Sample records for zone north ramp

  1. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.


    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  2. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.


    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  3. Thermal and seismic impacts on the North Ramp at Yucca Mountain

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P. [J.F.T. Agapito & Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Jung, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The impacts of thermal and seismic loads on the stability of the Exploratory Studies Facility North Ramp at Yucca Mountain were assessed using both empirical and analytical approaches. This paper presents the methods and results of the analyses. Thermal loads were first calculated using the computer code STRES3D. This code calculates the conductive heat transfer through a semi-infinite elastic, isotropic, homogeneous solid and the resulting thermally-induced stresses. The calculated thermal loads, combined with simulated earthquake motion, were then modeled using UDEC and DYNA3D, numerical codes with dynamic simulation capabilities. The thermal- and seismic-induced yield zones were post-processed and presented for assessment of damage. Uncoupled bolt stress analysis was also conducted to evaluate the seismic impact on the ground support components.

  4. Aphotic zone carbonate production on a Miocene ramp, Central Apennines, Italy

    Corda, Laura; Brandano, Marco


    The lower Miocene Latium-Abruzzi platform was a low-angle ramp that developed under tropical-to-subtropical conditions, but was dominated by bryomol and rhodalgal sediment associations. The Aquitanian to Serravallian sequence described here paraconformably overlies the Cretaceous limestones. It consists of a lowstand systems tract, a transgressive systems tract and a highstand systems tract. Based on facies analysis and on the light dependence of biotic associations, the ramp is divided into three parts: an inner ramp, a middle ramp and an outer ramp. The inner ramp facies are represented by a few metres of coral framestone, rhodolith floatstone-rudstone and balanid macroids floatstone without wave-related structures. The middle ramp consists of structureless bioclastic grainstone to packstone, floatstone and rudstone with rhodoliths and larger foraminifera. The outer ramp facies—proximal sector—are composed of crudely stratified bryozoan-dominated packstone to floatstone which extend over the whole platform. The outer ramp facies—intermediate sector—are represented by wackestone, packstone and rarely grainstone with foraminifera and echinoid fragments. The final depositional profile of the ramp was strongly influenced by the main organisms producing sediment. During the lowstand, the resulting profile is a ramp type. During the transgressive phase, the rapid spreading of the outer ramp facies belt, as a consequence of the enhanced productivity of the light-independent biota, is believed to be promoted by a change from oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions. Climate and/or tectonics are presumed to have played an important role in continental runoff and then in the nutrients delivery. During the highstand phase, the system returns to rates of production uniform throughout the platform. The high rates of carbonate production occurring in the aphotic zone are quite unusual in tropical settings and represent a provocative trend in apparent contrast with the

  5. Factors controlling the sedimentary evolution of the Kimmeridgian ramp in the north Iberian Basin (NE Spain

    Bádenas, B.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the present knowledge reached by the authors on the carbonate ramp which developed in the iberian basin during Kimmeridgian times. Our results were obtained from a combined field analysis and computer modelling carried out in the north Iberian Chain (NE Spain. Extensive field analysis in the Ricia area (Zaragoza, NE Spain, resulted in a detailed mapping of the transition from inner to outerramp facies on this carbonate rampo Three facies belts may be distinguished in this rampo The outer ramp facies consists of marls and mudstones rhythmic facies. The inner ramp facies, located aboye fair-weather wave base, are dominated by coral patch reef growing. The middle ramp facies are represented by marls and micrites bearing skeletal and oolitic tempestite levels which sharply grade into high-amplitude o'olitic sandwave. Factors such as resedimentation by storms, carbonate production and relative variation of sea level acting in the Kimmeridgian ramp are also quantiphied and discussed. Most of the mud accumulated in outer-ramp areas was produced in the coral «carbonate factory» located in inner areas. Off-shore resedimentation by storm was the main agent of basinward transport of this mudo The deduced accommodation curve consists of three elements: a linear rise which satisfactorily matches the normal subsidence figures observed in intracratonic basins; a third-order cycle, that may have a regional cause and higher order cycles in the Milanckovich band, that may be eustatic in origin.La sedimentación en la cuenca ibérica septentrional durante el Kimmeridgiense tuvo lugar en una extensa rampa carbonatada de bajo ángulo. Las facies de rampa externa, acumuladas por debajo del nivel de base del oleaje debido a tormentas (i.e., C. 50 to 80 m de profundidad, están formadas por una ritmita de margas y calizas (i.e., Fm Loriguilla. Las facies de rampa interna, localizadas por encima del nivel de base del oleaje de

  6. Integrated geology and preliminary cross section along the north ramp of the exploratory studies facility, Yucca Mountain

    Buesch, D.C. [Geological Survey, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Spengler, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)


    The Exploratory Studies Facility is a major part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the north ramp is the first phase of construction. The N61W trending north ramp will transect the Bow Ridge and Drill Hole Wash faults and numerous minor faults, and traverses two thick welded tuffs and several nonwelded tuff units. A preliminary cross section along the north ramp was created by integration of geologic map relations, lithostratigraphic data from core collected from boreholes, and surface and borehole geophysical data. The Bow Ridge fault is a west-dipping normal fault with about 410 feet of dip-slip separation. East-dipping strata in the hanging wall adjacent to the fault is contrary to early structural interpretations. West of the Bow Ridge fault the ramp might traverse about 220 {+-} 65 feet of nonlithified tuffaceous material. Geometry of the Drill Hole Wash fault is not known, but is modeled in part as two strands that juxtapose different thicknesses and facies of formations with a complex sense of movement.

  7. WVSAMB Color Digital Orthophotos North Zone

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color orthophotography of the State of West Virginia (West Virginia State Plane Coordinate System North Zone). The W.V. state plane system has two...

  8. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  9. Evaluation of geotechnical monitoring data from the ESF North Ramp Starter Tunnel, April 1994 to June 1995. Revision 1



    This report presents the results of instrumentation measurements and observations made during construction of the North Ramp Starter Tunnel (NRST) of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The information in this report was developed as part of the Design Verification Study, Section of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988). The ESF is being constructed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The Design Verification Studies are performed to collect information during construction of the ESF that will be useful for design and construction of the potential repository. Four experiments make up the Design Verification Study: Evaluation of Mining Methods, Monitoring Drift Stability, Monitoring of Ground Support Systems, and The Air Quality and Ventilation Experiment. This report describes Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) efforts in the first three of these experiments in the NRST.

  10. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E. [Agapito Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States); Kessel, D.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the potential to locate the national high-level nuclear waste repository on land within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the Study Plan to Provide Soil and Rock Properties. This is volume 2 which contains NRG Corehole Data for each of the NRG Holes.

  11. Coastal zone management around the southern North Sea

    Hillen, R.; Van de Wetering, B.G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.


    The Southern North Sea is bordered by Great-Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The North Sea basin and its adjacent shorelines are intensively used. Management of the basin and the coastal zone is therefore essential. Because of the small scale of the area, the dense pop

  12. Cultural and landscape zoning in the North- West Russia

    Manakov A. G.


    Full Text Available This research was conducted in the framework of cultural geography — a relatively recent field of geography. This article considers the problems of geographical study of cultural landscapes of the North-West Russia, which includes Saint Petersburg, the Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov, and Kaliningrad regions. This article sets out to develop and test the methodology for historical and cultural zoning at the mesogeographical level. The research and practical significance of the work lies in the identification of the features of formation of cultural landscapes in the North-West Russia, which can be used for the development of schemes of protection and rational management of territorial cultural and historical heritage. The authors rely on historical and cultural zoning as the basic geographical method of research on cultural landscapes. To this effect, the article offers a hierarchy of historical and cultural zones comparable to the zoning systems applied in physical, historical, and cultural geography. The major results of the research are the authors' taxonomy of historical and cultural complexes and the corresponding system of historical and cultural zoning of the North-West Russia presented on a sketch map. The article offers an exemplary description of historical and cultural provinces of the region. The contribution of the research to the Russian geography of culture is the authors' variant of taxonomy of historical and cultural complexes and the formulation of basic principles of historical and cultural zoning at different hierarchical levels. The research results can be applied, first of all, in the development of projects aimed at the protection and use of territorial cultural heritage in the framework of comprehensive schemes of territorial planning of the country's regions.

  13. Age, tectonic evolution and origin of the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda: Activation of an oblique ramp during convergence in the East African Orogen

    Saalmann, K.; Mänttäri, I.; Nyakecho, C.; Isabirye, E.


    Shear Zone activation is linked to underthrusting of the Congo Craton and coeval high-grade metamorphism and intense deformation in the orogen interior. During E-W convergence between ca. 690 and 650 Ma, the NE-dipping ASZ was activated as an oblique ramp leading to deflection of the transport direction and concentration of non-coaxial strain and sinistral shear along the shear zone system. During progressive convergence, between ca. 645 and 620 Ma, sinistral shearing along ASZ changed to ductile-brittle deformation mechanisms, while thrusting took place in Pan-African belts in eastern and western Uganda. Late-orogenic brittle sinistral reactivation of the ASZ can be regarded as the result of continent collision and closure of the Mozambique ocean further to the east, that potentially caused lateral escape manifested in NW-SE striking sinistral shear zones in Kenya and the southern Arabina-Nubian Shield between 620 and 570 Ma.

  14. Isopycnal diffusivity in the tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    Köllner, Manuela; Visbeck, Martin; Tanhua, Toste; Fischer, Tim


    Isopycnal diffusivity plays an important role in the ventilation of the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA) Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Lateral tracer transport is described by isopycnal diffusivity and mean advection of the tracer (e.g. oxygen), together they account for up to 70% of the oxygen supply for the OMZ. One of the big challenges is to separate diffusivity from advection. Isopycnal diffusivity was estimated to be Ky=(500 ± 200) m2 s-1 and Kx=(1200 ± 600) m2 s-1 by Banyte et. al (2013) from a Tracer Release Experiment (TRE). Hahn et al. (2014) estimated a meridional eddy diffusivity of 1350 m2 s-1 at 100 m depth decaying to less than 300 m2 s-1 below 800 m depth from repeated ship sections of CTD and ADCP data in addition with hydrographic mooring data. Uncertainties of the estimated diffusivities were still large, thus the Oxygen Supply Tracer Release Experiment (OSTRE) was set up to estimate isopycnal diffusivity in the OMZ using a newly developed sampling strategy of a control volume. The tracer was released in 2012 in the core of the OMZ at approximately 410 m depth and mapped after 6, 15 and 29 months in a regular grid. In addition to the calculation of tracer column integrals from vertical tracer profiles a new sampling method was invented and tested during two of the mapping cruises. The mean eddy diffusivity during OSTRE was found to be about (300 ± 130) m2 s-1. Additionally, the tracer has been advected further to the east and west by zonal jets. We compare different analysis methods to estimate isopycnal diffusivity from tracer spreading and show the advantage of the control volume surveys and control box approach. From the control box approach we are estimating the strength of the zonal jets within the OMZ core integrated over the TRE time period. References: Banyte, D., Visbeck, M., Tanhua, T., Fischer, T., Krahmann, G.,Karstensen, J., 2013. Lateral Diffusivity from Tracer Release Experiments in the Tropical North Atlantic Thermocline

  15. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the Virginia... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  16. 77 FR 22221 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO... NATO Summit and associated events, which will be held in Chicago from May 16, 2012, through May 24... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Security Zones; G8/North Atlantic Treaty Organization...

  17. Seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia in North West zone of Nigeria

    Agbonlahor DE; Okoror LE; Esumeh FI


    Objective:Chlamydia is made of organism responsible for respiratory as well as genital infections with very se-rious sequelae.In Nigeria there is paucity of information regards relative frequencies of Chlamydia infection of which this study reports in North West zone of Nigeria.Methods:Three hundred and thirty three (333)blood samples were collected from individuals attending various clinics in North West zone of Nigeria and tested for Chlamydia complement fixing antibody.Swabs collected from positive patients were re-tested using the Ro-manowsky-Giemsa staining technique.Statistical analysis were carried out in epi-info epidemiological software package.Results:From the total of 333 samples collected and tested for Chlamydia complement fixing anti-body (CCFA)only 287 (86%)were positive.The culture showed that 215 (75%)were positive for Chlamydia trachomatis while only 135 (47%)were positive for Chlamydia pneumoniae.Seventy-one (71)fe-males had symptomatic infection while 31 males were symptomatic.Of the 104 individuals who were asympto-matic 67 were females while 92 were males.Of the 31 symptomatic males were 22 positive to Chlamydia pneu-moniae and the symptoms being that of respiratory syndrome while 9 had difficulty urinating.All the symptom-atic women had symptoms resembling that of the pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)and vaginal discharge. Age groups 31-35 had the highest positive samples while the extreme ages had the lowest number of positive in-dividuals and also the lowest number of samples.The number of samples as well as the positive results were validated using the epi-info statistical package version 3.4.1.There was no significant difference in the num-ber of samples from both males and females (χ2 =1.360,CI =99%).Conclusion:A high percentage of pos-itive result as validated by statistical analysis shows that Chlamydia infections are endemic in the population and efforts should be made to screen for the organism to avoid the "silent epidemics".

  18. Utility Analysis on Supply of Rural Public Policies in North Bay Economic Zone

    Changzhen; LI; Dafeng; YE


    From analysis on internal and external motive forces of development in North Bay Economic Zone, it indicates that public policies, as basic methods of government intervening against social and economic activities, are fundamental public goods produced by government. Effective supply of public policies brings rural economic growth, environmental protection and sustainable development, which greatly stimulates rural consumption, expands domestic demand and spurs economic growth, showing significant "multiplier effect". In this situation, this paper studies conditions for rural economic development and social transformation of the North Bay Economic Zone. Results show that social and economic development of rural areas of the North Bay Economic Zone needs scientific, reasonable and effective "public policies".

  19. 78 FR 43141 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...


    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates), Youngsville, North Carolina On... proposed production activity to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board on behalf of Southern Lithoplate, Inc...

  20. Wind Plant Ramping Behavior

    Ela, E.; Kemper, J.


    With the increasing wind penetrations, utilities and operators (ISOs) are quickly trying to understand the impacts on system operations and planning. This report focuses on ramping imapcts within the Xcel service region.

  1. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.


    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  2. 77 FR 25892 - Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL


    ... No. USCG-2012-0052] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit... River during the NATO Summit. This statement is incorrect. The Coast Guard received one comment. DATES... explained that it expects the NATO conference to have [[Page 25893

  3. Location of the Suture Zone between the South and North China Blocks in Eastern Dabie Orogen

    Jiang Laili; Wu Weiping; Chu Dongru


    The Dabie Mountains are a collisional orogen between the South and North China blocks. The rock assemblages, isotopic dating and tectonic relationship of the tectonic-petrologic units in the eastern Dabie orogen indicate that the orogen is mainly composed of the different-grades metamorphic basement with minor low-grade metamorphic cover. No ophiolitic southern margin of the North China block were found there, suggesting that they belong to the northern margin of the South China block. The boundary between the tectonic-petrologic units is generally an extensional shear zone developed in the exhumation process of the ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks. In the northern part of the Dabie Mountains, the extensional-thrust and nappe structure represent the products of extensional tectonism. That is, there is no key tectonic boundary to indicate the occurrence of the suture zone there. Therefore, neither the Shuihou-Wuhe shear zone, nor the Mozitan-Xiaotian fault, is the suture zone between the South and North China blocks. The zone is believed to be at the front area of the Xinyang-Shucheng fault, covered by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits within the Hefei basin.

  4. 78 FR 17635 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...


    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates); Youngsville, North Carolina The... notification conforming to the requirements of the regulations of the Board (15 CFR 400.22) was received on...

  5. Unraveling the history of complex zoned garnets from the North Motagua Mélange (Guatemala)

    Barickman, M. H.; Martin, C.; Flores, K. E.; Harlow, G. E.; Bonnet, G.


    The Guatemala Suture Zone (GSZ) is situated in central Guatemala, between the North American and Caribbean plates. Two serpentinite mélanges straddle the Motagua Fault system: the North Motagua Mélange (NMM) and the South Motagua Mélange (SMM). In this study, chemically zoned garnet grains from four eclogite blocks from the NMM were analyzed by EMPA for major elements and LA-ICP-MS for trace elements to unravel the geological history of the eclogites. These eclogites typically consist of euhedral to subhedral garnets, partly retrogressed omphacite grains, and accessory minerals such as phengite and epidote as inclusions in garnet. EBSD was employed to examine apparent garnet inclusions in garnet. The garnet grains in NMM eclogites display complex chemical zonations: all grains roughly show a spessartine-rich core, an almandine-rich core and/or intermediate zone, and a pyrope and grossular-rich rim. Additionally, crystal resorption can be observed between the different zones, and the pyrope-grossular rim can display oscillatory zoning. Finally, grossular-rich zones (crystallographically syntactic) within garnet are present in all studied samples. REE and spider diagrams do not show any significant difference in the patterns of the different zones within the garnet, or indicating that the chemical environment from which each garnet zone grew was broadly the same. The lack of significant variation in LILE content indicates that a fluid influx during garnet growth is unlikely. Consequently, we interpret that garnet grains grew in a largely closed system; however, the presence of the grossular-rich zones, argues for occasional excursions into conditions when either two garnets crystallized or Ca-rich overgrowths that were largely resorbed prior to subsequent continued garnet growth.

  6. 76 FR 38013 - Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the Confluence of...


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road... area is a safety zone: All waters of the Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge, North Sioux...: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone...

  7. Meniscal Ramp Lesions


    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, ...

  8. Fold-to-Fault Progression of a Major Thrust Zone Revealed in Horses of the North Mountain Fault Zone, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    Orndorff, Randall C.


    The method of emplacement and sequential deformation of major thrust zones may be deciphered by detailed geologic mapping of these important structures. Thrust fault zones may have added complexity when horse blocks are contained within them. However, these horses can be an important indicator of the fault development holding information on fault-propagation folding or fold-to-fault progression. The North Mountain fault zone of the Central Appalachians, USA, was studied in order to better und...

  9. Dynamics of the transition zone in coastal zone color scanner-sensed ocean color in the North Pacific during oceanographic spring

    Glover, David M.; Wroblewski, J. S.; Mcclain, Charles R.


    A transition zone in phytoplankton concentration running across the North Pacific basin at 30 deg to 40 deg north latitude corresponds to a basin-wide front in surface chlorophyll observed in a composite of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images for May, June, and July 1979-1986. This transition zone with low chlorophyll to the south and higher chlorophyll to the north can be simulated by a simple model of the concentration of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and dissolved nutrient (nitrate) in the surface mixed layer of the ocean applied to the North Pacific basin for the climatological conditions during oceanographic springtime (May, June, and July). The model is initialized with a 1 deg x 1 deg gridded estimate of wintertime (February, March, and April) mixed layer nitrate concentrations calculated from an extensive nutrient database and a similarly gridded mixed layer depth data set. Comparison of model predictions with CZCS data provides a means of evaluating the dynamics of the transition zone. We conclude that in the North Pacific, away from major boundary currents and coastal upwelling zones, wintertime vertical mixing determines the total nutrient available to the plankton ecosystem in the spring. The transition zone seen in basin-scale CZCS images is a reflection of the geographic variation in the wintertime mixed layer depth and the nitracline, leading to a latitudinal gradient in phytoplankton chlorophyll.

  10. The Intertropical Convergence Zone over the Middle East and North Africa: Detection and Trends

    Scott, Anna A.


    This thesis provides an overview of identifying the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The ITCZ is a zone of wind convergence around the equator that coincides with an area of intense precipitation that is commonly termed a tropical rainbelt. In Africa, these two concepts are frequently confounded. This work studies the correlation between precipitation and commonly used ITCZ indicators. A further attempt is made to detect movement in the African ITCZ, based on earlier paleontological studies showing historical changes in precipitation. Zonally averaged wind convergence is found to be the most reliable indicator of the African ITCZ, one having a low correlation with zonally averaged precipitation. Precipitation is found only to be a reliable indicator for the African ITCZ in zones near the wind convergence, which reaches as far north as 20_N in the summer. No secular change in location of the African ITCZ is found for the time of available data. Finally, historical data shows that any increase in precipitation in the Sahel, a region where precipitation is driven by the ITCZ, is mildly negatively correlated with precipitation in the rainbelt area, suggesting that shifts in the ITCZ result in a widening of the precipitation profile as well as a shift of the entire zone.

  11. The Okhotsk Plate and the Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone.

    Hindle, David; Mackey, Kevin


    The Eurasia-North America plate boundary zone transitions from spreading at rates of ~ 25mm/yr in the North Atlantic, to compression at rates of ~ 5mm/yr in the region of the Okhotsk plate. Because the pole of rotation between Eurasia and North America lies more or less on their mutual boundary, there is a linear change in rate along the boundary, and regions near the euler pole are subject to extremely low deformation rates. The Okhotsk - Eurasia - North America triple junction lies slightly south of the rotation pole, placing the Okhotsk plate entirely in a weakly contractional setting. Regions near the triple junction absorb 1mm/yr contraction. Further south, towards the shoreline of the Okhotsk sea, up to 5 mm/yr contraction may be absorbed within the plate. How shortening is accommodated across the boundary remains an open question. One possibility is wholesale extrusion of the entire Okhotsk plate (or possibly its northwestern corner) along two plate boundary strike slip faults (Eurasia-Okhostk and North America Okhotsk). The problem with this model is that the seismic record does not presently clearly support it, with the largest events distributed both within the plate interior and on its boundaries. This may suggest that instead, the Okhotsk plate, and particularly its north-western end, consists of a series of smaller blocks which shuffle against each other, partially accommodating extrusion, but also permitting some internal deformation and change of shape of the Okhotsk plate itself. We present analyses of the very sparse seismic record from the region, as well as geometric-kinematic, tectonic models of the possible deformation of northwest Okhotsk to try to better understand the different probabilities of how this slowly deforming plate boundary zone is behaving.

  12. Fault interaction and stresses along broad oceanic transform zone: Tjörnes Fracture Zone, north Iceland

    Homberg, C.; Bergerat, F.; Angelier, J.; Garcia, S.


    Transform motion along oceanic transforms generally occurs along narrow faults zones. Another class of oceanic transforms exists where the plate boundary is quite large (˜100 km) and includes several subparallel faults. Using a 2-D numerical modeling, we simulate the slip distribution and the crustal stress field geometry within such broad oceanic transforms (BOTs). We examine the possible configurations and evolution of such BOTs, where the plate boundary includes one, two, or three faults. Our experiments show that at any time during the development of the plate boundary, the plate motion is not distributed along each of the plate boundary faults but mainly occurs along a single master fault. The finite width of a BOT results from slip transfer through time with locking of early faults, not from a permanent distribution of deformation over a wide area. Because of fault interaction, the stress field geometry within the BOTs is more complex than that along classical oceanic transforms and includes stress deflections close to but also away from the major faults. Application of this modeling to the 100 km wide Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) in North Iceland, a major BOT of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that includes three main faults, suggests that the Dalvik Fault and the Husavik-Flatey Fault developed first, the Grismsey Fault being the latest active structure. Since initiation of the TFZ, the Husavik-Flatey Fault accommodated most of the plate motion and probably persists until now as the main plate structure.

  13. Impacts of thickening unsaturated zone on groundwater recharge in the North China Plain

    Cao, Guoliang; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Han, Dongmei; Zheng, Chunmiao


    Unsustainable groundwater development shown by rapid groundwater depletion in the North China Plain (NCP) underscores the need to quantify spatiotemporal variability in groundwater recharge for improved management of the resource. The objective of this study was to assess spatiotemporal variability in recharge in response to thickening of the unsaturated zone in the NCP. Recharge was estimated by linking a soil water balance (SWB) model, on the basis of monthly meteorological data, irrigation applications, and soil moisture monitoring data (1993-2008), to the water table using a deep unsaturated zone flow model. The dynamic bottom boundary (water table) position was provided by the saturated zone flow component, which simulates regional pumping. The model results clearly indicate the effects of unsaturated zone thickening on both temporal distribution and magnitude of recharge: smoothing temporal variability in recharge, and increasing unsaturated storage and lag time between percolation and recharge. The thickening unsaturated zone can result in average recharge reduction of up to ∼70% in loam soils with water table declines ⩾30 m. Declining groundwater levels with irrigation sourced by groundwater converts percolation to unsaturated zone storage, averaging 14 mm equivalent water depth per year in mostly loam soil over the study period, accounting for ∼30% of the saturated groundwater storage depletion. This study demonstrates that, in thickening unsaturated zones, modeling approaches that directly equate deep drainage with recharge will overestimate the amount and underestimate the time lag between percolation and recharge, emphasizing the importance of more realistic simulation of the continuity of unsaturated and saturated storage to provide more reliable estimates of spatiotemporal variability in recharge.

  14. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria


    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  15. Fold-to-fault progression of a major thrust zone revealed in horses of the North Mountain fault zone, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    Orndorff, Randall C.


    The method of emplacement and sequential deformation of major thrust zones may be deciphered by detailed geologic mapping of these important structures. Thrust fault zones may have added complexity when horse blocks are contained within them. However, these horses can be an important indicator of the fault development holding information on fault-propagation folding or fold-to-fault progression. The North Mountain fault zone of the Central Appalachians, USA, was studied in order to better understand the relationships of horse blocks to hanging wall and footwall structures. The North Mountain fault zone in northwestern Virginia and eastern panhandle of West Virginia is the Late Mississippian to Permian Alleghanian structure that developed after regional-scale folding. Evidence for this deformation sequence is a consistent progression of right-side up to overturned strata in horses within the fault zone. Rocks on the southeast side (hinterland) of the zone are almost exclusively right-side up, whereas rocks on the northwest side (foreland) of the zone are almost exclusively overturned. This suggests that the fault zone developed along the overturned southeast limb of a syncline to the northwest and the adjacent upright limb of a faulted anticline to the southeast.

  16. Fold-to-Fault Progression of a Major Thrust Zone Revealed in Horses of the North Mountain Fault Zone, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    Randall C. Orndorff


    Full Text Available The method of emplacement and sequential deformation of major thrust zones may be deciphered by detailed geologic mapping of these important structures. Thrust fault zones may have added complexity when horse blocks are contained within them. However, these horses can be an important indicator of the fault development holding information on fault-propagation folding or fold-to-fault progression. The North Mountain fault zone of the Central Appalachians, USA, was studied in order to better understand the relationships of horse blocks to hanging wall and footwall structures. The North Mountain fault zone in northwestern Virginia and eastern panhandle of West Virginia is the Late Mississippian to Permian Alleghanian structure that developed after regional-scale folding. Evidence for this deformation sequence is a consistent progression of right-side up to overturned strata in horses within the fault zone. Rocks on the southeast side (hinterland of the zone are almost exclusively right-side up, whereas rocks on the northwest side (foreland of the zone are almost exclusively overturned. This suggests that the fault zone developed along the overturned southeast limb of a syncline to the northwest and the adjacent upright limb of a faulted anticline to the southeast.

  17. Photic zone changes in the north-west Pacific Ocean from MIS 4–5e

    G. E. A. Swann


    Full Text Available In comparison to other sectors of the marine system, the palaeoceanography of the subarctic North Pacific Ocean is poorly constrained. New diatom isotope records of δ13C, δ18O, δ30Si (δ13Cdiatom, δ18Odiatom, and δ30Sidiatom are presented alongside existing geochemical and isotope records to document changes in photic zone conditions, including nutrient supply and the efficiency of the soft-tissue biological pump, between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 4 and MIS 5e. Peaks in opal productivity in MIS 5b/c and MIS 5e are both associated with the breakdown of the regional halocline stratification and increased nutrient supply to the photic zone. Whereas the MIS 5e peak is associated with low rates of nutrient utilisation, the MIS 5b/c peak is associated with significantly higher rates of nutrient utilisation. Both peaks, together with other smaller increases in productivity in MIS 4 and 5a, culminate with a significant increase in freshwater input which strengthens/re-establishes the halocline and limits further upwelling of sub-surface waters to the photic zone. Whilst δ30Sidiatom and previously published records of diatom δ15N (δ15Ndiatom (Brunelle et al., 2007, 2010 show similar trends until the latter half of MIS 5a, the records become anti-correlated after this juncture and into MIS 4, suggesting a possible change in photic zone state such as may occur with a shift to iron or silicon limitation.

  18. Factors affecting surf zone phytoplankton production in Southeastern North Carolina, USA

    Cahoon, Lawrence B.


    Abstract: The biomass and productivity of primary producers in the surf zone of the ocean beach at Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, USA, were measured during all seasons, along with environmental parameters and nutrient levels. Variation in biomass (chlorophyll a) was associated with temperature. Primary production (PP), measured by in situ 14-C incubations, was a function of chlorophyll a, tide height at the start of incubations, and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. Biomass-normalized production (PB) was also a function of tide height and rainfall in the preceding 24-hr period. We interpreted these results as evidence of surf production 1) as combined contributions of phytoplankton and suspended benthic microalgae, which may confound application of simple P-E models to surf zone production, and 2) being regulated by nutrient source/supply fluctuations independently from other factors. Surf zone biomass and production levels are intermediate between relatively high estuarine values and much lower coastal ocean values. Surf zone production may represent an important trophic connection between these two important ecosystems.

  19. Numerical modeling of fracking fluid migration through fault zones and fractures in the North German Basin

    Pfunt, Helena; Houben, Georg; Himmelsbach, Thomas


    Gas production from shale formations by hydraulic fracturing has raised concerns about the effects on the quality of fresh groundwater. The migration of injected fracking fluids towards the surface was investigated in the North German Basin, based on the known standard lithology. This included cases with natural preferential pathways such as permeable fault zones and fracture networks. Conservative assumptions were applied in the simulation of flow and mass transport triggered by a high pressure boundary of up to 50 MPa excess pressure. The results show no significant fluid migration for a case with undisturbed cap rocks and a maximum of 41 m vertical transport within a permeable fault zone during the pressurization. Open fractures, if present, strongly control the flow field and migration; here vertical transport of fracking fluids reaches up to 200 m during hydraulic fracturing simulation. Long-term transport of the injected water was simulated for 300 years. The fracking fluid rises vertically within the fault zone up to 485 m due to buoyancy. Progressively, it is transported horizontally into sandstone layers, following the natural groundwater flow direction. In the long-term, the injected fluids are diluted to minor concentrations. Despite the presence of permeable pathways, the injected fracking fluids in the reported model did not reach near-surface aquifers, either during the hydraulic fracturing or in the long term. Therefore, the probability of impacts on shallow groundwater by the rise of fracking fluids from a deep shale-gas formation through the geological underground to the surface is small.

  20. The flow field of the upper hypoxic Eastern Tropical North Atlantic oxygen minimum zone

    L. Stramma


    Full Text Available A subsurface low oxygen zone is located in the eastern tropical North Atlantic Ocean (ETNA in the upper ocean with the core of the hypoxic (O2 ≤ 60 μmol kg−1 oxygen minimum zone (OMZ at 400 to 500 m depth. The poorly known subsurface circulation in the OMZ region is derived from observations and data assimilation results. Measurements in the eastern tropical North Atlantic in November/December 2008, in November/December 2009 and October/November 2010 of velocity, oxygen and of a tracer (CF3SF5 that was released in April 2008 at ∼ 8° N, 23° W (at ∼ 330 m depth show circulation in the upper part of the OMZ with spreading to the east in the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC region and northwestward around the Guinea Dome. Three floats equipped with oxygen sensors deployed at ∼ 8° N, 23° W with parking depths at 330, 350 and 400 m depths were used to estimate velocity along the float trajectory at the surface and at the park depth. South of 9° N, the zonal surface velocity estimate from float data alternate seasonally. At the 350 m park depth north of 9° N a cyclonic northwestward flow across the OMZ was observed. The northward shift into the upper OMZ and the cyclonic flow around the Guinea Dome seem to be connected to a strong Atlantic Meridional Mode (AMM event in 2009. A near-surface cyclonic circulation cell east of the Cape Verde Islands expands into the OMZ layer. The circulation of the upper OMZ mirrors the near surface circulation. Oxygen measurements from the cruises used here, as well as other recent cruises up to the year 2014 confirm the continuous deoxygenation trend in the upper OMZ since the 1960's near the Guinea Dome. The three floats deployed with the tracer show spreading paths consistent with the overall observed tracer spreading. Mesoscale eddies may modify the oxygen distribution in the OMZs. Oxygen sensors on the floats remained well calibrated for more than 20 months and so the oxygen profiles can be

  1. Estimation of the regional heat flow in the North Numidic mercury zone (Azzaba, Wilaya of Skikda, Algeria)

    Royer, J.J.; Saupe, F.; Mezghache, H.


    Tepid waters flowed from exploration boreholes drilled North of the mercury deposit of Ismail, located in the North Numidic mercury zone. The regional heat flow estimated by a simplified method is of 80 mW.m/sup -2/, a value close to those measured around the Mediterranean Basin. It also shows that the original geothermal system which produced the mercury ore deposit of Ismail is no longer active.

  2. Oxygen distribution and aerobic respiration in the north and south eastern tropical Pacific oxygen minimum zones

    Tiano, Laura; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Dalsgaard, Tage


    Highly sensitive STOX O-2 sensors were used for determination of in situ O-2 distribution in the eastern tropical north and south Pacific oxygen minimum zones (ETN/SP OMZs), as well as for laboratory determination of O-2 uptake rates of water masses at various depths within these OMZs. Oxygen...... was generally below the detection limit (few nmol L-1) in the core of both OMZs, suggesting the presence of vast volumes of functionally anoxic waters in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Oxygen was often not detectable in the deep secondary chlorophyll maximum found at some locations, but other secondary maxima...... efficiently at extremely low oxygen concentrations with apparent half-saturation concentrations (K-m values) ranging from about 10 to about 200 nmol L-1. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  3. The Coastal Zone of Islands: Comparative Reflections from the North and South

    Susan Farran


    Full Text Available Islanders tend to develop rules and methods for regulating the use of the marine environment and its accessible resources. Where islands have been subject to the influence or domination of external political forces, and such resources have become the subject of increased demand, then differences of approach, of understanding and of patterns of use can come into conflict. This is especially so where there is increased emphasis on coastal development, pressures to privatize and register coastal land and to regulate the commercial exploitation of marine resources. This article considers the Shetland & Orkney Islands from the north and Fiji, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands from the south, drawing out similarities and differences of legal approaches to key issues relevant to the foreshore and the coastal zone.

  4. Earthquake-controlling Processes of Detachment Zones in Eastern North China

    SUN Aiqun; NIU Shuyin; SHAO Ji'an; HOU Quanlin; ZHANG Jianzhen


    The basin-and-range area in eastern North China is known for frequent occurrence of earthquakes, their great magnitudes and heavy losses thereby incurred. Seismic studies in the past usually emphasized the intersections,inflexions and branches of the faults. However, the intensities of many great earthquakes in this area do not show linear distribution, and the epicenters are horizontally dispersed at certain depths instead of along the strike of faults. Based on the sub-mantle plume studies made by authors in the past decade, it is thought that there exists an uplifted sub-mantle plume under the fault depression area in North China. The uplifting and intrusion of mantle materials caused the upper crust to be faulted, while low-velocity and high-velocity layers are alternatively distributed in the middle crust under the influence of the mantle and the lower crust. The middle and lower crust materials were detached from the top of the submantle plume to the surroundings while the sub-mantle plume materials were detached outward. When the detached middle and lower crust come to the boundary of fault basins in the upper crust, they will be obstructed by the orogenic zone and the detachment will go slower. The shearing between them will cause the stress to accumulate and release alternatively, so that earthquakes occurred frequently in the areas of sub-mantle plume and its surroundings.


    Andrey A. Stepashko


    Full Text Available Space-and-time regularities of seismicity of the North China (Tan-Lu zone are studies, and tectonic nature of strong earthquakes is analyzed. The concept of its genesis is still a matter of debate as this zone is located in the centre of the ancient SinoKorean craton, i.e. thousand kilometers away from convergent margins of Eurasia and the Pacific оcean and IndoAustralian plates (Figure 1. The information on the regional cycling dynamics [Xu, Deng, 1996] is updated. Two cycles, in which strong earthquakes (14 shocks with М≥7.0 occurred in the region under study, are distinguished, i.e. from 1500 to 1700, and from 1800 to 1980 (Figure 2. The seismodynamics of the North China zone is consistent with the Circum Pacific оcean deformation wave that occurs once in 300 years at the margin between Asia and the ocean and thus causes the strongest earthquakes (М≥8.8 and eruptions of volcanoes in the Pacific оcean belt [Vikulin et al., 2009, 2010]. This wave came to the northern regions of China in the years of 1500 and 1800 (Figure 3 and triggered seismic activity cycles. The second factor predetermining the seismicity of the Northern China is a specific structure of the region which can manifest seismic activity due to the impact of deformation waves. The genesis of the metastable structure of the region is related to tectonic restructuring of the lithosphere of the SinoKorean craton due to shear displacements in the Tan-Lu megazone. Regional variations of compositions of mantle xenoliths of the Sikhote Alin orogeny demonstrate that the latent strike of the Tan-Lu faults can be traced across the south-eastern areas of Russia to the Tatar Strait. These faults are borders of the Vshaped mantle block (400 x 1500 km (Figure 5, which composition is characterized by an anomalous content of iron and a low depletion of peridotites. The tectonic mantle block maintains its activity; being impacted by compression from the west, it is squeezed out towards

  6. Seismic imaging of a megathrust splay fault in the North Chilean subduction zone (Central Andes)

    Storch, Ina; Buske, Stefan; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Wigger, Peter


    Prominent trench-parallel fault systems in the arc and fore-arc of the Chilean subduction zone can be traced for several thousand kilometers in north-south direction. These fault systems possibly crosscut the entire crust above the subduction megathrust and are expected to have a close relationship to transient processes of the subduction earthquake cycles. With the motivation to image and characterize the structural inventory and the processes that occur in the vicinity of these large-scale fault zones, we re-processed the ANCORP'96 controlled-source seismic data set to provide images of the faults at depth and to allow linking geological information at the surface to subsurface structures. The correlation of the imaging results with observed hypocenter locations around these fault systems reveals the origin and the nature of the seismicity bound to these fault systems. Active and passive seismic data together yield a picture of a megathrust splay fault beneath the Longitudinal Valley at mid-crustal level, which can be observed from the top of the subduction plate interface and which seems to be connected to the Precordilleran Fault System (PFS) known at the surface. This result supports a previously proposed tectonic model where a megathrust splay fault defines the Western Altiplano as a crustal-scale fault-bend-fold. Furthermore, we clearly imaged two branches of the Uyuni-Kenayani Fault (UKF) in a depth range between 0 and 20 km. In summary, imaging of these faults is important for a profound understanding of the tectonic evaluation and characterization of the subduction zone environment, for which the results of this study provide a reliable basis.

  7. Present kinematics of the Tjornes Fracture Zone, North Iceland, from campaign and continuous GPS measurements

    Metzger, S.


    The Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ), North Iceland, is a 120 km transform offset of the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge that accommodates 18 mm yr−1 plate motion on two parallel transform structures and connects the offshore Kolbeinsey Ridge in the north to the on-shore Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) in the south. This transform zone is offshore except for a part of the right-lateral strike-slip Húsavík-Flatey fault (HFF) system that lies close to the coastal town of Húsavík, inducing a significant seismic risk to its inhabitants. In our previous work we constrained the locking depth and slip-rate of the HFF using 4 yr of continuous GPS measurements and found that the accumulated slip-deficit on the fault is equivalent to a Mw6.8 ± 0.1 earthquake, assuming a complete stress release in the last major earthquakes in 1872 and a steady accumulation since then. In this paper we improve our previous analysis by adding 44 campaign GPS (EGPS) data points, which have been regularly observed since 1997. We extract the steady-state interseismic velocities within the TFZ by correcting the GPS data for volcanic inflation of Theistareykir—the westernmost volcano of the NVZ—using a model with a magma volume increase of 25 × 106 m3, constrained by InSAR time-series analysis results. The improved velocity field based on 58 GPS stations confirms the robustness of our previous model and allows to better constrain the free model parameters. For the HFF we find a slightly shallower locking depth of ∼6.2 km and a slightly higher slip-rate of ∼6.8 mm yr−1 that again result in the same seismic potential equivalent to a Mw6.8 earthquake. The much larger number of GPS velocities improves the statistically estimated model parameter uncertainties by a factor of two, when compared to our previous study, a result that we validate using Bayesian estimation.

  8. Historical invasions of the intertidal zone of Atlantic North America associated with distinctive patterns of trade and emigration

    Brawley, S.H.; Coyer, J.A.; Blakeslee, A.M.H.; Hoarau, G.G.; Johnson, L.E.; Byers, J.E.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.


    Early invasions of the North American shore occurred mainly via deposition of ballast rock, which effectively transported pieces of the intertidal zone across the Atlantic. From 1773- 1861, > 880 European ships entered Pictou Harbor, Nova Scotia, as a result of emigration and trade from Europe. The

  9. Re-Engineering Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) for Sustainable Development in North Central Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria

    Sofoluwe, Abayomi Olumade


    The purpose of the study is to re-engineer vocational and technical education for sustainable development in the North Central Geo-Political Zone in Nigeria. The research design adopted was a survey inferential type. Stratified random was used to select 36 schools out of 98 schools while 920 students out of 3680 students were sampled. The data…

  10. 77 FR 76411 - Security Zone; 25th Annual North American International Auto Show, Detroit River, Detroit, MI


    ... [Docket No. USCG-2012-1077] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; 25th Annual North American International Auto... International Auto Show (NAIAS), which is being held at Cobo Hall in downtown Detroit, MI. Vessels in close... International Auto Show (NAIAS) will be held at Cobo Hall in downtown Detroit, MI. The NAIAS is the prime...

  11. Re-Engineering Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) for Sustainable Development in North Central Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria

    Sofoluwe, Abayomi Olumade


    The purpose of the study is to re-engineer vocational and technical education for sustainable development in the North Central Geo-Political Zone in Nigeria. The research design adopted was a survey inferential type. Stratified random was used to select 36 schools out of 98 schools while 920 students out of 3680 students were sampled. The data…

  12. The influence of riverine nitrogen on the dynamics of the North Sea oxygen minimum zone

    Große, Fabian; Kreus, Markus; Lenhart, Hermann; Pätsch, Johannes


    lowest bottom oxygen concentrations. In 2002, a year with high discharges from the European continental rivers, oxygen concentrations of less than 6 unit{mg L-1} are reached in that region, while in 2010 values stay well above 7.5 unit{mg L-1}. Mass balance calculations show that the remarkably lower values in 2002 are mainly caused by enhanced pelagic and benthic bacterial remineralisation during summer stratification (factor 1.55 higher than in 2010). The TBNT analysis reveals that almost 50 unit{%} of the bacterial consumption in that region are driven by the N supply from the Atlantic. However, the large continental rivers also account for about 23 unit{%} in 2010, and even 30 unit{%} in 2002. It further shows that in 2002, remineralisation due to N originating from these rivers is about twice as high as in 2010, representing the largest relative difference among all contributors. This demonstrates the great influence of the N input from the continental rivers on the oxygen dynamics in the North Sea minimum zone, and emphasises their importance for the eutrophication management in the southern central North Sea. {References} Troost, T. A., Blaas, M., Los, F. J. (2013). The role of atmospheric deposition in the eutrophication of the North Sea: a model analysis. Journal of Marine Systems, 125, 101-112.

  13. Critical Zone Architecture and the Last Glacial Legacy in Unglaciated North America

    Marshall, J. A.; Roering, J. J.; Rempel, A. W.; Bartlein, P. J.; Merritts, D. J.; Walter, R. C.


    As fresh bedrock is exhumed into the Critical Zone and intersects with water and life, rock attributes controlling geochemical reactions, hydrologic routing, accommodation space for roots, surface area, and the mobile fraction of regolith are set not just by present-day processes, but are predicated on the 'ghosts' of past processes embedded in the subsurface architecture. Easily observable modern ecosystem processes such as tree throw can erase the past and bias our interpretation of landscape evolution. Abundant paleoenvironmental records demonstrate that unglaciated regions experienced profound climate changes through the late Pleistocene-Holocene transition, but studies quantifying how environmental variables affect erosion and weathering rates in these settings often marginalize or even forego consideration of the role of past climate regimes. Here we combine seven downscaled Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) paleoclimate reconstructions with a state of the art frost cracking model to explore frost weathering potential across the North American continent 21 ka. We analyze existing evidence of LGM periglacial processes and features to better constrain frost weathering model predictions. All seven models predict frost cracking across a large swath to the west of the Continental Divide, with the southernmost extent at ~ latitude 35° N, and increasing latitude towards the buffering influence of the Pacific Ocean. All models predict significant frost cracking in the unglaciated Rocky Mountains. To the east of the Continental Divide, models results diverge more, but all predict regions with LGM temperatures too cold for significant frost cracking (mean annual temperatures consideration of vastly different processes when rock was first exhumed into the Critical Zone reactor.

  14. The Assembly of Eastern North America: Using Garnet Zoning to Decipher the Potomac Terrane

    Stodden, D.; Melson, W. G.


    The Sykesville Formation, the focus of this study, is in the easternmost Potomac Terrain between Roosevelt Island and Chain Bridge in the Potomac River Gorge on the Virginia side. The Potomac is one of many as yet poorly understood terranes speculatively added to the late Precambrian margin of North America. The remarkably voluminous Sykesville formation extends 125 km and is typically at least 3 km thick. Hopson (1964) recognized it as a gigantic slump deposit that grades westward into the turbidites of the Wissahickon Formation. The work of Hopson has been expanded upon in the many publications of A. A. Drake, Jr. with additional mapping in northern Virginia. The age of the Sykesville protolith is probably over 500 ma and was obducted on to the North American continent probably over 400 million years ago by collision with a deep-sea trench marginal to a mountainous continent or microcontinent. The source area for the protolith in our study area is overwhelmingly continental. Quartz veins and what appear to be metaorthoquartzite bed are common in the Sykesville. The presumed metaorthoquartzite beds was examined by cathodoluminescence. With this analysis, we discovered relict sand grains preserved in a quartz sample. This presents an enigma: the presence of a pure, mature quartz sediment interbedded in an immature feldspathic sandy slump deposit. Were there two quite different source areas feeding into the protolith? We examined garnets using electron microprobe analysis to examine the P-T history of the Sykesville. The garnets show simple zoning patterns, most clearly, as usual, in MnO. Compositional profiles suggest a single episode of metamorphism followed by retrogression, presumably during uplift and erosion after obduction. The age interval of this metamorphism is uncertain but was latest Precambrian or early Cambrian (Penobscot Orogeny). Future analysis of the chemical composition of the garnets will tell us more about the pressures and temperatures that the

  15. The application of the modified form of Bath's law to the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    Yalcin, S E


    Earthquakes and aftershock sequences follow several empirical scaling laws: One of these laws is Bath's law for the magnitude of the largest aftershock. In this work, Modified Form of Bath's Law and its application to KOERI data have been studied. Bath's law states that the differences in magnitudes between mainshocks and their largest detected aftershocks are approximately constant, independent of the magnitudes of mainshocks and it is about 1.2. In the modified form of Bath's law for a given mainshock we get the inferred largest aftershock of this mainshock by using an extrapolation of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude statistics of the aftershock sequence. To test the applicability of this modified law, 6 large earthquakes that occurred in Turkey between 1950 and 2004 with magnitudes equal to or greater than 6.9 have been considered. These earthquakes take place on the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Additionally, in this study the partitioning of energy during a mainshock-aftershock sequence was also ...

  16. Immunizing nomadic children and livestock--Experience in North East Zone of Somalia.

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Mulugeta, Abraham; Gupta, Dhananjoy; Abshir Hirsi, Abdirisak; Belayneh, Asalif; Clark-Hattingh, Marianne; Adams, Clement; Abed, Payenda; Kyeyune, Brenda; Ahmed, Tajudin; Salih, Mohamed; Biaou, Cyprien; Toure, Brigitte


    Nomads and pastoralists represent around 30% of the population of North East zone of Somalia (Puntland) and have very limited access to basic health including immunization. During the 2013-2014 polio outbreak in Somalia, an increase number of polio cases notified health services among these underserved communities highlighted the urgent need to devise innovative strategies to reach them. Harnessing the high demand for veterinary services among pastoralist communities, the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Livestock, with support from UNICEF, WHO and FAO launched an integrated human and animal vaccination campaign on 19 October 2014. Over 30 days, 20 social mobilizers conducted shelter to shelter social mobilization and interpersonal communication for nomadic/pastoralist hamlets, 20 human vaccination teams, accompanied by local community elders, traveled with animal vaccination teams to administer polio and measles vaccination to pastoralist communities in the 5 regions of Puntland. 26,393 children (0 to 10 years) received Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) out of which 34% for the first time ever; 23,099 were vaccinated against measles. and 12,556 Vitamin A. Despite various operational challenges and a significantly higher operational cost of $6.2 per child reached with OPV, the integrated human and animal vaccination campaign was effective in reaching the unvaccinated children from nomadic and pastoralist communities of Somalia.

  17. Fever prevalence and management among three rural communities in the North West Zone, Somalia.

    Youssef, R M; Alegana, V A; Amran, J; Noor, A M; Snow, R W


    Between March and August 2008 we undertook 2 cross-sectional surveys among 1375 residents of 3 randomly selected villages in the district of Gebiley in the North-West Zone, Somalia. We investigated for the presence of malaria infection and the period prevalence of self-reported fever 14 days prior to both surveys. All blood samples examined were negative for both species of Plasmodium. The period prevalence of 14-day fevers was 4.8% in March and 0.6% in August; the majority of fevers (84.4%) were associated with other symptoms including cough, running nose and sore throat; 48/64 cases had resolved by the day of interview (mean duration 5.4 days). Only 18 (37.5%) fever cases were managed at a formal health care facility: 7 within 24 hours and 10 within 24-72 hours of onset. None of the fevers were investigated for malaria; they were treated with antibiotics, antipyretics and vitamins.

  18. Mapping landslide processes in the North Tanganyika - Lake Kivu rift zones: towards a regional hazard assessment

    Dewitte, Olivier; Monsieurs, Elise; Jacobs, Liesbet; Basimike, Joseph; Delvaux, Damien; Draida, Salah; Hamenyimana, Jean-Baptiste; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Kubwimana, Désiré; Maki Mateso, Jean-Claude; Michellier, Caroline; Nahimana, Louis; Ndayisenga, Aloys; Ngenzebuhoro, Pierre-Claver; Nkurunziza, Pascal; Nshokano, Jean-Robert; Sindayihebura, Bernard; Philippe, Trefois; Turimumahoro, Denis; Kervyn, François


    The mountainous environments of the North Tanganyika - Lake Kivu rift zones are part of the West branch of the East African Rift. In this area, natural triggering and environmental factors such as heavy rainfalls, earthquake occurrences and steep topographies favour the concentration of mass movement processes. In addition anthropogenic factors such as rapid land use changes and urban expansion increase the sensibility to slope instability. Until very recently few landslide data was available for the area. Now, through the initiation of several research projects and the setting-up of a methodology for data collection adapted to this data-poor environment, it becomes possible to draw a first regional picture of the landslide hazard. Landslides include a wide range of ground movements such as rock falls, deep failure of slopes and shallow debris flows. Landslides are possibly the most important geohazard in the region in terms of recurring impact on the populations, causing fatalities every year. Many landslides are observed each year in the whole region, and their occurrence is clearly linked to complex topographic, lithological and vegetation signatures coupled with heavy rainfall events, which is the main triggering factor. Here we present the current knowledge of the various slope processes present in these equatorial environments. A particular attention is given to urban areas such as Bukavu and Bujumbura where landslide threat is particularly acute. Results and research perspectives on landslide inventorying, monitoring, and susceptibility and hazard assessment are presented.

  19. Geophysical techniques to aquifer locating and monitoring for industrial zones in North Hanoi, Vietnam

    Giang, Nguyen; Duan, Nguyen; Thanh, Le; Hida, Noboru


    Geophysical methods were applied for hydrogeological targets in many countries including Vietnam. This paper presents results of using complex geophysical techniques as well as 2D electrical resistivity imaging (ERI), vertical electrical sounding (VES), very low frequency (VLF), and seismic refraction for geological structure investigation for locating the aquifers and assessing the hydrogeological conditions for groundwater potential in industrial zones of North Hanoi, Vietnam. The locations of two aquifers are determined by their depth and thickness on the basis of resistivity and seismic velocity values which were proved by stratifications of three boreholes to 40-60 m of depth on the study area. There are connections from surface water to shallow aquifer by hydraulic windows, as follows from VLF data. The deeper aquifer can be considered as a potential groundwater supply, but the water level is descending in time, as shown by hydrological monitoring. However, with careful use and by reducing sources of pollution, groundwater can continue to be an important natural resource for future.

  20. An Analysis on Stability and Deposition Zones of Natural Gas Hydrate in Dongsha Region, North of South China Sea

    Zuan Chen


    Full Text Available We propose several physical/chemical causes to support the seismic results which find presence of Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR at site 1144 and site 1148 in Dongsha Region, North of South China Sea. At site 1144, according to geothermal gradient, the bottom of stability zone of conduction mode is in agreement with BSR. At site 1148, however, the stability zone of conduction mode is smaller than the natural gas presence zone predicted by the BSR. We propose three causes, that is, mixed convection and conduction thermal flow mode, multiple composition of natural gas and overpressure in deep sediment to explain the BSR presence or gas hydrate presence. Further, our numerical simulation results suggest yet another reason for the presence of BSR at site 1144 and site 1148. Because the temperatures in deep sediment calculated from the mixed convection and conduction thermal flow mode are lower than that from the single conduction mode, the bottom of gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ is deeper than the bottom of gas hydrate deposition zone (GHDZ or BSR. The result indicates that occurrence zone of natural is decided by the condition that natural gas concentrate in the zone is greater than its solubility.

  1. Microstructural and deformational studies on mylonite in the detachment faults of Yalashangbo dome, North Himalayan domes zone

    ZHANG Bo; ZHANG Jinjiang; GUO Lei; WANG Weiliang


    The Yalashangbo dome, located at the eastern end of North Himalayan domes zone, has a geometry and structure similar to those of a metamorphic core complex. Ductile shear zones formed the detachment system around the dome and these zones are composed of garnet-bearing phyllonite, mylonitic schist, mylonitic gneiss and mylonitic granite. Ductile shear fabrics developed well in mylonitic rocks, and penetrative lineation and foliation were formed by stretched quartz and feldspar and preferred orientation of mica. Polar Mohr diagram method is used to calculate the kinematic vorticity numbers of the shear zones in the detachment system. Results indicate that the shear zone is a thinned shear zone (thinning of 23 % )in an extensional setting which underwent a general shear dominated by simple shear. Comparison of the vorticity numbers between the northern and southern flanks of the Yalashangbo dome shows that the dome is an asymmetric system formed by a north-northwest-directed detaching unanimously. Statistical fractal analysis shows that the shapes of dynamically recrystallized quartz grains in the mylonites have characteristics of self-similarity, with fractal numbers ranging from 1.05 to 1.18. From these fractal numbers, the strain rate of the rock was deduced from 10-9.2 S-1 to 10-7.3 S-1, the differential paleao-stress was 13.7-25.6 MPa during the deformation happened at a temperature over 500 ℃. The ductile shear zones in the detachment system around Yalashangbo dome were formed under a high green-schist grade condition or happened simultaneously with the intrusion of granite.

  2. Crustal structure at the western end of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from deep seismic sounding

    B. Baier


    Full Text Available The first deep seismic sounding experiment in Northwestern Anatolia was carried out in October 1991 as part of the "German - Turkish Project on Earthquake Prediction Research" in the Mudurnu area of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. The experiment was a joint enterprise by the Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics of Frankfurt University, the Earthquake Research Institute (ERI in Ankara, and the Turkish Oil Company (TPAO. Two orthogonal profiles, each 120 km in length with a crossing point near Akyazi, were covered in succession by 30 short period tape recording seismograph stations with 2 km station spacing. 12 shots, with charge sizes between 100 and 250 kg, were fired and 342 seismograms out of 360 were used for evaluation. By coincidence an M b = 4.5 earthquake located below Imroz Island was also recorded and provided additional information on Moho and the sub-Moho velocity. A ray tracing method orginally developed by Weber (1986 was used for travel time inversion. From a compilation of all data two generalized crustal models were derived, one with velocity gradients within the layers and one with constant layer velocities. The latter consists of a sediment cover of about 2 km with V p » 3.6 km/s, an upper crystalline crust down to 13 km with V p » 5.9 km/s, a middle crust down to 25 km depth with V p » 6.5 km/s, a lower crust down to 39 km Moho depth with V p » 7.0 km/s and V p » 8.05 km/s below the Moho. The structure of the individual profiles differs slightly. The thickest sediment cover is reached in the Izmit-Sapanca-trough and in the Akyazi basin. Of particular interest is a step of about 4 km in the lower crust near Lake Sapanca and probably an even larger one in the Moho (derived from the Imroz earthquake data. After the catastrophic earthquake of Izmit on 17 August 1999 this significant heterogeneity in crustal structure appears in a new light with regard to the possible cause of the Izmit earthquake. Heterogeneities in

  3. Global Decoupling on the RHIC Ramp

    Luo, Yun; Della Penna, Al; Fischer, Wolfram; Laster, Jonathan S; Marusic, Al; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Roser, Thomas; Trbojevic, Dejan


    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In the polarized proton run, the betatron tunes are required to keep almost constant on the ramp to avoid spin resonance line crossing and the beam polarization loss. Some possible correction schemes on the ramp, like three-ramp correction, the coupling amplitude modulation and the coupling phase modulaxtion, have been found. The principles of these schemes are shortly reviewed and compared. Operational results of their applications on the RHIC ramps are given.

  4. The impacts of physical processes on oxygen variations in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone

    Jonasson, L.; Wan, Z.; J. H. S. Hansen; J. She


    The bottom water of the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone suffers from seasonal hypoxia, usually during late summer and autumn. These hypoxic events are critical for the benthic ecosystems and the concentration of dissolved oxygen is an important measure of the water quality. However, to model the subsurface dissolved oxygen is a major challenge, especially in estuaries and coastal regions. In this study a simple oxygen consumption model is coupled to a 3-D hydrodynamical model in order to...

  5. Drug-resistant Trypanosoma congolense in naturally infected donkeys in north Omo Zone, southern Ethiopia.

    Assefa, E; Abebe, G


    A three-part study was conducted to determine the efficacy of isometamidium chloride in donkey populations naturally infected with trypanosomes in north Omo Zone, southern Ethiopia. In the first, 373 randomly selected donkeys from four villages were examined for trypanosome infections by the dark ground/phase contrast buffy coat technique (BCT) in November 1999. The trypanosome prevalence was 18.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.4, 22.5) and Trypanosoma congolense was the most common species accounting for 66.2% of the overall infections. In the second part, 40 infected donkeys were selected and treated with a prophylactic dose of 1.0mg/kg of isometamidium chloride and thereafter monitored every 14 days for 90 days. Trypanosomes were detected in eight donkeys within 1 month and in 20 donkeys within 2 months of treatment. About 16% (5/32) of donkeys infected with T. congolense were detected parasitemic 1 month after treatment. In addition, the result also revealed that all relapse/breakthrough infections were due to T. congolense. In the third part of this study mice were infected with two T. congolense field isolates from donkeys that were found to be parasitemic within 1 or 2 months after isometamidium treatment. The mice were treated with ranges of doses of isometamidium chloride or diminazene aceturate and thereafter followed for relapse infection. Isometamidium chloride at doses 0.5-4 mg/kg body weight and diminazene aceturate at doses of 3.5-28 mg/kg body weight failed completely to cure T. congolense infections in any of the mice.

  6. Epidemiology of road traffic accident deaths in children in Chandigarh zone of North West India

    Dalbir Singh


    Full Text Available The fatalities from Road Traffic Accidents (RTA constitute a major cause of unnatural deaths among children in Chandigarh zone of North West India. The epidemiology of RTA related deaths in this age group is lacking in our country. This retrospective study (1974–2013 included children (⩽18 years who became victims of RTA and subsequently died during the course of treatment. The postmortem and hospital records of the victims were used to collect the epidemiological data regarding age, sex, area of residence, etc. These deaths constituted 9.4% of total road accident deaths reported at this hospital. Out of a total of 709 RTA deaths in children, about 16% were reported in the block year of 1974–78 and this proportion decreased to 9.4% during the block year of 1984–88 and has remained almost constant since then. The maximum number of victims belonged to the states of Haryana (36% and Punjab (34%. A higher number of deaths were observed in rural population (60%. Most of the fatalities occurred between 12–4 pm (29.9% and pedestrians (47.8% were found to be the most commonly affected. The most common affected was the 16–18 year age group (35.3%. Injury to head and neck region (81.4% was responsible for a majority of deaths. The study concluded that the RTA remains an important cause of unnatural deaths in children. The static proportion of these deaths over the past three decades signifies that the road safety policies have been ineffective in preventing causalities and need further improvements.

  7. Incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals and people's awareness in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia.

    Wudu Temesgen Jemberu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that has been prevalent in humans and animals for centuries in Ethiopia and it is often dealt with using traditional practices. There is lack of accurate quantitative information on rabies both in humans and animals in Ethiopia and little is known about the awareness of the people about the disease. In this study, we estimated the incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals, and assessed the people's awareness about the disease in North Gondar zone, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals was prospectively followed up for one year period based on clinical observation. A questionnaire was also administered to 120 randomly selected dog owners and 5 traditional healers to assess the knowledge and practices about the disease. We found an annual estimated rabies incidence of 2.33 cases per 100,000 in humans, 412.83 cases per 100,000 in dogs, 19.89 cases per 100,000 in cattle, 67.68 cases per 100,000 in equines, and 14.45 cases per 100,000 in goats. Dog bite was the source of infection for all fatal rabies cases. Ninety eight percent of the questionnaire respondents were familiar with rabies and mentioned dog bite as a means of transmission. But discordant with current scientific knowledge, 84% and 32% of the respondents respectively mentioned any type of contact (irrespective of skin condition with saliva, and inhalation as a means of transmission of rabies. Eighty four percent of the respondents relied on traditional healers for management of rabies. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows high canine rabies burden, and lack of sufficient awareness about the disease and high reliance on traditional treatment that interfere with timely post exposure management. Vaccination of dogs, proper post exposure management, and increasing the awareness of the community are suggested to reduce the disease burden.

  8. Traffic Congestion Mechanism in Two Ramp Systems

    ZHAO Xiao-Mei; SONG Gui-Cui; SONG Yu-Kun


    The aim of this paper is to study traffic properties in an on/off-ramp system with a bus stop close to the on/off ramp.The location of the bus stop in the on/off-ramp (thereafter downstream or upstream case) is discussed.The simulation results show that in the two ramp systems, the reasons for traffic congestions are different.In the on-ramp system, buses and cars coming from on-ramp interweave each other, while in the off-ramp system, buses interweave with cars exiting to off-ramp.Thus, in the on-ramp (off-ramp) system, the upstream (downstream) bus stop is helpful to reduce the interweaving situation.Moreover, the negative effect will disappear when the distance between the bus stop and the on/off-ramp is more than 20 cells (i.e.150 m).These qualitative findings may provide some suggestions on traffic management and optimization.

  9. Forward ramp in 3D


    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. When this image was taken, Sojourner was still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal.The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. The metallic object at the lower left of the image is the lander's low-gain antenna. The square at the end of the ramp is one of the spacecraft's magnetic targets. Dust that accumulates on the magnetic targets will later be examined by Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer instrument for chemical analysis. At right, a lander petal is visible.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  10. Variations in the Holocene North Atlantic Bottom Current Strength in the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone

    Kissel, C.; Van Toer, A.; Cortijo, E.; Turon, J.


