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Sample records for zone control system

  1. Proportional Derivative Control with Inverse Dead-Zone for Pendulum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A proportional derivative controller with inverse dead-zone is proposed for the control of pendulum systems. The proposed method has the characteristic that the inverse dead-zone is cancelled with the pendulum dead-zone. Asymptotic stability of the proposed technique is guaranteed by the Lyapunov analysis. Simulations of two pendulum systems show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  2. Design architecture for multi-zone HVAC control systems from existing single-zone systems using wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Andrew; Koplow, Michael; Wright, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems utilize a single zone for conditioning air throughout the entire house. While inexpensive, these systems lead to wide temperature distributions and inefficient cooling due to the difference in thermal loads in different rooms. The end result is additional cost to the end user because the house is over conditioned. To reduce the total amount of energy used in a home and to increase occupant comfort there is a need for a better control system using multiple temperature zones. Typical multi-zone systems are costly and require extensive infrastructure to function. Recent advances in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have enabled a low cost drop-in wireless vent register control system. The register control system is controlled by a master controller unit, which collects sensor data from a distributed wireless sensor network. Each sensor node samples local settings (occupancy, light, humidity and temperature) and reports the data back to the master control unit. The master control unit compiles the incoming data and then actuates the vent resisters to control the airflow throughout the house. The control system also utilizes a smart thermostat with a movable set point to enable the user to define their given comfort levels. The new system can reduce the run time of the HVAC system and thus decreasing the amount of energy used and increasing the comfort of the home occupations.

  3. Computerized radiation control system in the Chernobyl 30-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'chenko, D.L.; Pis'mak, A.D.; Livertovskij, G.P.; Chikhladze, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    Computerized radiation control system is intended for monitoring radiation in the zone of radiation-hazardous objects for providing nuclear power station services with current information on radiactive situation in the zone of observation and the doses of radiation taken by the personnel. Described are tasks and functions of the system, as well as its structure. It is noted that unique conditions of the Chernobyl' 30-km zone open up opportunities for experiments and testing new models of equipment. 2 figs

  4. Robust multi-model predictive control of multi-zone thermal plate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poom Jatunitanon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A modern controller was designed by using the mathematical model of a multi–zone thermal plate system. An important requirement for this type of controller is that it must be able to keep the temperature set-point of each thermal zone. The mathematical model used in the design was determined through a system identification process. The results showed that when the operating condition is changed, the performance of the controller may be reduced as a result of the system parameter uncertainties. This paper proposes a weighting technique of combining the robust model predictive controller for each operating condition into a single robust multi-model predictive control. Simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional multi-model predictive control in rise time of transient response, when used in a system designed to work over a wide range of operating conditions.

  5. Adaptive variable structure control for uncertain chaotic systems containing dead-zone nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, J.-J.; Shyu, K.-K.; Lin, J.-S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses a practical tracking problem for a class of uncertain chaotic systems with dead-zone nonlinearity in the input function. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem and Barbalat lemma, an adaptive variable structure controller (AVSC) is proposed to ensure the occurrence of the sliding mode even though the control input contains a dead-zone. Also it is worthy of note that the proposed AVSC involves no information of the upper bound of uncertainty. Thus, the limitation of knowing the bound of uncertainty in advance is certainly released. Furthermore, in the sliding mode, the investigated uncertain chaotic system remains insensitive to the uncertainty, and behaves like a linear system. Finally, a well-known Duffing-Holmes chaotic system is used to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed AVSC

  6. Adaptive NN tracking control of uncertain nonlinear discrete-time systems with nonaffine dead-zone input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Tong, Shaocheng

    2015-03-01

    In the paper, an adaptive tracking control design is studied for a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems with dead-zone input. The considered systems are of the nonaffine pure-feedback form and the dead-zone input appears nonlinearly in the systems. The contributions of the paper are that: 1) it is for the first time to investigate the control problem for this class of discrete-time systems with dead-zone; 2) there are major difficulties for stabilizing such systems and in order to overcome the difficulties, the systems are transformed into an n-step-ahead predictor but nonaffine function is still existent; and 3) an adaptive compensative term is constructed to compensate for the parameters of the dead-zone. The neural networks are used to approximate the unknown functions in the transformed systems. Based on the Lyapunov theory, it is proven that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking error converges to a small neighborhood of zero. Two simulation examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the control approach in the paper.

  7. Fuel conditioning facility zone-to-zone transfer administrative controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    The administrative controls associated with transferring containers from one criticality hazard control zone to another in the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) are described. FCF, located at the ANL-West site near Idaho Falls, Idaho, is used to remotely process spent sodium bonded metallic fuel for disposition. The process involves nearly forty widely varying material forms and types, over fifty specific use container types, and over thirty distinct zones where work activities occur. During 1999, over five thousand transfers from one zone to another were conducted. Limits are placed on mass, material form and type, and container types for each zone. Ml material and containers are tracked using the Mass Tracking System (MTG). The MTG uses an Oracle database and numerous applications to manage the database. The database stores information specific to the process, including material composition and mass, container identification number and mass, transfer history, and the operators involved in each transfer. The process is controlled using written procedures which specify the zone, containers, and material involved in a task. Transferring a container from one zone to another is called a zone-to-zone transfer (ZZT). ZZTs consist of four distinct phases, select, request, identify, and completion

  8. A Unified Approach to Adaptive Neural Control for Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems With Nonlinear Dead-Zone Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Gao, Ying; Tong, Shaocheng; Chen, C L Philip

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an effective adaptive control approach is constructed to stabilize a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems, which contain unknown functions, unknown dead-zone input, and unknown control direction. Different from linear dead zone, the dead zone, in this paper, is a kind of nonlinear dead zone. To overcome the noncausal problem, which leads to the control scheme infeasible, the systems can be transformed into a m -step-ahead predictor. Due to nonlinear dead-zone appearance, the transformed predictor still contains the nonaffine function. In addition, it is assumed that the gain function of dead-zone input and the control direction are unknown. These conditions bring about the difficulties and the complicacy in the controller design. Thus, the implicit function theorem is applied to deal with nonaffine dead-zone appearance, the problem caused by the unknown control direction can be resolved through applying the discrete Nussbaum gain, and the neural networks are used to approximate the unknown function. Based on the Lyapunov theory, all the signals of the resulting closed-loop system are proved to be semiglobal uniformly ultimately bounded. Moreover, the tracking error is proved to be regulated to a small neighborhood around zero. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by a simulation example.

  9. Making SPC easier with zone control charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, B.

    1995-01-01

    The zone control chart is a simple, easy to learn statistical process control (SPC) tool that can be applied to any process where the data are normally distributed. Several Shewhart runs rules are incorporated into a simple scoring system, with a single rule to determine when a process is out of control. Zone charts have average run lengths (ARLs) for detecting shifts in the process mean which, for most cases, are uniformly better than the standard control charts. This paper presents the simplified methodology behind the zone control chart

  10. Adaptive Neural Tracking Control for Discrete-Time Switched Nonlinear Systems with Dead Zone Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the adaptive neural controllers of subsystems are proposed for a class of discrete-time switched nonlinear systems with dead zone inputs under arbitrary switching signals. Due to the complicated framework of the discrete-time switched nonlinear systems and the existence of the dead zone, it brings about difficulties for controlling such a class of systems. In addition, the radial basis function neural networks are employed to approximate the unknown terms of each subsystem. Switched update laws are designed while the parameter estimation is invariable until its corresponding subsystem is active. Then, the closed-loop system is stable and all the signals are bounded. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, an example is employed.

  11. Upgrade of the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System at the VNIIEF Industrial Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.C.; Maltsev, V.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Zone at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center/All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC/VNEEF) consists of ten guarded areas with twenty two material balance areas (A and As). The type of facilities in the Industrial Zone include storage sites, machine shops, research facilities, and training facilities. Modernization of the Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) System at the Industrial Zone started in 1997. This paper provides a description of, the methodology/strategy used in the upgrade of the MFC and A system

  12. A Study on a Control Method with a Ventilation Requirement of a VAV System in Multi-Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Jun Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to propose a control method with a ventilation requirement of variable air volume (VAV system in multi-zone. In order to control the VAV system inmulti-zone, it is essential to control the terminal unit installed in each zone. A VAV terminal unit with conventional control method using a fixed minimum air flow can cause indoor air quality (IAQ issues depending on the variation in the number of occupants. This research proposes a control method with a ventilation requirement of the VAV terminal unit and AHU inmulti-zone. The integrated control method with an air flow increase model in the VAV terminal unit, AHU, and outdoor air intake rate increase model in the AHU was based on the indoor CO2 concentration. The conventional and proposed control algorithms were compared through a TRNSYS simulation program. The proposed VAV terminal unit control method satisfies all the conditions of indoor temperature, IAQ, and stratification. An energy comparison with the conventional control method showed that the method satisfies not only the indoor thermal comfort, IAQ, and stratification issue, but also reduces the energy consumption.

  13. Control of oxygen tension recapitulates zone-specific functions in human liver microphysiology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Montiel, Felipe T; George, Subin M; Gough, Albert H; Sharma, Anup D; Wu, Juanfang; DeBiasio, Richard; Vernetti, Lawrence A; Taylor, D Lansing

    2017-10-01

    This article describes our next generation human Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System (LAMPS). The key demonstration of this study was that Zone 1 and Zone 3 microenvironments can be established by controlling the oxygen tension in individual devices over the range of ca. 3 to 13%. The oxygen tension was computationally modeled using input on the microfluidic device dimensions, numbers of cells, oxygen consumption rates of hepatocytes, the diffusion coefficients of oxygen in different materials and the flow rate of media in the MicroPhysiology System (MPS). In addition, the oxygen tension was measured using a ratiometric imaging method with the oxygen sensitive dye, Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (RTDP) and the oxygen insensitive dye, Alexa 488. The Zone 1 biased functions of oxidative phosphorylation, albumin and urea secretion and Zone 3 biased functions of glycolysis, α1AT secretion, Cyp2E1 expression and acetaminophen toxicity were demonstrated in the respective Zone 1 and Zone 3 MicroPhysiology System. Further improvements in the Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System included improved performance of selected nonparenchymal cells, the inclusion of a porcine liver extracellular matrix to model the Space of Disse, as well as an improved media to support both hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. In its current form, the Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System is most amenable to low to medium throughput, acute through chronic studies, including liver disease models, prioritizing compounds for preclinical studies, optimizing chemistry in structure activity relationship (SAR) projects, as well as in rising dose studies for initial dose ranging. Impact statement Oxygen zonation is a critical aspect of liver functions. A human microphysiology system is needed to investigate the impact of zonation on a wide range of liver functions that can be experimentally manipulated. Because oxygen zonation has such diverse physiological effects in the liver, we

  14. Identification and adaptive neural network control of a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jinzhu; Dubay, Rickey

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, an adaptive control approach based on the neural networks is presented to control a DC motor system with dead-zone characteristics (DZC), where two neural networks are proposed to formulate the traditional identification and control approaches. First, a Wiener-type neural network (WNN) is proposed to identify the motor DZC, which formulates the Wiener model with a linear dynamic block in cascade with a nonlinear static gain. Second, a feedforward neural network is proposed to formulate the traditional PID controller, termed as PID-type neural network (PIDNN), which is then used to control and compensate for the DZC. In this way, the DC motor system with DZC is identified by the WNN identifier, which provides model information to the PIDNN controller in order to make it adaptive. Back-propagation algorithms are used to train both neural networks. Also, stability and convergence analysis are conducted using the Lyapunov theorem. Finally, experiments on the DC motor system demonstrated accurate identification and good compensation for dead-zone with improved control performance over the conventional PID control. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimation of CANDU reactor zone controller level by generalized perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Heon; Kim, Jong Kyung; Choi, Hang Bok; Roh, Gyu Hong; Yang, Won Sik

    1998-01-01

    The zone controller level change due to refueling operation has been studied using a generalized perturbation method. The generalized perturbation method provides sensitivity of zone power to individual refueling operation and incremental change of zone controller level. By constructing a system equation for each zone power, the zone controller level change was obtained. The details and a proposed model for future work are described

  16. Adaptive neural network output feedback control for stochastic nonlinear systems with unknown dead-zone and unmodeled dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shaocheng; Wang, Tong; Li, Yongming; Zhang, Huaguang

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses the problem of adaptive neural network output feedback control for a class of stochastic nonlinear strict-feedback systems. The concerned systems have certain characteristics, such as unknown nonlinear uncertainties, unknown dead-zones, unmodeled dynamics and without the direct measurements of state variables. In this paper, the neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate the unknown nonlinear uncertainties, and then by representing the dead-zone as a time-varying system with a bounded disturbance. An NN state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states. Based on both backstepping design technique and a stochastic small-gain theorem, a robust adaptive NN output feedback control scheme is developed. It is proved that all the variables involved in the closed-loop system are input-state-practically stable in probability, and also have robustness to the unmodeled dynamics. Meanwhile, the observer errors and the output of the system can be regulated to a small neighborhood of the origin by selecting appropriate design parameters. Simulation examples are also provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  17. Control of penetration zone GMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віталій Петрович Iванов

    2016-11-01

    effective ways to manage and control the welding process. Making up of the control systems as well as surfacing control involve the selection of the parameters that directly influence the formation of the melting zone as well as the use of these parameters as control signals in real time regime. The influence of the mode parameters on the formation of the fusion zone has been investigated and the ways to manage and stabilize the weld pool formation have been identified. The penetration zone modes formation for the fixed and moving electrodes have been worked out. The relations were calculated through statistical processing of macrosections penetration zones parameters measurement results, the macrosections being obtained by means of arc welding in shielding gases for various diameters of the electrode and various feed rate ranges (current, according to the arc time and its speed of movement

  18. Satellite-aided coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a coastal zone monitoring and vessel traffic system is described. This technique uses a LORAN-C navigational system and relays signals via the ATS-3 satellite to a computer driven color video display for real time control. Multi-use applications of the system to search and rescue operations, coastal zone management and marine safety are described. It is emphasized that among the advantages of the system are: its unlimited range; compatibility with existing navigation systems; and relatively inexpensive cost.

  19. A demonstration of expert systems applications in transportation engineering : volume II, TRANZ, a prototype expert system for traffic control in highway work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The development of a prototype knowledge-based expert system (KBES) for selecting appropriate traffic control strategies and management techniques around highway work zones was initiated. This process was encompassed by the steps that formulate the p...

  20. Review of Literature on Terminal Box Control, Occupancy Sensing Technology and Multi-zone Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Dasu, Aravind R.; Zhang, Jian

    2012-03-01

    This report presents an overall review of the standard requirement, the terminal box control, occupancy sensing technology and DCV. There is system-specific guidance for single-zone systems, but DCV application guidance for multi-zone variable air volume (VAV) systems is not available. No real-world implementation case studies have been found using the CO2-based DCV. The review results also show that the constant minimum air flow set point causes excessive fan power consumption and potential simultaneous heating and cooling. Occupancy-based control (OBC) is needed for the terminal box in order to achieve deep energy savings. Key to OBC is a technology for sensing the actual occupancy of the zone served in real time. Several technologies show promise, but none currently fully meets the need with adequate accuracy and sufficiently low cost.

  1. Analysis of Liquid Zone Control Valve Oscillation Problem in CANDU Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnara Nasimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the existing challenges with steady-state Liquid Zone control at some CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium stations, where—contrary to expectations for equilibrium flow—Liquid Zone Control Valve oscillations have proven to be a chronic, unanticipated challenge. Currently, the exact causes of this behaviour are not fully understood, although it is confirmed that the Control Valve oscillations are not due to automatic power adjustment requests or zone level changes due to process leaks. This phenomenon was analysed based on a case study of one domestic nuclear power station to determine whether it could be attributed to inherent controller properties. Next, a proposal is made in an attempt to improve current performance with minimal changes to the existing system hardware and logic using conventional technologies. Finally, a proposal was made to consider Model Predictive Control-based technology to minimize the undesirable Control Valve oscillations at steady state based on the obtained simulation results and discussion of other available alternatives.

  2. Thermal treatment system of hazardous residuals in three heating zones based on a microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna H, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal treatment system consists of a high power electric oven of three heating zones where each zone works up to 1200 Centigrades; it has the capacity of rising the central zone temperature up to 1000 Centigrades in 58 minutes approximately. This configuration of three zones could be programmed to different temperatures and they will be digitally controlled by a control microprocessor, which has been controlled by its own assembler language, in function of the PID control. There are also other important controls based on this microprocessor, as a signal amplification, starting and shutdown of high power step relays, activation and deactivation of both analogic/digital and digital/analogic convertors, port activation and basic data storage of the system. Two main characteristics were looked for this oven design; the first was the possibility of controlling the three zone temperature and the second was to reduce the rising and stabilization operation time and its digitized control. The principal function of the three zone oven is to accelerate the degradation of hazardous residuals by an oxidation instead combustion, through relatively high temperatures (minimum 800 Centigrades and maximum 1200 Centigrades); this process reduces the ash and volatile particulate production. The hazardous residuals will be pumped into the degradation system and after atomized through a packaged column; this step will avoid the direct contact of the residuals with the oven cores. These features make this system as closed process, which means that the residuals can not leak to the working area, reducing the exposure risk to the personnel. This three step oven system is the first stage of the complete hazardous residuals degradation system; after this, the flow will go into a cold plasma region where the process is completed, making a closed system. (Author)

  3. Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides an overview Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System water quality modeling and decision support system designed for environmental impact assessment of mixing zones resulting from wastewater discharge from point sources

  4. Root-cause Investigation for No Setback Initiation at Liquid Zone Control Unit Perturbation in CANDU6 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Donghwan; Kim, Youngae; Kim, Sungmin [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Liquid zone control system (LZCS) is one of the indigenous systems in CANDU type reactor for reactor reactivity control. The LZCS is filled with light water and used to provide a continuous fine control of the reactivity and the reactor power level. This system is also designed to accomplish spatial control of the power distribution, automatically, which prevents xenon induced power oscillations. As the tilt control term is phased out, it is replaced by a level control term, which tends to drive the individual zone levels towards the average level of all the zones. Most of CANDU reactors have been experienced these events. Generally setback or stepback conditions are on when variables of spatial control off, high zone power, etc. are reached to the initiating conditions before ROP trip. But the condition of setback or stepback is not initiated before ROP trip sometime. In this study the root-causes for this event are investigated, and the impact assessment is performed by physics computational modeling. To investigate the root-cause of ROP trip before initiating setback at abnormal operating condition, some LZC perturbation models were simulated and investigated the neutron flux readings of zone detector and ROP detector. Two root-causes were founded. The first, flux variation by water level change is more gradual than other zones due to design characteristics in zone 03. The second, ROP detector (SDS no. 2 3G) in the near zone 03 is very sensitive below 40% of water level due to ROP detector installed position. Even though setback is initiated earlier than ROP trip in case of zone 03 perturbation, ROP trip will be occurred because power decreasing rate is very slow(0.1%/sec) on setback condition.

  5. Generalized projective chaos synchronization of gyroscope systems subjected to dead-zone nonlinear inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, H.-T.

    2008-01-01

    This Letter presents a robust control scheme to generalized projective synchronization between two identical two-degrees-of-freedom heavy symmetric gyroscopes with dead zone nonlinear inputs. Because of the nonlinear terms of the gyroscope system, the system exhibits complex and chaotic motions. By the Lyapunov stability theory with control terms, two suitable sliding surfaces are proposed to ensure the stability of the controlled closed-loop system in sliding mode. Then, two sliding mode controllers (SMC) are designed to guarantee the hitting of the sliding surfaces even when the control inputs contain dead-zone nonlinearity. This method allows us to arbitrarily direct the scaling factor onto a desired value. Numerical simulations show that this method works very well for the proposed controller

  6. Operation manual for the core flow test loop zone power-supply controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    The core flow test loop, which is part of the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Program (GCFR) at ORNL, is a high-pressure, high-temperature, out-of-reactor helium circulation system that is being constructed to permit study of the performance at steady-state and transient conditions of simulated segments of core assemblies for a GCFR demonstration plant. The simulated core segments, which are divided into zones, contain electrical heating elements to simulate the heat generated by fission. To control the power which is applied to a zone, a novel multitapped transformer and zone power control system have been designed and built which satisfy stringent design criteria. The controller can match power output to demand to within better than +-1% over a 900:1 dynamic range and perform full-power transients within 1 s. The power is applied in such a way as to minimize the electromagnetic interference at the bandwidth of the loop instrumentation, and the controller incorporates several error detection techniques, making it inherently fail-safe. The operation manual describes the specifications, operating instructions, error detection capabilities, error recovery, troubleshooting, calibration and QA procedures, and maintenance requirements. Also included are sections on the theory of operation, circuitry description, and a complete set of schematics.

