive projects aimed at developing the grey belt of Saint Petersburg were considered. The methodology of the survey of reconstruction of the industrial zone of Hong Kong is also analyzed. The potential of the city’s grey belt lies in its location on the border of the city’s historical centre. Rational use of this potential will make it possible to achieve numerous objectives, including development of the city’s transport infrastructure, positioning of business functions, and organization of housing and the city’s system of green public spaces.

  20. Width of the Surface Rupture Zone for Thrust Earthquakes and Implications for Earthquake Fault Zoning: Chi-Chi 1999 and Wenchuan 2008 Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncio, P.; Caldarella, M.

    2016-12-01

    We analyze the zones of coseismic surface faulting along thrust faults, whit the aim of defining the most appropriate criteria for zoning the Surface Fault Rupture Hazard (SFRH) along thrust faults. Normal and strike-slip faults were deeply studied in the past, while thrust faults were not studied with comparable attention. We analyze the 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan (Mw 7.6) and 2008 Wenchuan, China (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. Several different types of coseismic fault scarps characterize the two earthquakes, depending on the topography, fault geometry and near-surface materials. For both the earthquakes, we collected from the literature, or measured in GIS-georeferenced published maps, data about the Width of the coseismic Rupture Zone (WRZ). The frequency distribution of WRZ compared to the trace of the main fault shows that the surface ruptures occur mainly on and near the main fault. Ruptures located away from the main fault occur mainly in the hanging wall. Where structural complexities are present (e.g., sharp bends, step-overs), WRZ is wider then for simple fault traces. We also fitted the distribution of the WRZ dataset with probability density functions, in order to define a criterion to remove outliers (e.g., by selecting 90% or 95% probability) and define the zone where the probability of SFRH is the highest. This might help in sizing the zones of SFRH during seismic microzonation (SM) mapping. In order to shape zones of SFRH, a very detailed earthquake geologic study of the fault is necessary. In the absence of such a very detailed study, during basic (First level) SM mapping, a width of 350-400 m seems to be recommended (95% of probability). If the fault is carefully mapped (higher level SM), one must consider that the highest SFRH is concentrated in a narrow zone, 50 m-wide, that should be considered as a "fault-avoidance (or setback) zone". These fault zones should be asymmetric. The ratio of footwall to hanging wall (FW:HW) calculated here ranges from 1:5 to 1:3.

  1. Promise Zones for Applicants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists applicants to HUD's Promise Zone initiative prepare data to submit with their application by allowing applicants to draw the exact location of the...

  2. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  3. Thermal structure and geodynamics of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ikuko

    The thermal structure of subduction zones depends on the age-controlled thermal state of the subducting slab and mantle wedge flow. Observations indicate that the shallow part of the forearc mantle wedge is stagnant and the slab-mantle interface is weakened. In this dissertation, the role of the interface strength in controlling mantle wedge flow, thermal structure, and a wide range of subduction zone processes is investigated through two-dimensional finite-element modelling and a global synthesis of geological and geophysical observations. The model reveals that the strong temperature-dependence of the mantle strength always results in full slab-mantle decoupling along the weakened part of the interface and hence complete stagnation of the overlying mantle. The interface immediately downdip of the zone of decoupling is fully coupled, and the overlying mantle is driven to flow at a rate compatible with the subduction rate. The sharpness of the transition from decoupling to coupling depends on the rheology assumed and increases with the nonlinearity of the flow system. This bimodal behaviour of the wedge flow gives rise to a strong thermal contrast between the cold stagnant and hot flowing parts of the mantle wedge. The maximum depth of decoupling (MDD) thus dictates the thermal regime of the forearc. Observed surface heat flow patterns and petrologically and geochemically estimated mantle wedge temperatures beneath the volcanic arc require an MDD of 70--80 km in most, if not all, subduction zones regardless of their thermal regime of the slab. The common MDD of 70--80 km explains the observed systematic variations of the petrologic, seismological, and volcanic processes with the thermal state of the slab and thus explains the rich diversity of subduction zones in a unified fashion. Models for warm-slab subduction zones such as Cascadia and Nankai predict shallow dehydration of the slab beneath the cold stagnant part of the mantle wedge, which provides ample fluid

  4. Intrapulmonary reactions of workers exposed to dust and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, T; Nakadate, T; Sakurai, M; Sakurai, Y