    The changes in the strength of the North Atlantic bottom current during the Holocene period is presented via the study of cores located at the western termination of the northern deep channel of the Charlie-Gibbs fracture zone. This natural roughly E-W corridor is bathed by the Iceland-Scotland overflow water (ISOW) when it passes westward out of the Iceland Basin into the western North Atlantic basin. At present, it is also described as the place where southern sourced silicate-rich Lower Deep Water (LDW) derived from the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW) are passing westward, mixing with the ISOW. We conducted a deep-water multiproxy analysis on two nearby cores, coupling magnetic properties, anisotropy, sortable silt and benthic foraminifera isotopes. The first core had been taken by the R. V. Charcot in 1977 and the second one is a CASQ core taken during the IMAGES-AMOCINT MD168- cruise in the framework of the 06-EuroMARC-FP-008 Project on board the R.V. Marion Dufresne (French Polar Institute, IPEV) in 2008. The radiocarbon ages indicate an average sedimentation rate of about 50 cm/kyr through middle and late Holocene allowing a data resolution ranging from 40 to 100 years depending on the proxy. In each core, we observe long-term and short-term changes in the strength of the bottom currents. On the long term, a decrease in the amount of magnetic particles (normalized by the carbonate content) is first from 10 kyr to 8.6 kyr and then between 6 and 2 kyrs before reaching a steady state. Following Kissel et al. (2009), this indicates a decrease in the ISOW strength. The mean sortable silt shows exactly the same pattern indicating that not only the intensity of the ISOW but the whole deep water mass bathing the sites has decreased. On the short term, a first very prominent event centered at about 8.4 kyr (cal. ages) is marked by a pronounced minima in magnetic content and the smaller mean sortable silt sizes. This is typical for an abrupt reduction in deep flow

  11. Geology, mineralization and geochemistry of the Aqkand Cu occurrence (north of Zanjan, Tarom-Hashtjin zone

    Maryam Feyzi


    Full Text Available Introduction The Aqkand Cu occurrence, 48 km north of Zanjan, is located in the Tarom subzone of the Western Alborz-Azerbaijan structural zone. Apart from small scale geological maps of the area, i.e., 1:250,000 geological maps of Bandar-e-Anzali (Davies, 1977 and 1:100,000 geological maps of Hashtjin (Faridi and Anvari, 2000 and a number of unpublished perlite exploration reports, prior to this research no work has been done on Cu mineralization at Aqkand. The present paper provides an overview of the geological framework, the mineralization characteristics, and the results of geochemistry study of the Aqkand Cu occurrence with an application to the ore genesis. Identification of these characteristics can be used as a model for exploration of this type of copper mineralization in the Tarom area and elsewhere. Materials and methods Detailed field work has been carried out at different scales in the Aqkand area. About 35 polished thin and thin sections from host rocks and mineralized and altered zones were studied by conventional petrographic and mineralogic methods at the University of Zanjan. In addition, a total of 6 samples from ore zones at the Aqkand occurrence were analyzed by ICP-MS for trace elements and REE compositions at Kimia Pazhuh Alborz Co., Isfahan, Iran. Results and Discussion The oldest units exposed in the Aqkand area are Eocene volcanic rocks which are overlain unconformably by Oligocene acidic rocks. The Eocene units consist of lithic and vitric tuff with intercalations of andesitic basalt lavas (equal to Karaj Formation, Hirayama et al., 1966. The andesitic basalt lavas show porphyritic texture consisting of plagioclase and altered ferromagnesian minerals set in a fine-grained groundmass. The Oligocene acidic rocks consist of rhyolite-rhyodacite, perlite, pitchstone and ignimbrite. These rocks are exposed as domes and lava flows. The rhyolite-rhyodacite lavas usually show onion-skin weathering and locally display flow bands

  12. Understanding Differences in the Nitrogen Cycle in Low-Oxygen Zones in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific

    Wood, C.; Travis, N. M.; Forbes, M. S.; Casciotti, K. L.


    Hypoxic and anoxic zones are found in oceans worldwide. These zones can be caused by warm water "caps" that trap colder water underneath the warm water so the cold water cannot replenish its oxygen. Processes such as global warming and eutrophication can also contribute to such oxygen-depleted zones. Thus, it is important to study these zones to investigate and reveal the impact humans have on ecosystems worldwide so we can fix the problems we have caused. The Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP), off the southwestern coast of Mexico, contains a natural-oxygen deficient zone. On a research cruise to the ETNP in April 2016, incubations were conducted to measure the rates of nitrification in the upper water column (upper 100 m) at three stations. Incubations were conducted in light and dark bottles spiked with 15N-containing nitrite. In this study, nitrite concentration in incubation starting points was analyzed. For each point, four depths of increasing depth (they varied depending on the station) were analyzed, and for each depth there were three samples. For each sample five absorbance measurements were averaged to calculate nitrite concentration against known standards. Concentrations of nitrite were found to increase moving into the oxygen deficient zone. The nitrite peaks at the coastal stations were at shallower depths than the peak at the centermost station in the low-oxygen zone. At the centermost station within the oxygen-deficient region, the nitrite concentration at the primary peak was 1.6µM, which was the highest point out of all the stations. This nitrite concentration data will be expanded to all stations where 15N addition incubation experiments were performed. In the future, these time-zero data will be combined with time-24 data to calculate nitrite oxidation rates based on 15N isotope analysis. Measuring nitrite oxidation rates will help us further understand processes structuring nitrite accumulation in the ETNP low-oxygen zone.

  13. A revised estimate of Pacific-North America motion and implications for Western North America plate boundary zone tectonics

    Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth; Argus, Donald F.


    Marine magnetic profiles from the Gulf of Californa are studied in order to revise the estimate of Pacific-North America motion. It is found that since 3 Ma spreading has averaged 48 mm/yr, consistent with a new global plate motion model derived without any data. The present data suggest that strike-slip motion on faults west of the San Andreas is less than previously thought, reducing the San Andreas discrepancy with geodetic, seismological, and other geologic observations.

  14. Wind patterns as a potential driver in the evolution and maintenance of a North American migratory suture zone.

    McCabe, Jennifer D; Olsen, Brian J; Hiebeler, David


    Suture zones are areas where range contact zones and hybrid zones of multiple taxa are clustered. Migratory divides, contact zones between divergent populations that breed adjacent to one another but use different migratory routes, are a particular case of suture zones. Although multiple hypotheses for both the formation and maintenance of migratory divides have been suggested, quantitative tests are scarce. Here, we tested whether a novel factor, prevailing winds, was sufficient to explain both the evolution and maintenance of the Cordilleran migratory divide using individual-based models. Empirical observations of eastern birds suggest a circuitous migratory route across Canada before heading south. Western breeders, however, travel south along the Pacific coast to their wintering grounds. We modeled the effect of wind on bird migratory flights by allowing them to float at elevation using spatially explicit modeled wind data. Modeled eastern birds had easterly mean trajectories, whereas western breeders showed significantly more southern trajectories. We also determined that a mean airspeed of 18.5 m s(-1) would be necessary to eliminate this difference in trajectory, a speed that is achieved by waterfowl and shorebirds, but is faster than songbird flight speeds. These results lend support for the potential importance of wind in shaping the phylogeographic history of North American songbirds.

  15. Children exposure to trace levels of heavy metals at the north zone of Kifissos River

    Evrenoglou, Lefkothea [Department of Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health, National School of Public Health, 11521 Athens (Greece); Partsinevelou, Sofia Aikaterini, E-mail: [Department of Sanitary Engineering and Environmental Health, National School of Public Health, 11521 Athens (Greece); Stamatis, Panagiotis; Lazaris, Andreas; Patsouris, Eustratios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi [Department of Pathology, Medical School of Athens,11527 Athens (Greece); Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni, E-mail: [Department of Pathology, Medical School of Athens,11527 Athens (Greece)


    This study evaluates the exposure level of primary school children at three different towns in northern Attica, near the banks of the Kifissos River, defining referential values of toxic heavy metals. Concentrations of five toxic metals (arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and nickel) were analyzed in water samples from the Kifissos River as well as in the scalp hair of children aged 11 to 12 years old living in the study area. Chronic low-level toxicity of lead and cadmium came into view in recent years as a problem of our civilization. Exposure to concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) poses a potential threat to humans and can cause effects on children's renal and dopaminergic systems without clear evidence of a threshold, a fact that reinforces the need to control all the potential heavy metal emissions into the environment in order to protect children's health. The results were analyzed with the IBM SPSS Statistics 20 for Windows. The possible influence of sex and area was examined. Statistical differences were observed by t-test between the log-transformed hair concentrations of lead (p = 0.021), arsenic (p = 0.016) and nickel (p = 0.038) in children's scalp hair from the municipalities of Kifisia and Kryoneri. ANOVA one-way test confirmed the difference of Pb concentration in hair between girls and boys from the municipality of Kifisia (p = 0.038). The t-test confirms the difference of heavy metal concentrations in river samples between the municipalities Kifisia and Philadelphia in comparison with the samples from Kryoneri. The observations suggest that children living at the municipality of Kifisia are exposed to higher concentrations of heavy metals than the others. Despite all the confounding factors, hair can be used as a biomarker in order to determine the exposure to heavy metals, according to standardized protocols. - Highlights: ► The study area was the north zone of the Kifissos River which is

  16. Microstructures and strain variation: Evidence of multiple splays in the North Almora Thrust Zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Joshi, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amar; Agarwal, K. K.; Srivastava, Samriddhi; Alva Valdivia, L. M.


    The North Almora Thrust zone (NATZ) marks the boundary of the Almora Crystalline Complex (ACC) against the Lesser Himalayan Sedimentary sequence (LHS) in the north. Its southern counterpart, the South Almora Thrust (SAT), is a sharply marked contact between the ACC and the LHS in the south. Published studies argue various contradictory emplacement modes of the North Almora Thrust. Recent studies have implied splays of smaller back thrusts in the NATZ. The present study investigates meso- and microstructures, and strain distribution in the NATZ and compares it with strain distribution across the SAT. In the NATZ, field evidence reveals repeated sequence of 10-500 m thick slices of proto- to ultra-mylonite, thrust over the Lesser Himalayan Rautgara quartzite. In accordance with the field evidence, the strain analysis reveals effects of splays of smaller thrust in the NATZ. The study therefore, argues that contrary to popular nomenclature the northern contact of the ACC with the LHS is not a single thrust plane, but a thrust zone marked by numerous thrust splays.

  17. Magnetic anomalies over fracture zones in the central North Atlantic Ocean

    Twigt, W.


    The offset of a fracture zone leads to a configuration in which a strip of oceanic crust of one age will be juxtaposed axially to a strip of another age. Consequently, the polarity of the magnetic layer may be different on either side of the fracture zone. Next to this magnetic contrast the fracture

  18. Magnetic anomalies over fracture zones in the central North Atlantic Ocean

    Twigt, W


    The offset of a fracture zone leads to a configuration in which a strip of oceanic crust of one age will be juxtaposed axially to a strip of another age. Consequently, the polarity of the magnetic layer may be different on either side of the fracture zone. Next to this magnetic contrast the fracture

  19. A high voltage programmable ramp generator

    Upadhyay, J.; Joshi, M. J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.


    In this paper, a ramp generator with programmable slope is presented. It consists of a high voltage step generator, followed by integrator. The capacitor and inductor in the integrator are designed such that they can be varied by a microcontroller. This circuit generates two bipolar ramps with fastest speed <1ns and provides continuous speed variation from 6to30ns for a ramp of 500V. This is being developed as a part of automated streak camera for deflection of electron beam.

  20. Gender Roles and Challenges of Small Scale Processed Cashew Nut Marketers in Enugu North Senatorial Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria

    Enwelu I. A; Ugwu S. T; Irohibe I.


    The study examined gender roles and challenges of small scale processed cashew nut marketers in Enugu North senatorial zone of Enugu State. Interview schedule was used to collect data from 72 respondents. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics. Small scale processed cashew nut marketers were dominated by female youths with mean age of 31 years and making a monthly income of between ₦10,000.00 - ₦14,999.00 from cashew nut marketing. The marketing strategy mostly used by ...

  1. 76 FR 51885 - Safety Zone; Thunder on Niagara, Niagara River, North Tonawanda, NY


    ... recent accidents that have occurred in other Captain of the Port zones, the Captain of the Port Buffalo... the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness Boards. The Ombudsman evaluates these actions annually...




    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), especially in the RHIC polarized proton (pp) run. To avoid the major betatron and spin resonances on the ramp, the betatron tunes are constrained. And the rms value of the vertical closed orbit should be smaller than 0.5mm. Both require the global coupling on the ramp to be well corrected. Several ramp decoupling schemes were found and tested at RHIC, like N-turn map decoupling, three-ramp correction, coupling amplitude modulation, and coupling phase modulation. In this article, the principles of these methods are shortly reviewed and compared. Among them, coupling angle modulation is a robust and fast one. It has been applied to the global decoupling in the routine RHIC operation.

  3. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning


    Plutonium and americium have been measured in surface waters of the Greenland and Barents Seas and in the northern North Sea from 1980 through 1984. Measurements in water and biota, Fucus, Mytilus and Patella, were carried out in North-English and Scottish waters in 1982 and Fucus samples were...... of the Irish Sea) to Spitsbergen. 241Am found in Arctic waters probably originates from the decay of fallout 241Pu and, like Pu, tentatively has a residence time of the order of several years. Americium from Sellafield has an estimated mean residence time of 4–6 months in Scottish waters....

  4. POC fluxes from euphotic zone estimated from 234Th deficiency in winter in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean

    YANG Yongliang; HAN Xu; KUSAKABE Masashi


    Dissolved and particulate 234Th, particulate organic carbon(PON), nitrogen, and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the upper 200 m of water columns from seven stations in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean were determined in the winter of 1997.The dissolved, particulate, and total 234Th activities (dissolved plus particulate)show a pronounced deficiency with respect to its parent 238U in the euphoric zone whereas the total 234Th shows a near-equilibrium at the depth greaterthan 100 m. The 234Th data are used to derive the mean residence time, export fluxes of 234Th, and fluxes of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen out of the euphotic zone. In the Subarctic Current area, the residence time of dissolved 234 Thwith respect to its removal onto particles is 40 ~50 d while the residence time of dissolved 234Th in the subtropical area is about 20 d due to the Kuroshio's influence.The particulate organic carbon (POC)and particulate organic nitrogegion than in the east, and higher in the south than in the north. The co-influence of Kuroshio-Oyashio Currents withsupply of nutrient substances from the coastal area and the light condition are two factors determining the horizontaldistribution of POC fluxes in winter. The depth distribution of the chlorophyll-a as well as the consistence of the ratio ofPOC to PON with the Redfield ratio suggest that phytoplankton is the main contributor to the export of POC in this areain winter. The POC fluxes in the northwestern North Pacific Ocean in winter are comparable to some areas in the worldoceans in spring and summer seasons.

  5. Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R


    Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

  6. 76 FR 43259 - Foreign-Trade Zone 109-Watertown, NY, Application for Manufacturing Authority, North American...


    ...) with textile backing material for the U.S. market and export. The manufacturing process under FTZ..., North American Tapes, LLC, (Textile Athletic Tape), Watertown, NY A request has been submitted to the... textile fabrics (duty rates: 10.5, 14.9%). The facility can produce up to 12.5 million square meters of...

  7. 77 FR 13232 - Security Zones; G8/North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Summit, Chicago, IL


    ... and international media interest and also attract a large number of protesters. Consequently, the... security zones is necessary to mitigate the threat of violence and ensure the safety and security of those... expected interest of domestic and international media; and the anticipated presence of protesters;...

  8. Meiofaunal distribution across the oxygen minimum zone of continental margin, North East Arabian Sea

    Ansari, Z.A.; Badesab, S.; Singh, R.; Kitazato, H.

    A quantitative study of metazoan meiofauna across the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of continental margin in the N-E Arabian Sea in the depth range 500-1965 m was carried out in September-November 2008. Bottom water oxygen and sediment organic carbon...

  9. A revisit to the Higo terrane, Kyushu, Japan: The eastern extension of the North China-South China collision zone

    Suga, Kenshi; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Miyazaki, Kazuhiro; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Fukuyama, Mayuko


    The Higo and Manotani high-T metamorphic rocks belong to the Higo terrane, central Kyushu, Japan. This terrane has been suggested as the eastern extension of the North China-South China collision zone based mainly on the similar petrological and geochronological data to the north Dabie high-grade rocks. In this study, detrital zircon U-Pb dating for the Higo metamorphic rocks yielded a maximum depositional age of 197 Ma with a prominent component at 193-284 Ma (62-95%) and a subsidiary peak at 1847-1875 Ma (19-28%); whereas for the Manotani metamorphic rocks, the maximum depositional age is 263 Ma with a prominent component at 263-304 Ma (98%). These results suggest that the protoliths of the Higo and Manotani metamorphic rocks might be equivalent to those of the early-middle Jurassic Chizu and late Triassic Suo high-P metamorphic rocks, southwest Japan, respectively. The absence of middle Neoproterozoic detrital zircon (c. 700-825 Ma) is incompatible with a proposition that the proto-Japan might have been located close to the South China craton, where Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks contain a significant amount of middle Neoproterozoic detrital zircon. The zircon provenance of the Higo terrane, as well as of the Chizu and Suo belts, could therefore be the North China craton, suggesting that the Suo metamorphic rocks, including the Manotani metamorphic rocks, have formed at the subduction plate boundary in the east, which changed into the contemporaneous North China-South China collision plate boundary in the west, likely passing through the Korean Peninsula. The transformation of the Chizu and Suo metamorphic rocks to the Higo and Manotani metamorphic rocks can be accounted for by the oceanward advance of the volcanic arc during trench retreating. The Cretaceous high-T metamorphism and related igneous intrusions of the Higo terrane would be regarded as the initial phase of the Ryoke event.

  10. Structural and Geomorphic Controls on Dryland Salinity and Regolith Distribution in the Critical Zone, North-east Tasmania, Australia.

    Sweeney, M. E.; Moore, C. L.


    Salinity occurs in the drier and flatter Australian landscapes because there is insufficient rain to flush salts from critical zone. Changes in land use due to agriculture and urbanisation can accelerate salinity effects, leading to soil and water degradation and threatening infrastructure and ecosystems. The dominant lithology in the salt affected regions of North-east Tasmania is dolerite. The geochemistry of dolerite regolith has been examined in order to understand the association between salinity and weathered dolerite. The electrical conductivity of 1:5 soil-waters is higher in the more weathered material (maximum 4.9 dS/m). This confirms field observations that highly weathered dolerite can serve as a significant store for salt in the landscape. However, the clay content and salinity varies, depending on the local geomorphic context. Dolerite weathering on well-drained slopes has favoured the formation of 1:1 kaolinite clays, and sometimes bauxite formation. Kaolinite-bearing regolith can store salt via matrix diffusion processes. However, there are fault-bounded pockets of colluvium and highly-weathered in situmaterial, where the supply of cations has not been diminished and 2:1 montmorillonite clays dominate. These regions have the capacity to store large volumes of salts. The geomorphology also affects the volume of rain and flux of salt from windblown dust and oceanic aerosols. The chemistry of rainwater from an array of bulk deposition collectors was studied from Spring 2013 to Winter 2014. The average salt flux was 79± 10 kg/ha/yr in the study region, ranging from 170± 12 kg/ha/yr in the north to 42 ± 6 kg/ha/yr inland. To assist in understanding why salt is found in certain parts of the landscape but not in others, it is essential to model how water moves through the critical zone and geological structures. By exploring the complex interactions of geomorphology and other biophysical parameters the study area has been divided into Hydrogeological

  11. Deformation in thrust-ramp anticlines and duplexes: implications for geometry and porosity

    Groshong, R.H. Jr.; Usdansky, S.I.


    A computerized kinematic model of thrust-ramp anticline geometry allows workers to predict the zones of greatest deformation in ramp anticlines and fault duplexes. The model assumes a constant cross-section area, symmetrical fold hinges, and slip in the hanging wall parallel to the ramp and forelimb. Assuming that the collapse of original porosity or the generation of secondary fracture porosity is proportional to deformation, the model can be used to predict porosity changes. Deformation in a single ramp anticline is greatest in the forelimb and backlimb, and may be absent in the crest. A duplex structure results from comparatively closely spaced thrusts that have a common upper detachment horizon. Relatively wide spacing between the duplex faults yields a bumpy roofed duplex as in the central Appalachians. Forelimbs may be deformed twice and should show greater porosity modification. Relatively close spacing between ramp-and-flat thrusts can produce a listric-fault, snakehead anticline geometry because younger faults deform the preexisting thrust slices. The resulting geometry is here called a snakehead duplex and appears to be fairly common, as in the Jumpingpound field in the Canadian Rockies. Each thrust slice within the duplex is deformed six times or more, providing the maximum opportunity for deformation-related porosity changes. Maximum fracture porosity should occur in thrusts having listric-fan or snakehead duplex geometry. Structures involving duplexes generally should be better than isolated ramp anticlines.

  12. Parasitic fauna of Gobiidae in Mazandaran coastal zones, north of Iran 2011.

    Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Roushan, Reza Habibnejad; Hosseinifard, Seyed Mehdi


    Gobiidae is considered as one of the diverse families of fishes in Caspian Sea. Due to abundant species and no harvest, this family plays an important role in ecology and feed chain of fishes in Caspian Sea. Present study was performed to determine parasitic fauna of Gobiidae in southern parts of Caspian Sea (coasts of Nowshahr, Sorkhrood, Jouybar, Sari and Amirabad). Primarily, length and weight of each fish was measured. Then, fish's various organs were examined by routine parasitology methods. From 150 fishes which were caught from six studied coastal zones, 51 (34 %) were infected. Majority of caught fishes was belonged to sand goby (Neogobius fluviatilis pallasi) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) was the least. Highest rate of infection was seen in N. fluviatilis pallasi while, this percentage in round goby (N. melanostomus) was low (8.57 %) and in Caspian bighead goby (Neogobius kessleri gorlap) no parasitic infection was observed. Most of infected fishes were from Jouybar coastal zone while Nowshahr coastal zone had the lowest infection rate. In present study parasites such as Dactylogyrus, Rhobdochona fortuneti and Bothrocephalus gowkogensis were diagnosed in Caspian gobies. Regarding importance of gobies in chain feed of other fishes and their indirect economic importance, need of diagnosing of gobies parasitic fauna seems to be essential.

  13. Unraveling the polymetamorphic history of garnet-bearing metabasites: Insights from the North Motagua Mélange (Guatemala Suture Zone)

    Bonnet, G.; Flores, K. E.; Martin, C.; Harlow, G. E.


    The Guatemala Suture Zone is the fault-bound region in central Guatemala that contains the present North American-Caribbean plate boundary. This major composite geotectonic unit contains a variety of ophiolites, serpentinite mélanges, and metavolcano-sedimentary sequences along with high-grade schists, gneisses, low-grade metasediments and metagranites thrusted north and south of the active Motagua fault system (MFS). The North Motagua Mélange (NMM) outcrops north of the MFS and testifies the emplacement of exhumed subduction assemblages along a collisional tectonic setting. The NMM is composed of a serpentinite-matrix mélange that contains blocks of metabasites (subgreenschist facies metabasalt, grt-blueschist, eclogite, grt-amphibolite), vein-related rocks (jadeitite, omphacitite, albitite, mica-rock), and metatrondhjemites. Our new detailed petrographic and thermobarometric study on the garnet-bearing metabasites reveals a complex polymetamorphic history with multiple tectonic events. Eclogites show a classical clockwise PT path composed of (a) prograde blueschist/eclogite facies within garnet cores, (b) eclogite facies metamorphic peak at ~1.7 GPa and 620°C, (c) post-peak blueschist facies, (d) amphibolite facies overprint, and (e) late stage greenschist facies. Two types of garnet amphibolite blocks can be found, the first consist of (a) a relict eclogite facies peak at ~1.3 GPa and 550°C only preserved within anhedral garnet cores, and (b) surrounded by a post-peak amphibolite facies. In contrast, the second type displays a prograde amphibolite facies at 0.6-1.1 GPa and 400-650°C. The eclogites metamorphic peak suggests formation in a normal subduction zone at ~60 km depth, a subsequent exhumation to the middle section of the subduction channel (~35 km), and a later metamorphic reworking at lower P and higher T before its final exhumation. The first type of garnet amphibolite shows a similar trajectory as the eclogites but at warmer conditions. In

  14. Long-term trends of hypoxia in the coastal zone, north-western Baltic proper

    Andrén, Thomas; Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena; Andrén, Elinor


    The Baltic Sea coastal zone contains over 20 % of all identified hypoxic sites worldwide and shows an increasing trend since 1950 (Conley et al. 2011). In the open Baltic Sea, hypoxia events are recorded during three time periods: about 8000-4000, 2000-800 cal. yr. BP, and from AD 1800 up to present, but in the coastal zone data on long-term trends are lacking (Zillén et al. 2008). Different views have been proposed of what caused the oscillation in the oxygen content at sea bottoms in the open Baltic Sea e.g. changes in agricultural practice, fluctuations in human population density and climate change. The role of humans and climate in driving the eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea needs to be understood and there is an urgent need for increased knowledge of the historical extent of hypoxia and the driving forces for formation in the coastal zone. This project aims to disentangle the role of human induced and natural climate-driven processes that have resulted in times of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea during the last 2000 years. Research focus is put on the coastal zone and carefully selected estuaries along the Swedish east coast, where responses to changed human land-use can be expected to be first recorded. Eight sites, from the Stockholm archipelago to Bråviken, have been cored and sediments lithologically described and dated by radiocarbon using preferably terrestrial macrofossils. Preliminary results of age models, sedimentation rates, and lithologies will be presented. Lithological descriptions using laminated sediments as a proxy for hypoxic bottom water conditions will significantly increase the knowledge on the distribution of hypoxia and the extension of areas of laminated sediments in time and space in the coastal area. References: Conley, D.J., Carstensen, J., Aigars, J., Axe, P., Bonsdorff, E., Eremina, T., Haahti, B.-M., Humborg, C., Jonsson, P., Kotta, J., Lännegren, C., Larsson, U., Maximov, A., Rodriguez Medina, M

  15. Crustal Architecture at the Collision Zone Between Rivera and North American Plates at the Jalisco Block: Tsujal Project

    Dañobeitia, Juanjo; Bartolomé, Rafael; Prada, Manel; Nuñez-Cornú, Francisco; Córdoba, Diego; Bandy, William L.; Estrada, F.; Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Nuñez, Diana; Castellón, Arturo; Alonso, José Luis; Mortera, Carlos; Ortiz, Modesto


    Processing and analysis of new multichannel seismic records, coincident with wide-angle seismic profiles, acquired in the framework of the TsuJal project allow us to investigate in detail the complex structure of the oceanic domain in the collision zone between Rivera Plate and Block Jalisco at its northern termination. The subducting Rivera Plate, which is overridden by the North American Plate-Jalisco Block, is clearly identified up to 21.5°N (just south of Maria Magdalena Island) as a two clear reflections that we interpret as the interplate and Moho discontinuities. North of the Tres Marias Islands the seismic images display a different tectonic scenario with structures that are consistent with large faulting and rifted margin. A two-dimensional velocity approach for the crustal geometry is achieved using joint refraction/reflection travel time tomography, the uncertainty of the results is assessed by means of Monte Carlo analysis. Our results show an average oceanic crustal thickness of 6-7 km with a moderate increase towards the Jalisco Block, an anomalous thick layers (~3.0 km) displaying a relatively low velocity (~5.5 km/s) underneath Maria Magdalena Rise, and an estimated Moho depth deeper than 15 km in the collision zone between Rivera Plate and Jalisco Block. We have also determined an anomalous crust on the western flank of the Tres Marias Islands, which may be related to the initial phases of continental breakup of the Baja California Peninsula and Mexico mainland. High-resolution bathymetry provides remarkable images of intensive slope instabilities marked by relatively large slides scars of more than 40 km2 extent, and mass-wasting deposits probably triggered by the intense seismicity in the area.

  16. Crustal Architecture at the Collision Zone Between Rivera and North American Plates at the Jalisco Block: Tsujal Project

    Dañobeitia, Juanjo; Bartolomé, Rafael; Prada, Manel; Nuñez-Cornú, Francisco; Córdoba, Diego; Bandy, William L.; Estrada, F.; Cameselle, Alejandra L.; Nuñez, Diana; Castellón, Arturo; Alonso, José Luis; Mortera, Carlos; Ortiz, Modesto


    Processing and analysis of new multichannel seismic records, coincident with wide-angle seismic profiles, acquired in the framework of the TsuJal project allow us to investigate in detail the complex structure of the oceanic domain in the collision zone between Rivera Plate and Block Jalisco at its northern termination. The subducting Rivera Plate, which is overridden by the North American Plate-Jalisco Block, is clearly identified up to 21.5°N (just south of Maria Magdalena Island) as a two clear reflections that we interpret as the interplate and Moho discontinuities. North of the Tres Marias Islands the seismic images display a different tectonic scenario with structures that are consistent with large faulting and rifted margin. A two-dimensional velocity approach for the crustal geometry is achieved using joint refraction/reflection travel time tomography, the uncertainty of the results is assessed by means of Monte Carlo analysis. Our results show an average oceanic crustal thickness of 6-7 km with a moderate increase towards the Jalisco Block, an anomalous thick layers (~3.0 km) displaying a relatively low velocity (~5.5 km/s) underneath Maria Magdalena Rise, and an estimated Moho depth deeper than 15 km in the collision zone between Rivera Plate and Jalisco Block. We have also determined an anomalous crust on the western flank of the Tres Marias Islands, which may be related to the initial phases of continental breakup of the Baja California Peninsula and Mexico mainland. High-resolution bathymetry provides remarkable images of intensive slope instabilities marked by relatively large slides scars of more than 40 km2 extent, and mass-wasting deposits probably triggered by the intense seismicity in the area.

  17. Plutonium and americium in arctic waters, the North Sea and Scottish and Irish coastal zones

    Hallstadius, L.; Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning;


    collected from the Irish coast in 1983. Fallout is found to dominate as a source of 239+240Pu north of latitude 65°N, while for 238Pu a substantial fraction originates from European nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. The 238Pu/239+240Pu isotope ratio provides clear evidence of the transport of effluent...... of the Irish Sea) to Spitsbergen. 241Am found in Arctic waters probably originates from the decay of fallout 241Pu and, like Pu, tentatively has a residence time of the order of several years. Americium from Sellafield has an estimated mean residence time of 4–6 months in Scottish waters....

  18. Lean Application to Manufacturing Ramp-Up

    Christensen, Irene; Rymaszewska, Anna


    product development process, that is, the ramp-up process, is a critical, early enabler of lean manufacturing. The manufacturing strategy literature conceptualizes a state of “leanness in operations,” which can consolidate both the concepts of lean and manufacturing ramp-up, providing a dual perspective......This article provides a theoretical overview of the concepts of lean and manufacturing ramp-up in an attempt to conceptualize the strategic areas in which lean philosophy and principles can be applied for continuous improvements. The application of lean principles during the final stage of a new....... Abstracting from the extant literature, the authors considered the competitiveness of manufacturing companies from two principal perspectives: the leanness of the ramp-up process and the new-value creation of quality managers. While much of the literature fails to acknowledge that the roots of lean actually...

  19. Identification of suitable housing system for dairy cattle in North East Zone of Tamil Nadu, India, with respect to microclimate

    Sivakumar, T.; Suraj, P. T.; Yasotha, A.; Phukon, Jayashree


    Aim: To identify the suitable roofing pattern for dairy cattle in North East Zone of Tamil Nadu, India, based on micro climatic conditions. Materials and Methods: Initially, survey was conducted to identify and categorize the major housing patterns existing in the region for further detailed investigation. In total, 30 farmers/farms consisting of five housing types with six replicates were selected. Temperature and temperature humidity index (THI) were recorded using the maximum-minimum thermometer and digital thermo-hygrometers. The study was conducted for 1 year covering four seasons namely South West monsoon (June-August), North East monsoon (September-November), cold season (December-February), and summer season (April-May). The data were statistically analyzed using statistical package SPSS 17. Results: Animal shelters with cement sheets recorded the highest temperature (26.71±1.13°C) and THI (77.23±1.76) at 8.00 am, whereas the lowest temperature (24.83±1.17°C) and THI (74.54±1.72) were recorded in the thatched shed. There was significant difference (p<0.01) in temperature and THI at 8.00 am during South West monsoon and North East monsoon seasons between the housing types. During cold and summer seasons, there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) in the environmental variables among various shelter systems. Conclusion: Thatched housing is found to be the suitable one with respect to the climatic variables, followed by tile roof and metal roof. The cement sheet roofed housing is found to be the most unsuitable one in the region for dairy cattle.

  20. Major Crustal Fault Zone Trends and Their Relation to Mineral Belts in the North-Central Great Basin, Nevada

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Sampson, Jay A.; Williams, Jackie M.


    The Great Basin physiographic province covers a large part of the western United States and contains one of the world's leading gold-producing areas, the Carlin Trend. In the Great Basin, many sedimentary-rock-hosted disseminated gold deposits occur along such linear mineral-occurrence trends. The distribution and genesis of these deposits is not fully understood, but most models indicate that regional tectonic structures play an important role in their spatial distribution. Over 100 magnetotelluric (MT) soundings were acquired between 1994 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate crustal structures that may underlie the linear trends in north-central Nevada. MT sounding data were used to map changes in electrical resistivity as a function of depth that are related to subsurface lithologic and structural variations. Two-dimensional (2-D) resistivity modeling of the MT data reveals primarily northerly and northeasterly trending narrow 2-D conductors (1 to 30 ohm-m) extending to mid-crustal depths (5-20 km) that are interpreted to be major crustal fault zones. There are also a few westerly and northwesterly trending 2-D conductors. However, the great majority of the inferred crustal fault zones mapped using MT are perpendicular or oblique to the generally accepted trends. The correlation of strike of three crustal fault zones with the strike of the Carlin and Getchell trends and the Alligator Ridge district suggests they may have been the root fluid flow pathways that fed faults and fracture networks at shallower levels where gold precipitated in favorable host rocks. The abundant northeasterly crustal structures that do not correlate with the major trends may be structures that are open to fluid flow at the present time.

  1. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth


    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  2. Development of the diatom-Phaeocystis spring bloom in the Dutch coastal zone of the North Sea : the silicon depletion versus the daily irradiance threshold hypothesis

    Peperzak, L; Colijn, F; Gieskes, WWC; Peeters, JCH


    The Dutch coastal zone of the North Sea is characterized by high nutrient inputs and low water column irradiance due to high concentrations of suspended matter. The vernal phytoplankton blooms are dominated by diatoms and the flagellate Phaeocystis (Haptophyta). Two hypotheses that predict the timin

  3. Investigation of Polluted Zones by Lead in North West of Iran

    Khodadadi A.


    Full Text Available National project of Important Heavy Metals Identification of Iran (IHMI, following the UNDP and supported by Department of Environment of Iran (DOE, has been completed by Modares Environmental Research Center (MERC. Due to this project the pollution potential sources was investigated by overall distribution maps of any parameters that may cause the lead pollution. Then the sampling points was determined by some geo-statistical analysis and the sampling process was done according to standard methods of sampling, preserving, transferring to lab, measuring and analyzing etc through the 3 months in three phases of materials (effluent and discharges, solid waste, water, soil and sediment samples from natural sources like river etc.. After gathering the final results, overlaying the potential sources and polluted positions (according to violation of national and international standards of sampled points by Geographic Information Systems (GIS led the research to closing to the pollutant sources in north west provinces (Eastern Azerbaijan, Western Azerbaijan, Ardabil and Zanjan. The synthetic and natural pollution sources observed were 17 and 20 respectively. Abir River, Niroo Gostar Taban Industrial Complex and Copper Industries were the most important pollution sources in material phases of Natural, effluent and solid waste respectively.

  4. A shallow aftershock sequence in the north-eastern end of the Wenchuan earthquake aftershock zone


    Previous studies show that mature faults are filled with fault gouge in the shallow part and thus cannot accumulate enough strain energy for earthquakes. Therefore most earthquakes are deeper than 5 km, except those events occurring on new faults or in intact rocks. From field observation, Wenchuan earthquake is found to rupture the free surface about 200 km, but the rupture may extend underground much further from teleseismic body waves inversion and aftershocks distribution. In the northeastern end of the rupture zone, deep rupture may induce stress increase near the free surface, and trigger shallow earthquakes. An Ms 5.7 aftershock occurred at Qingchuan, northeast end of Wenchuan earthquake fault on July 24, 2008, featuring thrust mechanism with a 3 km source centroid depth. The shallow focal depth is confirmed with the sPL phase recorded at station L0205. As Rayleigh wave is well only developed for source depth less than 1/5 of epicentral distance, the observed large amplitude of Rg at a distance of 15 km implied depth of 3 km or less. Dozens of aftershocks’ sPL waveforms are also analyzed to confirm the source depths less than 3 km. On the other hand, no surface ruptures are found by geological survey or InSAR studies. It is strongly suggested that these aftershock sequences initiate fresh rupture in intact rocks triggered by stress increase from the deep co-seismic rupture of the Wenchuan mainshock.

  5. Mechanisms for strain localization within Archaean craton: A structural study from the Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone, north-central India

    Sarkar, Saheli; Patole, Vishal; Saha, Lopamudra; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Nasipuri, Pritam


    The transformation of palaeo-continents involve breakup, dispersal and reassembly of cratonic blocks by collisional suturing that develop a network of orogenic (mobile) belts around the periphery of the stable cratons. The nature of deformation in the orogenic belt depends on the complex interaction of fracturing, plastic deformation and diffusive mass transfer. Additionally, the degree and amount of melting during regional deformation is critical as the presence of melt facilitates the rate of diffusive mass transfer and weakens the rock by reducing the effective viscosity of the deformed zone. The nature of strain localization and formation of ductile shear zones surrounding the cratonic blocks have been correlated with Proterozoic-Palaeozoic supercontinent assembly (Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana reconstruction). Although, a pre-Columbia supercontinent termed as Kenorland has been postulated, there is no evidence that supports the notion due to lack of the presence of shear zones within the Archaean cratonic blocks. In this contribution, we present the detailed structural analysis of ductile shear zones within the Bundelkhand craton. The ductlile shear zone is termed as Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone (BTZ) that extends east-west for nearly 300 km throughout the craton with a width of two-three kilometer . In the north-central India, the Bundelkhand craton is exposed over an area of 26,000 sq. The craton is bounded by Central Indian Tectonic zone in the south, the Great Boundary fault in the west and by the rocks of Lesser Himalaya in the north. A series of tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite gneiss are the oldest rocks of the Bundelkhand craton that also contains a succession of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks comprising of banded iron formation, quartzite, calc-silicate and ultramafic rocks. K-feldspar bearing granites intrude the tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite and the supracrustal rocks during the time span of 2.1 to 2.5 Ga. The TTGs near Babina, in central

  6. Micro-Ramps for Hypersonic Flow Control

    Konstantinos Kontis


    Full Text Available Shock/boundary layer interaction (SBLI is an undesirable phenomenon, occurring in high-speed propulsion systems. The conventional method to manipulate and control SBLI is using a bleed system that involves the removal of a certain amount of mass of the inlet flow to control boundary layer separation. However, the system requires a larger nacelle to compensate the mass loss, larger nacelles contribute to additional weight and drag and reduce the overall performance. This study investigates a novel type of flow control device called micro-ramps, a part of the micro vortex generators (VGs family that intends to replace the bleed technique. Micro-ramps produce pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, which help to suppress SBLI and reduce the chances of flow separation. Experiments were done at Mach 5 with two micro-ramp models of different sizes. Schlieren photography, surface flow visualization and infrared thermography were used in this investigation. The results revealed the detailed flow characteristics of the micro-ramp, such as the primary and secondary vortices. This helps us to understand the overall flow physics of micro-ramps in hypersonic flow and their application for SBLI control.

  7. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded mountain front, north-eastern Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, India

    Luirei, Khayingshing; Bhakuni, S. S.; Negi, Sanjay S.


    The shape of the frontal part of the Himalaya around the north-eastern corner of the Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, along the Kali River valley, is defined by folded hanging wall rocks of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). Two parallel faults (Kalaunia and Tanakpur faults) trace along the axial zone of the folded HFT. Between these faults, the hinge zone of this transverse fold is relatively straight and along these faults, the beds abruptly change their attitudes and their widths are tectonically attenuated across two hinge lines of fold. The area is constituted of various surfaces of coalescing fans and terraces. Fans comprise predominantly of sandstone clasts laid down by the steep-gradient streams originating from the Siwalik range. The alluvial fans are characterised by compound and superimposed fans with high relief, which are generated by the tectonic activities associated with the thrusting along the HFT. The truncated fan along the HFT has formed a 100 m high-escarpment running E-W for ˜5 km. Quaternary terrace deposits suggest two phases of tectonic uplift in the basal part of the hanging wall block of the HFT dipping towards the north. The first phase is represented by tilting of the terrace sediments by ˜30 ∘ towards the NW; while the second phase is evident from deformed structures in the terrace deposit comprising mainly of reverse faults, fault propagation folds, convolute laminations, flower structures and back thrust faults. The second phase produced ˜1.0 m offset of stratification of the terrace along a thrust fault. Tectonic escarpments are recognised across the splay thrust near south of the HFT trace. The south facing hill slopes exhibit numerous landslides along active channels incising the hanging wall rocks of the HFT. The study area shows weak seismicity. The major Moradabad Fault crosses near the study area. This transverse fault may have suppressed the seismicity in the Tanakpur area, and the movement along the Moradabad and Kasganj

  8. Landforms along transverse faults parallel to axial zone of folded mountain front, north-eastern Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, India

    Khayingshing Luirei; S S Bhakuni; Sanjay S Negi


    The shape of the frontal part of the Himalaya around the north-eastern corner of the Kumaun Sub-Himalaya, along the Kali River valley, is defined by folded hanging wall rocks of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). Two parallel faults (Kalaunia and Tanakpur faults) trace along the axial zone of the folded HFT. Between these faults, the hinge zone of this transverse fold is relatively straight and along these faults, the beds abruptly change their attitudes and their widths are tectonically attenuated across two hinge lines of fold. The area is constituted of various surfaces of coalescing fans and terraces. Fans comprise predominantly of sandstone clasts laid down by the steep-gradient streams originating from the Siwalik range. The alluvial fans are characterised by compound and superimposed fans with high relief, which are generated by the tectonic activities associated with the thrusting along the HFT. The truncated fan along the HFT has formed a 100 m high-escarpment running E–W for ~5 km. Quaternary terrace deposits suggest two phases of tectonic uplift in the basal part of the hanging wall block of the HFT dipping towards the north. The first phase is represented by tilting of the terrace sediments by ~30° towards the NW; while the second phase is evident from deformed structures in the terrace deposit comprising mainly of reverse faults, fault propagation folds, convolute laminations, flower structures and back thrust faults. The second phase produced ~1.0 m offset of stratification of the terrace along a thrust fault. Tectonic escarpments are recognised across the splay thrust near south of the HFT trace. The south facing hill slopes exhibit numerous landslides along active channels incising the hanging wall rocks of the HFT. The study area shows weak seismicity. The major Moradabad Fault crosses near the study area. This transverse fault may have suppressed the seismicity in the Tanakpur area, and the movement along the Moradabad and Kasganj

  9. Petrological and geochemical studies of ultramafic–mafic rocks from the North Puruliya Shear Zone (eastern India)

    Aditi Mandal; Arijit Ray


    Ultramafic and mafic rocks occur within a linear belt, trending nearly E–W along North Puruliya Shear Zone of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC). These rocks are classified as gabbro, norite, gabbronorite, dolerite, diorite, olivine-websterite and lherzolite. Mafic rocks (Group 1) often occur in association with ultramafic variants (Group 2) and sometimes in isolation. A genetic link has been established between these mafic and ultramafic rocks using disposition of ultramafic and mafic rocks in the outcrop, systematic variation in modal mineralogy, co-linearity of plots in biaxial chemical variation diagram. Chemical composition of biotite and clinopyroxene reveal calc-alkaline nature and arc signature in these mafic–ultramafic rocks and whole rock geochemical characters indicate similarity with arc magma in subduction zone setting. The high values of Mg no. (47–81) and Al2O3 (5.5–17.9) of mafic rocks indicate primitive, aluminous nature of the parental melt and presence of amphibole and biotite indicate its hydrous nature. The parent mafic melt evolved through fractionation of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The crystal cumulates gave rise to the ultramafic rocks and the associated mafic rocks formed from residual melt. Crustal contamination played an important role in magmatic evolution as evident from variation in abundance of Rb in different lithomembers. Mafic–ultramafic rocks of the present study have been compared with intra-cratonic layered complexes, mafic–ultramafic rocks of high grade terrain, Alaskan type ultramafic–mafic complex and ophiolites. It is observed that the ultramafic–mafic rocks of present study have similarity with Alaskan type complex.

  10. Petrography, Mineral Chemistry and Geothermobarometry of Andalusite- Bearing Schists North of Azna (Northern Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran

    Karim Abdollahi Silabi


    Full Text Available Introduction The area studied is located north of Azna (Lorestan Province in a small portion of the Sanandaj – Sirjan structural zone (Mohajjel et al., 2003.This area is part of the Zagros orogenic belt, formed by the opening and closure of Neotethyan ocean. From NE to SW, it consists of three parallel tectonic regions: the Orumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, the Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone and the Zagros thrust-fold belt (Ghasemi and Talbot, 2005. The Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone is a metamorphic belt composed mostly of greenschist, amphibolite and eclogite facies rocks. The development of the zonetook placeduring the opening of the Tethys ocean and its subsequent closing during the Cretaceous and earlyTertiary convergence of the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates (Mohajjel and Fergusson, 2000. The second stage of metamorphism and deformation of the zone, designated D2, is the most important, resulting from the opening and closure of the Neotethyan ocean and the collision of the Arabian plate with the southwestern part of central Iran in the Late Cretaceous to Tertiary (Laramideorogenic phase (Ghasemi and Talbot, 2005; Aghanabati, 2004; Mohajjel et al., 2003; Mohajjel and Fergusson, 2000; Alavi, 1994. In the Sanandaj-Sirjanzone, which includes the Azna area, Cretaceous granitic intrusions into the schists were followed byfolding and faulting. The intrusions produced contact metamorphism, and have lens-shaped outlines, trendingNW-SE. Consequently, the Azna area has a varied petrologic assemblage with polyphase metamorphism and deformation, including schists, metabasites and mylonitic granites. The phases include: 1. Deformation D1, and dynamothermal metamorphism (M1,a result of the subduction of Neotethysoceanic crust beneath the Iranian plate in the Late Jurassic. 2.Deformation D2, and thermal metamorphism (M2,a result of Paleocene continental collision and 3. Deformation D3, and dynamic metamorphism (M3. This deformation is a progressive

  11. Barium in Twilight Zone suspended matter as a potential proxy for particulate organic carbon remineralization: Results for the North Pacific

    Dehairs, F.; Jacquet, S.; Savoye, N.; Van Mooy, B.A.S.; Buesseler, K.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Lamborg, C.H.; Elskens, M.; Baeyens, W.; Boyd, P.W.; Casciotti, K.L.; Monnin, C.


    This study focuses on the fate of exported organic carbon in the twilight zone at two contrasting environments in the North Pacific: the oligotrophic ALOHA site (22 degrees 45 minutes N 158 degrees W; Hawaii; studied during June-July 2004) and the mesotrophic Subarctic Pacific K2 site (47 degrees N, 161 degrees W; studied during July-August 2005). Earlier work has shown that non-lithogenic, excess particulate Ba (Ba{sub xs}) in the mesopelagic water column is a potential proxy of organic carbon remineralization. In general Ba{sub xs} contents were significantly larger at K2 than at ALOHA. At ALOHA the Ba{sub xs} profiles from repeated sampling (5 casts) showed remarkable consistency over a period of three weeks, suggesting that the system was close to being at steady state. In contrast, more variability was observed at K2 (6 casts sampled) reflecting the more dynamic physical and biological conditions prevailing in this environment. While for both sites Ba{sub xs} concentrations increased with depth, at K2 a clear maximum was present between the base of the mixed layer at around 50m and 500m, reflecting production and release of Ba{sub xs}. Larger mesopelagic Ba{sub xs} contents and larger bacterial production in the twilight zone at the K2 site indicate that more material was exported from the upper mixed layer for bacterial degradation deeper, compared to the ALOHA site. Furthermore, application of a published transfer function (Dehairs et al., 1997) relating oxygen consumption to the observed Ba{sub xs} data indicated that the latter were in good agreement with bacterial respiration, calculated from bacterial production. These results corroborate earlier findings highlighting the potential of Ba{sub xs} as a proxy for organic carbon remineralization. The range of POC remineralization rates calculated from twilight zone excess particulate Ba contents did also compare well with the depth dependent POC flux decrease as recorded by neutrally buoyant sediment traps

  12. Pyrenean hyper-extension : breaking, thinning, or stretching of the crust ? A view from the central north-Pyrenean zone

    de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Bajolet, Flora; Boulvais, Philippe; Boutin, Alexandre; Clerc, Camille; Delacour, Adélie; Deschamp, Fabien; Ford, Mary; Fourcade, Serge; Gouache, Corentin; Grool, Arjan; Labaume, Pierre; Lagabrielle, Yves; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Lemirre, Baptiste; Monié, Patrick; de Parseval, Philippe; Poujol, Marc


    The geology of the North Pyrenean Zone in the central Pyrenees allows for the observation in the field of the entire section of the Pyrenean rift, from the mantle to the crust and the Mesozoic cover (pre, syn and post rift). The good knowledge we have of the pre-Alpine history of the Pyrenees allows us to properly constrain the Alpine geological evolution of the pre-Triassic rocks which record both Variscan and Alpine orogenic cycles. The mantle outcrop as kilometric to centimetric fragments of peridotite dispersed within a carbonate metamorphic breccia. The study of peridotite serpentinisation shows several events of low-temperature serpentinisation, in contact with seawater. In some locallities, we can observe a mixture of fragments of variously serpentinized peridotites. This suggests a tectonic context where fragments of peridotites from different structural levels were sampled more or less synchronously. The granulitic basement is characterized by a Variscan syndeformational HT event (300-280 Ma). So far we have not found any trace of a Cretaceous HT event (> 500°C). On the other hand, the basement is affected by a regional metasomatism that began during the Jurassic and became more spatially focused with time until it was restricted to the Pyrenean rift during the Aptien, Albian and Cenomanian. The talc-chlorite metasomatism (120-95 Ma) shows an evolution from a static toward a syn-deformation hydrothermal event, under a more or less normal geothermal gradient. Extensional deformation is recorded by the reworking of several inherited low-angle Variscan tectonic contacts, but also by dispersed high-angle extensional shear zones formed under greenshist conditions. The metamorphic Mesozoic cover of the basement massifs, which constitute the so-called Internal Metamorphic Zone, is an allochtonous unit made of lenses of Mesozoic rocks enclosed into the breccia, which locally contains peridotite and basement clasts. The Mesozoic metamorphic carbonates show a first

  13. Comparison of Chlorophyll-A Algorithms for the Transition Zone Between the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Huber, Silvia; Hansen, Lars B.; Rasmussen, Mads O.; Kaas, Hanne


    Monitoring water quality of the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea from space is still a challenge because of the optically complex waters. The presence of suspended sediments and dissolved substances often interfere with the phytoplankton signal and thus confound conventional case-1 algorithms developed for the open ocean. Specific calibration to case-2 waters may compensate for this. In this study we compared chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations derived with three different case-2 algorithms: C2R, FUB/WeW and CoastColour using MERIS data as basis. Default C2R and FUB clearly underestimate higher chl-a concentrations. However, with local tuning we could significantly improve the fit with in-situ data. For instance, the root mean square error is reduced by roughly 50% from 3.06 to 1.6 μ g/L for the calibrated C2R processor as compared to the default C2R. This study is part of the FP7 project AQUA-USERS which has the overall goal to provide the aquaculture industry with timely information based on satellite data and optical in-situ measurements. One of the products is chlorophyll-a concentration.

  14. Size-fractionated diversity of eukaryotic microbial communities in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone.

    Duret, Manon T; Pachiadaki, Maria G; Stewart, Frank J; Sarode, Neha; Christaki, Urania; Monchy, Sébastien; Srivastava, Ankita; Edgcomb, Virginia P


    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) caused by water column stratification appear to expand in parts of the world's ocean, with consequences for marine biogeochemical cycles. OMZ formation is often fueled by high surface primary production, and sinking organic particles can be hotspots of interactions and activity within microbial communities. This study investigated the diversity of OMZ protist communities in two biomass size fractions (>30 and 30-1.6 μm filters) from the world's largest permanent OMZ in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Diversity was quantified via Illumina MiSeq sequencing of V4 region of 18S SSU rRNA genes in samples spanning oxygen gradients at two stations. Alveolata and Rhizaria dominated the two size fractions at both sites along the oxygen gradient. Community composition at finer taxonomic levels was partially shaped by oxygen concentration, as communities associated with versus anoxic waters shared only ∼32% of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) (97% sequence identity) composition. Overall, only 9.7% of total OTUs were recovered at both stations and under all oxygen conditions sampled, implying structuring of the eukaryotic community in this area. Size-fractionated communities exhibited different taxonomical features (e.g. Syndiniales Group I in the 1.6-30 μm fraction) that could be explained by the microniches created on the surface-originated sinking particles.

  15. Using decision trees to predict benthic communities within and near the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea.

    Pesch, Roland; Pehlke, Hendrik; Jerosch, Kerstin; Schröder, Winfried; Schlüter, Michael


    In this article a concept is described in order to predict and map the occurrence of benthic communities within and near the German Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the North Sea. The approach consists of two work steps: (1) geostatistical analysis of abiotic measurement data and (2) calculation of benthic provinces by means of Classification and Regression Trees (CART) and GIS-techniques. From bottom water measurements on salinity, temperature, silicate and nutrients as well as from punctual data on grain size ranges (0-20, 20-63, 63-2,000 mu) raster maps were calculated by use of geostatistical methods. At first the autocorrelation structure was examined and modelled with help of variogram analysis. The resulting variogram models were then used to calculate raster maps by applying ordinary kriging procedures. After intersecting these raster maps with punctual data on eight benthic communities a decision tree was derived to predict the occurrence of these communities within the study area. Since such a CART tree corresponds to a hierarchically ordered set of decision rules it was applied to the geostatistically estimated raster data to predict benthic habitats within and near the EEZ.

  16. Water column biogeochemistry of oxygen minimum zones in the eastern tropical North Atlantic and eastern tropical South Pacific oceans

    Löscher, Carolin R.; Bange, Hermann W.; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Callbeck, Cameron M.; Engel, Anja; Hauss, Helena; Kanzow, Torsten; Kiko, Rainer; Lavik, Gaute; Loginova, Alexandra; Melzner, Frank; Meyer, Judith; Neulinger, Sven C.; Pahlow, Markus; Riebesell, Ulf; Schunck, Harald; Thomsen, Sören; Wagner, Hannes


    Recent modeling results suggest that oceanic oxygen levels will decrease significantly over the next decades to centuries in response to climate change and altered ocean circulation. Hence, the future ocean may experience major shifts in nutrient cycling triggered by the expansion and intensification of tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are connected to the most productive upwelling systems in the ocean. There are numerous feedbacks among oxygen concentrations, nutrient cycling and biological productivity; however, existing knowledge is insufficient to understand physical, chemical and biological interactions in order to adequately assess past and potential future changes. In the following, we summarize one decade of research performed in the framework of the Collaborative Research Center 754 (SFB754) focusing on climate-biogeochemistry interactions in tropical OMZs. We investigated the influence of low environmental oxygen conditions on biogeochemical cycles, organic matter formation and remineralization, greenhouse gas production and the ecology in OMZ regions of the eastern tropical South Pacific compared to the weaker OMZ of the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Based on our findings, a coupling of primary production and organic matter export via the nitrogen cycle is proposed, which may, however, be impacted by several additional factors, e.g., micronutrients, particles acting as microniches, vertical and horizontal transport of organic material and the role of zooplankton and viruses therein.

  17. Microprocessor-controlled, programmable ramp voltage generator

    Hopwood, J.


    A special-purpose voltage generator has been developed for driving the quadrupole mass filter of a residual gas analyzer. The generator is microprocessor-controlled with desired ramping parameters programmed by setting front-panel digital thumb switches. The start voltage, stop voltage, and time of each excursion are selectable. A maximum of five start-stop levels may be pre-selected for each program. The ramp voltage is 0 to 10 volts with sweep times from 0.1 to 999.99 seconds.

  18. Lateral structural variation along the Kalabagh Fault Zone, NW Himalayan foreland fold-and-thrust belt, Pakistan

    Khan, Shuhab D.; Chen, Lize; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ahmad, Irshad; Ali, Fayaz


    The NW Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt in Pakistan is of gentler regional slope and wider extent than the other parts of the convergent plate boundary between India and the rest of Asia. Large scale structural re-entrants typify the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) of the NW Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt in Pakistan. Understanding dynamics of the formation of these structural variations has been hampered by the lack of information about the lateral structures bounding the re-entrants. Our mapping of the Kalabagh Fault Zone, a lateral ramp linking the Salt and the Surghar Ranges, advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data, field investigations and the interpreted reprocessed 2D seismic data. This integration of surface and subsurface geology provides new insights on the geometry and evolution of the Kalabagh Fault Zone, by showing that it forms an oblique ramp to the Main Frontal Thrust, and at north a lateral ramp with right-lateral strike slip movement. Our results indicate that the presence and areal extent of the evaporates is the dominant factor controlling lateral structural variation in the NW Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt of Pakistan. The Kalabagh Fault Zone acts as a zone that accommodates differential shortening and structural variation along the orogenic trend.

  19. Early seafloor spreading in the South Atlantic: new evidence for M-series magnetochrons north of the Rio Grande Fracture Zone

    Bird, Dale E.; Hall, Stuart A.


    Recent tectonic reconstructions of the South Atlantic have partitioned the ocean basin into several segments based upon one or more proposed intraplate South American deformation zones. In several of these reconstructions, opening of the southern segment(s) by seafloor spreading prior to Aptian-Albian time is accompanied by contemporaneous strike-slip motion along an intraplate boundary extending southeastward from the Andean Cochabamba—Santa Cruz bend to the Rio Grande Fracture Zone (RGFZ). We have examined new magnetic data over the Pelotas, Santos and Campos Basins, offshore Argentina and Brazil, acquired by ION-GXT in tandem with long-offset, long record seismic reflection data, and identified seafloor spreading anomalies M4, M3, M2 and M0 (˜131, ˜129, ˜128 and ˜125 Ma). Integrating these results with our earlier work, we have been able to correlate magnetochrons M4, M3, M2 and M0 north and south of the RGFZ on the South American margin, and north and south of the Walvis Ridge on the African side. Our results are therefore inconsistent with diachronous opening models that involve substantial continental strike-slip motion north of RGFZ during M4 to M0 time. Although the ocean basin may have opened from south to north, our results indicate that seafloor spreading began north of the RGFZ earlier than previously proposed.

  20. Anatomy of a cyclically packaged Mesoproterozoic carbonate ramp in northern Canada

    Sherman, A. G.; Narbonne, G. M.; James, N. P.


    progradation of inner-ramp tidal flats over outer- and mid-ramp facies during shoaling. The maximum basinward progradation of peritidal facies coincides with a zone of slope failure that may have promoted the development of the stromatolitic reefs. The sea-level history of the Victor Bay Formation is represented by three hectometre-scale sequences. An initial flooding event resulted in deposition of the lower Victor Bay shale member. Upper-member carbonate cycles were then deposited during highstand. Mid-ramp slumping was followed by late-highstand reef development. The second sequence began with development of an inner-ramp lowstand unconformity and a thick mid-ramp lowstand wedge. A second transgression promoted a more modest phase of reef development at the mid-ramp and shallow-water deposition continued inboard. A third and final transgressive episode eventually led to flooding of the backstepping ramp. Overall consistent cycle thickness and absence of truncated cycles, as well as the high rate and amount of creation of accommodation space, suggest that the periodicity and amplitude of sea-level fluctuation were relatively uniform, and point to a eustatic rather than tectonic mechanism of relative sea-level change. High-amplitude, high-frequency eustatic sea-level change is characteristic of icehouse worlds in which short-term, large-scale sea-level fluctuations accompany rapidly changing ice volumes affected by Milankovitch orbital forcing. Packaging of cyclic Upper Victor Bay carbonates therefore supports the hypothesis of a late Mesoproterozoic glacial period, as proposed by previous workers.


    R. Yu. Lagerev


    Full Text Available Мerging traffic junctions on high-class roads are considered as bottlenecks in the network and quality of their operation determines a probability for formation of traffic congestions. Investigations on congestion situations in the merging zones of ramp and freeway traffic flows have demonstrated that queuing ramp traffic flow leads to formation of so called “turbulence” effect due to re-arrangement of transport facilities and reduction in their speed on main road direction. Having high queuing traffic flow on main road the “turbulence” component can result in formation of an impact blow in the main traffic flow. It has been proved that an impact of the ramp traffic flow on congestion probability is higher in comparison with main road traffic flow. The paper makes it possible to establish that some transport facilities moving along a high-way simul taneously occupy two lanes in the merging traffic zones and they reduce capacity of the used road section. It is necessary to take into account this specific feature and it is necessary to pay attention to it in the zones of “turbulence” effect formation. The paper presents main approaches, methodology, principles and stages required for access control of high-class roads which are directed on higher quality of their operation including improvement of road traffic safety. The paper proposes a methodоlogy that allows to evaluate and optimize ramp control in the context of a transport queue length minimization at adjoining ramps for the purposes of probability reduction in transport congestion.

  2. Double Ramp Loss Based Reject Option Classifier


    Cao et al. (Eds.): PAKDD 2015, Part I, LNAI 9077, pp. 151–163, 2015. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-18038-0 12 152 N. Manwani et al. ρ is the parameter...A.: kernlab - an S4 package for kernel methods in R. Journal of Statistical Software 11(9), 1–20 ( 2004 ) Double Ramp Loss Based Reject Option

  3. Multi-phase tectonic structures in the collision zone of the Kolyma-Omolon microcontinent and the eastern margin of the North Asian craton, Northeastern Russia

    Prokopiev, A. V.; Oxman, V. S.


    The sequence of formation of structures is established in the zone of junction of the eastern margin of the North Asian craton and the northeastern flank of the Kolyma-Omolon microcontinent, in the area of bend of the Kolyma structural loop. Detailed structural studies revealed two phases in the formation of Mesozoic structures – an early thrust phase and a late strike-slip phase. Structures formed during each of the phases are described. Thrust structures are represented...

  4. Comparative assessment of agricultural technology generating practices in universities and research institutes in north central zone of Nigeria

    Gbolagade Benjamin Adesiji


    Full Text Available To understand the technology generating practices among universities and research institutes in north central zone of Nigeria, this study examined sources of funds for technology generating activities, compared agro-technology generating practices and identified constraining factors hindering technology generating practices. One hundred and fifty-two academic staff were randomly selected from universities and one hundred and thirty-six respondents were drawn from research institutes. Validated questionnaires with reliability coefficient of r = 0.92 were used to elicit data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Likert-scale, T-test and Factor analysis. Majority (93.4% of universities’ respondents used their personal funds to generate new technology compared to their counterparts in research institutes. The most widely employed mechanism for generating agricultural technologies was joint radio programmes (mean = 3.38 while the least was biotechnology (mean = 2.57. Major areas of differences in technology generation between the two institutions were the physical distance (t = 13.54; P < 0.05, farmers participation in field research trials (t = 8.50; P < 0.05, farmers co-finance of adaptive research trials (t = 3.77; P < 0.05 and adequate research facilities and incentives to workers (t = 2.05; P < 0.05. Factors constraining technology generation for universities were poor access to knowledge and information on new innovation (r = 0.815 while for research institutes it was limited physical resources (ICT, Telephone (r = 0.801. It was recommended therefore that respondents should look into options of writing alternate fund proposals and submitting to a wider range of funding bodies. Governance of innovation could be strengthened through the formation of a formal technological linkage advisory council.