  7. Economic Effects of Increased Control Zone Sizes in Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Koushik

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for estimating the economic effects of different control zone sizes used in conflict resolutions between aircraft is presented in this paper. The methodology is based on estimating the difference in flight times of aircraft with and without the control zone, and converting the difference into a direct operating cost. Using this methodology the effects of increased lateral and vertical control zone sizes are evaluated.

  8. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  9. The Researching on Evaluation of Automatic Voltage Control Based on Improved Zoning Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-jun, ZHU; Ang, FU; Guang-de, DONG; Rui-miao, WANG; De-fen, ZHU

    2018-03-01

    According to the present serious phenomenon of increasing size and structure of power system, hierarchically structured automatic voltage control(AVC) has been the researching spot. In the paper, the reduced control model is built and the adaptive reduced control model is researched to improve the voltage control effect. The theories of HCSD, HCVS, SKC and FCM are introduced and the effect on coordinated voltage regulation caused by different zoning methodologies is also researched. The generic framework for evaluating performance of coordinated voltage regulation is built. Finally, the IEEE-96 stsyem is used to divide the network. The 2383-bus Polish system is built to verify that the selection of a zoning methodology affects not only the coordinated voltage regulation operation, but also its robustness to erroneous data and proposes a comprehensive generic framework for evaluating its performance. The New England 39-bus network is used to verify the adaptive reduced control models’ performance.

  10. Optimization of remediation strategies using vadose zone monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Ofer

    2016-04-01

    In-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change the subsurface hydrological, physical and chemical conditions in order to enable development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria. As such the remediation efficiency is much dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. These conditions are usually determined in laboratory experiments where parameters such as the chemical composition of the soil water solution, redox potential and water content of the sediment are fully controlled. Usually, implementation of desired optimal degradation conditions in deep vadose zone at full scale field setups is achieved through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives on the land surface. It is assumed that deep percolation into the vadose zone would create chemical conditions that promote biodegradation of specific compounds. However, application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily results in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. A vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) that was recently developed allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of deep sections of the unsaturated zone. The VMS includes flexible time-domain reflectometry (FTDR) probes which allow continuous monitoring of the temporal variation of the vadose zone water content, and vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) which are designed to allow frequent sampling of the sediment pore-water and gas at multiple depths. Implementation of the vadose zone monitoring system in sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the actual chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Up-to-date the system has been successfully implemented in several studies on water flow and contaminant transport in

  11. Effect of In-Vehicle Audio Warning System on Driver’s Speed Control Performance in Transition Zones from Rural Areas to Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedong Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speeding is a major contributing factor to traffic crashes and frequently happens in areas where there is a mutation in speed limits, such as the transition zones that connect urban areas from rural areas. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of an in-vehicle audio warning system and lit speed limit sign on preventing drivers’ speeding behavior in transition zones. A high-fidelity driving simulator was used to establish a roadway network with the transition zone. A total of 41 participants were recruited for this experiment, and the driving speed performance data were collected from the simulator. The experimental results display that the implementation of the audio warning system could significantly reduce drivers’ operating speed before they entered the urban area, while the lit speed limit sign had a minimal effect on improving the drivers’ speed control performance. Without consideration of different types of speed limit signs, it is found that male drivers generally had a higher operating speed both upstream and in the transition zones and have a larger maximum deceleration for speed reduction than female drivers. Moreover, the drivers who had medium-level driving experience had the higher operating speed and were more likely to have speeding behaviors in the transition zones than those who had low-level and high-level driving experience in the transition zones.

  12. Effect of vadose zone on the steady-state leakage rates from landfill barrier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, B.; Rowe, R.K.; Unlue, K.

    2009-01-01

    Leakage rates are evaluated for a landfill barrier system having a compacted clay liner (CCL) underlain by a vadose zone of variable thickness. A numerical unsaturated flow model SEEP/W is used to simulate the moisture flow regime and steady-state leakage rates for the cases of unsaturated zones with different soil types and thicknesses. The results of the simulations demonstrate that harmonic mean hydraulic conductivity of coarse textured vadose zones is 3-4 orders of magnitude less than saturated hydraulic conductivity; whereas, the difference is only one order of magnitude for fine textured vadose zones. For both coarse and fine textured vadose zones, the effective hydraulic conductivity of the barrier system and the leakage rate to an underlying aquifer increases with increasing thickness of the vadose zone and ultimately reaches an asymptotic value for a coarse textured vadose zone thickness of about 10 m and a fine textured vadose zone thickness of about 5 m. Therefore, the fine and coarse textured vadose zones thicker than about 5 m and 10 m, respectively, act as an effective part of the barrier systems examined. Although the thickness of vadose zone affects the effective hydraulic conductivity of the overall barrier system, the results demonstrated that the hydraulic conductivity of the CCL is the dominant factor controlling the steady-state leakage rates through barrier systems having single low permeability clay layers

  13. Effectiveness of work zone intelligent transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have increasingly been deployed in work zones by state departments of transportation. Also known as smart work zone systems they improve traffic operations and safety by providing real-time...

  14. Analisis Pindah Panas pada Pipa Pendingin untuk Root Zone Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbaiti Araswati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Root zone cooling system is needed to alleviate high-temperature injury for high-yield greenhouse vegetables production. Analysis of heat transfer along the cooling pipe is very important in designing the root zone cooling system. The objectives of this research were (1 to analyze heat transfer in cooling pipe for zone cooling in a hydroponic system, (2 to validate the heat transfer dynamics model to predict the water temperature at the outlet of the cooling pipe, and (3 to perform model simulations for various types of pipe materials and lengths in several thermal conditions in the greenhouse. Root zone cooling system was performed by flowing water (10oC through a steel pipe along 25 m to the root zone. The analysis showed a decrease up to 2.8oC in the planting medium temperature 28.6oC from control 31.4oC. The validation of heat transfer model was conducted by comparing the predicted water temperature to that of measured on linear regression plot. The result showed a straight line Y=1.0026X and the coefficient of determination (R2 0.9867. Based on data analysis, the temperature of water reaches 1oC in steel and copper cooling pipes along 40 m and significantly different from the PVC that is 0.8oC.

  15. Qualitative Assessment of Challenges in Tuberculosis Control in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: Health Workers’ and Tuberculosis Control Program Coordinators’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senedu B. Gebreegziabher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Weak health systems pose many barriers to effective tuberculosis (TB control. This study aimed at exploring health worker’s and TB control program coordinator’s perspectives on health systems challenges facing TB control in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods. This was a qualitative descriptive study. Eight in-depth interviews with TB control program coordinators and two focus group discussions among 16 health workers were conducted. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants. Thematic analysis was used to identify and analyse main themes. Results. We found that intermittent interruptions of laboratory reagents and anti-TB drugs supplies, absence of trained and motivated health workers, poor TB data documentation, lack of adherence to TB treatment guideline, and lack of access to TB diagnostic tools at peripheral health institutions were challenges facing the TB control program performance in the study zone. Conclusions. Ensuring uninterrupted supply of anti-TB drugs and laboratory reagents to all health institutions is essential. Continuous refresher training of health workers on standard TB care and data handling and developing and implementing a sound retention strategy to attract and motivate health professionals to work in rural areas are necessary interventions to improve the TB control program performance in the study zone.

  16. Understanding Fluid and Contaminant Movement in the Unsaturated Zone Using the INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J. M.; Mattson, E. D.; Sisson, J. B.; Magnuson, S. O.

    2002-01-01

    DOE has hundreds of contaminated facilities and waste sites requiring cleanup and/or long-term monitoring. These contaminated sites reside in unsaturated soils (i.e. the vadose zone) above the water table. Some of these sites will require active remediation activities or removal while other sites will be placed under institutional controls. In either case, evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation strategy or institutional controls will require monitoring. Classical monitoring strategies implemented at RCRA/CERCLA sites require ground water sampling for 30 years following closure. The overall effectiveness of ground water sampling is diminished due to the fact that by the time you detect chemical transport from a waste site, a major contamination plume likely exists in the vadose zone and the aquifer. This paper suggests a more effective monitoring strategy through monitoring near the contaminant sites within the vadose zone. Vadose zone monitoring allows for quicker detection of potential contaminant transport. The INEEL Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) is becoming an accepted, cost effective monitoring technology for assessing contaminant transport at DOE facilities. This paper describes the technologies employed in the VZMS and describes how it was used at several DOE facilities. The INEEL VZMS has provided the information in developing and validating both conceptual and risk assessment models of contaminant transport at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford site. These DOE sites exhibit a broad range of meteorologic, hydrologic and geologic conditions representative of various common geologic environments. The VZMS is comprised of advanced tensiometers, water content sensors, temperature sensors and soil and gas samplers. These instruments are placed at multiple depths in boreholes and allows for the detection of water movement in the

  17. Thermal room modelling adapted to the test of HVAC control systems; Modele de zone adapte aux essais de regulateurs de systemes de chauffage et de climatisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riederer, P.

    2002-01-15

    Room models, currently used for controller tests, assume the room air to be perfectly mixed. A new room model is developed, assuming non-homogeneous room conditions and distinguishing between different sensor positions. From measurement in real test rooms and detailed CFD simulations, a list of convective phenomena is obtained that has to be considered in the development of a model for a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The zonal modelling approach that divides the room air into several sub-volumes is chosen, since it is able to represent the important convective phenomena imposed on the HVAC system. The convective room model is divided into two parts: a zonal model, representing the air at the occupant zone and a second model, providing the conditions at typical sensor positions. Using this approach, the comfort conditions at the occupant zone can be evaluated as well as the impact of different sensor positions. The model is validated for a test room equipped with different HVAC systems. Sensitivity analysis is carried out on the main parameters of the model. Performance assessment and energy consumption are then compared for different sensor positions in a room equipped with different HVAC systems. The results are also compared with those obtained when a well-mixed model is used. A main conclusion of these tests is, that the differences obtained, when changing the position of the controller's sensor, is a function of the HVAC system and controller type. The differences are generally small in terms of thermal comfort but significant in terms of overall energy consumption. For different HVAC systems the cases are listed, in which the use of a simplified model is not recommended. (author)

  18. Comparative studies on control systems for a two-blade variable-speed wind turbine with a speed exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jian; Song, Dongran; Dong, Mi; Chen, Sifan; Zou, Libing; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    To avoid the coincidence between the tower nature frequency and rotational excitation frequency, a SEZ (speed exclusion zone) must be built for a two-blade wind turbine with a full rated converter. According to the literature, two methods of SEZ-crossing could be adopted. However, none of them have been studied in industrial applications, and their performance remains unclear. Moreover, strategies on power regulation operation are not covered. To fully investigate them, this paper develops two control systems for a two-blade WT (wind turbines) with a SEZ. Because control systems play vital roles in determining the performance of the WT, this paper focuses on comparative studies on their operation strategies and performance. In these strategies, optimal designs are introduced to improve existing SEZ algorithms. Moreover, to perform power regulation outside the SEZ, two operation modes are divided in the proposed down power regulation solutions. The developed control systems’ performance is confirmed by simulations and field tests. Two control systems present similar capabilities of power production and SEZ-bridging. Nevertheless, at the cost of significantly increased tower loads, one captures 1% more energy than the other. Overall consideration must be made for the control system selection for a WT with a SEZ. - Highlights: • Two control systems are developed for a two-blade WT with a SEZ. • Three strategies, that is, power optimization, power limitation and power regulation, are discussed. • Optimal designs are adopted to enhance the WT's SEZ-bridging capability. • Simple but effective power regulation solutions are presented. • Simulation and field test results show that Control System 2 produces 1% more energy at the cost of increased tower loads.

  19. Design and implementation of a new fuzzy PID controller for networked control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, A; Salahshoor, K

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a practical network platform to design and implement a networked-based cascade control system linking a Smar Foundation Fieldbus (FF) controller (DFI-302) and a Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC-S7-315-2DP) through Industrial Ethernet to a laboratory pilot plant. In the presented network configuration, the Smar OPC tag browser and Siemens WinCC OPC Channel provide the communicating interface between the two controllers. The paper investigates the performance of a PID controller implemented in two different possible configurations of FF function block (FB) and networked control system (NCS) via a remote Siemens PLC. In the FB control system implementation, the desired set-point is provided by the Siemens Human-Machine Interface (HMI) software (i.e, WinCC) via an Ethernet Modbus link. While, in the NCS implementation, the cascade loop is realized in remote Siemens PLC station and the final element set-point is sent to the Smar FF station via Ethernet bus. A new fuzzy PID control strategy is then proposed to improve the control performances of the networked-based control systems due to an induced transmission delay degradation effect. The proposed strategy utilizes an innovative idea based on sectionalizing the error signal of the step response into three different functional zones. The supporting philosophy behind these three functional zones is to decompose the desired control objectives in terms of rising time, settling time and steady-state error measures maintained by an appropriate PID-type controller in each zone. Then, fuzzy membership factors are defined to configure the control signal on the basis of the fuzzy weighted PID outputs of all three zones. The obtained results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy PID control scheme in improving the performances of the implemented NCS for different transportation delays.

  20. Parameter Estimation of Dynamic Multi-zone Models for Livestock Indoor Climate Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhuang; Stoustrup, Jakob; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    , the livestock, the ventilation system and the building on the dynamic performance of indoor climate. Some significant parameters employed in the climate model as well as the airflow interaction between each conceptual zone are identified with the use of experimental time series data collected during spring......In this paper, a multi-zone modeling concept is proposed based on a simplified energy balance formulation to provide a better prediction of the indoor horizontal temperature variation inside the livestock building. The developed mathematical models reflect the influences from the weather...... and winter at a real scale livestock building in Denmark. The obtained comparative results between the measured data and the simulated output confirm that a very simple multi-zone model can capture the salient dynamical features of the climate dynamics which are needed for control purposes....

  1. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  2. The acid-base resistant zone in three dentin bonding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Go; Nikaido, Toru; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2009-11-01

    An acid-base resistant zone has been found to exist after acid-base challenge adjacent to the hybrid layer using SEM. The aim of this study was to examine the acid-base resistant zone using three different bonding systems. Dentin disks were applied with three different bonding systems, and then a resin composite was light-cured to make dentin disk sandwiches. After acid-base challenge, the polished surfaces were observed using SEM. For both one- and two-step self-etching primer systems, an acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed adjacent to the hybrid layer - but with differing appearances. For the wet bonding system, the presence of an acid-base resistant zone was unclear. This was because the self-etching primer systems etched the dentin surface mildly, such that the remaining mineral phase of dentin and the bonding agent yielded clear acid-base resistant zones. In conclusion, the acid-base resistant zone was clearly observed when self-etching primer systems were used, but not so for the wet bonding system.

  3. Analysis of an accident of local zone control system of 'pressure loss in the compartment water supply reservoir'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catana, A.

    2001-01-01

    This work presents the aftermath of a failure in the Zonal Control System caused by an accident of 'pressure loss in the compartment water supply reservoir' leading to an operational function fault of the liquid zonal control system. Causes for pressure drop may be several, as for instance: simultaneous mechanical fault of the three pumps, class IV total loss of power, a crack of reservoir, etc. Should this accident happens the reactor is shut down automatically by the digital control computer, on the 'ZONE CONTROL SYSTEM FAILURE' setback condition. The analyses were done hypothesizing that the covering gas system is functioning at design parameters and that the only possible accident is the one of pressure loss in supply reservoir. By making use of the software system developed at INR Pitesti, we could make the analysis of the phenomena which take place and thus we could obtain the evolution of the main parameters, namely, neutron and thermohydraulic parameters, as well as the actuating mode of the control and safety systems. Thus, by assuming a pressure drop under 8. 27 bar the 'SETBACK' system is triggered with a final value of the neutron power of 2% FP which can be reached with a power variation rate of 0.00086 decade/sec (- 0.1%/sec). In conclusion, the main parameters evolve as follows: 1. the water level in compartments is 'frozen' at a level at which the pressure in the supply reservoir is 7.3 bar; 2. the mechanical rods are gradually inserted, one bank first and a second one if necessary; 3. the shim rods are fully inserted; 4. the systems of SDS1 and SDS2 scram systems remain unactuated; 5. after 10 minutes from the 'SETBACK' triggering, the neutron power is reduced under 4%; 6. the thermohydraulic parameters of the primary circuit are maintained at normal values; 7. the thermohydraulic parameters of the secondary circuit are maintained at normal values

  4. Stability Enhancement of Multi machine AC Systems by Synchronverter HVDC control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouia Aouini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of the Synchronverter based HVDC control on power system stability. The study considers multi machine power systems, with realistic parameters. A specific tuning method of the parameters of the regulators is used. The proposed control scheme is based on the sensitivity of the poles of the HVDC neighbor zone to the control parameters, and next, on their placement using residues. The transient stability of the HVDC neighbor zone is a priori taken into account at the design stage. The new tuning method is evaluated in comparison with the standard vector control via simulation tests. Extensive tests are performed using Matlab/Simulink implementation of the IEEE 9 bus/3 machines test system. The results prove the superiority of the proposed control to the classic vector control. The synchronverter control allows to improve not only the local performances of the HVDC link, but also the overall transient stability of the AC zone in which the HVDC is inserted. (where

  5. Characteristics of Relocated Quiet Zones Using Virtual Microphone Algorithm in an Active Headrest System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhoon Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study displays theoretical and experimental investigation on the characteristics of the relocated zone of quiet by a virtual microphone (VM based filtered-x LMS (FxLMS algorithm which can be embedded in a real-time digital controller for an active headrest system. The attenuation changes at the relocated zones of quiet by the variation of the distance between the ear and the error microphone are mainly examined. An active headrest system was implemented for the control experiment at a chair and consists of two (left and right secondary loudspeakers, two error microphones, two observer microphones at ear positions in a HATS, and other electronics including a dSPACE 1401 controller. The VM based FxLMS algorithm achieved an attenuation of about 22 dB in the control experiment against a narrowband primary noise by the variation of the distance between the ear and the error microphone. The important factors for the algorithm are discussed as well.

  6. Use of fuzzy logic to control a gasifier biomass ventilation system and maintenance of the temperature in the oxidation zone; Uso da logica fuzzy para controle do sistema de ventilacao de um gaseificador de biomassa e manutencao da temperatura da zona de oxidacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende, Oscar L.T.; Kulitz, Hans H. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Espirito Santo (IFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva, Jadir N.; Galvarro, Svetlana F.S.; Machado, Cassio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], E-mail: oscar@ifes.edu.br

    2012-11-01

    This study aims at developing a fuzzy-based algorithm to control the frequency applied to the motor of a gasifier ventilation system in order to ensure adequate temperature in the oxidation zone and produce good quality gas. The input variables of the fuzzy controller were: error, which determines the difference between the desired temperature and the temperature at a given instant; and temperature variation, which will inform if it is increasing or decreasing at a given instant. The response variable was the operation frequency of the ventilation system motor. The rule base was built based on experimental data. The tests with the control algorithm allowed us to see that it is possible to control the oxidation zone temperature - producing gas in a stable way, which does not occur in gasification processes without ventilation system control. (author)

  7. Relative role of transfer zones in controlling sequence stacking patterns and facies distribution: insights from the Fushan Depression, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Entao; Wang, Hua; Li, Yuan; Huang, Chuanyan

    2015-04-01

    In sedimentary basins, a transfer zone can be defined as a coordinated system of deformational features which has good prospects for hydrocarbon exploration. Although the term 'transfer zone' has been widely applied to the study of extensional basins, little attention has been paid to its controlling effect on sequence tracking pattern and depositional facies distribution. Fushan Depression is a half-graben rift sub-basin, located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. In this study, comparative analysis of seismic reflection, palaeogeomorphology, fault activity and depositional facies distribution in the southern slope indicates that three different types of sequence stacking patterns (i.e. multi-level step-fault belt in the western area, flexure slope belt in the central area, gentle slope belt in the eastern area) were developed along the southern slope, together with a large-scale transfer zone in the central area, at the intersection of the western and eastern fault systems. Further analysis shows that the transfer zone played an important role in the diversity of sequence stacking patterns in the southern slope by dividing the Fushan Depression into two non-interfering tectonic systems forming different sequence patterns, and leading to the formation of the flexure slope belt in the central area. The transfer zone had an important controlling effect on not only the diversity of sequence tracking patterns, but also the facies distribution on the relay ramp. During the high-stand stage, under the controlling effect of the transfer zone, the sediments contain a significant proportion of coarser material accumulated and distributed along the ramp axis. By contrast, during the low-stand stage, the transfer zone did not seem to contribute significantly to the low-stand fan distribution which was mainly controlled by the slope gradient (palaeogeomorphology). Therefore, analysis of the transfer zone can provide a new perspective for basin analysis

  8. Active Fault Tolerant Control of Livestock Stable Ventilation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Modern stables and greenhouses are equipped with different components for providing a comfortable climate for animals and plant. A component malfunction may result in loss of production. Therefore, it is desirable to design a control system, which is stable, and is able to provide an acceptable d...... are not included, while due to the physical limitation, the input signal can not have any value. In continuing, a passive fault tolerant controller (PFTC) based on state feedback is proposed to track a reference signal while the control inputs are bounded....... of fault. Designing a fault tolerant control scheme for the climate control system. In the first step, a conceptual multi-zone model for climate control of a live-stock building is derived. The model is a nonlinear hybrid model. Hybrid systems contain both discrete and continuous components. The parameters...... affine (PWA) components such as dead-zones, saturation, etc or contain piecewise nonlinear models which is the case for the climate control systems of the stables. Fault tolerant controller (FTC) is based on a switching scheme between a set of predefined passive fault tolerant controller (PFTC...