    1984-01-01

    Forty-one dust-and-ozone-exposed and 37 nonexposed workers, belonging to the Research and Development Division of a photo-copier manufacturing industry, were examined to assess the effect of the exposure to carbon, iron and resin dust and ozone in the air of the work environment by means of questionnaires on their physical condition, smoking habits and exposure history by interview, chest X-rays, testing of ventilatory functions, transcutaneous PO2 (tcPO2) test and H2O2-induced hemolysis test. The following results were obtained. Respirable dust concentrations in the air of the work place were 0.1-1.0 mg/m3, total dust concentrations 0.2-2.0 mg/m3, and ozone concentrations 0.004-0.06 ppm (0.008-0.12 mg/m3). According to the Japanese Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses, the exposed workers showed a higher rate of profusion 0/1 and over, and category 1 and over (1/0 and over) than the nonexposed workers. Ventilatory function testing revealed no difference between exposed workers and nonexposed workers, but small airway narrowing was suspected in smoking workers in comparison with nonsmoking workers. Transcutaneous PO2 showed no difference between exposed and nonexposed workers, between smoking and nonsmoking workers, and between any of the paired six combinations out of the four groups of workers, i.e., nonsmoking and nonexposed, nonsmoking and exposed, smoking and nonexposed, and smoking and exposed. It was estimated by H2O2-induced hemolysis test that smoking and/or dust exposure, especially long-term exposure, gave rise to aggravation of fragility of the erythrocyte membrane by lipid peroxidation with ozone or active oxygen produced by the reaction of dust and alveolar macrophages.

  5. Active Work Zone Safety Using Emerging Technologies 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Highway construction work zones are hazardous environments characterized by a dynamic and limited work space. A host of interactions between workers, passing commuter vehicles, and moving construction equipment occurs in highway work zones fostering ...

  6. Exposing diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft, Kamilla; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    professionals´ meetings with patients and relatives. In the paper we draw data from focus group discussions with interdisciplinary groups of health care professionals working in the area of care for older people. The video narratives used to initiate discussions are developed through ethnographic fieldwork...... in the homes of older people and in pedagogical institutions targeting older people. In the paper we look at the potentials and challenges in working with ethnographic video narratives as a pedagogical tool. Our findings indicate that the use of video narratives has the potential to expose the diversity...... focus on their own professional discipline and its tasks 2) stimulates collaborative learning when they discuss their different interpretations of the ethnographic video narratives and achieve a deeper understanding of each other’s work and their clients’ lifeworlds, which might lead to a better...

  7. Photosynthate partitioning in basal zones of tall fescue leaf blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, G.; Nelson, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Elongating grass leaves have successive zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell maturation in the basal portion of the blade and are a strong sink for photosynthate. Our objective was to determine dry matter (DM) deposition and partitioning in basal zones of elongating tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades. Vegetative tall fescue plants were grown in continuous light (350 micromoles per square meter per second photosynthetic photon flux density) to obtain a constant spatial distribution of elongation growth with time. Content and net deposition rates of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM along elongating leaf blades were determined. These data were compared with accumulation of 14 C in the basal zones following leaf-labeling with 14 CO 2 . Net deposition of DM was highest in the active cell elongation zone, due mainly to deposition of WSC. The maturation zone, just distal to the elongation zone, accounted for 22% of total net deposition of DM in elongating leaves. However, the spatial profile of 14 C accumulation suggested that the elongation zone and the maturation zone were sinks of equal strength. WSC-free DM accounted for 55% of the total net DM deposition in elongating leaf blades, but only 10% of incoming 14 C-photosynthate accumulated in the water-insoluble fraction (WIF ∼ WSC-free DM) after 2 hours. In the maturation zone, more WSC was used for synthesis of WSC-free DM than was imported as recent photosynthate

  8. Removal ratio of gaseous toluene and xylene transported from air to root zone via the stem by indoor plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K J; Kim, H J; Khalekuzzaman, M; Yoo, E H; Jung, H H; Jang, H S

    2016-04-01

    This work was designed to investigate the removal efficiency as well as the ratios of toluene and xylene transported from air to root zone via the stem and by direct diffusion from the air into the medium. Indoor plants (Schefflera actinophylla and Ficus benghalensis) were placed in a sealed test chamber. Shoot or root zone were sealed with a Teflon bag, and gaseous toluene and xylene were exposed. Removal efficiency of toluene and total xylene (m, p, o) was 13.3 and 7.0 μg·m(-3)·m(-2) leaf area over a 24-h period in S. actinophylla, and was 13.0 and 7.3 μg·m(-3)·m(-2) leaf area in F. benghalensis. Gaseous toluene and xylene in a chamber were absorbed through leaf and transported via the stem, and finally reached to root zone, and also transported by direct diffusion from the air into the medium. Toluene and xylene transported via the stem was decreased with time after exposure. Xylene transported via the stem was higher than that by direct diffusion from the air into the medium over a 24-h period. The ratios of toluene transported via the stem versus direct diffusion from the air into the medium were 46.3 and 53.7% in S. actinophylla, and 46.9 and 53.1% in F. benghalensis, for an average of 47 and 53% for both species. The ratios of m,p-xylene transported over 3 to 9 h via the stem versus direct diffusion from the air into the medium was 58.5 and 41.5% in S. actinophylla, and 60.7 and 39.3% in F. benghalensis, for an average of 60 and 40% for both species, whereas the ratios of o-xylene transported via the stem versus direct diffusion from the air into the medium were 61 and 39%. Both S. actinophylla and F. benghalensis removed toluene and xylene from the air. The ratios of toluene and xylene transported from air to root zone via the stem were 47 and 60 %, respectively. This result suggests that root zone is a significant contributor to gaseous toluene and xylene removal, and transported via the stem plays an important role in this process.