  5. The northwest trending north Boquerón Bay-Punta Montalva Fault Zone; A through going active fault system in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Roig‐Silva, Coral Marie; Asencio, Eugenio; Joyce, James


    The North Boquerón Bay–Punta Montalva fault zone has been mapped crossing the Lajas Valley in southwest Puerto Rico. Identification of the fault was based upon detailed analysis of geophysical data, satellite images, and field mapping. The fault zone consists of a series of Cretaceous bedrock faults that reactivated and deformed Miocene limestone and Quaternary alluvial fan sediments. The fault zone is seismically active (local magnitude greater than 5.0) with numerous locally felt earthquakes. Focal mechanism solutions suggest strain partitioning with predominantly east–west left-lateral displacements with small normal faults striking mostly toward the northeast. Northeast-trending fractures and normal faults can be found in intermittent streams that cut through the Quaternary alluvial fan deposits along the southern margin of the Lajas Valley, an east–west-trending 30-km-long fault-controlled depression. Areas of preferred erosion within the alluvial fan trend toward the west-northwest parallel to the onland projection of the North Boquerón Bay fault. The North Boquerón Bay fault aligns with the Punta Montalva fault southeast of the Lajas Valley. Both faults show strong southward tilting of Miocene strata. On the western end, the Northern Boquerón Bay fault is covered with flat-lying Holocene sediments, whereas at the southern end the Punta Montalva fault shows left-lateral displacement of stream drainage on the order of a few hundred meters.

  6. L band InSAR sudy on the Ganos section of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ)

    de Michele, Marcello


    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), with a total length of about 1500 km, is one of the most active right-lateral strike-slip faults in the world. It defines the tectonic boundary between the Anatolian Plate and the Eurasian Plate in northern Turkey, accommodating ~14-30 mm/yr of relative plate motion between the two plates (fig. 1). The Gazikoy-Saros segment (the Ganos fault, GF) is the onshore segment of the northern strand of the NAF between the Marmara Sea and the Gulf of Saros. It was last ruptured in 1912 with a Ms=7.4 earthquake that broke the entire inland segment of the fault, a length of about 50 km, and produced a right-lateral strike-slip component of at least 3 m. Other large historical earthquakes that have been attributed to the Ganos fault occurred in A.D. 824, 1343, 1509 and 1766 (e. g. Reilinger et al., 2000; Meade et al., 2002; Motagh et al., 2007; Janssen et al., 2009; Megraoui et al., 2012 ; Ersen Aksoy et al., 2010). The GF forms a 45 km long linear fault system and represents the link between the northern strand of the NAFZ in the Sea of Marmara and the North Aegean Trough where slip partitioning results in branching of the fault zone. The present study aims at showing the results retrieved from L band Interferometric Syntethic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements for the monitoring of Crustal Deformation in the Anatolian Fault Zone in the frame of the MARMARA SUPERSITE PROJECT "MARSITE" on the Ganos section of the North Anatolian fault zone. We processed SAR data made available through the CAT-1 ESA (European Space Agency) archives, acquired by the L-band radar sensor ALOS PALSAR between 2007 and 2011. The aim of this exercise is to test L-band capabilities to map the spatial and temporal evolution of the present-day crustal deformation phenomena affecting the Ganos section of the NAFZ with high level of spatial details. The goal of this task is to assess whether InSAR L-Band data can be useful to evaluate the long-term behavior of active faults

  7. Road and Street Centerlines - RAMPS_INDOT_IN: Ramp System in Indiana (Indiana Department of Transportation, Line Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAMPS_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all ramps in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT), Business Information...

  8. 76 FR 53827 - Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road Bridge North Sioux City to the Confluence of...


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Sioux River From the Military Road... for the temporary safety zone restricting navigation on the Big Sioux River from the Military Road... rule extends the existing temporary safety zone on the Big Sioux River from the Military Road Bridge...

  9. Variation in phytoplankton composition between two North Pacific frontal zones along 158°W during winter-spring 2008-2011

    Howell, Evan A.; Bograd, Steven J.; Hoover, Aimee L.; Seki, Michael P.; Polovina, Jeffrey J.


    Data from three research cruises along the 158°W meridian through the North Pacific Subtropical Frontal Zone (STF) during spring 2008, 2009, and 2011 were used to estimate phytoplankton functional types and size classes. These groups were used to describe phytoplankton composition at the North Pacific Subtropical (STF) and Transition Zone Chlorophyll (TZCF) Fronts, which represent ecologically important large-scale features in the central North Pacific. Phytoplankton class composition was consistent at each front through time, yet significantly different between fronts. The STF contained lower integrated chlorophyll-a concentrations, with surface waters dominated by picophytoplankton and a deep chlorophyll maximum equally comprised of pico- and nanophytoplankton. The TZCF contained significantly higher concentrations of nanophytoplankton through the water column, specifically the prymnesiophyte group. Integrated chlorophyll-a concentrations at the TZCF were 30-90% higher than at the STF, with the dominant increase in the signal from the nanophytoplanktonic prymnesiophyte group. The meridional position of the STF was consistently located near 32°N through these three years, with the more spatially variable TZCF ranging from 2° to 4° further north of the STF. This variability in the frontal position of the TZCF may lead to ecological impacts though the food web. Continued in-situ and remote monitoring, specifically during El Niño and ENSO neutral phases, will provide additional ecological information to help understand mechanistic causes of phytoplankton variability in this important ecological region.

  10. Forward modeling of shock-ramped tantalum

    Brown, Justin L.; Carpenter, John H.; Seagle, Christopher T.


    Dynamic materials experiments on the Z-machine are beginning to reach a regime where traditional analysis techniques break down. Time dependent phenomena such as strength and phase transition kinetics often make the data obtained in these experiments difficult to interpret. We present an inverse analysis methodology to infer the equation of state (EOS) from velocimetry data in these types of experiments, building on recent advances in the propagation of uncertain EOS information through a hydrocode simulation. An example is given for a shock-ramp experiment in which tantalum was shock compressed to 40 GPa followed by a ramp to 80 GPa. The results are found to be consistent with isothermal compression and Hugoniot data in this regime.

  11. Research on recognition of ramp angle based on transducer

    Wenhao GU


    Full Text Available Focusing on the recognition of ramp angle, the relationship between the signal of vehicle transducer and real ramp angle is studied. The force change of vehicle on the ramp, and the relationship between the body tilt angle and front and rear suspension scale is discussed. According to the suspension and tire deformation, error angle of the ramp angle is deduced. A mathematical model is established with Matlab/Simulink and used for simulation to generate error curve of ramp angle. The results show that the error angle increases with the increasing of the ramp angle, and the limit value can reach 6.5%, while the identification method can effectively eliminate this error, and enhance the accuracy of ramp angle recognition.

  12. A survey on wind power ramp forecasting.

    Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Matias, L.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)


    The increasing use of wind power as a source of electricity poses new challenges with regard to both power production and load balance in the electricity grid. This new source of energy is volatile and highly variable. The only way to integrate such power into the grid is to develop reliable and accurate wind power forecasting systems. Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: sub-hourly, hourly, daily, and seasonally. Wind energy, like other electricity sources, must be scheduled. Although wind power forecasting methods are used, the ability to predict wind plant output remains relatively low for short-term operation. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability, wind power's variability can present substantial challenges when large amounts of wind power are incorporated into a grid system. A critical issue is ramp events, which are sudden and large changes (increases or decreases) in wind power. This report presents an overview of current ramp definitions and state-of-the-art approaches in ramp event forecasting.

  13. Environmental characteristics of Mid-Holocene recorded by lacustrine sediments from Lake Daihai, north environment sensitive zone, China

    SUN Qianli; ZHOU Jie; SHEN Ji; CHEN Peng; WU Feng; XIE Xiuping


    Climate proxies, such as total organic carbon and nitrogen (TOC, TN), carbonate content (CaCO3), grain-size and pollen of the sediment core retrieved from enclosed Lake Daihai which lies in the north China environment sensitive zone are analyzed to reconstruct the environment evolution of the area based on high-resolution radiocarbon chronology. The results reveal that the TOC and TN contents of the sediments correlate well with pollen percentage and pollen flux variations during the Holocene, and both reach their peak values simultaneously at 6.7-3.5 ka BP (calendar age, 7.6-3.6ka BP). Since 6.7 ka BP, both the CaCO3 and organic matter contents of the core have simultaneous variations, and their high values also occur during 6.7-3.5 ka BP. While during 9.0-6.7 ka BP (calendar age, 10-7.6 ka BP) relatively lower level of organic matter content and pollen flux correspond to the higher level of carbonate content. The above relations suggest that during 6.7-3.5 ka BP, the productivity and effective precipitation were greatly improved in the lake drainage area, and this would probably strengthen the hydrodynamic conditions, enhancing organic matter, pollen and carbonate inputs from terrestrial sources. Such processes would account for the enrichment of both organic matter and carbonate in the sediments. While during 9.0-6.7 ka BP, the lower level of organic matter, pollen flux but high carbonate content show depressed productivity and declined vegetation coverage. The higher carbonate content at this stage would have probably resulted from the higher evaporation ratio of the lake water under relatively drier climate conditions. Therefore, it is inferred that during 6.7-3.5 ka BP, the climate was more humid with abundant rainfalls and vegetation was more flourishing in the Lake Daihai area. This can be seen as Holocene Climate Optimum (HCO).As a result, this has evident discrepancies with the traditional notion that the HCO occurs at Early Holocene or early Mid-Holocene.

  14. Prediction of gas/particle partition quotients of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in north temperate zone air: an empirical approach.

    Li, Yi-Fan; Jia, Hong-Liang


    Gas/particle (G/P) partitioning process is an important factor governing the transport and fate of chemicals in the atmosphere. Based on a large dataset of more than 700 pairs of air samples in gaseous and particulate phases with a wide ambient temperature range of 60°C from -22°C to +38°C obtained from our Chinese POPs Soil and Air Monitoring Program, Phase 2 (China-SAMP-II), we investigated G/P partitioning behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) in Chinese air. We derived for the first time empirical equations to predict the values of slopes and intercepts for both subcooled-liquid-vapor-pressure (PL)-based and octanol-air-partition-coefficient (KOA)-based models as functions of temperature, and thus predicted partition quotient (KP) without assuming an equilibrium status and free of artifacts. These equations have been successfully applied to predict the values of KP for PBDEs in air of China and other countries in the north temperate zone (NTZ) and also at an Arctic site in East Greenland, and our results matched the monitoring data well at background, rural, urban, and suburban sites, but not at e-waste sites due to the unpredictable PBDE emissions at these sites. Our equations predicted that the ranges of slopes were 0.02-0.82 for logKP-logKOA plots and -0.82 to -0.02 for logKP-logPL plots at temperatures ranged of 60°C from -22°C to +38°C. Our new KOA-based equation was compared with the Harner-Bidleman equation that was derived at a condition of equilibrium, and the results indicated that our new equation has a better performance than the Harner-Bidleman equation in describing G/P partitioning behavior of PBDEs in air as functions of logKOA. We also found for the first time that the G/P partitioning of PBDE congeners would become saturated in the particulate phase respect to the gas phase if the ambient temperature is low enough. A criterion to classify the equilibrium and nonequilibrium status for PBDEs was also established using log

  15. Geochemistry and petrology of andesites from the north rift zone of Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Smithka, I. N.; Perfit, M. R.; Clague, D. A.; Wanless, V. D.


    In 2013, the ROV Doc Ricketts onboard R/V Western Flyer explored ~4 km of an elongate pillow ridge up to ~300 m high along the eastern edge of the north rift zone of Axial Seamount. The steep-sided volcanic ridge is constructed of large pillow lavas up to 2-3 m in diameter and smaller elongated pillow tubes. Of the 27 samples collected during dive D526, all but one are andesites making it one of the largest confirmed high-silica exposures along a mid-ocean ridge (MOR). Based on radiocarbon ages of sediment on top of flows, the mounds are at least ~1390 years old. This minimum age is much younger than the 56 Ka age calculated based on distance from the rift axis, indicating eruption off-axis through older, colder crust and supporting the hypothesis and model calculations that extensive fractional crystallization (>85%) caused the high silica content. The andesitic lavas are primarily glassy, highly vesicular, crusty, and sparsely phyric with small (~1 mm) plagioclase crystals and olivine, clinopyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxide microphenocrysts. Microprobe analyses of glasses are similar to wax-core samples previously collected from this area but are more compositionally variable. Excluding one basalt (7.7 wt% MgO) sampled between mounds, the lavas are basaltic andesites and andesites (53-59 wt% SiO2) with <3 wt% MgO and 12.8-15.7 wt% FeO concentrations. Incompatible trace element abundances are ~4-6 times more enriched than in Axial Seamount T-MORB. Primitive mantle-normalized patterns are similar to those of high-silica lavas from other MORs (southern Juan de Fuca Ridge, 9N East Pacific Rise) with significant positive U anomalies, large negative Sr anomalies, small negative Eu anomalies, and slight positive Zr-Hf anomalies. The andesites are more enriched in light rare earth elements than basalts from Axial Seamount ((La/Yb)N 1.35-1.4 vs. 0.7-1.27) and N-MORB from the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge. The andesites also have high Cl (~0.3-0.6 wt%) and H2O (~1.60-1.71 wt

  16. Phase-ramp reduction in interseismic interferograms from pixel-offsets

    Wang, Teng


    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is increasingly used to measure interseismic deformation. Inaccurate satellite-orbit information, expressed as phase ramps across interseismic interferograms, is believed to be one of the main sources of error in such measurements. However, many interferograms exhibit higher phase gradients than expected from the reported orbital accuracy, suggesting that there are other error sources. Here, we show that interferogram phase ramps are in part caused by uncorrected satellite timing-parameter errors. We propose a two-step approach to reduce the phase ramps using pixel-offsets estimated between SAR amplitude images. The first step involves using a digital elevation model (DEM) to estimate absolute timing-parameter errors for the reference image of the SAR dataset and the second step updates the timing parameters of the master image for each interferogram. We demonstrate a clear ramp reduction on interseismic interferograms covering the North Anatolian Fault in eastern Turkey. The resulting interferograms show clear signs of interseismic deformation even before stacking. © 2014 IEEE.

  17. Basin-and Mountain-Building Dynamic Model of "Ramping-Detachment-Compression" in the West Kunlun-Southern Tarim Basin Margin

    CUI Junwen; LI Pengwu; GUO Xianpu; DING Xiaozhong; TANG Zhemin


    Analysis of the deformation structures in the West Kunlun-Tarim basin-range junction belt indicates that sediments in the southwestern Tarim depression were mainly derived from the West Kunlun Mountains and that with time the region of sedimentation extended progressively toward the north. Three north-underthrnsting (subducting), steep-dipping, high-velocity zones (bodies) are recognized at depths, which correspond to the central West Kunlun junction belt (bounded by the Kiida-Kaxtax fault on the north and Bulungkol-Kangxiwar fault on the south), Quanshuigou fault belt (whose eastward extension is the Jinshajiang fault belt) and Bangong Co-Nujiang fault belt. The geodynamic process of the basin-range junction belt generally proceeded as follows: centering around the magma source region (which largely corresponds with the Karatag terrane at the surface), the deep-seated material flowed and extended from below upward and to all sides, resulting in strong deformation (mainly extension) in the overlying lithosphere and even the upper mantle, appearance of extensional stress perpendicular to the strike of the orogenic belt in the thermal uplift region or at the top of the mantle diapir and localized thickening of the sedimentary cover (thermal subsidence in the upper crust). Three stages of the basin- and mountain-forming processes in the West Kunlun-southeru Tarim basin margin may be summarized: (1) the stage of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous ramping- rapid uplift and rapid subsidence, when north-directed thrust propagation and south-directed intracontinental subduction, was the dominant mechanism for basin- and mountain-building processes; (2) the stage of Late Cretaceous-Paleogene deep-level detachment-slow uplift and homogeneous subsidence, when the dominant mechanism for the basin- and mountain-forming processes was detachment (subhorizontal north-directed deep-level ductile shear) and its resulting lateral propagation of deep material; and (3) the stage of Neogene

  18. Sedimentary structures formed by upper-regime flows on a Pleistocene carbonate ramp (Favignana Calcarenite, Sicily, Italy)

    Slootman, Arnoud; Moscariello, Andrea; Cartigny, Matthieu; de Boer, Poppe


    Antidune, chute-and-pool and cyclic step deposits are found in the outcrops of the Pleistocene calcarenite wedge of Favignana Island. These deposits were formed on a prograding carbonate ramp. Three zones are identified: inner-mid ramp (shoreface), ramp slope, and outer ramp (offshore). The ramp slope dips 3° to 10° and drops 30-40 m over 400-600 m. The ramp slope and outer ramp show a succession of bioturbated dune cross beds with up to 10 m-thick, intercalated event beds containing supercritical-flow structures. Grain sizes range from coarse sand to granules, with large rhodoliths (algal balls) and shells as gravel-sized clasts. It is our aim to provide insight into the processes that create upper-regime flow structures and the hydraulic parameters of their generating flows. During normal storms, wind-driven currents generated submarine dunes that migrated across the sea floor. During exceptional high-energy events (megastorms, tsunamis), large amounts of skeletal debris from the carbonate factory were transported towards the top of the ramp slope, where under the effect of gravity sustained supercritical sediment gravity flows were generated. In a case study of bedform evolution, we present the formation of a large downstream-asymmetric bedform with two antidunes superimposed on its upstream flank. A stepwise flow reconstruction reveals the progressive steepening of the antidunes until critical steepness is reached, and the first and, shortly after, the second antidune wave breaks. The two hydraulic jumps thus formed, developed a temporary cyclic step morphology (i.e. hydraulic jump, accelerating subcritical flow, supercritical chute, hydraulic jump etc.). The bedform geometries are used to reconstruct the nature of the catastrophic events that were active on the ramp slope. The wave length of the antidunes is measured from outcrop, which, through hydraulic equations, allows for estimation of mean flow velocity as a function of sediment concentration in the

  19. Site Characterization Based on Multi Mode Spatial Autocorrelation Analyses of Microtremor Data in Eastern Section of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (Turkey)

    Sisman, F. N.; Askan, A.; Asten, M. W.


    Erzincan region is considered as one of the most seismologically active locations in the world. The city is located in the conjunction of three active faults: North Anatolian, North East Anatolian and East Anatolian Fault Zones. The geology of Erzincan is formed as a pull-apart basin due to the interactions between North Anatolian Fault zone and Ovacik Faults which have created destructive earthquakes such as the 27 December 1939 (Ms=8.0) and the 13 March 1992 (Mw=6.6) events. The thick sediments underlying the city significantly amplify the ground motions and cause extensive losses. In this study, as an initial attempt to perform site characterization in the region, we employ microtremor survey technique at different fields in Erzincan. The use of microtremors is a well-known passive seismic tool to estimate the properties of sedimentary overburden. We perform inversions for a horizontally layered velocity structure based on surface wave dispersion curve analysis using the Multi-Mode Spatial Autocorrelation (MMSPAC) technique. We then present our results in the form of one dimensional velocity structure and dominant frequency obtained from the microtremor H/V spectral ratio curves at selected sites.

  20. Assigning on-ramp flows to maximize capacity of highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Lan; Jiang, Rui


    In this paper, we study the capacity of a highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between by using a cellular automaton traffic flow model. We investigate how to maximize the system capacity by assigning proper traffic flow to the two on-ramps. The system phase diagram is presented and eight different regions are observed under different conditions. It is shown that in region I, in which both on-ramps are in free flow and the main road upstream of the upstream on-ramp is in congestion, assigning proper proportion of the demand to two on-ramps could maximize the system capacity. Two critical values of the off-ramp flow ratio poff have been observed. When poff p off , c 2, no demand should be assigned to the upstream on-ramp. An analytical investigation has been performed to calculate the critical values. The analytical results are in good agreement with the simulation ones.

  1. Evaluatie ramp in Bhopal in relatie tot arbeidsveiligheid


    De ramp in Bhopal wordt geanalyseerd op het punt van procesveiligheid en arbeidsveiligheid. Geconcludeerd wordt dat de ramp te wijten is aan een samenloop van omstandigheden, een oorzakenstructuur. Met behulp van de TNO ongevallen - databank FACTS is geconcludeerd dat deze structuur nauwelijks afwijkt van andere ernstige ongevallen. De ramp in Bhopal was dan ook uitsluitend een uniek ongeval door de zeer fatale gevolgen. De belangrijkste lessen die uit Bhopal geleerd kunnen worden zijn ; het ...

  2. Entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg model

    Pedersen, Morten Monrad; Ruhoff, Peder Thusgaard


    This paper describes a way of including entry ramps in the Nagel-Schreckenberg traffic model. The idea is to place what are called shadow cars on a highway next to cars on entry ramps, which enables the drivers to take ramp cars into account. The model is shown to capture important real......-life traffic phenomena that have not been included in previous models. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the desirable properties of the Nagel-Schreckenberg model are retained....

  3. LHC Report: Intensity ramp-up

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team


    The first stable beams at 4 TeV were declared on Thursday, 5 April with 3 bunches per beam. This marked the start of the intensity ramp-up, which aims to get back up to 1380 bunches per beam as quickly as is safely possible.   The next couple of days saw fills with 47, 84 and 264 bunches per beam and on Sunday, 8 April the move was made to 624 bunches. With the squeeze to 60 cm in place, 624 bunches with reasonably high bunch intensities of around 1.3 to 1.4 x1011 protons per bunch have already yielded respectable peak luminosities of up to 2.5 x1033 cm-2s-1. Following a lot of hard work during the Christmas technical stop, machine availability is very good at the moment. The ramp-up in the number of bunches is accompanied by a series of checks aimed to make sure the machine protection systems and operational procedures are in a good enough shape to safely deal with the beam intensity. 624 bunches at 4 TeV already represents an energy over 50 MJ and serious damage potential. The next few days sh...

  4. Ramp compression of diamond to five terapascals.

    Smith, R F; Eggert, J H; Jeanloz, R; Duffy, T S; Braun, D G; Patterson, J R; Rudd, R E; Biener, J; Lazicki, A E; Hamza, A V; Wang, J; Braun, T; Benedict, L X; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W


    The recent discovery of more than a thousand planets outside our Solar System, together with the significant push to achieve inertially confined fusion in the laboratory, has prompted a renewed interest in how dense matter behaves at millions to billions of atmospheres of pressure. The theoretical description of such electron-degenerate matter has matured since the early quantum statistical model of Thomas and Fermi, and now suggests that new complexities can emerge at pressures where core electrons (not only valence electrons) influence the structure and bonding of matter. Recent developments in shock-free dynamic (ramp) compression now allow laboratory access to this dense matter regime. Here we describe ramp-compression measurements for diamond, achieving 3.7-fold compression at a peak pressure of 5 terapascals (equivalent to 50 million atmospheres). These equation-of-state data can now be compared to first-principles density functional calculations and theories long used to describe matter present in the interiors of giant planets, in stars, and in inertial-confinement fusion experiments. Our data also provide new constraints on mass-radius relationships for carbon-rich planets.

  5. Seismic anisotropy in localized shear zones versus distributed tectonic fabrics: examples from geologic and seismic observations in western North America and the European Alps

    Mahan, Kevin H.; Schulte-Pelkum, Vera; Condit, Cailey; Leydier, Thomas; Goncalves, Philippe; Raju, Anissha; Brownlee, Sarah; Orlandini, Omero F.


    Modern methods for detecting seismic anisotropy offer an array of promising tools for imaging deep crustal deformation but also present challenges, especially with respect to potential biases in both the detection methods themselves as well as in competing processes for localized versus distributed deformation. We address some of these issues from the geophysical perspective by employing azimuthally dependent amplitude and polarity variations in teleseismic receiver functions combined with a compilation of published rock elasticity tensors from middle and deep crustal rocks, and from the geological perspective through studies of shear zone deformation processes. Examples are highlighted at regional and outcrop scales from western North America and the European Alps. First, in regional patterns, strikes of seismically detected fabric from receiver functions in California show a strong alignment with current strike-slip motion between the Pacific and North American plates, with high signal strength near faults and from depths below the brittle-ductile transition suggesting these faults have deep ductile roots. In contrast, despite NE-striking shear zones being the most prominent features portrayed on Proterozoic tectonic maps of the southwestern USA, receiver function anisotropy from the central Rocky Mountain region appears to more prominently reflect broadly distributed Proterozoic fabric domains that preceded late-stage localized shear zones. Possible causes for the discrepancy fall into two categories: those that involve a) bias in seismic sampling and/or b) deformation processes that lead to either weaker anisotropy in the shear zones compared to adjacent domains or to a symmetry that is different from that conventionally assumed. Most of these explanations imply that the seismically sampled domains contain important structural information that is distinct from the shear zones. The second set of examples stem from studies of outcrop-scale shear zones in upper

  6. ICESat GLAS Elevation Changes and ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight Changes on the Continuous Permafrost Zone of the North Slope, Alaska

    Muskett, Reginald


    Measuring centimeter-scale and smaller surface changes by satellite-based systems on the periglacial terrains and permafrost zones of the northern hemisphere is an ongoing challenge. We are investigating this challenge by using data from the NASA Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (ICESat GLAS) and the JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) on the continuous permafrost zone of the North Slope, Alaska. Using the ICESat GLAS exact-repeat profiles in the analysis of ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight (LOS) changes we find evidence of volume scattering over much of the tundra vegetation covered active-layer and surface scattering from river channel/banks (deposition and erosion), from rock outcropping bluffs and ridges. Pingos, ice-cored mounds common to permafrost terrains can be used as benchmarks for assessment of LOS changes. For successful InSAR processing, topographic and tropospheric phase cannot be assumed negligible and must be removed. The presence of significant troposphere phase in short-period repeat interferograms renders stacking ill suited for the task of deriving verifiable centimeter-scale surface deformation phase and reliable LOS changes. Ref.: Muskett, R.R. (2015), ICESat GLAS Elevation Changes and ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight Changes on the Continuous Permafrost Zone of the North Slope, Alaska. International Journal of Geosciences, 6 (10), 1101-1115. doi:10.4236/ijg.2015.610086

  7. Early Cambrian granitoids of North Gondwana margin in the transition from a convergent setting to intra-continental rifting (Ossa-Morena Zone, SW Iberia)

    Sánchez-García, T.; Pereira, M. F.; Bellido, F.; Chichorro, M.; Silva, J. B.; Valverde-Vaquero, P.; Pin, Ch.; Solá, A. R.


    Two distinct Cambrian magmatic pulses are recognized in the Ossa-Morena Zone (SW Iberia): an early rift-(ER) and a main rift-related event. This Cambrian magmatism is related to intra-continental rifting of North Gondwana that is thought to have culminated in the opening of the Rheic Ocean in Lower Ordovician times. New data of whole-rock geochemistry (19 samples), Sm-Nd-Sr isotopes (4 samples) and ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon geochronology (1 sample) of the Early Cambrian ER plutonic rocks of the Ossa-Morena Zone are presented in this contribution. The ER granitoids (Barreiros, Barquete, Calera, Salvatierra de los Barros and Tablada granitoid Massifs) are mostly peraluminous granites. The Sm-Nd isotopic data show moderate negative ɛNdt values ranging from -3.5 to +0.1 and TDM ages greatly in excess of emplacement ages. Most ER granitoids are crustal melts. However, a subset of samples shows a transitional anorogenic alkaline tendency, together with more primitive isotopic signatures, documenting the participation of lower crust or mantle-derived sources and suggesting a local transient advanced stage of rifting. The Barreiros granitoid is intrusive into the Ediacaran basement of the Ossa-Morena Zone (Série Negra succession) and has yielded a crystallization age of 524.7 ± 0.8 Ma consistent with other ages of ER magmatic pulse. This age: (1) constrains the age of the metamorphism developed in the Ediacaran back-arc basins before the intrusion of granites and (2) defines the time of the transition from the Ediacaran convergent setting to the Lower Cambrian intra-continental rifting in North Gondwana.

  8. Mesozoic subduction-accretion zone in northeastern South China Sea inferred from geophysical interpretations


    A segment of Mesozoic subduction-accretion zone was inferred across the northeastern South China Sea at approximately NE45° orientation. Basic evidence includes the following: A belt of peek gross horizontal Bouguer gravity gradient (PGHGBA) is comparable in size and intensity to that of the Manila subduction-accretion zone. A belt of high positive magnetic anomalies appears to the north and sub-parallel to the PGHGBA, representing the volcanic arc associated to the subduction zone. The PGHGBA crosses obliquely both Cenozoic structures and present seafloor topography, indicating a pre-Cenozoic age. The segment is offset left-laterally by NW-running strike-slip faults, in concord with the Mesozoic stress field of South China. In addition, the existence of the subduction zone is supported by wide-angle seismic data obtained in different years by different institutions. At approximate localities, a north-dipping ramp of Moho surface is indicated by records of ocean-bottom seismometers, and a strong reflector about 8 km beneath the Moho reflector is indicated by both OBS and long-cable seismic records. The identification of a segment of Mesozoic subduction zone in NE South China Sea fills nicely the gap of the Great Late Mesozoic Circum SE Asia Subduction-acrretion Zone, which extended from Sumatra, Java, SE Kalimantan to N Palawan, and from Taiwan, Ryukyu to SW Japan.

  9. Zoogeography of the San Andreas Fault system: Great Pacific Fracture Zones correspond with spatially concordant phylogeographic boundaries in western North America.

    Gottscho, Andrew D


    The purpose of this article is to provide an ultimate tectonic explanation for several well-studied zoogeographic boundaries along the west coast of North America, specifically, along the boundary of the North American and Pacific plates (the San Andreas Fault system). By reviewing 177 references from the plate tectonics and zoogeography literature, I demonstrate that four Great Pacific Fracture Zones (GPFZs) in the Pacific plate correspond with distributional limits and spatially concordant phylogeographic breaks for a wide variety of marine and terrestrial animals, including invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. These boundaries are: (1) Cape Mendocino and the North Coast Divide, (2) Point Conception and the Transverse Ranges, (3) Punta Eugenia and the Vizcaíno Desert, and (4) Cabo Corrientes and the Sierra Transvolcanica. However, discussion of the GPFZs is mostly absent from the zoogeography and phylogeography literature likely due to a disconnect between biologists and geologists. I argue that the four zoogeographic boundaries reviewed here ultimately originated via the same geological process (triple junction evolution). Finally, I suggest how a comparative phylogeographic approach can be used to test the hypothesis presented here.

  10. Refined Views of Strike-slip Fault Zones, Seismicity, and State of Stress Associated With the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Southern California

    Hauksson, E.; Nicholson, C.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Shearer, P. M.; Sandwell, D. T.; Yang, W.


    the focal mechanism-derived SHmax is almost bimodal, trending almost north along the San Andreas system, and to the north-northeast on either side. The transition zones from one state of stress to the other is sharp, following a trend from Yucca Valley to Imperial Valley to the east, and the western edge of the Peninsular Ranges to the west. Other local scale heterogeneities in the SHmax trend include NNW trends along the San Andreas fault near Cajon Pass, Tejon Pass, and the Cucapah Range. The regional variations in the SHmax trends are very similar to the pattern of GPS-measured maximum shortening axes of the surface strain rate tensor field, although the GPS strain field tends to be smoother and appears also to reflect some of the deformation in the upper mantle.

  11. Fractal properties and simulation of micro-seismicity for seismic hazard analysis: a comparison of North Anatolian and San Andreas Fault Zones

    Naside Ozer


    Full Text Available We analyzed statistical properties of earthquakes in western Anatolia as well as the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in terms of spatio-temporal variations of fractal dimensions, p- and b-values. During statistically homogeneous periods characterized by closer fractal dimension values, we propose that occurrence of relatively larger shocks (M >= 5.0 is unlikely. Decreases in seismic activity in such intervals result in spatial b-value distributions that are primarily stable. Fractal dimensions decrease with time in proportion to increasing seismicity. Conversely, no spatiotemporal patterns were observed for p-value changes. In order to evaluate failure probabilities and simulate earthquake occurrence in the western NAFZ, we applied a modified version of the renormalization group method. Assuming an increase in small earthquakes is indicative of larger shocks, we apply the mentioned model to micro-seismic (M<= 3.0 activity, and test our results using San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ data. We propose that fractal dimension is a direct indicator of material heterogeneity and strength. Results from a model suggest simulated and observed earthquake occurrences are coherent, and may be used for seismic hazard estimation on creeping strike-slip fault zones.

  12. 78 FR 70531 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 93-Raleigh/Durham, North Carolina; Notification of Proposed Production...


    ...Kline, PLC (Pharmaceutical Products); Zebulon, North Carolina The Triangle J Council of Governments... production and packaging of pharmaceutical products. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be... gastrointestinal (GI), Zofran GI, Votrient urology, Coreg CR cardiovascular, Rythmol cardiovascular, Innopran...

  13. 75 FR 9568 - Standard Time Zone Boundary in the State of North Dakota: Proposed Change for Mercer County...


    ... questions to assist communities and us in determining the impact of a time zone change on the ``convenience... are the major elements of the community's economy; is the community's economy improving or declining... economy of the jurisdiction in question, transportation, education and other public institutions, and...

  14. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  15. Inter-Organisational Coordination in Ramp-Up Execution

    Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    While fast product development with early prototyping and reduction of both cycle time and lead time are major concerns, there is little research on ramp up management. This paper examines the structural complexity of the ramp-up processes including the interactions with suppliers and analyses...

  16. Current ramps in tokamaks: from present experiments to ITER scenarios

    Imbeaux, F.; Citrin, J.; Hobirk, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Kochl, F.; Leonov, V. M.; Miyamoto, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Parail, V.; Pereverzev, G.; Polevoi, A.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Basiuk, V.; Budny, R.; Casper, T.; Fereira, J.; Fukuyama, A.; Garcia, J.; Gribov, Y. V.; Hayashi, N.; Honda, M.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Jackson, G.; Kavin, A. A.; Kessel, C. E.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.; Labate, C.; Litaudon, X.; Lomas, P. J.; Lonnroth, J.; Luce, T.; Lukash, V. E.; Mattei, M.; Mikkelsen, D.; Nunes, I.; Peysson, Y.; Politzer, P.; Schneider, M.; Sips, G.; Tardini, G.; Wolfe, S. M.; Zhogolev, V. E.


    In order to prepare adequate current ramp-up and ramp-down scenarios for ITER, present experiments from various tokamaks have been analysed by means of integrated modelling in view of determining relevant heat transport models for these operation phases. A set of empirical heat transport models for

  17. How does the edge height of curb ramps obstruct bicycles?

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro


    The aim of this study is to recommend revisions, based on empirical data, to the current curb ramp standards for keeping bicyclists safe. Four types of curb ramps were tested: (1) concrete with a 50 mm edge height, (2) concrete reinforced by a metal plate with a 50 mm edge height, (3) plastic with a 20 mm edge height, and (4) recycled rubber with a 10 mm edge height. Twenty subjects aged 20-60 years ascended the curbs on a bicycle under various conditions. The angles of approach were 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees, 75 degrees and 90 degrees. Experiments were executed under both wet and dry conditions. We found that when approaching from an angle of 45 degrees or more, all subjects could ascend all ramps under both conditions. From a 15 degrees approach under wet conditions, no subjects ascended the concrete ramps. Some could not ascend at a 15 degrees approach on the concrete ramps in dry conditions, and some could not ascend from a 30 degrees approach on the reinforced concrete ramp in wet conditions. Bicyclists riding on roadways cannot easily ascend a curb ramp with a 50 mm edge, even in dry conditions. We thus recommend that curb ramp edge heights be lower than 50 mm. Keywords: friction coefficient; approach angle

  18. Genetic population structure of turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) supports the presence of multiple hybrid zones for marine fishes in the transition zone between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    Eg Nielsen, Einar; Nielsen, P.H.; Meldrup, Dorte


    Genetic population structure of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) in the Northeast Atlantic was investigated using eight highly variable microsatellite loci. In total 706 individuals from eight locations with temporal replicates were assayed, covering an area from the French Bay of Biscay...... Sea, suggesting high gene flow among populations in these areas. In contrast, there was a sharp cline in genetic differentiation going from the low saline Baltic Sea to the high saline North Sea. The data were explained best by two divergent populations connected by a hybrid zone; however......, a mechanical mixing model could not be ruled out. A significant part of the genetic variance could be ascribed to variation among years within locality. Nevertheless, the population structure was relatively stable over time, suggesting that the observed pattern of genetic differentiation is biologically...

  19. Assigning on-ramp flows to maximize highway capacity

    Wang, Qiao-Ming; Jiang, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Bing-Hong


    In this paper, we study the capacity of a highway with two on-ramps by using a cellular automata traffic flow model. We investigate how to improve the system capacity by assigning traffic flow to the two ramps. The system phase diagram is presented and different regions are classified. It is shown that in region I, in which both ramps are in free flow and the main road upstream of the ramps is in congestion, assigning a higher proportion of the demand to the upstream on-ramp could improve the overall flow, which is consistent with previous studies. This is explained through studying the spatiotemporal patterns and analytical investigations. In contrast, optimal assignment has not been observed in other regions. We point out that our result is robust and model independent under certain conditions.

  20. Cenozoic evolution of the Yakutat-North American collision zone and structural accommodation of St. Elias syntaxis exhumation, Alaska/Yukon

    Falkowski, Sarah; Enkelmann, Eva; Ehlers, Todd


    Active convergent margins potentially pose multiple natural hazards to human life and infrastructure. Tectonic strain may be further focused where convergent margins are warped into broad syntaxes. However, the processes responsible for upper plate deformation in these settings are not well understood. The St. Elias syntaxis in southeast Alaska and southwest Yukon is located at the eastern corner of the Yakutat microplate, which indents into the North American Plate and subducts at a flat angle beneath Alaska. High rates of long-term glacial erosion and exhumation (>2 mm/yr) are found on the southern, coastal flanks of the St. Elias orogen, but the deepest and most rapid exhumation is focused at the St. Elias syntaxis. In this location, transform motion transitions into subduction of the wedge-shaped, oceanic plateau of the Yakutat microplate. In order to map the spatio-temporal pattern of exhumation in the Yakutat-North American collision zone, we conducted zircon and apatite fission-track analyses of predominantly detrital, sand-sized material and five bedrock samples from 47 different glacio-fluvial catchments covering an area of ~45,000 km2 around the St. Elias syntaxis. Integration of the new thermochronologic data with prior work and other geologic and geophysical observations yielded information on past terrane accretion events at the North American margin since the late Mesozoic and the evolution of exhumation at the St. Elias syntaxis in the context of the ongoing Yakutat-North American plate collision. Our results indicate a migrating focus of the most rapid exhumation from north to south and from the upper (North American Plate) to the lower (Yakutat microplate) plate in the syntaxis area over the past ~10 Myr. This migration occurred in response to a change in plate motions, increasingly thicker crust of the subducting Yakutat microplate, and changes in surface processes after glaciation began that resulted in modification of the rheology. We propose a

  1. Transport and hydraulically-induced recycling of phosphorus in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone

    Christian Christiansen


    Full Text Available Bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler measurementsindicate that the net transport of water (844 m3 s-1 in theLittle Belt makes up only 6% of the total transport betweenthe Baltic Sea and the North Sea. This is a smaller percentagethan the 9% commonly found in the literature. Owing to barotropicand tidal currents the gross transport is 5 times larger. Thenet transport is directed towards the North Sea mainly in thetop 32 m of the water column but towards the Baltic Sea it occursin the lower 5 m of the water column. The resulting transportof phosphorus is strongly affected by vertical mixing in an areaof hydraulic control in the narrow part of the Little Belt. Comparisonsof phosphorus profiles in stratified waters and in the mixingarea indicate a yearly entrainment of 15 tonnes P from the bottomwater to the surface layer. This vertical transport of P formspart of an internal loop in the general transport between theBaltic Sea and the North Sea. Compared to the transport observed15-16 years ago, the present net phosphorus transport of 163tonnes yr-1 from the Baltic Sea through the Little Belt is substantiallylower.

  2. Diachronism in the late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian arc-rift transition of North Gondwana: A comparison of Morocco and the Iberian Ossa-Morena Zone

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Bellido, Félix; Gasquet, Dominique; Pereira, M. Francisco; Quesada, Cecilio; Sánchez-García, Teresa


    In the northwestern border of the West African craton (North Gondwana), a transition from late Neoproterozoic subduction/collision to Cambrian rift processes was recorded in the Anti-Atlas (Morocco) and in the Ossa-Morena Zone (Iberia). Cambrian rifting affected both Pan-African and Cadomian basements in a stepwise and diachronous way. Subsequently, both areas evolved into a syn-rift margin episodically punctuated by uplift and tilting that precluded Furongian sedimentation. A comparison of sedimentary, volcanic and geodynamic evolution is made in the late Neoproterozoic (Pan-African and Cadomian) belts and Cambrian rifts trying to solve the apparent diachronous (SW-NE-trending) propagation of an early Palaeozoic rifting regime that finally led to the opening of the Rheic Ocean.

  3. Variability in frontal zone formation and distribution of gadoid fish larvae at the shelf break in the northeastern North Sea

    Munk, Peter; Larsson, P.O.; Danielssen, D.S.


    by CTD casts, and the abundance of fish larvae was measured by depth integrating tows of a 2 m ring net. Five species of gadoid larvae and small juveniles were found in the area: cod Gadus morhua, whiting Merlangius merlangus, haddock Melanogrammus aeglefinus, Norway pout Trisopterus esmarki and saithe....... Emphasis was placed on the year-to-year variation in frontal characteristics and distributional patterns of larvae. An area of about 67000 km2 covering the northeastern North Sea, the Skagerrak and the Kattegat was surveyed by grid or transect sampling. At each sampling station the hydrography was studied...... of gadoid larvae from the area....

  4. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery, offshore North Sea: carbon accounting, residual oil zones and CO2 storage security

    Stewart, Robert Jamie


    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, projects have maximised oil recovery and not CO2 storage. While the majority of onshore CO2EOR projects to date have used CO2 from natural sources, CO2EOR is now more and more being considered as a storage option for captured anthropogenic CO2. In the N...

  5. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery, offshore North Sea: carbon accounting, residual oil zones and CO2 storage security

    Stewart, Robert Jamie


    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, projects have maximised oil recovery and not CO2 storage. While the majority of onshore CO2EOR projects to date have used CO2 from natural sources, CO2EOR is now more and more being considered as a storage option for captured anthropogenic CO2. In the N...

  6. High-resolution water column survey to identify active sublacustrine hydrothermal discharge zones within Lake Rotomahana, North Island, New Zealand

    Walker, Sharon L.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Fornari, Daniel; Tivey, Maurice A.; Stucker, Valerie K.


    Autonomous underwater vehicles were used to conduct a high-resolution water column survey of Lake Rotomahana using temperature, pH, turbidity, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) to identify active hydrothermal discharge zones within the lake. Five areas with active sublacustrine venting were identified: (1) the area of the historic Pink Terraces; (2) adjacent to the western shoreline subaerial "Steaming Cliffs," boiling springs and geyser; (3) along the northern shoreline to the east of the Pink Terrace site; (4) the newly discovered Patiti hydrothermal system along the south margin of the 1886 Tarawera eruption rift zone; and (5) a location in the east basin (northeast of Patiti Island). The Pink Terrace hydrothermal system was active prior to the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, but venting along the western shoreline, in the east basin, and the Patiti hydrothermal system appear to have been initiated in the aftermath of the eruption, similar to Waimangu Valley to the southwest. Different combinations of turbidity, pH anomalies (both positive and negative), and ORP responses suggest vent fluid compositions vary over short distances within the lake. The seasonal period of stratification limits vertical transport of heat to the surface layer and the hypolimnion temperature of Lake Rotomahana consequently increases with an average warming rate of ~ 0.010 °C/day due to both convective hydrothermal discharge and conductive geothermal heating. A sudden temperature increase occurred during our 2011 survey and was likely the response to an earthquake swarm just 11 days prior.

  7. Partitioning of oblique convergence in the Northern Andes subduction zone: Migration history and the present-day boundary of the North Andean Sliver in Ecuador

    Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.; Nocquet, J. M.; Jaillard, E.; Mothes, P.; Jarrín, P.; Segovia, M.; Rolandone, F.; Cisneros, D.


    Along the Ecuadorian margin, oblique subduction induces deformation of the overriding continental plate. For the last 15 Ma, both exhumation and tectonic history of Ecuador suggest that the northeastward motion of the North Andean Sliver (NAS) was accompanied by an eastward migration of its eastern boundary and successive progressively narrowing restraining bends. Here we present geologic data, earthquake epicenters, focal mechanisms, GPS results, and a revised active fault map consistent with this new kinematic model. All data sets concur to demonstrate that active continental deformation is presently localized along a single major fault system, connecting fault segments from the Gulf of Guayaquil to the eastern Andean Cordillera. Although secondary faults are recognized within the Cordillera, they accommodate a negligible fraction of relative motion compared to the main fault system. The eastern limit is then concentrated rather than distributed as first proposed, marking a sharp boundary between the NAS, the Inca sliver, and the Subandean domain overthrusting the South American craton. The NAS limit follows a northeast striking right-lateral transpressional strike-slip system from the Gulf of Guayaquil (Isla Puná) to the Andean Cordillera and with the north-south striking transpressive faults along the eastern Andes. Eastward migration of the restraining belt since the Pliocene, abandonment of the sutures and reactivation of north-south striking ancient fault zones lead to the final development of a major tectonic boundary south and east of the NAS, favoring its extrusion as a continental sliver, accommodating the oblique convergence of the Nazca oceanic plate toward South America.

  8. New direct estimates of Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water transport through the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone and its relationship to the North Atlantic Current

    Bower, Amy; Furey, Heather; Xu, Xiaobiao


    Detailed observations of the pathways, transports and water properties of dense overflows associated with the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) provide critical benchmarks for climate models and mixing parameterizations. A recent two-year time series from eight moorings offers the first long-term simultaneous observations of the hydrographic properties and transport of Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) flowing westward through the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ), a major deep gap in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) connecting the eastern and western basins of the North Atlantic. In addition, current meters up to 500-m depth and satellite altimetry allow us to investigate the overlying North Atlantic Current (NAC) as a source of ISOW transport variability. Using the isohaline 34.94 to define the ISOW layer, the two year mean and standard deviation of ISOW transport was -1.7 ± 1.5 Sv, compared to -2.4 ± 3.0 Sv reported by Saunders for a 13-month period in 1988-1989 using the same isohaline. Differences in the two estimates are partly explained by limitations of the Saunders array, but more importantly reflect the strong low-frequency variability in ISOW transport through CGFZ (which includes complete reversals). Both the observations and output from a multi-decadal simulation of the North Atlantic using the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) forced with interannually varying wind and buoyancy fields indicate a strong positive correlation between ISOW transport and the strength of the NAC through the CGFZ. This result raises new questions regarding the interaction of the upper and lower limbs of the AMOC, downstream propagation of ISOW transport variability in the Deep Western Boundary Current and alternative pathways of ISOW across the MAR.

  9. Study of Freeway Traffic Near an Off-Ramp

    Cassidy, Michael J.; Anani, Shadi B.; Haigwood, John M.


    A bottleneck with a diminished capacity is shown to have arisen on a freeway segment whenever queues from the segment's off-ramped spilled over and occupied its mandatory exit lane. It is also shown that longer exit queues from the over-saturate off-ramp were accompanied by lower discharge rates for non-exiting vehicles. The explanation appears to be rubber-necking on the part of the non-exiting drivers. Whenever the of-ramp queues were prevented from spilling over to the exit lane (by changi...

  10. Inter-Organisational Coordination in Ramp-Up Execution

    Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    While fast product development with early prototyping and reduction of both cycle time and lead time are major concerns, there is little research on ramp up management. This paper examines the structural complexity of the ramp-up processes including the interactions with suppliers and analyses...... the degree of fragmentation in the process planning and execution. Resource dependence theory (RDT) is used as central explanatory framework for inter-organisational interdependencies formation throughout the planning and execution of the ramp-up activities and milestones. This study aims at exploring inter...

  11. Origin of a crustal splay fault and its relation to the seismogenic zone and underplating at the erosional north Ecuador-south Colombia oceanic margin

    Collot, J.-Y.; Agudelo, W.; Ribodetti, A.; Marcaillou, B.


    Splay faults within accretionary complexes are commonly associated with the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. Prestack depth migration of a multichannel seismic line across the north Ecuador-south Colombia oceanic margin images a crustal splay fault that correlates with the seaward limit of the rupture zone of the 1958 (Mw 7.7) tsunamogenic subduction earthquake. The splay fault separates 5-6.6 km/s velocity, inner wedge basement rocks, which belong to the accreted Gorgona oceanic terrane, from 4 to 5 km/s velocity outer wedge rocks. The outer wedge is dominated by basal tectonic erosion. Despite a 3-km-thick trench fill, subduction of 2-km-high seamount prevented tectonic accretion and promotes basal tectonic erosion. The low-velocity and poorly reflective subduction channel that underlies the outer wedge is associated with the aseismic, décollement thrust. Subduction channel fluids are expected to migrate upward along splay faults and alter outer wedge rocks. Conversely, duplexes are interpreted to form from and above subducting sediment, at ˜14- to 15-km depths between the overlapping seismogenic part of the splay fault and the underlying aseismic décollement. Coeval basal erosion of the outer wedge and underplating beneath the apex of inner wedge control the margin mass budget, which comes out negative. Intraoceanic basement fossil listric normal faults and a rift zone inverted in a flower structure reflect the evolution of the Gorgona terrane from Cretaceous extension to likely Eocene oblique compression. The splay faults could have resulted from tectonic inversion of listric normal faults, thus showing how inherited structures may promote fluid flow across margin basement and control seismogenesis.

  12. Multidisciplinary approach to constrain kinematics of fault zones at shallow depths: a case study from the Cameros-Demanda thrust (North Spain)

    Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Román-Berdiel, T.; Oliva-Urcia, B.; García-Lasanta, C.; Villalaín, J. J.; Aldega, L.; Corrado, S.; Caricchi, C.; Invernizzi, C.; Osácar, M. C.


    Thrusting at shallow depths often precludes analysis by means of structural indicators effective in other geological contexts (e.g., mylonites, sheath folds, shear bands). In this paper, a combination of techniques (including structural analysis, magnetic methods, as anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and paleomagnetism, and paleothermometry) is used to define thrusting conditions, deformation, and transport directions in the Cameros-Demanda thrust (North Spain). Three outcrops were analyzed along this intraplate, large-scale major structure having 150 km of outcropping length, 30 km of maximum horizontal displacement, and 5 km of vertical throw. Results obtained by means of the different techniques are compared with data derived from cross sections and stratigraphic analysis. Mixed-layer illite-smectite and vitrinite reflectance indicating deep diagenetic conditions and mature stage of hydrocarbon generation suggests shallow depths during deformation, thus confirming that the protolith for most of the fault rocks is the footwall of the main thrust. Kinematic indicators (foliation, S/C structures, and slickenside striations) indicate altogether a dominant NNW movement of the hanging wall in the western zone and NE in the eastern zone of the thrust, thus implying strain partitioning between different branches of the main thrust. The study of AMS in fault rocks (nearly 400 samples of fault gouge, breccia, and microbreccia) indicates that the strike of magnetic foliation is oblique to the transport direction and that the magnetic lineation parallelizes the projection of the transport direction onto the k max/ k int plane in sites with strong shear deformation. Paleomagnetism applied to fault rocks indicates the existence of remagnetizations linked to thrusting, in spite of the shallow depth for deformation, and a strong deformation or scattering of the magnetic remanence vectors in the fault zone. The application of the described techniques and consistency of

  13. Late Cretaceous to recent tectonic evolution of the North German Basin and the transition zone to the Baltic Shield/southwest Baltic Sea

    Al Hseinat, M.; Hübscher, C.


    In this study we investigate the Late Cretaceous to recent tectonic evolution of the southwestern Baltic Sea based on a dense grid of seismic reflection profiles. This area covers the Baltic Sea sector of the salt influenced North German Basin and its transition to the salt free Baltic Shield across the Tornquist Zone. The Upper Cretaceous to recent structural evolution is discussed by means of individual seismic sections and derived high-resolution time-structure maps of the main horizons, i.e., the Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary and Pleistocene. The Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary layers reveal numerous significant faults throughout the study area. Several of these faults propagate upwards across the unconsolidated Pleistocene sediments and occasionally penetrate the surface. The salt influenced North German Basin reveals three major fault trends: NW-SE, N-S and NNE-SSW. Several of these faults are located directly above basement (sub-salt) faults and salt pillows. The majority of these faults are trending N-S to NNE-SSW and parallel the direction of the Glückstadt Graben faults. In the salt free Tornquist Zone, we identify two major shallow fault trends, which are NW-SE and NE-SW. The majority of these faults are located above basement faults, following the direction of the Tornquist Zone. We conclude that generally basement tectonics controls activation and trends of shallow faults. If salt is present, the ductile salt layer causes a lateral shift between the sub- and supra-salt faults. Major plate reorganisation related to the Africa-Iberia-Europe convergence and the subsequent Alpine Orogeny caused reactivation of pre-existing faults and vertical salt movement in the Late Cretaceous. The change of stress orientation from NE-SW to a NW-SE during Neogene caused another phase of fault and salt tectonic reactivation. We explain that the ice-sheet loading and/or present-day stress field may have acted in combination, causing the recent tectonics and upward extension of

  14. Tectono-geochemistry analyses of fault rocks in shear zone of metamorphic core complex in north Jiangxi, China


    Through a systematic sampling test and mass equilibrium analysis of the three sorts of complex assemblages (intrusive complex, tectonic complex and metamorphic complex) penetrating the metamorphic core complex (MCC) in the Xingzi area of north Jiangxi, the authors find that, like major elements, the trace elements of small ion radius, big specific gravity and high potential form the accumulative series in fault rocks, instead of divergence series. In rare earth elements, ΣREE and HREE are relatively centralized, characteristic of rising and Eu loss in the distribution pattern. Only on the upside of the ductile fault, there exist some phenomena contrary to the general rules, most of which are restricted by the rock rheologic differentiation, coupling of mechanics and chemistry, and inversion of tectonic regime.

  15. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    Wawrzynek, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  16. LHC Report: Ramp-up complete

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team


    The intensity ramp-up outlined in the last Bulletin continued more or less as planned, with some steady running with 1092 bunches followed by the final step-up to 1380 – the maximum number of bunches for the year.   Monday, 16 April was spent performing luminosity calibration. Under carefully controlled conditions and a special beam configuration, the experiments' luminosity measurements were calibrated against a measurement of the accelerator’s absolute luminosity obtained with Van der Meer scans. These scans give the beam sizes at the interaction point which, together with an accurate measurement of the beam and bunch currents (and other more subtle considerations), allow a precise measurement of the absolute luminosity. With the Van der Meer scans out of the way, the final step-up in the number of bunches to 1380 was made. This has resulted in an average peak luminosity of around 5.6x1033 cm-2s-1 in the general-purpose detectors (ATLAS and CMS have yet to publish th...

  17. Knowledge of nutritional and health needs of children among rural residents of Enugu north senatorial zone in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    Okoye, Uzoma O; Ngwu, Christopher N; Tanyi, Perpetua L


    The article assessed knowledge of the nutritional and health needs of children among rural dwellers in Nigeria. Focus group discussions were conducted with all male and female groups in four purposively chosen rural communities in Nsukka Senatorial zone of Enugu State. These generated data on participants' knowledge on the nutritional and health needs of the children as well as their socio-demographic characteristics. All the participants were married with mean age of 41 and 36 years for males and females, respectively. The participants had six and four children on the average for male and female participants, respectively. Findings show that participants demonstrate knowledge of basic dietary needs of children; however, actual practice is lacking. Men believe women have the sole responsibility for children's nutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding is not adhered to by participants. Some reservation still exists about immunization. Sustained health education on exclusive breastfeeding and child immunization targeting both sexes is still needed.

  18. Ramp length/grade prescriptions for wheelchair dependent individuals.

    Canale, I; Felici, F; Marchetti, M; Ricci, B


    The aim of this work was to provide well defined criteria for ramp construction for wheelchair dependent individuals (WDI). Force capability was measured in a large sample (140) of WDI, who presented different levels of motor impairment. Levels of impairment were established on the basis of the answers given in a questionnaire regarding the degree of self sufficiency at home as well as outside the home and active participation in sports events. Taking into account those WDI who exhibited at least a minimal level of self-sufficiency, the following prescriptions are indicated. For a 1 metre ramp length, allowable maximal incline 15%; up to 3 metre ramp length, maximal incline 10%. The reliability of such prescriptions was confirmed by having a test ramp traversed by 43 WDI. These values are suggested as confidence limits when faced with public building accommodations. Special prescriptions could be adopted for selected populations of WDI.

  19. Wind Power Ramping Product for Increasing Power System Flexibility

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hongyu; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang


    With increasing penetrations of wind power, system operators are concerned about a potential lack of system flexibility and ramping capacity in real-time dispatch stages. In this paper, a modified dispatch formulation is proposed considering the wind power ramping product (WPRP). A swinging door algorithm (SDA) and dynamic programming are combined and used to detect WPRPs in the next scheduling periods. The detected WPRPs are included in the unit commitment (UC) formulation considering ramping capacity limits, active power limits, and flexible ramping requirements. The modified formulation is solved by mixed integer linear programming. Numerical simulations on a modified PJM 5-bus System show the effectiveness of the model considering WPRP, which not only reduces the production cost but also does not affect the generation schedules of thermal units.

  20. Novel Surveillance Technologies for Airport Ramp Area Operations Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the current research is to develop the concept, algorithms and software necessary for enabling a novel surveillance system for airports ramp areas....

  1. Treatment-seeking for febrile illness in north-east India: an epidemiological study in the malaria endemic zone

    Mahanta Jagadish


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper studies the determinants of utilization of health care services, especially for treatment of febrile illness in the malaria endemic area of north-east India. Methods An area served by two districts of Upper Assam representing people living in malaria endemic area was selected for household survey. A sample of 1,989 households, in which at least one member of household suffered from febrile illness during last three months and received treatment from health service providers, were selected randomly and interviewed by using the structured questionnaire. The individual characteristics of patients including social indicators, area of residence and distance of health service centers has been used to discriminate or group the patients with respect to their initial and final choice of service providers. Results Of 1,989 surveyed households, initial choice of treatment-seeking for febrile illness was self-medication (17.8%, traditional healer (Vaidya(39.2%, government (29.3% and private (13.7% health services. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR analysis exhibits the influence of occupation, area of residence and ethnicity on choice of health service providers. The traditional system of medicine was commonly used by the people living in remote areas compared with towns. As all the febrile cases finally received treatment either from government or private health service providers, the odds (Multivariate Rate Ratio was almost three-times higher in favour of government services for lower households income people compared to private. Conclusion The study indicates the popular use of self-medication and traditional system especially in remote areas, which may be the main cause of delay in diagnosis of malaria. The malaria training given to the paramedical staff to assist the health care delivery needs to be intensified and expanded in north-east India. The people who are economically poor and living in remote areas mainly

  2. Ramp Metering by Limitation of Density and Queue Length

    Kamel, Boumediene; Benasser, Amar; Jolly, Daniel


    As shown by many works and studies, the control of traffic flow remains the best and the efficient solution of the congestion problems. The ramp metering is a means to reduce congestion effects, it has shown his effectiveness to improve the flow and consequently to reduce the total time spent (TTS) by the vehicles in the network. In Kamel et al. [2008] the concept of flatness-based control was applied to regulate the flow at the mainline section of the road on the traffic flow model LWR. This work was preceded by Abouaïssa et al. [2006]. In this article we have proceeded the same way to set the flat output for a second order model METANET. Unfortunately we were unable to prove that the system is flat and therefore define density as flat output, but we manage to define the control laws in order to respect constraints on density and queue length at the on-ramp. The idea is to express the control variable (the outflow of the on-ramp) according to the output (density or queue length at the on-ramp), then inject it in the system. We use this control method in the ramp metering case. The first aim of the control is to keep the density in the segment where the on-ramp is connected below a density (called the target density YT) for which we have the lowest TTS, and the second aim is to keep the queue length at the on-ramp below a maximum value. In order to evaluate the controller's efficiency and applicability, a comparison is made with traditional ALINEA based controller. We illustrate this approach by comparing the cases 'no control' and 'ramp metering' for a simple network.

  3. Analytical delay models for RLC interconnects under ramp input

    REN Yinglei; MAO Junfa; LI Xiaochun


    Analytical delay models for Resistance Inductance Capacitance (RLC)interconnects with ramp input are presented for difierent situations,which include overdamped,underdamped and critical response cases.The errors of delay estimation using the analytical models proposed in this paper are less bv 3%in comparison to the SPICE-computed delay.These models are meaningful for the delay analysis of actual circuits in which the input signal is ramp but not ideal step input.

  4. Nitrate pollution from agriculture in different hydrogeological zones of the regional groundwater flow system in the North China Plain

    Chen, Jianyao; Tang, Changyuan; Sakura, Yasuo; Yu, Jingjie; Fukushima, Yoshihiro


    A survey of the quality of groundwater across a broad area of the North China Plain, undertaken in 1998 to 2000, indicates that nitrate pollution is a serious problem affecting the drinking water for a vast population. The use of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer in agriculture has greatly increased over the past 20 years to meet the food needs of the rapidly expanding population. During the study, 295 water samples were collected from wells and springs to determine the water chemistry and the extent of nitrate pollution. High concentrations of nitrate, especially in a recharge area along the western side, but also in the vicinity of Beijing and locally in other parts of the plain, pose a serious problem for the drinking water supply. In places, the nitrate concentration exceeds the maximum for safe drinking water of 45 mg/L. The intense use of N-fertilizer and the widespread use of untreated groundwater for crop irrigation contribute greatly to the problem, but no doubt the disposal of industrial and municipal waste into streams and infiltrating the aquifer also contribute to the problem; however, the lack of data prevents evaluation of those sources. In the recharge area, nitrate is found at depths of as much as 50 m. Near Beijing, relatively high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of as much as 80 m. In the discharge area, in the vicinity of the Yellow River, high concentrations of nitrate occur at depths of <8 m.

  5. PDR with a foot-mounted IMU and ramp detection.

    Jiménez, Antonio R; Seco, Fernando; Zampella, Francisco; Prieto, José C; Guevara, Jorge


    The localization of persons in indoor environments is nowadays an open problem. There are partial solutions based on the deployment of a network of sensors (Local Positioning Systems or LPS). Other solutions only require the installation of an inertial sensor on the person's body (Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning or PDR). PDR solutions integrate the signals coming from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), which usually contains 3 accelerometers and 3 gyroscopes. The main problem of PDR is the accumulation of positioning errors due to the drift caused by the noise in the sensors. This paper presents a PDR solution that incorporates a drift correction method based on detecting the access ramps usually found in buildings. The ramp correction method is implemented over a PDR framework that uses an Inertial Navigation algorithm (INS) and an IMU attached to the person's foot. Unlike other approaches that use external sensors to correct the drift error, we only use one IMU on the foot. To detect a ramp, the slope of the terrain on which the user is walking, and the change in height sensed when moving forward, are estimated from the IMU. After detection, the ramp is checked for association with one of the existing in a database. For each associated ramp, a position correction is fed into the Kalman Filter in order to refine the INS-PDR solution. Drift-free localization is achieved with positioning errors below 2 meters for 1,000-meter-long routes in a building with a few ramps.