  9. A systems approach framework for coastal zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Tom Sawyer; Bailly, Denis; Støttrup, Josianne

    2011-01-01

    This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical...... application to coastal zone systems (CZSs) was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods....... The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations...

  10. Root zone temperature control with thermal energy storage in phase change materials for soilless greenhouse applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyhan, Beyza; Paksoy, Halime; Daşgan, Yıldız

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PCM based passive root zone temperature control system was developed. • The system was tested with zucchinis and peppers in a greenhouse in Turkey. • Two different fatty acids and mixtures were determined as suitable PCMs. • The optimum temperature levels necessary for growth of vegetables were maintained. - Abstract: A new root zone temperature control system based on thermal energy storage in phase change materials (PCM) has been developed for soilless agriculture greenhouses. The aim was to obtain optimum growing temperatures around the roots of plants. The candidate PCMs were 40% oleic acid–60% decanoic acid mixture and oleic acid alone. Field experiments with these PCMs were carried out in November 2009 with Cucurbite Pepo and March 2010 with Capsicum annum plants. No additional heating system was used in the greenhouse during these periods. In the November 2009 tests with zucchini, 40% oleic acid + 60% capric acid mixture was the PCM and a temperature increase in the PCM container (versus the control container) was measured as 1.9 °C. In our March 2010 tests with peppers, both PCMs were tried and the PCM mixture was found to be more effective than using oleic acidalone. A maximum temperature difference achieved by the PCM mixture around the roots of peppers was 2.4 °C higher than that near the control plants

  11. A Systems Approach Framework for Coastal Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom S. Hopkins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature Volume examines the potential value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF as a methodological framework for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zones. This article provides insight on the Systems Approach, the theory behind it, and how its practical application to coastal zone systems (CZSs was developed. The SAF is about information for management through a focus on how to generate a higher, dynamic level of information about complex CZSs and how to render this information more useful to end users through a participatory suite of communication methods. The SAF is an open research methodology that investigates the function of systems in order to simulate specific issues or questions concerning their function. The research articles that are included in this Volume demonstrate examples of coupled multidisciplinary methods integrated into SAF simulations appropriate to a selected policy issue and to the social-environmental conditions of each Study Site Application. Their findings are not the result of funded research projects; instead, they are by-products of pilot applications conducted to develop and improve the SAF methodology. The final article of this Volume synthesizes these results in the context of the SAF as a higher level instrument for integrated coastal zone management.

  12. Robust model reference adaptive output feedback tracking for uncertain linear systems with actuator fault based on reinforced dead-zone modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherpoor, H M; Salmasi, Farzad R

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, robust model reference adaptive tracking controllers are considered for Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) linear systems containing modeling uncertainties, unknown additive disturbances and actuator fault. Two new lemmas are proposed for both SISO and MIMO, under which dead-zone modification rule is improved such that the tracking error for any reference signal tends to zero in such systems. In the conventional approach, adaption of the controller parameters is ceased inside the dead-zone region which results tracking error, while preserving the system stability. In the proposed scheme, control signal is reinforced with an additive term based on tracking error inside the dead-zone which results in full reference tracking. In addition, no Fault Detection and Diagnosis (FDD) unit is needed in the proposed approach. Closed loop system stability and zero tracking error are proved by considering a suitable Lyapunov functions candidate. It is shown that the proposed control approach can assure that all the signals of the close loop system are bounded in faulty conditions. Finally, validity and performance of the new schemes have been illustrated through numerical simulations of SISO and MIMO systems in the presence of actuator faults, modeling uncertainty and output disturbance. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between target quality and interference in sound zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baykaner, Khan; Coleman, Phillip; Mason, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Sound zone systems aim to control sound fields in such a way that multiple listeners can enjoy different audio programs within the same room with minimal acoustic interference. Often, there is a trade-off between the acoustic contrast achieved between the zones and the fidelity of the reproduced...... audio program in the target zone. A listening test was conducted to obtain subjective measures of distraction, target quality, and overall quality of listening experience for ecologically valid programs within a sound zoning system. Sound zones were reproduced using acoustic contrast control, planarity...

  14. Radiant zone heated particulate filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-12-27

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter including an upstream end for receiving exhaust gas and a downstream end. A radiant zoned heater includes N zones, where N is an integer greater than one, wherein each of the N zones includes M sub-zones, where M is an integer greater than or equal to one. A control module selectively activates at least a selected one of the N zones to initiate regeneration in downstream portions of the PM filter from the one of the N zones, restricts exhaust gas flow in a portion of the PM filter that corresponds to the selected one of the N zones, and deactivates non-selected ones of the N zones.

  15. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCreary, T. J.; Hsu, A. [HF Controls Corporation, 16650 Westgrove Drive, Addison, TX 75001 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Whether fossil or nuclear power, the chief operations goal is to generate electricity. The heart of most plant operations is the I and C system. With the march towards open architecture, the I and C system is more vulnerable than ever to system security attacks (denial of service, virus attacks and others), thus jeopardizing plant operations. Plant staff must spend large amounts of time and money setting up and monitoring a variety of security strategies to counter the threats and actual attacks to the system. This time and money is a drain on the financial performance of a plant and distracts valuable operations resources from their real goals: product. The pendulum towards complete open architecture may have swung too far. Not all aspects of proprietary hardware and software are necessarily 'bad'. As the aging U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants starts to engage in replacing legacy control systems, and given the on-going (and legitimate) concern about the security of present digital control systems, decisions about how best to approach cyber security are vital to the specification and selection of control system vendors for these upgrades. The authors maintain that utilizing certain resources available in today's digital technology, plant control systems can be configured from the onset to be inherently safe, so that plant staff can concentrate on the operational issues of the plant. The authors postulate the concept of the plant I and C being bounded in a 'Cyber Security Zone' and present a design approach that can alleviate the concern and cost at the plant level of dealing with system security strategies. Present approaches through various IT cyber strategies, commercial software, and even postulated standards from various industry/trade organizations are almost entirely reactive and simply add to cost and complexity. This Cyber Security Zone design demonstrates protection from the four classes of cyber security attacks: 1)Threat from

  16. Cyber secure systems approach for NPP digital control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCreary, T. J.; Hsu, A.

    2006-01-01

    Whether fossil or nuclear power, the chief operations goal is to generate electricity. The heart of most plant operations is the I and C system. With the march towards open architecture, the I and C system is more vulnerable than ever to system security attacks (denial of service, virus attacks and others), thus jeopardizing plant operations. Plant staff must spend large amounts of time and money setting up and monitoring a variety of security strategies to counter the threats and actual attacks to the system. This time and money is a drain on the financial performance of a plant and distracts valuable operations resources from their real goals: product. The pendulum towards complete open architecture may have swung too far. Not all aspects of proprietary hardware and software are necessarily 'bad'. As the aging U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants starts to engage in replacing legacy control systems, and given the on-going (and legitimate) concern about the security of present digital control systems, decisions about how best to approach cyber security are vital to the specification and selection of control system vendors for these upgrades. The authors maintain that utilizing certain resources available in today's digital technology, plant control systems can be configured from the onset to be inherently safe, so that plant staff can concentrate on the operational issues of the plant. The authors postulate the concept of the plant I and C being bounded in a 'Cyber Security Zone' and present a design approach that can alleviate the concern and cost at the plant level of dealing with system security strategies. Present approaches through various IT cyber strategies, commercial software, and even postulated standards from various industry/trade organizations are almost entirely reactive and simply add to cost and complexity. This Cyber Security Zone design demonstrates protection from the four classes of cyber security attacks: 1)Threat from an intruder attempting to

  17. Time domain acoustic contrast control implementation of sound zones for low-frequency input signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schellekens, Daan H. M.; Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sound zones are two or more regions within a listening space where listeners are provided with personal audio. Acoustic contrast control (ACC) is a sound zoning method that maximizes the average squared sound pressure in one zone constrained to constant pressure in other zones. State......-of-the-art time domain broadband acoustic contrast control (BACC) methods are designed for anechoic environments. These methods are not able to realize a flat frequency response in a limited frequency range within a reverberant environment. Sound field control in a limited frequency range is a requirement...... to accommodate the effective working range of the loudspeakers. In this paper, a new BACC method is proposed which results in an implementation realizing a flat frequency response in the target zone. This method is applied in a bandlimited low-frequency scenario where the loudspeaker layout surrounds two...

  18. System zones in capillary zone electrophoresis: Moving boundaries caused by freely migrating hydrogen ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Boček, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2005), s. 446-452 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0023; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031401; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * system zone s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  19. Climate variability and vadose zone controls on damping of transient recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Claudia R.; Gurdak, Jason J.; Dickinson, Jesse; Ferré, T.P.A.; Maurer, Edwin P.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing demand on groundwater resources motivates understanding of the controls on recharge dynamics so model predictions under current and future climate may improve. Here we address questions about the nonlinear behavior of flux variability in the vadose zone that may explain previously reported teleconnections between global-scale climate variability and fluctuations in groundwater levels. We use hundreds of HYDRUS-1D simulations in a sensitivity analysis approach to evaluate the damping depth of transient recharge over a range of periodic boundary conditions and vadose zone geometries and hydraulic parameters that are representative of aquifer systems of the conterminous United States (U.S). Although the models were parameterized based on U.S. aquifers, findings from this study are applicable elsewhere that have mean recharge rates between 3.65 and 730 mm yr–1. We find that mean infiltration flux, period of time varying infiltration, and hydraulic conductivity are statistically significant predictors of damping depth. The resulting framework explains why some periodic infiltration fluxes associated with climate variability dampen with depth in the vadose zone, resulting in steady-state recharge, while other periodic surface fluxes do not dampen with depth, resulting in transient recharge. We find that transient recharge in response to the climate variability patterns could be detected at the depths of water levels in most U.S. aquifers. Our findings indicate that the damping behavior of transient infiltration fluxes is linear across soil layers for a range of texture combinations. The implications are that relatively simple, homogeneous models of the vadose zone may provide reasonable estimates of the damping depth of climate-varying transient recharge in some complex, layered vadose zone profiles.

  20. Coastal zone environment measurements at Sakhalin Island using autonomous mobile robotic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyugin, Dmitry; Kurkin, Andrey; Zaytsev, Andrey; Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    To perform continuous complex measurements of environment characteristics in coastal zones autonomous mobile robotic system was built. The main advantage of such system in comparison to manual measurements is an ability to quickly change location of the equipment and start measurements. AMRS allows to transport a set of sensors and appropriate power source for long distances. The equipment installed on the AMRS includes: a modern high-tech ship's radar «Micran» for sea waves measurements, multiparameter platform WXT 520 for weather monitoring, high precision GPS/GLONASS receiver OS-203 for georeferencing, laser scanner platform based on two Sick LMS-511 scanners which can provide 3D distance measurements in up to 80 meters on the AMRS route and rugged designed quad-core fanless computer Matrix MXE-5400 for data collecting and recording. The equipment is controlled by high performance modular software developed specially for the AMRS. During the summer 2016 the experiment was conducted. Measurements took place at the coastal zone of Sakhalin Island (Russia). The measuring system of AMRS was started in automatic mode controlled by the software. As result a lot of data was collected and processed to database. It consists of continuous measurements of the coastal zone including different weather conditions. The most interesting for investigation is a period of three-point storm detected on June, 2, 2016. Further work will relate to data processing of measured environment characteristics and numerical models verification based on the collected data. The presented results of research obtained by the support of the Russian president's scholarship for young scientists and graduate students №SP-193.2015.5

  1. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  2. Number of genes controlling a quantitative trait in a hybrid zone of the aposematic frog Ranitomeya imitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Twomey, Evan; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The number of genes controlling mimetic traits has been a topic of much research and discussion. In this paper, we examine a mimetic, dendrobatid frog Ranitomeya imitator, which harbours extensive phenotypic variation with multiple mimetic morphs, not unlike the celebrated Heliconius system...... and apply it to the R. imitator system. We show that probably one or two, or at most three genes, control the mimetic phenotype segregating in a R. imitator hybrid zone identified using image analyses....

  3. Using purposeful landscape zoning of Ukraine to improve soil protection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Тишковець

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Basic aspects of Ukrainian landscapes target zoning use for maintenance of soil protection system on agricultural lands have been presented. The analysis of current systems of purposeful zoning of territories in the country and modern approaches to its modernization has been done. The ameliorative functions of forest in accordance with existing main and supportive negative factors, forms and intensiveness of its appearance in concrete types of landscapes have been explained. The questions of forest projection optimization in accordance with natural-climatic conditions of certain regions have been described. The ways of qualitative new use of agroforest ameliorative measures have been determined. The new zoning system on the basis of main soil erosion factors principally differs from the previous systems. The proposed zoning method is characterized by complexity, involving main physical, geographical and agricultural factors in the order of their impact on soil erosion processes. These factors consist of climate (water and temperature regime, relief and character of agricultural use of territory. Meanwhile, other factors (soil, vegetative cover and other are used simultaneously with the main factors. That kind of zoning by the main factors of soil erosion is only the first stage. The second stage should be zoning by types of systems of counter erosion measures. In this article the authors have shown that when choosing agrarian ameliorative methods, the influence on negative factors on agriculture should be considered in the new zoning of the territory. A number of references and fund materials, including those of territorial zoning have been analyzed in the article. Preferences and negative aspects as well as selection of a basis for new agrarian ameliorative zoning of Ukrainian landscapes which includes the full information of factors and conditions of formation and expansion of negative factors for agriculture have been proposed.

  4. Distribution of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system established

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuanchang; Yang, Huiqin; Wu, Linying

    2017-03-01

    Dilemma zone refers to an area where vehicles can neither clear the intersection during the yellow interval nor stop safely before the stop line. The purpose of this paper is to analyzing the distribution of two types of dilemma zone after intelligent transportation system (ITS) established at Outer Ring Roads signalized intersections in Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center. To collect field data a drone aircraft was used. When calculating the type II dilemma zone's distribution, we considered the information of drivers' aggressiveness, which was classified by driving speed and type I dilemma zone as well. We also compared the two types dilemma zone's distribution before and after ITS established and analyzed the changes, which was brought by ITS.

  5. Validating a perceptual distraction model in a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user’s perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference, e.g., two competing audio sources within the same listening space. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music-on-music stimuli...... using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two loudspeakers, one for the target sound source and the other for the interfering sound source. Recently, the model was successfully validated in a complex personal sound-zone system with speech-on-music stimuli. Second round of validations were...... conducted by physically altering the sound-zone system and running a set of new listening experiments utilizing two sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. Preliminary results show...

  6. 23 CFR 750.706 - Sign control in zoned and unzoned commercial and industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT HIGHWAY BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.706 Sign... spacing of outdoor advertising signs located in commercial or industrial zoned or unzoned areas, as... back-to-back or “V” type signs. (c) Where the agreement and State law permits control by local zoning...

  7. Optimized damper control of pressure and airflow in ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Hviid, Christian Anker; Terkildsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Conventional control strategies in variable air volume (VAV) ventilation systems do not take fully into advantage the potential energy savings since the system operation is based on maintaining a constant static pressure (CSP) set point in the main duct irrespective of the actual pressure demand...... by using the Simulink programming tool which is addon software to MATLAB mathematical programming language. A model of a VAV ventilation system was created in Simulink based on the International Building Physics Toolbox (IBPT); the IBPT thermal zone was remodelled in order to calculate dynamically...... the airflow demand according to the zone air temperature. The performance of the Simulink model was evaluated based on the experimental setup of the ventilation system. The SPR control method established stable system operation and was proven efficient to maintain comfortable space conditions while reducing...

  8. Validating a perceptual distraction model using a personal two-zone sound system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rämö, Jussi; Christensen, Lasse; Bech, Søren

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on validating a perceptual distraction model, which aims to predict user's perceived distraction caused by audio-on-audio interference. Originally, the distraction model was trained with music targets and interferers using a simple loudspeaker setup, consisting of only two...... sound zones within the sound-zone system. Thus, validating the model using a different sound-zone system with both speech-on-music and music-on-speech stimuli sets. The results show that the model performance is equally good in both zones, i.e., with both speech- on-music and music-on-speech stimuli...

  9. ZoneLib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob; Schiøler, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    We present a dynamic model for climate in a livestock building divided into a number of zones, and a corresponding modular Simulink library (ZoneLib). While most literature in this area consider air flow as a control parameter we show how to model climate dynamics using actual control signals...... development of ZoneLib....

  10. Performance of SPNDs used in control and safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, M.P.S.; Raj, Manish; Kumar, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    Large sized reactor such as 540 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) requires continuous in core monitoring of local flux in order to provide effective control and protection. About 198 self powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) of the straight individually replaceable type are distributed in the reactor core. For purposes of reactor regulation, 42 prompt responding cobalt SPNDs called zone control detectors (ZCDs) are housed in vertical flux units (VFUs) and these are uniformly distributed in 14 power zones. The in core detectors used for spatial control by ZCCs do not accurately represent average zone power as they sense the flux over a small volume. Flux mapping system (FMS) comprising of 102 vanadium SPNDs in 26 VFUs, provide accurate measure of neutron flux, even though they have slow response to change in neutron flux levels. For reactor protection system-1 (RPS-1), 36 cobalt SPNDs are placed in VFUs and become part of core overpower protection system-1 (COPPS-1). Similarly, for RPS-2, 18 cobalt SPNDs are placed in horizontal flux units (HFUs) and become part of the COPPS-2. The present study discusses the performance of in core SPNDs used in TAPP-4 by comparing the measured fluxes with detailed simulations. The performances of SPNDs are evaluated at different power levels and several full power day of reactor operation. (author)

  11. Performance investigation of solid desiccant evaporative cooling system configurations in different climatic zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Muzaffar; Vukovic, Vladimir; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmed; Ali, Hafiz M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five configurations of a DEC system are analyzed in five climate zones. • DEC system model configurations are developed in Dymola/Modelica. • Performance analysis predicted a suitable DEC system configuration for each climate zone. • Results show that climate of Vienna, Sao Paulo, and Adelaide favors the ventilated-dunkle cycle. • While ventilation cycle configuration suits the climate of Karachi and Shanghai. - Abstract: Performance of desiccant evaporative cooling (DEC) system configurations is strongly influenced by the climate conditions and varies widely in different climate zones. Finding the optimal configuration of DEC systems for a specific climatic zone is tedious and time consuming. This investigation conducts performance analysis of five DEC system configurations under climatic conditions of five cities from different zones: Vienna, Karachi, Sao Paulo, Shanghai, and Adelaide. On the basis of operating cycle, three standard and two modified system configurations (ventilation, recirculation, dunkle cycles; ventilated-recirculation and ventilated-dunkle cycles) are analyzed in these five climate zones. Using an advance equation-based object-oriented (EOO) modeling and simulation approach, optimal configurations of a DEC system are determined for each climate zone. Based on the hourly climate data of each zone for its respective design cooling day, performance of each system configuration is estimated using three performance parameters: cooling capacity, COP, and cooling energy delivered. The results revealed that the continental/micro-thermal climate of Vienna, temperate/mesothermal climate of Sao Paulo, and dry-summer subtropical climate of Adelaide favor the use of ventilated-dunkle cycle configuration with average COP of 0.405, 0.89 and 1.01 respectively. While ventilation cycle based DEC configuration suits arid and semiarid climate of Karachi and another category of temperate/mesothermal climate of Shanghai with average COP of

  12. Microcomputer control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.K.; Steigerwald, R.L.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Microcomputer-based control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system is described. The microcomputer is responsible for array current feedback control, maximum power tracking control, array safe zone steering control, phase-locked reference wave synthesis, sequencing control, and some diagnostics. The control functions are implemented using Intel 8751 single-chip microcomputer-based hardware and software. The controller has been tested in the laboratory with the prototype power conditioner and shows excellent performance.