  9. 75 FR 18755 - Security Zone; Calcasieu River and Ship Channel, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ...The Coast Guard is disestablishing the permanent safety zone at Trunkline LNG in Lake Charles, LA and replacing it with a security zone with new boundaries. The Coast Guard is also establishing two additional permanent security zones on the waters of the Calcasieu River for the mooring basins at Cameron LNG in Hackberry, LA and PPG Industries in Lake Charles, LA. The Coast Guard is also disestablishing the Calcasieu River ship channel moving safety zone and replacing it with a moving security zone. The revised moving security zone extends channel edge to channel edge on the Calcasieu Channel and shoreline to shoreline on the Calcasieu River, 2 miles ahead and 1 mile astern of certain designated vessels while in transit on the Calcasieu Channel or Calcasieu River. Meeting, crossing or overtaking situations are not permitted within the security zone unless specifically authorized by the Captain of the Port. The moving security zone may commence at any point while certain vessels are transiting the Calcasieu Channel or Calcasieu River on U.S. territorial waters (12 nautical miles) in the Captain of the Port (COTP) Port Arthur zone. These security zones are needed to protect vessels, waterfront facilities, the public, and other surrounding areas from destruction, loss, or injury caused by sabotage, subversive acts, accidents, or other actions of a similar nature. Unless exempted under this rule, entry into or movement within these security zones is prohibited without permission from the Captain of the Port or a designated representative.

  10. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A, while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002–2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B. Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban

  11. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Faming; Huang, Boqiang; Huang, Jinliang; Li, Shenghui

    2018-05-23

    Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A), while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002⁻2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B). Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban sustainability in

  12. Magnetic Fields in the Solar Convection Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yuhong

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the dynamic evolution of magnetic flux tubes in the solar convection zone are reviewed with focus on emerging flux tubes responsible for the formation of solar active regions. The current prevailing picture is that active regions on the solar surface originate from strong toroidal magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo mechanism at the thin tachocline layer at the base of the solar convection zone. Thus the magnetic fields need to traverse the entire convection zone before they reach the photosphere to form the observed solar active regions. This review discusses results with regard to the following major topics: 1. the equilibrium properties of the toroidal magnetic fields stored in the stable overshoot region at the base of the convection zone, 2. the buoyancy instability associated with the toroidal magnetic fields and the formation of buoyant magnetic flux tubes, 3. the rise of emerging flux loops through the solar convective envelope as modeled by the thin flux tube calculations which infer that the field strength of the toroidal magnetic fields at the base of the solar convection zone is significantly higher than the value in equipartition with convection, 4. the minimum twist needed for maintaining cohesion of the rising flux tubes, 5. the rise of highly twisted kink unstable flux tubes as a possible origin of d -sunspots, 6. the evolution of buoyant magnetic flux tubes in 3D stratified convection, 7. turbulent pumping of magnetic flux by penetrative compressible convection, 8. an alternative mechanism for intensifying toroidal magnetic fields to significantly super-equipartition field strengths by conversion of the potential energy associated with the superadiabatic stratification of the solar convection zone, and finally 9. a brief overview of our current understanding of flux emergence at the surface and post-emergence evolution of the subsurface magnetic fields.