  6. Dynamic control for nanostructures through slowly ramping parameters

    Yoo, Jaeyun; Blick, Robert; Ahn, Kang-Hun


    We propose a nanostructure control method which uses slowly ramping parameters. We demonstrate the dynamics of this method in both a nonlinear classical system and a quantum system. When a quantum mechanical two-level atom (quantum dot) is irradiated by an electric field with a slowly increasing frequency, there exists a sudden transition from ground (excited) to excited (ground) state. This occurs when the ramping rate is smaller than the square of the Rabi frequency. The transition arises when its "instant frequency"—the time derivative of the driving field phase—matches the resonance frequency, satisfying the Fermi golden rule. We also find that the parameter ramping is an efficient control manner for classical nanomechanical shuttles. For ramping of driving amplitudes, the shuttle's mechanical oscillation is amplified and even survives when the ramping is stopped outside the original oscillation region. This strange oscillation is due to the entrance into a multistable dynamic region in phase space. For ramping of driving frequencies, an onset of oscillation arises when the instant frequency enters the oscillation region. Thus, regardless of being classical or quantum, the instant frequency is physically relevant. We discuss in which conditions the dynamic control is efficient.

  7. Shallow groundwater nitrogen responses to different land use managements in the riparian zone of Yuqiao Reservoir in North China

    LU Haiming; YIN Chengqing


    This field study investigated the nitrogen concentrations in the shallow groundwater from an ephemeral stream and four land uses:cropland,two-year restored (2yr) and five-years restored (5yr) woodlands,fishponds,and the nitrogen flux in the riparian zone of Yuqiao Reservoir.The groundwater nitrate-N concentrations in cropland were the highest among the four land uses.Total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and nitrate-N concentrations in the 2yr woodland were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in 5yr woodland.The lowest nitrogen concentrations were detected in fishponds.Nitrate-N was the main form in cropland and 2yr woodland,whereas both nitrate-N and diSSolved organic nitrogen (DON) were the main species in 5yr woodland and fishponds.But,ammonium-N was the main form in the ephemeral stream.During the rainy season,the groundwater flow wim dissolved nitrogen drains from upland into the reservoir along the hydraulic gradient.The woodland between the cropland and reservoir could act as a buffer to retain shallow groundwater nitrogen.The dominant form of ammonium-N in the groundwater TDN pool in ephemeral stream indicated that nitrogen from the village and orchard in upland flowed into the reservoir via subsurface flow.The fishpond Was not an important pollution source for nitrogen transfer via shallow groundwater.

  8. Seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal zone of the North-Eastern Black Sea.

    Nikishina, A. B.; Arashkevich, E. G.; Louppova, N. E.; Soloviev, K. A.


    The phenological response of zooplankton community is a result of simultaneous effect of several factors: feeding conditions, predation abundance, periods of reproduction of common species and hydrodynamic regime. The Black sea ecosystem is one of the best studied in the world, otherwise there is still some illegibility about ecosystem functioning and especially about environmental factors influence on zooplankton dynamics. For the last twenty years pelagic system of the Black Sea has changed dramatically. The invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the middle of eighties caused significant decrease in zooplankton biomass. It also altered plankton structure and shifted periods of mass reproduction of the abundant species and biomass maximums. For instance, before the invasion of Mnemiopsis the maximum of zooplankton biomass was observed in autumn (data by A. Pasternak, 1983), and after that the maximum moved to the spring (data by V.S. Khoroshilov, 1999). The incursion of ctenophore Beroe ovata feeding on Mnemiopsis in the nineties has led to the enhancement of zooplankton community. Although the detailed analysis of seasonal zooplankton dynamics wasn't performed in the recent years. The object of our research was to study seasonal and interannual changes in zooplankton community in the coastal area of the North-Eastern Black Sea. Analysis of interannual, seasonal and spatial changes in zooplankton distribution, abundance and species composition along with age structure of dominant populations were performed based on investigations during 2005-2008 years in the North-Eastern Black Sea. Plankton samples were obtained monthly since June 2005 till December 2008. Plankton was collected at three stations at depths 25m, 50m and 500-1000m along the transect from the Blue Bay to the open sea. Sampling of gelatinous animals was conducted in parallel to the zooplankton sampling. Simultaneously with plankton sampling CTD data were obtained. The feeding conditions were

  9. Identification Of Soil Erosion Prone Zones Using Geomatics Technology In Parts Of North Arcot And Dharmapuri District.

    T. Subramani


    Full Text Available Soil erosion is the removal and subsequent loss of soil by the action of water, ice, wind and gravity. Soil erosion is a process that occurs naturally at a slow rate. The average natural geologic rate of soil erosion is approximately 0.2 tons per acre per year. Erosion is the process were by the earth or rock is loosened or dissolved and removed from any part of earth‟s surface. Geological erosion is the rate at which the catchment or land would normally be eroded without any disturbance by human activity. If man alters the natural system by means of various land use practices that is caused accelerated erosion. The present study area is covering Parts of North Arcot The area is lies between E78°30'-E78°45' lattitudes N12°15'-N12°30„. The total aerial extent of the study area is 720 It falls in the survey of India Toposheet 58 L11 on 1:50,000 scale. The IRS – 1D satellite imagery data were subjected to different types of image enhancement techniques and soil erosion areas were mapped out and GIS databases were generated showing the soil erosion areas using Arc Map 9.1 version. GIS overlay function was executed between soil erosion prone areas and the various controlling variables and the area has been fragmented into a number of polygons of land segments depending upon the controlling variables. Finally, the remedial measures were suggested for each land segment according to the controlling variables.

  10. A multidisciplinary approach for the study of the effects of active tectonics along the North Anatolian fault zone: possibilities for the application of the electrical self potential method

    W. Balderer


    Full Text Available The aims of this joint interdisciplinary project “Marmara” of ETH Zurich and the Istanbul Technical University (ITO are to study the effects of active tectonics as evidenced by geology, geodesy and seismology on hydrogeology and geothermics in selected areas along the North Anatolian fault zone. Within the framework of this project thermal water systems in seven different areas have been investigated or are under investigation up to now (SchindIer et al., 1993. For three study areas along the North Anatolian fault zone (from east to west of Kuzuluk/Adapazari, Bursa and of Canakkale the investigations with respect to the geological and hydrogeological features are complete. The now possible hydrogeological characterisation shows encouraging possibilities for the application of new methods like the electrical self potential method for the following reasons: 1 a fully interdisciplinary approach, including seismic survey with especially conceived network, geodetic survey to investigate tectonic movements by the GPS method, geothermic survey combined with geological mapping and hydrogeological investigations of normal mineral and thermal waters; 2 groundwaters of very different chemical and isotopical composition e.g.: Ca-HCO3-type thermal waters of up to 82 °C temperature and total mineralisation of 500 mg/I to 1500 mg/I in the Bursa area, Na-HCO3-type cold mineral waters of up to 2500 mg/I to thermal waters of same mineralisation of up to 80 °C temperature, containing large amounts of CO2 of up to 1 l per 1 kg of water (at surface conditions in the Kuzuluk area and Na-Cl-type waters presenting real thermal brines of up to 65 000 mg/I of total mineralisation and temperatures of up to 100 °C in the Canakkale area; 3 distinct types of hydrodynamic flow regime in areas of different geological and tectonic structure. Based on the results of the investigations within these areas the possibilities of further studies including self potential methods

  11. Mantle Composition and Temperature of Western North America Revealed from Direct P and S Wave Velocities of KLB-1 Peridotite to the Condition of Transition Zone

    Wang, X.; Chen, T.; Qi, X.; Zou, Y.; Liebermann, R. C.; Li, B.


    Comparing the elasticity of candidate compositional models with seismic profiles (e.g., PREM and AK135) is one of the most important geophysical approaches to constrain the mineralogical composition of the mantle. However in such averaging schemes (e.g., Voigt-Reuss-Hill), it is difficult to take into account all of the mineralogical and chemical complexities; we therefore undertook elasticity study of a natural mantle rock sample at high pressures and temperatures. In this study, a series of polycrystalline aggregates of peridotite KLB-1 (from Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico) were hot-pressed at pressures of 3-15 GPa and temperatures of 1200-1400°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electron Microprobe Analysis (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the texture, grain size, and composition of these well-sintered specimens. For the first time in history, the P and S wave velocities of a pyrolitic multiphase aggregate were directly measured at mantle transition zone pressures and temperatures using ultrasonic interferometry. Based on the phase fractions from EPMA and the P and S wave velocities from in situ measurement at high pressure and high temperature, the velocities of the KLB-1 peridotite along 1200-1400 oC adiabatic mantle geotherms were obtained and compare well with the seismic models of western North America, the region where these peridotite KLB-1 samples were collected. The comparison with regional seismic models of western North America (e.g., GCA and TNA/TNA2) as well as global seismic models (PREM and AK135) place unprecedented constraints on the composition, temperature and density profiles for the upper mantle in this region, which can help us understand the nature of thermal and tectonic processes of the Rio Grande Rift.

  12. Investigation of late Pleistocene and Holocene activity in the San Gregorio fault zone on the continental slope north of Monterey Canyon, offshore central California

    Maier, Katherine L.; Paull, Charles K.; Brothers, Daniel; Caress, David W.; McGann, Mary; Lundsten, Eve M.; Anderson, Krystle; Gwiazda, Roberto


    We provide an extensive high‐resolution geophysical, sediment core, and radiocarbon dataset to address late Pleistocene and Holocene fault activity of the San Gregorio fault zone (SGFZ), offshore central California. The SGFZ occurs primarily offshore in the San Andreas fault system and has been accommodating dextral strike‐slip motion between the Pacific and North American plates since the mid‐Miocene. Our study focuses on the SGFZ where it has been mapped through the continental slope north of Monterey Canyon. From 2009 to 2015, the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute collected high‐resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp sub‐bottom profiles using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Targeted samples were collected using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to provide radiocarbon age constraints. We integrate the high‐resolution geophysical data with radiocarbon dates to reveal Pleistocene seismic horizons vertically offset less than 5 m on nearly vertical faults. These faults are buried by continuous reflections deposited after ∼17.5  ka and likely following erosion during the last sea‐level lowstand ∼21  ka, bracketing the age of faulting to ∼32–21  ka. Clearly faulted horizons are only detected in a small area where mass wasting exhumed older strata to within ∼25  m of the seafloor. The lack of clearly faulted Holocene deposits and possible highly distributed faulting in the study area are consistent with previous interpretations that late Pleistocene and Holocene activity along the SGFZ may decrease to the south. This study illustrates the complexity of the SGFZ, offshore central California, and demonstrates the utility of very high‐resolution data from combined AUV (geophysical)–ROV (seabed sampling) surveys in offshore studies of fault activity.

  13. Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes at the Spring Lake and North Creek Sites on the Wasatch Fault Zone: Evidence for complex rupture of the Nephi Segment

    Duross, Christopher; Hylland, Michael D; Hiscock, Adam; Personius, Stephen; Briggs, Richard; Gold, Ryan D.; Beukelman, Gregg; McDonald, Geg N; Erickson, Ben; McKean, Adam; Angster, Steve; King, Roselyn; Crone, Anthony J.; Mahan, Shannon


    The Nephi segment of the Wasatch fault zone (WFZ) comprises two fault strands, the northern and southern strands, which have evidence of recurrent late Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes. We excavated paleoseismic trenches across these strands to refine and expand their Holocene earthquake chronologies; improve estimates of earthquake recurrence, displacement, and fault slip rate; and assess whether the strands rupture separately or synchronously in large earthquakes. Paleoseismic data from the Spring Lake site expand the Holocene record of earthquakes on the northern strand: at least five to seven earthquakes ruptured the Spring Lake site at 0.9 ± 0.2 ka (2σ), 2.9 ± 0.7 ka, 4.0 ± 0.5 ka, 4.8 ± 0.8 ka, 5.7 ± 0.8 ka, 6.6 ± 0.7 ka, and 13.1 ± 4.0 ka, yielding a Holocene mean recurrence of ~1.2–1.5 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~0.5–0.8 mm/yr. Paleoseismic data from the North Creek site help refine the Holocene earthquake chronology for the southern strand: at least five earthquakes ruptured the North Creek site at 0.2 ± 0.1 ka (2σ), 1.2 ± 0.1 ka, 2.6 ± 0.9 ka, 4.0 ± 0.1 ka, and 4.7 ± 0.7 ka, yielding a mean recurrence of 1.1–1.3 kyr and vertical slip rate of ~1.9–2.0 mm/yr. We compare these Spring Lake and North Creek data with previous paleoseismic data for the Nephi segment and report late Holocene mean recurrence intervals of ~1.0–1.2 kyr for the northern strand and ~1.1–1.3 kyr for the southern strand. The northern and southern strands have similar late Holocene earthquake histories, which allow for models of both independent and synchronous rupture. However, considering the earthquake timing probabilities and per-event vertical displacements, we have the greatest confidence in the simultaneous rupture of the strands, including rupture of one strand with spillover rupture to the other. Ultimately, our results improve the surface-faulting earthquake history of the Nephi segment and enhance our understanding of how structural barriers

  14. Temporal variations of the fractal properties of seismicity in the western part of the north Anatolian fault zone: possible artifacts due to improvements in station coverage

    A. O. Öncel


    Full Text Available Seismically-active fault zones are complex natural systems exhibiting scale-invariant or fractal correlation between earthquakes in space and time, and a power-law scaling of fault length or earthquake source dimension consistent with the exponent b of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation. The fractal dimension of seismicity is a measure of the degree of both the heterogeneity of the process (whether fixed or self-generated and the clustering of seismic activity. Temporal variations of the b-value and the two-point fractal (correlation dimension Dc have been related to the preparation process for natural earthquakes and rock fracture in the laboratory These statistical scaling properties of seismicity may therefore have the potential at least to be sensitive short- term predictors of major earthquakes. The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ is a seismicallyactive dextral strike slip fault zone which forms the northern boundary of the westward moving Anatolian plate. It is splayed into three branches at about 31oE and continues westward toward the northern Aegean sea. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation of Dc and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value for seismicity in the western part of the NAFZ (including the northern Aegean sea for earthquakes of Ms > 4.5 occurring in the period between 1900 and 1992. b ranges from 0.6-1.6 and Dc from 0.6 to 1.4. The b-value is found to be weakly negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.56. However the (log of event rate N is positively correlated with b, with a similar degree of statistical significance (r=0.42, and negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.48. Since N increases dramatically with improved station coverage since 1970, the observed negative correlation between b and Dc is therefore more likely to be due to this effect than any underlying physical process in this case. We present this as an example of how man-made artefacts of recording can have similar statistical effects to

  15. Plastic Deformation and Seismic Properties in Fore-arc Mantles: A Petrofabric Analysis of the Yushigou Harzburgites, North Qilian Suture Zone, NW China

    Cao, Y.; Jung, H.; Song, S.; Park, M.; Jung, S.; Lee, J.


    The fore-arc mantle above a subducting slab is a unique site where complex partial melting, melt/fluid-rock interaction, and deformation of mantle rocks occur. To constrain these processes, we analyzed the deformation microstructures, crystal preferred orientations (CPO), and water content in natural harzburgites that occur as exhumed massifs in the North Qilian suture zone, NW China. These harzburgites are very fresh, and have mineral assemblages of olivine ( 81‒87 vol.%), orthopyroxene ( 11‒17 vol.%), clinopyroxene ( 1‒2 vol. %), and spinel ( 1 vol.%). Detailed analyses of mineral textures, CPO patterns, and rotation axis distributions suggested that the plastic deformation of olivine and pyroxene were accommodated by activating a series of slip systems of dislocation. The olivine (A-/D-type fabric) showed dominant (010)[100] and/or (001)[100] slip systems, as well as other minor [100]-glide, {0kl}[100], and [001]-glide slip systems. The orthopyroxene showed dominant (100)[001] and subordinate (010)[001] slip systems, with minor (100)[010], (100)[0vw] slip systems. The water content was extremely low in the orthopyroxene (38‒44 wt. ppm), equilibrated olivine (4‒7 wt. ppm), and bulk-rock samples (9‒14 wt. ppm). Integrated with the previously reported refractory mineral and whole-rock compositions (Song et al., 2009), as well as the estimated low pressure ( 1‒2 GPa), high temperature ( 1100‒1300 °C), low stress ( 1‒4 MPa), and water-poor conditions of deformation, it is concluded that these harzburgites represent a remnant of a fossil fore-arc lithospheric mantle which was probably both formed and deformed in a young and warm fore-arc mantle setting (i.e. infant subduction zone). Based on these results, a refined schematic model of olivine fabric distributions in subduction zones was proposed. In this model, the opposing polarizing directions of A-/D-type olivine fabrics (prevalent in the fore-arc lithospheric mantle) with other underlying

  16. Roman and early-medieval routes in north-western Europe: modelling national and international frequent-travel zones in the Netherlands using a multi-proxy approach.

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Jansma, Esther


    The end of the Roman period in many parts of north-western Europe coincided with severe population decline and collapsing trade routes. To what extent the long-distance transport routes changed from Roman to early-medieval periods and what their exact nature was, is generally unknown. Only few historical sources are available for this period, and archaeological records complex. Traditionally, research on the long-distance exchange of goods therefore generally has focussed on the spatial analyses of archaeologically recognizable goods (e.g. jewellery, religious artefacts). Although these endeavours greatly increase our understanding of long-distance trade networks, they probably in itself do not represent the full spectrum of common exchange networks and transport routes. By using a dendroarchaeological approach we were able to analyse long-distance transport routes of imported timber in the Roman and early-medieval Netherlands. By combining the provenance of exogenous timbers with data on modelled Roman and early-medieval route networks, we were able to reconstruct: (a) Roman and early-medieval trade networks in structural timbers, (b) changing transport routes in structural timbers and (c) model spatially shifting frequent-travel zones in the research area.

  17. Intact polar lipids of Thaumarchaeota and anammox bacteria as indicators of N-cycling in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen deficient zone

    M. Sollai


    Full Text Available In the last decade our understanding of the marine nitrogen cycle has improved considerably thanks to the discovery of two novel groups of microorganisms: ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox bacteria. Both groups are important in oxygen deficient zones (ODZs, where they substantially affect the marine N-budget. These two groups of microbes are also well known for producing specific membrane lipids, which can be used as biomarkers to trace their presence in the environment. We investigated the occurrence and distribution of AOA and anammox bacteria in the water column of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP ODZ, one of the most prominent ODZs worldwide. Suspended particulate matter (SPM was collected at different depths of the water column in high resolution, at both a coastal and an open ocean setting. The SPM was analyzed for AOA- and anammox bacteria-specific intact polar lipids (IPLs, i.e. hexose-phosphohexose (HPH-crenarchaeol and phosphatidylcholine (PC-monoether ladderane. Comparison with oxygen profiles reveals that both the microbial groups are able to thrive at low (<1 μM concentrations of oxygen. Our results indicate a clear niche segregation of AOA and anammox bacteria in the coastal waters of the ETNP, but a partial overlap of the two niches of these microbial species in the open water setting. The latter distribution suggests the potential for an interaction between the two microbial groups at the open ocean site, either as competition or cooperation.


    S. Ray


    Full Text Available The effect of season of birth, type of birth, sex and parity on body weight of indigenous goats under field condition in north central plateau agro-climatic zone of Odisha was studied. Data from 622 kids revealed that the overall body weights were 1.02± 0.01, 4.27± 0.03, 7.29± 0.05, 9.42± 0.08 and 12.09± 0.12 kg at birth, 3 month, 6 month, 9 month and 12 month of age, respectively. Multiple births in the population were 72.3%. Significant difference was observed between male and female goats with respect to body weight in all stages of growth.Multiple births had significant effect on body weights of kids till 6 month of age. Season of birth had significant effect on body weight of kids only at birth and 3 month of age but parity did not show any significant effect on body weight at any studied stages.

  19. Estimation of present-day inter-seismic deformation in Kopili fault zone of north-east India using GPS measurements

    Prakash Barman


    Full Text Available Current study reports the present-day inter-seismic deformation of Kopili fault zone of north-east India and slip rate estimate of Kopili fault using five epochs of global positioning system (GPS data collected from seven campaigns and five permanent sites. The rate of baseline length change of the GPS sites across the Kopili fault indicates ∼2.0 mm/yr E–W convergence across the fault. The fault parallel GPS site velocities clearly indicate dextral slip of the Kopili fault. The fault normal velocities show convergence across the Kopili fault, suggesting it to be a transpressional fault. The fault parallel velocities are inverted for fault slip and locking depth using an elastic dislocation model. The first-order, best-fit elastic dislocation model suggest average right lateral slip of 2.62 ± 0.79 mm/yr and a shallow locking depth (3 ± 2 km of the Kopili Fault. The slip of the Kopili fault is contributing to seismic moment accumulation (∼70.74 × 1015 Nm/yr, sufficient to drive possible future earthquakes (Mw ≥ 5.17.

  20. Off-ramps and on-ramps: keeping talented women on the road to success.

    Hewlett, Sylvia Ann; Luce, Carolyn Buck


    Most professional women step off the career fast track at some point. With children to raise, elderly parents to care for, and other pulls on their time, these women are confronted with one off-ramp after another. When they feel pushed at the same time by long hours and unsatisfying work, the decision to leave becomes even easier. But woe to the woman who intends for that exit to be temporary. The on-ramps for professional women to get back on track are few and far between, the authors confirm. Their new survey research reveals for the first time the extent of the problem--what percentage of highly qualified women leave work and for how long, what obstacles they face coming back, and what price they pay for their time-outs. And what are the implications for corporate America? One thing at least seems clear: As market and economic factors align in ways guaranteed to make talent constraints and skill shortages huge issues again, employers must learn to reverse this brain drain. Like it or not, large numbers of highly qualified, committed women need to take time out of the workplace. The trick is to help them maintain connections that will allow them to reenter the workforce without being marginalized for the rest of their lives. Strategies for building such connections include creating reduced-hour jobs, providing flexibility in the workday and in the arc of a career, removing the stigma of taking time off, refusing to burn bridges, offering outlets for altruism, and nurturing women's ambition.

  1. Early Callovian ingression in southwestern Gondwana. Palaeoenvironmental evolution of the carbonate ramp (Calabozo Formation) in southwestern Mendoza, Neuquen basin, Argentina

    Armella, Claudia; Cabaleri, Nora G.; Cagnoni, Mariana C.; Panarello, Héctor O.


    The carbonatic sequence of the Calabozo Formation (Lower Callovian) developed in southwestern Gondwana, within the northern area of the Neuquén basin, and is widespread in thin isolated outcrops in southwestern Mendoza province, Argentina. This paper describes the facies, microfacies and geochemical-isotopic analysis carried out in five studied localities, which allowed to define the paleoenvironmental conditions of a homoclinal shallow ramp model, highly influenced by sea level fluctuations, where outer, mid and inner ramp subenvironments were identified. The outer ramp subenvironment was only recognized in the south of the depocenter and is characterized by proximal outer ramp facies with shale levels and interbedded mudstone and packstone layers. The mid ramp subenvironment is formed by low energy facies (wackestone) affected by storms (packstones, grainstones and floatstones). The inner ramp subenvironment is the most predominant and is characterized by tidal flat facies (wackestones, packstones and grainstones) over which a complex of shoals (grainstones and packstones) dissected by tidal channels (packstone, grainstones and floatstones) developed. In the north area, protected environment facies were recorded (bioturbated wackestones and packstones). The vertical distribution of facies indicates that the paleoenvironmental evolution of the Calabozo Formation results from a highstand stage in the depocenter, culminating in a supratidal environment, with stromatolitic levels interbedded with anhydrite originated under restricted water circulation conditions due to a progressive isolation of the basin. δ13C and δ18O values of the carbonates of the Calabozo Formation suggest an isotopic signature influenced by local palaeoenvironmental parameters and diagenetic overprints. The δ13C and δ18O oscillations between the carbonates of the different studied sections are related with lateral facies variations within the carbonate ramp accompanied with dissimilar

  2. Meniscal Ramp Lesions: Anatomy, Incidence, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J; Cram, Tyler R; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F


    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol.


    Kannan Karthik


    Full Text Available Threshold ramp secret sharing schemes are designed so that (i certain subsets of shares have no information about the secret, (ii some subsets have partial information about the secret and (iii some subsets have complete information to recover the secret. However most of the ramp schemes in present literature do not control the leakage of information in partial access sets, due to which the information acquired by these sets is devoid of structure and not useful for fine-grained access control. Through a non-perfect secret sharing scheme called MIX-SPLIT, an encoding methodology for controlling the leakage in partial access sets is proposed and this is used for fine-grained access to binary strings. The ramp code generated using MIX-SPLIT requires a much smaller share size of O(n, as compared to Shamir's ramp adaptation which incurs a share size of atleast O(n2 for the same multi-access structure. The proposed ramp code is finally applied towards the protection and fine-grained access of industrial design drawings.

  4. Improving short-term forecasting during ramp events by means of Regime-Switching Artificial Neural Networks

    Gallego, C.; Costa, A.; Cuerva, A.


    -ANN model (without regime classification) is adopted as a reference model. Both models are evaluated in terms of Improvement over Persistence on the Mean Square Error basis (IoP%) when predicting horizons form 1 time-step to 5. The case of a wind farm located in the complex terrain of Alaiz (north of Spain) has been considered. Three years of available power output data with a hourly resolution have been employed: two years for training and validation of the model and the last year for assessing the accuracy. Results showed that the RS-ANN overcame the single-ANN model for one step-ahead forecasts: the overall IoP% was up to 8.66% for the RS-ANN model (depending on the gradient criterion selected to consider the ramp regime triggered) and 6.16% for the single-ANN. However, both models showed similar accuracy for larger horizons. A locally-weighted evaluation during ramp events for one-step ahead was also performed. It was found that the IoP% during ramps-up increased from 17.60% (case of single-ANN) to 22.25% (case of RS-ANN); however, during the ramps-down events this improvement increased from 18.55% to 19.55%. Three main conclusions are derived from this case study: It highlights the importance of considering statistical models capable of differentiate several regimes showed by the output power time series in order to improve the forecasting during extreme events like ramps. On-line regime classification based on available power output data didn't seem to contribute to improve forecasts for horizons beyond one-step ahead. Tacking into account other explanatory variables (local wind measurements, NWP outputs) could lead to a better understanding of ramp events, improving the regime assessment also for further horizons. The RS-ANN model slightly overcame the single-ANN during ramp-down events. If further research reinforce this effect, special attention should be addressed to understand the underlying processes during ramp-down events.

  5. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver


    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  6. Mise en évidence d'un sillon marin à brèches paléocènes dans les Pyrénées centrales (Zone interne métamorphique et Zone nord-pyrénéenne)Evidence of a marine trough, infilled by Palaeocene breccias, in the Central Pyrenees (Internal Metamorphic Zone and North-Pyrenean Zone)

    Peybernès, Bernard; Fondecave-Wallez, Marie-José; Combes, Pierre-Jean; Eichène, Paule


    The discovery, in several localities, of significant planktonic Foraminifera, Danian-Selandian in age (P 1c-P 3 interval), both in the matrix of polygenic, post-metamorphic and post-tectonic debris-flow breccias (Comus Breccia Fm.) and in argillaceous hemipelagites, interbedded within these breccias, evidences the occurrence, during Palaeocene, of a longitudinal east-west marine trough, particularly open towards the Atlantic Ocean, within the present Internal Metamorphic Zone (and adjacent North-Pyrenean areas) of Central Pyrenees, from Aude to Haute-Garonne. This new dating shows the major importance of the Upper(most) Cretaceous compressions in the structuration of the tectorogenic axis of the range.

  7. PDR with a Foot-Mounted IMU and Ramp Detection

    Jorge Guevara


    Full Text Available The localization of persons in indoor environments is nowadays an open problem. There are partial solutions based on the deployment of a network of sensors (Local Positioning Systems or LPS. Other solutions only require the installation of an inertial sensor on the person’s body (Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning or PDR. PDR solutions integrate the signals coming from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, which usually contains 3 accelerometers and 3 gyroscopes. The main problem of PDR is the accumulation of positioning errors due to the drift caused by the noise in the sensors. This paper presents a PDR solution that incorporates a drift correction method based on detecting the access ramps usually found in buildings. The ramp correction method is implemented over a PDR framework that uses an Inertial Navigation algorithm (INS and an IMU attached to the person’s foot. Unlike other approaches that use external sensors to correct the drift error, we only use one IMU on the foot. To detect a ramp, the slope of the terrain on which the user is walking, and the change in height sensed when moving forward, are estimated from the IMU. After detection, the ramp is checked for association with one of the existing in a database. For each associated ramp, a position correction is fed into the Kalman Filter in order to refine the INS-PDR solution. Drift-free localization is achieved with positioning errors below 2 meters for 1,000-meter-long routes in a building with a few ramps.

  8. On the role of circulation and mixing in the ventilation of oxygen minimum zones with a focus on the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    Brandt, P.; Bange, H. W.; Banyte, D.; Dengler, M.; Didwischus, S.-H.; Fischer, T.; Greatbatch, R. J.; Hahn, J.; Kanzow, T.; Karstensen, J.; Körtzinger, A.; Krahmann, G.; Schmidtko, S.; Stramma, L.; Tanhua, T.; Visbeck, M.


    Ocean observations are analysed in the framework of Collaborative Research Center 754 (SFB 754) "Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" to study (1) the structure of tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), (2) the processes that contribute to the oxygen budget, and (3) long-term changes in the oxygen distribution. The OMZ of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA), located between the well-ventilated subtropical gyre and the equatorial oxygen maximum, is composed of a deep OMZ at about 400 m in depth with its core region centred at about 20° W, 10° N and a shallow OMZ at about 100 m in depth, with the lowest oxygen concentrations in proximity to the coastal upwelling region off Mauritania and Senegal. The oxygen budget of the deep OMZ is given by oxygen consumption mainly balanced by the oxygen supply due to meridional eddy fluxes (about 60%) and vertical mixing (about 20%, locally up to 30%). Advection by zonal jets is crucial for the establishment of the equatorial oxygen maximum. In the latitude range of the deep OMZ, it dominates the oxygen supply in the upper 300 to 400 m and generates the intermediate oxygen maximum between deep and shallow OMZs. Water mass ages from transient tracers indicate substantially older water masses in the core of the deep OMZ (about 120-180 years) compared to regions north and south of it. The deoxygenation of the ETNA OMZ during recent decades suggests a substantial imbalance in the oxygen budget: about 10% of the oxygen consumption during that period was not balanced by ventilation. Long-term oxygen observations show variability on interannual, decadal and multidecadal timescales that can partly be attributed to circulation changes. In comparison to the ETNA OMZ, the eastern tropical South Pacific OMZ shows a similar structure, including an equatorial oxygen maximum driven by zonal advection but overall much lower oxygen concentrations approaching zero in extended regions. As the shape of the OMZs is set

  9. On the role of circulation and mixing in the ventilation of oxygen minimum zones with a focus on the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    P. Brandt


    Full Text Available Ocean observations carried out in the framework of the Collaborative Research Center 754 (SFB 754 "Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" are used to study (1 the structure of tropical oxygen minimum zones (OMZs, (2 the processes that contribute to the oxygen budget, and (3 long-term changes in the oxygen distribution. The OMZ of the eastern tropical North Atlantic (ETNA, located between the well-ventilated subtropical gyre and the equatorial oxygen maximum, is composed of a deep OMZ at about 400 m depth with its core region centred at about 20° W, 10° N and a shallow OMZ at about 100 m depth with lowest oxygen concentrations in proximity to the coastal upwelling region off Mauritania and Senegal. The oxygen budget of the deep OMZ is given by oxygen consumption mainly balanced by the oxygen supply due to meridional eddy fluxes (about 60% and vertical mixing (about 20%, locally up to 30%. Advection by zonal jets is crucial for the establishment of the equatorial oxygen maximum. In the latitude range of the deep OMZ, it dominates the oxygen supply in the upper 300 to 400 m and generates the intermediate oxygen maximum between deep and shallow OMZs. Water mass ages from transient tracers indicate substantially older water masses in the core of the deep OMZ (about 120–180 years compared to regions north and south of it. The deoxygenation of the ETNA OMZ during recent decades suggests a substantial imbalance in the oxygen budget: about 10% of the oxygen consumption during that period was not balanced by ventilation. Long-term oxygen observations show variability on interannual, decadal and multidecadal time scales that can partly be attributed to circulation changes. In comparison to the ETNA OMZ the eastern tropical South Pacific OMZ shows a similar structure including an equatorial oxygen maximum driven by zonal advection, but overall much lower oxygen concentrations approaching zero in extended regions. As the shape of the

  10. Coupling Measurements and Corrections for the Combined Ramp and Squeeze

    Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Langner, Andy Sven; Malina, Lukas; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Schaumann, Michaela; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Ana; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    In operation of the LHC the ramp and the squeeze process have been independent beam processes up to now. Making them into a combined process would save time to reach the point where the beams are brought to collision. This would increase the integrated luminosity provided by the LHC. One possible source of problems could be deviation from the ideal optics and in particular the control of the transverse coupling. In this report we focus on the coupling measurements that were taken during the Combined Ramp and Squeeze (CRS) MD.

  11. 2-D Electromagnetic Model of Fast-Ramping Superconducting Magnets

    Auchmann, B; Kurz, S; Russenschuck, Stephan


    Fast-ramping superconducting (SC) accelerator magnets are the subject of R&D efforts by magnet designers at various laboratories. They require modifications of magnet design tools such as the ROXIE program at CERN, i.e. models of dynamic effects in superconductors need to be implemented and validated. In this paper we present the efforts towards a dynamic 2-D simulation of fast-ramping SC magnets with the ROXIE tool. Models are introduced and simulation results are compared to measurements of the GSI001 magnet of a GSI test magnet constructed and measured at BNL.

  12. Study on the patterns and trend in contraceptive use in South-South and North-Western zones of Nigeria: 2003–2011

    Ezire O


    Full Text Available Onoriode Ezire,1 Omokhudu Idogho,2 Ajibade Theophilus,3 Samuel Ikani,4 Obi Oluigbo1 1Research and Evaluation Division, Society for Family Health, Nigeria; 2Enhancing Nigeria’s Response to HIV and AIDS Programme, Abuja, Nigeria; 3Population Council, Abuja, Nigeria; 4Strengthening HIV Prevention Services for Most-At-Risk Populations, Abuja, Nigeria Background: Nigeria is ranked 13th among countries with the highest fertility rates in the world – 5.7 births per woman on average. Age specific fertility rates are as high as 121 and 225 per 1,000 for ages 15–19 and 20–24 years, respectively. Only 9.7% of currently married women in Nigeria use modern methods of family planning (FP. This figure, however, does not reveal important age, geographical, or educational differences in Nigeria. The overall purpose of the study is to establish hidden demographic factors that enhance usage of modern methods of FP. Methods: Data for this study were obtained from four waves of the National and State Specific HIV and AIDS, Reproductive and Child Health Survey – NARHS/SARHS (2003, 2005, 2007, and 2011. Data were collected among men and women of reproductive age in the 36 states of Nigeria including Federal Capital Territory (FCT. For the analysis, the study was however limited to North West and South-South zones of Nigeria. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression was performed using SPSS version 20. Results: Use of modern methods of FP has increased over time with an average annual increase of 0.47%. Different age groups, zones, and educational attainment prefer different modern methods of FP. Of all users of modern methods of FP, long lasting methods account for just 3% while condoms account for as high as 58%. Eighty-six percent of sexually active never married women use condoms for FP. Women in South-South Nigeria are over three times and five times more likely to use a modern method of FP and a condom, respectively. Conclusion: Demographic

  13. 0.6 meter backscatter JPEG image (with world file) of the nearshore seafloor north of Duck, NC (mosaic1.jpg UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  14. 0.6 meter backscatter JPEG image (with world file) of the nearshore seafloor north of Duck, NC (mosaic1.jpg UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  15. Temperature, productivity and sediment characteristics as drivers of seasonal and spatial variations of dissolved methane in the near-shore coastal areas (Belgian coastal zone, North Sea)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Champenois, Willy; Scranton, Mary I.; Gypens, Nathalie


    The open ocean is a modest source of CH4 to the atmosphere compared to other natural and anthropogenic CH4 emissions. Coastal regions are more intense sources of CH4 to the atmosphere than open oceanic waters, in particular estuarine zones. The CH4 emission to the atmosphere from coastal areas is sustained by riverine inputs and methanogenesis in the sediments due to high organic matter (OM) deposition. Additionally, natural gas seeps are sources of CH4 to bottom waters leading to high dissolved CH4 concentrations in bottom waters (from tenths of nmol L-1 up to several µmol L-1). We report a data set of dissolved CH4 concentrations obtained at nine fixed stations in the Belgian coastal zone (Southern North Sea), during one yearly cycle, with a bi-monthly frequency in spring, and a monthly frequency during the rest of the year. This is a coastal area with multiple possible sources of CH4 such as from rivers and gassy sediments, and where intense phytoplankton blooms are dominated by the high dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) producing micro-algae Phaeocystis globosa, leading to DMSP and dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations. Furthermore, the BCZ is a site of important OM sedimentation and accumulation unlike the rest of the North Sea. Spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were very marked with a minimum yearly average of 9 nmol L-1 in one of the most off-shore stations and maximum yearly average of 139 nmol L-1 at one of the most near-shore stations. The spatial variations of dissolved CH4 concentrations were related to the organic matter (OM) content of sediments, although the highest concentrations seemed to also be related to inputs of CH4 from gassy sediments associated to submerged peat. In the near-shore stations with fine sand or muddy sediments with a high OM content, the seasonal cycle of dissolved CH4 concentration closely followed the seasonal cycle of water temperature, suggesting the control of methanogenesis by temperature in these OM

  16. Seismotectonic setting at the North Anatolian Fault Zone after the 1999 Mw=7.4 Izmit earthquake based on high-resolution aftershock locations

    M. Bohnhoff


    Full Text Available The most recent devastating earthquakes that occurred along the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey were the 1999 Izmit (Mw=7.4 and Düzce (Mw=7.1 events. In this study we present a catalog of Izmit aftershock hypocenters that was deduced from a network covering the entire 140 km long rupture of the mainshock. 7348 events with a location accuracy better than 5 km are analysed. Aftershocks were observed along the entire ruptured segment along a 20 km wide band of activity. Events are clustered in distinct regions and dominantly occur at 5 to 15 km depth. The eastern termination of the Izmit rupture is characterized by a sharp and steeply dipping boundary exactly where the Düzce mainshock initiated 87 days after the Izmit event. Relocation of the events using double-difference technology results in 4696 high-resolution hypocenters that allow resolving the internal structure of the seismically active areas with a resolution of 300 m (horizontal and 400m (vertical. Below the Akyazi Plain, representing a small pull-apart structure at a triple junction of the NAFZ, we identify planes of activity that can be correlated with nodal planes of EW extensional normal faulting aftershocks. Along the easternmost Karadere-Düzce segment we identify the down-dip extension of the Karadere fault that hosted about 1 m of right-lateral coseismic slip. At the easternmost rupture we correlate a cloud-type distribution of seismic activity with the largest aftershocks in this area, a subevent of the Izmit mainshock and the Düzce mainshock that all have an almost identical focal mechanism. This part of the NAFZ is interpreted as a classical example of a seismic barrier along the fault.

  17. Microstructures and petro-fabrics of lawsonite blueschist in the North Qilian suture zone, NW China: Implications for seismic anisotropy of subducting oceanic crust

    Cao, Yi; Jung, Haemyeong; Song, Shuguang


    We conducted a detailed study on the microstructures and petro-fabrics of massive and foliated lawsonite blueschist (LBS) in North Qilian suture zone, NW China. The lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of glaucophane and lawsonite in foliated lawsonite blueschist (LBS) is considered to be dominantly formed by the deformation mechanism of dislocation creep and rigid-body rotation, respectively. The LPO of glaucophane is mainly characterized by the [001] axis aligning parallel to lineation and the [100] axis and (110) pole plunging perpendicular to foliation. In contrast, the LPO of lawsonite features the maximum [010] axis concentrated close to lineation and the [001] axis strongly clustered normal to foliation. The preferred orientation of [010] axis of lawsonite parallel to lineation is supported by a two-dimensional numerical modeling using the finite-volume method (FVM). The mineral LPOs are much stronger in foliated LBS than in massive LBS. In addition, a kinematic vorticity analysis suggests that both pure shear dominant (Wm = 0.18-0.26) and simple shear dominant (Wm = 0.86-0.93) deformation regimes are present in foliated LBS. The [001] axis and (010) pole of glaucophane, and the [100] and [010] axes of lawsonite, tend to distribute in a foliation-parallel girdle in the pure shear dominant samples, but simple shear dominant samples display more lineation-parallel concentrations of a [001] axis of glaucophane and a [010] axis of lawsonite. Because the whole-rock seismic anisotropies in foliated LBS are significantly higher than those in massive LBS and a counteracting effect on seismic anisotropies occurs between glaucophane and lawsonite, the delay time of fast S-wave polarization anisotropy induced by an actual subducting oceanic crust with a high subducting angle (> 45-60°) is expected to range from 0.03 to 0.09 s (lower bound for massive LBS) and from 0.1 to 0.3 s (upper bound for foliated epidote blueschist).

  18. Decadal to centennial fluctuations in the intensity of the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone during the last 1200 years

    Tems, Caitlin E.; Berelson, William M.; Thunell, Robert; Tappa, Eric; Xu, Xiaomei; Khider, Deborah; Lund, Steve; González-Yajimovich, Oscar; Hamann, Yvonne


    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), located below highly productive marine regions, are sites of microbially mediated denitrification and biogeochemical cycling that have global significance. The intensity of OMZs fluctuates naturally; however, the degree of these fluctuations and a comprehensive understanding of the factors that drive these fluctuations on decadal to centennial time scales is lacking. Our high-resolution (near-annual) record of δ15Nsed from laminated sediments at the Pescadero Slope in the Gulf of California (eastern tropical North Pacific) fluctuates between maximum values of 10.5‰ and minimum values of 8.0‰ over the past 1200 years. An analysis of the relationship between δ15NO3- and [O2] in the water column suggests that the observed range of δ15Nsed values is equivalent to an approximately 8 µM fluctuation in O2 content and that these changes can occur in less than 25 years. Our findings show that the OMZ typically intensifies quickly and contracts gradually; the average rate of OMZ intensification (-0.24 µM O2/yr) is twice as fast as the rate of OMZ reoxygenation. Spectral analyses of the δ15Nsed record and Br/Cl counts, with the latter are used as a proxy for organic carbon preservation, suggest that the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the Suess (deVries) solar cycle (solar irradiance) may influence the intensity of the OMZ and carbon production/export during the late Holocene. Coherence between δ15Nsed and weight percent organic carbon also suggests that similar mechanisms influence both OMZ fluctuations and variation in organic carbon production/export.

  19. Risk factors associated with slide positivity among febrile patients in a conflict zone of north-eastern Myanmar along the China-Myanmar border.

    Li, Nana; Parker, Daniel M; Yang, Zhaoqing; Fan, Qi; Zhou, Guofa; Ai, Guoping; Duan, Jianhua; Lee, Ming-chieh; Yan, Guiyun; Matthews, Stephen A; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Ying


    Malaria within the Greater Mekong sub-region is extremely heterogeneous. While China and Thailand have been relatively successful in controlling malaria, Myanmar continues to see high prevalence. Coupled with the recent emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria along the Thai-Myanmar border, this makes Myanmar an important focus of malaria within the overall region. However, accurate epidemiological data from Myanmar have been lacking, in part because of ongoing and emerging conflicts between the government and various ethnic groups. Here the results are reported from a risk analysis of malaria slide positivity in a conflict zone along the China-Myanmar border. Surveys were conducted in 13 clinics and hospitals around Laiza City, Myanmar between April 2011 and October 2012. Demographic, occupational and educational information, as well as malaria infection history, were collected. Logistic models were used to assess risk factors for slide positivity. Age patterns in Plasmodium vivax infections were younger than those with Plasmodium falciparum. Furthermore, males were more likely than females to have falciparum infections. Patients who reported having been infected with malaria during the previous year were much more likely to have a current vivax infection. During the second year of the study, falciparum infections among soldiers increased signficiantly. These results fill some knowledge gaps with regard to risk factors associated with malaria slide positivity in this conflict region of north-eastern Myanmar. Since epidemiological studies in this region have been rare or non-existent, studies such as the current are crucial for understanding the dynamic nature of malaria in this extremely heterogeneous epidemiological landscape.

  20. Impact Assessment of the Causes and Prevention of Farm Accidents on Mechanized Farms of North Central Zone/States of Nigeria

    J. K. Yohanna.


    Full Text Available Accidents occurring on mechanized farms have been a thing of concern to farmers and researchers both within and outside Nigeria. An investigation into the causes and prevention of farm accidents on mechanized farm was carried out in Benue, Federal Capital Territory, Kwara, Nasarawa, Niger and Plateau states that constitute the north central zone/states of Nigeria. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire designed and distributed to all the states mentioned. The questionnaire addressed demographic variables and issues linked directly with the types, causes and prevention of farm accidents. A total of 2283 tractors were available in the mechanized farms surveyed, while a total of 1014 constituted other farm machinery/equipment. Results show that 81.7% of accidents victims are male. About 45.5% of the accident victims were aged between 40years and above. About 33.96% of the minor accidents resulted in slight damage to equipment and machinery. Similarly 43.4% of accidents resulted in substantial loss in time, while about 22.64% of accidents resulted in medical attention. There was no attempt made to quantify the monetary terms of the cost of each accidents, as there was dearth of information. The results obtained in this work are in agreement with the previous studies both outside and inside Nigeria. Also, from this survey work, there was a problem of good record keeping in most of the establishment surveyed. It is therefore, recommended among other things that adequate training and retraining of tractors/machinery operators should be carried out periodically, to intimate operators on recent use of farm equipment due to environmental and human factors

  1. Multiple magmatism in an evolving suprasubduction zone mantle wedge: The case of the composite mafic-ultramafic complex of Gaositai, North China Craton

    Yang, Fan; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, T.; Tang, Li; Teng, Xueming


    The suprasubduction zone mantle wedge of active convergent margins is impregnated by melts and fluids leading to the formation of a variety of magmatic and metasomatic rock suites. Here we investigate a composite mafic-ultramafic intrusion at Gaositai, in the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The hornblende gabbro-serpentinite-dunite-pyroxenite-gabbro-diorite suite surrounded by hornblendites of this complex has long been considered to represent an ;Alaskan-type; zoned pluton. We present petrologic, mineral chemical, geochemical and zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf data from the various rock types from Gaositai including hornblende gabbro, serpentinite, dunite, pyroxenite, diorite and the basement hornblendite which reveal the case of multiple melt generation and melt-peridotite interaction. Our new mineral chemical data from the mafic-ultramafic suite exclude an ;Alaskan-type; affinity, and the bulk geochemical features are consistent with subduction-related magmatism with enrichment of LILE (K, Rb, and Ba) and LREE (La and Ce), and depletion of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, and Hf) and HREE. Zircon U-Pb geochronology reveals that the hornblendites surrounding the Gaositai complex are nearly 2 billion years older than the intrusive complex and yield early Paleoproterozoic emplacement ages (2433-2460 Ma), followed by late Paleoproterozoic metamorphism (1897 Ma). The serpentinites trace the history of a long-lived and replenished ancient sub-continental lithospheric mantle with the oldest zircon population dated as 2479 Ma and 1896 Ma, closely corresponding with the ages obtained from the basement rock, followed by Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic zircon growth. The oldest member in the Gaositai composite intrusion is the dunite that yields emplacement age of 755 Ma, followed by pyroxenite formed through the interaction of slab melt and wedge mantle peridotite at 401 Ma. All the rock suites also carry multiple population of younger zircons ranging in age from Paleozoic to

  2. Experiencing Production Ramp-Up Education for Engineers

    Bassetto, S.; Fiegenwald, V.; Cholez, C.; Mangione, F.


    This paper presents a game of industrialisation, based on a paper airplane, that mimics real world production ramp-up and blends classical engineering courses together. It is based on a low cost product so that it can be mass produced. The game targets graduate students and practitioners in engineering fields. For students, it offers an experiment…

  3. Cored Rutherford cables for the GSI fast ramping synchrotron

    Wilson, M.N.; Ghosh, A.K.; Haken, ten B.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Kaugerts, J.; Moritz, G.; Muehle, C.; Ouden, den A.; Soika, R.; Wanderer, P.; Wessel, W.A.J.


    The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 200 T/spl middot/m and 100 T/spl middot/m. Fast ramp times are needed, which can cause significant problems for the magnets, particularly in the areas of ac loss a

  4. Building Ramps and Hovercrafts and Improving Math Skills.

    Bottge, Brian A.


    This article describes a video- and computer-based program used to motivate and develop mathematics skills in middle school students with disabilities. The program emphasizes real-life problems such as building a cage for a pet, a skate boarding ramp, and a "hovercraft" frame. Case studies illustrate the program's effectiveness with individual…

  5. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.


    ... animal may be injured shall be repaired. (b) Floors of livestock pens, ramps, and driveways shall be constructed and maintained so as to provide good footing for livestock. Slip resistant or waffled floor... the opinion of the inspector, to protect them from the adverse climatic conditions of the locale...

  6. Numerical investigation on jet interaction with a compression ramp

    Zhen Huaping; Gao Zhenxun; Lee Chunhian


    A numerical investigation on jet interaction in supersonic laminar flow with a compression ramp is performed utilizing the AUSMDV scheme and a parallel solver.Several parameters dominating the interference flowfield are studied after defining the relative increment of normal force and the jet amplification factor as the evaluation criterion of jet control performance.The computational results show that most features of the interaction flowfield between the transverse jet and the ramp are similar to those between a jet and a flat plate,except that the flow structures are more complicated and the low-pressure region behind the jet is less extensive.The relative force increment and the jet amplification factor both increase with the distance between the jet and the ramp shortening till quintuple jet diameters.Inconspicuous difference is observed between the jet-before-ramp and jet-on-ramp cases.The variation of the injection angle changes the extent of the separation region,the plateau pressure,and the peak pressure near the jet.In the present computational conditions,120° is indicated relatively optimal among all the injection angles studied.For cold gas simulations,although little influence of the jet temperature on the pressure distribution near the jet is observed under the computation model and the flow parameters studied,reducing jet temperature somehow benefits the improvement of the normal force and the jet efficiency.When the pressure ratio of jet to freestream is fixed,the relative force increment varies little when increasing the freestream Mach number,while the jet amplification factor increases.

  7. 30 CFR 56.9303 - Construction of ramps and dumping facilities.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of ramps and dumping facilities... Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 56.9303 Construction of ramps and dumping facilities. Ramps and...

  8. Geophysical characteristics of the suture zone between North China and Siberian plates%华北板块与西伯利亚板块缝合带之地球物理特征

    苏美霞; 赵文涛; 张慧聪; 孙会玲; 李红威; 范亚丽


    内蒙古地域辽阔,全区跨越了西伯利亚、华北、哈萨克斯坦、塔里木四大板块。受多期构造运动影响,地质构造环境极其复杂。历年来关于华北板块、西伯利亚板块缝合带界限的位置,始终是地质工作者讨论的热点。笔者从地球物理学的角度,分析了华北板块与西伯利亚板块缝合带之地球物理场(重磁场)特征,认为西拉木伦河断裂带应是华北板块与西伯利亚板块的终极缝合带。%Inner Mongolia has vast territory and, according to the theory of plate tectonics, strides across Siberian, North China, Ka-zakhstan and Tarim plates. Its tectonic environment is extremely complex in that it has experienced multi-period structural movements in geological history. For years, the boundary between North China and Siberian plates has been a discussion hotspot among geologists. Based on an analysis of the geophysical gravity and magnetic field characteristics of the suture zone, the authors hold that Xar Moron River fault zone should be the ultimate suture zone between North China and Siberia plates. The results obtained by the authors provide geophysical evidence for the determination of the ultimate suture zone between the two large plates.

  9. A facies model for internalites (internal wave deposits) on a gently sloping carbonate ramp (Upper Jurassic, Ricla, NE Spain)

    Bádenas, Beatriz; Pomar, Luis; Aurell, Marc; Morsilli, Michele


    Internal waves are waves that propagate along the pycnocline, the interface between two density-stratified fluids. Even though internal waves are ubiquitous in oceans and lakes, their impact in the sedimentary record has remained largely unrecognized. Internal waves can remobilize the sediment from the depth at which the internal waves break onto the sea floor. In shelf, or ramp settings, internal wave deposits (internalites) have to be distinguished from tempestites while in slope and deeper settings internalites require distinction from turbidites. The Upper Kimmeridgian carbonate ramp succession cropping out near Ricla (NE Spain) provides some key evidence to differentiate the depositional processes induced by breaking internal waves from those related to surface storm waves. Sandy-oolitic grainstone eventites, previously interpreted as tempestites, contain evidence of reworking by turbulent events related to breaking internal waves. Underlying rationale are: 1) they occur in distal mid-ramp position, detached from the coeval shallow-water successions; 2) they do not have the characteristic coarsening- and thickening upward trend of storm deposits; 3) they gradually thin-out to disappear both up dip and down dip, interbedded with mid-ramp lime mudstones; and 4) they show little or no erosion towards the shallower areas. A facies model for internalites produced by two sediment populations, sand and mud, on a gently sloping carbonate ramp is proposed. The individual internalites occurring at Ricla include several architectural elements, sequentially organized in dip direction, which can be related to the flows associated with breaking internal waves: erosion in the breaker zone, swash run-up and tractive backwash flow. Individual internalites stack, with down- and up-slope shingling configuration, in dm-thick packages thought to reflect the up-slope and down-slope migration of the breaker zone, in turn related to depth variations of the palaeo-pycnocline. Packages

  10. Integrating GIS-based geologic mapping, LiDAR-based lineament analysis and site specific rock slope data to delineate a zone of existing and potential rock slope instability located along the grandfather mountain window-Linville Falls shear zone contact, Southern Appalachian Mountains, Watauga County, North Carolina

    Gillon, K.A.; Wooten, R.M.; Latham, R.L.; Witt, A.W.; Douglas, T.J.; Bauer, J.B.; Fuemmeler, S.J.


    Landslide hazard maps of Watauga County identify >2200 landslides, model debris flow susceptibility, and evaluate a 14km x 0.5km zone of existing and potential rock slope instability (ZEPRSI) near the Town of Boone. The ZEPRSI encompasses west-northwest trending (WNWT) topographic ridges where 14 active/past-active rock/weathered rock slides occur mainly in rocks of the Grandfather Mountain Window (GMW). The north side of this ridgeline is the GMW / Linville Falls Fault (LFF) contact. Sheared rocks of the Linville Falls Shear Zone (LFSZ) occur along the ridge and locally in the valley north of the contact. The valley is underlain principally by layered granitic gneiss comprising the Linville Falls/Beech Mountain/Stone Mountain Thrust Sheet. The integration of ArcGIS??? - format digital geologic and lineament mapping on a 6m LiDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging) digital elevation model (DEM) base, and kinematic analyses of site specific rock slope data (e.g., presence and degree of ductile and brittle deformation fabrics, rock type, rock weathering state) indicate: WNWT lineaments are expressions of a regionally extensive zone of fractures and faults; and ZEPRSI rock slope failures concentrate along excavated, north-facing LFF/LFSZ slopes where brittle fabrics overprint older metamorphic foliations, and other fractures create side and back release surfaces. Copyright 2009 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association.

  11. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Abel Gebre


    Full Text Available Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world’s population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The overall prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL among the pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7% of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04, no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37, absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37, and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91 were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron

  12. In North Ecuador - South Colombia margin (0-4°N), the sedimentation rate in the trench and the tectonic deformation co-control the location of the seismogenic zone.

    Marcaillou, Boris; Jean-Yves, Collot; Allessandra, Ribodetti; Elia, D'acremont


    The North Ecuador - South Colombia convergent margin shows along strike variations in tectonic, thermal and seismogenic features that offer a great opportunity to study the relation between subduction zone tectono-structure, thermal regime and location of the thermally-defined seismogenic zone. Multichannel seismic reflections and conventional bathymetric data were collected in 2000 and 2005 during the SISTEUR and AMADEUS cruises. 6 selected lines perpendicular to the margin were processed with a pre-stack depth migration using a preserved amplitude approach (alias Ray+Born diffraction tomography). The first heat flow measurements in this area were also acquired, completed by heat flow derived from numerous bottom simulating reflectors. The margin is divided in Esmeraldas, Patia, Tumaco and Manglares segments. 1/ Tectonically, the tectonic deformation at the margin front drastically vary from North to South: The Patia segment is fronted by a 35 km- long active accretionary prism, the Tumaco segment by a less than 10 km-long active accretionary prism, no accretion occur in the Manglares segment, while the southern Esmeraldas segment undergoes a strong tectonic erosion. It is noteworthy that this regime is independent from the sediment thickness in the trench which is thinner where the prism is longer. 2/ Thermally, these segments also shows clear variations in heat flow that is, in the trench and in the lower slope, two-fold lower in the Tumaco segment than in the others. 3/ Sismogenically, large subduction earthquakes have ruptured the plate interface beneath the Manglares segment in 1958 and the Tumaco-Patia segments en 1979. Based on the aftershocks distribution and the rupture zone location, the seismogenic zone extends trenchward nearby the deformation front in the Patia-Tumaco segments but is restricted 30 km landward in the Manglares segment. The integrated interpretation of heat flow and sismic data indicate that: 1/ The thermal segmentation is mainly

  13. The 2 March 2016 Wharton Basin Mw 7.8 earthquake: High stress drop north-south strike-slip rupture in the diffuse oceanic deformation zone between the Indian and Australian Plates

    Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling; Ammon, Charles J.; Dunham, Audrey; Koper, Keith D.


    The diffuse deformation zone between the Indian and Australian plates has hosted numerous major and great earthquakes during the seismological record, including the 11 April 2012 Mw 8.6 event, the largest recorded intraplate earthquake. On 2 March 2016, an Mw 7.8 strike-slip faulting earthquake occurred in the northwestern Wharton Basin, in a region bracketed by north-south trending fracture zones with no previously recorded large event nearby. Despite the large magnitude, only minor source finiteness is evident in aftershock locations or resolvable from seismic wave processing including high-frequency P wave backprojections and Love wave directivity analysis. Our analyses indicate that the event ruptured bilaterally on a north-south trending fault over a length of up to 70 km, with rupture speed of ≤ 2 km/s, and a total duration of 35 s. The estimated stress drop, 20 MPa, is high, comparable to estimates for other large events in this broad intraplate oceanic deformation zone.

  14. Reinforcement Learning for Ramp Control: An Analysis of Learning Parameters

    Chao Lu


    Full Text Available Reinforcement Learning (RL has been proposed to deal with ramp control problems under dynamic traffic conditions; however, there is a lack of sufficient research on the behaviour and impacts of different learning parameters. This paper describes a ramp control agent based on the RL mechanism and thoroughly analyzed the influence of three learning parameters; namely, learning rate, discount rate and action selection parameter on the algorithm performance. Two indices for the learning speed and convergence stability were used to measure the algorithm performance, based on which a series of simulation-based experiments were designed and conducted by using a macroscopic traffic flow model. Simulation results showed that, compared with the discount rate, the learning rate and action selection parameter made more remarkable impacts on the algorithm performance. Based on the analysis, some suggestionsabout how to select suitable parameter values that can achieve a superior performance were provided.

  15. Cumulative Interarrival Time Distributions of Freeway Entrance Ramp Traffic for Traffic Simulations

    Erdinç Öner


    Full Text Available Cumulative interarrival time (IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized freeway entrance ramps were developed to be used in digital computer traffic simulation models. The data from four different non-signalized entrance ramps (three ramps with a single lane, one ramp with two lanes and two different signalized entrance ramps (both with a single lane were used for developing the cumulative IAT distributions. The cumulative IAT distributions for the signalized and non-signalized entrance ramps were compared with each other and with the cumulative IAT distributions of the lanes for freeways. The comparative results showed that the cumulative IAT distributions for non-signalized entrance ramps are very close to the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway where the maximum absolute difference between the cumulative IAT distribution of the leftmost lane of a 3-lane freeway and the entrance ramps cumulative IAT distribution was 3%. The cumulative IAT distribution for the signalized entrance ramps was found to be different from the non-signalized entrance ramp cumulative IAT distribution. The approximated cumulative IAT distributions for signalized and non-signalized entrance ramp traffic for any hourly traffic volume from a few vehicles/hour up to 2,500 vehicles/hour can be obtained at

  16. Radar echo processing with partitioned de-ramp

    Dubbert, Dale F.; Tise, Bertice L.


    The spurious-free dynamic range of a wideband radar system is increased by apportioning de-ramp processing across analog and digital processing domains. A chirp rate offset is applied between the received waveform and the reference waveform that is used for downconversion to the intermediate frequency (IF) range. The chirp rate offset results in a residual chirp in the IF signal prior to digitization. After digitization, the residual IF chirp is removed with digital signal processing.

  17. Adiabaticity of the ramping process of an ac dipole

    R. Tomás


    Full Text Available ac dipoles in accelerators are used to excite coherent betatron oscillations at a drive frequency close to the tune. If the excitation amplitude is slowly increased to the desired value and slowly decreased back to zero there is no significant emittance growth. The aim of this article is to study the adiabaticity of the ramping process of an ac dipole as a function of the different parameters involved.

  18. Kinematics investigations of cylinders rolling down a ramp using tracker

    Prima, Eka Cahya; Mawaddah, Menurseto; Winarno, Nanang; Sriwulan, Wiwin


    Nowadays, students' exploration as well as students' interaction in the application stage of learning cycle can be improved by directly model real-world objects based on Newton's Law using Open Source Physics (OSP) computer-modeling tools. In a case of studying an object rolling down a ramp, a traditional experiment method commonly uses a ticker tape sliding through a ticker timer. However, some kinematics parameters such as the instantaneous acceleration and the instantaneous speed of object cannot be investigated directly. By using the Tracker video analysis method, all kinematics parameters of cylinders rolling down a ramp can be investigated by direct visual inspection. The result shows that (1) there are no relations of cylinders' mass as well as cylinders' radius towards their kinetics parameters. (2) Excluding acceleration data, the speed and position as function of time follow the theory. (3) The acceleration data are in the random order, but their trend-lines closely fit the theory with 0.15% error. (4) The decrease of acceleration implicitly occurs due to the air friction acting on the cylinder during rolling down. (5) The cylinder's inertial moment constant has been obtained experimentally with 3.00% error. (6) The ramp angle linearly influences the cylinders' acceleration with 2.36% error. This research implied that the program can be further applied to physics educational purposes.

  19. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    Peng, Dailiang; Wu, Chaoyang; Zhang, Bing; Huete, Alfredo; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Sun, Rui; Lei, Liping; Huang, Wenjing; Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie; Li, Jun; Luo, Shezhou; Fang, Bin


    Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C) emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP) represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP) zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC) on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05). The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA) to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.

  20. The Influences of Drought and Land-Cover Conversion on Inter-Annual Variation of NPP in the Three-North Shelterbelt Program Zone of China Based on MODIS Data.