  13. Microcomputer control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B.K.; Steigerwald, R.L.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1985-09-01

    Microcomputer-based control of a residential photovoltaic power conditioning system is described. The microcomputer is responsible for array current feedback control, maximum power tracking control, array safe zone steering control, phase-locked reference wave synthesis, sequencing control, and some diagnostics. The control functions are implemented using Intel 8751 single-chip microcomputer-based hardware and software. The controller has been tested in the laboratory with the prototype power conditioner and shows excellent performance.

  14. 'One physical system': Tansley's ecosystem as Earth's critical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Daniel deB; Billings, Sharon A

    2015-05-01

    Integrative concepts of the biosphere, ecosystem, biogeocenosis and, recently, Earth's critical zone embrace scientific disciplines that link matter, energy and organisms in a systems-level understanding of our remarkable planet. Here, we assert the congruence of Tansley's (1935) venerable ecosystem concept of 'one physical system' with Earth science's critical zone. Ecosystems and critical zones are congruent across spatial-temporal scales from vegetation-clad weathering profiles and hillslopes, small catchments, landscapes, river basins, continents, to Earth's whole terrestrial surface. What may be less obvious is congruence in the vertical dimension. We use ecosystem metabolism to argue that full accounting of photosynthetically fixed carbon includes respiratory CO₂ and carbonic acid that propagate to the base of the critical zone itself. Although a small fraction of respiration, the downward diffusion of CO₂ helps determine rates of soil formation and, ultimately, ecosystem evolution and resilience. Because life in the upper portions of terrestrial ecosystems significantly affects biogeochemistry throughout weathering profiles, the lower boundaries of most terrestrial ecosystems have been demarcated at depths too shallow to permit a complete understanding of ecosystem structure and function. Opportunities abound to explore connections between upper and lower components of critical-zone ecosystems, between soils and streams in watersheds, and between plant-derived CO₂ and deep microbial communities and mineral weathering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Design and control of automated guided vehicle systems: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Q.; Adriaansen, A.C.; Udding, J.T.; Pogromski, A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the design and control of automated guided vehicle (AGV) systems, with the focus on the quayside container transport in an automated container terminal. We first set up an event-driven model for an AGV system in the zone control framework. Then a number of layouts of the road

  16. Distributed Adaptive Neural Network Output Tracking of Leader-Following High-Order Stochastic Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Unknown Dead-Zone Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Changchun; Zhang, Liuliu; Guan, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of distributed output tracking consensus control for a class of high-order stochastic nonlinear multiagent systems with unknown nonlinear dead-zone under a directed graph topology. The adaptive neural networks are used to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions and a new inequality is used to deal with the completely unknown dead-zone input. Then, we design the controllers based on backstepping method and the dynamic surface control technique. It is strictly proved that the resulting closed-loop system is stable in probability in the sense of semiglobally uniform ultimate boundedness and the tracking errors between the leader and the followers approach to a small residual set based on Lyapunov stability theory. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to show the effectiveness and the advantages of the proposed techniques.

  17. Computer security of NPP instrumentation and control systems: categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevtsov, A.L.; Simonov, A.A.; Trubchaninov, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to studying categorization of NPP instrumentation and control (I&C) systems from the point of view of computer security and to consideration of the computer security levels and zones used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The paper also describes the computer security degrees and zones regulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard. The computer security categorization of the systems used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is presented. The experts analyzed the main differences in I&C systems computer security categorization accepted by the IAEA, IEC and U.S. NRC. The approaches to categorization that should be advisably used in Ukraine during the development of regulation on NPP I&C systems computer security are proposed in the paper

  18. Climatic controls on arid continental basin margin systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Amy; Clarke, Stuart; Richards, Philip; Milodowski, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    Alluvial fans are both dominant and long-lived within continental basin margin systems. As a result, they commonly interact with a variety of depositional systems that exist at different times in the distal extent of the basin as the basin evolves. The deposits of the distal basin often cycle between those with the potential to act as good aquifers and those with the potential to act as good aquitards. The interactions between the distal deposits and the basin margin fans can have a significant impact upon basin-scale fluid flow. The fans themselves are commonly considered as relatively homogeneous, but their sedimentology is controlled by a variety of factors, including: 1) differing depositional mechanisms; 2) localised autocyclic controls; 3) geometrical and temporal interactions with deposits of the basin centre; and, 4) long-term allocyclic climatic variations. This work examines the basin margin systems of the Cutler Group sediments of the Paradox Basin, western U.S.A and presents generalised facies models for the Cutler Group alluvial fans as well as for the zone of interaction between these fans and the contemporaneous environments in the basin centre, at a variety of scales. Small-scale controls on deposition include climate, tectonics, base level and sediment supply. It has been ascertained that long-term climatic alterations were the main control on these depositional systems. Models have been constructed to highlight how both long-term and short-term alterations in the climatic regime can affect the sedimentation in the basin. These models can be applied to better understand similar, but poorly exposed, alluvial fan deposits. The alluvial fans of the Brockram Facies, northern England form part of a once-proposed site for low-level nuclear waste decommissioning. As such, it is important to understand the sedimentology, three-dimensional geometry, and the proposed connectivity of the deposits from the perspective of basin-scale fluid flow. The developed

  19. Fault Identification Algorithm Based on Zone-Division Wide Area Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojun Liu; Youcheng Wang; Hub Hu

    2014-01-01

    As the power grid becomes more magnified and complicated, wide-area protection system in the practical engineering application is more and more restricted by the communication level. Based on the concept of limitedness of wide-area protection system, the grid with complex structure is divided orderly in this paper, and fault identification and protection action are executed in each divided zone to reduce the pressure of the communication system. In protection zone, a new wide-area...

  20. Thermal treatment system of hazardous residuals in three heating zones based on a microprocessor; Sistema de tratamiento termico de residuos peligrosos en tres zonas de calentamiento a base de un microcontrolador.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna H, C L

    1997-12-01

    Thermal treatment system consists of a high power electric oven of three heating zones where each zone works up to 1200 Centigrades; it has the capacity of rising the central zone temperature up to 1000 Centigrades in 58 minutes approximately. This configuration of three zones could be programmed to different temperatures and they will be digitally controlled by a control microprocessor, which has been controlled by its own assembler language, in function of the PID control. There are also other important controls based on this microprocessor, as a signal amplification, starting and shutdown of high power step relays, activation and deactivation of both analogic/digital and digital/analogic convertors, port activation and basic data storage of the system. Two main characteristics were looked for this oven design; the first was the possibility of controlling the three zone temperature and the second was to reduce the rising and stabilization operation time and its digitized control. The principal function of the three zone oven is to accelerate the degradation of hazardous residuals by an oxidation instead combustion, through relatively high temperatures (minimum 800 Centigrades and maximum 1200 Centigrades); this process reduces the ash and volatile particulate production. The hazardous residuals will be pumped into the degradation system and after atomized through a packaged column; this step will avoid the direct contact of the residuals with the oven cores. These features make this system as closed process, which means that the residuals can not leak to the working area, reducing the exposure risk to the personnel. This three step oven system is the first stage of the complete hazardous residuals degradation system; after this, the flow will go into a cold plasma region where the process is completed, making a closed system. (Author).

  1. Estimating the Spatial Extent of Unsaturated Zones in Heterogeneous River-Aquifer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver S.; Irvine, Dylan J.; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Brunner, Philip

    2017-12-01

    The presence of unsaturated zones at the river-aquifer interface has large implications on numerous hydraulic and chemical processes. However, the hydrological and geological controls that influence the development of unsaturated zones have so far only been analyzed with simplified conceptualizations of flow processes, or homogeneous conceptualizations of the hydraulic conductivity in either the aquifer or the riverbed. We systematically investigated the influence of heterogeneous structures in both the riverbed and the aquifer on the development of unsaturated zones. A stochastic 1-D criterion that takes both riverbed and aquifer heterogeneity into account was developed using a Monte Carlo sampling technique. The approach allows the reliable estimation of the upper bound of the spatial extent of unsaturated areas underneath a riverbed. Through systematic numerical modeling experiments, we furthermore show that horizontal capillary forces can reduce the spatial extent of unsaturated zones under clogged areas. This analysis shows how the spatial structure of clogging layers and aquifers influence the propensity for unsaturated zones to develop: In riverbeds where clogged areas are made up of many small, spatially disconnected patches with a diameter in the order of 1 m, unsaturated areas are less likely to develop compared to riverbeds where large clogged areas exist adjacent to unclogged areas. A combination of the stochastic 1-D criterion with an analysis of the spatial structure of the clogging layers and the potential for resaturation can help develop an appropriate conceptual model and inform the choice of a suitable numerical simulator for river-aquifer systems.

  2. The continuation of the Kazerun fault system across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Homayon

    2009-08-01

    The Kazerun (or Kazerun-Qatar) fault system is a north-trending dextral strike-slip fault zone in the Zagros mountain belt of Iran. It probably originated as a structure in the Panafrican basement. This fault system played an important role in the sedimentation and deformation of the Phanerozoic cover sequence and is still seismically active. No previous studies have reported the continuation of this important and ancient fault system northward across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone. The Isfahan fault system is a north-trending dextral strike-slip fault across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone that passes west of Isfahan city and is here recognized for the first time. This important fault system is about 220 km long and is seismically active in the basement as well as the sedimentary cover sequence. This fault system terminates to the south near the Main Zagros Thrust and to the north at the southern boundary of the Urumieh-Dokhtar zone. The Isfahan fault system is the boundary between the northern and southern parts of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, which have fundamentally different stratigraphy, petrology, geomorphology, and geodynamic histories. Similarities in the orientations, kinematics, and geologic histories of the Isfahan and Kazerun faults and the way they affect the magnetic basement suggest that they are related. In fact, the Isfahan fault is a continuation of the Kazerun fault across the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone that has been offset by about 50 km of dextral strike-slip displacement along the Main Zagros Thrust.

  3. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J. L. J.; Grabs, T.; Futter, M. N.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Köhler, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC) concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si) flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM) was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  4. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  5. What controls intermediate depth seismicity in subduction zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, M. A.; Prieto, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Intermediate depth earthquakes seem to cluster in two distinct planes of seismicity along the subducting slab, known as Double Seismic Zones (DSZ). Precise double difference relocations in Tohoku, Japan and northern Chile confirm this pattern with striking accuracy. Furthermore, past studies have used statistical tests on the EHB global seismicity catalog to suggest that DSZs might be a dominant global feature. However, typical uncertainties associated with hypocentral depth prevent us from drawing meaningful conclusions about the detailed structure of intermediate depth seismicity and its relationship to the physical and chemical environment of most subduction zones. We have recently proposed a relative earthquake relocation algorithm based on the precise picking of the P and pP phase arrivals using array processing techniques [Florez and Prieto, 2017]. We use it to relocate seismicity in 24 carefully constructed slab segments that sample every subduction zone in the world. In all of the segments we are able to precisely delineate the structure of the double seismic zone. Our results indicate that whenever the lower plane of seismicity is active enough the width of the DSZ decreases in the down dip direction; the two planes merge at depths between 140 km and 300 km. We develop a method to unambiguously pick the depth of this merging point, the end of the DSZ, which appears to be correlated with the slab thermal parameter. We also confirm that the width of the DSZ increases with plate age. Finally, we estimate b-values for the upper and lower planes of seismicity and explore their relationships to the physical parameters that control slab subduction.

  6. Design of intelligent comfort control system with human learning and minimum power control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Du, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an intelligent comfort control system by combining the human learning and minimum power control strategies for the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system. In the system, the predicted mean vote (PMV) is adopted as the control objective to improve indoor comfort level by considering six comfort related variables, whilst a direct neural network controller is designed to overcome the nonlinear feature of the PMV calculation for better performance. To achieve the highest comfort level for the specific user, a human learning strategy is designed to tune the user's comfort zone, and then, a VAV and minimum power control strategy is proposed to minimize the energy consumption further. In order to validate the system design, a series of computer simulations are performed based on a derived HVAC and thermal space model. The simulation results confirm the design of the intelligent comfort control system. In comparison to the conventional temperature controller, this system can provide a higher comfort level and better system performance, so it has great potential for HVAC applications in the future

  7. A distributed control algorithm for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2008-01-01

    We examine a distributed control problem for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit. The problem consists of guaranteeing prescribed indoor climate conditions in a cascade connection of an arbitrarily large number of communicating zones, in which air masses are exchanged to redirect

  8. Automated biometric access control system for two-man-rule enforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.P.; Maxwell, R.L.; Henderson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a limited access control system for nuclear facilities which makes use of the eye retinal identity verifier to control the passage of personnel into and out of one or a group of security controlled working areas. This access control system requires no keys, cards or credentials. The user simply enters his Personal Identification Number (PIN) and takes an eye reading to request passage. The PIN does not have to be kept secret. The system then relies on biometric identity verification of the user, along with other system information, to make the decision of whether or not to unlock the door. It also enforces multiple zones control with personnel tracking and the two-man-rule

  9. High resolution Fresnel zone plate laser alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressler, V.E.; Fischer, G.E.; Ruland, R.E.; Wang, T.

    1992-03-01

    The existing Fresnel zone plate laser alignment system is currently being extended and upgraded for the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). Previously, the resolution of this system has been several tens of micrometers. After the upgrade, the resolution will be a few micrometers. Details of the upgrade as well as simulation and experimental results will be presented

  10. Fault tolerant computer control for a Maglev transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Nagle, Gail A.; Anagnostopoulos, George

    1994-01-01

    Magnetically levitated (Maglev) vehicles operating on dedicated guideways at speeds of 500 km/hr are an emerging transportation alternative to short-haul air and high-speed rail. They have the potential to offer a service significantly more dependable than air and with less operating cost than both air and high-speed rail. Maglev transportation derives these benefits by using magnetic forces to suspend a vehicle 8 to 200 mm above the guideway. Magnetic forces are also used for propulsion and guidance. The combination of high speed, short headways, stringent ride quality requirements, and a distributed offboard propulsion system necessitates high levels of automation for the Maglev control and operation. Very high levels of safety and availability will be required for the Maglev control system. This paper describes the mission scenario, functional requirements, and dependability and performance requirements of the Maglev command, control, and communications system. A distributed hierarchical architecture consisting of vehicle on-board computers, wayside zone computers, a central computer facility, and communication links between these entities was synthesized to meet the functional and dependability requirements on the maglev. Two variations of the basic architecture are described: the Smart Vehicle Architecture (SVA) and the Zone Control Architecture (ZCA). Preliminary dependability modeling results are also presented.

  11. 18 CFR 1304.407 - Development within flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... flood control storage zones of TVA reservoirs. 1304.407 Section 1304.407 Conservation of Power and Water... documentation related to flood control storage, provided the loss of flood control storage caused by the project... control storage. If this determination can be made, the applicant must then demonstrate how the loss of...

  12. Vadose zone studies at an industrial contaminated site: the vadose zone monitoring system and cross-hole geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Beaujean, Jean; Jamin, Pierre; Nguyen, Frédéric; Dahan, Ofer; Vanclooster, Marnik; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination, there is a need to improve in situ vadose zone characterization. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Such methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. In addition, most technologies are applicable only in the first meters of soils, leaving deeper vadose zones with lack of information, in particular on field scale heterogeneity. In order to overcome such difficulties, a vadose zone experiment has been setup at a former industrial site in Belgium. Industrial activities carried out on site left a legacy of soil and groundwater contamination in BTEX, PAH, cyanide and heavy metals. The experiment comprises the combination of two techniques: the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS) and cross-hole geophysics. The VMS allows continuous measurements of water content and temperature at different depths of the vadose zone. In addition, it provides the possibility of pore water sampling at different depths. The system is formed by a flexible sleeve containing monitoring units along its depth which is installed in a slanted borehole. The flexible sleeve contains three types of monitoring units in the vadose zone: Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT), which allows water content measurements; Vadose Sampling Ports (VSP), used for collecting water samples coming from the matrix; the Fracture Samplers (FS), which are used for retrieving water samples from the fractures. Cross-hole geophysics techniques consist in the injection of an electrical current using electrodes installed in vertical boreholes. From measured potential differences, detailed spatial patterns about electrical properties of the subsurface can be inferred. Such spatial patterns are related with subsurface heterogeneities, water content and solute concentrations. Two VMS were

  13. Fault Identification Algorithm Based on Zone-Division Wide Area Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the power grid becomes more magnified and complicated, wide-area protection system in the practical engineering application is more and more restricted by the communication level. Based on the concept of limitedness of wide-area protection system, the grid with complex structure is divided orderly in this paper, and fault identification and protection action are executed in each divided zone to reduce the pressure of the communication system. In protection zone, a new wide-area protection algorithm based on positive sequence fault components directional comparison principle is proposed. The special associated intelligent electronic devices (IEDs zones which contain buses and transmission lines are created according to the installation location of the IEDs. When a fault occurs, with the help of the fault information collecting and sharing from associated zones with the fault discrimination principle defined in this paper, the IEDs can identify the fault location and remove the fault according to the predetermined action strategy. The algorithm will not be impacted by the load changes and transition resistance and also has good adaptability in open phase running power system. It can be used as a main protection, and it also can be taken into account for the back-up protection function. The results of cases study show that, the division method of the wide-area protection system and the proposed algorithm are effective.

  14. An Operational Web-Based Indicator System for Integrated Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Sten Hansen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal zones are under severe pressure from anthropogenic activities, as well as on-going climate change with associated sea level rise and increased storminess. These challenges call for integrated and forward looking solutions. The concept on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, as defined during the last twenty years, provides the overall policy frames, but tools to support the planning and management efforts are almost lacking. Furthermore, the forward-looking dimension to embrace the effects of climate change is nearly absent in most implementations. The BLAST project, financed by the European Union Regional Fund through the INTERREG IV North Sea Region Programme, aimed at developing a web-based decision support system to assist Integrated Coastal Zone Management from a climate change perspective, and the current paper describes the methods used and the computing platform for implementing a decision support system. The software applied in developing the system is mainly Open Source components, thus, facilitating a more widespread use of the system.

  15. System zones in capillary zone electrophoresis: Moving boundaries caused by freely migrating hydroxide ions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckers, J. L.; Urbánek, Marek; Boček, Petr

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 10 (2005), s. 1869-1873 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : background electrolyte * capillary electrophoresis * system zone s Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2005

  16. Adaptive traffic control systems for urban networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Danilo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive traffic control systems represent complex, but powerful tool for improvement of traffic flow conditions in locations or zones where applied. Many traffic agencies, especially those that have a large number of signalized intersections with high variability of the traffic demand, choose to apply some of the adaptive traffic control systems. However, those systems are manufactured and offered by multiple vendors (companies that are competing for the market share. Due to that fact, besides the information available from the vendors themselves, or the information from different studies conducted on different continents, very limited amount of information is available about the details how those systems are operating. The reason for that is the protecting of the intellectual property from plagiarism. The primary goal of this paper is to make a brief analysis of the functionalities, characteristics, abilities and results of the most recognized, but also less known adaptive traffic control systems to the professional public and other persons with interest in this subject.

  17. Synthesis of relay control systems for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postnikov, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    The problem on stabilizing an oscillatory-unstable reactor by a single-link relay system, the characteristics whereof have a dead zone and hysteresis loop, is considered. The methodology of synthesis of feedback law, providing for stochastic steady-state mode of reactor operation with the minimum frequency of control impact introduction is proposed. This methodology is applicable to general-type relay systems with arbitrary oscillatory-unstable objects. 6 refs., 5 figs

  18. Mobile monitoring and embedded control system for factory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-12-17

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones.

  19. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Kuang-Yow; Hsiao, Sung-Jung; Sung, Wen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC) technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones. PMID:24351642

  20. Mobile Monitoring and Embedded Control System for Factory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Yow Lian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real-time method to carry out the monitoring of factory zone temperatures, humidity and air quality using smart phones. At the same time, the system detects possible flames, and analyzes and monitors electrical load. The monitoring also includes detecting the vibrations of operating machinery in the factory area. The research proposes using ZigBee and Wi-Fi protocol intelligent monitoring system integration within the entire plant framework. The sensors on the factory site deliver messages and real-time sensing data to an integrated embedded systems via the ZigBee protocol. The integrated embedded system is built by the open-source 32-bit ARM (Advanced RISC Machine core Arduino Due module, where the network control codes are built in for the ARM chipset integrated controller. The intelligent integrated controller is able to instantly provide numerical analysis results according to the received data from the ZigBee sensors. The Android APP and web-based platform are used to show measurement results. The built-up system will transfer these results to a specified cloud device using the TCP/IP protocol. Finally, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT approach is used to analyze the power loads in the factory zones. Moreover, Near Field Communication (NFC technology is used to carry out the actual electricity load experiments using smart phones.