  13. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  14. Work ability score of solvent-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furu, Heidi; Sainio, Markku; Hyvärinen, Hanna-Kaisa; Kaukiainen, Ari

    2018-03-28

    Occupational chronic solvent encephalopathy (CSE), characterized by neurocognitive dysfunction, often leads to early retirement. However, only the more severe cases are diagnosed with CSE, and little is known about the work ability of solvent-exposed workers in general. The aim was to study memory and concentration symptoms, work ability and the effect of both solvent-related and non-occupational factors on work ability, in an actively working solvent-exposed population. A questionnaire on exposure and health was sent to 3640 workers in four solvent-exposed fields, i.e. painters and floor-layers, boat builders, printers, and metal workers. The total number of responses was 1730. We determined the work ability score (WAS), a single question item of the Work Ability Index, and studied solvent exposure, demographic factors, Euroquest memory and concentration symptoms, chronic diseases, and employment status using univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings were compared to those of a corresponding national blue-collar reference population (n = 221), and a small cohort of workers with CSE (n = 18). The proportion of workers with memory and concentration symptoms was significantly associated with solvent exposure. The WAS of solvent-exposed workers was lower than that of the national blue-collar reference group, and the difference was significant in the oldest age group (those aged over 60). Solvent-exposed worker's WAS were higher than those of workers diagnosed with CSE. The WAS were lowest among painters and floor-layers, followed by metal workers and printers, and highest among boat builders. The strongest explanatory factors for poor work ability were the number of chronic diseases, age and employment status. Solvent exposure was a weak independent risk factor for reduced WAS, comparable to a level of high alcohol consumption. Even if memory and concentration symptoms were associated with higher solvent exposure, the effect of solvents on self

  15. Finite thickness effect of a zone plate on focusing hard x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Chrzas, J.; Viccaro, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Spatial resolution and focusing efficiency are two important properties of a zone plate in x-ray focusing applications. A general expression of the zone plate equation describing its zone registration is derived from the interference of spherical waves emited from two mutually coherent point sources. An analytical expression of the focusing efficiency in terms of the zone plate thickness and x-ray refractive indices of the zones is also derived. Validity condition for using this expression is considered. Thickness required for obtaining adequate focusing efficiency is calculated as a function of x-ray energy for several representative materials. The spatial resolution of a finite thickness zone plate is worse than that of an infinetly thin zone plate. which is approximately equal to the smallest zone width of the zone plate. The effect of the finite thickness on the spatial resolution is considered

  16. Biological behaviour of buccal cells exposed to blue light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsch, Kerstin; Ponsonnet, Laurence; Schembri, Catherine; Farge, Pierre; Pourreyron, Laurence; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    Blue light is used in dental practise to cure resin-based materials, but the path of the light often includes oral tissues such as gingival tissues. While adverse effects of blue light exposure on cells - such as retina cells - are well known, few studies have investigated the impact of blue light exposure on oral cells. The aim of the present in vitro study was to assess the biological effects of blue light emitted by two dental curing devices (a plasma-arc and a light-emitting diode curing unit) on human gingival fibroblasts. Light intensities and light-induced temperature rise were respectively measured with a radiometer and a thermocouple. Cellular response to blue light exposure was assessed by the observation of cell morphology (scanning electron microscopy) and the estimation of cell mitochondrial activity (MTT assay). Light intensities measured at the clinical distance were 488 ± 42 mW/cm 2 for the plasma-arc unit and ranged from 61 ± 5 to 140 ± 16 mW/cm 2 for the light-emitting diodes unit, according to the curing program used. The highest temperature rise was 0.5 and 3.5 deg. C for exposure to the plasma-arc light and to the light-emitting diodes light, respectively. Results showed no differences between exposed- and non-exposed cells in regards to cell morphology. However, cells exposed to blue light presented an increased mitochondrial activity compared to control cells (non-exposed), and mostly those exposed to plasma-arc light

  17. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  18. Urban planning as a trading zone

    CERN Document Server

    Mäntysalo, Raine

    2013-01-01

    'Trading zone' is a concept introduced by Peter Galison in his social scientific research on how scientists representing different sub-cultures and paradigms have been able to coordinate their interaction locally. In this book, Italian and Finnish planning researchers extend the use of the concept to different contexts of urban planning and management, where there is a need for new ideas and tools in managing the interaction of different stakeholders. The trading zone concept is approached as a tool in organizing local platforms and support systems for planning participation, knowledge production, decision making and local conflict management. In relation to the former theses of communicative planning theory that stress the ideals of consensus, mutual understanding and universal reason, the 'trading zone approach', outlined in this book, offers a different perspective. It focuses on the potentiality to coordinate locally the interaction of different stakeholders without requiring the deeper sharing of underst...

  19. ShoreZone Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a point file showing GPS trackline data collected during a ShoreZone aerial imaging survey. This flight trackline is recorded at 1-second intervals...

  20. Efforts to update firefighter safety zone guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret Butler

    2009-01-01

    One of the most critical decisions made on wildland fires is the identification of suitable safety zones for firefighters during daily fire management operations. To be effective (timely, repeatable, and accurate), these decisions rely on good training and judgment, but also on clear, concise guidelines. This article is a summary of safety zone guidelines and the...