    Dailiang Peng

    Full Text Available Terrestrial ecosystems greatly contribute to carbon (C emission reduction targets through photosynthetic C uptake.Net primary production (NPP represents the amount of atmospheric C fixed by plants and accumulated as biomass. The Three-North Shelterbelt Program (TNSP zone accounts for more than 40% of China's landmass. This zone has been the scene of several large-scale ecological restoration efforts since the late 1990s, and has witnessed significant changes in climate and human activities.Assessing the relative roles of different causal factors on NPP variability in TNSP zone is very important for establishing reasonable local policies to realize the emission reduction targets for central government. In this study, we examined the relative roles of drought and land cover conversion(LCC on inter-annual changes of TNSP zone for 2001-2010. We applied integrated correlation and decomposition analyses to a Standardized Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI and MODIS land cover dataset. Our results show that the 10-year average NPP within this region was about 420 Tg C. We found that about 60% of total annual NPP over the study area was significantly correlated with SPEI (p<0.05. The LCC-NPP relationship, which is especially evident for forests in the south-central area, indicates that ecological programs have a positive impact on C sequestration in the TNSP zone. Decomposition analysis generally indicated that the contributions of LCC, drought, and other Natural or Anthropogenic activities (ONA to changes in NPP generally had a consistent distribution pattern for consecutive years. Drought and ONA contributed about 74% and 23% to the total changes in NPP, respectively, and the remaining 3% was attributed to LCC. Our results highlight the importance of rainfall supply on NPP variability in the TNSP zone.

  1. Geodynamics and ore content of basite-ultrabasite complexes of Siberian Platform southern framing rocks (Kodaro-Udokan and Muja zones of North Transbaikalye)

    Bair N.Abramov


    In southern framing of Siberian Platform, basite-ultrabasite intrusive complexes were forming over a long period of time (Early Proterozoic-Paleozoic Era) as a result of collisional and post-collisional processes. In Muja zone they formed mainly in island-arch geodynamic conditions, in Kodaro-Udokan zone-in continental. Most productive toward noble metals in Muja zones are basite-ultrabasites of the Dovyrensk complex, in Kodaro-Udokan basites of the Chiney complex. Gold in these formations has both mantle and crustal springs.

  2. Development of ramp-flat structures during Aegean extension

    Brun, Jean-Pierre; Sokoutis, Dimitrios


    Low-angle extensional shear is frequently observed in the Aegean metamorphic rocks. This deformation is commonly interpreted as being related to detachment at crustal scale, yet it often corresponds to ramp-flat extensional systems that, at many places, control the deposition of Neogene sedimentary basins. From a mechanical point of view, the development of a ramp-flat structure requires the presence of weak layers that can be activated as décollement between stronger rocks units. In the Aegean, the décollement generally develops within the upper brittle crust (i.e. with temperatures lower than about 400°C) that consists in recently exhumed metamorphic rocks. The process by which, these layers become weak enough to form efficient décollements in extension is somewhat intriguing and not well understood. In this contribution we examine the particular case of ramp-flat structures of the Southern Rhodope Core Complex that controlled the deposition of late Miocene to Pleistocene sediments in continental and marine basins. Field evidence is used to argue that the décollement corresponds to marble layers that separate orthogneisses at 2-3 km depth within an upper brittle crust whose thickness is around 5 km. Field observation and stable isotope measurements suggest that the ramp-flat structure observed on the island of Thassos occurred in a marble unit rich in fluids at a temperature of around 200°C. Using laboratory experiments, we explore the geometry of extensional structures (fault systems, rollovers, piggy-back basins…) that can develop at crustal-scale as a function of: i) décollement depth and dip, ii) number of décollements, and iii) strength contrast, between the décollement and overlying strong units. The results are compared with the situation observed in the Southern Rhodope Core Complex. We are convinced that the principles of ramp-flat extension discussed here have a strong potential of application in many other orogenic domains affected by large

  3. High Resistant Sand Injected Marl and Low Resistant Damaged Marl to Locate and Characterize the Thénia Fault Zone in Boumerdes City (North-Central Algeria)

    Moulouel, Hakim; Bensalem, Rabah; Machane, Djamel; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Gharbi, Sofiane; Oubaiche, El-Hadi; Ousalem, Hassane; Skendri, Walid


    The purpose of this study was to locate and characterize the Thénia Fault Zone (TFZ) in the urban area of Boumerdes city; geological and electrical resistivity tomography surveys have targeted the Plaisancian marl and its Quaternary cover. As a whole, data indicate a complex near-vertical fault zone with an asymmetric and zoned internal structure of at least 150 m wide and with a straight N120° overall trending. The fault zone is traversed with two elongated parallel fault branches (FB1 and FB2), generally, 70 m distant from each other. These fault branches locate two intense damage zones (IDZs) of 10-15 m thick each, situated at the margin of two damage zones each having a thickness of several tens of meters. Downward sand injections into IDZs during Pleistocene epoch, possible pulverization of Plaisancian marl rocks, systematic deflection of actual stream channels, and vertical displacement of at least 30 m affecting Quaternary alluvial deposits show that the area would have undergone active tectonic driven by the TFZ.

  4. High Resistant Sand Injected Marl and Low Resistant Damaged Marl to Locate and Characterize the Thénia Fault Zone in Boumerdes City (North-Central Algeria)

    Moulouel, Hakim; Bensalem, Rabah; Machane, Djamel; Bendaoud, Abderrahmane; Gharbi, Sofiane; Oubaiche, El-Hadi; Ousalem, Hassane; Skendri, Walid


    The purpose of this study was to locate and characterize the Thénia Fault Zone (TFZ) in the urban area of Boumerdes city; geological and electrical resistivity tomography surveys have targeted the Plaisancian marl and its Quaternary cover. As a whole, data indicate a complex near-vertical fault zone with an asymmetric and zoned internal structure of at least 150 m wide and with a straight N120° overall trending. The fault zone is traversed with two elongated parallel fault branches (FB1 and FB2), generally, 70 m distant from each other. These fault branches locate two intense damage zones (IDZs) of 10-15 m thick each, situated at the margin of two damage zones each having a thickness of several tens of meters. Downward sand injections into IDZs during Pleistocene epoch, possible pulverization of Plaisancian marl rocks, systematic deflection of actual stream channels, and vertical displacement of at least 30 m affecting Quaternary alluvial deposits show that the area would have undergone active tectonic driven by the TFZ.

  5. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  6. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  7. X-1E Loaded in B-29 Mothership on Ramp


    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1E airplane being loaded under the mothership, Boeing B-29. The X-planes had originally been lowered into a loading pit and the launch aircraft towed over the pit, where the rocket plane was hoisted by belly straps into the bomb bay. By the early 1950s a hydraulic lift had been installed on the ramp at the NACA High-Speed Flight Station to elevate the launch aircraft and then lower it over the rocket plane for mating.

  8. Getting to the On-ramp of the Information Superhighway


    manager may elect to automatically forward all incoming e- mail from selected senders to his deputy. It is not necessary to have an AMH installed if users...establish a process to quickly identify the important and rou- tine messages. Most e- mail systems have an inbox which sorts unread e- mail and...messages FYI: for all �unofficial� For Your In- 27 Getting to the On-Ramp formation, or optional messages E- mail should also be � sender friendly.� Some

  9. Online Analysis of Wind and Solar Part I: Ramping Tool

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Makarov, Yuri V.; Subbarao, Krishnappa


    To facilitate wider penetration of renewable resources without compromising system reliability concerns arising from the lack of predictability of intermittent renewable resources, a tool for use by California Independent System Operator (CAISO) power grid operators was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in conjunction with CAISO with funding from California Energy Commission. This tool predicts and displays additional capacity and ramping requirements caused by uncertainties in forecasts of loads and renewable generation. The tool is currently operational in the CAISO operations center. This is one of two final reports on the project.

  10. Oxygen uptake kinetics during incremental- and decremental-ramp cycle ergometry.

    Ozyener, Fadil; Rossiter, Harry B; Ward, Susan A; Whipp, Brian J


    The pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) response to incremental-ramp cycle ergometry typically demonstrates lagged-linear first-order kinetics with a slope of ~10-11 ml·min(-1)·W(-1), both above and below the lactate threshold (θL), i.e. there is no discernible VO2 slow component (or "excess" VO2) above θL. We were interested in determining whether a reverse ramp profile would yield the same response dynamics. Ten healthy males performed a maximum incremental -ramp (15-30 W·min(-1), depending on fitness). On another day, the work rate (WR) was increased abruptly to the incremental maximum and then decremented at the same rate of 15-30 W.min(-1) (step-decremental ramp). Five subjects also performed a sub-maximal ramp-decremental test from 90% of θL. VO2 was determined breath-by-breath from continuous monitoring of respired volumes (turbine) and gas concentrations (mass spectrometer). The incremental-ramp VO2-WR slope was 10.3 ± 0.7 ml·min(-1)·W(-1), whereas that of the descending limb of the decremental ramp was 14.2 ± 1.1 ml·min(-1)·W(-1) (p incremental-ramp. This suggests that the VO2 response in the supra-θL domain of incremental-ramp exercise manifest not actual, but pseudo, first-order kinetics. Key pointsThe slope of the decremental-ramp response is appreciably greater than that of the incremental.The response dynamics in supra-θL domain of the incremental-ramp appear not to manifest actual first-order kinetics.The mechanisms underlying the different dynamic response behaviour for incremental and decremental ramps are presently unclear.

  11. Roman and early-medieval long-distance transport routes in north-western Europe : Modelling frequent-travel zones using a dendroarchaeological approach

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Jansma, Esther; van Doesburg, Jan; Groenewoudt, Bert J.


    To what extent long-distance transport in north-western Europe changed after the Roman period is generally unknown. Few historical sources are available and existing archaeological records are unclear and sometimes conflicting. Traditionally, research on the long-distance exchange of goods mostly ha

  12. Roman and early-medieval long-distance transport routes in north-western Europe : Modelling frequent-travel zones using a dendroarchaeological approach

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Jansma, Esther; van Doesburg, Jan; Groenewoudt, Bert J.


    To what extent long-distance transport in north-western Europe changed after the Roman period is generally unknown. Few historical sources are available and existing archaeological records are unclear and sometimes conflicting. Traditionally, research on the long-distance exchange of goods mostly

  13. New energy ramping control system in the Pohang Light Source Storage Ring

    Kim, E S; Seo, J H; Nam, S H


    A new energy ramping control system is developed to increase electron beam energy from 2.0 GeV to 2.5 GeV in the Pohang Light Source storage ring. The control system shows faster energy ramping and more stable beam characteristics than the previous energy ramping control system that consists of an operator interface workstation, subsystem control computer and machine interface units. The previous system controls current settings of the magnet power supplies in multiple steps with different energy increment rate during the energy ramping. In order to improve synchronization of the magnet power supply systems and beam stabilities during the energy ramping, we developed the energy ramping controller hardware that is controlled using a network of optical fibers. Thus, the new ramping system is able to control more synchronously the magnet power supplies with a constant energy increment rate during the energy ramping. With this reliable synchronization, it is also possible to perform the energy de-ramping step fro...

  14. Tailored ramp wave generation in gas gun experiments

    Cotton Matthew


    Full Text Available Gas guns are traditionally used as platforms to introduce a planar shock wave to a material using plate impact methods, generating states on the Hugoniot. The ability to deliver a ramp wave to a target during a gas gun experiment enables access to different regions of the equation-of-state surface, making it a valuable technique for characterising material behaviour. Previous techniques have relied on the use of multi-material impactors to generate a density gradient, which can be complex to manufacture. In this paper we describe the use of an additively manufactured steel component consisting of an array of tapered spikes which can deliver a ramp wave over ∼ 2 μs. The ability to tailor the input wave by varying the component design is discussed, an approach which makes use of the design freedom offered by additive manufacturing techniques to rapidly iterate the spike profile. Results from gas gun experiments are presented to evaluate the technique, and compared with 3D hydrodynamic simulations.

  15. Calibrating water depths of Ordovician communities: lithological and ecological controls on depositional gradients in Upper Ordovician strata of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA

    Carlton E. Brett


    Full Text Available Limestone and shale facies of the Upper Ordovician Grant Lake Formation (Katian: Cincinnatian, Maysvillian are well exposed in the Cincinnati Arch region of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA. These rocks record a gradual change in lithofacies and biofacies along a gently northward-sloping ramp. This gradient spans very shallow, olive-gray, platy, laminated dolostones with sparse ostracodes in the south to offshore, nodular, phosphatic, brachiopod-rich limestones and marls in the north. This study uses facies analysis in outcrop to determine paleoenvironmental parameters, particularly those related to water depth (e.g., position of the photic zone and shoreline, relative degree of environmental energy. Within a tightly correlated stratigraphic interval (the Mount Auburn and Straight Creek members of the Grant Lake Formation and the Terrill Member of the Ashlock Formation, we document the occurrence of paleoenvironmental indicators, including desiccation cracks and light-depth indicators, such as red and green algal fossils and oncolites. This permitted recognition of a ramp with an average gradient of 10–20 cm water depth per horizontal kilometer. Thus, shallow subtidal (“lagoonal” deposits in the upramp portion fall within the 1.5–6 m depth range, cross-bedded grainstones representing shoal-type environments fall within the 6–18 m depth range and subtidal, shell-rich deposits in the downramp portion fall within the 20–30 m depth range. These estimates match interpretations of depth independently derived from faunal and sedimentologic evidence that previously suggested a gentle ramp gradient and contribute to ongoing and future high-resolution paleontologic and stratigraphic studies of the Cincinnati Arch region.

  16. Relation between some variations of soil and surface vegetation and desertization in agriculture-pasture interlacing zone--An example from Kangbao County, North Hebei, China


    The studied agriculture-pasture interlacing zone has itsspecific natural conditions, at which the natural systems areunstable, their self-regulation capability is low and theequilibrium is easily broken, and hence the habitat is fairlyvulnerable. During last 20 years the increasing population andlivestock, over-reclamation, over-pasturing, over-deforesting, andother intensified negative human activities in the zone resulted incoarsening of surface soil, decrease of organic mater content insoil, reduction of vegetation coverage, variation and degradationof flora structure, and hence in desertization of the land,although average of gales and sandstorms some decreased and theclimate tended to be better in the region. However, the frequentsandstorms occurring in the springs of last and present years hasattracted much attention. Investigations confirmed that the maincause for the phenomena is the unreasonable human activities ratherthan the natural factors.

  17. Reattachment heating upstream of short compression ramps in hypersonic flow

    Estruch-Samper, David


    Hypersonic shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions with separation induce unsteady thermal loads of particularly high intensity in flow reattachment regions. Building on earlier semi-empirical correlations, the maximum heat transfer rates upstream of short compression ramp obstacles of angles 15° ⩽ θ ⩽ 135° are here discretised based on time-dependent experimental measurements to develop insight into their transient nature (Me = 8.2-12.3, Re_h= 0.17× 105-0.47× 105). Interactions with an incoming laminar boundary layer experience transition at separation, with heat transfer oscillating between laminar and turbulent levels exceeding slightly those in fully turbulent interactions. Peak heat transfer rates are strongly influenced by the stagnation of the flow upon reattachment close ahead of obstacles and increase with ramp angle all the way up to θ =135°, whereby rates well over two orders of magnitude above the undisturbed laminar levels are intermittently measured (q'_max>10^2q_{u,L}). Bearing in mind the varying degrees of strength in the competing effect between the inviscid and viscous terms—namely the square of the hypersonic similarity parameter (Mθ )^2 for strong interactions and the viscous interaction parameter bar{χ } (primarily a function of Re and M)—the two physical factors that appear to most globally encompass the effects of peak heating for blunt ramps (θ ⩾ 45°) are deflection angle and stagnation heat transfer, so that this may be fundamentally expressed as q'_max∝ {q_{o,2D}} θ ^2 with further parameters in turn influencing the interaction to a lesser extent. The dominant effect of deflection angle is restricted to short obstacle heights, where the rapid expansion at the top edge of the obstacle influences the relaxation region just downstream of reattachment and leads to an upstream displacement of the separation front. The extreme heating rates result from the strengthening of the reattaching shear layer with the increase in

  18. Quantification of tsunami-induced flows on a Mediterranean carbonate ramp reveals catastrophic evolution

    Slootman, A.; Cartigny, M.J.B.; Moscariello, A.; Chiaradia, M.; de Boer, P.L.


    Cool-water carbonates are the dominant limestones in the Mediterranean Basin since the Early Pliocene. Their deposition typically resulted in ramp morphologies due to high rates of resedimentation. Several such fossil carbonate ramps are characterised by a bimodal facies stacking pattern, where

  19. Thermal ramp tritium release in COBRA-1A2 C03 beryllium pebbles

    Baldwin, D.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)


    Tritium release kinetics, using the method of thermal ramp heating at three linear ramp rates, were measured on the COBRA-1A2 C03 1-mm beryllium pebbles. This report includes a brief discussion of the test, and the test data in graph format.

  20. Effects of compression and expansion ramp fuel injector configuration on scramjet combustion and heat transfer

    Stouffer, Scott D.; Baker, N. R.; Capriotti, D. P.; Northam, G. B.


    A scramjet combustor with four wall-ramp injectors containing Mach-1.7 fuel jets in the base of the ramps was investigated experimentally. During the test program, two swept ramp injector designs were evaluated. One swept-ramp model had 10-deg compression-ramps and the other had 10-deg expansion cavities between flush wall ramps. The scramjet combustor model was instrumented with pressure taps and heat-flux gages. The pressure measurements indicated that both injector configurations were effective in promoting mixing and combustion. Autoignition occurred for the compression-ramp injectors, and the fuel began to burn immediately downstream of the injectors. In tests of the expansion ramps, a pilot was required to ignite the fuel, and the fuel did not burn for a distance of at least two gaps downstream of the injectors. Once initiated, combustion was rapid in this configuration. Heat transfer measurements showed that the heat flux differed greatly both across the width of the combustor and along the length of the combustor.

  1. Estructura espacial de Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano Spatial structure of Eucinostomus argenteus (Pisces: Gerreidae in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean Sea

    Maria Pacheco

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para determinar la distribución espacial de la densidad (captura por unidad de área - CPUA y de la estructura de tallas de Eucinostomus argenteus y su relación con las variables ambientales en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano. Los datos fueron se tomaron durante un crucero de investigación realizado en la época seca (Febrero de 2006 entre Puerto Estrella ( La Guajira y Santa Marta (Magdalena. Las muestras biológicas se colectaron con una red de arrastre (en estratos de profundidad This research was carried out to determine the spatial distribution of density (catch per unit area - CPUA and size structure of Eucinostomus argenteus and their relationship with environmental variables in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean sea. The data comes from a survey of fisheries research during the dry season (February of 2006 between Puerto Estrella ( La Guajira and Santa Marta ( Magdalena . Biological samples were taken with a bottom trawl net (< 50 m and 50- 100 m stratum of depth following a systematic design survey. The mature fishes with higher sizes were mainly located in the sector between Manaure and Punta Gallinas, where the continental shelf is very wide and the local oceanography is modulated by the seasonal upwelling. The juvenile fishes were found toward the south of the study area between Boca Camarones and the Rio Buritaca, close to the coast. In this sector the continental shelf is very narrow with high biological productivity for the presence of rivers, mangroves and sea grasses, which serve as feeding grounds and nursery habitat for E. argenteus. In general, our results suggest that environmental conditions were important determinants of spatial distribution of abundance and sizes of E. argenteus in the north zone of the Colombian Caribbean Sea, with temperature and depth as variables that better predict the spatial distribution of this specie.

  2. Development of site-specific sediment quality guidelines for North and South Atlantic littoral zones: comparison against national and international sediment quality benchmarks.

    Choueri, R B; Cesar, A; Abessa, D M S; Torres, R J; Morais, R D; Riba, I; Pereira, C D S; Nascimento, M R L; Mozeto, A A; DelValls, T A


    We aimed to develop site-specific sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for two estuarine and port zones in Southeastern Brazil (Santos Estuarine System and Paranaguá Estuarine System) and three in Southern Spain (Ría of Huelva, Bay of Cádiz, and Bay of Algeciras), and compare these values against national and traditionally used international benchmark values. Site-specific SQGs were derived based on sediment physical-chemical, toxicological, and benthic community data integrated through multivariate analysis. This technique allowed the identification of chemicals of concern and the establishment of effects range correlatively to individual concentrations of contaminants for each site of study. The results revealed that sediments from Santos channel, as well as inner portions of the SES, are considered highly polluted (exceeding SQGs-high) by metals, PAHs and PCBs. High pollution by PAHs and some metals was found in São Vicente channel. In PES, sediments from inner portions (proximities of the Ponta do Félix port's terminal and the Port of Paranaguá) are highly polluted by metals and PAHs, including one zone inside the limits of an environmental protection area. In Gulf of Cádiz, SQGs exceedences were found in Ria of Huelva (all analysed metals and PAHs), in the surroundings of the Port of Cádiz (Bay of Cádiz) (metals), and in Bay of Algeciras (Ni and PAHs). The site-specific SQGs derived in this study are more restricted than national SQGs applied in Brazil and Spain, as well as international guidelines. This finding confirms the importance of the development of site-specific SQGs to support the characterisation of sediments and dredged material. The use of the same methodology to derive SQGs in Brazilian and Spanish port zones confirmed the applicability of this technique with an international scope and provided a harmonised methodology for site-specific SQGs derivation.

  3. Generation of Optical Vortices by Linear Phase Ramps

    Sunil Vyas


    Full Text Available Generation of optical vortices using linear phase ramps is experimentally demonstrated. When two regions of a wavefront have opposite phase gradients then along the line of phase discontinuity vortices can be generated. It is shown that vortices can evolve during propagation even with the unequal magnitude of tilt in the two regions of the wavefront. The number of vortices and their location depend upon the magnitude of tilt. vortex generation is experimentally realized by encoding phase mask on spatial light modulator and their presence is detected interferometrically. Numerical simulation has been performed to calculate the diffracted intensity distribution from the phase mask, and presence of vortices in the diffracted field is detected by computational techniques.

  4. [Ramp lesions : Tips and tricks in diagnostics and therapy].

    Seil, R; Hoffmann, A; Scheffler, S; Theisen, D; Mouton, C; Pape, D


    There is an increasing biomechanical and anatomical understanding of the different types of meniscal lesions. Lesions of the posterior part of the medial meniscus in the meniscosynovial area have recently received increased attention. They generally occur in association with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. They are often missed ("hidden lesions") due to the fact that they cannot be seen by routine anterior arthroscopic inspection. Furthermore, meniscosynovial lesions play a role in anteroposterior knee laxity and, as such, they may be a cause of failure of ACL reconstruction or of postoperative persistent laxity. Little information is available regarding their cause with respect to injury mechanism, natural history, biomechanical implications, healing potential and treatment options. This article presents an overview of the currently available knowledge of these ramp lesions, their possible pathomechanism, classification, biomechanical relevance as well as repair techniques.

  5. Current ramp-up with lower hybrid current drive in EAST

    Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Fisch, N. J.; Qin, H.; Li, J. G.; Wilson, J. R.; Kong, E. H.; Zhang, L.; Wei, W.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Xu, H. D.; Gong, X. Z.; Shen, B.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.


    More economical fusion reactors might be enabled through the cyclic operation of lower hybrid current drive. The first stage of cyclic operation would be to ramp up the plasma current with lower hybrid waves alone in low-density plasma. Such a current ramp-up was carried out successfully on the EAST tokamak. The plasma current was ramped up with a time-averaged rate of 18 kA/s with lower hybrid (LH) power. The average conversion efficiency Pel/PLH was about 3%. Over a transient phase, faster ramp-up was obtained. These experiments feature a separate measurement of the L/R time at the time of current ramp up.

  6. Potential Field Cellular Automata Model for Pedestrian Evacuation in a Domain with a Ramp

    Xiao-Xia Jian


    Full Text Available We propose a potential field cellular automata model with a pushing force field to simulate the pedestrian evacuation in a domain with a ramp. We construct a cost potential depending on the ramp angle and introduce a function to evaluate the pushing force, which is related to the cost and the desired direction of pedestrian. With increase of crowd density, there is no empty space for pedestrian moving forward; pedestrian will purposefully push another pedestrian on her or his desired location to arrive the destination quickly. We analyse the relationship between the slope of ramp and the pushing force and investigate the changing of injured situations with the changing of the slope of ramp. When the number of pedestrians and the ramp angle arrive at certain critical points, the Domino effect will be simulated by this proposed model.

  7. Generation of ramp waves using variable areal density flyers

    Winter, R. E.; Cotton, M.; Harris, E. J.; Chapman, D. J.; Eakins, D.


    Ramp loading using graded density impactors as flyers in gas-gun-driven plate impact experiments can yield new and useful information about the equation of state and the strength properties of the loaded material. Selective Laser Melting, an additive manufacturing technique, was used to manufacture a graded density flyer, termed the "bed-of-nails" (BON). A 2.5-mm-thick × 99.4-mm-diameter solid disc of stainless steel formed a base for an array of tapered spikes of length 5.5 mm and spaced 1 mm apart. The two experiments to test the concept were performed at impact velocities of 900 and 1100 m/s using the 100-mm gas gun at the Institute of Shock Physics at Imperial College London. In each experiment, a BON flyer was impacted onto a copper buffer plate which helped to smooth out perturbations in the wave profile. The ramp delivered to the copper buffer was in turn transmitted to three tantalum targets of thicknesses 3, 5 and 7 mm, which were mounted in contact with the back face of the copper. Heterodyne velocimetry (Het-V) was used to measure the velocity-time history, at the back faces of the tantalum discs. The wave profiles display a smooth increase in velocity over a period of ˜ 2.5 μs, with no indication of a shock jump. The measured profiles have been analysed to generate a stress vs. volume curve for tantalum. The results have been compared with the predictions of the Sandia National Laboratories hydrocode, CTH.

  8. Hybrid zone origins, species boundaries, and the evolution of wing-pattern diversity in a polytypic species complex of North American admiral butterflies (Nymphalidae: Limenitis).

    Mullen, Sean P; Dopman, Erik B; Harrison, Richard G


    Hybrid zones present opportunities to study the effects of gene flow, selection, and recombination in natural populations and, thus, provide insights into the genetic and phenotypic changes that occur early in speciation. Here we investigate a hybrid zone between mimetic (Limenitis arthemis astyanax) and nonmimetic (Limenitis arthemis arthemis) populations of admiral butterflies using DNA sequence variation from mtDNA and seven nuclear gene loci. We find three distinct mitochondrial clades within this complex, and observe a strong overall concordance between wing-pattern phenotypes and mitochondrial variation. Nuclear gene genealogies, in contrast, revealed no evidence of exclusivity for either wing-pattern phenotype, suggesting incomplete barriers to gene exchange and/or insufficient time for lineage sorting. Coalescent simulations indicate that gene flow between these two subspecies is highly asymmetric, with the majority of migration occurring from mimetic into nonmimetic populations. Selective sweeps of alleles responsible for mimetic phenotypes may have occurred more than once when mimetic and nonmimetic Limenitis occurred together in the presence of the model (Battus philenor).


    Fadıl Özyener


    Full Text Available The pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2 response to incremental-ramp cycle ergometry typically demonstrates lagged-linear first-order kinetics with a slope of ~10-11 ml·min-1·W-1, both above and below the lactate threshold (ӨL, i.e. there is no discernible VO2 slow component (or "excess" VO2 above ӨL. We were interested in determining whether a reverse ramp profile would yield the same response dynamics. Ten healthy males performed a maximum incremental -ramp (15-30 W·min-1, depending on fitness. On another day, the work rate (WR was increased abruptly to the incremental maximum and then decremented at the same rate of 15-30 W.min-1 (step-decremental ramp. Five subjects also performed a sub-maximal ramp-decremental test from 90% of ӨL. VO2 was determined breath-by-breath from continuous monitoring of respired volumes (turbine and gas concentrations (mass spectrometer. The incremental-ramp VO2-WR slope was 10.3 ± 0.7 ml·min-1·W-1, whereas that of the descending limb of the decremental ramp was 14.2 ± 1.1 ml·min-1·W-1 (p < 0.005. The sub-maximal decremental-ramp slope, however, was only 9. 8 ± 0.9 ml·min-1·W-1: not significantly different from that of the incremental-ramp. This suggests that the VO2 response in the supra-ӨL domain of incremental-ramp exercise manifest not actual, but pseudo, first-order kinetics

  10. Characterization of lake water and ground water movement in the littoral zone of Williams Lake, a closed-basin lake in North central Minnesota

    Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M.; LaBaugh, J.W.; Parkhurst, R.S.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.; Antweiler, R.C.; Dean, W.E.


    Williams Lake, Minnesota is a closed-basin lake that is a flow-through system with respect to ground water. Ground-water input represents half of the annual water input and most of the chemical input to the lake. Chemical budgets indicate that the lake is a sink for calcium, yet surficial sediments contain little calcium carbonate. Sediment pore-water samplers (peepers) were used to characterize solute fluxes at the lake-water-ground-water interface in the littoral zone and resolve the apparent disparity between the chemical budget and sediment data. Pore-water depth profiles of the stable isotopes ??18O and ??2H were non-linear where ground water seeped into the lake, with a sharp transition from lake-water values to ground-water values in the top 10 cm of sediment. These data indicate that advective inflow to the lake is the primary mechanism for solute flux from ground water. Linear interstitial velocities determined from ??2H profiles (316 to 528 cm/yr) were consistent with velocities determined independently from water budget data and sediment porosity (366 cm/yr). Stable isotope profiles were generally linear where water flowed out of the lake into ground water. However, calcium profiles were not linear in the same area and varied in response to input of calcium carbonate from the littoral zone and subsequent dissolution. The comparison of pore-water calcium profiles to pore-water stable isotope profiles indicate calcium is not conservative. Based on the previous understanding that 40-50 % of the calcium in Williams Lake is retained, the pore-water profiles indicate aquatic plants in the littoral zone are recycling the retained portion of calcium. The difference between the pore-water depth profiles of calcium and ??18O and ??2H demonstrate the importance of using stable isotopes to evaluate flow direction and source through the lake-water-ground-water interface and evaluate mechanisms controlling the chemical balance of lakes. Published in 2003 by John Wiley

  11. Coarse cross-bedded grainstones in a mid- to outer carbonate ramp, Bartonian of the Urbasa-Andia plateau (W Pyrenees, N Spain)

    Baceta, José I.; Pomar, Luis; Mateu-Vicens, Guillem


    Most marine grainstones in carbonate ramps and platforms are commonly interpreted to form in high-energy, shallow-water settings where wave energy dissipates by friction on the sea floor. The locus of energy dissipation varies with platform type. On rimmed shelves, skeletal-oolitic sands mainly accumulate near the wave-agitated shelf margin as a rim, which restricts wave action and a low-energy lagoon may form landwards. On ramps and open platforms, by contrast, grainstones commonly accumulate in the shallower zone near or attached to the shoreline, grading basinward into muddier carbonate successions. Within this conceptual scheme, most carbonate ramp subdivisions have been established according to the facies and sedimentary structures associated to the bathymetry-related hydraulic regime, in which the bases of the surface storm-waves and the fairweather waves are the boundary layers. Since seagrasses encroached the oceans by the late Cretaceous, baffling the surface wave energy, and burrowing activity increased significantly, most Cenozoic ramp successions lack the bathymetry-related sedimentary structures and the record of wave and storm activity is commonly lost. This has induced ramp subdivision to become progressively based in light penetration, as inferred from the light dependence of the carbonate producers, particularly for the Cenozoic. This new scenario has permitted to recognize grainstone units detached from shoreline and shoals and produced at depths near the limit of light penetration, or even below, in basinal settings. Here we document a 90-100-m thick Eocene example of crossbedded skeletal grainstones composed by echinoderm-, bryozoan-, red-algal fragments and orthophragminid larger benthic foraminifers. This facies belt occurs at 20-km from the paleo-coastline, downdip of Nummulites-Discocyclina facies, and passes basinward into finely comminuted skeletal debris and marls with planktonic foraminifers of the outer ramp. The skeletal composition of

  12. Present-day strain distribution across a segment of the central bend of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from a Persistent-Scatterers InSAR analysis of the ERS and Envisat archives

    Peyret, M.; Masson, F.; Yavasoglu, H.; Ergintav, S.; Reilinger, R.


    The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) is the major transform system that accommodates the westward movement of the relatively rigid Anatolian block with respect to Eurasia. Mitigating the hazard associated with devastating earthquakes requires understanding how the NAFZ accumulates and releases the potential energy of elastic deformation both in space and in time. In this study, we focus on the central bend of the NAFZ where the strike of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) changes from N75° to N105° within less than 100 km, and where a secondary fault system veers southwards within the interior of Anatolia. We present interseismic velocity fields obtained from a Persistent-Scatterers (PS) Interferometric radar analysis of ERS and Envisat radar archives. Despite the high vegetation cover, the spatial density of measurements is high (˜10 PS/km2 in average). Interseismic velocities presented below indicate a velocity change of ˜6-8 mm/yr along the satellite line-of-sight (LOS) mainly centred on the NAF surface trace, and are in good agreement with the GPS velocity field published previously. The observed deformation is accommodated within a zone of ˜20 to 30 km width, in this area where no surface creep has been reported, contrary to the Ismetpasa segment located ˜30 km to the west of this study zone. Although less conspicuous, ˜2-3 mm/yr (˜1 mm/yr along the LOS) of the total deformation seems to be localized along the Lacin Fault. The overall agreement with horizontal GPS measurements suggests that the vertical component of the ground deformation is minor. This is confirmed, over the western part of our study zone, by the 3-D estimation of the ground deformation from the combination of the GPS- and the PS-mean velocity fields. However, a specific pattern of the PS velocity fields suggests that an area, enclosed between two faults with roughly south-north orientation, experiences uplift. The PS analyses of radar time-series both prior and posterior to the Izmit

  13. Digital terrain model: allowance for zoning areas subject to flooding of planning and public Baixada Campista / North Fluminense - Rio de Janeiro

    Glayce Junqueira Quintanilha


    Full Text Available The municipality of Goytacazes is established in areas previously bathed by extensive water bodies. Several areas of this municipality are as a result of major human interventions for drainage of low lands in the region aiming mainly to expand agricultural areas. However, due to bad management of drainage network, the region still suffers from floods, mainly because of the nature of geomorphological land, home flooded. The zoning of areas subject to flooding in this sense, it is presented as an extremely valuable tool for organizing and planning the use and occupation of a region, especially those where these flood events are recurring, as is the case of Goytacazes. This instrument is able to identify critical areas and direct the use of land according to its characteristics. The objective of this work was to offer from a Digital Terrain Model, a tool to perform the Zoning Areas Susceptible to Flooding of a representative area of Baixada Camper, using as a tool to support an Information System (GIS in the case this study, we used the ArcGIS software, version 9.3. Results show the lower areas of the region studied, comparing the information found in data preservation areas and occupation of the area, which indicates the current study as a support tool for planning and environmental policies in order to rationalize the use of land in the Baixada Camper.

  14. The Boomerang-Chapare transfer zone (recent oil discovery trend in Bolivia): structural interpretation and experimental approach

    Specht, M.; Colletta, B.; Letouzey, J. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Baby, P. [Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique d`Outre-Mer (ORSTOM), 93 - Bondy (France); Oller, J.; Montemurro, G. [Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos, La Paz (Bolivia)


    The central part of the Bolivian Andean fold and thrust belt is characterized by the existence of lateral and oblique ramps offsetting its from. The Boomerang-Chapare transfer zone, north of Santa Cruz, is the most dramatic in so far as it provokes a hundred-kilometer sinistral offset of the Andean thrust front. Combined surface and subsurface data have been used here to present an up-to-date structural and kinematic model of the Boomerang-Chapare transfer zone. Moreover, a set of analog modeling in a sandbox has enabled us to test our hypotheses and study the propagation of the thrusts. THE 3D visualization of the deformed model was done by computerized X-ray tomography. We thus show that the main decollement level is located at the bottom of a Paleozoic sedimentary wedge lying on the Brazilian shield and that geometry of the border of the detached wedge is what governs and situates the development of the transfer zone. The relation between thrust propagation sequence and location of oil fields is then examined. (authors). 18 refs., 13 figs., 7 photos.

  15. Environmental Assessment, Demolition of Alpha Ramp Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota


    support active cultivation of grass and alfalfa hay, and other areas are undergoing rehabilitation for future haying operations. Any cropping practices...January 2004). 3.10 Land Use Land use in Grand Forks County consists primarily of cultivated crops, including spring wheat, barley, sunflowers

  16. Final Environmental Assessment Demolition of Alpha Ramp, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota


    unimproved areas at GFAFB have been used to support active cultivation of grass and alfalfa hay, and other areas are undergoing rehabilitation for...Native American areas of concern on GFAFB (USAF, January 2004). 3.10 Land Use Land use in Grand Forks County consists primarily of cultivated crops

  17. Wind-Friendly Flexible Ramping Product Design in Multi-Timescale Power System Operations

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hongyu; Hodge, Bri-Mathias


    With increasing wind power penetration in the electricity grid, system operators are recognizing the need for additional flexibility, and some are implementing new ramping products as a type of ancillary service. However, wind is generally thought of as causing the need for ramping services, not as being a potential source for the service. In this paper, a multi-timescale unit commitment and economic dispatch model is developed to consider the wind power ramping product (WPRP). An optimized swinging door algorithm with dynamic programming is applied to identify and forecast wind power ramps (WPRs). Designed as positive characteristics of WPRs, the WPRP is then integrated into the multi-timescale dispatch model that considers new objective functions, ramping capacity limits, active power limits, and flexible ramping requirements. Numerical simulations on the modified IEEE 118-bus system show the potential effectiveness of WPRP in increasing the economic efficiency of power system operations with high levels of wind power penetration. It is found that WPRP not only reduces the production cost by using less ramping reserves scheduled by conventional generators, but also possibly enhances the reliability of power system operations. Moreover, wind power forecasts play an important role in providing high-quality WPRP service.

  18. Study on wake structure characteristics of a slotted micro-ramp with large-eddy simulation

    Dong, Xiangrui; Chen, Yaohui; Dong, Gang; Liu, Yixin


    In this paper, a novel slotted ramp-type micro vortex generator (slotted micro-ramp) for flow separation control is simulated in the supersonic flow of Ma = 1.5, based on large eddy simulation combined with the finite volume method. The wake structure characteristics and control mechanisms of both slotted and standard micro-ramps are presented and discussed. The results show that the wake of standard micro-ramp includes a primary counter-rotating streamwise vortex pair, a train of vortex rings, and secondary vortices. The slotted micro-ramp has more complicated wake structures, which contain a confluent counter-rotating streamwise vortex pair and additional streamwise vortices, with the same rotation generated by slot and the vortex rings enveloping the vortex pair. The additional vortices generated by the slot of the micro-ramp can mix with the primary counter-rotating vortex pair, extend the life time, and strengthen the vortex intensity of primary vortex pair. Moreover, the slot can effectively alleviate, or even eliminate the backflow and decrease the profile drag induced by the standard micro-ramp, therefore improving the efficiency of separation control.

  19. Deficiency of RAMP1 attenuates antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice.

    Manyu Li

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the lung, characterized by breathing difficulty during an attack following exposure to an environmental trigger. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP is a neuropeptide that may have a pathological role in asthma. The CGRP receptor is comprised of two components, which include the G-protein coupled receptor, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1. RAMPs, including RAMP1, mediate ligand specificity in addition to aiding in the localization of receptors to the cell surface. Since there has been some controversy regarding the effect of CGRP on asthma, we sought to determine the effect of CGRP signaling ablation in an animal model of asthma. Using gene-targeting techniques, we generated mice deficient for RAMP1 by excising exon 3. After determining that these mice are viable and overtly normal, we sensitized the animals to ovalbumin prior to assessing airway resistance and inflammation after methacholine challenge. We found that mice lacking RAMP1 had reduced airway resistance and inflammation compared to wildtype animals. Additionally, we found that a 50% reduction of CLR, the G-protein receptor component of the CGRP receptor, also ameliorated airway resistance and inflammation in this model of allergic asthma. Interestingly, the loss of CLR from the smooth muscle cells did not alter the airway resistance, indicating that CGRP does not act directly on the smooth muscle cells to drive airway hyperresponsiveness. Together, these data indicate that signaling through RAMP1 and CLR plays a role in mediating asthma pathology. Since RAMP1 and CLR interact to form a receptor for CGRP, our data indicate that aberrant CGRP signaling, perhaps on lung endothelial and inflammatory cells, contributes to asthma pathophysiology. Finally, since RAMP-receptor interfaces are pharmacologically tractable, it may be possible to develop compounds targeting the RAMP1/CLR

  20. RAMP1 suppresses mucosal injury from dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice.

    Kawashima-Takeda, Noriko; Ito, Yoshiya; Nishizawa, Nobuyuki; Kawashima, Rei; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Watanabe, Masahiko; Majima, Masataka


    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is thought to be involved in the modulation of intestinal motility. CGRP receptor is composed of receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) 1 combined with calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) for CGRP. The study investigated the role of CGRP in mice with experimentally induced colitis. The study used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce colitis in mice. The study compared the severity of colitis in wild-type (WT) mice, mice treated with a CGRP receptor antagonist (CGRP8-37 ), and RAMP1 knockout ((-/-) ) mice. Pathological changes in the mucosa were assessed, and inflammatory cells and cytokine levels were measured. The severity of inflammation in DSS-induced colitis increased markedly in CGRP8-37 -treated mice and RAMP1(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. RAMP1(-/-) mice showed more severe damage compared with CGRP8-37 -treated mice. The number of periodic acid-Schiff-positive cells decreased in CGRP8-37 -treated mice compared with WT mice and was even further decreased in RAMP1(-/-) mice. RAMP1 was expressed by macrophages, mast cells, and T-cells. RAMP1(-/-) mice exhibited excessive accumulation of macrophages and mast cells into the colonic tissue with increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β as compared with WT mice. Infiltration of T-cells into the colonic mucosa, which was associated with the expression of T helper (Th) cytokines including Th1 (interferon gamma) and Th17 (IL-17), was augmented in RAMP1(-/-) mice. The findings of this study suggest that RAMP1 exerted mucosal protection in DSS-induced colitis via attenuation of recruitment of inflammatory cells and of pro-inflammatory cytokines. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Extracting Strength from Ramp-Release Experiments on Z

    Brown, Justin


    Releasing from a compressed state has long been recognized as a sensitive measure of a material's constitutive response. The initial elastic unloading provides insights which can be related to changes in shear stress or, in the context of classic plasticity, to the material's yield surface. Ramp compression and subsequent release experiments on Sandia's Z machine typically consist of a driving aluminum electrode pushing a sample material which is backed by a window. A particle velocity measurement of the sample/window interface provides a ramp-release profile. Under most circumstances, however, the impedance mismatch at this interface results in the measurement of a highly perturbed velocity, particularly at the late times of interest. Wave attenuation, the finite pressure range over which the material elastically unloads, and rate effects additionally complicate the interpretation of the experiment. In an effort to accurately analyze experiments of this type, each of these complications is addressed. The wave interactions are accounted for through the so-called transfer function methodology and involves a coupling of the experimental measurements with numerical simulations. Simulated window velocity measurements are combined with the corresponding in situ simulations to define a mapping describing the wave interactions due to the presence of the window. Applying this mapping to the experimentally measured velocity results in an in situ sample response which may then be used in a classic Lagrangian analysis from which the strength can be extracted via the self-consistent method. Corrections for attenuation, pressure averaging, and limitations of the analysis due to rate-effects are verified through the use of synthetic data. To date, results on the strength of aluminum to 1.2 MBar, beryllium to 1 MBar, and tantalum to over 2 MBar have been obtained through this methodology and will be presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by

  2. Potential effects of climate change on the temperate zones of North and South America Potenciales efectos del cambio climático en zonas templadas de América del Norte y del Sur



    Full Text Available Under current conditions, large areas of temperate western North America and temperate southern South America have arid to subhumid climates that make them vulnerable to changes as a result of human-induced climate change. Predictions of climate change from global circulation models with a doubling of present atmospheric levels of CO2 suggest large changes in mean annual temperature and small to no changes in mean annual precipitation and the proportion of precipitation received during the summer. Our objective here was to evaluate how predictions of climate change from global circulation models will influence climatic patterns and by inference the distribution of temperate zone ecosystems in North and South America. Calculations of annual water deficits suggest that the area affected by very dry conditions will double as a result of climate change. This expansion will take place in the vicinity of the currently dry areas. Monthly water deficit calculations suggest that approximately half of the temperate zone on each continent is affected by at least one month of deficit. Under a doubled CO2 climate, these areas would expand to cover up to 77 % of the temperate zone of North America and up to 80 % of South America. The resulting changes to the current distribution of ecosystems will likely be an expansion of deserts at the expense of grasslands in North and South America and an expansion of grasslands at the expense of deciduous and boreal forest in North America. Our analyses assumed that future climatic changes will be encompassed by the predictions of our three doubled CO2 scenarios. The most likely situation is that actual changes, if they occur, will be different from our scenarios. Therefore, our analyses should be interpreted as indications of the sensitivity of portions of the North and South American temperate zones to increases in temperature. The key conclusion from our analyses is that any increase in temperature caused by climate

  3. The manganese and polimetalic sulphures exploration impact in the Gândacu - Suh rzelul Mare mining zone (north-west of Suceava District, north of Eastern Carpathians on the environment

    Liviu Gheorghe POPESCU


    Full Text Available The mining activity in Iacobeni – Cârlibaba area datesback as far as the XIII-th century, the first documentary certification being before 1241. After 1775 (when Bucovina was annexed like province to the Austrian Empire Iacobeni –Cârlibaba area was scientifically examined by Austrian geologists.Geologically and structurally, the Gândacu – Suh rzelul Mare mining area belongs to the Crystalline Mesozoic Zone of the Eastern Carpathians. The Crystalline Mesozoic Zone is made up of a system of Alpine Nappes, called the Eastern Central Carpathian Nappes(S ndulescu, 1984. The exploration and geological surveying work was done in the metamorphic basement of the Sub-Bucovinian Nappe.In the Iacobeni – Cârlibaba mining area, the manganese ore deposits are located in the epimetamorphic Tulghe 2 level (Tg2 of Tulghe lithogroup and the polimetalic sulphures ore deposits in the Tulghe 3 level (Tg3. Geographically, the area Gândacu – Suh rzelul Mare is situated in the Suhard Mountains, on the right slope of the Golden Bistri a river, from an administrative point of view belongingto Cârlibaba, Cioc ne ti and partially to Iacobeni. The prospection works outlined three research perimeters: Puiu - Suh rzel, Humoru and Diaca – Gândacu. The geological study in the area Puiu – Suh rzel showed the presence of polimetalic sulphures ore in acid riolitic metavulcanites, sericite or sericite-chloritic schists. In the sameperimeter, in the superior drainage basin of the Recele brook, its discovered a manganous level in black quartzite with intercalations of sericite-graphitic schists. The manganese ore is predominantly siliceous, made up of lens and nests in parallel disposition. On the left slope of the Suh rzelul Mare brook it uncovered polychrome limestone ores. In the Humoru and Diaca – Gândacu perimeters the prospection works highlighted a primary ore of manganese consisting of rhodonite, rhodochrosite, manganese silicates, quarts

  4. Historical ecology meets conservation and evolutionary genetics: a secondary contact zone between Carabus violaceus (Coleoptera, Carabidae populations inhabiting ancient and recent woodlands in north-western Germany

    Andrea Matern


    Full Text Available Only very few cases have documented that an increase in connectivity after a period of fragmentation in ecological time has had an effect on the distribution, genetic structure and morphology of stenotopic species. In this study we present an example of clinal variability in a woodland ground beetle as a result of changes in the connectivity of a landscape during the last two centuries. The study area hosts both the nominate form C. violaceus s. str. and the subspecies C. v. purpurascens, which is ranked as a distinct species by some authors. We studied 12 Carabus violaceus populations from a 30 km transect of ancient and recent forests in north-western Germany. We analyzed three polymorphic enzyme loci, classified the elytron sculpture and measured the shape of the aedeagus tip of the specimens. C. violaceus showed secondary gradients both in allozyme markers and morphometric characters in our study area. A genetic differentiation of 16% between the populations is high but lies within the range of intraspecific variability in habitat specialists of the genus Carabus. Populations had no significant deficit of heterozygotes. We found many hybrid populations in terms of morphological properties. This study highlights the conservation value of ancient woodland and the consequences of landscape connectivity and defragmentation on the genetic setting of a ground beetle. Moreover, it shows that differences in the external shape of male genitalia do not prevent gene flow within the genus Carabus. Thus, the establishment of species status should not exclusively be based on this property.

  5. NIMBUS-7 CZCS. Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery for Selected Coastal Regions. North America - Europe. South America - Africa - Antarctica. Level 2 Photographic Product


    The Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) is the first spacecraft instrument devoted to the measurement of ocean color. Although instruments on other satellites have sensed ocean color, their spectral bands, spatial resolution, and dynamic range were optimized for geographical or meteorological use. In the CZCS, every parameter is optimized for use over water to the exclusion of any other type of sensing. The signal-to-noise ratios in the spectral channels sensing reflected solar radiance are higher than those required in the past. These ratios need to be high because the ocean is such a poor reflecting surface that the majority of the signal seen by the reflected energy channels at spacecraft altitudes is backscattered solar radiation from the atmosphere rather than reflected solar energy from the ocean. The CZCS is a conventional multichannel scanning radiometer utilizing a rotating plane mirror at a 45 deg angle to the optic axis of a Cassegrain telescope. The mirror scans 360 deg; however, only 80 deg of data centered on the spacecraft nadir is collected for ocean color measurements. Spatial resolution at spacecraft nadir is 825x825 m with some degradation at the edges of the scan swath. The useful swath width from a spacecraft altitude of 955 km is 1600 km.

  6. Comparator circuits with local ramp buffering for a column-parallel single slope ADC

    Milkov, Mihail M.


    A comparator circuit suitable for use in a column-parallel single-slope analog-to-digital converter comprises a comparator, an input voltage sampling switch, a sampling capacitor arranged to store a voltage which varies with an input voltage when the sampling switch is closed, and a local ramp buffer arranged to buffer a global voltage ramp applied at an input. The comparator circuit is arranged such that its output toggles when the buffered global voltage ramp exceeds the stored voltage. Both DC- and AC-coupled comparator embodiments are disclosed.

  7. The Joint Control of Variable Speed and On-Ramp Metering for Urban Expressway


    The traffic performance of urban expressway is subject to non-recurring and recurring events, which may cause heavy congestion and vehicles long queuing on ramps. The low performance may bring more traffic delay to the whole network of urban road. This paper presents a new method, the joint control of variable speed control and on-ramp metering, which attempts to improve the level of traffic operations on urban expressway. By analyzing traffic flow on urban expressway, an optimum control strategy of variable speed and on-ramp metering is established in the paper.``

  8. Parametric study of single expansion ramp nozzles at subsonic/transonic speeds

    Capone, F. J.; Re, R. J.; Bare, E. A.; Maclean, M. K.


    The Langley Research Center has conducted a parametric investigation to determine the aeropropulsive characteristics of single expansion ramp nozzles (SERN). The SERN is a nonaxisymmetric, variable-area, internal/external expansion exhaust nozzle. Internal nozzle parameters that were varied included upper ramp length, ramp chordal angle, lower flap length, flap angle and the axial and vertical locations of nozzle throat. Convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles were included in this investigation which was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.2 and at nozzle pressure ratios up to 12.0.

  9. Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence studies on sediments from the methanic zone of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea

    Costa, B. F. O. [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Physics Department (Portugal); Blumers, M.; Shylin, S. I.; Ksenofontov, V. [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Germany); Oni, O. [University of Bremen, Microbial Ecophysiology group, Faculty of Biology/Chemistry (Germany); Kasten, S.; Fischer, D. [University of Bremen, MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (Germany); Wagenknecht, L. [Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Center for Polar and Marine Research (Germany); Kulkarni, A.; Friedrich, M. W. [University of Bremen, Microbial Ecophysiology group, Faculty of Biology/Chemistry (Germany); Klingelhöfer, G., E-mail: [Johannes Gutenberg University, Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Germany)


    {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were used to determine the identity of iron(III) oxides in surface (top 30 cm ) and subsurface (> 30 cm – 500 cm)sediments from the Helgoland mud area in the German Bight of the North Sea. A 500 cm-long sediment core was cut in 25 cm sections while only the top 10 cm of a 30 cm-long sediment core was sampled. Using a MIMOS spectrometer, MS spectra were recorded at 293 K (RT) in backscattering geometry. At 80 K and 5.5 K, MS analysis was carried out in transmission geometry. At RT and 80 K only illite was observed, but at 5.5 K lepidocrocite was revealed in the MS spectra. The relation between Fe(III) and Fe(II) doublets of illite did not significantly vary with depth, but the relative amount of lepidocrocite increased with depth reaching about 24 % of iron phases, as revealed by MS. XRF measurements showed that the amount of Fe in the sediments varied with depth but was always less than 4 % of total elemental composition. The main component of the sediment was silica and its depth profile alternated with those of other elements, especially aluminium and iron. It was observed that elevated concentrations of dissolved iron in the subsurface sediment of the Helgoland mud area correlated with the depth-wise distribution of distinct microbial populations presumably due to microbial reduction of excess bioavailable iron minerals such as lepidocrocite. These results are thus, important in the context of microbe-mineral interactions in marine sediments as iron oxides are an electron acceptor for microbial anaerobic respiration.

  10. Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence studies on sediments from the methanic zone of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea

    Costa, B. F. O.; Blumers, M.; Shylin, S. I.; Ksenofontov, V.; Oni, O.; Kasten, S.; Fischer, D.; Wagenknecht, L.; Kulkarni, A.; Friedrich, M. W.; Klingelhöfer, G.


    57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) were used to determine the identity of iron(III) oxides in surface (top 30 cm ) and subsurface (> 30 cm - 500 cm)sediments from the Helgoland mud area in the German Bight of the North Sea. A 500 cm-long sediment core was cut in 25cm sections while only the top 10 cm of a 30 cm-long sediment core was sampled. Using a MIMOS spectrometer, MS spectra were recorded at 293K (RT) in backscattering geometry. At 80K and 5.5K, MS analysis was carried out in transmission geometry. At RT and 80K only illite was observed, but at 5.5K lepidocrocite was revealed in the MS spectra. The relation between Fe(III) and Fe(II) doublets of illite did not significantly vary with depth, but the relative amount of lepidocrocite increased with depth reaching about 24 % of iron phases, as revealed by MS. XRF measurements showed that the amount of Fe in the sediments varied with depth but was always less than 4 % of total elemental composition. The main component of the sediment was silica and its depth profile alternated with those of other elements, especially aluminium and iron. It was observed that elevated concentrations of dissolved iron in the subsurface sediment of the Helgoland mud area correlated with the depth-wise distribution of distinct microbial populations presumably due to microbial reduction of excess bioavailable iron minerals such as lepidocrocite. These results are thus, important in the context of microbe-mineral interactions in marine sediments as iron oxides are an electron acceptor for microbial anaerobic respiration.

  11. Age constraints on deformation of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland: new perspectives on the evolution of the northern Tasman Orogenic Zone

    Zucchetto, R.G.; Henderson, R.A.; Davis, B.K. [James Cook University, Townsville, QLD (Australia). Department of Earth Sciences; Wysoczanski, R. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences


    Granitic plutons of the Wangetti and Mt Formartine Supersuites intrude the Hodgkinson Formation of the Macalister Range district of the eastern Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland, Australia. Field and microstructural analyses of country-rock fabrics and those of the granites show four deformational events (D{sub 1}-D{sub 4}) for the district, in common with other sectors of the Hodgkinson Province. Structural relationships show that plutons of the two supersuites were emplaced at different times. The Wangetti Granite lacks fabric development, but the deflection of country-rock cleavage trends around it and the microscale crenulation of S{sub 2} on the rims of D{sub 4} porphyroblasts within its aureole indicate syn-D{sub 4} emplacement, consistent with the Early Permian crystallisation age attributed to this pluton from isotopic evidence. Plutons of the Mt Formartine Supersuite show the effects of multiple (D{sub 2}-D{sub 4}) deformation. An emplacement age of 357 {+-} 6 Ma (latest Devonian) was obtained for this granite by SHRIMP U-Pb analyses of zircon. This identifies an early episode of plutonism for the Hodgkinson Province, most granites from which are of Permian age. The new date constrains the age of D{sub 2} for the Macalister Range district and the age of the protolith of the Hodgkinson Formation as pre-Carboniferous. It matches the age previously determined for one of several small, related granitic stocks in the southeastern Camel Creek Subprovince of the Broken River Province. Structural relationships for granites of this age suggest that their emplacement was broadly associated with the first episode of regional-scale orogenesis and the development of penetrative fabrics in the Hodgkinson - Broken River Fold Belt. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 31 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia

    Maurizio Mulas


    Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the

  13. Micro-Ramps for External Compression Low-Boom Inlets

    Rybalko, Michael; Loth, Eric; Chima, Rodrick V.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; DeBonis, James R.


    The application of vortex generators for flow control in an external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was investigated using RANS simulations with three-dimensional (3-D), structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code. The low-boom inlet design is based on previous scale model 1- by 1-ft wind tunnel tests and features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. Validation of the methodology was first performed for micro-ramps in supersonic flow on a flat plate with and without oblique shocks. For the inlet configuration, simulations with several types of vortex generators were conducted for positions both upstream and downstream of the terminating normal shock. The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and massflow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. The optimum upstream configuration was found to substantially reduce the post-shock separation area but did not significantly impact recovery at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). Downstream device placement allowed for fuller boundary layer velocity profiles and reduced distortion. This resulted in an improved pressure recovery and massflow ratio at the AIP compared to the baseline solid-wall configuration.


    S. Bonabian


    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the stability and determine ground support requirements for the 3.01.X areas in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) South Ramp. The 3.01.X area refers to the ESF tunnel portions that were constructed under Section 3.01.X of the ESF General Construction Specification (Reference 8.4). Four 3.01.X areas in the ESF Main Loop are covered in this analysis that extend from Station 60+15.28 to 60+49.22, 62+04.82 to 62+32.77, 75+21.02 to 75+28.38, and 76+63.08 to 77+41.23. The scope of the analysis is (1) to document the as-built configuration including existing voids and installed ground support, (2) to evaluate the existing ground conditions, (3) to determine applicable design loads, (4) to evaluate the stability and determine a ground support system, and (5) to analyze the recommended system.

  15. LHC Report: intensity ramp-up – familiar demons

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team


    The first 2015 scrubbing run ended on Friday, 3 July and successfully delivered a well-scrubbed machine ready for operation with a 50 ns beam. This opened the way for the first phase of the so-called beam intensity ramp-up. The last couple of weeks have seen the number of bunches increase from 3 to 476 per beam via periods of 50, 144 and 300 bunches per beam.   The graph plots the rate of LHC beam dumps due to single-event effects (SEE) versus beam luminosity. It is an indication of the importance of tackling this issue.   To verify the full and proper functioning of all systems, operators need at least 3 fills and 20 hours of stable beams without significant problems. After 20 hours, an extensive checklist is signed off by the system experts before the next step up in the number of bunches. The systems involved include magnet protection, radio-frequency, beam instrumentation, collimation, operations, feedback, beam dump and injection. Increasing the total beam intensity poses a numb...

  16. Changes in the macrozoobenthos of the intertidal zone at Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea): a survey of 1984 repeated in 2002

    Reichert, Katharina; Buchholz, Friedrich


    Changes in the presence and absence of invertebrates as well as in species conspicuousness were documented in a rocky intertidal community based on surveys in 1984 and 2002. In 2002 six vertically and/or morphologically different stations of an intertidal platform were sampled. Five of these six habitats had already been surveyed in 1984. Replicating precisely the method of the first assessment, presence/absence changes as well as changes in species conspicuousness of 83 invertebrate species were documented, indicating that this intertidal community changed considerably during the 18-year interval. Compared with the study in 1984, 27 species newly appeared, whereas 32 species disappeared. Furthermore, 16 species increased in conspicuousness, whereas eight invertebrates decreased. The total number of species in 2002 was 154 versus 158 in 1984. Although algal species were not recorded as thoroughly as invertebrates, a massive decline in cover of Halidrys siliquosa was noted. Conversely, two invasive algal species became established after 1984, Sargassum muticum (since 1988), a cosmopolitan fucoid alga that prefers shallow subtidal areas for colonization, and Mastocarpus stellatus (introduction in the 1980s) that particularly colonized areas in the mid intertidal. In 1984 the mid intertidal zone was dominated by the brown alga Fucus serratus, whereas in 2002 the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the periwinkle Littorina littorea were the most conspicuous organisms. Annual mean sea surface temperature (BAH measurements) warmed by 1.1°C over the past four decades. Range-related community shifts, introductions of non-indigenous species and the input of pollutants, are considered to explain long-term ecological changes in the invertebrate community at Helgoland.

  17. Tectonothermal evolution in the core of an arcuate fold and thrust belt: the south-eastern sector of the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt, north-western Spain)

    Valín, María Luz; García-López, Susana; Brime, Covadonga; Bastida, Fernando; Aller, Jesús


    The tectonothermal evolution of an area located in the core of the Ibero-Armorican Arc (Variscan belt) has been determined by using the conodont colour alteration index (CAI), Kübler index of illite (KI), the Árkai index of chlorite (AI) and the analysis of clay minerals and rock cleavage. The area is part of the Cantabrian Zone (CZ), which represents the foreland fold and thrust belt of the orogen. It has been thrust by several large units of the CZ, what resulted in the generation of a large number of synorogenic Carboniferous sediments. CAI, KI and AI values show an irregular distribution of metamorphic grade, independent of stratigraphic position. Two tectonothermal events have been distinguished in the area. The first one, poorly defined, is mainly located in the northern part. It gave rise to very-low-grade metamorphism in some areas and it was associated with a deformation event that resulted in the emplacement of the last large thrust unit and development of upright folds and associated cleavage (S1). The second tectonothermal event gave rise to low-grade metamorphism and cleavage (S2) crosscutting earlier upright folds in the central, western and southern parts of the study area. The event continued with the intrusion of small igneous rock bodies, which gave rise to contact metamorphism and hydrothermal alteration. This event was linked to an extensional episode due to a gravitational instability at the end of the Variscan deformation. This tectonothermal evolution occurred during the Gzhelian-Sakmarian. Subsequently, several hydrothermal episodes took place and local crenulation cleavage developed during the Alpine deformation.

  18. 华北冬麦区干热风发生规律及风险区划%Occurrence rules and risk zoning of dry-hot wind in winter wheat producing areas of north China

    杨霏云; 朱玉洁; 刘伟昌


    Based on the index of the occurrence of dryhot wind in winter wheat region,an index of its occurrence intensity was established and the occurrence rule of dry-hot wind was inverted for the main winter wheat producing areas in the North China Plain since 1961.According to the results,the winter wheat area of the middle and south of Hebei,the west and north of Shandong and the north of Henan are the high risk zones of dry-hot wind,and the occurrence has reduced since the beginning of 1980' s.Thus,using the winter wheat observatory meteorological data,production structure material,yield,growth phase and other data,a dry-hot wind risk assessment model was established after the construction of the dry-hot wind risk evaluation index system that cover the dry-hot wind strength risk index and integrated disaster resisting capability index of the winter wheat.The dry-hot risk in main winter wheat producing areas of north China was then assessed using the model,and the dry-hot wind risk zoning assessment map was made for the areas.Assessment results show that,southeast of Hebei and northwest of Shandong are areas with high risk of the dry-hot wind influence,while south of Henan,east of Shandong and Hebei are low risk areas.%基于冬小麦干热风发生指标,构建了冬小麦干热风的发生强度指标,反演了华北平原冬小麦主产区1961年以来干热风的发生规律.通过分析发现,河北中南部、山东西部和北部、河南北部等冬小麦区属于干热风高发区,而进入20世纪80年代以来,干热风发生呈减少趋势.利用冬小麦观测站的气象资料、产量及其结构资料和发育期资料等数据,构建了包括干热风强度风险指数、综合抗灾能力指数的干热风风险评估指标体系,建立了干热风风险评估模型,对华北冬小麦主产区的干热风风险进行了评估,制作了华北平原冬小麦区干热风风险区划评估图.评估结果显示,河北东南部和山东西北部为干热

  19. Geochemical variability of hydrothermal emissions between three Pacific volcanic arc systems: Alaskan-Aleutian and Cascadian, North America and Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Blackstock, J. M.; Horton, T. W.; Gravley, D. M.; Deering, C. D.