  1. Development of geoinformation zoning model of urban territories for use in urban cadaster systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Денис Вікторович Горковчук

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure and composition of zoning spatial resources is explored. Geoinformation mode of geospatial zoning data on the basis of object-relational database management system is developed. Developed zoning model is tested in the environment of open-source database management system PostgreSQL. Applied SQL-function for automatic creation of build conditions and restrictions of land development is implemented

  2. Achievements and Problems of Reform of Investment Management System for Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengrong; PAN

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone provides many possibilities for China’s economic construction. This paper made a comparative analysis on investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and traditional investment management system,discussed achievements and problems of reform of investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone,and finally came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  3. Wind Erosion Processes and Control Techniques in the Sahelian Zone of Niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, G.; Stroosnijder, L.; Raats, P.A.C.

    1999-01-01

    Wind Erosion Processes and Control Techniques in the Sahelian Zone of Niger G. Sterk, L. Stroosnijder, and P.A.C. Raats Abstract The objective of this paper is to present the main results and conclusions from three years of field research on wind erosion processes and control techniques in the

  4. S3: School Zone Safety System Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seong-eun; Chong, Poh Kit; Kim, Daeyoung

    2009-01-01

    School zones are areas near schools that have lower speed limits and where illegally parked vehicles pose a threat to school children by obstructing them from the view of drivers. However, these laws are regularly flouted. Thus, we propose a novel wireless sensor network application called School zone Safety System (S3) to help regulate the speed limit and to prevent illegal parking in school zones. S3 detects illegally parked vehicles, and warns the driver and records the license plate number. To reduce the traveling speed of vehicles in a school zone, S3 measures the speed of vehicles and displays the speed to the driver via an LED display, and also captures the image of the speeding vehicle with a speed camera. We developed a state machine based vehicle detection algorithm for S3. From extensive experiments in our testbeds and data from a real school zone, it is shown that the system can detect all kinds of vehicles, and has an accuracy of over 95% for speed measurement. We modeled the battery life time of a sensor node and validated the model with a downscaled measurement; we estimate the battery life time to be over 2 years. We have deployed S3 in 15 school zones in 2007, and we have demonstrated the robustness of S3 by operating them for over 1 year. PMID:22454567

  5. Migration and demographical processes in the zone of radiation control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    The state of demographical processes in the zone of radiation control is analyzed, the influence of social-psychological factors of reproduction of population is considered. On the basis statistic data and results of sociological research the causes of the reduction of insensitivity reproduction behavior of the families in Belarus are revealed. (authors)

  6. Achievements and Problems of Reform of Investment Management System for Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone

    OpenAIRE

    PAN, Chengrong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone provides many possibilities for China’s economic construction. This paper made a comparative analysis on investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone and traditional investment management system, discussed achievements and problems of reform of investment management system of Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone, and finally came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  7. Empowering the child and caregiver: yellow zone Asthma Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinakar, Chitra; Portnoy, Jay M

    2014-11-01

    Current guidelines, both national and international, elegantly describe evidence-based measures to attain and maintain long-term control of asthma. These strategies, typically discussed between the provider and patient, are provided in the form of written (or electronic) instructions as part of the green zone of the color-coded Asthma Action Plan. The red zone of the Asthma Action Plan has directives on when to use systemic corticosteroids and seek medical attention. The transition zone between the green zone of good control and the red zone of asthma exacerbation is the yellow zone. This zone guides the patient on self-management of exacerbations outside a medical setting. Unfortunately, the only recommendation currently available to patients per the current asthma guidelines is the repetitive use of reliever bronchodilators. This approach, while providing modest symptom relief, does not reliably prevent progression to the red zone. In this document, we present new, evidence-based, yellow zone intervention options.

  8. Transverse zones controlling the structural evolution of the Zipaquira Anticline (Eastern Cordillera, Colombia): Regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Helbert; Jiménez, Giovanny

    2016-08-01

    We report paleomagnetic, magnetic fabric and structural results from 21 sites collected in Cretaceous marine mudstones and Paleogene continental sandstones from the limbs, hinge and transverse zones of the Zipaquira Anticline (ZA). The ZA is an asymmetrical fold with one limb completely overturned by processes like gravity and salt tectonics, and marked by several axis curvatures. The ZA is controlled by at least two (2) transverse zones known as the Neusa and Zipaquira Transverse Zones (NTZ and ZTZ, respectively). Magnetic mineralogy methods were applied at different sites and the main carriers of the magnetic properties are paramagnetic components with some sites being controlled by hematite and magnetite. Magnetic fabric analysis shows rigid-body rotation for the back-limb in the ZA, while the forelimb is subjected to internal deformation. Structural and paleomagnetic data shows the influence of the NTZ and ZTZ in the evolution of the different structures like the ZA and the Zipaquira, Carupa, Rio Guandoque, Las Margaritas and Neusa faults, controlling several factors as vergence, extension, fold axis curvature and stratigraphic detatchment. Clockwise rotations unraveled a block segmentation following a discontinuos model caused by transverse zones and one site reported a counter clockwise rotation associated with a left-lateral strike slip component for transverse faults (e.g. the Neusa Fault). We propose that diverse transverse zones have been active since Paleogene times, playing an important role in the tectonic evolution of the Cundinamarca sub-basin and controlling the structural evolution of folds and faults with block segmentation and rotations.

  9. Silica precipitation potentially controls earthquake recurrence in seismogenic zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saishu, Hanae; Okamoto, Atsushi; Otsubo, Makoto

    2017-10-17

    Silica precipitation is assumed to play a significant role in post-earthquake recovery of the mechanical and hydrological properties of seismogenic zones. However, the relationship between the widespread quartz veins around seismogenic zones and earthquake recurrence is poorly understood. Here we propose a novel model of quartz vein formation associated with fluid advection from host rocks and silica precipitation in a crack, in order to quantify the timescale of crack sealing. When applied to sets of extensional quartz veins around the Nobeoka Thrust of SW Japan, an ancient seismogenic splay fault, our model indicates that a fluid pressure drop of 10-25 MPa facilitates the formation of typical extensional quartz veins over a period of 6.6 × 10 0 -5.6 × 10 1 years, and that 89%-100% of porosity is recovered within ~3 × 10 2 years. The former and latter sealing timescales correspond to the extensional stress period (~3 × 10 1 years) and the recurrence interval of megaearthquakes in the Nankai Trough (~3 × 10 2 years), respectively. We therefore suggest that silica precipitation in the accretionary wedge controls the recurrence interval of large earthquakes in subduction zones.

  10. Control of climate and litter quality on leaf litter decomposition in different climatic zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Wang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Climate and initial litter quality are the major factors influencing decomposition rates on large scales. We established a comprehensive database of terrestrial leaf litter decomposition, including 785 datasets, to examine the relationship between climate and litter quality and evaluate the factors controlling decomposition on a global scale, the arid and semi-arid (AS) zone, the humid middle and humid low (HL) latitude zones. Initial litter nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration only increased with mean annual temperature (MAT) in the AS zone and decreased with mean annual precipitation (MAP) in the HL zone. Compared with nutrient content, MAT imposed less effect on initial litter lignin content than MAP. MAT were the most important decomposition driving factors on a global scale as well as in different climatic zones. MAP only significantly affected decomposition constants in AS zone. Although litter quality parameters also showed significant influence on decomposition, their importance was less than the climatic factors. Besides, different litter quality parameters exerted significant influence on decomposition in different climatic zones. Our results emphasized that climate consistently exerted important effects on decomposition constants across different climatic zones.

  11. A vadose zone water fluxmeter with divergence control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Caldwell, T.G.; Ritter, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Unsaturated water flux densities are needed to quantify water and contaminant transfer within the vadose zone. However, water flux densities are seldom measured directly and often are predicted with uncertainties of an order or magnitude or more. A water fluxmeter was designed, constructed, and tested to directly measure drainage fluxes in field soils. The fluxmeter was designed to minimize divergence. It concentrates flow into a narrow sensing region filled with a fiberglass wick. The wick applies suction, proportional to its length, and passively drains the meter. The meter can be installed in an augured borehole at almost any depth below the root zone. Water flux through the meter is measured with a self‐calibrating tipping bucket, with a sensitivity of ∼4 mL tip−1. For our meter this is equivalent to detection limit of ∼0.1 mm. Passive‐wick devices previously have not properly corrected for flow divergence. Laboratory measurements supported predictions of a two‐dimensional (2‐D) numerical model, which showed that control of the collector height H and knowledge of soil hydraulic properties are required for improving divergence control, particularly at fluxes below 1000 mm yr−1. The water fluxmeter is simple in concept, is inexpensive, and has the capability of providing continuous and reliable monitoring of unsaturated water fluxes ranging from less than 1 mm yr−1 to more than 1000 mm yr−1.

  12. Biogeochemical control points in a water-limited critical zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorover, J.; Brooks, P. D.; Gallery, R. E.; McIntosh, J. C.; Olshansky, Y.; Rasmussen, C.

    2017-12-01

    The routing of water and carbon through complex terrain is postulated to control structure evolution in the sub-humid critical zone of the southwestern US. By combining measurements of land-atmosphere exchange, ecohydrologic partitioning, and subsurface biogeochemistry, we seek to quantify how a heterogeneous (in time and space) distribution of "reactants" impacts both short-term (sub-)catchment response (e.g., pore and surface water chemical dynamics) and long-term landscape evolution (e.g., soil geochemistry/morphology and regolith weathering depth) in watersheds underlain by rhyolite and schist. Instrumented pedons in convergent, planar, and divergent landscape positions show distinct depth-dependent responses to precipitation events. Wetting front propagation, dissolved carbon flux and associated biogeochemical responses (e.g., pulses of CO2 production, O2 depletion, solute release) vary with topography, revealing the influence of lateral subsidies of water and carbon. The impacts of these episodes on the evolution of porous media heterogeneity is being investigated by statistical analysis of pore water chemistry, chemical/spectroscopic studies of solid phase organo-mineral products, sensor-derived water characteristic curves, and quantification of co-located microbial community activity/composition. Our results highlight the interacting effects of critical zone structure and convergent hydrologic flows in the evolution of biogeochemical control points.

  13. Velocity control of a secondary controlled closed-loop hydrostatic transmission system using an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, Hoang Thinh; Ahn, Kyoung Kwan [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    A secondary-controlled hydrostatic transmission system (SC-HST), which considered being an energy-saving system, can recuperate most of the lost vehicle kinetic energy in decelerating and braking time and it shows advantage in fuel economy improvement of vehicle. Almost secondary control units (SCU) in SC-HST inherently contain nonlinear characteristics such as dead-zone input. Therefore, it is difficult to obtain precise position or velocity control by conventional linear controllers. This problem limits the application of SC-HST in industry and mobile vehicle. This paper gives a description of SC-HST and proposes an adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller (AFSMC) for velocity control of SCU. Experiments were carried out in the condition of disturbance load by using both the proposed controller and PID controller for the comparison and evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The experimental results showed that the proposed controller was excellent from the standpoints of performance and stability for the velocity control of SC-HST.

  14. Cost optimization of ADS design: Comparative study of externally driven heterogeneous and homogeneous two-zone subcritical reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulik, Volodymyr; Tkaczyk, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimization of two-zone homogeneous subcritical systems has been performed. • A Serpent model for two-zone heterogeneous subcritical systems has been developed. • The optimization of two-zone heterogeneous subcritical systems has been carried out. • Economically optimal core composition of two-zone subcritical system was found. • The neutron spectra of the heterogeneous subcritical systems have been obtained. - Abstract: Subcritical systems driven by external neutron sources, commonly known as Accelerator-Driven System (ADS), are one type of advanced nuclear reactor exhibiting attractive characteristics, distinguished from the traditional critical systems by their intrinsic safety features. In addition, an ADS can be used for the transmutation of the nuclear waste, accumulated during the operation of existing reactors. The optimization of a subcritical nuclear reactor in terms of materials (fuel content, coolant, etc.), geometrical, and economical parameters is a crucial step in the process of their design and construction. This article describes the optimization modeling performed for homogeneous and heterogeneous two-zone subcritical systems in terms of geometry of the fuel zones. Economical assessment was also carried out for the costs of the fuel in the core of the system. Optimization modeling was performed with the Serpent-1.1.18 Monte Carlo code. The model of a two-zone subcritical system with a fast inner and a thermal gas-cooled graphite-moderated outer zone was developed, simulated, and analyzed. The optimal value for the pitch of fuel elements in the thermal outer zone was investigated from the viewpoint of the cost of subcritical system. As the main goal of ADS development is nuclear waste transmutation, neutron spectra for both fast and thermal zones were obtained for different system configurations. The results of optimization modeling of homogeneous and heterogeneous two-zone subcritical systems show that an optimal

  15. Study of two-zone reactor system using a pulsed neutron technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishin, B P; Platovskikh, Yu A; Didejkin, T S

    1977-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of a neutron flux time dependence after a sport fast neutron pulse in a reactor core - neutron reflector multiplying system have been conducted. A correlation between eigenvalues governing neutron flux decrease at t..-->..infinity for the two-zone system and eigenvalues for each zone has been established in terms of the one-group diffusion approximation. Experiments have been performed in an experimental subcritical assembly comprising a cylindrical uranium core surrounded by a radial water reflector with different boric acid concentrations.

  16. Presynaptic Active Zone Density during Development and Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gwenaëlle L; Chen, Jie; Nishimune, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Neural circuits transmit information through synapses, and the efficiency of synaptic transmission is closely related to the density of presynaptic active zones, where synaptic vesicles are released. The goal of this review is to highlight recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that control the number of active zones per presynaptic terminal (active zone density) during developmental and stimulus-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy. At the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), the active zone density is preserved across species, remains constant during development, and is the same between synapses with different activities. However, the NMJ active zones are not always stable, as exemplified by the change in active zone density during acute experimental manipulation or as a result of aging. Therefore, a mechanism must exist to maintain its density. In the central nervous system (CNS), active zones have restricted maximal size, exist in multiple numbers in larger presynaptic terminals, and maintain a constant density during development. These findings suggest that active zone density in the CNS is also controlled. However, in contrast to the NMJ, active zone density in the CNS can also be increased, as observed in hippocampal synapses in response to synaptic plasticity. Although the numbers of known active zone proteins and protein interactions have increased, less is known about the mechanism that controls the number or spacing of active zones. The following molecules are known to control active zone density and will be discussed herein: extracellular matrix laminins and voltage-dependent calcium channels, amyloid precursor proteins, the small GTPase Rab3, an endocytosis mechanism including synaptojanin, cytoskeleton protein spectrins and β-adducin, and a presynaptic web including spectrins. The molecular mechanisms that organize the active zone density are just beginning to be elucidated.

  17. A Geo-Aware Taxi Carrying Management System by Using Location Based Services and Zone Queuing Techniques on Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyi-Ren Dow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxi plays a crucial role in the transportation system because of the characteristic that can be hailed conveniently. Most of the taxi drivers obtain passengers by hunting on the road or waiting in a fixed taxi queuing point; however these methods have poor performance, high vacancy rate, and several critical problems such as air pollution and foul up traffic. This study proposed a taxi carrying management system by using location based services and zone queuing techniques on Internet of things. The proposed system allows drivers to both hunt on the road and wait in a queuing zone. A queuing table is used in the control center and neighbor tables are used in RSUs for zone queuing establishment. Joining and leaving mechanisms are developed for zone queuing management. To enhance service efficiency and quality, we present a scheme to prevent the ping-pong effect which is based on the location based services, a hunting rate calculation scheme, and a path planning service for taxi drivers according to the history carrying record. PRISM is used to simulate the proposed system, and the results indicated that our scheme outperforms the waiting and hunting models in terms of number of customers, vacancy rate, and profit.

  18. Modelling of two-zone accelerator-driven systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Babenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutron-physical modelings of two-zone subcritical reactor driven by high-intensity neutron generator are considered. The cascade principle in subcritical reactors, the use of which can hypothetically substantially amplify the neutron flux from the external source is discussed in this article. The theoretical preconditions of the cascade principle are discussed, and the directions of practical realization of the cascade subcritical system are considered, namely the possible methods of neutron feedback between reactor sections elimination. The results of Monte Carlo neutron-physical modeling of the cascade subcritical systems are presented and discussed.

  19. Unc-51 controls active zone density and protein composition by downregulating ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairkar, Yogesh P; Toda, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Hiroaki; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo; Tomoda, Toshifumi; Diantonio, Aaron

    2009-01-14

    Efficient synaptic transmission requires the apposition of neurotransmitter release sites opposite clusters of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Transmitter is released at active zones, which are composed of a large complex of proteins necessary for synaptic development and function. Many active zone proteins have been identified, but little is known of the mechanisms that ensure that each active zone receives the proper complement of proteins. Here we use a genetic analysis in Drosophila to demonstrate that the serine threonine kinase Unc-51 acts in the presynaptic motoneuron to regulate the localization of the active zone protein Bruchpilot opposite to glutamate receptors at each synapse. In the absence of Unc-51, many glutamate receptor clusters are unapposed to Bruchpilot, and ultrastructural analysis demonstrates that fewer active zones contain dense body T-bars. In addition to the presence of these aberrant synapses, there is also a decrease in the density of all synapses. This decrease in synaptic density and abnormal active zone composition is associated with impaired evoked transmitter release. Mechanistically, Unc-51 inhibits the activity of the MAP kinase ERK to promote synaptic development. In the unc-51 mutant, increased ERK activity leads to the decrease in synaptic density and the absence of Bruchpilot from many synapses. Hence, activated ERK negatively regulates synapse formation, resulting in either the absence of active zones or the formation of active zones without their proper complement of proteins. The Unc-51-dependent inhibition of ERK activity provides a potential mechanism for synapse-specific control of active zone protein composition and release probability.

  20. Satellite communication system for emergency monitoring within the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchini, C.; Mensa, M.; Kanevsky, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    A Satellite Emergency Monitoring system of the Chernobyl Exclusive Zone (SEM CEZ) was designed to provide the Ukraine authorities and the neighbouring countries with updated information when an emergency situation occurs in the Exclusion Zone. This is of particular importance when environment contamination has transboundary effect. SEM system consists of mobile and fixed sensors reporting data via a dedicated satellite communications link. Mobile sensors are fitted with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers that determine current coordinates of the sensor. Sensors data are transmitted to the Emergency Monitoring Centre equipped with PC and a satellite terminal. Both sensors data and the current position are visualized on digital maps

  1. Using fuzzy models in machining control system and assessment of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinek, A. V.; Boychuk, I. P.; Dantsevich, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    Description of the complex relationship of the optimum velocity with the temperature-strength state in the cutting zone for machining a fuzzy model is proposed. The fuzzy-logical conclusion allows determining the processing speed, which ensures effective, from the point of view of ensuring the quality of the surface layer, the temperature in the cutting zone and the maximum allowable cutting force. A scheme for stabilizing the temperature-strength state in the cutting zone using a nonlinear fuzzy PD–controller is proposed. The stability of the nonlinear system is estimated with the help of grapho–analytical realization of the method of harmonic balance and by modeling in MatLab.

  2. Framework Design and Influencing Factor Analysis of a Water Environmental Functional Zone-Based Effluent Trading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Li, Shuang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy of traditional effluent trading systems is questionable due to their neglect of seasonal hydrological variation and the creation of upstream hot spots within a watershed. Besides, few studies have been conducted to distinguish the impacts of each influencing factor on effluent trading systems outputs. In this study, a water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems framework was configured and a comprehensive analysis of its influencing factors was conducted. This proposed water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems was then applied for the control of chemical oxygen demand in the Beiyun River watershed, Beijing, China. Optimal trading results highlighted the integration of water quality constraints and different hydrological seasons, especially for downstream dischargers. The optimal trading of each discharger, in terms of pollutant reduction load and abatement cost, is greatly influenced by environmental and political factors such as background water quality, the location of river assessment points, and tradable discharge permits. In addition, the initial permit allowance has little influence on the market as a whole but does impact the individual discharger. These results provide information that is critical to understanding the impact of policy design on the functionality of an effluent trading systems.

  3. Framework Design and Influencing Factor Analysis of a Water Environmental Functional Zone-Based Effluent Trading System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Han, Zhaoxing; Li, Shuang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2016-10-01

    The efficacy of traditional effluent trading systems is questionable due to their neglect of seasonal hydrological variation and the creation of upstream hot spots within a watershed. Besides, few studies have been conducted to distinguish the impacts of each influencing factor on effluent trading systems outputs. In this study, a water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems framework was configured and a comprehensive analysis of its influencing factors was conducted. This proposed water environmental functional zone-based effluent trading systems was then applied for the control of chemical oxygen demand in the Beiyun River watershed, Beijing, China. Optimal trading results highlighted the integration of water quality constraints and different hydrological seasons, especially for downstream dischargers. The optimal trading of each discharger, in terms of pollutant reduction load and abatement cost, is greatly influenced by environmental and political factors such as background water quality, the location of river assessment points, and tradable discharge permits. In addition, the initial permit allowance has little influence on the market as a whole but does impact the individual discharger. These results provide information that is critical to understanding the impact of policy design on the functionality of an effluent trading systems.