    Knowledge of the source, transport, and fate of hydrothermal fluids in the upper crust informs our understanding and interpretation of ore-forming processes, volcanogenic hazards, geothermal resources, and volatile cycling. Co-variation between fluid inclusion CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios is an established tracer of magmatic, meteoric, and crustal fluid end-members. Yet, this tracer has had limited application to macroscopic fluid reservoirs accessible via geothermal wells and hydrothermal features (e.g. pools). In this study, we compared the covariance CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios of gases collected throughout the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand (TVZ), the Alaska-Aleutian Volcanic Arc, USA (AAVA), and the Cascadian Volcanic Arc, USA (CVA) with corresponding δ13C and 3He/4He values. Our findings show that there is good agreement between these proxies for different end-member contributions at coarse scales. However, some samples classified as meteoric water according to the CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios also show more positive δ13C values (~ -7.0 per mil) and relatively higher 3He/4He ratios indicative of magmatic input from primarily mantle sources. This unexpected result may be related to magmatic fluids, CO2 in particular, mixing with predominantly meteoric derived waters. The potential to identify magmatic CO2 in groundwater samples overlying geothermal systems in differing volcanic arc settings using simple and cost-effective gas ratios is a promising step forward in the search for ';surface blind' but developable geothermal systems and volcanic monitoring. 3He/4He anomalies also support this inference and underscore the potential decoupling of thermal anomalies and magmatic-derived fluids in the Earth's crust. The general agreement between the co-variation of CO2/CH4 and N2/Ar ratios with other isotope and geochemical proxies for magmatic, meteoric, and crustal end-members is encouraging to employ expanded use of these ratios for both the exploration and monitoring of

  20. Foraging behaviour of King Penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) in relation to predictable mesoscale oceanographic features in the Polar Front Zone to the north of South Georgia

    Scheffer, Annette; Trathan, Philip N.; Collins, Martin


    Marine predators are thought to utilise oceanic features adjusting their foraging strategy in a scale-dependent manner. Thus, they are thought to dynamically alter their foraging behaviour in response to environmental conditions encountered. In this study, we examined the foraging behaviour of King Penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) breeding at South Georgia in relation to predictable and stable oceanographic features. We studied penguins during their long post-laying foraging trips during December 2005 and January 2006. For this investigation, we undertook a simultaneous analysis of ARGOS satellite-tracking data and Mk 7 WildLife Computers Time Depth Recorder (TDR) dive data. To investigate correlations between foraging behaviour and oceanographic conditions, we used SST data from January 2006 from MODIS satellite AQUA. To determine changes in search effort, first passage time (FPT) was calculated; for analysis of dive behaviour, we used several dive parameters that are thought to be reliable indicators of changes in foraging behaviour. King Penguins appeared to target predictable mesoscale features in the Polar Front Zone (PFZ), either a warm-core eddy in the PFZ or regions of strong temperature gradients at oceanic fronts. Two different trip types could be distinguished: direct trips with a straight path to one foraging area at the edge of an eddy or at a thermal front, and circular trips where birds foraged along strong thermal gradients at the northern limit of the PFZ. It is likely that both trip types were a direct consequence of prey encounter rates and distributions, both of which are likely to be associated with these oceanographic features. Circular trips often included passages across the centre of an eddy where birds made deep foraging dives, but remained only a short time in the eddy, possibly because prey were too deep. All birds showed Area Restricted Search (ARS) at scales of exploit the environment and adjust their foraging strategy and diving

  1. Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm for Wind Power Ramp Event Detection: Preprint

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony R.; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang


    Significant wind power ramp events (WPREs) are those that influence the integration of wind power, and they are a concern to the continued reliable operation of the power grid. As wind power penetration has increased in recent years, so has the importance of wind power ramps. In this paper, an optimized swinging door algorithm (SDA) is developed to improve ramp detection performance. Wind power time series data are segmented by the original SDA, and then all significant ramps are detected and merged through a dynamic programming algorithm. An application of the optimized SDA is provided to ascertain the optimal parameter of the original SDA. Measured wind power data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) are used to evaluate the proposed optimized SDA.

  2. Stability and scour development of bed material on crossbar block ramps

    Mario OerteLa; DanieLB Bung


    Block ramps are ecologically oriented drop structures with adequate energy dissipation and partially moderate flow velocities. A special case is given with crossbar block ramps, where the upstream and downstream level difference is reduced by a series of basins. To prevent the total structure from failing, the stability of single boulders within the crossbars and the bed material in between must be guaranteed. The present paper addresses the stability of bed material and scour development for various flow regimes. Any bed material erosion may affect the stability of the crossbar boulders, which in turn can result in major damages of the ramp. Therefore new design approaches are developed to choose an appropriate bed material size and to avoid failures of crossbar block ramp structures.




    Beam stability up the ramp requires the appropriate sign and magnitude of the chromaticity. We developed a way to measure the chromaticity using the PLL (Phase Locked Loop) tune-meter. Since, the accuracy of the PLL tune-meter with properly adjusted loop gain is better than {approx} 0.0001 in tune units, the radial loop needs only be changed by a small amount of 0.2mm at a 1Hz rate. Thus, we can achieve fast chromaticity measurements in 1 sec. Except during the very beginning of the ramp where there are snapback effects and the gamma changes very rapidly, we can have good chromaticcity measurements along the ramp. This leads to the possibility of correcting the chromaticity during the ramp using a feedback system.

  4. Modelling ramp-up curves to reflect learning: improving capacity planning in secondary pharmaceutical production

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin


    are overestimated. We develop a new method, which captures ramp-up as a function of the cumulative production volume to better reflect the experience gained while producing the new product. The use of the more accurate and computationally effective approach is demonstrated for the case of secondary pharmaceutical...... production. Due to its regulatory framework, this industry cannot fully exploit available capacities during ramp-up. We develop a capacity planning model for a new pharmaceutical drug, which determines the number and location of new production lines and the build-up of inventory such that product...... availability at market launch is ensured. Our MILP model is applied to a real industry case study using three empirically observed ramp-up curves to demonstrate its value as decision support tool. We demonstrate the superiority of our volume-dependent method over the traditional time-dependent ramp...

  5. First beam test of a combined ramp and squeeze at LHC

    Wenninger, Jorg; Coello De Portugal - Martinez Vazquez, Jaime Maria; Gorzawski, Arkadiusz; Redaelli, Stefano; Schaumann, Michaela; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    With increasing maturity of LHC operation it is possible to envisage more complex beam manipulations. At the same time operational efficiency receives increasing attention. So far ramping the beams to their target energy and squeezing the beams to smaller or higher beta are decoupled at the LHC. (De-)squeezing is always performed at the target energy, currently 6.5 TeV. Studies to combine the ramp and squeeze processes have been made for the LHC since 2011, but so far no experimental test with beam had ever performed. This note describes the first machine experiment with beam aiming at validating the combination of ramp and squeeze, the so-called combined ramp and squeeze (CRS).

  6. Tamping Ramping: Algorithmic, Implementational, and Computational Explanations of Phasic Dopamine Signals in the Accumbens.

    Kevin Lloyd


    Full Text Available Substantial evidence suggests that the phasic activity of dopamine neurons represents reinforcement learning's temporal difference prediction error. However, recent reports of ramp-like increases in dopamine concentration in the striatum when animals are about to act, or are about to reach rewards, appear to pose a challenge to established thinking. This is because the implied activity is persistently predictable by preceding stimuli, and so cannot arise as this sort of prediction error. Here, we explore three possible accounts of such ramping signals: (a the resolution of uncertainty about the timing of action; (b the direct influence of dopamine over mechanisms associated with making choices; and (c a new model of discounted vigour. Collectively, these suggest that dopamine ramps may be explained, with only minor disturbance, by standard theoretical ideas, though urgent questions remain regarding their proximal cause. We suggest experimental approaches to disentangling which of the proposed mechanisms are responsible for dopamine ramps.

  7. Optimizing density down-ramp injection for beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators

    Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Hu, Z.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Mehrling, T. J.; Kononenko, O.; Sheeran, B.; Osterhoff, J.


    Density down-ramp (DDR) injection is a promising concept in beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators for the generation of high-quality witness beams. We review and complement the theoretical principles of the method and employ particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in order to determine constrains on the geometry of the density ramp and the current of the drive beam, regarding the applicability of DDR injection. Furthermore, PIC simulations are utilized to find optimized conditions for the production of high-quality beams. We find and explain the intriguing result that the injection of an increased charge by means of a steepened ramp favors the generation of beams with lower emittance. Exploiting this fact enables the production of beams with high charge (˜140 pC ), low normalized emittance (˜200 nm ) and low uncorrelated energy spread (0.3%) in sufficiently steep ramps even for drive beams with moderate peak current (˜2.5 kA ).

  8. The Line Operations Safety Audit Program: Transitioning From Flight Operations to Maintenance and Ramp Operations


    A Line Operations Safety Audit ( LOSA ) is a voluntary safety program that collects safety data during normal airline operations and was originally...maintenance and ramp operations. This report provides a review of the use of LOSA , discusses LOSA’s essential operating characteristics, lessons learned on...the flight deck, and describes the extension of LOSA to maintenance and ramp operations. The research team developed tools for airlines and

  9. Properties of Phase Transition of Traffic Flow on Urban Expressway Systems with Ramps and Accessory Roads

    梅超群; 刘业进


    In this paper, we develop a cellular automaton model to describe the phase transition of traffic flow on urban expressway systems with on-off-ramps and accessory roads. The lane changing rules are given in detailed, the numerical results show that the main road and the accessory road both produce phase transitions. These phase transitions will omen be influenced by the number of lanes, lane changing, the ramp flow, the input flow rate, and the geometry structure.

  10. Probabilistic Description of Traffic Breakdowns Caused by On-ramp Flow

    Kuhne, Reinhart; Lubashevsky, Ihor; Mahnke, Reinhard; Kaupush, Jevgenijs


    The characteristic features of traffic breakdown near on-ramp are analyzed. To describe this phenomenon the probabilistic description regarding the jam emergence as the formation of a large car cluster on highway inside the synchronized traffic is constructed. In these terms the breakdown occurs through the formation of a certain critical nucleus in the metastable vehicle flow, which is located near the on-ramp. The strong cooperative car interaction in the synchronized traffic enables us to ...

  11. Analyzing the Impact of Solar Power on Multi-Hourly Thermal Generator Ramping

    Rosenkranz, Joshua-Benedict; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias


    Solar power generation, unlike conventional forms of electricity generation, has higher variability and uncertainty in its output because solar plant output is strongly impacted by weather. As the penetration rate of solar capacity increases, grid operators are increasingly concerned about accommodating the increased variability and uncertainty that solar power provides. This paper illustrates the impacts of increasing solar power penetration on the ramping of conventional electricity generators by simulating the operation of the Independent System Operator -- New England power system. A production cost model was used to simulate the power system under five different scenarios, one without solar power and four with increasing solar power penetrations up to 18%, in terms of annual energy. The impact of solar power is analyzed on six different temporal intervals, including hourly and multi-hourly (2- to 6-hour) ramping. The results show how the integration of solar power increases the 1- to 6-hour ramping events of the net load (electric load minus solar power). The study also analyzes the impact of solar power on the distribution of multi-hourly ramping events of fossil-fueled generators and shows increasing 1- to 6-hour ramping events for all different generators. Generators with higher ramp rates such as gas and oil turbine and internal combustion engine generators increased their ramping events by 200% to 280%. For other generator types--including gas combined-cycle generators, coal steam turbine generators, and gas and oil steam turbine generators--more and higher ramping events occurred as well for higher solar power penetration levels.

  12. Downstream Effect of Ramping Neuronal Activity through Synapses with Short-Term Plasticity.

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jing


    Ramping neuronal activity refers to spiking activity with a rate that increases quasi-linearly over time. It has been observed in multiple cortical areas and is correlated with evidence accumulation processes or timing. In this work, we investigated the downstream effect of ramping neuronal activity through synapses that display short-term facilitation (STF) or depression (STD). We obtained an analytical result for a synapse driven by deterministic linear ramping input that exhibits pure STF or STD and numerically investigated the general case when a synapse displays both STF and STD. We show that the analytical deterministic solution gives an accurate description of the averaging synaptic activation of many inputs converging onto a postsynaptic neuron, even when fluctuations in the ramping input are strong. Activation of a synapse with STF shows an initial cubical increase with time, followed by a linear ramping similar to a synapse without STF. Activation of a synapse with STD grows in time to a maximum before falling and reaching a plateau, and this steady state is independent of the slope of the ramping input. For a synapse displaying both STF and STD, an increase in the depression time constant from a value much smaller than the facilitation time constant τ(F) to a value much larger than τ(F) leads to a transition from facilitation dominance to depression dominance. Therefore, our work provides insights into the impact of ramping neuronal activity on downstream neurons through synapses that display short-term plasticity. In a perceptual decision-making process, ramping activity has been observed in the parietal and prefrontal cortices, with a slope that decreases with task difficulty. Our work predicts that neurons downstream from such a decision circuit could instead display a firing plateau independent of the task difficulty, provided that the synaptic connection is endowed with short-term depression.

  13. Particle Confinement Improvement with Current Ramp in the HL-IM Tokamak

    YAN Long-Wen; WANG En-Yao; QIAN Jun; CHEN Liao-Yuan; LIU Yong


    Particle confinement with current ramp is investigated in the HL-IM tokamak. The ratio of particle confinement time to energy confinement time is used to determine confinement improvement. It increases a factor of 3 after the current rises twofold. An optimization density range to improve particle confinement is (1.5-3.5) XlO19 m~3. Particle confinement improvement during current ramp-up is beneficial to the startup of fusion reactors.

  14. Response to exploitation (1982-2002) of the Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico) geothermal field. Part I: North Zone; Respuesta a la explotacion (1982-2003) del yacimiento geotermico de Los Azufres, Michoacan (Mexico). Parte I: Zona Norte

    Arellano G, Victor Manuel; Barragan R, Rosa Maria [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Torres R, Marco Antonio; Sandoval M, Fernando [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)


    This work studies the thermodynamic evolution of the Los Azufres northern zone reservoir fluids as a response of exploitation since 1982 to 2002 is presented. Thermodynamic conditions for reservoir fluids were estimated using the WELFLO heat-and flow-well simulator, using production data as the input. The initial thermodynamic conditions of the north zone wells indicated the presence of compressed liquid; also it was noticed that the first response to exploitation was a pressure drop and an enthalpy increase, while the long term response indicated a very small pressure change but a high enthalpy increment. The analysis of production, chemical and isotopic (d18O, dD) data in this zone showed interference effects of fluids reinjected in well Az-52 on well Az-5; and in well Az-15 on wells Az-13, Az-28 and Az-43. At the present time due to the low injection flow rates, this effect is minimal. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la evolucion termodinamica de los fluidos de la zona norte del yacimiento de Los Azufres desde el inicio de su explotacion en 1982 hasta el ano 2002, considerando las condiciones de fondo de pozos del campo, como respuesta a la extraccion e inyeccion de fluidos. Las condiciones termodinamicas de los fluidos del yacimiento se estimaron mediante el simulador del flujo de fluidos y calor en pozos {sup W}ELFLO{sup ,} a partir de datos de produccion. Las condiciones termodinamicas iniciales de los fluidos de la zona norte de campo se encontraron en la region de liquido comprimido; la primera respuesta a la explotacion consistio en una disminucion de presion y un incremento en la entalpia. A largo plazo, se observaron cambios muy pequenos en la presion y grandes incrementos en la entalpia. El analisis de datos quimicos, isotopicos (d18O, dD) y de produccion de pozos en la zona norte evidencio la ocurrencia de interferencia de fluidos de reinyeccion del pozo Az-52 con el pozo Az-5 y del pozo Az-15 con los pozos Az-13, Az-28 y Az 43

  15. Analecta of structures formed during the 28 June 1992 Landers-Big Bear, California earthquake sequence (including maps of shear zones, belts of shear zones, tectonic ridge, duplex en echelon fault, fault elements, and thrusts in restraining steps)

    Johnson, A.M.; Johnson, N.A.; Johnson, K.M.; Wei, W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences; Fleming, R.W. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Cruikshank, K.M. [Portland State Univ., OR (United States). Dept. of Geology; Martosudarmo, S.Y. [BPP Technologi, Jakarta (Indonesia)


    The June 28, 1992, M{sub s} 7.5 earthquake at Landers, California, which occurred about 10 km north of the community of Yucca Valley, California, produced spectacular ground rupturing more than 80 km in length (Hough and others, 1993). The ground rupturing, which was dominated by right-lateral shearing, extended along at least four distinct faults arranged broadly en echelon. The faults were connected through wide transfer zones by stepovers, consisting of right-lateral fault zones and tension cracks. The Landers earthquakes occurred in the desert of southeastern California, where details of ruptures were well preserved, and patterns of rupturing were generally unaffected by urbanization. The structures were varied and well-displayed and, because the differential displacements were so large, spectacular. The scarcity of vegetation, the aridity of the area, the compactness of the alluvium and bedrock, and the relative isotropy and brittleness of surficial materials collaborated to provide a marvelous visual record of the character of the deformation zones. The authors present a series of analecta -- that is, verbal clips or snippets -- dealing with a variety of structures, including belts of shear zones, segmentation of ruptures, rotating fault block, en echelon fault zones, releasing duplex structures, spines, and ramps. All of these structures are documented with detailed maps in text figures or in plates (in pocket). The purpose is to describe the structures and to present an understanding of the mechanics of their formation. Hence, most descriptions focus on structures where the authors have information on differential displacements as well as spatial data on the position and orientation of fractures.

  16. Ramp Forecasting Performance from Improved Short-Term Wind Power Forecasting: Preprint

    Zhang, J.; Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Freedman, J.


    The variable and uncertain nature of wind generation presents a new concern to power system operators. One of the biggest concerns associated with integrating a large amount of wind power into the grid is the ability to handle large ramps in wind power output. Large ramps can significantly influence system economics and reliability, on which power system operators place primary emphasis. The Wind Forecasting Improvement Project (WFIP) was performed to improve wind power forecasts and determine the value of these improvements to grid operators. This paper evaluates the performance of improved short-term wind power ramp forecasting. The study is performed for the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) by comparing the experimental WFIP forecast to the current short-term wind power forecast (STWPF). Four types of significant wind power ramps are employed in the study; these are based on the power change magnitude, direction, and duration. The swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract ramp events from actual and forecasted wind power time series. The results show that the experimental short-term wind power forecasts improve the accuracy of the wind power ramp forecasting, especially during the summer.

  17. Risk assessment in ramps for heavy vehicles--A French study.

    Cerezo, Veronique; Conche, Florence


    This paper presents the results of a study dealing with the risk for heavy vehicles in ramps. Two approaches are used. On one hand, statistics are applied on several accidents databases to detect if ramps are more risky for heavy vehicles and to define a critical value for longitudinal slope. χ(2) test confirmed the risk in ramps and statistical analysis proved that a longitudinal slope superior to 3.2% represents a higher risk for heavy vehicles. On another hand, numerical simulations allow defining the speed profile in ramps for two types of heavy vehicles (tractor semi-trailer and 2-axles rigid body) and different loads. The simulations showed that heavy vehicles must drive more than 1000 m on ramps to reach their minimum speed. Moreover, when the slope is superior to 3.2%, tractor semi-trailer presents a strong decrease of their speed until 50 km/h. This situation represents a high risk of collision with other road users which drive at 80-90 km/h. Thus, both methods led to the determination of a risky configuration for heavy vehicles: ramps with a length superior to 1000 m and a slope superior to 3.2%. An application of this research work concerns design methods and guidelines. Indeed, this study provides threshold values than can be used by engineers to make mandatory specific planning like a lane for slow vehicles.

  18. Cellular automata model simulating traffic car accidents in the on-ramp system

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.


    In this paper, using Nagel-Schreckenberg model we study the on-ramp system under the expanded open boundary condition. The phase diagram of the two-lane on-ramp system is computed. It is found that the expanded left boundary insertion strategy enhances the flow in the on-ramp lane. Furthermore, we have studied the probability of the occurrence of car accidents. We distinguish two types of car accidents: the accident at the on-ramp site (Prc) and the rear-end accident in the main road (Pac). It is shown that car accidents at the on-ramp site are more likely to occur when traffic is free on road A. However, the rear-end accidents begin to occur above a critical injecting rate αc1. The influence of the on-ramp length (LB) and position (xC0) on the car accidents probabilities is studied. We found that large LB or xC0 causes an important decrease of the probability Prc. However, only large xC0 provokes an increase of the probability Pac. The effect of the stochastic randomization is also computed.

  19. Groundwater Hydrology and Chemistry in and near an Emulsified Vegetable-Oil Injection Zone, Solid Waste Management Unit 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina, 2004-2009

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conlon, Kevin J.; Casey, Clifton C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast investigated the hydrology and groundwater chemistry in the vicinity of an emulsified vegetable-oil injection zone at Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 17, Naval Weapons Station Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina. In May 2004, Solutions-IES initiated a Phase-I pilot-scale treatability study at SWMU17 involving the injection of an edible oil emulsion into the aquifer near wells 17PS-01, 17PS-02, and 17PS-03 to treat chlorinated solvents. The Phase-I injection of emulsified vegetable oil resulted in dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE), but the dechlorination activity appeared to stall at cDCE, with little further dechlorination of cDCE to vinyl chloride (VC) or to ethene. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the groundwater hydrology and chemistry in and near the injection zone to gain a better understanding of the apparent remediation stall. It is unlikely that the remediation stall was due to the lack of an appropriate microbial community because groundwater samples showed the presence of Dehalococcoides species (sp.) and suitable enyzmes. The probable causes of the stall were heterogeneous distribution of the injectate and development of low-pH conditions in the injection area. Because groundwater pH values in the injection area were below the range considered optimum for dechlorination activity, a series of tests was done to examine the effect on dechlorination of increasing the pH within well 17PS-02. During and following the in-well pH-adjustment tests, VC concentrations gradually increased in some wells in the injection zone that were not part of the in-well pH-adjustment tests. These data possibly reflect a gradual microbial acclimation to the low-pH conditions produced by the injection. In contrast, a distinct increase in VC concentration was observed in well 17PS-02 following the in-well pH increase. Adjustment

  20. Geomorphic and paleoseismic evidence for late Quaternary deformation in the southwest Kashmir Valley, India: Out-of-sequence thrusting, or deformation above a structural ramp?

    Madden, C.; Ahmad, S.; Meigs, A.


    is sub-vertical, suggesting incision rate is a proxy for minimum slip rate for the BF. Paleoseismic trenches where the BF crosses the RR reveal evidence for at least one event between 1.5-18.7 ka, and another between 33.4-38.4 ka, with as many as four events in ~40 ka. Thus the BF did not rupture during any documented historical events. Furthermore, the high angle, sub-mm/yr slip rate, and long average earthquake recurrence all suggest that the BF is not a major out-of-sequence thrust that accommodates significant shortening related to the Indian-Eurasian collision. Long terrace profile surveys along the RR show that terraces diverge upstream of the BF, reflecting ramping of an underlying décollement toward the southwest side of the KV. We speculate that the BF is a minor accommodational structure produced by a change in dip of the décollement, and that strain accumulation at this inflection zone resulting from down-dip loading could be the source of frequent earthquakes documented in the KV.

  1. Double-ramp on the Main Himalayan Thrust revealed by broadband waveform modeling of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Shengji; Wu, Wenbo


    The 2015Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake sequence that unzipped the lower edge of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) in central Nepal provides an exceptional opportunity to understand the fault geometry in this region. However, the limited number of focal mechanisms and the poor horizontal locations and depths of earthquakes in the global catalog impede us from clearly imaging the ruptured MHT. In this study, we generalized the Amplitude Amplification Factor (AAF) method to teleseismic distance that allows us to model the teleseismic P-waves up to 1.5 Hz. We used well-constrained medium-sized earthquakes to establish AAF corrections for teleseismic stations that were later used to invert the high-frequency waveforms of other nearby events. This new approach enables us to invert the focal mechanisms of some early aftershocks, which is challenging by using other long-period methods. With this method, we obtained 12 focal mechanisms more than that in the GCMT catalog. We also modeled the high-frequency teleseismic P-waves and the surface reflection phases (pP and sP) to precisely constrain the depths of the earthquakes. Our results indicate that the uncertainty of the depth estimation is as small as 1-2 km. Finally, we refined the horizontal locations of these aftershocks using carefully hand-picked arrivals. The refined aftershock mechanisms and locations delineate a clear double-ramp geometry of the MHT, with an almost flat décollement sandwiched in between. The flat (dip ∼7 degrees) portion of the MHT is consistent with the coseismic rupture of the mainshock, which has a well-constrained slip distribution. The fault morphology suggests that the ramps, both along the up-dip and down-dip directions, play a significant role in stopping the rupture of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake. Our method can be applied to general subduction zone earthquakes and fault geometry studies.

  2. Late Miocene breccia of Menorca (Balearic Islands) a basis for the interpretation of a Neogene ramp deposit

    Obrador, A.; Pomar, L.; Taberner, C.


    Neogene (Tortonian) ramp facies associations crop out in the southern sector of Menorca (Balearic island). These are made mainly by sigmoidal and oblique clinoform units comprising rhodoliths, bryozoans, molluscs and foraminifera. These units are interpreted as outer-ramp deposits. A breccia deposit infilling an erosional surface is found at the top of the carbonate ramp sequence. The breccia components (mainly rhodoliths and oolite clasts) may represent erosion of the underlying ramp deposits and inner-ramp counterparts, which do not crop out on the island. The study of components in the breccia deposits confirms the indigenous character of the outer-ramp facies associations, which suggests that the ramp was steepened distally. The breccia deposits correspond laterally to a discontinuity surface locally showing karstic features. Transgressive sediments (including a phosphatic crust) are found above the discontinuity surface. All together these features, and the dolomitisation of the uppermost ramp sediments and breccia deposits, suggest that the breccia originated from erosion of the ramp after a major relative sea-level fall. The breccia and discontinuity surface separate the ramp sequence from an overlying prograding sequence. A correlation of this sequence boundary to other areas in the western Mediterranean is proposed.

  3. Sequence development of a latest Devonian-Tournaisian distally-steepened mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp, Canning Basin, Australia

    Seyedmehdi, Zahra; George, Annette D.; Tucker, Maurice E.


    The sequence development and evolution of latest Devonian-earliest Carboniferous Fairfield Group in the Canning Basin have been established through integration of detailed sedimentological analysis of core, petrophysical data, existing biostratigraphic data and new seismic interpretations. The Fairfield Group on the Lennard Shelf was deposited on a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic distally-steepened ramp with a broad inner ramp, narrow mid ramp and steepened outer ramp. The majority of facies associations (FA1-FA8) were formed in intertidal-shallow subtidal conditions in proximal to distal inner ramp including siliciclastic tidal flats (FA1), carbonate intertidal flats (FA2), tidal flats and channels (FA3), lagoons (FA4-FA5), and shallow subtidal (FA6), backshoal (FA7) and fore-shoal areas (FA8). Bioclastic muddy sandstone (FA9) and bioclastic mudstone (FA10) are the dominant mid-ramp facies. Recognition of turbiditic facies of middle to lower slope of the outer ramp (FA11-FA13) led to the identification of a distally-steepened ramp. Antecedent topography exerted a significant control on platform morphology and the development of the widespread inner-ramp facies on the Lennard Shelf. A sequence-stratigraphic analysis reveals that the Fairfield Group ramp deposits consists of four third-order sequences (S1-S4) that were largely deposited during sea-level highstands (HST) characterized by progradational trends and dominant shallow subtidal inner-ramp facies associations. Transgressive systems tracts (TST) are well developed in S1 and S3 and have a retrogradational facies pattern with dominant deep subtidal mid-outer ramp facies associations. Lowstand systems tracts, characterized by lowstand wedges and turbiditic facies, are identified in the lower parts of S2 and S3. Coarse and fine-grained siliciclastic facies are mixed with carbonate facies as a result of coeval deposition on the inner and mid ramp, and reciprocal deposition on the outer ramp. A temporal variation in

  4. XS-1 on ramp with B-29 mothership


    XS-1 on the ramp with the B-29 mothership in 1949. This is the second XS-1 built; it later was converted into the X-1E. Unlike the XS-1-1, which was flown by the Air Force, the XS-1-2 was flown mostly by Bell and NACA pilots. It gathered much more research data than the more famous XS-1-1, known as 'Glamorous Glennis.' The first of the rocket-powered research aircraft, the X-1 (originally designated the XS-1), was a bullet-shaped airplane that was built by the Bell Aircraft Company for the US Air Force and the NACA. The mission of the X-1 was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' The first of the three X-1s was glide-tested at Pinecastle Army Air Field, FL, in early 1946. The first powered flight of the X-1 was made on Dec. 9, 1946, at Edwards Air Force Base with Chalmers Goodlin, a Bell test pilot, at the controls. On Oct. 14, 1947, with USAF Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager as pilot, the aircraft flew faster than the speed of sound for the first time. Captain Yeager ignited the four-chambered XLR-11 rocket engines after the B-29 air-launched it from under the bomb bay of a B-29 at 21,000 feet. The 6,000-pound thrust ethyl alcohol/liquid oxygen burning rockets, built by Reaction Motors, Inc., pushed the aircraft up to a speed of 700 miles per hour in level flight. Captain Yeager was also the pilot when the X-1 reached its maximum speed, 957 miles per hour. Another USAF pilot. Lt. Col. Frank Everest, Jr., was credited with taking the X-1 to its maximum altitude of 71,902 feet. Eighteen pilots in all flew the X-1s. The number three plane was destroyed in a fire before ever making any powered flights. A single-place monoplane, the X-1 was 30 feet, 11 inches long; 10 feet, 10 inches high; and had a wingspan of 29 feet. It weighed 6,784 pounds and carried 6,250 pounds of fuel. It had a flush cockpit with a side entrance and no ejection seat.

  5. Application of Concentration-Number and Concentration-Volume Fractal Models to Recognize Mineralized Zones in North Anomaly Iron Ore Deposit, Central Iran / Zastosowanie Modeli Fraktalnych Typu K-L (Koncentracja-Liczba), Oraz K-O (Koncentracja Objętość) Do Rozpoznawania Stref Występowania Surowców Mineralnych W Regionie Złóż Rud Żelaza North Anomaly, W Środkowym Iranie

    Afzal, Peyman; Ghasempour, Reza; Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza; Haroni, Hooshang Asadi


    Identification of various mineralized zones in an ore deposit is essential for mine planning and design. This study aims to distinguish the different mineralized zones and the wall rock in the Central block of North Anomaly iron ore deposit situated in Bafq (Central Iran) utilizing the concentration-number (C-N) and concentration-volume (C-V) fractal models. The C-N model indicates four mineralized zones described by Fe thresholds of 8%, 21%, and 50%, with zones 50% Fe representing wall rocks and highly mineralized zone, respectively. The C-V model reveals geochemical zones defined by Fe thresholds of 12%, 21%, 43% and 57%, with zones 50% zawartości żelaza, co odpowiada pasmu skalnemu oraz strefie o wysokim stopniu zawartości rudy. Model koncentracja-objętość wskazuje na istnienie stref geochemicznych określonych poprzez progowe wartości zawartości żelaza: 12%, 21%, 43% i 57 % oraz strefy <12%, co odpowiada ścianie skalnej. Obydwa modele stwierdzają obecność stref o wysokim stopniu zawartości surowca w środkowej i zachodniej części złoża. Wyniki walidacji modeli fraktalnych przy użyciu modeli geologicznych wskazują, ze model fraktalny koncentracja-liczba lepiej odwzorowuje obecność stref o wysokiej zawartości rud niż model fraktalny typu koncentracja-objętość.

  6. Numerical Simulation on Ramp Initiation and Propagation in a Fold-and-thrust Belt and Accretionary Wedge

    Hu, C.; Liu, X.; Shi, Y.


    Fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedge develop along compressive plate boundaries, both in hinterland and foreland. Under the long-term compressive tectonic loading, a series ramps will initiate and propagate along the wedge. How do the ramps initiate? What are the timing and spacing intervals between the ramps? How many patterns are there for the ramp propagation? These questions are basic for the study of ramp initiation and propagation. Many scholars used three different methods, critical coulomb wedge theory, analogue sandbox models, and numerical simulation to research the initiation and propagation of the ramps, respectively. In this paper, we set up a 2-D elastic-plastic finite element model, with a frictional contact plane, to simulate the initiation and propagation of the ramps. In this model, the material in upper wedge is homogenous, but considering the effects of gravity and long-term tectonic loading. The model is very simple but simulated results are very interesting. The simulated results indicate that the cohesion of upper wedge and dip angle of detachment plane have strong effects on the initiation and propagation of ramps. There are three different patterns of ramp initiation and propagation for different values of the cohesion. The results are different from those by previous analogue sandbox models, and numerical simulation, in which there is usually only one pattern for the ramp initiation and propagation. The results are consistent with geological survey for the ramp formation in an accretionary wedge. This study will provide more knowledge of mechanism of the ramp initiation and propagation in Tibetan Plateau and central Taiwan.

  7. Isopach grid of the Quaternary sediment thickness, inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q0thick, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  8. 40 meter ESRI binary grid of single beam and swath bathymetry of inner continental shelf north of Cape Hatteras, NC to Virginia border (nhatt, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  9. 40 meter ESRI binary grid of single beam and swath bathymetry of inner continental shelf north of Cape Hatteras, NC to Virginia border (nhatt, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  10. Isopach grid of the modern marine sand above the top of Pleistocene surface along the inner shelf from Virginia border to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina (modsand, ESRI binary grid, 100 m cellsize, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  11. Isopach grid of the Quaternary sediment thickness, inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q0thick, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  12. Capacity Estimation for On-Ramp Merging Section of Urban Expressway Based on Time Headway Loss

    Xing-jian Xue


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating capacity of on-ramp merging section of urban expressway based on dynamics and gap acceptance theory, considering lane-changing processes and time headway loss. Survey data were collected from on-ramp merging sections of shanghai urban expressway system and showed that capacity drop of on-ramp merging section is caused by drivers’ lane-changing which may lead to unsteady speed of vehicles and so prolonged time headway compared to the minimum time headway corresponding to the maximum capacity. Three parameters (optimal time headway, time headway loss, and interference quantity of lane-changing are given and a methodology by accumulating time headway loss due to lane-changing is developed to estimate the capacity drop. Results’ comparisons between real data and microsimulation of on-ramp merging sections and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed model can produce reliable and accurate results. This study also reveals that ramp flow and the difference between the optimal speed and the lane-changing speed of fleet have a great impact on capacity drop. This study is beneficial to evaluate congestion levels, to understand complex traffic phenomena, and so to find efficient solutions.

  13. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm: Preprint

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang


    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) are those that significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  14. Probabilistic Swinging Door Algorithm as Applied to Photovoltaic Power Ramping Event Detection

    Florita, Anthony; Zhang, Jie; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Cui, Mingjian


    Photovoltaic (PV) power generation experiences power ramping events due to cloud interference. Depending on the extent of PV aggregation and local grid features, such power variability can be constructive or destructive to measures of uncertainty regarding renewable power generation; however, it directly influences contingency planning, production costs, and the overall reliable operation of power systems. For enhanced power system flexibility, and to help mitigate the negative impacts of power ramping, it is desirable to analyze events in a probabilistic fashion so degrees of beliefs concerning system states and forecastability are better captured and uncertainty is explicitly quantified. A probabilistic swinging door algorithm is developed and presented in this paper. It is then applied to a solar data set of PV power generation. The probabilistic swinging door algorithm builds on results from the original swinging door algorithm, first used for data compression in trend logging, and it is described by two uncertain parameters: (i) e, the threshold sensitivity to a given ramp, and (ii) s, the residual of the piecewise linear ramps. These two parameters determine the distribution of ramps and capture the uncertainty in PV power generation.

  15. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceaea) using RAPD, ISSR and RAMP markers.

    Ismail, Noor Zafirah; Arsad, Hasni; Samian, Mohammed Razip; Ab Majid, Abdul Hafiz; Hamdan, Mohammad Razak


    Three polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were compared to analyse the genetic diversity of Clinacanthus nutans eight populations in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia. The PCR techniques were random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acids (RAPD), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified microsatellite polymorphisms (RAMP). Leaf genomic DNA was PCR amplified using 17 RAPD, 8 ISSR and 136 RAMP primers . However, only 10 RAPD primers, 5 ISSR primers and 37 RAMP primers produced reproducible bands. The results were evaluated for polymorphic information content (PIC), marker index (MI) and resolving power (RP). The RAMP marker was the most useful marker compared to RAPD and ISSR markers because it showed the highest average value of PIC (0.25), MI (11.36) and RP (2.86). The genetic diversity showed a high percentage of polymorphism at the species level compared to the population level. Furthermore, analysis of molecular variance revealed that the genetic diversity was higher within populations, as compared to among populations of C. nutans. From the results, the RAMP technique was recommended for the analysis of genetic diversity of C. nutans.

  16. The constant work rate critical power protocol overestimates ramp incremental exercise performance.

    Black, Matthew I; Jones, Andrew M; Kelly, James A; Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni


    The parameters of the power-duration relationship (i.e., the critical power, CP, and the curvature constant, W') may theoretically predict maximal performance capability for exercise above the CP. The CP and W' are associated with the parameters of oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2) kinetics, which can be altered by manipulation of the work-rate forcing function. We tested the hypothesis that the CP and W' derived from constant work-rate (CWR) prediction trials would overestimate ramp incremental exercise performance. Thirty subjects (males, n = 28; females, n = 2) performed a ramp incremental test, and 3-5 CWR prediction trials for the determination of the CP and W'. Multiple ramp incremental tests and corresponding CP and W' estimates were available for some subjects such that in total 51 ramp test performances were predicted. The ramp incremental test performance (729 ± 113 s) was overestimated by the CP and W' estimates derived from the best (751 ± 114 s, P incremental performance suggests that the CP and W' derived from different work-rate forcing functions, thus resulting in different [Formula: see text]O2 kinetics, cannot be used interchangeably. The present findings highlight a potential source of error in performance prediction that is of importance to both researchers and applied practitioners.

  17. Extrapolating power-ramp performance criteria for current and advanced CANDU fuels

    Tayal, M.; Chassie, G.G


    To improve the precision and accuracy of power-ramp performance criteria for high-burnup fuel, we have examined in-reactor fuel performance data as well as out-reactor test data. The data are consistent with some of the concepts used in the current formulations for defining fuel failure thresholds, such as size of power-ramp and extent of burnup. Our review indicates that there is a need to modify some other aspects of the current formulations; therefore, a modified formulation is presented in this paper. The improvements mainly concern corrodent concentration and its relationships with threshold stress for failure. The new formulation is consistent with known and expected trends such as strength of Zircaloy in corrosive environment, timing of the release of fission products to the pellet-to-sheath gap, CANLUB coating, and fuel burnup. Because of the increased precision and accuracy, the new formulation is better able to identify operational regimes that are at risk of power-ramp failures; this predictive ability provides enhanced protection to fuel against power-ramp defects. At die same time, by removing unnecessary conservatisms in other areas, the new formulation permits a greater range of defect-free operational envelope as well as larger operating margins in regions that are, in fact, not prone to power-ramp failures. (author)

  18. Elution parameters in constant-pressure, single-ramp temperature-programmed gas chromatography.

    Blumberg, L M; Klee, M S


    The dependence of the degree of interaction of a solute with the stationary phase at the time of its elution from the column in temperature-programmed GC is best described by interaction level of the solute. The latter represents the fraction of a solute residing in the stationary phase relative to the total amount of the solute. A simple approach to the evaluation of interaction levels of eluting solutes in a single-ramp temperature program is proposed. In a single-ramp temperature program having no preceding temperature plateau, all solutes that elute at temperatures that are about 60 degrees C higher than the initial temperature of the heating ramp elute with nearly the same interaction levels that can be found as exp(-r), where r is dimensionless heating rate. A specially designed temperature plateau preceding the ramp causes all solutes eluting during the entire time of the ramp to elute with nearly the same interaction levels equal to exp(-r). A transformation of the interaction level of a solute into its retention factor or mobility factor (a fraction of a solute in a mobile phase in relation to the total amount of the solute) and vice versa is also described.

  19. A New Macro Model for Traffic Flow on a Highway with Ramps and Numerical Tests

    TANG Tie-Qiao; HUANG Hai-Jun; S.C.Wong; GAO Zi-You; ZHANG Ying


    In this paper, we present a new macro model for traffic flow on a highway with ramps based on the existing models. We use the new model to study the effects of on-off-ramp on the main road traffic during the morning rush period and the evening rush period. Numerical tests show that, during the two rush periods, these effects are often different and related to the status of the main road traffic. If the main road traffic flow is uniform, then ramps always produce stop-and-go traffic when the main road density is between two critical values, and ramps have little effect on the main road traffic when the main road density is less than the smaller critical value or greater than the larger critical value. If a small perturbation appears on the main road, ramp may lead to stop-and-go traffic, or relieve or even eliminate the stop-and-go traffic, under different circumstances. These results are consistent with real traffic, which shows that the new model is reasonable.

  20. Ramp-preserving denoising for conductivity image reconstruction in magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography.

    Lee, Chang-Ock; Jeon, Kiwan; Ahn, Seonmin; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je


    In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, among several conductivity image reconstruction algorithms, the harmonic B(z) algorithm has been successfully applied to B(z) data from phantoms and animals. The algorithm is, however, sensitive to measurement noise in B(z) data. Especially, in in vivo animal and human experiments where injection current amplitudes are limited within a few milliampere at most, measured B(z) data tend to have a low SNR. In addition, magnetic resonance (MR) signal void in outer layers of bones and gas-filled organs, for example, produces salt-pepper noise in the MR phase and, consequently, B(z) images. The B(z) images typically present areas of sloped transitions, which can be assimilated to ramps. Conductivity contrasts change ramp slopes in B(z) images and it is critical to preserve positions of those ramps to correctly recover edges in conductivity images. In this paper, we propose a ramp-preserving denoising method utilizing a structure tensor. Using an eigenvalue analysis, we identified local regions of salt-pepper noise. Outside the identified local regions, we applied an anisotropic smoothing to reduce noise while preserving their ramp structures. Inside the local regions of salt-pepper noise, we used an isotropic smoothing. After validating the proposed denoising method through numerical simulations, we applied it to in vivo animal imaging experiments. Both numerical simulation and experimental results show significant improvements in the quality of reconstructed conductivity images. © 2011 IEEE

  1. 此间的少年——《麦田里的守望者》与《城北地带》比较%The Youth -- The Comparison of The Catcher in the Rye and The North Zone



    在塞林格《麦田里的守望者》与苏童《城北地带》中,两位作家分别对少年形象的塑造和年轻人生命景观的书写呈现出相似的维度和不同的张弛力度。霍尔顿与南方“街头少年”虽然在生理年龄和心理精神方面有着相似性,但他们却以不同的方式应对在与现实世界的冲撞中产生的心灵孤独。“父亲”形象的缺位安排则暗示了少年们对成人世界的对抗与反叛,而在书写人性中可贵、脆弱的美与温情这一层面,两部作品亦呈现出守望与毁灭的不同姿态。%In The Catcher in the Rye by Salinger and The North Zone by Su Tong, the mold of teenager images and the description of the life landscape of young people display similar dimensions and different relaxation degrees. Holden and southern "street youth" have some similarities in such aspects as their physiological age and psychological spirit, but they deal with the psychic loneliness from the collision with the real world in different ways. The arrangement of the absence of the "Father" image implies the teenagers' rebellion against the adult world. And in the writing of the vulnerable beauty and warmth of human nature, the two works also present the different attitudes as watching and destructing.

  2. Functions and Location Selection of Official Walled Settlements in North-to-Yanmen Pass Zone during Ming Dynasty%明代雁北地区城堡的职能与选址特征



    本文总结出明代雁北地区存在政区治所、居中应援城堡、长城边堡与收保之堡等四种城堡类型,并指出,正是因为其职能与地理位置的差异,导致不同类型的城堡在后世有着不同的发展道路。卫所与州县治所延续其政区驻地职能,在今天大多仍为市、县与建制镇驻地;居中应援城堡由于地处通衢,农业条件较好,在今天为乡镇驻地;而后两种类型的城堡随着民族关系的缓和,军事职能逐渐淡化,在今天基本上成为普通村落,很多甚至遭到废弃。%This article finds four types of official walled settlements in North-to-Yanmen Pass Zone during Ming Dynasty: administrative centers,middle castles that support others,forts that guard the Great Wall,and forts containing and protecting people nearby.The paper points out that it is precisely because of their different functions and geographical location,different types of cities and castles have different paths of development in later ages.Most of administrative Centers of the Wei,Suo,Zhou and Xian are still today cities,counties and towns resident;middle castles are nerves of country because of their good traffic and agricultural conditions;With the easing of ethnic relations,the last two types of castles gradually reduce the military functions,essentially become ordinary village today,many of which even have been abandoned.

  3. Zoning and contamination rate of magnesium and heavy metals of iron, zinc and copper in the north and northwest aquifer of Khoy (Zourabad based on GIS and determining the contaminated source

    Fariborz Khodadadi


    Full Text Available Introduction Heavy metals are the most toxic pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. This contamination can result from the release of heavy metal elements during alteration and weathering of ultramafic and mafic rocks (ophiolite zones. Among the important metals and pollutants in the ophiolite; chromium, cobalt, nickel, iron, magnesium, manganese, zinc and copper could be noted. Basically, a mass of serpentine consists of serpentine, amphibole, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and the remainder of olivine, pyroxene and spinel (Kil et al., 2010. In such areas, the prevailing cold climate, during the serpentinization, chloritization and epidotiization, the activity of the solvent, such as chloride, fluoride, carbonates, sulfide, sulfosalt would be able to import the elements such as magnesium and iron, copper and zinc into the soil and groundwater. The study area is located in northwestern Iran. This area is located in the northwest of the city of Khoy. Because of the proximity to the north and northwest Khoy plains with ophiolite rocks, the soil of this region could possibly show the potential of contamination with heavy metals. Due to the toxicity and disease of unauthorized grades of these elements in groundwater in the study area, this study is focused on the more contaminated groundwater of the areas. Materials and methods In this study, over a period of 5 days, sampling from 42 water sources, including fountains, aqueducts, wells, piezometers and wells in operation, was performed. The container was washed with acid and then rinsed 3 times with the water sample. The pH and temperature of the water in the samples was measured in the field. Then to each of the samples was taken from 2 to 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid (This causes that the metal elements would not adsorbed or precipitated by these particles and pH of the samples was measured with litmus paper to reach level 2. This was done to ensure the consolidation of the water samples. Analysis of

  4. Numerical solution of shock and ramp compression for general material properties

    Swift, D C


    A general formulation was developed to represent material models for applications in dynamic loading. Numerical methods were devised to calculate response to shock and ramp compression, and ramp decompression, generalizing previous solutions for scalar equations of state. The numerical methods were found to be flexible and robust, and matched analytic results to a high accuracy. The basic ramp and shock solution methods were coupled to solve for composite deformation paths, such as shock-induced impacts, and shock interactions with a planar interface between different materials. These calculations capture much of the physics of typical material dynamics experiments, without requiring spatially-resolving simulations. Example calculations were made of loading histories in metals, illustrating the effects of plastic work on the temperatures induced in quasi-isentropic and shock-release experiments, and the effect of a phase transition.

  5. Paths to ignition by radio frequency heating during the B-field ramp

    Myra, J. R.; Aamodt, R. E.; D'Ippolito, D. A.


    To conserve transformer volt-seconds, power to toroidal magnetic field coils, and to trigger an early transition into high confinement (H) mode, where the requirements on auxiliary power are lower, rf heating during the B-field ramp phase of ignition-class tokamaks is considered. The scheme is analyzed by modifying the usual plasma operating condition diagrams to apply to the ramp phase where the magnetic field, plasma current, and density are changing. It is shown that ion cyclotron range-of-frequencies direct electron heating during the ramp phase of IGNITOR [B. Coppi, M. Nassi, and L. E. Sugiyama, Phys. Scr. 45, 112 (1992)], as proposed by Majeski [R. Majeski, in AIP Conference Proceedings 485—Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, Annapolis, MD (AIP, New York, 1999), p. 353], may be useful in optimizing the operating condition path to ignition.

  6. Iterative ramp sharpening for structure signature-preserving simplification of images

    Grazzini, Jacopo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Soille, Pierre [EC-JRC


    In this paper, we present a simple and heuristic ramp sharpening algorithm that achieves local contrast enhancement of vector-valued images. The proposed algorithm performs a local comparison of intensity values as well as gradient strength and directional information derived from the gradient structure tensor so that the sharpening is applied only for pixels found on the ramps around true edges. This way, the contrast between objects and regions separated by a ramp is enhanced correspondingly, avoiding ringing artefacts. It is found that applying this technique in an iterative manner on blurred imagery produces sharpening preserving both structure and signature of the image. The final approach reaches a good compromise between complexity and effectiveness for image simplification, enhancing in an efficient manner the image details and maintaining the overall image appearance.

  7. A historic breakthrough : Kidd Mine sets new mark for underground ramp development

    Roberts, R. [Xstrata Copper, Timmins, ON (Canada)


    This article discussed a new ventilation system installed as part of an underground ramp development at Xstrata Copper's Kidd Mine. The mine now has the deepest continual ramp from surface in the world. The down ramp is currently exhausted through raises placed on various levels and a permanent 6-metre-diameter raise exhaust system. Ventilation tests are now being conducted to optimize air flow until the breakthrough of a new exhaust raise in 2010. A set of cold stopes and a mechanical refrigeration plant are being used to cool the air. Heat will become easier to manage as the project completes changes to the ventilation set-up. Additional stopes and fresh air raises are scheduled for operation in the first quarter of 2011. The 3-year project has included contributions from several different construction companies. 2 figs.

  8. Validation of Up-the-Ramp Sampling with Cosmic Ray Rejection on IR Detectors

    Offenberg, J D; Rauscher, B J; Forrest, W J; Hanisch, R J; Mather, J C; McKelvey, M E; McMurray, R E; Nieto-Santisteban, M A; Pipher, J L; Gupta, R; Stockman, H S


    We examine cosmic ray rejection methodology on data collected from InSb and Si:As detectors. The application of an Up-the-Ramp sampling technique with on-the-fly cosmic ray identification and mitigation is the focus of this study. This technique is valuable for space-based observatories which are exposed to high-radiation environments. We validate the Up-the-Ramp approach on radiation-test data sets with InSb and Si:As detectors which were generated for SIRTF. The Up-the-Ramp sampling method studied in this paper is over 99.9% effective at removing cosmic rays and preserves the structure and photometric quality of the image to well within the measurement error.

  9. Non-Cooperative Regulation Coordination Based on Game Theory for Wind Farm Clusters during Ramping Events

    Qi, Yongzhi; Liu, Yutian; Wu, Qiuwei


    of wind farm clusters (WFCs) in order to track scheduled wind power of the WFC during ramping events. In the proposed strategy, a non‐cooperative game is formulated and wind farms compete to provide regulation to the WFC during ramping events. A regulation revenue function is proposed to evaluate......With increasing penetration of wind power in power systems, it is important to track scheduled wind power output as much as possible during ramping events to ensure security of the system. In this paper, a non‐cooperative coordination strategy based on the game theory is proposed for the regulation...... the competition process of wind farms to provide regulation to the WFC which includes revenue of effective regulation (ER), power support regulation and punishment regulation. The multi‐time‐interval Nash equilibrium condition is derived for the regulation competition process of wind farms. By setting parameters...

  10. Tune and Chromaticity Control During Snapback and Ramp in 2015 LHC Operation

    Schaumann, Michaela; Lamont, Mike; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Todesco, Ezio; Wenninger, Jorg


    Because of current redistribution on the superconducting cables, the harmonic components of the magnetic fields of the superconducting magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) show decay during the low field injection plateau. This results in tune and chromaticity variations for the beams. In the first few seconds of the ramp the original hysteresis state of the magnetic field is restored - the field snaps back. These fast dynamic field changes lead to strong tune and chromaticity excursions that, if not properly controlled, induce beam losses and potentially trigger a beam dump. A feed-forward system applies predicted corrections during the injection plateau and to the first part of the ramp to avoid violent changes of beam conditions. This paper discusses the snapback of tune and chromaticity as observed in 2015, as well as the control of beam parameters during the ramp. It also evaluates the quality of the applied feed-forward corrections and their reproducibility.

  11. Effects of ramp vibrational states on flexural intrinsic vibrations in Besocke-style scanners

    Zhang Hui; Jiang Guo-Zhu; Liu Zhao-Qun; Zhang Shu-Yi; Fan Li


    For both the vibrating and steady supporting surfaces of a scanning disk in a Besocke-style piezoelectric scanner,a theoretical model is given by considering the nonlinear lateral friction at the micro-contact interface between the positioning legs and the supporting surface.Numerical simulations demonstrate that unexpected flexural vibrations can arise from a vibrating ramp,and their frequencies are lower than the eigenfrequencies of the scanner in the linearly elastic regime.The vibrations essentially depend on 1) the vibrational states of the supporting ramp and the steel ball tips on the three piezoelectric positioning legs,and 2) the tribological characteristics of the contacts between the tips and the ramp.The results give an insight into the intrinsic vibrations of the scanners,and are applicable in designing and optimizing piezoelectric scanning systems.

  12. Validation of a Ramp Running Protocol for Determination of the True VO2max in Mice

    Ayachi, Mohamed; Niel, Romain; Momken, Iman; Billat, Véronique L.; Mille-Hamard, Laurence


    In the field of comparative physiology, it remains to be established whether the concept of VO2max is valid in the mouse and, if so, how this value can be accurately determined. In humans, VO2max is generally considered to correspond to the plateau observed when VO2 no longer rises with an increase in workload. In contrast, the concept of VO2peak tends to be used in murine studies. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether (i) a continuous ramp protocol yielded a higher VO2peak than a stepwise, incremental protocol, and (ii) the VO2peak measured in the ramp protocol corresponded to VO2max. The three protocols (based on intensity-controlled treadmill running until exhaustion with eight female FVB/N mice) were performed in random order: (a) an incremental protocol that begins at 10 m.min−1 speed and increases by 3 m.min−1 every 3 min. (b) a ramp protocol with slow acceleration (3 m.min−2), and (c) a ramp protocol with fast acceleration (12 m.min−2). Each protocol was performed with two slopes (0 and 25°). Hence, each mouse performed six exercise tests. We found that the value of VO2peak was protocol-dependent (p VO2max plateau was associated with the fulfillment of two secondary criteria (a blood lactate concentration >8 mmol.l−1 and a respiratory exchange ratio >1). The total duration of the 3 m.min−2 0° ramp protocol was shorter than that of the incremental protocol. Taken as a whole, our results suggest that VO2max in the mouse is best determined by applying a ramp exercise protocol with slow acceleration and no treadmill slope. PMID:27621709

  13. Theory of Feshbach molecule formation in a dilute gas during a magnetic field ramp

    Williams, J. E.; Nygaard, Nicolai; Clark, C. W.


    Starting with coupled atom-molecule Boltzmann equations, we develop a simplified model to understand molecule formation observed in recent experiments. Our theory predicts several key features: (1) the effective adiabatic rate constant is proportional to density; (2) in an adiabatic ramp, the dep......Starting with coupled atom-molecule Boltzmann equations, we develop a simplified model to understand molecule formation observed in recent experiments. Our theory predicts several key features: (1) the effective adiabatic rate constant is proportional to density; (2) in an adiabatic ramp...

  14. X-ray diffraction of molybdenum under ramp compression to 1 TPa

    Wang, Jue; Coppari, Federica; Smith, Raymond F.; Eggert, Jon H.; Lazicki, Amy E.; Fratanduono, Dayne E.; Rygg, J. Ryan; Boehly, Thomas R.; Collins, Gilbert W.; Duffy, Thomas S.


    Molybdenum (Mo) is a transition metal with a wide range of technical applications. There has long been strong interest in its high-pressure behavior, and it is often used as standard for high-pressure experiments. Combining powder x-ray diffraction and dynamic ramp compression, structural and equation of state data were collected for solid Mo to 1 TPa (10 Mbar). Diffraction results are consistent with Mo remaining in the body-centered-cubic structure into the TPa regime. Stress-density data show that Mo under ramp loading is less compressible than the room-temperature isotherm but more compressible than the single-shock Hugoniot.

  15. Research on Power Ramp Testing Method for PWR Fuel Rod at Research Reactor


    In order to develop high performance fuel assembly for domestic nuclear power plant, it is necessary to master some fundamental test technology. So the research on the power ramp testing methods is proposed. A tentative power ramp test for short PWR fuel rod has been conducted at the heavy water research reactor (HWRR) in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) in May of 2001. The in-pile test rig was placed into the central channel of the reactor . The test rig consists of pressure pipe assembly, thimble, solid neutron absorbing screen and its driving parts, etc.. The test

  16. State-space approach to vibration of gold nano-beam induced by ramp type heating

    Hamdy M Youssef; Khaled A Elsibai


    In the nanoscale beam, two effects become domineering. One is the non-Fourier effect in heat conduction and the other is the coupling effect between temperature and strain rate. In the present study, a generalized solution for the generalized thermoelastic vibration of gold nano-beam resonator induced by ramp type heating is developed. The solution takes into account the above two effects. State-space and Laplace transform methods are used to determine the lateral vibration, the temperature, the displacement, the stress and the strain energy of the beam. The effects of the relaxation time and the ramping time parameters have been studied.

  17. Quantum wave packet dynamics with trajectories: reflections on a downhill ramp potential

    Lopreore, Courtney L.; Wyatt, Robert E.


    The quantum trajectory method (QTM) for wave packet dynamics involves solving discretized hydrodynamic equations-of-motion in the Lagrangian picture (C. Lopreore, R.E. Wyatt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 5190). In this Letter, results are presented which illustrate the dynamics of an initial Gaussian wave packet on a downhill ramp potential. Plots are shown for the time evolving probability density, as well as phase space plots and force diagrams. The mechanism, deduced from these plots, surprisingly shows some of the transmitted fluid elements of the wave packet making a U-turn before they head downhill on the ramp potential.

  18. Effect of Air Velocity on Thermal Comfort under Thermal Environment Ramp Changing

    嵇赟喆; 涂光备; 孙琳


    Set points of the indoor air temperature and relative humidity in short-term staying location were studied. In this condition, the thermal reaction of human body varied with the ramp changes of the environmental thermal parameters.The change rules of about 60 subjects'thermal reaction to the ramp change of environment were surveyed, and the effect of air movement on the thermal reaction during transient condition was considered by using a questionnaire. With the experimental results and research findings under stable condition, a way to set environmental parameters of short-time staying location was recommended.

  19. A new tectonic model for the Laurentia-Avalonia-Baltica sutures in the North Sea: A case study along MONA LISA profile 3

    Lyngsie, S. B.; Thybo, H.


    We present a new model for the lithospheric structure of the transitions between Laurentia, Avalonia and Baltica in the North Sea, northwestern Europe based on 2¾D potential field modelling of MONA LISA profile 3 across the Central Graben, with constraints from seismic P-wave velocity models and the crustal normal incidence reflection section along the profile. The model shows evidence for the presence of upper-and lower Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks as well as differences in crustal structure between the palaeo-continents Laurentia, Avalonia and Baltica. Our new model, together with previous results from transformations of the gravity and magnetic fields, demonstrates correlation between crustal magnetic domains along the profile and the terrane affinity of the crust. This integrated interpretation indicates that a 150 km wide zone, characterized by low-grade metamorphosis and oblique thrusting of Avalonia crust over Baltica lower crust, is characteristic for the central North Sea area. The magnetic susceptibility and the density across the Coffee Soil Fault range from almost zero and 2715 kg/m 3 in Avalonia crust to 0.05 SI and 2775 kg/m 3 in Baltica crust. The model of MONA LISA profile 3 indicates that the transition between Avalonia and Baltica is located beneath the Central Graben with a ramp-flat-ramp geometry. Our results indicate that the initial rifting of the Central Graben and the Viking Graben was controlled by the location of the Caledonian collisional suture, located at the Coffee Soil Fault, and that the deep crustal part of Baltica extends further to the west than hitherto believed.

  20. Study of conglomerate reservoir types and distribution in north slope zone, Dongying depression%东营凹陷北部陡坡带砂砾岩油藏类型及序列模式

    刘鑫金; 宋国奇; 刘惠民; 徐兵; 田美荣


    There are several conglomerate reservoir types in the eastern north steep slope zone in Dongying depression, whose distribution has an ordered sequence. By the dissection of different conglomerate traps, the basic characteristics of these, reservoirs and controlling factors of their ordered distribution are discussed. On the basis of reservoir characteristic and distribution law, the ordered reservoir combination pattern includes under-salt condensate gas reservoir, fan root lithologic reservoir, structural-lithological reservoir, and the digenesis trap reservoir that is sealed by difference of physical properties. The reservoir series, that are in order of under-salt gas play, deep zone thin oil play, medium-deep thin oil play, and shallow layer heavy oil play, are distributed ring-shaped around the subsidence centre of the basin. Every reservoir type had its particular hydrocarbon accumulation controlling factors. The main pool controlling factors of deep condensate gas and thin oil lithologic reservoir are the sealing capacity of fan root, the one for medium-deep structural-lithologic reservoir is development of small anticlinal traps, and the heavy oil is thick, which is the key controlling factors for shallow layer reservoir that is sealed by difference of physical properties. Different exploration plans are designed according to the reservoir characters and oil distribution law.%东营凹陷北部陡坡带砂砾岩油藏表现出很强的有序性,通过对不同层系砂砾岩油藏的解剖,探讨了各类油藏的基本特征及其有序性展布的控制因素,建立了砂砾岩油藏序列模式.研究结果表明,砂砾岩油藏模式可概括为深层凝析气藏、深层扇根封堵岩性油藏、中深层构造-岩性油藏、中浅层物性差异封堵岩性油藏依次发育的油藏组合模式,在平面上呈环带状展布,由洼陷中心到盆地边缘依次发育深层气环带、深层稀油带、中深层稀油带和中浅层稠油环带.

  1. Non-timber forest products: ramps in the Waynesville, NC watershed

    Kristina Connor; Jim Chamberlain III; Hilliard Gibbs Jr.; Matt Winn


    The potential of forest farming was noted as far back as 1929, but the recognition of its importance dates back only 20 to 30 years. The U.S. market for harvested foods and medicinal plants from forests now exceeds $4 billion annually. Ramps (Allium tricoccum Aiton), or wild leeks, grow in patches in the rich moist forests of the eastern United...

  2. Measuring modulated luminescence using non-modulated stimulation: Ramping the sample period

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.;


    . Directly analogous results to LM-OSL can, however, be achieved with non-modulated excitation sources, by ramping the sample period (RSP) of luminescence detection. RSP-OSL has the distinct advantage over LM-OSL in that, since the excitation remains at full power, data accumulation times (that can...


    Dr. Sanjay Jain


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop an optimal replenishment policy for inventory models of deteriorating items with ramp type demand under permissible delay in payments. Deterioration of items begins on their arrival in stock.  An example is also presented to illustrate the application of developed model.

  4. Probabilistic Wind Power Ramp Forecasting Based on a Scenario Generation Method: Preprint

    Wang, Qin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Florita, Anthony R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Wind power ramps (WPRs) are particularly important in the management and dispatch of wind power, and they are currently drawing the attention of balancing authorities. With the aim to reduce the impact of WPRs for power system operations, this paper develops a probabilistic ramp forecasting method based on a large number of simulated scenarios. An ensemble machine learning technique is first adopted to forecast the basic wind power forecasting scenario and calculate the historical forecasting errors. A continuous Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to fit the probability distribution function (PDF) of forecasting errors. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) is analytically deduced. The inverse transform method based on Monte Carlo sampling and the CDF is used to generate a massive number of forecasting error scenarios. An optimized swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract all the WPRs from the complete set of wind power forecasting scenarios. The probabilistic forecasting results of ramp duration and start time are generated based on all scenarios. Numerical simulations on publicly available wind power data show that within a predefined tolerance level, the developed probabilistic wind power ramp forecasting method is able to predict WPRs with a high level of sharpness and accuracy.

  5. Ramp-rate limitation experiments in support of the TPX magnets

    Jeong, S.; Schultz, J.H.; Takayasu, Makoto; Michael, P.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Shen, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Vysotsky, V. [Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Warnes, W. [Oregon State Univ., Eugene, OR (United States)


    Fast magnetic field change is required for full-size tokamak reactors. The poloidal field magnets are usually ramped to full field at 1.2 T/s, and see pulsed fields of up to 20 T/s during plasma initiation. A new facility has been constructed at M.I.T. that simulates the expected operating conditions of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) magnets. New features in this facility include (1) a superconducting pulse coil that can superimpose high ramp-down rates, up to 25 T/s, (2 T in 80 msec) on a background field up to 5 T, (2) new power supplies that can supply high rates of dI/dt and dB/dt to the sample under test and the pulse coil, and (3) a forced-flow supercritical helium system that can simulate cooling conditions within the winding pack. The first sample tested in the facility is a 27-strand sub-cable, using 3.1:1 copper, noncopper ratio Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductor, typical of the strands to be used in ten of the poloidal field system magnets. This paper presents the first experimental results on the ramp rate limitation of the sub-size cable sample of TPX PF coil conductor. The transient stability at high ramp rate fields will be discussed.

  6. Combined Ramp and Squeeze to 6.5 TeV in the LHC

    Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; Tomás, Rogelio; Wenninger, Jorg


    The cycle of the LHC is composed of an energy ramp followed by a betatron squeeze, needed to reduce the beta- star value in the interaction points. Since Run 1, studies have been carried out to investigate the feasibility of combining the two operations, thus considerably reducing the duration of the operational cycle. In Run 2, the LHC is operating at the energy of 6.5 TeV that requires a much longer cycle than that of Run 1. Therefore, the performance gains from a Combined Ramp and Squeeze (CRS) is more interesting. Merging the energy ramp and the betatron squeeze could result in a gain of several minutes for each LHC cycle. With increasing maturity of LHC operation, it is now possible to envisage more complex beam manipulations; this paper describes the first machine experiment with beam, aiming at validating the combination of ramp and squeeze, which was performed in 2015, during a machine development phase. The operation experience with the LHC run at 2.51 TeV, when CRS down to 4 meters was deployed and ...

  7. Modeling Human Dynamics in Combined Ramp-Following and Disturbance-Rejection Tasks

    Pool, D.M.; Van Paassen, M.M.; Mulder, M.


    This paper investigates the modeling of humanmanual control behavior for pursuit tracking tasks in which target forcing functions consisting of multiple ramp-like changes in target attitude are used. Due to the use of a pursuit display and the predictability of such forcing function signals, it can

  8. The three-dimensional flow organization past a micro-ramp in a supersonic boundary layer

    Sun, Z.; Schrijer, F.F.J.; Scarano, F.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.


    The three-dimensional instantaneous flow organization in the near wake of a micro-ramp interacting with a Mach 2.0 supersonic turbulent boundary layer is studied using tomographic particle image velocimetry. The mean flow reveals a wake with approximately circular cross section dominated by a pair o

  9. Modeling ramp compression experiments using large-scale molecular dynamics simulation.

    Mattsson, Thomas Kjell Rene; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Grest, Gary Stephen; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Jones, Reese E.; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Baskes, Michael I. (University of California, San Diego); Winey, J. Michael (Washington State University); Gupta, Yogendra Mohan (Washington State University); Lane, J. Matthew D.; Ditmire, Todd (University of Texas at Austin); Quevedo, Hernan J. (University of Texas at Austin)


    Molecular dynamics simulation (MD) is an invaluable tool for studying problems sensitive to atomscale physics such as structural transitions, discontinuous interfaces, non-equilibrium dynamics, and elastic-plastic deformation. In order to apply this method to modeling of ramp-compression experiments, several challenges must be overcome: accuracy of interatomic potentials, length- and time-scales, and extraction of continuum quantities. We have completed a 3 year LDRD project with the goal of developing molecular dynamics simulation capabilities for modeling the response of materials to ramp compression. The techniques we have developed fall in to three categories (i) molecular dynamics methods (ii) interatomic potentials (iii) calculation of continuum variables. Highlights include the development of an accurate interatomic potential describing shock-melting of Beryllium, a scaling technique for modeling slow ramp compression experiments using fast ramp MD simulations, and a technique for extracting plastic strain from MD simulations. All of these methods have been implemented in Sandia's LAMMPS MD code, ensuring their widespread availability to dynamic materials research at Sandia and elsewhere.

  10. Efficiency promotion for an on-ramp system based on intelligent transportation system information

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Gao, Zi-You; Zhao, Xiao-Mei


    The effect of cars with intelligent transportation systems (ITSs) on traffic flow near an on-ramp is investigated by car-following simulations. By numerical simulations, the dependences of flux on the inflow rate are investigated for various proportions of cars with ITSs. The phase diagrams as well as the spatiotemporal diagrams are presented to show different traffic flow states on the main road and the on-ramp. The results show that the saturated flux on the main road increases and the free flow region is enlarged with the increase of the proportion of cars with ITS. Interestingly, the congested regions of the main road disappear completely when the proportion is larger than a critical value. Further investigation shows that the capacity of the on-ramp system can be promoted by 13% by using the ITS information, and the saturated flux on the on-ramp can be kept at an appropriate value by adjusting the proportion of cars with ITS.

  11. Lattice-ramp-induced dynamics in an interacting Bose-Bose mixture

    J. Wernsdorfer; M. Snoek; W. Hofstetter


    We investigate a bosonic quantum gas consisting of two interacting species in an optical lattice at zero and finite temperature. The equilibrium properties and dynamics of this system are obtained by means of the Gutzwiller mean-field method. In particular we model recent experiments where the ramp-

  12. A new proposal to guide velocity and inclination in the ramp protocol for the treadmill ergometer.

    Barbosa e Silva, Odwaldo; Sobral Filho, Dário C


    To suggest criteria to guide protocol prescription in ramp treadmill testing, according to sex and age, based on velocity, inclination, and max VO2 reached by the population studied. Prospective study describing heart rate (HR), time, velocity, inclination, and VO2 estimated at maximum effort of 1840 individuals from 4 to 79 years old, who performed a treadmill test (TT) according to the ramp protocol. A paired Student t test was used to assess the difference between predicted and reached max VO2, calculated according to the formulas of the "American College of Sports Medicine". Submaximal HR was surpassed in 90.1% of the examinations, with a mean time of 10.0 2.0 minute. Initial and peak inclination velocity of the exercise and max VO2 were inversely proportional to age and were greater in male patients. Predicted Max VO2 was significantly lower than that reached in all patients, except for female children and adolescents (age VO2 actually reached, as a criterion in prescribing the ramp protocol may help in the performance of exercise in treadmill testing. The ramp protocol was well accepted in all age groups and sexes with exercise time within the programmed 8 to 12 minutes.

  13. A new proposal to guide velocity and inclination in the ramp protocol for the treadmill ergometer

    Odwaldo Barbosa e Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To suggest criteria to guide protocol prescription in ramp treadmill testing, according to sex and age, based on velocity, inclination, and max VO2 reached by the population studied. METHODS: Prospective study describing heart rate (HR, time, velocity, inclination, and VO2 estimated at maximum effort of 1840 individuals from 4 to 79 years old, who performed a treadmill test (TT according to the ramp protocol. A paired Student t test was used to assess the difference between predicted and reached max VO2, calculated according to the formulas of the "American College of Sports Medicine". RESULTS: Submaximal HR was surpassed in 90.1% of the examinations, with a mean time of 10.0±2.0 minute. Initial and peak inclination velocity of the exercise and max VO2 were inversely proportional to age and were greater in male patients. Predicted Max VO2 was significantly lower than that reached in all patients, except for female children and adolescents (age < 20 years old. CONCLUSION: Use of velocity, inclination, and maximum VO2 actually reached, as a criterion in prescribing the ramp protocol may help in the performance of exercise in treadmill testing. The ramp protocol was well accepted in all age groups and sexes with exercise time within the programmed 8 to 12 minutes.

  14. Response of YBCO/PCBO/YBCO ramp type Josephson junctions to near MM wave irradiation

    Terpstra, D.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Rogalla, H.; Gupta, R.; Hu, Q.Y.


    A high Tc Josephson device for high frequency detection applications is being developed, consisting of an YBCO/PBCO/YBCO ramp type junction and a broad band log-periodic antenna. In this contribution we present the response of such a device to (near) mm wave irradiation. Shapiro steps have been obse

  15. The Archival Appraisal of Moving Images: A RAMP Study with Guidelines.

    Kula, Sam

    Produced as part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP), this publication provides government and non-government archivists and records managers with a comparative study of past and present policies and practices for selecting moving images for…

  16. Key Performance Indicators for the Impact of Cognitive Assembly Planning on Ramp-Up Process

    Christian Buescher


    Full Text Available Within the ramp-up phase of highly automated assembly systems, the planning effort forms a large part of production costs. Due to shortening product lifecycles, changing customer demands, and therefore an increasing number of ramp-up processes, these costs even rise. So assembly systems should reduce these efforts and simultaneously be flexible for quick adaption to changes in products and their variants. A cognitive interaction system in the field of assembly planning systems is developed within the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative production technology for high-wage countries” at RWTH Aachen University which integrates several cognitive capabilities according to human cognition. This approach combines the advantages of automation with the flexibility of humans. In this paper the main principles of the system's core component—the cognitive control unit—are presented to underline its advantages with respect to traditional assembly systems. Based on this, the actual innovation of this paper is the development of key performance indicators. These refer to the ramp-up process as a main objective of such a system is to minimize the planning effort during ramp-up. The KPIs are also designed to show the impact on the main idea of the Cluster of Excellence in resolving the so-called Polylemma of Production.

  17. Integrated Variable Speed Limits Control and Ramp Metering for Bottleneck Regions on Freeway

    Ming-hui Ma


    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of the existing freeway system and therefore to mitigate traffic congestion and related problems on the freeway mainline lane-drop bottleneck region, the advanced strategy for bottleneck control is essential. This paper proposes a method that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering for freeway bottleneck region control to relieve the chaos in bottleneck region. To this end, based on the analyses of spatial-temporal patterns of traffic flow, a macroscopic traffic flow model is extended to describe the traffic flow operating characteristic by considering the impacts of variable speed limits in mainstream bottleneck region. In addition, to achieve the goal of balancing the priority of the vehicles on mainline and on-ramp, increasing capacity, and reducing travel delay on bottleneck region, an improved control model, as well as an advanced control strategy that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering, is developed. The proposed method is tested in simulation for a real freeway infrastructure feed and calibrates real traffic variables. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can substantially improve the traffic flow efficiency of mainline and on-ramp and enhance the quality of traffic flow at the investigated freeway mainline bottleneck.

  18. Three dimensional experimental investigation of a hypersonic double-ramp flow

    Schrijer, F.F.J.; Caljouw, R.; Scarano, F.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.

    The flow over a 15◦-45◦ double compression ramp was studied at Mach 7.5. CFD computations are compared to 2 component PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements. Furthermore stereoscopic PIV was used to measure the three component velocity vector, enabling to perform a 3D flow survey. The overall

  19. The steep ramp test in healthy children and adolescents: reliability and validity

    Bongers, B.C.; Vries, S.I. de; Helders, P.J.M.; Takken, T.


    PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the steep ramp test (SRT), a feasible, maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer that does not require the use of respiratory gas analysis, in healthy children and adolescents.METHODS: Seventy-five children were randomly divided i

  20. Pilot James Barrilleaux with ER-2 aircraft on ramp


    James Barrilleaux is the assistant chief pilot for ER-2s in the Flight Crew Branch of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The ER-2s--civilian variants of the military U-2S reconnaissance aircraft--are part of NASA's Airborne Science program. The ER-2s can carry airborne scientific payloads of up to 2,600 pounds to altitudes of about 70,000 feet to investigate such matters as earth resources, celestial phenomena, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. Barrilleaux has held his current position since February 1998. Barrilleaux joined NASA in 1986 as a U-2/ER-2 pilot with NASA's Airborne Science program at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. He flew both the U-2C (until 1989) and the ER-2 on a wide variety of missions both domestic and international. Barrilleaux flew high-altitude operations over Antarctica in which scientific instruments aboard the ER-2 defined the cause of ozone depletion over the continent, known as the ozone hole. He has also flown the ER-2 over the North Pole. Barrilleaux served for 20 years in the U.S. Air Force before he joined NASA. He completed pilot training at Reese Air Force Base, Lubbock, Texas, in 1966. He flew 120 combat missions as a F-4 fighter pilot over Laos and North Vietnam in 1970 and 1971. He joined the U-2 program in 1974, becoming the commander of an overseas U-2 operation in 1982. In 1983, he became commander of the squadron responsible for training all U-2 pilots and SR-71 crews located at Beale Air Force Base, Marysville, California. He retired from the Air Force as a lieutenant colonel in 1986. On active duty, he flew the U-2, F-4 Phantom, the T-38, T-37, and the T-33. His decorations included two Distinguished Flying Crosses, 12 Air Medals, two Meritorious Service Medals, and other Air Force and South Vietnamese awards. Barrilleaux earned a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering from Texas A&M University, College Station, in 1964 and a master of science

  1. Kinect Technology Game Play to Mimic Quake Catcher Network (QCN) Sensor Deployment During a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP)

    Kilb, D. L.; Yang, A.; Rohrlick, D.; Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Choo, Y.


    The Kinect technology allows for hands-free game play, greatly increasing the accessibility of gaming for those uncomfortable using controllers. How it works is the Kinect camera transmits invisible near-infrared light and measures its "time of flight" to reflect off an object, allowing it to distinguish objects within 1 centimeter in depth and 3 mm in height and width. The middleware can also respond to body gestures and voice commands. Here, we use the Kinect Windows SDK software to create a game that mimics how scientists deploy seismic instruments following a large earthquake. The educational goal of the game is to allow the players to explore 3D space as they learn about the Quake Catcher Network's (QCN) Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP). Many of the scenarios within the game are taken from factual RAMP experiences. To date, only the PC platform (or a Mac running PC emulator software) is available for use, but we hope to move to other platforms (e.g., Xbox 360, iPad, iPhone) as they become available. The game is written in programming language C# using Microsoft XNA and Visual Studio 2010, graphic shading is added using High Level Shader Language (HLSL), and rendering is produced using XNA's graphics libraries. Key elements of the game include selecting sensor locations, adequately installing the sensor, and monitoring the incoming data. During game play aftershocks can occur unexpectedly, as can other problems that require attention (e.g., power outages, equipment failure, and theft). The player accrues points for quickly deploying the first sensor (recording as many initial aftershocks as possible), correctly installing the sensors (orientation with respect to north, properly securing, and testing), distributing the sensors adequately in the region, and troubleshooting problems. One can also net points for efficient use of game play time. Setting up for game play in your local environment requires: (1) the Kinect hardware ( $145); (2) a computer

  2. Quantification of tsunami-induced flows on a Mediterranean carbonate ramp reveals catastrophic evolution

    Slootman, Arnoud; Cartigny, Matthieu J. B.; Moscariello, Andrea; Chiaradia, Massimo; de Boer, Poppe L.


    Cool-water carbonates are the dominant limestones in the Mediterranean Basin since the Early Pliocene. Their deposition typically resulted in ramp morphologies due to high rates of resedimentation. Several such fossil carbonate ramps are characterised by a bimodal facies stacking pattern, where background deposition of subaqueous dune and/or tempestite deposits is repeatedly interrupted by anomalously thick sedimentary units, dominated by backset-stratification formed by supercritical flows. A multitude of exceptional triggers (e.g. storms, floods, tsunamis) have been invoked to explain the origin of these supercritical flows, which, in the absence of a quantitative analysis, remains speculative as yet. Here, for the first time, the catastrophic evolution of one such Mediterranean carbonate ramp, on Favignana Island (Italy), is quantified by combining 87Sr/86Sr dating, outcrop-based palaeoflow reconstructions and hydraulic calculations. We demonstrate that rare tsunami-induced flows, occurring on average once every 14 to 35 kyr, lasting a few hours only, deposited the anomalously thick backset-bedded units that form half of the sedimentary record. In between such events, cumulative two years of storm-induced flows deposited the remaining half of the succession by the stacking of subaqueous dunes. The two to four orders of magnitude difference in average recurrence period between the two flow types, and their associated sedimentation rates, emphasises the genetic differences between the two styles of deposition. In terms of sediment transport, the studied carbonate ramp was inactive for at least 99% of the time with gradual progradation during decennial to centennial storm activity. Carbonate ramp evolution attained a catastrophic signature by the contribution of rare tsunamis, producing short-lived, high-energy sediment gravity flows.

  3. Mechanomyographic amplitude and mean power frequency responses during isometric ramp vs. step muscle actions.

    Ryan, Eric D; Beck, Travis W; Herda, Trent J; Hartman, Michael J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T


    The purpose of the present study was to compare the mechanomyographic amplitude (MMG(RMS)) and mean power frequency (MMG(MPF)) vs. torque relationships during isometric ramp and step muscle actions for the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles. Nineteen subjects (mean+/-S.D. age=24+/-4 years) performed 2 isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) before and after 2 or 3 isometric ramp muscle actions from (5-95% MVC) to 9 submaximal step muscle actions (15, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95% MVC). MMG signals were recorded from the VL and RF muscles, and MMG(RMS) and MMG(MPF) values were computed for each corresponding percentage of the MVC. Absolute and normalized MMG(RMS) and MMG(MPF) vs. torque relationships were analyzed and interpreted on a subject-by-subject and composite pattern basis using polynomial regression and repeated measures ANOVAs. For MMG(RMS) and MMG(MPF), only 16-53% and 11-26% of the individual responses were consistent with the composite polynomial models, respectively. In addition, the normalized composite MMG(RMS) values were greater for the RF than the VL from 35 to 85% MVC. Only 47% of the MMG(RMS) and 5% of the MMG(MPF) individual patterns of responses were the same for the ramp and step muscle actions, and differences were also observed for the composite MMG(RMS) and MMG(MPF) patterns between the ramp and step muscle actions. Overall, these findings indicated that the torque-related patterns of responses for MMG(RMS) and MMG(MPF) were different among subjects (i.e., inter-individual variability) and were muscle- (VL vs. RF) and mode-specific (ramp vs. step).

  4. Roles of CLR/RAMP Receptor Signaling in Reproduction and Development

    Chang, Chia Lin; Hsu, Sheau Yu Teddy


    Adrenomedullin (ADM), calcitonin gene-related peptides (α- and β-CGRPs), and intermedin/adrenomedullin 2 (IMD/ADM2) are major regulators of vascular tone and cardiovascular development in vertebrates. Recent research into their functions in reproduction has illuminated the role of these peptides and their cognate receptors (calcitonin receptor-like receptor/receptor activity-modifying protein (CLR/RAMP) receptors) in fetal–maternal blood circulation, feto-placental development, female gamete development, and gamete movement in the oviduct. Although ADM family peptides function in a temporally and spatially specific manner in various reproductive processes, they appear to act via a similar set of second messengers, including nitric oxide, cyclic GMP, cyclic AMP, and calcium-activated potassium channels in different tissues. These discoveries supported the view that CLR/RAMP receptors were recruited to perform a variety of newly evolved reproductive functions during the evolution of internal reproduction in mammals. These advances also provided insight into how CLR/RAMP receptor signaling pathways coordinate with other physiological adaptions to accommodate the extra metabolic needs during pregnancy, and captured some important details as to how fetal–maternal vascular communications are generated in the first place. Furthermore, these findings have revealed novel, promising opportunities for the prevention and treatment of aberrant pregnancies such as pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, and tubal ectopic pregnancy. However, significant efforts are still needed to clarify the relationships between certain components of the CLR/RAMP signaling pathway and aberrant pregnancies before CLR/RAMP receptors can become targets for clinical management. With this understanding, this review summarizes recent progresses with particular focus on clinical implications. PMID:23745703

  5. Cyclostratigraphy of an orbitally-driven Tithonian-Valanginian carbonate ramp succession, Southern Mendoza, Argentina: Implications for the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Neuquén Basin

    Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.; Iglesia Llanos, Maria Paula


    Detailed sedimentological, sequence stratigraphical and cyclostratigraphical analyses have been made from four lower Tithonian-lower Valanginian sections of the Vaca Muerta Formation, exposed in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina. The Vaca Muerta Formation is characterized by decimetre-scale rhythmic alternations of marls, shales and limestones, and consists of five facies associations, which reflect different paleoenvironmental conditions: basin to restricted outer ramp, outer ramp, and middle ramp. Vertical organization within the Vaca Muerta Formation shows a well-ordered hierarchy of cycles, where elementary cycles, bundles and superbundles with frequencies within the Milankovitch band have been recognized. According to biostratigraphic data, elementary cycles have a periodicity of ~ 20 ky, which correlates with the precession cycle of Earth's axis. Spectral analysis based on series of cycle thickness allows us to identify frequencies of about 400 ky and 90-120 ky, which we interpret as the modulation of the precessional cycle by the Earth's orbital eccentricity. Cycles are probably driven by variations in carbonate exportation, as fluctuations in shallow-water carbonate production involve modifications in carbonate basinward exportation. Cyclostratigraphic data allowed us to build a floating orbital scale for the Tithonian-lower Valanginian interval in the Neuquén Basin. Correlation between studied sections allowed us to recognize a discontinuity between the Substeueroceras koeneni and Argentiniceras noduliferum ammonite zones in the Malargüe Anticline area. Orbital calibration of these sections is consistent with Riccardi's biostratigraphic scheme, wich place the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary within the Substeueroceras koeneni ammonite Zone. On the other hand, the base of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Virgatosphinctes mendozanus ammonite Zone) would be probably placed in the base of the middle Tithonian rather than the lower Tithonian

  6. 75 FR 34365 - Safety Zone, Alligator River, NC


    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Alligator River at East Lake, North Carolina. The safety zone is intended to temporarily restrict vessel traffic movement in the zone area and is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on navigable waters during maintenance on the U.S. Highway 64 Swing...

  7. 77 FR 64906 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald Isle, NC


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Emerald... Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 226, at Emerald Isle, North Carolina. The safety zone extension will temporarily restrict...

  8. Most na rampě křižovatky v Brně

    Novotný, Jan


    Práce se zabývá řešením půdorysně zakřiveného mostu na rampě v Brně. Navrženou nosnou konstrukcí je spojitý nosník tvořený dvoukomorou. Na tuto konstrukci jsou uvažovány účinky dopravy dle normy ČSN EN 1991-2. Na základě výsledných namáhání je konstrukce dimenzována. Thesis deals with horizontally curved bridge on the ramp in Brno. Designed structure is continous beam formed by bicameral shape, on which are considered the effects of traffic according to ČSN EN 1991-2. Based on the results ...

  9. Validity of Thermal Ramping Assays Used to Assess Thermal Tolerance in Arthropods

    Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov


    Proper assessment of environmental resistance of animals is critical for the ability of researchers to understand how variation in environmental conditions influence population and species abundance. This is also the case for studies of upper thermal limits in insects, where researchers studying...... animals under laboratory conditions must select appropriate methodology on which conclusions can be drawn. Ideally these methods should precisely estimate the trait of interest and also be biological meaningful. In an attempt to develop such tests it has been proposed that thermal ramping assays...... empirically test these model predictions using two sets of independent experiments. We clearly demonstrate that results from ramping assays of small insects (Drosophila melanogaster) are not compromised by starvation- or dehydration-stress. Firstly we show that the mild disturbance of water and energy balance...

  10. Impacts of ramping inflexibility of conventional generators on strategic operation of energy storage facilities

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Jalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza


    This paper proposes an approach to assist a pricemaker merchant energy storage facility in making its optimal operation decisions. The facility operates in a pool-based electricity market, where the ramping capability of other resources is limited. Also, wind power resources exist in the system....... The merchant facility seeks to maximize its profit through strategic inter-temporal arbitrage decisions, when taking advantage of those ramp limitations. The market operator, on the other hand, aims at maximizing the social welfare under wind power generation uncertainty. Thus, a stochastic bi......-level optimization model is proposed, taking into account the interactions between the storage facility and the market operator, and the existing market opportunities for the storage facility. The proposed bilevel model is then transformed into a Mathematical Program with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC) that can...

  11. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

    Vopát Tomáš


    Full Text Available The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  12. Predictive Control of Wind Turbine for Load Reduction during Ramping Events

    Liu, Weipeng; Li, Changgang; Liu, Yutian


    With increasing penetration of wind power, the impact of its intermittence and volatility on power systems becomes more severe. A predictive control strategy for wind turbines (WTs) is proposed to deal with wind power ramping events and reduce WT load on the blades. The blade load model is based...... on the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. The generator speed and pitch angle are simultaneously regulated to realize the control objectives. A two-stage optimization is designed in order to reduce the computational complexity. The objectives of the first stage are minimizing the ramping rate and maximizing...... the power generation. A trade-off is made between the two contradictory objectives by setting weight coefficients. The second stage reduces the WT load and meanwhile guarantees the power reference from the first stage is tracked. Feedback is designed based on neural network prediction to compensate...

  13. Numerical Study of Control of Flow Separation Over a Ramp with Nanosecond Plasma Actuator

    Zheng, J. G.; Khoo, B. C.; Cui, Y. D.; Zhao, Z. J.; Li, J.


    The nanosecond plasma discharge actuator driven by high voltage pulse with typical rise and decay time of several to tens of nanoseconds is emerging as a promising active flow control means in recent years and is being studied intensively. The characterization study reveals that the discharge induced shock wave propagates through ambient air and introduces highly transient perturbation to the flow. On the other hand, the residual heat remaining in the discharge volume may trigger the instability of external flow. In this study, this type of actuator is used to suppress flow separation over a ramp model. Numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the interaction of the discharge induced disturbance with the external flow. It is found that the flow separation region over the ramp can be reduced significantly. Our work may provide some insights into the understanding of the control mechanism of nanosecond pulse actuator.

  14. Analysis of Cliff-Ramp Structures in Homogeneous Scalar Turbulence by the Method of Line Segments

    Gauding, Michael; Goebbert, Jens Henrik; Peters, Norbert; Hasse, Christian


    The local structure of a turbulent scalar field in homogeneous isotropic turbulence is analyzed by direct numerical simulations (DNS). A novel signal decomposition approach is introduced where the signal of the scalar along a straight line is partitioned into segments based on the local extremal points of the scalar field. These segments are then parameterized by the distance between adjacent extremal points and a segment-based gradient. Joint statistics of the length and the segment-based gradient provide novel understanding about the local structure of the turbulent field and particularly about cliff-ramp-like structures. Ramp-like structures are unveiled by the asymmetry of joint distribution functions. Cliff-like structures are further analyzed by conditional statistics and it is shown from DNS that the width of cliffs scales with the Kolmogorov length scale.

  15. Power Ramp Limitation capabilities of Large PV Power Plants with Active Power Reserves

    Bogdan, Craciun; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso


    Power Ramp Limitation (PRL) is likely to become a requirement for large scale photovoltaic power plants (LPVPPs) in order to allow the increase of PV penetration levels. Especially in islands with reduced inertia capability, this problem is more stringent: high power ramp can be caused by either...... fast irradiance changes or other participant generators for example wind power, or loads. In order to compensate for the power mismatch, LPVPPs must use Active Power Reserve (APR), by either curtailment or auxiliary storage. The paper proposes a PRL control structure for dynamic APR sizing...... area of LPVPPs acts as filter against fast irradiance changes, the study reveals also the required plant size for which auxiliary storage is no longer needed in order to comply with PRL requirements – an important economical aspect....

  16. From Finding Aids to Wiki Pages: Remixing Archival Metadata with RAMP

    David González


    Full Text Available The Remixing Archival Metadata Project (RAMP is a lightweight web-based editing tool that is intended to let users do two things: (1 generate enhanced authority records for creators of archival collections and (2 publish the content of those records as Wikipedia pages. The RAMP editor can extract biographical and historical data from EAD finding aids to create new authority records for persons, corporate bodies, and families associated with archival and special collections (using the EAC-CPF format. It can then let users enhance those records with additional data from sources like VIAF and WorldCat Identities. Finally, it can transform those records into wiki markup so that users can edit them directly, merge them with any existing Wikipedia pages, and publish them to Wikipedia through its API.

  17. Versatile CAMAC power supply controller-monitor with built-in ramping and ripple monitor

    Kang, H.; Horelick, D.


    An integrated power supply controller-monitor has been designed and is in use to control large power supplies for SLC dc magnets. This single-width CAMAC module contains a 14-bit DAC, a 14-bit ADC, and several channels of optically coupled digital status and control signals. Additional features include built-in selectable ramping rates, self-test capabilities, and a ripple monitor circuit to measure ac ripple in the power supply current.

  18. Validity of thermal ramping assays used to assess thermal tolerance in arthropods.

    Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov


    Proper assessment of environmental resistance of animals is critical for the ability of researchers to understand how variation in environmental conditions influence population and species abundance. This is also the case for studies of upper thermal limits in insects, where researchers studying animals under laboratory conditions must select appropriate methodology on which conclusions can be drawn. Ideally these methods should precisely estimate the trait of interest and also be biological meaningful. In an attempt to develop such tests it has been proposed that thermal ramping assays are useful assays for small insects because they incorporate an ecologically relevant gradual temperature change. However, recent model-based papers have suggested that estimates of thermal resistance may be strongly confounded by simultaneous starvation and dehydration stress. In the present study we empirically test these model predictions using two sets of independent experiments. We clearly demonstrate that results from ramping assays of small insects (Drosophila melanogaster) are not compromised by starvation- or dehydration-stress. Firstly we show that the mild disturbance of water and energy balance of D. melanogaster experienced during the ramping tests does not confound heat tolerance estimates. Secondly we show that flies pre-exposed to starvation and dehydration have "normal" heat tolerance and that resistance to heat stress is independent of the energetic and water status of the flies. On the basis of our results we discuss the assumptions used in recent model papers and present arguments as to why the ramping assay is both a valid and ecologically relevant way to measure thermal resistance in insects.

  19. Validity of thermal ramping assays used to assess thermal tolerance in arthropods.

    Johannes Overgaard

    Full Text Available Proper assessment of environmental resistance of animals is critical for the ability of researchers to understand how variation in environmental conditions influence population and species abundance. This is also the case for studies of upper thermal limits in insects, where researchers studying animals under laboratory conditions must select appropriate methodology on which conclusions can be drawn. Ideally these methods should precisely estimate the trait of interest and also be biological meaningful. In an attempt to develop such tests it has been proposed that thermal ramping assays are useful assays for small insects because they incorporate an ecologically relevant gradual temperature change. However, recent model-based papers have suggested that estimates of thermal resistance may be strongly confounded by simultaneous starvation and dehydration stress. In the present study we empirically test these model predictions using two sets of independent experiments. We clearly demonstrate that results from ramping assays of small insects (Drosophila melanogaster are not compromised by starvation- or dehydration-stress. Firstly we show that the mild disturbance of water and energy balance of D. melanogaster experienced during the ramping tests does not confound heat tolerance estimates. Secondly we show that flies pre-exposed to starvation and dehydration have "normal" heat tolerance and that resistance to heat stress is independent of the energetic and water status of the flies. On the basis of our results we discuss the assumptions used in recent model papers and present arguments as to why the ramping assay is both a valid and ecologically relevant way to measure thermal resistance in insects.

  20. Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Airport Ramp-Traffic Controllers Workload

    Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria Lee


    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been reported to reflect the person's cognitive and emotional stress levels, and may offer an objective measure of human-operator's workload levels, which are recorded continuously and unobtrusively to the task performance. The present paper compares the HRV data collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp-traffic control operations with the controller participants' own verbal self-reporting ratings of their workload.

  1. An EOQ model with time dependent Weibull deterioration and ramp type demand ,

    Chaitanya Kumar Tripathy


    Full Text Available This paper presents an order level inventory system with time dependent Weibull deterioration and ramp type demand rate where production and demand are time dependent. The proposed model of this paper considers economic order quantity under two different cases. The implementation of the proposed model is illustrated using some numerical examples. Sensitivity analysis is performed to show the effect of changes in the parameters on the optimum solution.

  2. Behavior of human gastrocnemius muscle fascicles during ramped submaximal isometric contractions.

    Héroux, Martin E; Stubbs, Peter W; Herbert, Robert D


    Precise estimates of muscle architecture are necessary to understand and model muscle mechanics. The primary aim of this study was to estimate continuous changes in fascicle length and pennation angle in human gastrocnemius muscles during ramped plantar flexor contractions at two ankle angles. The secondary aim was to determine whether these changes differ between proximal and distal fascicles. Fifteen healthy subjects performed ramped contractions (0-25% MVC) as ultrasound images were recorded from the medial (MG, eight sites) and lateral (LG, six sites) gastrocnemius muscle with the ankle at 90° and 120° (larger angles correspond to shorter muscle lengths). In all subjects, fascicles progressively shortened with increasing torque. MG fascicles shortened 5.8 mm (11.1%) at 90° and 4.5 mm (12.1%) at 120°, whereas LG muscle fascicles shortened 5.1 mm (8.8%) at both ankle angles. MG pennation angle increased 1.4° at 90° and 4.9° at 120°, and LG pennation angle decreased 0.3° at 90° and increased 2.6° at 120°. Muscle architecture changes were similar in proximal and distal fascicles at both ankle angles. This is the first study to describe continuous changes in fascicle length and pennation angle in the human gastrocnemius muscle during ramped isometric contractions. Very similar changes occurred in proximal and distal muscle regions. These findings are relevant to studies modeling active muscle mechanics.

  3. Real-time gait event detection for transfemoral amputees during ramp ascending and descending.

    Maqbool, H F; Husman, M A B; Awad, M I; Abouhossein, A; Dehghani-Sanij, A A


    Events and phases detection of the human gait are vital for controlling prosthesis, orthosis and functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems. Wearable sensors are inexpensive, portable and have fast processing capability. They are frequently used to assess spatio-temporal, kinematic and kinetic parameters of the human gait which in turn provide more details about the human voluntary control and ampute-eprosthesis interaction. This paper presents a reliable real-time gait event detection algorithm based on simple heuristics approach, applicable to signals from tri-axial gyroscope for lower limb amputees during ramp ascending and descending. Experimental validation is done by comparing the results of gyroscope signal with footswitches. For healthy subjects, the mean difference between events detected by gyroscope and footswitches is 14 ms and 10.5 ms for initial contact (IC) whereas for toe off (TO) it is -5 ms and -25 ms for ramp up and down respectively. For transfemoral amputee, the error is slightly higher either due to the placement of footswitches underneath the foot or the lack of proper knee flexion and ankle plantarflexion/dorsiflexion during ramp up and down. Finally, repeatability tests showed promising results.

  4. Turbulence models and Reynolds analogy for two-dimensional supersonic compression ramp flow

    Wang, Chi R.; Bidek, Maleina C.


    Results of the application of turbulence models and the Reynolds analogy to the Navier-Stokes computations of Mach 2.9 two-dimensional compression ramp flows are presented. The Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model and the kappa-epsilon turbulence transport equations for the turbulent momentum flux modeling in the Navier-Stokes equations are studied. The Reynolds analogy for the turbulent heat flux modeling in the energy equation was also studied. The Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation were numerically solved for the flow properties. The Reynolds shear stress, the skin friction factor, and the surface heat transfer rate were calculated and compared with their measurements. It was concluded that with a hybrid kappa-epsilon turbulence model for turbulence modeling, the present computations predicted the skin friction factors of the 8 deg and 16 deg compression ramp flows and with the turbulent Prandtl number Pr(sub t) = 0.93 and the ratio of the turbulent thermal and momentum transport coefficients mu(sub q)/mu(sub t) = 2/Prt, the present computations also predicted the surface heat transfer rates beneath the boundary layer flow of the 16 compression ramp.

  5. Plasma lactate concentration increases as a parabola with delay during ramp exercise.

    Péronnet, F; Morton, R H


    This study presents an elementary model of a system which relates plasma lactate concentration ([La-]) during ramp exercise to its rate of accumulation (Rc) within its extramuscular distribution space (S). Under the parsimonious assumptions that Rc increases linearly with time (t) with a kinetic delay (delta), and that the volume of S is constant, it is shown that plasma [La-] increases as a parabola with the kinetic delay delta when t increases. This elementary system model describes changes in plasma [La-] observed in five healthy young subjects during ramp exercise on the cycle ergometer (1 W every 2 s) with great accuracy (r > 0.99) with very small residuals (average value less than 0.01 mmol.l-1), randomly distributed around the fitting curves. The delay between the beginning of exercise and the onset of increase in Rc could be due to the fact that at the corresponding work rates: (1) rate of lactate appearance (Ra), which is equal to the rate of lactate disappearance (Rd), is not modified from rest, since the exercising muscles work in fully aerobic conditions (hypothesis of the anaerobic threshold); or (2) the increase in Ra is associated with a similar increase in Rd. An alternate or complementary hypothesis is that, during ramp exercise, plasma [La-] could reflect metabolic events within the muscles, with a significant delay.

  6. Efficient calculation of integrals in mixed ramp-Gaussian basis sets

    McKemmish, Laura K., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)


    Algorithms for the efficient calculation of two-electron integrals in the newly developed mixed ramp-Gaussian basis sets are presented, alongside a Fortran90 implementation of these algorithms, RAMPITUP. These new basis sets have significant potential to (1) give some speed-up (estimated at up to 20% for large molecules in fully optimised code) to general-purpose Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory quantum chemistry calculations, replacing all-Gaussian basis sets, and (2) give very large speed-ups for calculations of core-dependent properties, such as electron density at the nucleus, NMR parameters, relativistic corrections, and total energies, replacing the current use of Slater basis functions or very large specialised all-Gaussian basis sets for these purposes. This initial implementation already demonstrates roughly 10% speed-ups in HF/R-31G calculations compared to HF/6-31G calculations for large linear molecules, demonstrating the promise of this methodology, particularly for the second application. As well as the reduction in the total primitive number in R-31G compared to 6-31G, this timing advantage can be attributed to the significant reduction in the number of mathematically complex intermediate integrals after modelling each ramp-Gaussian basis-function-pair as a sum of ramps on a single atomic centre.

  7. Three-dimensional supersonic flow around double compression ramp with finite span

    Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. H.; Park, G.; Park, S. H.; Byun, Y. H.


    Three-dimensional flows of Mach number 3 around a double-compression ramp with finite span have been investigated numerically. Shadowgraph visualisation images obtained in a supersonic wind tunnel are used for comparison. A three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver was used to obtain steady numerical solutions. Two-dimensional numerical results are also compared. Four different cases were studied: two different second ramp angles of 30° and 45° in configurations with and without sidewalls, respectively. Results showed that there is a leakage of mass and momentum fluxes heading outwards in the spanwise direction for three-dimensional cases without sidewalls. The leakage changed the flow characteristics of the shock-induced boundary layer and resulted in the discrepancy between the experimental data and two-dimensional numerical results. It is found that suppressing the flow leakage by attaching the sidewalls enhances the two-dimensionality of the experimental data for the double-compression ramp flow.

  8. Orion Service Module Reaction Control System Plume Impingement Analysis Using PLIMP/RAMP2

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Lumpkin, Forrest E., III; Gati, Frank; Yuko, James R.; Motil, Brian J.


    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Service Module Reaction Control System engine plume impingement was computed using the plume impingement program (PLIMP). PLIMP uses the plume solution from RAMP2, which is the refined version of the reacting and multiphase program (RAMP) code. The heating rate and pressure (force and moment) on surfaces or components of the Service Module were computed. The RAMP2 solution of the flow field inside the engine and the plume was compared with those computed using GASP, a computational fluid dynamics code, showing reasonable agreement. The computed heating rate and pressure using PLIMP were compared with the Reaction Control System plume model (RPM) solution and the plume impingement dynamics (PIDYN) solution. RPM uses the GASP-based plume solution, whereas PIDYN uses the SCARF plume solution. Three sets of the heating rate and pressure solutions agree well. Further thermal analysis on the avionic ring of the Service Module was performed using MSC Patran/Pthermal. The obtained temperature results showed that thermal protection is necessary because of significant heating from the plume.

  9. Effect of adaptive cruise control systems on mixed traffic flow near an on-ramp

    Davis, L C


    Mixed traffic flow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and manually driven vehicles is analyzed using car-following simulations. Unlike simulations that show suppression of jams due to increased string stability, simulations of merging from an on-ramp onto a freeway have not thus far demonstrated a substantial positive impact of ACC. In this paper cooperative merging is proposed to increase throughput and increase distance traveled in a fixed time (reduce travel times). In such a system an ACC vehicle senses not only the preceding vehicle in the same lane but also the vehicle immediately in front in the opposite lane. Prior to reaching the merge region, the ACC vehicle adjusts its velocity to ensure that a safe gap for merging is obtained. If on-ramp demand is moderate, partial implementation of cooperative merging where only main line ACC vehicles react to an on-ramp vehicle is effective. Significant improvement in throughput (18%) and increases up to 3 km in distance traveled ...

  10. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP): training persons with dementia to serve as group activity leaders.

    Camp, Cameron J; Skrajner, Michael J


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an activity implemented by means of Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP). Four persons with early-stage dementia were trained to serve as leaders for a small-group activity played by nine persons with more advanced dementia. Assessments of leaders' ability to learn the procedures of leading a group, as well as their satisfaction with this role, were taken, as were measures of players' engagement and affect during standard activities programming and RAMP activities. Leaders demonstrated the potential to fill the role of group activity leader effectively, and they expressed a high level of satisfaction with this role. Players' levels of positive engagement and pleasure during the RAMP activity were higher than during standard group activities. This study suggests that to the extent that procedural learning is available to persons with early-stage dementia, especially when they are assisted with external cueing, these individuals can successfully fill the role of volunteers when working with persons with more advanced dementia. This can provide a meaningful social role for leaders and increase access to high quality activities programming for large numbers of persons with dementia. Copyright 2004 The Gerontological Society of America

  11. Enhancing Power System Operational Flexibility With Flexible Ramping Products: A Review

    Wang, Qin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias


    With the increased variability and uncertainty of net load induced from high penetrations of renewable energy resources and more flexible interchange schedules, power systems are facing great operational challenges in maintaining balance. Among these, the scarcity of ramp capability is an important culprit of power balance violations and high scarcity prices. To address this issue, market-based flexible ramping products (FRPs) have been proposed in the industry to improve the availability of ramp capacity. This paper presents an in-depth review of the modeling and implementation of FRPs. The major motivation is that although FRPs are widely discussed in the literature, it is still unclear to many how they can be incorporated into a co-optimization framework that includes energy and ancillary services. The concept and a definition of power system operational flexibility as well as the needs for FRPs are introduced. The industrial practices of implementing FRPs under different market structures are presented. Market operation issues and future research topics are also discussed. This paper can provide researchers and power engineers with further insights into the state of the art, technical barriers, and potential directions for FRPs.

  12. The Dynamic Behaviors of Single Crystal RDX Under Ramp Wave Loading to 15GPa

    Wang, Guiji; Cai, Jintao; Zhao, Jianheng; Zhao, Feng; Wu, Gang; Tan, Fuli; Sun, Chengwei

    Based on high pulsed power generator CQ-4, the single crystal RDX explosive was researched along different crystal orientations under ramp wave loadings up to 15 GPa. The typical three-wave structures were obtained by means of laser interferometry PDV, which show the elastic-plastic transition and α to γ phase transition. The ramp elastic limit (REL) and yield strength of RDX along 210 and 100 crystal orientations were respectively calculated and the resuts show obvious effects of crystal orientaions for RDX. The ramp elastic limit σIEL of RDX along 210 orientation is 0.688-0.758GPa, and the σIEL of RDX along 100 is 1.039 -1.110 GPa. The α to γ phase transformation characteristics were also analyzed based on the experimental data. The initial phase transition pressure for the two crystal orientation of RDX are about 3.5 to 4 GPa, which agree well with the data of about 4-5GPa given by MD simulation. The data directly validate the results given by Raman Spectrum under shock compression and static high pressure, which couldn't be observed by wave profiles. The experimental data can be used to verify and validate the new models of RDX under dynamic loading. Supported by NSFC of China under Contract No.11327803 and 11176002

  13. Unified Geostatistical Modeling for Data Fusion and Spatial Heteroskedasticity with R Package ramps

    Brian J. Smith


    Full Text Available This article illustrates usage of the ramps R package, which implements the reparameterized and marginalized posterior sampling (RAMPS algorithm for complex Bayesian geostatistical models. The RAMPS methodology allows joint modeling of areal and point-source data arising from the same underlying spatial process. A reparametrization of variance parameters facilitates slice sampling based on simplexes, which can be useful in general when multiple variances are present. Prediction at arbitrary points can be made, which is critical in applications where maps are needed. Our implementation takes advantage of sparse matrix operations in the Matrix package and can provide substantial savings in computing time for large datasets. A user-friendly interface, similar to the nlme mixed effects models package, enables users to analyze datasets with little programming effort. Support is provided for numerous spatial and spatiotemporal correlation structures, user-defined correlation structures, and non-spatial random effects. The package features are illustrated via a synthetic dataset of spatially correlated observation distributed across the state of Iowa, USA.

  14. Self-ordered nanopore arrays through hard anodization assisted by anode temperature ramp

    Mohammadniaei, M.; Maleki, K.; Kashi, M. Almasi; Ramezani, A.; Mayamei, Y.


    In the present work, hard anodization assisted by anode temperature ramp was employed to fabricate self-ordered nanoporous alumina in the wide range of interpore distances (259-405 nm) in pure oxalic acid and mixture of oxalic and phosphoric acid solutions. Anode temperature ramp technique was employed to adjust the anodization current density to optimize the self-ordering of the nanopore arrays in the interpore range in which no ordered self-assembled hard anodized anodic aluminum oxide has reported. It is found that the certain ratios of oxalic and phosphoric acid solutions in this anodization technique increased self-ordering of the nanopores especially for anodization voltages over the 170 V by increasing alumina's viscous flow which could lead to decrease the overall current density of anodization, yet leveled up by anode temperature ramp. However, below 150 V anodization voltage, the ratio of interpore distance to the anodization voltage of the both anodization techniques was the same (~2 nm/V), while above this voltage, it increased to about 2.2 nm/V.

  15. Estimation of arterial PCO2 from a lung model during ramp exercise in healthy young subjects.

    Thomas, Vincent; Costes, Frédéric; Busso, Thierry


    The aim of this study is to propose a new approach to estimate non-invasively arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(a)CO2) approach was based on the reconstruction of alveolar gas composition over each breath from a tidally ventilated lung model (P(M)(CO2)). Eight healthy young subjects were studied during a ramp exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Arterial samples were drawn at rest and every minute during the exercise test for determination of P(a)CO2 . P(a)CO2 was compared with indirect estimates of P(CO2) : P(M)(CO2), end-tidal P(CO2) (P(ET)(CO2)) and an empirical equation involving P(ET)(CO2) and tidal volume (P(J)(CO2)). The difference between estimated and measured P(a)CO2 on the whole ramp exercise was -0.3+/-1.9mmHg for P(M)(CO2), 1.0+/-2.2mmHg for P(ET)(CO2) and -1.7+/-1.7mmHg for P(J)(CO2) . P(ET)(CO2) and P(J)(CO2) were significantly different from actual P(a)CO2 (P<0.001). It is concluded that, on the basis of the bias, the breathing lung model gave better estimates of P(a)CO2 than the two other indirect methods during ramp exercise.

  16. Voltage spike observation in superconducting cable-in-conduit conductor under ramped magnetic fields. Pt. 1: Experiment

    Sangkwon Jeong; Schultz, J.H.; Takayasu, Makoto; Vysotsky, Vitaly; Michael, P.C. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States); Warnes, William [Oregan State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Shen, Stewart [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)


    A 27-strand hybrid superconducting cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) was fabricated and tested under quickly-ramped high magnetic fields. When the field increased linearly on the CICC, the voltage signal showed several intermittent spikes before it quenched. This paper describes an observation of peculiar voltage spikes during these ramp-rate limitation experiments. The voltage spikes are interpreted as quench precursors and understood as current redistribution events within the local cable inside the conduit. A quantitative correlation is obtained for the magnetic field at which the first voltage spike occurs during ramping fields. The non-uniform current distribution among the strands and the induced loop current in the cable, which is generated by ramped fields, are found to be responsible for the voltage spikes. (author)

  17. Human subjects’ perception of indoor environment and their office work performance during exposures to moderate operative temperature ramps

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Olesen, Bjarne W.;


    sensation was also included. Subjects filled out questionnaires regarding perception of the environment and intensity of SBS symptoms. Subjects performed simulated office tasks (addition, text typing, proof reading, comprehension and reasoning). Results showed that all tested ramps were recognized...

  18. An EOQ inventory model for items with ramp type demand, three-parameter Weibull distribution deterioration and starting with shortage

    Jain Sanjay


    Full Text Available In this present paper an inventory model is developed with ramp type demand, starting with shortage and three - parameter Weibull distribution deterioration. A brief analysis of the cost involved is carried out by an example.

  19. A self-focusing, high transformer ratio, collinear plasma dielectric wakefield accelerator driven by a ramped bunch train

    Sotnikov, Gennadij V.; Marshall, Thomas C.; Shchelkunov, Sergey V.; Hirshfield, Jay L.


    New results of studies of wakefield excitation by a ramped bunch train in a collinear, single-channel dielectriclined THz-wakefield accelerator structure that is filled with a low-temperature plasma are presented. A novel ramped train of drive bunches, together with plasma filling part of the transport channel, makes possible substantial improvement of the transformer ratio of the multimode collinear device to 6:1 while the plasma could stabilize the transverse motion of the drive and witness bunches.

  20. The boomerang area: An example of oil and gas fields related to a transfer zone development

    Specht, M.; Colletta, B.; Letouzey, J. (Institut Francais de petrole, Ruiel-Malmaison (France)); Baby, P. (ORSTOM, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)); Oller, J.; Montemuro, G. (YPFB, Santa Cruz (Bolivia)); Guillier, B. (IFEA, Santa Cruz (Bolivia))


    We present results of a study realized from petroleum data of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos of the most important transfer zone of the Bolivian Andean belt: the Santa Cruz transfer zone. Frontal part of the Bolivian Andean belt consists of a thick series (6 to 8 km) of paleozoic to cenozoic sedimentary rocks thrusted eastwards on a sole thrust located in paleozoic series. The frontal part of the belt, globally N-S oriented, undergoes an important deviation East of Santa Cruz with a left lateral offset of 100 Km. Taking into account the E-W shortening direction, this transfer zone can be interpreted as a lateral ramp. The Santa Cruz transfer zone coincide with a set of small oil and gas fields whereas frontal structures lack hydrocarbon occurrences. We are then faced with a two-fold problem: (1) what is the origin of the transfer zone (2) why are the oil and gas concentrated in the transfer zone Our synthesis shows that the transfer zone is superimposed on the limit of a detached Paleozoic basin whose border direction is oblique to the regional shortening direction. We then interpret the oil and gas formation in two steps: (1) source rock maturation and hydrocarbon migration towards the top of the Paleozoic sedimentary wedge before Andean deformation. (2) hydrocarbon dismigration towards anticlinal structures developed during the lateral ramp propagation. In order to test our interpretation we performed a set of analog model experiments whose 3D visualization was analyzed by computerized X-ray tomography.

  1. Analysis of real-time crash risk for expressway ramps using traffic, geometric, trip generation, and socio-demographic predictors.

    Wang, Ling; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Shi, Qi


    There have been numerous studies on real-time crash prediction seeking to link real-time crash likelihood with traffic and environmental predictors. Nevertheless, none has explored the impact of socio-demographic and trip generation parameters on real-time crash risk. This study analyzed the real-time crash risk for expressway ramps using traffic, geometric, socio-demographic, and trip generation predictors. Two Bayesian logistic regression models were utilized to identify crash precursors and their impact on ramp crash risk. Meanwhile, four Support Vector Machines (SVM) were applied to predict crash occurrence. Bayesian logistic regression models and SVMs commonly showed that the models with the socio-demographic and trip generation variables outperform their counterparts without those parameters. It indicates that the socio-demographic and trip generation parameters have significant impact on the real-time crash risk. The Bayesian logistic regression model results showed that the logarithm of vehicle count, speed, and percentage of home-based-work production had positive impact on crash risk. Meanwhile, off-ramps or non-diamond-ramps experienced higher crash potential than on-ramps or diamond-ramps, respectively. Though the SVMs provided good model performance, the SVM model with all variables (i.e., all traffic, geometric, socio-demographic, and trip generation variables) had an overfitting problem. Therefore, it is recommended to build SVM models based on significant variables identified by other models, such as logistic regression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The lived experiences of patients and ambulance ramping in a regional Australian emergency department: An interpretive phenomenology study.

    Kingswell, Chris; Shaban, Ramon Z; Crilly, Julia


    Internationally, the workload of emergency departments (ED) has increased, resulting in overcrowding and frequent delays in the offloading of patients arriving via ambulance--referred to in Australia as 'ambulance ramping'. Using interpretive phenomenology, this study sought to understand the experience of ambulance ramping from the perspective of patients. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with seven patients who presented to a regional Queensland ED via ambulance, and experienced an ambulance offload delay of >30 min. Ambulance ramping in the ED was described as 'Being a patient, patient', and three major themes emerged: Understanding the emergency healthcare system; Making do within the emergency healthcare system; and Being 'in the dark' during ambulance ramping. Most participants did not understand the antecedents to ambulance ramping, but understood some of the consequences. Most were happy to wait with paramedics for a bed and, although without privacy, felt safe. However, most participants felt 'in the dark' during ambulance ramping, due to communication difficulties regarding bed availability, and this led to frustration. In light of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights, service improvement opportunities exist for patients arriving to the ED by ambulance to ensure delays are minimised and quality care is delivered. Copyright © 2015 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ


    ... safety zone in an area of the Delaware River, Camden, NJ, described as North of the Wiggins park Marina... traffic from navigating on the Delaware River in an area described as north of the Wiggins Park Marina...

  4. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Moulton, F.C.


    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  5. Neogene dinocyst zonation for the eastern North Sea Basin, Denmark

    Dybkjær, Karen; Piasecki, Stefan


    - and sequence stratigraphy. The dinocyst zonation and the foraminifer zonation of the Danish Miocene (based upon analysis of the same boreholes) were independently calibrated with the established nannoplankton zonation. This correlation revealed a mismatch generally corresponding to one nannoplankton zone...... for the Achomosphaera andalousiensis Zone. Neogene biostratigraphy in the North Sea Basin has been problematic due to the periodically limited connection between the North Sea Basin and the North Atlantic Ocean, especially with respect to stratigraphy based on foraminifers and calcareous nannoplankton. Many...

  6. Potential and use of archaeological and historical data in the coastal zone of the southern North Sea in a reconstruction of the sea level curve of the last 3000 years: results of a case study

    Kluiving, S.J.; Lascaris, M.A.; de Kraker, A.M.J.; Renes, H.; Borger, G.J.; Soetens, S.A.


    This paper demonstrates that methodologies from various disciplines can be utilised to explain the coastal development of the southern North Sea during the last 3000 years. The potential and uses of archaeological data are tested against the applicability of delivering data for reconstructing sea le

  7. 76 FR 4532 - Safety Zone; 500 Yards North and South, Bank to Bank, of Position 29°48.77′ N 091°33.02′ W...


    ... (Hercules Rig 61) scheduled for scrap sank in the Charenton Navigation and Drainage Canal. A safety zone is... under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-3520). Federalism A rule has implications for... not require a Statement of Energy Effects under Executive Order 13211. Technical Standards The...

  8. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary line between central and mountain zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.7 Boundary line between central and mountain zones. (a) Montana-North Dakota. Beginning at... mountain standard time zone, except Murdo, S. Dak., which is in the central standard time zone....




    Full Text Available The Gelasian succession of the Capodarso area (Enna-Caltanissetta basin, Sicily, Italy consists of an offlapping stack of cycles composed of siliciclastic units passing to carbonate heterozoan, clino-stratified wedges, developed from a growing positive tectonic structure. Identification of a number of facies tracts, based on sedimentary facies, biofacies and taphofacies, provided important information about the differentiation and characterisation of systems tracts and key stratal surfaces of sequence stratigraphy. The bulk of carbonate wedges are interpreted as representing the rapid falling-stage progradation of distally steepened ramps. The inferred highest rate of carbonate production during forced regressions was concomitant with active downramp resedimentation by storm-driven downwelling flows, leading to storing of most carbonate sediment on the ramp slope as clino-beds of the prograding bodies. Comparison of the Capodarso ramps with other icehouse carbonate ramps, with particular regard to the Mediterranean Plio-Pleistocene, provides clues for defining some common features. These are inferred to include: (1 brief, rapid episodes of progradation concomitant with orbitally-forced sea-level changes, resulting in limited ramp width; (2 preferential fostering of growth and downramp resedimentation of heterozoan carbonates during glacial hemicycles marked by enhanced atmospheric and marine circulation; (3 building out from positive features of entirely submerged distally-steepened ramps with storm-wave-graded profile and distinctive clinoforms; (4 ramp stacks generally consisting of mixed clastic-carbonate sequences showing an ordered spectrum of distinct frequencies; (5 rapid, continuous changes in environmental parameters, leading to the short-lived persistence of faunal communities, climax communities generally having insufficient time to form. 

  10. 78 FR 56611 - Safety Zone, Shallowbag Bay; Manteo, NC; Correction


    ...: A. Background On October 4, 2013 fireworks will be launched from a barge located in Shallowbag Bay in Manteo, North Carolina as part of the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival. The temporary safety zone...

  11. development in two agro-ecological zones of ghana


    There is no documented information about these soils in the Moist Semi-. Deciduous Forest (MSDF) agro-ecological zone of Ghana where climatic conditions ... ment, especially in Africa and South America. ...... North Dakota Agricultural Ex-.

  12. Computing Average Passive Forces in Sarcomeres in Length-Ramp Simulations.

    Schappacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Leonard, Timothy; Desch, Gertrud; Herzog, Walter


    Passive forces in sarcomeres are mainly related to the giant protein titin. Titin's extensible region consists of spring-like elements acting in series. In skeletal muscles these elements are the PEVK segment, two distinct immunoglobulin (Ig) domain regions (proximal and distal), and a N2A portion. While distal Ig domains are thought to form inextensible end filaments in intact sarcomeres, proximal Ig domains unfold in a force- and time-dependent manner. In length-ramp experiments of single titin strands, sequential unfolding of Ig domains leads to a typical saw-tooth pattern in force-elongation curves which can be simulated by Monte Carlo simulations. In sarcomeres, where more than a thousand titin strands are arranged in parallel, numerous Monte Carlo simulations are required to estimate the resultant force of all titin filaments based on the non-uniform titin elongations. To simplify calculations, the stochastic model of passive forces is often replaced by linear or non-linear deterministic and phenomenological functions. However, new theories of muscle contraction are based on the hypothesized binding of titin to the actin filament upon activation, and thereby on a prominent role of the structural properties of titin. Therefore, these theories necessitate a detailed analysis of titin forces in length-ramp experiments. In our study we present a simple and efficient alternative to Monte Carlo simulations. Based on a structural titin model, we calculate the exact probability distributions of unfolded Ig domains under length-ramp conditions needed for rigorous analysis of expected forces, distribution of unfolding forces, etc. Due to the generality of our model, the approach is applicable to a wide range of stochastic protein unfolding problems.

  13. Carbonate shedding and sedimentary cyclicities of a distally steepened carbonate ramp (Miocene, Great Bahama Bank)

    Betzler, C.; Pfeiffer, M.; Saxena, S.

    Depositional geometries as imaged in seismic lines, logging data, and quantitative petrographic data were used to analyse the slope and toe of slope deposits of the Miocene distally steepened carbonate ramp of Great Bahama Bank. The shedding pattern along the slope of this ramp is more complex than it is along the slope of the Pliocene-Pleistocene flat-topped carbonate platform. Compositional changes and compositional trends of periplatform sediments correlate with the positions of geophysically-defined sequence boundaries. Two types of depositional sequences occur. The first sequence is characterised by laterally traceable sequence-internal reflections, whereas the second type contains major intrasequential incisions. Erosional incisions and sedimentary infills of these canyons by turbidites formed during sea-level lowstands, as is indicated by the composition of the turbidites having a mixture of shallow-water and pelagic particles. Highstand turbidites are characterised by more extensive, laterally traceable geometries and by the occurrence of abundant shallow-water particles. In contrast to highstand turbidites shed from the Pliocene-Pleistocene flat-topped platform, shallow-water components in highstand turbidites of the Miocene ramp are of skeletal origin. The stacking pattern of the periplatform deposits is controlled by sea-level fluctuations. Four orders of sea-level changes are distinguished. Third-order cycles are delimited by sequence boundaries, and fourth (100,000a) order cycles govern the bundling of turbidites into packages. Fifth (40,000a) and sixth (23,000a) order cycles are recorded in the background sediments and resolvable with spectral analysis.

  14. Intersegmental coordination while walking up inclined surfaces: age and ramp angle effects.

    Noble, Jeremy W; Prentice, Stephen D


    The lower-limb segment elevation angles during human locomotion have been shown to co-vary in a manner such that they approximate a plane when plotted against each other over a gait cycle. This relationship has been described as the Planar Co-Variation Law and has been shown to be consistent across various modes of locomotion on level ground. The goal of this study is to determine whether the Planar Co-Variation Law will hold in situations where the orientation of the walking surface is altered and if aging will have an effect on this intersegmental coordination during these locomotor tasks. Nine healthy young females (mean age = 21.4), and nine older adult females (mean age = 73.3) were asked to complete walking trials on level ground, and walking up ramps with inclines of 3 degrees , 6 degrees , 9 degrees and 12 degrees while the kinematics of their lower limbs were measured. It was found that the Planar Co-Variation Law was held across all ramp incline conditions by both the young adult and older adult groups. It was found that the changes in intersegmental coordination required to walk up the ramp resulted in a unique orientation of the co-variation plane for both groups when walking up a particular incline. The results of this study indicate that the Planar Co-Variation Law will include situations where the walking surface is not level and provides further support to models of motor control that have been proposed where walking patterns for different modes of gait can be predicted based on the orientation of the co-variation plane.

  15. Initial Atom Loss Rate after the Sudden Ramp of a BEC to Unitarity

    Braaten, Eric; Mohaptra, Abhishek; Smith, D. Hudson


    The quantum-degenerate unitary Bose gas has been studied in an experiment at JILA in which a Bose-Einstein condensate was quickly ramped to infinite scattering length. The sudden approximation can be used to calculate the probability for creating Efimov trimers. A trimer that is created in a region of the BEC where its decay rate is faster than its reaction rate from atom-trimer scattering can contribute to the initial atom loss rate. We use universal 3-body and 4-body results to estimate the initial atom loss rate. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  16. Generation of Ramped Current Profiles in Relativistic Electron Beams Using Wakefields in Dielectric Structures.