  4. Explaining landholders' decisions about riparian zone management: the role of behavioural, normative, and control beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S; Terry, Deborah J; Masser, Barbara M; Bordia, Prashant; Hogg, Michael A

    2005-10-01

    Water quality is a key concern in the current global environment, with the need to promote practices that help to protect water quality, such as riparian zone management, being paramount. The present study used the theory of planned behaviour as a framework for understanding how beliefs influence decisions about riparian zone management. Respondents completed a survey that assessed their behavioural, normative, and control beliefs in relation to intentions to manage riparian zones on their property. The results of the study showed that, overall, landholders with strong intentions to manage their riparian zones differed significantly in terms of their beliefs compared to landholders who had weak intentions to manage their riparian zones. Strong intentions to manage riparian zones were associated with a favourable cost-benefit analysis, greater perceptions of normative support for the practice and lower perceptions of the extent to which barriers would impede management of riparian zones. It was also evident that willingness to comply with the recommendations of salient referents, beliefs about the benefits of riparian zone management and perceptions of the extent to which barriers would impede riparian zone management were most important for determining intentions to manage riparian zones. Implications for policy and extension practice are discussed.

  5. Economic analysis of hybrid power systems (PV/diesel) in different climatic zones of Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, U.; Manoharan, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Investigation on economic feasibility of PV/diesel system in various climatic zones. • HOMER is used to solve economic feasibility analysis. • By the sensitivity analysis, the net present cost is reduced. • Optimum climatic zone in Tamil Nadu, India is recommended. - Abstract: With the increasing threat to environment and the fast depleting fossil fuel resources, hybrid power systems consisting of two or more renewable energy sources such as solar PV, wind, biomass, ocean thermal-with or without the back up of diesel generator have come to the forefront. These hybrid systems are normally integrated with battery banks for total reliability; such systems have brought about better quality of life in remote areas of developing economics. The remote areas in the state of Tamil Nadu in India possess excellent renewable energy sources. These areas fall under different climatic zones, are sparsely populated and are in the process of development. Though these areas are connected to the grid, Tamil Nadu grid is not stable; it is currently experiencing 40% short fall in generation. Thus grid power is available to these remote areas only for 10 h a day and even when available, there are voltage frequency problems. This paper analyses the economic feasibility of installing and operating hybrid systems in these areas. The areas are divided into different climatic zones and the hybrid system economy is analyzed for each climatic zone on the basis of NPC (net present cost), consumption of diesel and renewable fraction for all climate zones. The analysis indicates that the interior climatic zone – the area would be the optimum climatic zone to install HPS PV/diesel. The sensitivity analysis proves that the NPC of such a system can be reduced. It is suggested that due to high initial cost, government subsidy is necessary to adopt the system on a large scale. Such a profit will encourage development of renewable energy utilization and bring about rapid

  6. Cardiac-vessels system violations of children moved from radiation polluted zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobovich, A.A.; Kokorina, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    In the work are presented results of circulation system status and heard pre-pathology processes of 60 children moved from radiation polluted zones. Some connections between cardiac-vessels system violation and neural system violations are ascertained. Role of neural system functions fallen down and non-adaptive cardiac-vessels system changes in pathogenesis are discussed. (authors)

  7. Coastal Zone Mapping and Imaging Lidar (CZMIL): first flights and system validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygels, Viktor I.; Park, Joong Yong; Aitken, Jennifer; Kim, Minsu; Payment, Andy; Ramnath, Vinod

    2012-09-01

    CZMIL is an integrated lidar-imagery sensor system and software suite designed for the highly automated generation of physical and environmental information products for mapping the coastal zone. This paper presents the results of CZMIL system validation in turbid water conditions on the Gulf Coast of Mississippi and in relatively clear water conditions in Florida in late spring 2012. The system performance test shows that CZMIL successfully achieved 7-8m depth in Kd =0.46m-1 (Kd is the diffuse attenuation coefficient) in Mississippi and up to 41m when Kd=0.11m-1 in Florida. With a seven segment array for topographic mode and the shallow water zone, CZMIL generated high resolution products with a maximum pulse rate of 70 kHz, and with 10 kHz in the deep water zone. Diffuse attenuation coefficient, bottom reflectance and other environmental parameters for the whole multi km2 area were estimated based on fusion of lidar and CASI-1500 hyperspectral camera data.

  8. Multi-Temperature Zone, Droplet-based Microreactor for Increased Temperature Control in Nanoparticle Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Erdem, E. Yegâ n; Cheng, Jim C.; Doyle, Fiona M.; Pisano, Albert P.

    2013-01-01

    Microreactors are an emerging technology for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The Multi-Temperature zone Microreactor (MTM) described in this work utilizes thermally isolated heated and cooled regions for the purpose of separating

  9. Vehicle emission implications of drivers' smart advisory system for traffic operations in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei

    2016-05-01

    Wireless communication systems have been broadly applied in various complicated traffic operations to improve mobility and safety on roads, which may raise a concern about the implication of the new technology on vehicle emissions. This paper explores how the wireless communication systems improve drivers' driving behaviors and its contributions to the emission reduction, in terms of Operating Mode (OpMode) IDs distribution used in emission estimation. A simulated work zone with completed traffic operation was selected as a test bed. Sixty subjects were recruited for the tests, whose demographic distribution was based on the Census data in Houston, Texas. A scene of a pedestrian's crossing in the work zone was designed for the driving test. Meanwhile, a wireless communication system called Drivers Smart Advisory System (DSAS) was proposed and introduced in the driving simulation, which provided drivers with warning messages in the work zone. Two scenarios were designed for a leading vehicle as well as for a following vehicle driving through the work zone, which included a base test without any wireless communication systems, and a driving test with the trigger of the DSAS. Subjects' driving behaviors in the simulation were recorded to evaluate safety and estimate the vehicle emission using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released emission model MOVES. The correlation between drivers' driving behavior and the distribution of the OpMode ID during each scenario was investigated. Results show that the DSAS was able to induce drivers to accelerate smoothly, keep longer headway distance and stop earlier for a hazardous situation in the work zone, which driving behaviors result in statistically significant reduction in vehicle emissions for almost all studied air pollutants (p-values range from 4.10E-51 to 2.18E-03). The emission reduction was achieved by the switching the distribution of the OpMode IDs from higher emission zones to lower emission zones

  10. Karst system vadose zone hydrodynamics highlighted by an integrative geophysical and hydrogeological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Van Camp, M. J.; Francis, O.; Poulain, A.; Hallet, V.; Rochez, G.; Kaufmann, O.

    2015-12-01

    The vadose zone of karst systems plays an important role on the water dynamics. In particular, temporary perched aquifers can appear in the subsurface due to changes of climate conditions, diminished evapotranspiration and differences of porosity relative to deeper layers. It is therefore crucial, but challenging, to separate the hydrological signature of the vadose zone from the one of the saturated zone for understanding hydrological processes that occur in the vadose zone. Although many difficulties are usually encountered when studying karst environments due to their heterogeneities, cave systems offer an outstanding opportunity to investigate vadose zone from the inside with various techniques. We present results covering two years of hydrogeological and geophysical monitoring at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL), located in the Variscan fold-and-thrust belt (Belgium), a region that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. Hydrogeological data such as flows and levels monitoring or tracer tests performed in both vadose and saturated zones bring valuable information on the hydrological context of the studied area. Combining those results with geophysical measurements allows validating and imaging them with more integrative techniques. A microgravimetric monitoring involves a superconducting gravimeter continuously measuring at the surface of the RCL. Early in 2015, a second relative gravimeter was installed in the underlying cave system located 35 meters below the surface. This set up allows highlighting vadose gravity changes. These relative measurements are calibrated using an absolute gravimeter. 12 additional stations (7 at the surface, 5 in the cave) are monitored on a monthly basis by a spring gravimeter. To complete these gravimetric measurements, the site has been equipped with a permanent Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring system comprising an uncommon array of surface, borehole and cave electrodes. Although such

  11. System of programs for the management of the common zone of the information processing system APIS working in real time on the reactor OSIRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Shahid, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The computing system APIS is designed to control the instrumentation of the experimental devices irradiated in the nuclear research reactor OSIRIS (Saclay swimming-pool reactor). OSIRIS runs on cycles of about 25 working days followed by an eight-day shutdown, during which period certain experiments disappear and others are coupled to the system. To obtain the required flexibility the software of the APIS system is made up of a set of application programs, each attached to a switch level and responsible for part of the work of the system. They all work on a memory zone known as ZCU (data zone common to all tasks) which contains all the parameters and arguments defining the system and the processing of connected experiments. This zone must be updated whenever the configuration of the system or experiments is changed. The system APIS for which the management of the ZCU's was made is presented, the general characteristics of the minicomputer MITRA-15 used to handle the ZCU management programs are given and the ZCU of a satellite unit is described in detail. The disadvantages of the present methods used to run the ZCU's are explained, then the method proposed for their automatic management is outlined and its advantages are discussed. The files processed during this work and the programs used for generation, updating and consultation of a ZCU are presented. The list of instructions available at the computer MITRA-15 and that of the subprogram SBRIMT are given in the appendix [fr

  12. Acoustic control system BN-350. Explanatory note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    A description of the acoustic system developed to control boiling in the active zone of the BN 350 reactor is given together with the corresponding technical characteristics. The results of experiments and calculations which confirm the validity of the solutions adopted are discussed. Theoretical calculations on the boiling process in the duct are reported together with details on the fast diagnostic system. A means for localizing the onset of boiling is also given, possible error being taken into consideration. The special features of the passive acoustic diagnostic method used to study boiling are described and schemas of the anciliary equipment presented [fr

  13. A Method for Optimal Load Dispatch of a Multi-zone Power System with Zonal Exchange Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Durlav; Das, Ranjay

    2018-04-01

    This paper presented a method for economic generation scheduling of a multi-zone power system having inter zonal operational constraints. For this purpose, the generator rescheduling for a multi area power system having inter zonal operational constraints has been represented as a two step optimal generation scheduling problem. At first, the optimal generation scheduling has been carried out for the zone having surplus or deficient generation with proper spinning reserve using co-ordination equation. The power exchange required for the deficit zones and zones having no generation are estimated based on load demand and generation for the zone. The incremental transmission loss formulas for the transmission lines participating in the power transfer process among the zones are formulated. Using these, incremental transmission loss expression in co-ordination equation, the optimal generation scheduling for the zonal exchange has been determined. Simulation is carried out on IEEE 118 bus test system to examine the applicability and validity of the method.

  14. Conceptual Design Approach to Implementing Hardware-based Security Controls in Data Communication Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad Salah; Jung, Jaecheon

    2016-01-01

    In the Korean Advanced Power Reactor (APR1400), safety control systems network is electrically isolated and physically separated from non-safety systems data network. Unidirectional gateways, include data diode fiber-optic cabling and computer-based servers, transmit the plant safety critical parameters to the main control room (MCR) for control and monitoring processes. The data transmission is only one-way from safety to non-safety. Reverse communication is blocked so that safety systems network is protected from potential cyberattacks or intrusions from non-safety side. Most of commercials off-the-shelf (COTS) security devices are software-based solutions that require operating systems and processors to perform its functions. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer digital hardware solutions to implement security controls such as data packet filtering and deep data packet inspection. This paper presents a conceptual design to implement hardware-based network security controls for maintaining the availability of gateway servers. A conceptual design of hardware-based network security controls was discussed in this paper. The proposed design is aiming at utilizing the hardware-based capabilities of FPGAs together with filtering and DPI functions of COTS software-based firewalls and intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS). The proposed design implemented a network security perimeter between the DCN-I zone and gateway servers zone. Security control functions are to protect the gateway servers from potential DoS attacks that could affect the data availability and integrity

  15. Conceptual Design Approach to Implementing Hardware-based Security Controls in Data Communication Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Ahmad Salah; Jung, Jaecheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the Korean Advanced Power Reactor (APR1400), safety control systems network is electrically isolated and physically separated from non-safety systems data network. Unidirectional gateways, include data diode fiber-optic cabling and computer-based servers, transmit the plant safety critical parameters to the main control room (MCR) for control and monitoring processes. The data transmission is only one-way from safety to non-safety. Reverse communication is blocked so that safety systems network is protected from potential cyberattacks or intrusions from non-safety side. Most of commercials off-the-shelf (COTS) security devices are software-based solutions that require operating systems and processors to perform its functions. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) offer digital hardware solutions to implement security controls such as data packet filtering and deep data packet inspection. This paper presents a conceptual design to implement hardware-based network security controls for maintaining the availability of gateway servers. A conceptual design of hardware-based network security controls was discussed in this paper. The proposed design is aiming at utilizing the hardware-based capabilities of FPGAs together with filtering and DPI functions of COTS software-based firewalls and intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS). The proposed design implemented a network security perimeter between the DCN-I zone and gateway servers zone. Security control functions are to protect the gateway servers from potential DoS attacks that could affect the data availability and integrity.

  16. Impact of loudspeaker nonlinear distortion on personal sound zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiaohui; J. Hegarty, Patrick; Abildgaard Pedersen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Personal sound zone systems aim at creating multiple listening zones within a shared space with minimum interference between zones, but the performance is often poorer than simulations predict and effects of nonlinear distortion are sometimes audible. This paper assesses the impact of nonlinear...... distortion on sound zones through simulations and measurements performed under anechoic conditions. Two sound zones, one bright and one dark, are created with acoustic contrast control using two loudspeaker arrays driven at 250 Hz. Nonlinear distortion is modelled using second or third order nonlinearities....... Simulations show that nonlinear distortion degrades the acoustic contrast, which is confirmed by experimental measurements. The harmonic distortion is audible in the dark zone. Frequency resolved measurements reveal that harmonic distortion contributes to contrast loss, but nonlinear effects...

  17. Software design of control system of CCD side-scatter lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Dong; Deng, Qian; Zhang, Zhanye; Wang, Zhenzhu; Yu, Siqi; Tao, Zongming; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-03-01

    Because of the existence of blind zone and transition zone, the application of backscattering lidar in near-ground is limited. The side-scatter lidar equipped with the Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) can separate the transmitting and receiving devices to avoid the impact of the geometric factors which is exited in the backscattering lidar and, detect the more precise near-ground aerosol signals continuously. Theories of CCD side-scatter lidar and the design of control system are introduced. The visible control of laser and CCD and automatic data processing method of the side-scatter lidar are developed by using the software of Visual C #. The results which are compared with the calibration of the atmospheric aerosol lidar data show that signals from the CCD side- scatter lidar are convincible.

  18. Improving the Effect and Efficiency of FMD Control by Enlarging Protection or Surveillance Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Boklund, Anette

    2015-01-01

    An epidemic of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in a FMD-free country with large exports of livestock and livestock products would result in profound economic damage. This could be reduced by rapid and efficient control of the disease spread. The objectives of this study were to estimate the economic...... impact of a hypothetical FMD outbreak in Denmark based on changes to the economic assumptions of the model, and to investigate whether the control of an FMD epidemic can be improved by combining the enlargement of protection or surveillance zones with pre-emptive depopulation or emergency vaccination....... The stochastic spatial simulation model DTU-DADS was used to simulate the spread of FMD in Denmark. The control strategies were the basic EU and Danish strategy, pre-emptive depopulation, suppressive or protective vaccination, enlarging protection or surveillance zones, and a combination of pre...

  19. Synchronisation of two separate zones in a standalone microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Hong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Standalone microgrids that comprise distributed generation sources (DGSs or energy storage systems (ESSs exist on off-shore islands or remote areas. When a fault occurs in a standalone microgrid, the microgrid is separated into several zones with pre-specified DGS or ESS supplying power to local loads. After the fault is cleared, the three-phase voltages and frequencies may differ among these zones. To restore the original microgrid topology, these zones must be reconnected to each other by synchronisation. A synchronisation controller of the DGS/ESS that accounts for slightly different three-phase voltages and frequencies in two separate zones is presented. The Clark transform and Mamdani fuzzy rules are used to implement the controller, providing fast and seamless synchronisation. Simulation results using a standalone microgrid show the practical applicability of the proposed method.

  20. Adaptive GSA-based optimal tuning of PI controlled servo systems with reduced process parametric sensitivity, robust stability and controller robustness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precup, Radu-Emil; David, Radu-Codrut; Petriu, Emil M; Radac, Mircea-Bogdan; Preitl, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    This paper suggests a new generation of optimal PI controllers for a class of servo systems characterized by saturation and dead zone static nonlinearities and second-order models with an integral component. The objective functions are expressed as the integral of time multiplied by absolute error plus the weighted sum of the integrals of output sensitivity functions of the state sensitivity models with respect to two process parametric variations. The PI controller tuning conditions applied to a simplified linear process model involve a single design parameter specific to the extended symmetrical optimum (ESO) method which offers the desired tradeoff to several control system performance indices. An original back-calculation and tracking anti-windup scheme is proposed in order to prevent the integrator wind-up and to compensate for the dead zone nonlinearity of the process. The minimization of the objective functions is carried out in the framework of optimization problems with inequality constraints which guarantee the robust stability with respect to the process parametric variations and the controller robustness. An adaptive gravitational search algorithm (GSA) solves the optimization problems focused on the optimal tuning of the design parameter specific to the ESO method and of the anti-windup tracking gain. A tuning method for PI controllers is proposed as an efficient approach to the design of resilient control systems. The tuning method and the PI controllers are experimentally validated by the adaptive GSA-based tuning of PI controllers for the angular position control of a laboratory servo system.

  1. Express control of migration processes of radioactive substances during drilling works in 'Ukryttya' object local zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pravdivyj, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Technical proposals are prepared to create a procedure for operative control of drilling works. Such a procedure will permit detecting the displacement of radioactively contaminated ground along borehole bore and correcting the drilling work procedure, which would prevent radioactive substance spreading, in boreholes of 'Ukryttya' object local zone and those of Exclusion Zone

  2. Recent progress and development of building vibration control systems in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Masanori

    1989-01-01

    Japan is on a seismically active zone. The people are frequently shaken, and there is good reason to develop vibration control systems. Ministries and major construction companies have contributed to the progress of the technology. An example is the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) Research project, which may be equipped with a base-isolation system. Rubber bearings will be standardized and base-isolated buildings will be designed and constructed easily on good ground in the near future. But one needs time to realize a building with an active control system, which is effective in potentially destructive earthquakes

  3. Reactivity control system of a passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wols, F.J.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A worth of over 15,000 pcm ensures achieving long-term cold shutdown in thorium PBR. • Control rod worth in side reflector is insufficient due to low-power breeder zone. • 20 control rods, just outside the driver zone, can achieve long-term cold shutdown. • BF 3 gas can be inserted for reactor shutdown, but only in case of emergency. • Perturbation theory accurately predicts absorber gas worth for many concentrations. - Abstract: This work investigates the neutronic design of the reactivity control system for a 100 MW th passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor (PBR), a conceptual design introduced previously by the authors. The thorium PBR consists of a central driver zone of 100 cm radius, surrounded by a breeder zone with 300 cm outer radius. The fissile content of the breeder zone is low, leading to low fluxes in the radial reflector region. Therefore, a significant decrease of the control rod worth at this position is anticipated. The reactivity worth of control rods in the side reflector and at alternative in-core positions is calculated using different techniques, being 2D neutron diffusion, perturbation theory and more accurate 3D Monte Carlo models. Sensitivity coefficients from perturbation theory provide a first indication of effective control rod positions, while the 2D diffusion models provide an upper limit on the reactivity worth achievable at a certain radial position due to the homogeneous spreading of the absorber material over the azimuthal domain. Three dimensional forward calculations, e.g. in KENO, are needed for an accurate calculation of the total control rod worth. The two dimensional homogeneous calculations indicate that the reactivity worth in the radial reflector is by far insufficient to achieve cold reactor shutdown, which requires a control rod worth of over 15 000 pcm. Three dimensional heterogeneous KENO calculations show that placing 20 control rods just outside the driver channel, between 100 cm

  4. Reactivity control system of a passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wols, F.J., E-mail: f.j.wols@tudelft.nl; Kloosterman, J.L.; Lathouwers, D.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A worth of over 15,000 pcm ensures achieving long-term cold shutdown in thorium PBR. • Control rod worth in side reflector is insufficient due to low-power breeder zone. • 20 control rods, just outside the driver zone, can achieve long-term cold shutdown. • BF{sub 3} gas can be inserted for reactor shutdown, but only in case of emergency. • Perturbation theory accurately predicts absorber gas worth for many concentrations. - Abstract: This work investigates the neutronic design of the reactivity control system for a 100 MW{sub th} passively safe thorium breeder pebble bed reactor (PBR), a conceptual design introduced previously by the authors. The thorium PBR consists of a central driver zone of 100 cm radius, surrounded by a breeder zone with 300 cm outer radius. The fissile content of the breeder zone is low, leading to low fluxes in the radial reflector region. Therefore, a significant decrease of the control rod worth at this position is anticipated. The reactivity worth of control rods in the side reflector and at alternative in-core positions is calculated using different techniques, being 2D neutron diffusion, perturbation theory and more accurate 3D Monte Carlo models. Sensitivity coefficients from perturbation theory provide a first indication of effective control rod positions, while the 2D diffusion models provide an upper limit on the reactivity worth achievable at a certain radial position due to the homogeneous spreading of the absorber material over the azimuthal domain. Three dimensional forward calculations, e.g. in KENO, are needed for an accurate calculation of the total control rod worth. The two dimensional homogeneous calculations indicate that the reactivity worth in the radial reflector is by far insufficient to achieve cold reactor shutdown, which requires a control rod worth of over 15 000 pcm. Three dimensional heterogeneous KENO calculations show that placing 20 control rods just outside the driver channel

  5. Integrated flight path planning system and flight control system for unmanned helicopters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM).

  6. Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM). PMID:22164029

  7. The Ansel Adams zone system: HDR capture and range compression by chemical processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, John J.

    2010-02-01

    We tend to think of digital imaging and the tools of PhotoshopTM as a new phenomenon in imaging. We are also familiar with multiple-exposure HDR techniques intended to capture a wider range of scene information, than conventional film photography. We know about tone-scale adjustments to make better pictures. We tend to think of everyday, consumer, silver-halide photography as a fixed window of scene capture with a limited, standard range of response. This description of photography is certainly true, between 1950 and 2000, for instant films and negatives processed at the drugstore. These systems had fixed dynamic range and fixed tone-scale response to light. All pixels in the film have the same response to light, so the same light exposure from different pixels was rendered as the same film density. Ansel Adams, along with Fred Archer, formulated the Zone System, staring in 1940. It was earlier than the trillions of consumer photos in the second half of the 20th century, yet it was much more sophisticated than today's digital techniques. This talk will describe the chemical mechanisms of the zone system in the parlance of digital image processing. It will describe the Zone System's chemical techniques for image synthesis. It also discusses dodging and burning techniques to fit the HDR scene into the LDR print. Although current HDR imaging shares some of the Zone System's achievements, it usually does not achieve all of them.

  8. Climate controls how ecosystems size the root zone storage capacity at catchment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Hrachowitz, M.; Schymanski, S.J.; Fenicia, F.F.; Sriwongsitanon, N.; Savenije, H.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    The root zone moisture storage capacity (SR) of terrestrial ecosystems is a buffer providing vegetation continuous access to water and a critical factor controlling land-atmospheric moisture exchange, hydrological response, and biogeochemical processes. However, it is impossible to observe directly

  9. Root Zone Respiration on Hydroponically Grown Wheat Plant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Crespo, R. A.; Monje, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Root respiration is a biological phenomenon that controls plant growth and physiological development during a plant's lifespan. This process is dependent on the availability of oxygen in the system where the plant is located. In hydroponic systems, where plants are submerged in a solution containing vital nutrients but no type of soil, the availability of oxygen arises from the dissolved oxygen concentration in the solution. This oxygen concentration is dependent on the , gas-liquid interface formed on the upper surface of the liquid, as given by Henry's Law, depending on pressure and temperature conditions. Respiration rates of the plants rise as biomass and root zone increase with age. The respiration rate of Apogee wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) was measured as a function of light intensity (catalytic for photosynthesis) and CO2 concentration to determine their effect on respiration rates. To determine their effects on respiration rate and plant growth microbial communities were introduced into the system, by Innoculum. Surfactants were introduced, simulating gray-water usage in space, as another factor to determine their effect on chemical oxygen demand of microbials and on respiration rates of the plants. It is expected to see small effects from changes in CO2 concentration or light levels, and to see root respiration decrease in an exponential manner with plant age and microbial activity.

  10. Portable traffic management system smart work zone application : operational test evaluation report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    As part of its statewide Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), The Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT) sponsored an operational test of the Portable Traffic Management System (PTMS) in a work zone application in cooperation with its pr...

  11. 78 FR 65963 - Foreign-Trade Zone 277-Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [B-64-2013] Foreign-Trade Zone 277--Western Maricopa County, Arizona; Schoeller Arca Systems, Inc. (Plastic Containers Production); Goodyear, Arizona On June 13, 2013, the Greater Maricopa Foreign Trade Zone, Inc., grantee of FTZ 277, submitted a...

  12. Numerical Simulation of a Non-volcanic Hydrothermal System Caused by Formation of a High Permeability Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Daisuke; Ehara, Sachio; Fujimitsu, Yasuhiro

    2010-05-01

    Because in the Japanese islands the earth crust activity is very active, a disposal stratum for high-level radioactive waste produced by reprocessing the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power plants will be selected in the tectonically stable areas in which the waste can be disposed underground safely for a long term and there is no influence of earthquakes, seismic activities, volcanic activities, upheaval, sedimentation, erosion, climate and global sea level change and so on, which causes the risk of the inflow of the groundwater to destroy the disposal site or the outflow to the ground surface. However, even if the disposal stratum in such condition will be chosen, in case that a new high permeability fracture zone is formed by the earthquake, and a new hydrothermal system may be formed for a long term (thousands or millions years) and the system may affect the disposal site. Therefore, we have to understand the feature of the non-volcanic hydrothermal system through the high permeability fracture zone. We estimated such influence by using HYDROTHERM Ver2.2 (Hayba & Ingebritsen, 1994), which is a three-dimensional numerical reservoir simulator. The model field is the northwestern part of Kego Fault, which was formed by a series of earthquakes called "the 2005 Fukuoka Prefecture Western Offshore Earthquakes" (the main shock of Mjma 7.0 on 20 March 2005) in Kyushu, Japan. The results of the numerical simulations show the development of a low temperature hydrothermal system as a new fracture zone is formed, in case that there is no volcanic heat source. The results of the simulations up to 100,000 years after formation of the fracture zone show that the higher heat flow and the wider and more permeable fracture zone accelerate the development of the hydrothermal system in the fracture zone. As a result of calculation of up to10 million years, we clarified the evolutional process of the non-volcanic hydrothermal system through the high permeability fracture zone. At

  13. Temperature Control of Heating Zone for Drying Process: Effect of Air Velocity Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutthithanyawat Chananchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a temperature control technique to adjust air temperature in a heating zone for drying process. The controller design is achieved by using an internal model control (IMC approach. When the IMC controller parameters were designed by calculating from an actual process transfer function estimated through an open-loop step response with input step change from 50% to 60% at a reference condition at air velocity of 1.20 m/s, the performance of temperature controller was experimentally tested by varying an air velocity between 1.32 m/s and 1.57 m/s, respectively. The experimental results showed that IMC controller had a high competency for controlling the drying temperature.

  14. High Frequency Electromagnetic Impedance Imaging for Vadose Zone and Groundwater Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, Greory A.; Alumbaugh, David L.; Hoversten, Michael; Nichols, Edward

    2003-01-01

    A geophysical experiment is described for characterizing the clastic dike systems, which are ubiquitous within the vadose zone at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. because the dikes possess a significant electrical contrast from the insulating host medium, we have applied controlled source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT) measurements to map their geometric extent and to further clarify if the dike complex acts as a conduit for contaminant transport within the vadose zone. Because of cost and weak natural field signal levels, we employed controlled field sourcing using the STRATGEM acquisition system. Use of artificial fields often goes with the assumption that the data required in the far-field of the transmitter

  15. Wireless system controlling of electromagnetic wave distribution in nuclear power plant use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hidehiko; Kume, Naoto; Oshima, Tomomi; Takakura, Kei; Oda, Naotaka; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Odanaka, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Recently, wireless technologies have rapidly spread by cellular phones, smartphones and tablet devices. Wireless systems in the nuclear power plant are expected to bring various advantages such as shortening of the inspection time, online monitoring, remote control and cable reduction, etc. However, wireless systems have hardly applied to the nuclear power plant, from the point of security and electromagnetic interference (EMI). We propose a new wireless system controlling automatically electromagnetic wave distribution. In our wireless system, the transmitter / receiver modules automatically measure the wave strength and adjust the power and directivity of the wave, resulting in wireless communication only in target zones, i.e. non-influence to safety-related instruments and non-leakage of information. We will present the algorithm of the electromagnetic wave controlling and experimental results about the proposed system. (author)

  16. Ecosystem health evaluation system of the water-fluctuating zone in the Three Gorges Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ao; YUAN Hui; ZHANG Yan-hui; HU Gang

    2004-01-01

    This paper discribes the definition of ecosystem health for the water-level flutuation zone of the Three Gorges Region and puts forward an evaluation system involving indicators in three groups: 1) structural indicators comprise slope, biodiversity,environmental capacity, stability, restoration ability and damage situation; 2) functional indicators including probability of geological hazard, erosion rate, habitat rate, land use intension and days of tourist season; 3) environmental indicatiors made up of population quality, potential intension of human, ground water quality, ambient air quality, wastewater treatment rate, pesticide use rate, fertilizer use rate, environmental management and public participation. In the design of the system, the subject zone is regarded as the type similar to wetland and the impacts of human activities on the zone are attached great importance to.

  17. Study on the construction of Guangdong coastal zone sustainable development decision support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yong-zhu; Zhang, Mei-ying; Xia, Bin; Zhang, Zheng-dong

    2008-10-01

    Coastal zones in Guangdong province are increasingly facing an ecological, economic and social pressure due to the increasing economic utilization and human activities in these regions worldwide, which is threatening the sustainable development of human being. How to take effective measurements and adopt integrated management to ensure sustainable development in these areas is ever becoming a focus that attracts close attentions to the governmental and academic sectors recently. It is important to resolve the problem to establish an advanced decision support system for the coastal zone sustainable development to help scientific decision-making and carry out integrated coastal zone management. This paper mainly introduces the general framework of Guangdong coastal zone sustainable development decision support system (GDCZSDDSS), including its requirements, general objectives, function and structure, and key technologies etc. After expounding the basic concept and requirements of GDCZSDDSS, the paper discusses generally the three-tier architecture and six kinds of functional modules, and lays a particular emphasis on the crucial role of such key technologies as GIS, RS and GPS (3S), spatial metadata and data warehouse etc., and discusses the methods of the GCZSDDSS integration, which aims at offering a whole solution for realization of the GCZSDDSS ultimately.

  18. "AfterZone:" Outcomes for Youth Participating in Providence's Citywide After-School System. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauh, Tina J.

    2011-01-01

    This executive summary highlights the main findings from our participation and outcomes analysis of the "AfterZone" initiative--a citywide system-building effort in Providence, Rhode Island, that aims to provide high-quality, accessible out-of-school-time services to middle school youth. The summary briefly defines the AfterZone's unique…

  19. Rheological structure of the lithosphere in plate boundary strike-slip fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaras, Vasileios; Tikoff, Basil; Kruckenberg, Seth C.; Newman, Julie; Titus, Sarah J.; Withers, Anthony C.; Drury, Martyn R.

    2016-04-01

    How well constrained is the rheological structure of the lithosphere in plate boundary strike-slip fault systems? Further, how do lithospheric layers, with rheologically distinct behaviors, interact within the strike-slip fault zones? To address these questions, we present rheological observations from the mantle sections of two lithospheric-scale, strike-slip fault zones. Xenoliths from ˜40 km depth (970-1100 ° C) beneath the San Andreas fault system (SAF) provide critical constraints on the mechanical stratification of the lithosphere in this continental transform fault. Samples from the Bogota Peninsula shear zone (BPSZ, New Caledonia), which is an exhumed oceanic transform fault, provide insights on lateral variations in mantle strength and viscosity across the fault zone at a depth corresponding to deformation temperatures of ˜900 ° C. Olivine recrystallized grain size piezometry suggests that the shear stress in the SAF upper mantle is 5-9 MPa and in the BPSZ is 4-10 MPa. Thus, the mantle strength in both fault zones is comparable to the crustal strength (˜10 MPa) of seismogenic strike-slip faults in the SAF system. Across the BPSZ, shear stress increases from 4 MPa in the surrounding rocks to 10 MPa in the mylonites, which comprise the core of the shear zone. Further, the BPSZ is characterized by at least one order of magnitude difference in the viscosity between the mylonites (1018 Paṡs) and the surrounding rocks (1019 Paṡs). Mantle viscosity in both the BPSZ mylonites and the SAF (7.0ṡ1018-3.1ṡ1020 Paṡs) is relatively low. To explain our observations from these two strike-slip fault zones, we propose the "lithospheric feedback" model in which the upper crust and lithospheric mantle act together as an integrated system. Mantle flow controls displacement and the upper crust controls the stress magnitude in the system. Our stress data combined with data that are now available for the middle and lower crustal sections of other transcurrent fault

  20. Automated system for individual control for admission of staff in the controlled zones of the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramski, D.; Jordanova, V.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the system leads to the following: automated registering of the staff in the personnel database; real time reading of the personal dosimeters; real time reading of the collective dose; the control over the working people (especially external) concerning the dose limits or restrictions are performed in real time

  1. Variation in village chicken production systems among agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchadeyi, F C; Wollny, C B A; Eding, H; Weigend, S; Makuza, S M; Simianer, H

    2007-08-01

    The degree to which village chickens are integrated in the smallholder farming systems differs depending on the socio-economic, cultural and biological factors within each system. The objective of this study was to characterise the village chicken farming systems and identify possible threats to, and opportunities for, local chickens in the agro-ecological zones of Zimbabwe. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to households randomly selected from five districts, Risitu (n=97), Hurungwe (n=56), Gutu (n=77), Gokwe-South (n=104) and Beitbridge (n=37) in eco-zones I-V, respectively. Age of head of household averaged 47 years (SD = 14.3). Land holdings per household averaged 4.82 ha (SD = 3.6). Overall, 17.7 percent of the households ranked livestock as the major source of income compared to 70.8 percent who ranked crops as the main contributor. Chicken flock size averaged 16.7 (SD = 12.4), and the highest flock sizes were observed in eco-zones I and IV. Households owning cattle, goats and other livestock assigned less important ranks to chickens. Chickens were usedmainly for the provision of meat and eggs whilst the use of chicken feathers and investment were uncommon practises. Results indicate that more support is necessary for village chickens in the non-cropping regions of the country.

  2. Fuzzy-logic-based power control system for multifield electrostatic precipitators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, N. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    The power consumption of large precipitators can be in the range of 1 MW and above. Depending on the dust load properties, the electrical power may be reduced by up to 50% by applying fuzzy logic, without significantly increasing the dust emissions. The new approach uses fuzzy logic for optimization of existing electrostatic precipitators. The software runs on a standard personal computer platform under the, Windows NT operating system. The controllers of the electrostatic precipitator power supplies are linked to the personal computer via an industrial network (e.g., PROFIBUS). The system determines online the differentials of emission versus electrical power of each field. This measurement is difficult because of overlaid events in the other zones, and process changes. The long response time of the resultant dust emission due to electrical power changes in the precipitator is an additional complication. Rules were defined for a coarse, but fast-response power adaptation of all zones. Fine tuning the running system after the coarse optimization increased the accuracy and reliability. When installed on a 4 x 5 zone precipitator in a power station, significant results were obtained. The power savings over three months of operation were in the range of 40%-60% depending on the load and fuel characteristics. Data were recorded over the test period of three months. The results are presented.

  3. Realization of the Zone Length Measurement during Zone Refining Process via Implementation of an Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo C. Curtolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Zone refining, as the currently most common industrial process to attain ultrapure metals, is influenced by a variety of factors. One of these parameters, the so-called “zone length”, affects not only the ultimate concentration distribution of impurities, but also the rate at which this distribution is approached. This important parameter has however neither been investigated experimentally, nor ever varied for the purpose of optimization. This lack of detections may be due to the difficult temperature measurement of a moving molten area in a vacuum system, of which the zone refining methodology is comprised. Up to now, numerical simulation as a combination of complex mathematical calculations, as well as many assumptions has been the only way to reveal it. This paper aims to propose an experimental method to accurately measure the molten zone length and to extract helpful information on the thermal gradient, temperature profile and real growth rate in the zone refining of an exemplary metal, in this case aluminum. This thermographic method is based on the measurement of the molten surface temperature via an infrared camera, as well as further data analysis through the mathematical software MATLAB. The obtained results show great correlation with the visual observations of zone length and provide helpful information to determine the thermal gradient and real growth rate during the whole process. The investigations in this paper approved the application of an infrared camera for this purpose as a promising technique to automatically control the zone length during a zone refining process.

  4. Wind erosion control with scattered vegetation in the Sahelian zone of Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Sahelian zone ofAfricais the region that is globally most subjected to land degradation, with wind erosion being the most important soil degradation process. By using control measures, the negative effects of wind erosion can be reduced. At present, adoption of

  5. Multichannel imager for littoral zone characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobna, Yuliya; Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joe; Sofianos, James; Boucher, Cynthia; Gilbert, Gary

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes an approach to utilize a multi-channel, multi-spectral electro-optic (EO) system for littoral zone characterization. Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT) presents their EO sensor systems for the surf zone environmental assessment and potential surf zone target detection. Specifically, an approach is presented to determine a Surf Zone Index (SZI) from the multi-spectral EO sensor system. SZI provides a single quantitative value of the surf zone conditions delivering an immediate understanding of the area and an assessment as to how well an airborne optical system might perform in a mine countermeasures (MCM) operation. Utilizing consecutive frames of SZI images, ACT is able to measure variability over time. A surf zone nomograph, which incorporates targets, sensor, and environmental data, including the SZI to determine the environmental impact on system performance, is reviewed in this work. ACT's electro-optical multi-channel, multi-spectral imaging system and test results are presented and discussed.

  6. Control system for a multi-joint inspection robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, K.

    1984-01-01

    Remote systems, in which a human operator in a safe zone determines pertinent circumstances and makes decisions on work procedures, while a robot does direct work in hazardous environments, have been becoming more and more important in accordance with the increase in nuclear facilities. In such remote systems, to perform tasks which are merely ambiguously defined beforehand, it is very important that the systems have the ability to execute desired tasks easily and immediately without any programming or teaching work on the spot. A control system, named Self Approach System (SAS), for a multi-joint inspection robot has been developed as a key component in a remote inspection system for use in physically difficult or dangerous environments. It has 8 joints and 17 degrees-of-freedom and was designed taking many of the above points into account. This paper describes SAS details

  7. pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Clare; Barry, D.A.; McCarty, Perry L.; Gerhard, Jason I.; Kouznetsova, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.

  8. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xu-guang [College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Qingdao 266100 (China); Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai [Research Center of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the “real” geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  9. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-10-01

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the "real" geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  10. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-01-01

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the “real” geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures

  11. The Intelligent Control System and Experiments for an Unmanned Wave Glider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yulei; Wang, Leifeng; Li, Yiming; Li, Ye; Jiang, Quanquan

    2016-01-01

    The control system designing of Unmanned Wave Glider (UWG) is challenging since the control system is weak maneuvering, large time-lag and large disturbance, which is difficult to establish accurate mathematical model. Meanwhile, to complete marine environment monitoring in long time scale and large spatial scale autonomously, UWG asks high requirements of intelligence and reliability. This paper focuses on the "Ocean Rambler" UWG. First, the intelligent control system architecture is designed based on the cerebrum basic function combination zone theory and hierarchic control method. The hardware and software designing of the embedded motion control system are mainly discussed. A motion control system based on rational behavior model of four layers is proposed. Then, combining with the line-of sight method(LOS), a self-adapting PID guidance law is proposed to compensate the steady state error in path following of UWG caused by marine environment disturbance especially current. Based on S-surface control method, an improved S-surface heading controller is proposed to solve the heading control problem of the weak maneuvering carrier under large disturbance. Finally, the simulation experiments were carried out and the UWG completed autonomous path following and marine environment monitoring in sea trials. The simulation experiments and sea trial results prove that the proposed intelligent control system, guidance law, controller have favorable control performance, and the feasibility and reliability of the designed intelligent control system of UWG are verified.