    Andonian, G; Barber, S; O'Shea, F H; Fedurin, M; Kusche, K; Swinson, C; Rosenzweig, J B


    Temporal pulse tailoring of charged-particle beams is essential to optimize efficiency in collinear wakefield acceleration schemes. In this Letter, we demonstrate a novel phase space manipulation method that employs a beam wakefield interaction in a dielectric structure, followed by bunch compression in a permanent magnet chicane, to longitudinally tailor the pulse shape of an electron beam. This compact, passive, approach was used to generate a nearly linearly ramped current profile in a relativistic electron beam experiment carried out at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. Here, we report on these experimental results including beam and wakefield diagnostics and pulse profile reconstruction techniques.

  17. Review of the Mechanical Engineering Challenges associated with the SNS* Power Ramp Up

    Murdoch, Graeme R [ORNL; Holding, Mike [ORNL; Ladd, Peter [ORNL; Potter, Kerry G [ORNL; Roseberry, Jr., R Tom [ORNL


    Since commissioning of the SNS in April 2006 the beam power has been steadily increasing towards the design intensity of 1.4 MW. Several areas of the accelerator have been shown to require modifications, upgrades or new designs of mechanical equipment to support the power ramp schedule. This paper presents mechanical engineering design work implemented since initial commissioning along with a review of current projects and discussion of mechanical engineering issues being addressed that are a direct result of design decisions made early in the project.

  18. Generation of Ramped Current Profiles in Relativistic Electron Beams Using Wakefields in Dielectric Structures

    Andonian, G.; Barber, S.; O'Shea, F. H.; Fedurin, M.; Kusche, K.; Swinson, C.; Rosenzweig, J. B.


    Temporal pulse tailoring of charged-particle beams is essential to optimize efficiency in collinear wakefield acceleration schemes. In this Letter, we demonstrate a novel phase space manipulation method that employs a beam wakefield interaction in a dielectric structure, followed by bunch compression in a permanent magnet chicane, to longitudinally tailor the pulse shape of an electron beam. This compact, passive, approach was used to generate a nearly linearly ramped current profile in a relativistic electron beam experiment carried out at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. Here, we report on these experimental results including beam and wakefield diagnostics and pulse profile reconstruction techniques.

  19. Two-warehouse inventory model with ramp-type demand and partially backlogged shortages

    Agrawal, Swati; Banerjee, Snigdha


    In this article, we consider an inventory model for items that are stored in two-warehouses when demand is a general ramp-type function of time. Shortages are allowed and a constant fraction of shortages is backlogged. The existence and uniqueness of optimal solution is proved for both - the single-warehouse and the two-warehouse models. An algorithm is developed to facilitate the choice between the two-warehouse and the single-warehouse systems and hence to obtain the optimal replenishment policy. Numerical examples are presented. Sensitivity analysis with respect to the parameters of the model is performed.

  20. Flat-ramp vs. convex-concave thrust geometries in a deformable hanging wall: new insights from analogue modeling experiments

    Almeida, Pedro; Tomas, Ricardo; Rosas, Filipe; Duarte, Joao; Terrinha, Pedro


    Different modes of strain accommodation affecting a deformable hanging-wall in a flat-ramp-flat thrust system were previously addressed through several (sandbox) analog modeling studies, focusing on the influence of different variables, such as: a) thrust ramp dip angle and friction (Bonini et al, 2000); b) prescribed thickness of the hanging-wall (Koy and Maillot, 2007); and c) sin-thrust erosion (compensating for topographic thrust edification, e.g. Persson and Sokoutis, 2002). In the present work we reproduce the same experimental procedure to investigate the influence of two different parameters on hanging-wall deformation: 1) the geometry of the thrusting surface; and 2) the absence of a velocity discontinuity (VD) that is always present in previous similar analogue modeling studies. Considering the first variable we use two end member ramp geometries, flat-ramp-flat and convex-concave, to understand the control exerted by the abrupt ramp edges in the hanging-wall stress-strain distribution, comparing the obtain results with the situation in which such edge singularities are absent (convex-concave thrust ramp). Considering the second investigated parameter, our motivation was the recognition that the VD found in the different analogue modeling settings simply does not exist in nature, despite the fact that it has a major influence on strain accommodation in the deformable hanging-wall. We thus eliminate such apparatus artifact from our models and compare the obtained results with the previous ones. Our preliminary results suggest that both investigated variables play a non-negligible role on the structural style characterizing the hanging-wall deformation of convergent tectonic settings were such thrust-ramp systems were recognized. Acknowledgments This work was sponsored by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through project MODELINK EXPL/GEO-GEO/0714/2013. Pedro Almeida wants to thank to FCT for the Ph.D. grant (SFRH/BD/52556/2014) under the

  1. Ramp forecasting performance from improved short-term wind power forecasting over multiple spatial and temporal scales

    Zhang, Jie; Cui, Mingjian; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Florita, Anthony; Freedman, Jeffrey


    The large variability and uncertainty in wind power generation present a concern to power system operators, especially given the increasing amounts of wind power being integrated into the electric power system. Large ramps, one of the biggest concerns, can significantly influence system economics and reliability. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP) was to improve the accuracy of forecasts and to evaluate the economic benefits of these improvements to grid operators. This paper evaluates the ramp forecasting accuracy gained by improving the performance of short-term wind power forecasting. This study focuses on the WFIP southern study region, which encompasses most of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) territory, to compare the experimental WFIP forecasts to the existing short-term wind power forecasts (used at ERCOT) at multiple spatial and temporal scales. The study employs four significant wind power ramping definitions according to the power change magnitude, direction, and duration. The optimized swinging door algorithm is adopted to extract ramp events from actual and forecasted wind power time series. The results show that the experimental WFIP forecasts improve the accuracy of the wind power ramp forecasting. This improvement can result in substantial costs savings and power system reliability enhancements.

  2. Study of toroidal current penetration during current ramp in JIPP T-IIU with fast response Zeeman polarimeter

    Kuramoto, H.; Hiraki, N. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Toi, K. [and others


    The toroidal current penetration is studied in current ramp experiments of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal magnetic field profile in the peripheral region of a plasma (0.5 {<=} {rho} {<=} 1.0) has been measured directly with a newly developed fast response Zeeman polarimeter. The experimental results indicate that an obvious skin effect of toroidal current density is clearly observed during both the current ramp-up and ramp-down experiments. The experimentally obtained toroidal current density profiles are well described by the profiles calculated on the assumption of the neoclassical electrical conductivity. Quasi-linear {Delta}`-analysis of tearing modes for the measured current density profile is consistent with time behaviour of coherent MHD modes such as m=4/n=1 or m=3/n=1 (m: poloidal mode number, n: toroidal mode number) often observed during the current ramp-up phase. The effect of these MHD modes on current penetration during the current ramp-up discharges is studied. (author)

  3. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  4. Non-inductive Plasma Start-up and Current Ramp-up in NSTX-U

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Jardin, S. C.; Kessel, C. E.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Poli, F.; Taylor, G.; NSTX Research Team; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Team


    Results from NSTX Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) experiments have demonstrated generation of 300 kA start-up currents, and when these discharges were coupled to induction they attained 1 MA of plasma current consuming 65% of the inductive flux of standard inductive-only discharges in NSTX. The NSTX-U device, which is now under construction at PPPL, will have numerous improvements to enhance transient CHI start-up. These are: (1) factor of two increase in toroidal field, (2) more than 2.5 times the injector flux, (3) increased CHI voltage, (4) full lithium coverage to reduce low-Z impurities and (5) 1 MW ECH system for increasing the electron temperature of CHI discharges to allow direct coupling to NBI current drive using a new second more tangential neutral beam system. In support of NSTX-U objectives for full non-inductive start-up and current ramp-up, the TSC code has been used for a full discharge simulation in which a transient CHI discharge is used as the front end of the non-inductive current ramp-up simulation. This work supported by U.S. DOE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-FG02-99ER54519 AM08.

  5. Scheduling and Pricing for Expected Ramp Capability in Real-Time Power Markets

    Ela, Erik; O' Malley, Mark


    Higher variable renewable generation penetrations are occurring throughout the world on different power systems. These resources increase the variability and uncertainty on the system which must be accommodated by an increase in the flexibility of the system resources in order to maintain reliability. Many scheduling strategies have been discussed and introduced to ensure that this flexibility is available at multiple timescales. To meet variability, that is, the expected changes in system conditions, two recent strategies have been introduced: time-coupled multi-period market clearing models and the incorporation of ramp capability constraints. To appropriately evaluate these methods, it is important to assess both efficiency and reliability. But it is also important to assess the incentive structure to ensure that resources asked to perform in different ways have the proper incentives to follow these directions, which is a step often ignored in simulation studies. We find that there are advantages and disadvantages to both approaches. We also find that look-ahead horizon length in multi-period market models can impact incentives. This paper proposes scheduling and pricing methods that ensure expected ramps are met reliably, efficiently, and with associated prices based on true marginal costs that incentivize resources to do as directed by the market. Case studies show improvements of the new method.

  6. Simultaneous ramp right heart catheterization and echocardiography in a ReliantHeart left ventricular assist device

    Banerjee, Dipanjan; Dutt, Debleena; Duclos, Sebastien; Sallam, Karim; Wheeler, Matthew; Ha, Richard


    Many clinicians caring for patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVAD) use ramp right heart catheterization (RHC) studies to optimize pump speed and also to troubleshoot CF-LVAD malfunction. An investigational device, the ReliantHeart Heart Assist 5 (Houston, TX), provides the added benefit of an ultrasonic flow probe on the outflow graft that directly measures flow through the CF-LVAD. We performed a simultaneous ramp RHC and echocardiogram on a patient who received the above CF-LVAD to optimize pump parameters and investigate elevated flow through the CF-LVAD as measured by the flow probe. We found that the patient’s hemodynamics were optimized at their baseline pump speed, and that the measured cardiac output via the Fick principle was lower than that measured by the flow probe. Right heart catheterization may be useful to investigate discrepancies between flow measured by a CF-LVAD and a patient’s clinical presentation, particularly in investigational devices where little clinical experience exists. More data is needed to elucidate the correlation between the flow measured by an ultrasonic probe and cardiac output as measured by RHC. PMID:28163837

  7. Effect of adaptive cruise control systems on mixed traffic flow near an on-ramp

    Davis, L. C.


    Mixed traffic flow consisting of vehicles equipped with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and manually driven vehicles is analyzed using car-following simulations. Simulations of merging from an on-ramp onto a freeway reported in the literature have not thus far demonstrated a substantial positive impact of ACC. In this paper cooperative merging for ACC vehicles is proposed to improve throughput and increase distance traveled in a fixed time. In such a system an ACC vehicle senses not only the preceding vehicle in the same lane but also the vehicle immediately in front in the other lane. Prior to reaching the merge region, the ACC vehicle adjusts its velocity to ensure that a safe gap for merging is obtained. If on-ramp demand is moderate, cooperative merging produces significant improvement in throughput (20%) and increases up to 3.6 km in distance traveled in 600 s for 50% ACC mixed flow relative to the flow of all-manual vehicles. For large demand, it is shown that autonomous merging with cooperation in the flow of all ACC vehicles leads to throughput limited only by the downstream capacity, which is determined by speed limit and headway time.

  8. Analysis of the Effects of a Flexible Ramping Ancillary Service Product on Power System Operations: Preprint

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik


    The recent increased interest in utilizing variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and solar in power systems has motivated investigations into new operating procedures. Although these resources provide desirable value to a system (e.g., no fuel costs or emissions), interconnecting them provides unique challenges. Their variable, non-controllable nature in particular requires significant attention, because it directly results in increased power system variability and uncertainty. One way to handle this is via new operating reserve schemes. Operating reserves provide upward and downward generation and ramping capacity to counteract uncertainty and variability prior to their realization. For instance, uncertainty and variability in real-time dispatch can be accounted for in the hour-ahead unit commitment. New operating reserve methodologies that specifically account for the increased variability and uncertainty caused by VG are currently being investigated and developed by academia and industry. This paper examines one method inspired by the new operating reserve product being proposed by the California Independent System Operator. The method is based on examining the potential ramping requirements at any given time and enforcing those requirements via a reserve demand curve in the market-clearing optimization as an additional ancillary service product.

  9. Effect of dilute tungsten alloying on the dynamic strength of tantalum under ramp compression

    Alexander, C. S.; Brown, J. L.; Millett, J. C. F.; Whiteman, G.; Asay, J. R.; Bourne, N. K.


    The strength of tantalum and tantalum alloys are of considerable interest due to their widespread use in both military and industrial applications. Previous work has shown that strength in these materials is tied to dislocation density and mobility within the microstructure. Accordingly, strength has been observed to increase with dilute alloying which serves to increase the dislocation density. In this study, we examine the effect of alloying on the strength of a dilute tantalum-tungsten alloy (2.5 weight percent W) under ramp compression. The strength of the alloy is measured using the ``self-consistent'' technique which examines the response under longitudinal unloading from peak compression. The results are compared to previous studies of pure tantalum and dilute tantalum-tungsten alloys under both shock and ramp compression and indicate strengthening of the alloy when compared to pure tantalum. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. Computer programs for pressurization (RAMP) and pressurized expulsion from a cryogenic liquid propellant tank

    Masters, P. A.


    An analysis to predict the pressurant gas requirements for the discharge of cryogenic liquid propellants from storage tanks is presented, along with an algorithm and two computer programs. One program deals with the pressurization (ramp) phase of bringing the propellant tank up to its operating pressure. The method of analysis involves a numerical solution of the temperature and velocity functions for the tank ullage at a discrete set of points in time and space. The input requirements of the program are the initial ullage conditions, the initial temperature and pressure of the pressurant gas, and the time for the expulsion or the ramp. Computations are performed which determine the heat transfer between the ullage gas and the tank wall. Heat transfer to the liquid interface and to the hardware components may be included in the analysis. The program output includes predictions of mass of pressurant required, total energy transfer, and wall and ullage temperatures. The analysis, the algorithm, a complete description of input and output, and the FORTRAN 4 program listings are presented. Sample cases are included to illustrate use of the programs.

  11. High ramp rate thermogravimetric analysis of zirconium(II) hydride and titanium(II) hydride

    Licavoli, Joseph J., E-mail:; Sanders, Paul G., E-mail:


    Highlights: • A unique arc image device has been proposed for high ramp rate thermogravimetry. • Powder oxidation influences decomposition kinetics at temperatures below 933 K. • Particle size has a negligible effect on TiH{sub 2} decomposition behavior. • Improvements to the device are required to conduct accurate kinetic analysis. - Abstract: Zirconium and titanium hydride are utilized in liquid phase metal foam processing techniques. This application results in immediate exposure to molten metal and almost immediate decomposition at high temperatures. Most decomposition characterization techniques utilize slow heating rates and are unable to capture the decomposition behavior of hydrides under foam processing conditions. In order to address this issue a specialized high ramp rate thermogravimetric analyzer was created from a xenon arc image refiner. In addition to thermogravimetry, complimentary techniques including X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize hydride decomposition and compare the results to literature. Hydrides were partially oxidized and separated into particles size ranges to evaluate the influence of these factors on decomposition. Oxidizing treatments were found to decrease decomposition rate only at temperatures below 933 K (660 °C) while particle size effects appeared to be negligible. Several improvements to the unique TGA apparatus presented in the current work are suggested to allow reliable kinetic modeling and analysis.

  12. Vertical deformation of lacustrine shorelines along breached relay ramps, Catlow Valley fault, southeastern Oregon, USA

    Hopkins, Michael C.; Dawers, Nancye H.


    Vertical deformation of pluvial lacustrine shorelines is attributed to slip along the Catlow Valley fault, a segmented Basin and Range style normal fault in southeastern Oregon, USA. The inner edges of shorelines are mapped along three breached relay ramps along the fault to examine the effect of fault linkage on the distribution of slip. Shoreline inner edges act as paleohorizontal datums so deviations in elevation from horizontal, outside of a 2 m error window, are taken to be indications of fault slip. The sites chosen represent a spectrum of linkage scenarios in that the throw on the linking fault compared to that on the main fault adjacent to the linking fault varies from site to site. Results show that the maturity of the linkage between segments (i.e. larger throw on the linking fault with respect to the main fault) does not control the spatial distribution of shoreline deformation. Patterns of shoreline deformation indicate that the outboard, linking, and/or smaller ramp faults have slipped since the shorelines formed. Observations indicate that displacement has not fully localized on the linking faults following complete linkage between segments.

  13. Slider-Disk Contacts During the Loading Process in a Ramp-Load Magnetic Disk Drive

    Fu, Ta-Chung; Bogy, David B.

    Experimental investigations of the dynamic loading process of a 2.5″ hard disk drive with a ramp loading system are presented. The dual beam Polytec LDV is successfully applied to the measurement of slider-disk relative motion during single load events. An AE system is used to confirm the slider-disk contacts. The effects of different head-load speeds and of different initial pitch and roll angles are examined. It is observed that the following three parameters: (1) Initial loading velocity, which is determined by the actuator swing velocity as well as the disk runout, (2) Initial pitch, and (3) Initial roll, strongly affect the occurrence of the slider-disk contact. An apparent inconsistency between the LDV and AE measurements disappeared after all sliders except the LDV measured one were removed from the drive. Critical ramp speeds below which slider-disk contacts do not occur were established for two different sets of initial pitch and roll for the tested drive.

  14. A Collaborative Strategy for a Three Echelon Supply Chain with Ramp Type Demand, Deterioration and Inflation

    Narayan Singh


    Full Text Available A supply chain system has been investigated in which a single manufacturer procures raw materials from a single supplier, processes them to produce finished products, and then delivers the products to a single retailer. The customer's demand rate is assumed to be time-sensitive in nature (ramp type that allows two-phase variation in the demand and production rate. Our adoption of ramp type demand reflects a real market demand for a newly launched product. Shortages are allowed with partial backlogging of demand (only for the retailer, i.e. the rest represent lost sales. The effects of inflation of the cost parameters and deterioration are also considered separately. We show that the total cost function is convex. Using this convexity, a simple algorithm is presented to determine the optimal order quantity and optimal cycle time for the total cost function. The results are discussed with numerical examples and particular cases of the model discussed briefly. A sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to the parameters of the system is carried out. (original abstract

  15. Loading and Unloading Weaned Pigs: Effects of Bedding Types, Ramp Angle, and Bedding Moisture

    Arlene Garcia


    Full Text Available The use of non-slip surfaces during loading and unloading of weaned pigs plays an important role in animal welfare and economics of the pork industry. Currently, the guidelines available only suggest the use of ramps below 20° to load and unload pigs. Three ramp angles (0°, 10° or 20°, five bedding materials (nothing, sand, feed, wood shavings or wheat straw hay, two moistures (dry or wet bedding; >50% moisture over two seasons (>23.9 °C summer, <23.9 °C winter were assessed for slips/falls/vocalizations (n = 6,000 pig observations. “Score” was calculated by the sum of slips, falls, and vocalizations. With the exception of using feed as a bedding, all beddings provided some protection against elevated slips, falls, and vocalizations (P < 0.01. Providing bedding reduced (P < 0.05 scores regardless of whether the bedding was dry or wet. Scores increased as the slope increased (P < 0.01. Provision of bedding, other than feed, at slopes greater than zero, decreased slips, falls and vocalizations. The total time it took to load and unload pigs was

  16. Thermodynamic Properties of Fast Ramped Superconducting Accelerator Magnets for the Fair Project

    Fischer, E.; Mierau, A.; Schnizer, P.; Bleile, A.; Gärtner, W.; Guymenuk, O.; Khodzhibagiyan, H.; Schroeder, C.; Sikler, G.; Stafiniak, A.


    The 100 Tm synchrotron SIS 100 is the core component of the international Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) to be built at GSI Darmstadt. The 108 bending magnets are 3 m long 2 T superferric dipoles providing a nominal ramp rate of 4 T/s within a usable aperture of 115 mmṡ60 mm. An intensive R&D period was conducted to minimise the AC losses to lower operation costs and to guarantee a safe thermal stability for long term continuous cycling with a maximum repetition frequency of 1 Hz. The latter requirement is strictly limited by the overall heat flow originated by eddy currents and hysteresis losses in iron yoke and coil as well as by its hydraulic resistance respective to the forced two phase helium cooling flow within the hollow superconducting cable. Recently three full size dipoles—and one quadrupole magnets were built and intensive tests have been started in the end of 2008 at the GSI cryogenic test facility. We present the measured thermodynamic parameters of the first tested dipole: AC losses depending on Bmax and dB/dt for various characteristic ramping modes and conclude for necessary optimisations toward the final design of the series magnets.

  17. Ramp Secret Sharing Approach to Authentication and Data Repairing For Document Image

    Larry Liston


    Full Text Available Digital images are widely used to protect confidential and important information. But the problem is to provide the authentication and integrity to these digital images is a very challenging task. Therefore a new efficient authentication method is proposed for document images with verification and data self-repair capability using the Portable Network Graphics (PNG image. Here, an authentication signal is generated for each block of a document image which, combine with the binarized block data, is transformed into several shares using the Ramp secret sharing scheme. These several binarized block data shares are then embedded into an alpha channel plane. During the embedding process, the generated share values are mapped into a range of 238-255 to yield a transparent stego-image with a disguise effect. Alpha channel is combining with the original image and converted into PNG image format. While the process of image authentication, the image block is marked as tampered, if the authentication signal generated from the current block content does not match with share that extracted from the alpha channel plane. Then using reverse Ramp scheme, two shares from unmarked blocks are collected and then data repairing is applied. Some security measures are also proposed for protecting the security of the shares hidden in the alpha channel.

  18. Determinants of VO(2) kinetics at high power outputs during a ramp exercise protocol.

    Lucía, Alejandro; Rivero, José-Luis L; Pérez, Margarita; Serrano, Antonio L; Calbet, José A L; Santalla, Alfredo; Chicharro, José L


    To determine the relationship between the additional, nonlinear increase in oxygen uptake (Delta VO(2)) that occurs at high power outputs during a ramp cycle ergometer test, on one hand; and possible explanatory mechanisms of the phenomenon, such as cardiorespiratory work, blood lactate, fitness level, or muscle fiber distribution, on the other. Ten healthy, sedentary young adults (age (mean +/- SEM), 22 +/- 1 yr) were chosen as subjects. A muscle biopsy specimen was taken from the vastus lateralis of the right leg to determine fiber type distribution by immunohistochemical identification of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. During the ramp tests (power output increases of 5 W every 15-s interval), the ventilatory threshold (VT) and lactate threshold (LT) were measured. We defined Delta VO(2) as the difference between "true" VO(2) values observed at the maximal power output (VO(2)obs) and those expected (VO(2)exp) from the previous linear VO2:power output relationship below the VT. A nonlinear increase was observed in VO2 (Delta VO(2) = 239 +/- 79 mL x min(-1), P < 0.05 for VO(2)obs vs VO(2)exp), which was significantly correlated with the percentage of type IIX fibers (r = 0.80, P < 0.05). No other correlations were found between Delta VO(2) and possible explanatory mechanisms. A greater percentage of type IIX fibers is associated with a higher excess VO(2) at high power outputs (above VT).

  19. Closed-loop separation control over a sharp edge ramp using Genetic Programming

    Debien, Antoine; Mazellier, Nicolas; Duriez, Thomas; Cordier, Laurent; Noack, Bernd R; Abel, Markus W; Kourta, Azeddine


    We experimentally perform open and closed-loop control of a separating turbulent boundary layer downstream from a sharp edge ramp. The turbulent boundary layer just above the separation point has a Reynolds number $Re_{\\theta}\\approx 3\\,500$ based on momentum thickness. The goal of the control is to mitigate separation and early re-attachment. The forcing employs a spanwise array of active vortex generators. The flow state is monitored with skin-friction sensors downstream of the actuators. The feedback control law is obtained using model-free genetic programming control (GPC) (Gautier et al. 2015). The resulting flow is assessed using the momentum coefficient, pressure distribution and skin friction over the ramp and stereo PIV. The PIV yields vector field statistics, e.g. shear layer growth, the backflow area and vortex region. GPC is benchmarked against the best periodic forcing. While open-loop control achieves separation reduction by locking-on the shedding mode, GPC gives rise to similar benefits by acc...

  20. Inclusiveness developments: Guangxi province North Bay economy zone development's strategy thinking%包容性发展:广西北部湾经济区发展的战略思考

    官秀成; 马友乐


    Guangxi beibu gulf economic zone is our country important region of western development and facing asean opening-up and cooperation,the important region for the national implementation general strategy for regional development and win-win opening strategy to have the important meaning.In the new era,guangxi beibu gulf economic zone is confronting many opportunities of open development,also facing a number of challenges.Therefore,whether foreign exchanges and cooperation or zone development we all should be to promote and practice tolerance development,foster strengths and circumvent weaknesses,seek common ground while reserving differences,to promote good and rapid eco-social development of the region.%广西北部湾经济区是我国西部大开发和面向东盟开放合作的重要地区,对于国家实施区域发展总体战略和互利共赢的开放战略具有重要意义。在新时期,广西北部湾经济区开放开发既面临着诸多机遇,又面临着多种挑战。因此,无论是对外交流合作还是区内发展,我们都应倡导并践行包容性发展,扬长避短,求同存异,以促使该地区经济社会又好又快发展。

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  2. 太子河北支河岸带植物群落特征及其物种多样性研究%Study on Plant Community Characteristics and Species Diversity of Riparian Zone along North Branch of Taizi River

    李悦; 马溪平; 李法云; 侯伟; 杨春璐; 程志辉


    The species diversity is an important trait of plant ecological adaptive strategy. The plant community of riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River plays an important role in stabilizing plant composite. How-ever, the species diversity of riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River is poorly known. Our objectives are to investigate the species diversity of the understory of riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River to provide theory of ecological restoration and technical basis. The diversity of plant species in 18 plots in this ar-ea was investigated by calculating the indices of species diversity, richness, evenness and dominance from im-portant values. The results indicated that: There are 91 species of plants belonging to 18 families and 60 gene-ra in the 18 plots of riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River. The main families are dominant in the Compositae, Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Rosaceae, Polygonaceae; the compositions of the community are con-centrated ,and Zoysia sinica Hance、Sorbaria ( Ser. ) A. Br. 、Artemisia selengensis Turcz. Ex Bess. , Bidens biternata ( Lour. ) Merr et Scheff, Artemisia dracunculus L. , Setaria viridis ( L. ) Beauv. , Carex humida Y. L. Chang et Y. L. Yang, Polygonum hydropiper L. et al. The community structure of riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River is simple in studied area. The ecosystem is deteriorating, with richness indexes change between 4. 00 ~ 17. 00 , Pielou indexes change between 0. 66 ~ 0. 86 ,Simpson indexes change between 0.61 -0.85, Shannon-wiener indexes change between 1. 12 ~2.24, Simpson dominance indexes change be-tween 0. 15 ~0. 39. The riparian zone along north branch of Taizi River are disturbance by human activities, such as agricultural production, dredging and other human activities on reducing the level of community diver-sity.%以野外样方调查数据为基础,详细调查了太子河北支河岸带植物群落的组成,种类和外貌,应用重要值计算了太子

  3. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen


    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  4. 9 CFR 77.26 - Modified accredited States or zones.


    ..., North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Virginia... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified accredited States or zones...

  5. Study of On-Ramp PI Controller Based on Dural Group QPSO with Different Well Centers Algorithm

    Tao Wu


    Full Text Available A novel quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm, dual-group QPSO with different well centers (DWC-QPSO algorithm, is proposed by constructing the master-slave subswarms. The new algorithm was applied in the parameter optimization of on-ramp traffic PI controller combining with nonlinear feedback theory. With the critical information contained in the searching space and results of the basic QPSO algorithm, this algorithm avoids the rapid disappearance of swarm diversity and enhances the global searching ability through collaboration between subswarms. Experiment results on an on-ramp traffic control simulation show that DWC-QPSO can be well applied in the study of on-ramp traffic PI controller and the comparison results illustrate that DWC-QPSO outperforms other evolutionary algorithms with enhancement in both adaptability and stability.

  6. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets.

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi


    Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p elevated 2.4% (p elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp.

  7. Crustal shortening and structural architecture of the Interandean and Subandean zones of southern Bolivia (21°S): Constraints from a new balanced cross section

    Anderson, R. B.; Long, S. P.; Horton, B. K.; Calle, A.; Ramirez, V.


    Structural insights obtained from balanced cross sections, including thrust belt geometry, location of footwall ramps, and crustal shortening estimates, provide key information for testing model predictions of orogen dynamics (e.g., Cordilleran cyclicity, critical taper theory). New results from geologic mapping along an east-west transect in the central Andes are integrated with existing geophysical data to construct a balanced cross section across the Interandean (IAZ) and Subandean (SAZ) zones of southern Bolivia at 21°S, in order to define thrust belt geometry and estimate crustal shortening. The IAZ consists of a doubly vergent zone of 2-4 km-thick thrust sheets of mainly Silurian-Devonian rocks, which are structurally elevated ~10 km relative to equivalent SAZ levels to the east. Notably, our proposed IAZ geometry differs from published geometries that lack significant west-directed backthrusts. The SAZ is defined by regional-scale, fault-bend folds (10-20 km wavelength, 4-6 km amplitude) that exhume rocks as deep as Carboniferous above a 10-12 km-deep regional décollement in Silurian rocks. Previous studies have interpreted IAZ and SAZ shortening to be balanced by slip on two separate basement megathrust sheets at depth. We estimate 151 km (44%) of total east-west shortening in the IAZ (71 km) and SAZ (80 km), which is similar to a previous estimate (144 km, 42%). Importantly, our estimate of SAZ shortening restores the leading edge of the basement thrust sheet feeding displacement into the SAZ back to a corresponding footwall ramp that is constrained by a seismic reflection profile 90 km along strike to the south. Our shortening magnitudes are similar to nearby estimates to the north and south, which range between 60-86 km for the SAZ and 43-96 km for the IAZ. Future work will continue the cross section westward into the Eastern Cordillera hinterland, and explore potential variations in the geometry and style of basement deformation.

  8. The partially denuclearized area of North-East Asia. Status of ten years of informal 'new diplomacy'; La zone partiellement denuclearisee de l'Asie du Nord-Est. Bilan de dix annees de 'nouvelle diplomatie' informelle

    Sionneau, B. [Bordeaux-4 Univ.- Montesquieu, Centre d' Analyse Politique Comparee, de Geostrategie et de Relations Internationales, 33 (France); Ecole de Management, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Dusclaud, M. [Bordeaux-4 Univ.- Montesquieu, Centre d' Analyse Politique Comparee, de Geostrategie et de Relations Internationales, 33 (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 (France)


    In 1991, the G. Bush administration decided to remove away all US surface tactic nuclear weapons everywhere in the world in order to reduce the nuclear warfare risk. This decision has led to the ratification by both Northern Korea and Southern Korea of the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, followed the same year by Mongolia which has become nuclear weapons free. As a consequence of these initiatives, the Center for international strategy, technology and policy (CISTP) of the Georgia institute of technology (Atlanta, USA) has decided the creation of a 'limited nuclear weapons free zone North-East Asia'(LNWFZ), based on cooperation, arms control and non-proliferation. This article describes the genesis of this inter-governmental process of informal diplomacy: proposal of creation of a league for non-nuclear states for North-East Asia, of implementation of an inspection regime and of a cooperative security community, of establishment of confidence building measures and of economic incentives. Then it describes the main components of the LNWFZ project and the obstacles that must be cleared away before its official implementation. (J.S.)

  9. Major tectonic units of the North China Craton and their Paleoproterozoic assembly


    The basement of the North China Craton can be divided into the Eastern and Western Blocks and the Central Zone (Trans-North China Orogen). The West Block formed by the amalgamation of the Ordos Block in the south and the Yinshan Block in the north 1.9-2.0 Ga ago. In 1.8-1.9 Ga, the Eastern and Western Blocks were amalgamated along the Central Zone to form the North China Craton.

  10. Involvement of elevated expression of multiple cell-cycle regulator, DTL/RAMP (denticleless/RA-regulated nuclear matrix associated protein), in the growth of breast cancer cells.

    Ueki, T; Nishidate, T; Park, J H; Lin, M L; Shimo, A; Hirata, K; Nakamura, Y; Katagiri, T


    To investigate the detailed molecular mechanism of mammary carcinogenesis and discover novel therapeutic targets, we previously analysed gene expression profiles of breast cancers. We here report characterization of a significant role of DTL/RAMP (denticleless/RA-regulated nuclear matrix associated protein) in mammary carcinogenesis. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and northern blot analyses confirmed upregulation of DTL/RAMP in the majority of breast cancer cases and all of breast cancer cell lines examined. Immunocytochemical and western blot analyses using anti-DTL/RAMP polyclonal antibody revealed cell-cycle-dependent localization of endogenous DTL/RAMP protein in breast cancer cells; nuclear localization was observed in cells at interphase and the protein was concentrated at the contractile ring in cytokinesis process. The expression level of DTL/RAMP protein became highest at G(1)/S phases, whereas its phosphorylation level was enhanced during mitotic phase. Treatment of breast cancer cells, T47D and HBC4, with small-interfering RNAs against DTL/RAMP effectively suppressed its expression and caused accumulation of G(2)/M cells, resulting in growth inhibition of cancer cells. We further demonstrate the in vitro phosphorylation of DTL/RAMP through an interaction with the mitotic kinase, Aurora kinase-B (AURKB). Interestingly, depletion of AURKB expression with siRNA in breast cancer cells reduced the phosphorylation of DTL/RAMP and decreased the stability of DTL/RAMP protein. These findings imply important roles of DTL/RAMP in growth of breast cancer cells and suggest that DTL/RAMP might be a promising molecular target for treatment of breast cancer.

  11. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of a second grade fluid in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature.

    Samiulhaq; Ahmad, Sohail; Vieru, Dumitru; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan


    Magnetic field influence on unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature embedded in a porous medium is studied. It has been observed that magnitude of velocity as well as skin friction in case of ramped temperature is quite less than the isothermal temperature. Some special cases namely: (i) second grade fluid in the absence of magnetic field and porous medium and (ii) Newtonian fluid in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium, performing the same motion are obtained. Finally, the influence of various parameters is graphically shown.

  12. Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamic Free Convection Flow of a Second Grade Fluid in a Porous Medium with Ramped Wall Temperature

    Samiulhaq; Ahmad, Sohail; Vieru, Dumitru; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan


    Magnetic field influence on unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature embedded in a porous medium is studied. It has been observed that magnitude of velocity as well as skin friction in case of ramped temperature is quite less than the isothermal temperature. Some special cases namely: (i) second grade fluid in the absence of magnetic field and porous medium and (ii) Newtonian fluid in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium, performing the same motion are obtained. Finally, the influence of various parameters is graphically shown. PMID:24785147

  13. Advanced Study of Unsteady Heat and Chemical Reaction with Ramped Wall and Slip Effect on a Viscous Fluid

    Sohail, Ayesha; Maqbool, K.; Sher Akbar, Noreen; Younas, Muhammad


    This paper investigate the effect of slip boundary condition, thermal radiation, heat source, Dufour number, chemical reaction and viscous dissipation on heat and mass transfer of unsteady free convective MHD flow of a viscous fluid past through a vertical plate embedded in a porous media. Numerical results are obtained for solving the nonlinear governing momentum, energy and concentration equations with slip boundary condition, ramped wall temperature and ramped wall concentration on the surface of the vertical plate. The influence of emerging parameters on velocity, temperature and concentration fields are shown graphically.

  14. 77 FR 50444 - Safety Zone, Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway; Carolina Beach, NC


    ... Beach, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of mariners on..., mile 295.6, at Carolina Beach, North Carolina. The safety zone will temporarily restrict...

  15. Construction Technology of Intersection Hole between Right Line and Ramp of Jiaozhou Bay Subsea Tunnel%胶州湾海底隧道右线与匝道交汇洞段施工技术

    辜文凯; 杨龙伟


    Taking intersection hole between right line and ramp of Jiaozhou Bay Subsea Tunnel as the background,the construction sequence of neighborhood tunnel,excavation method and supporting parameters of super large-section tunnel are studied in this paper through engineering analog and numerical simulation.The results show that first ramping and then lining for neighborhood tunnel with CD excavation method for the main tunnel can control the plastic zone of surrounding rock to the maximum extent;after pre-grouting reinforcement of super large-section tunnel,bench cut can be realized if strengthening support.%以胶州湾海底隧道右线与匝道交汇洞段为背景,采用工程类比和数值模拟分析,对小净距隧道的施工顺序,超大断面隧道的开挖方法及支护参数进行了研究,结果表明:小净距隧道采用匝道先行,衬砌跟进,主隧采用CD法开挖可最大限度控制围岩塑性区;大断面洞段在进行超前注浆加固后,加强支护可实现台阶分部开挖。

  16. Age of Anzishan granulites in the Mianxian-Lueyang suture zone of Qingling orogen: With a discussion of the timing offinal assembly of Yangtze and North China craton blocks


    Many granulite blocks have been recently discovered in the Anzishan area, Mianxian County, Shaanxi Province, in the central segment of the Mianxian-Lueyang suture zone. Sm-Nd isochron and 40Ar/39Ar ages of mineral samples of granulites from this area are reported in the note. The granulite mineral samples give a Sm-Nd isochron age of t=(206 ( 55) Ma (2(), with INd = 0.51302(7(2() and MSWD = 1.6, and a biotite 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of (199.7(1.7) Ma (2(). The formation and uplift of the granulites were related to subduction of the Yangtze block beneath the South Qinling microcontinent and their collision and the final amalgamation of the Yangtze and Sino-Korean craton blocks in the Indosinian, and their age is consistent with or close to those of the Dabie ultrahigh-pressure and high-pressure metamorphic rocks, so have great tectonic significance.

  17. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...


    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  18. Application of (13)C ramp CPMAS NMR with phase-adjusted spinning sidebands (PASS) for the quantitative estimation of carbon functional groups in natural organic matter.

    Ikeya, Kosuke; Watanabe, Akira


    The composition of carbon (C) functional groups in natural organic matter (NOM), such as dissolved organic matter, soil organic matter, and humic substances, is frequently estimated using solid-state (13)C NMR techniques. A problem associated with quantitative analysis using general cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CPMAS) spectra is the appearance of spinning side bands (SSBs) split from the original center peaks of sp (2) hybridized C species (i.e., aromatic and carbonyl C). Ramp CP/phase-adjusted side band suppressing (PASS) is a pulse sequence that integrates SSBs separately and quantitatively recovers them into their inherent center peaks. In the present study, the applicability of ramp CP/PASS to NOM analysis was compared with direct polarization (DPMAS), another quantitative method but one that requires a long operation time, and/or a ramp CP/total suppression side band (ramp CP/TOSS) technique, a popular but non-quantitative method for deleting SSBs. The test materials were six soil humic acid samples with various known degrees of aromaticity and two fulvic acids. There were no significant differences in the relative abundance of alkyl C, O-alkyl C, and aromatic C between the ramp CP/PASS and DPMAS methods, while the signal intensities corresponding to aromatic C in the ramp CP/TOSS spectra were consistently less than the values obtained in the ramp CP/PASS spectra. These results indicate that ramp CP/PASS can be used to accurately estimate the C composition of NOM samples.

  19. Tracking at LHC as a collaborative data challenge use case with RAMP

    Amrouche, Sabrina; Calafiura, Paolo; Farrell, Steven; Gammler, Jochen; Germain, Cécile; Gligorov, Vladimir Vava; Golling, Tobias; Grasland, Hadrien; Gray, Heather; Guyon, Isabelle; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Innocente, Vincenzo; Kégl, Balázs; Neuhaus, Sara; Rousseau, David; Salzburger, Andreas; Ustyuzhanin, Andrei; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wessel, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin


    Charged particle tracking has been a major component of data-processing in high-energy physics experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and is fore- seen to become more and more challenging. There are many ways to perform the tracking task; a collaborative platform, RAMP, has been set up so that developers can create algo- rithms to solve a simplified 2D tracking problems. A small scale competition was held during Connecting The Dots / Intelligent Trackers 2017 (CTDWIT 2017) workshop. De- spite the short time scale, a number of different approaches have been exercised. The scoring algorithm which has been developed, was shown to be robust both during the competition and with stress tests performed after the competition.

  20. Dynamic Optimization of Trajectory for Ramp-up Current Profile in Tokamak Plasmas

    Ren, Zhigang; Ou, Yongsheng


    In this paper, we consider an open-loop, finite-time, optimal control problem of attaining a specific desired current profile during the ramp-up phase by finding the best open-loop actuator input trajectories. Average density, total power, and plasma current are used as control actuators to manipulate the profile shape in tokamak plasmas. Based on the control parameterization method, we propose a numerical solution procedure directly to solve the original PDE-constrained optimization problem using gradient-based optimization techniques such as sequential quadratic programming (SQP). This paper is aimed at proposing an effective framework for the solution of PDE-constrained optimization problem in tokamak plasmas. A more user-friendly and efficient graphical user interface (GUI) is designed in MATLAB and the numerical simulation results are verified to demonstrate its applicability. In addition, the proposed framework of combining existing PDE and numerical optimization solvers to solve PDE-constrained optimiz...

  1. Analysis of the EDIPO Temperature Margin During Current Ramp-Up

    Marinucci, C; Calvi, Marco; Marinucci, Claudio; Cau, Francesca; Bottura, Luca


    The European dipole (EDIPO), currently under construction, will provide background magnetic fields of up to 12.5 T for tests of ITER high-current superconducting cables. The EDIPO winding consists of 7 x 2 double layers of Nb3SN cable-in-conduit conductors with forced flow cooling of supercritical helium. The performance limits of EDIPO during current ramp-up are analyzed analysed with the CryoSoft suite of codes, recently integrated into a customizable and flexible environment for the analysis of thermal hydraulic and electrical transients in superconducting magnetic systems. The simultaneous analysis of the cryogenic system and all 14 double layers shows that under all charging conditions the EDIPO temperature margin remains sufficiently high.

  2. Tune Determination of Strongly Coupled Betatron Oscillations in a Fast-Ramping Synchrotron

    Alexahin, Y.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Marsh, W; Triplett, K.; /Fermilab


    Tune identification -- i.e. attribution of the spectral peak to a particular normal de of oscillations -- can present a significant difficulty in the presence of strong transverse coupling when the normal mode with a lower damping rate dominates spectra of Turn-by-Turn oscillations in both planes. The introduced earlier phased sum algorithm helped to recover the weaker normal mode signal from the noise, but by itself proved to be insufficient for automatic peak identification in the case of close phase advance distribution in both planes. To resolve this difficulty we modified the algorithm by taking and analyzing Turn-by-Turn data for two different ramps with the beam oscillation excited in each plane in turn. Comparison of relative amplitudes of Fourier components allows for correct automatic tune identification. The proposed algorithm was implemented in the Fermilab Booster B38 console application and successfully used for tune, coupling and chromaticity measurements.

  3. Non-isentropic layers in matter behind shock and ramp compression waves

    Khishchenko, Konstantin V


    According to the ideal fluid dynamics approach, the temperature and entropy values of a medium undergo a jump increase in the shock front as well as on contact interface between different materials after the shock wave propagation, but remain constant behind the shock front out of the contact interface. In the real condensed matter, the shock fronts and transition regions near the interfaces have finite thicknesses; therefore, the temperature field is disturbed around the interfaces. In this work, such disturbances are numerically analyzed for the problems of formation of the steady shock wave at impact and ramp loading of metals, reflection of the steady shock wave from a free surface, and the shock wave passing through the interface between two different materials. Theoretical analysis and computations show that the non-isentropic layers (the high-entropy ones with the increased temperature and the low-entropy ones with the decreased temperature) arise near the interfaces in the above problems of shock and ...

  4. A power ramped pulsed mode laser piercing technique for improved CO 2 laser profile cutting

    Tirumala Rao, B.; Ittoop, M. O.; Kukreja, L. M.


    Laser piercing is one of the inevitable requirements of laser profile cutting process and it has a direct bearing on the quality of the laser cut profiles. We have developed a novel power ramped pulsed mode (PRPM) laser piercing technique to produce much finer pierced holes and to achieve a better control on the process parameters compared to the existing methodology based on normal pulsed mode (NPM). Experiments were carried out with both PRPM and NPM laser piercing on 1.5-mm-thick mild steel using an in-house developed high-power transverse flow continuous wave (CW)-CO 2 laser. Significant improvements in the spatter, circularity of the pierced hole and reproducibility were achieved through the PRPM technique. We studied, in detail, the dynamics of processes involved in PRPM laser piercing and compared that with those of the NPM piercing.

  5. Determination of Best Criteria to Determine Final and Initial Speeds within Ramp Exercise Testing Protocols

    Sidney C. da Silva


    Full Text Available This study compared strategies to define final and initial speeds for designing ramp protocols. VO2max  was directly assessed in 117 subjects (29±8 yrs and estimated by three nonexercise models: (1 Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire (VSAQ; (2 Rating of Perceived Capacity (RPC; (3 Questionnaire of Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF. Thirty seven subjects (30±9 yrs performed three additional tests with initial speeds corresponding to 50% of estimated VO2max  and 50% and 60% of measured VO2max . Significant differences (P<0.001 were found between VO2max  measured (41.5±6.6 mL·kg−1·min−1 and estimated by VSAQ (36.6±6.6 mL·kg−1·min−1 and CRF (45.0±5.3 mL·kg−1·min−1, but not RPC (41.3±6.2 mL·kg−1·min−1. The CRF had the highest ICC, the lowest SEE, and better limits of agreement with VO2max  compared to the other instruments. Initial speeds from 50%–60% VO2max  estimated by CRF or measured produced similar VO2max  (40.7±5.9; 40.0±5.6; 40.3±5.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 resp., P=0.14. The closest relationship to identity line was found in tests beginning at 50% VO2max  estimated by CRF. In conclusion, CRF was the best option to estimate VO2max  and therefore to define the final speed for ramp protocols. The measured VO2max  was independent of initial speeds, but speeds higher than 50% VO2max  produced poorer submaximal relationships between workload and VO2.

  6. Relationship between work rate and oxygen uptake in mitochondrial myopathy during ramp-incremental exercise

    A.C. Gimenes


    Full Text Available We determined the response characteristics and functional correlates of the dynamic relationship between the rate (Δ of oxygen consumption ( O2 and the applied power output (work rate = WR during ramp-incremental exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM. Fourteen patients (7 males, age 35.4 ± 10.8 years with biopsy-proven MM and 10 sedentary controls (6 males, age 29.0 ± 7.8 years took a ramp-incremental cycle ergometer test for the determination of the O2 on-exercise mean response time (MRT and the gas exchange threshold (GET. The ΔO2/ΔWR slope was calculated up to GET (S1, above GET (S2 and over the entire linear portion of the response (S T. Knee muscle endurance was measured by isokinetic dynamometry. As expected, peak O2 and muscle performance were lower in patients than controls (P O2/ΔWR than controls, especially the S2 component (6.8 ± 1.5 vs 10.3 ± 0.6 mL·min-1·W-1, respectively; P O2/ΔWR (S T and muscle endurance, MRT-O2, GET and peak O2 in MM patients (P O2/ΔWR below 8 mL·min-1·W-1 had severely reduced peak O2 values (O2 had lower ΔO2/ΔWR (P O2/ΔWR is typically reduced in patients with MM, being related to increased functional impairment and higher cardiopulmonary stress.

  7. How realistic are flat-ramp-flat fault kinematic models? Comparing mechanical and kinematic models

    Cruz, L.; Nevitt, J. M.; Hilley, G. E.; Seixas, G.


    Rock within the upper crust appears to deform according to elasto-plastic constitutive rules, but structural geologists often employ kinematic descriptions that prescribe particle motions irrespective of these physical properties. In this contribution, we examine the range of constitutive properties that are approximately implied by kinematic models by comparing predicted deformations between mechanical and kinematic models for identical fault geometric configurations. Specifically, we use the ABAQUS finite-element package to model a fault-bend-fold geometry using an elasto-plastic constitutive rule (the elastic component is linear and the plastic failure occurs according to a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion). We varied physical properties in the mechanical model (i.e., Young's modulus, Poisson ratio, cohesion yield strength, internal friction angle, sliding friction angle) to determine the impact of each on the observed deformations, which were then compared to predictions of kinematic models parameterized with identical geometries. We found that a limited sub-set of physical properties were required to produce deformations that were similar to those predicted by the kinematic models. Specifically, mechanical models with low cohesion are required to allow the kink at the bottom of the flat-ramp geometry to remain stationary over time. Additionally, deformations produced by steep ramp geometries (30 degrees) are difficult to reconcile between the two types of models, while lower slope gradients better conform to the geometric assumptions. These physical properties may fall within the range of those observed in laboratory experiments, suggesting that particle motions predicted by kinematic models may provide an approximate representation of those produced by a physically consistent model under some circumstances.

  8. Mechanomyographic responses during voluntary ramp contractions of the human first dorsal interosseous muscle.

    Akataki, Kumi; Mita, Katsumi; Watakabe, Makoto; Itoh, Kunihiko


    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanomyogram (MMG) and force relationship of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle as well as the biceps brachii (BB) muscle during voluntary isometric ramp contractions, and to elucidate the MMG responses resulting from the intrinsic motor unit (MU) activation strategy of FDI muscle with reference to the MMG of BB muscle. The subjects were asked to exert ramp contractions of FDI and BB muscle from 5% to 70% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at a constant rate of 10% MVC/s. In FDI muscle, the root-mean-squared amplitude (RMS) of the MMG decreased slowly with force up to 21%, and then a progressive increase was followed by a relatively rapid decrease beyond 41% MVC. The RMS/%MVC relationship in BB muscle consisted of an initial slow increase followed by a rapid increase from 23% MVC and a progressive decrease beyond 61% MVC. With respect to the mean power frequency (MPF), FDI muscle demonstrated no obvious inflection point in the MPF/%MVC relationship compared with that in BB muscle. Namely, the MPF of FDI muscle increased linearly through the force levels exerted. In contrast to FDI muscle, the MPF/%MVC relationship in BB muscle was decomposed into four specific regions: (1) a relative rapidly increase (62% MVC). The different MMG responses between FDI and BB muscles are considered to reflect the fact that the MU activation strategy varies among different muscles in relation to their morphology and histochemical type. Namely, the rate coding of the MUs plays a more prominent role in force production in relatively small FDI muscle than does MU recruitment compared with their respective roles in the relatively large BB muscle.

  9. The influence of familiarization sessions on the stability of ramp and ballistic isometric torque in older adults.

    Wallerstein, Lilian F; Barroso, Renato; Tricoli, Valmor; Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos


    Ramp isometric contractions determine peak torque (PT) and neuromuscular activation (NA), and ballistic contractions can be used to evaluate rate of torque development (RTD) and electrical mechanical delay (EMD). The purposes of this study were to assess the number of sessions required to stabilize ramp and ballistic PT and to compare PT and NA between contractions in older adults. Thirty-five older men and women (age 63.7 ± 3.7 yr, body mass 64.3 ± 10.7 kg, height 159.2 ± 6.6 cm) performed 4 sessions of unilateral ramp and ballistic isometric knee extension, 48 hr apart. PT significantly increased (main time effect p < .05) from the first to the third session, with no further improvements thereafter. There was a trend toward higher PT in ballistic than in ramp contractions. No difference between contraction types on EMG values was observed. Therefore, the authors suggest that 3 familiarization sessions be performed to correctly assess PT. In addition, PT, NA, RTD, and EMD can be assessed with ballistic contraction in older adults.

  10. Stochastic modeling of the dynamics of incident-induced lane traffic states for incident-responsive local ramp control

    Sheu, Jiuh-Biing


    Incident-induced traffic congestion has been recognized as a critical issue to solve in the development of advanced freeway incident management systems. This paper investigates the applicability of a stochastic optimal control approach to real-time incident-responsive local ramp control on freeways. The architecture of the proposed ramp control system embeds two primary functions including (1) real-time estimation of incident-induced lane traffic states and (2) dynamic prediction of ramp-metering rates in response to the changes of incident impacts. To accomplish the above two goals, a discrete-time nonlinear stochastic optimal control model is proposed, followed by the development of a recursive prediction algorithm. Based on the simulation data, the numerical results of model tests indicate that the proposed method permits relieving incident impacts particularly under low-volume and medium-volume conditions, relative to high-volume lane-blocking conditions. Particularly, the incident-induced queue lengths can be improved by 50.1% and 67.9%, compared to the existing ramp control and control-free strategies, respectively.

  11. Never the twain shall meet? : Simulating sales & operations planning ramp-up dynamics in IT-enabled service supply chains

    Akkermans, Henk; Voss, C.; van Oers, Roeland; Zhu, Quan


    In IT-enabled service supply chains offering services through a mix of manual and automated activities, volume ramp-ups are notoriously difficult. Especially difficult is the attempt to effectively balance the inherently conflicting objectives of the functions Sales, who want to increase output as

  12. Observation of the AC Josephson effect up to THZ frequencies in YBCO/PBCO/YBCO ramp-type Josephson junctions

    Terpstra, D.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.; Roesthuis, F.J.G.; Blank, D.H.A.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Rogalla, H.


    We present the response to 100 GHz irradiation of high-Tc Josephson junction devices for mixer/detector applications in the (sub-) mm wave range. These devices consist of a YBCO/PBCO/YBCO ramp-type junction combined with a planar logarithmic periodic antenna. The critical current and the first two S

  13. Fabrications aspects of microwave devices, including ramp-type high-Tc Josephson junctions and log-periodic antenna's

    Terpstra, D.; Rijnders, A.J.H.M.; Roesthuis, F.J.G.; Blank, D.H.A.; Gerritsma, G.J.; Rogalla, H.


    We describe the development of high-Tc Josephson junction devices for applications at millimeter wave frequencies. These devices consist of ramp type YBCO/PBCO/YBCO Josephson junctions that are equipped with a noble metal log-periodic antenna. Growth conditions of all layers, as well as etching, cle

  14. Ramps and hybrid effects on keel bone and foot pad disorders in modified aviaries for laying hens.

    Heerkens, J L T; Delezie, E; Ampe, B; Rodenburg, T B; Tuyttens, F A M


    Non-cage systems provide laying hens with considerable space allowance, perches and access to litter, thereby offering opportunities for natural species-specific behaviors. Conversely, these typical characteristics of non-cage systems also increase the risk of keel bone and foot pad disorders. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to investigate if providing ramps between perches (housing factor) reduces keel bone and foot pad disorders and 2) to test for genetic predisposition by comparing 2 different layer hybrids. In a 2 × 2 design, 16 pens were equipped either with or without ramps between perches and nest boxes (8 pens/treatment), and housed with either 25 ISA Brown or Dekalb White birds per pen (in total 200 birds/hybrid). Keel bone injuries and foot health were repeatedly measured via palpation and visual assessment between 17 and 52 wk of age and daily egg production was recorded. The relationships between the dependent response variables (keel bone and footpad disorders, egg production) and independent factors (age, ramps, hybrid) were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models and corrected for repeated measures. Ramps reduced keel bone fractures (F1,950 = 45.80, P Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Facies y microfacies de la rampa tithoniana-berriasiana de la cuenca neuquina (Formación Vaca Muerta en la sección del arroyo Loncoche - Malargüe, provincia de Mendoza Facies and microfacies of the Tithonian-Berriasian ramp from the Neuquén basin (Vaca Muerta Formation in the Loncoche creek section - Malargüe, Mendoza

    Diego A. Kietzmann


    , grey shales, marls and siltstones, with bioclastic mudstones, wackestones, packstones, floatstones and rudstones. Facies associations corresponding to four types of depositional settings were distinguished: basin, outer ramp (distal and proximal, and middle ramp. The Nassellaria/Spumellaria ratio was used for bathymetrical interpretation and allows an estimation minor than 200 m depth. The strata pattern and vertical facies distribution show three depositional sequences between a tithonian homoclinal ramp and a berriasian steep homoclinal ramp system. The depositional sequence 1 consists of basin and distal outer ramp facies and it is characterized by a retrogradational pattern. It reaches 124 m in thickness, and may be assigned to the Virgatosphinctes mendozanus Zone up to the base of Corongoceras alternans Zone. Depositional sequences 2 and 3 consist of outer ramp and middle ramp facies. They are characterized by agradational and progradational patterns. The thickness of the sequences 2 is 66 m and is assigned to Corongoceras alternans Zone, meanwhile sequence 3 reachs 78 m and corresponds to Substeueroceras koeneni and Spiticeras damesi zones.

  16. A Coupled Model of Langmuir Circulations and Ramp-like Structures in the Upper Ocean Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Soloviev, A.; Dean, C.; Lukas, R.; Donelan, M. A.; Terray, E. A.


    Surface-wave breaking is a powerful mechanism producing significant energy flux to small scale turbulence. Most of the turbulent energy produced by breaking waves dissipates within one significant wave height, while the turbulent diffusion layer extends to approximately ten significant wave heights. Notably, the near-surface shear may practically vanish within the wave-stirred layer due to small-scale turbulent mixing. The surface ocean temperature-salinity structure, circulation, and mass exchanges (including greenhouse gases and pollutants) substantially depend on turbulent mixing and non-local transport in the near-surface layer of the ocean. Spatially coherent organized motions have been recognized as an important part of non-local transport. Langmuir circulation (LC) and ramp-like structures are believed to vertically transfer an appreciable portion of the momentum, heat, gases, pollutants (e.g., oil), and other substances in the upper layer of the ocean. Free surface significantly complicates the analysis of turbulent exchanges at the air-sea interface and the coherent structures are not yet completely understood. In particular, there is growing observational evidence that in the case of developing seas when the wind direction may not coincide with the direction of the energy containing waves, the Langmuir lines are oriented in the wind rather than the wave direction. In addition, the vortex force due to Stokes drift in traditional models is altered in the breaking-wave-stirred layer. Another complication is that the ramp-like structures in the upper ocean turbulent boundary layer have axes perpendicular to the axes of LC. The ramp-like structures are not considered in the traditional model. We have developed a new model, which treats the LC and ramp-like structures in the near-surface layer of the ocean as a coupled system. Using computational fluid dynamics tools (LES), we have been able to reproduce both LC and ramp-like structures coexisting in space

  17. The development of the East African Rift system in north-central Kenya

    Hackman, B. D.; Charsley, T. J.; Key, R. M.; Wilkinson, A. F.


    Between 1980 and 1986 geological surveying to produce maps on a scale of 1:250,000 was completed over an area of over 100,000 km 2 in north-central Kenya, bounded by the Equator, the Ethiopian border and longitudes 36° and 38 °E. The Gregory Rift, much of which has the structure of an asymmetric half-graben, is the most prominent component of the Cenozoic multiple rift system which extends up to 200 km to the east and for about 100 km to the west, forming the Kenya dome. On the eastern shoulder and fringes two en echelon arrays of late Tertiary to Quaternary multicentre shields can be recognized: to the south is the Aberdares-Mount Kenya-Nyambeni Range chain and, to the north the clusters of Mount Kulal, Asie, Huri Hills and Marsabit, with plateau lavas and fissure vents south of Marsabit in the Laisamis area. The Gregory Rift terminates at the southern end of Lake Turkana. Further north the rift system splays: the arcuate Kinu Sogo fault zone forms an offset link with the central Ethiopian Rift system. In the rifts of north-central Kenya volcanism, sedimentation and extensional tectonics commenced and have been continuous since the late Oligocene. Throughout this period the Elgeyo Fault acted as a major bounding fault. A comparative study of the northern and eastern fringes of the Kenya dome with the axial graben reinforces the impression of regional E-W asymmetry. Deviations from the essential N-trend of the Gregory Rift reflect structural weaknesses in the underlying Proterozoic basement, the Mozambique Orogenic Belt: thus south of Lake Baringo the swing to the southeast parallels the axes of the ca. 620 Ma phase folds. Secondary faults associated with this flexure have created a "shark tooth" array, an expression of en echelon offsets of the eastern margin of the Gregory Rift in a transtensional stress regime: hinge zones where major faults intersect on the eastern shoulder feature intense box faulting and ramp structures which have counterparts in the rift

  18. 78 FR 57482 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Event in Captain of the Port New York Zone


    ... Safety waters of the East River Zone south of the Brooklyn 33 CFR 165.160(4.4) Bridge and north of a line drawn from the southwest corner of Pier 3, Brooklyn, to the southeast corner of Pier 6, Manhattan. Date...

  19. Striatal dopamine ramping may indicate flexible reinforcement learning with forgetting in the cortico-basal ganglia circuits

    Kenji eMorita


    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the midbrain dopamine (DA neurons, receiving inputs from the cortico-basal ganglia (CBG circuits and the brainstem, compute reward prediction error (RPE, the difference between reward obtained or expected to be obtained and reward that had been expected to be obtained. These reward expectations are suggested to be stored in the CBG synapses and updated according to RPE through synaptic plasticity, which is induced by released DA. These together constitute the 'DA=RPE' hypothesis, which describes the mutual interaction between DA and the CBG circuits and serves as the primary working hypothesis in studying reward learning and value-based decision making. However, recent work has revealed a new type of DA signal that appears not to represent RPE. Specifically, it has been found in a reward-associated maze task that striatal DA concentration primarily shows a gradual increase towards the goal. We explored whether such ramping DA could be explained by extending the 'DA=RPE' hypothesis by taking into account biological properties of the CBG circuits. In particular, we examined effects of possible time-dependent decay of DA-dependent plastic changes of synaptic strengths by incorporating decay of learned values into the RPE-based reinforcement learning model and simulating reward learning tasks. We then found that incorporation of such a decay dramatically changes the model's behavior, causing gradual ramping of RPE. Moreover, we further incorporated magnitude-dependence of the rate of decay, which could potentially be in accord with some past observations, and found that near-sigmoidal ramping of RPE, resembling the observed DA ramping, could then occur. Given that synaptic decay can be useful for flexibly reversing and updating the learned reward associations, especially in case the baseline DA is low and encoding of negative RPE by DA is limited, the observed DA ramping would be indicative of the operation of such

  20. Striatal dopamine ramping may indicate flexible reinforcement learning with forgetting in the cortico-basal ganglia circuits.

    Morita, Kenji; Kato, Ayaka


    It has been suggested that the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, receiving inputs from the cortico-basal ganglia (CBG) circuits and the brainstem, compute reward prediction error (RPE), the difference between reward obtained or expected to be obtained and reward that had been expected to be obtained. These reward expectations are suggested to be stored in the CBG synapses and updated according to RPE through synaptic plasticity, which is induced by released DA. These together constitute the "DA=RPE" hypothesis, which describes the mutual interaction between DA and the CBG circuits and serves as the primary working hypothesis in studying reward learning and value-based decision-making. However, recent work has revealed a new type of DA signal that appears not to represent RPE. Specifically, it has been found in a reward-associated maze task that striatal DA concentration primarily shows a gradual increase toward the goal. We explored whether such ramping DA could be explained by extending the "DA=RPE" hypothesis by taking into account biological properties of the CBG circuits. In particular, we examined effects of possible time-dependent decay of DA-dependent plastic changes of synaptic strengths by incorporating decay of learned values into the RPE-based reinforcement learning model and simulating reward learning tasks. We then found that incorporation of such a decay dramatically changes the model's behavior, causing gradual ramping of RPE. Moreover, we further incorporated magnitude-dependence of the rate of decay, which could potentially be in accord with some past observations, and found that near-sigmoidal ramping of RPE, resembling the observed DA ramping, could then occur. Given that synaptic decay can be useful for flexibly reversing and updating the learned reward associations, especially in case the baseline DA is low and encoding of negative RPE by DA is limited, the observed DA ramping would be indicative of the operation of such flexible reward learning.