  12. The Intelligent Control System and Experiments for an Unmanned Wave Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yulei; Wang, Leifeng; Li, Yiming; Li, Ye; Jiang, Quanquan

    2016-01-01

    The control system designing of Unmanned Wave Glider (UWG) is challenging since the control system is weak maneuvering, large time-lag and large disturbance, which is difficult to establish accurate mathematical model. Meanwhile, to complete marine environment monitoring in long time scale and large spatial scale autonomously, UWG asks high requirements of intelligence and reliability. This paper focuses on the “Ocean Rambler” UWG. First, the intelligent control system architecture is designed based on the cerebrum basic function combination zone theory and hierarchic control method. The hardware and software designing of the embedded motion control system are mainly discussed. A motion control system based on rational behavior model of four layers is proposed. Then, combining with the line-of sight method(LOS), a self-adapting PID guidance law is proposed to compensate the steady state error in path following of UWG caused by marine environment disturbance especially current. Based on S-surface control method, an improved S-surface heading controller is proposed to solve the heading control problem of the weak maneuvering carrier under large disturbance. Finally, the simulation experiments were carried out and the UWG completed autonomous path following and marine environment monitoring in sea trials. The simulation experiments and sea trial results prove that the proposed intelligent control system, guidance law, controller have favorable control performance, and the feasibility and reliability of the designed intelligent control system of UWG are verified. PMID:28005956

  13. Measurement of the power trasient and valve closing time, for the zone control system, during a programmed shutdown in August 1989 and its relation with the class IV partial loss event occurred on 27/12/88 in CNE (Embalse nuclear power plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, A.O. de; Moreno, C.A.; Vinez, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    A description is made of a number of measurements performed during the programmed shutdown on Embalse nuclear power plant (CNE) (August 1989) to validate the existance of a reactivity insertion owing to the emptying of the liquid zone control system. In the event occurred on 27/12/88 when there was a partial loss Cl IV. Once the existance of this contribution was confirmed, the pertinent corrective measures were taken and the test was repeated to verify the effectiveness of the latter. The temporal evolution of a number of neutronic variables and process variables of the liquid zone system were stored in an IBM-PC XT equipped with analog-to-digital converters, for later analysis. (Author) [es

  14. New approach for control rod position indication system for light water power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahuguna, Sushil; Dhage, Sangeeta; Nawaj, S.; Salek, C.; Lahiri, S.K.; Marathe, P.P.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Taly, Y.K.

    2015-01-01

    Control rod position indication system is an important system in a nuclear power plant to monitor and display control rod position in all regimes of reactor operation. A new approach to design a control rod position indication system for sensing absolute position of control rod in Light Water Power Reactor has been undertaken. The proposed system employs an inductive type, hybrid measurement strategy providing both analog position as well as digital zone indication with built-in temperature compensation. The new design approach meets single failure criterion through redundancy in design without sacrificing measurement resolution. It also provides diversity in measurement technique by indirect position sensing based on analysis of drive coil current signature. Prototype development and qualification at room temperature of the control rod position indication system (CRPIS) has been demonstrated. The article presents the design philosophy of control rod position indication system, the new measurement strategy for sensing absolute position of control rod, position estimation algorithm for both direct and indirect sensing and a brief account associated processing electronics. (author)

  15. Study of two-zone reactor system using a pulsed neutron technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishin, B.P.; Platovskikh, Yu.A.; Didejkin, T.S.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of a neutron flux time dependence after a sport fast neutron pulse in a reactor core - neutron reflector multiplying system have been conducted. A correlation between eigenvalues governing neutron flux decrease at t→infinity for the two-zone system and eigenvalues for each zone has been established in terms of the one-group diffusion approximation. Experiments have been performed in an experimental subcritical assembly comprising a cylindrical uranium core surrounded by a radial water reflector with different boric acid concentrations. The experiments show that the observed neutron flux decrease in the core is governed by an exponent exp(-Λ 1 t), whereas in the reflector by a sum of two exponents exp(-Λ 1 t) and exp(-Λ 2 t). The eigenvalue Λ 1 reflects multiplying properties of the reactor, and Λ 2 is determined by the reflector absorption cross section

  16. Double system wave energy converter for the breaker zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavasi, Stefano; Negri; Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a particular type of wave energy converter, namely EDS (Energy Double System) is presented. It is a two-body point absorber composed by a heaving float and a surging paddle, mounted on the same structure and aligned along the wave propagation direction. The system is designed for working in the breaker zone, where waves close to breaking can generate a considerable surging force on the paddle. A scale EDS model has been built and tested in the wave flume of the Hydraulics Laboratory of the 'Politecnico' of Milan. The power absorbed by the system, varying its configuration, position and wave, has been measured, and interesting efficiencies have been found.

  17. Evidence of linked biogeochemical and hydrological processes in homogeneous and layered vadose zone systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, J. T.; Hansen, D. J.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2010-12-01

    flux. No such mineral bands developed in the sterilized column. As a consequence, water content in the lenses of the sterilized column was half that of the other column and flow rates through the lenses were an order of magnitude lower. This flow impedance limited the interaction and mixing of groundwater with infiltrating vadose zone water and led to the formation of geochemically distinct water masses residing in relatively close proximity to one another. Results provide a specific examples of the direct impact of biogeochemical cycling on water flow in the vadose zone and vice versa. In addition, these demonstrate that the presence of layers in vadose zone environments may be an important control on overall chemical fate and transport in subsurface systems.

  18. Tank waste remediation system vadose zone program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredenburg, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the vadose zone characterization under this program is to develop a better conceptual geohydrologic model of identified tank farms which will be characterized so that threats to human health and the environment from past leaks and spills, intentional liquid discharges, potential future leaks during retrieval, and from residual contaminants that may remain in tank farms at closure can be explicitly addressed in decision processes. This model will include geologic, hydrologic, and hydrochemical parameters as defined by the requirements of each of the TWRS programs identified here. The intent of this TWRS Vadose Zone Program Plan is to provide justification and an implementation plan for the following activities: Develop a sufficient understanding of subsurface conditions and transport processes to support decisions on management, cleanup, and containment of past leaks, spills, and intentional liquid discharges; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on controlling potential retrieval leaks; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on tank farm closure, including allowable residual waste that may remain at closure; and Provide new information on geotechnical properties in the 200 Area to supplement data used for design and performance assessment for immobilized low-activity waste disposal facilities

  19. Tank waste remediation system vadose zone program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, E.A.

    1998-07-27

    The objective of the vadose zone characterization under this program is to develop a better conceptual geohydrologic model of identified tank farms which will be characterized so that threats to human health and the environment from past leaks and spills, intentional liquid discharges, potential future leaks during retrieval, and from residual contaminants that may remain in tank farms at closure can be explicitly addressed in decision processes. This model will include geologic, hydrologic, and hydrochemical parameters as defined by the requirements of each of the TWRS programs identified here. The intent of this TWRS Vadose Zone Program Plan is to provide justification and an implementation plan for the following activities: Develop a sufficient understanding of subsurface conditions and transport processes to support decisions on management, cleanup, and containment of past leaks, spills, and intentional liquid discharges; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on controlling potential retrieval leaks; Develop a sufficient understanding of transport processes to support decisions on tank farm closure, including allowable residual waste that may remain at closure; and Provide new information on geotechnical properties in the 200 Area to supplement data used for design and performance assessment for immobilized low-activity waste disposal facilities.

  20. Topology control of tactical wireless sensor networks using energy efficient zone routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Thulasiraman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Department of Defense (DoD routinely uses wireless sensor networks (WSNs for military tactical communications. Sensor node die-out has a significant impact on the topology of a tactical WSN. This is problematic for military applications where situational data is critical to tactical decision making. To increase the amount of time all sensor nodes remain active within the network and to control the network topology tactically, energy efficient routing mechanisms must be employed. In this paper, we aim to provide realistic insights on the practical advantages and disadvantages of using established routing techniques for tactical WSNs. We investigate the following established routing algorithms: direct routing, minimum transmission energy (MTE, Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Head routing (LEACH, and zone clustering. Based on the node die out statistics observed with these algorithms and the topological impact the node die outs have on the network, we develop a novel, energy efficient zone clustering algorithm called EZone. Via extensive simulations using MATLAB, we analyze the effectiveness of these algorithms on network performance for single and multiple gateway scenarios and show that the EZone algorithm tactically controls the topology of the network, thereby maintaining significant service area coverage when compared to the other routing algorithms.

  1. Assessment of Mismatch at Indicated Level of the Upper Side Zone of LZC on abnormal operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Min; Park, Joong-Woo; Kho, Dae-Hack; Seo, Hyung-Beom; Han, Bong-Gyun; Moon, Jin-Soo

    2006-01-01

    Liquid Zone Control System of CANDU reactor provides bulk and spatial control. This system has produced abnormal operations with water level increase due to refueling since 1998. The abnormal operations of LZC system at Wolsong 2 can be divided into two periods. One is the sudden drop with continuous operation mode of LZC compressor and the other one is cycling with the on-off operation mode of the LZC compressor. It is identified through the communication with other CANDU reactors that this phenomenon is not unique to Wolsong. Whenever the upper side zone (1,8,6,13) level exceeded 80%, these abnormal operations occurred and mismatch between indicated and actual zone level was found. Counter-plan is prepared to ease these abnormal operations by physicist own efforts at Wolsong 2

  2. A Novel Scheme of Fast-frequency Hopping Optical CDMA System with No-hit-zone Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianhua; liu, Ling; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Zhipeng; Xu, Ming

    2013-09-01

    In traditional fast frequency-hopping OCDMA (FFH-OCDMA) system, beat noise and multiple-access interference are the main performance limitations, and complicated power control must be employed to eliminate the near-far effect. In this paper, a novel scheme of FFH-OCDMA with no-hit-zone sequence is proposed, which is named NHZ FFH-OCDMA. In NHZ FFH-OCDMA, the synchronization among users can be controlled within permissible time delay, and the code cross-correlation for different users equals zero. Therefore, near-far effect can be eliminated. Furthermore, beat noise and multiple-access interference also can be removed. Simulation of eight simultaneous users with dada rate 100 Mbit/s is demonstrated, where the fiber link consists of 50 km single-mode fiber, plus 5 km dispersion compensating fiber. Simulation results show that the near-far problem of NHZ FFH-OCDMA can be eliminated, and complicated power control can be removed. Therefore, this scheme is a good candidate for optical access network.

  3. The discovery of a conjugate system of faults in the Wharton Basin intraplate deformation zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satish C; Hananto, Nugroho; Qin, Yanfang; Leclerc, Frederique; Avianto, Praditya; Tapponnier, Paul E; Carton, Helene; Wei, Shengji; Nugroho, Adam B; Gemilang, Wishnu A; Sieh, Kerry; Barbot, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    The deformation at well-defined, narrow plate boundaries depends on the relative plate motion, but how the deformation takes place within a distributed plate boundary zone remains a conundrum. This was confirmed by the seismological analyses of the 2012 great Wharton Basin earthquakes [moment magnitude ( M w ) 8.6], which suggested the rupture of several faults at high angles to one another. Using high-resolution bathymetry and seismic reflection data, we report the discovery of new N294°E-striking shear zones, oblique to the plate fabric. These shear zones are expressed by sets of normal faults striking at N335°E, defining the direction of the principal compressional stress in the region. Also, we have imaged left-lateral strike-slip faults along reactivated N7°E-oriented oceanic fracture zones. The shear zones and the reactivated fracture zones form a conjugate system of faults, which accommodate present-day intraplate deformation in the Wharton Basin.

  4. The recent avifauna of the central and eastern Civilian Control Zone near the Demilitarized Zone in Republic of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Seunghwa Yoo; Dongwon Kim; Youngmin Moon; Jeongyeon Yi; Taebong Choi

    2016-01-01

    Our survey of the avifauna in the eastern and central parts of the Civilian Control Zone (CCZ) in 2012 and 2013 found a total of 14,390 individuals of 159 species belonging to 17 orders, 44 families and 88 genera. The 159 species of birds found in the central and eastern CCZ constitute 29.4% of the 540 bird species recorded in the Korean Peninsula, showing considerable biodiversity in the bird species that inhabit the surveyed regions. In the central CCZ, we found 9,916 individuals of 117 bir...

  5. pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Clare, E-mail: clare.robinson@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de technologie ecologique, Institut d' ingenierie de l' environnement, Station No. 2, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Now at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Barry, D.A., E-mail: andrew.barry@epfl.ch [Laboratoire de technologie ecologique, Institut d' ingenierie de l' environnement, Station No. 2, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); McCarty, Perry L., E-mail: pmccarty@stanford.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4020 (United States); Gerhard, Jason I., E-mail: j.gerhard@ed.ac.uk [Now at: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada N6A 5B9 (Canada); Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Kouznetsova, Irina, E-mail: irina.kouznetsova@ed.ac.uk [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.

  6. Fuzzy logic control of air-conditioning system in residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hamid Attia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rising concern in reducing the energy consumption in building. Heating ventilation and air condition system is the biggest consumer of energy in building. In this study, fuzzy logic control of the air conditioning system of building for efficient energy operation and comfortable environment is investigated. A theoretical model of the fan coil unit (FCU and the heat transfer between air and coolant fluid is derived. The controlled variables are the room temperature and relative humidity and control consequents are the percentage of chilled and hot water flow rates at summer and the percentage of hot water and steam injected flow rates at winter. A computer simulation has been conducted and fuzzy control results are compared with that of conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative control. It was found that the proposed control strategy satisfies the space load and at the same time to achieve the comfort zone, as defined by the ASHRAE code. Meanwhile PID control fails to adjust the room temperature at part-load operations. It has been demonstrated that fuzzy controller operation is more efficient and consumes less energy than PID control.

  7. Process instrumentation and control for cryogenic system of VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sandip

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting Cyclotron, which comprises of superconducting main magnet and cryopanels operating at 4.3 K, are operational at VECC in three phases starting from 2005; finally without interruption from July, 2010 to November, 2016. Cryogenic loads of the Cyclotron are catered by any of the two helium liquefiers/refrigerators (250W and 415W @ 4.5K) and associated cryogen distribution system with extensive helium gas management system. The system also consists of 31 K liters of liquid Nitrogen (LN_2) storage and delivery system, necessary of radiation shield. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) architecture is open source, flexible and has unlimited tags as compared to the commercial Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) packages. Hence, it has been adopted to design the SCADA module. The EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) communicates with four PLCs over Ethernet based control LAN to control/monitor 618 numbers of field Inputs/ Outputs (I/O). The control system is fully automated and does not require any human intervention for routine operation. Since these two liquefiers share the same high pressure (HP) and low pressure (LP) pipelines, any pressure fluctuation due to rapid change in flow sometimes causes trip of the liquefiers. Few modifications are made in the control scheme in HP and LP zones to avoid liquefier trip. The plant is running very reliably round the clock and the historical data of important parameters during plant operation are archived for plant maintenance, easy diagnosis and future modifications. Total pure helium cycle gas inventory is monitored through EPICS for early detection of helium loss from its trend

  8. STABILITY OF ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN AND AROUND THE HABITABLE ZONE OF THE HD 47186 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Raymond, Sean N.; Barnes, Rory

    2009-01-01

    We study the dynamical stability of an additional, potentially habitable planet in the HD 47186 planetary system. Two planets are currently known in this system: a 'hot Neptune' with a period of 4.08 days and a Saturn-mass planet with a period of 3.7 years. Here we consider the possibility that one or more undetected planets exist between the two known planets and possibly within the habitable zone (HZ) in this system. Given the relatively low masses of the known planets, additional planets could have masses ∼ + , and hence be terrestrial-like and further improving potential habitability. We perform N-body simulations to identify the stable zone between planets b and c and find that much of the inner HZ can harbor a 10 M + planet. With the current radial velocity threshold of ∼1 m s -1 , an additional planet should be detectable if it lies at the inner edge of the habitable zone at 0.8 AU. We also show that the stable zone could contain two additional planets of 10 M + each if their eccentricities are lower than ∼0.3.

  9. Fracture zones constrained by neutral surfaces in a fault-related fold: Insights from the Kelasu tectonic zone, Kuqa Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuai; Hou, Guiting; Zheng, Chunfang

    2017-11-01

    Stress variation associated with folding is one of the controlling factors in the development of tectonic fractures, however, little attention has been paid to the influence of neutral surfaces during folding on fracture distribution in a fault-related fold. In this study, we take the Cretaceous Bashijiqike Formation in the Kuqa Depression as an example and analyze the distribution of tectonic fractures in fault-related folds by core observation and logging data analysis. Three fracture zones are identified in a fault-related fold: a tensile zone, a transition zone and a compressive zone, which may be constrained by two neutral surfaces of fold. Well correlation reveals that the tensile zone and the transition zone reach the maximum thickness at the fold hinge and get thinner in the fold limbs. A 2D viscoelastic stress field model of a fault-related fold was constructed to further investigate the mechanism of fracturing. Statistical and numerical analysis reveal that the tensile zone and the transition zone become thicker with decreasing interlimb angle. Stress variation associated with folding is the first level of control over the general pattern of fracture distribution while faulting is a secondary control over the development of local fractures in a fault-related fold.

  10. Automatic diameter control system applied to the laser heated pedestal growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeta M.R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We described an automatic diameter control system (ADC, for the laser heated pedestal growth technique, that reduces the diameter fluctuations in oxide fibers grown from unreacted and non-sinterized pedestals, to less than 2% of the average fiber diameter, and diminishes the average diameter fluctuation, over the entire length of the fiber, to less than 1%. The ADC apparatus is based on an artificial vision system that controls the pulling speed and the height of the molten zone within a precision of 30 mum. We also show that this system can be used for periodic in situ axial doping the fiber. Pure and Cr3+ doped LaAlO3 and pure LiNbO3 were usedas model materials.

  11. Hydrogeological monitoring (0-15 km of the Chernobyl' station affected zone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnikov, A.B.; Dzheko, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogeological monitoring (HM) is aimed at finding out the regularities of formation of subsurface water, as well as unfavorable phenomena and parameters used for forecasts. To the main objects of HM belong: surface storm run-off; soil moisture of the aeration zone; underground water; water-bearing horizons in Buchak and Senomazh depositions. Criteria for grounding the system of monitoring and control are presented. The elements of the system for tracking local HM in 10-15 km zone are given. Potential centres of unfavorable phenomena, as well as the objects to be protected are noted. 3 figs

  12. AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

  13. Theoretical study of an on-off automatic control system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, J.; Jover, P.

    1964-01-01

    The automatic control system designed for a high flux nuclear reactor is of the 'constant speed-dead zone' type, in which the control rod is run at normal speed in the required direction when the error signal overrides a preset level. The study of the closed loop absolute stability was carried out with the describing function method. An analog computer study yielded the optimal values of the setting parameters (relay hysteresis, motor response time), which lead to a minimization of the control steps frequency when the reactivity varies slowly with the xenon poisoning. (authors) [fr

  14. Directional tip control technique for optimal stent graft alignment in angulated proximal aortic landing zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Takayama, MD, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Angulated anatomy in the aorta, such as tortuous infrarenal aortic necks or steep aortic arches, is a significant challenge for endovascular aortic repair because it often causes inadequate sealing and fixation, which may lead to treatment failure. We have developed a technique using off-the-shelf equipment to precisely control the deployment of stent grafts in challenging landing zones. The key of this technique is to create a through-and-through wire between two access sites and to use a guiding device over the wire. This technique is best used with stent grafts without nose cones. We present an endovascular aneurysm repair case and a thoracic endovascular aortic repair case with challenging proximal landing zones treated by this technique. In both cases, technical success was attained, and follow-up imaging demonstrated well-aligned stent grafts. Our directional tip control technique is easy and effective. It can be a good technical solution for endovascular aortic treatment in angulated anatomy.

  15. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. Ventilation systems incur an energy penalty on the home via fan power used to drive the airflow, and the additional space-conditioning load associated with heating or cooling the ventilation air. Finding a balance between IAQ and energy use is important if homes are to be adequately ventilated while not increasing the energy burden. This study used computer simulations to examine RIVEC the Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. Four different whole-house ventilation systems were simulated, both with and without RIVEC, so that the energy and IAQ results could be compared. Simulations were conducted for 13 US climate zones, three house designs, and three envelope leakage values. The results showed that the RIVEC controller could typically return ventilation energy savings greater than 40percent without compromising long-term chronic or short-term acute exposures to relevant indoor contaminants. Critical and average peak power loads were also reduced as a consequence of using RIVEC.

  16. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  17. Numerical calculation procedure for criticality parameters of the two-zone reflected reactor with flat central zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, T.; Strugar, P.

    1966-10-01

    In determining the criticality parameters of a two-zone reactor with flat central zone one encounters a numerical problem requiring the solution of a system of two non-linear equations. To solve them the Newton method, which proved convenient, was used n this work. By comparing our results with those reported one obtains about 5% smaller values of both the radius of the flat zone and of the radial buckling of the outer zone. This discrepancy probably results from some approximations used in solving the same system of equations used in solving the same system of equations where the procedure form was applied, whereas the calculation time is by one order of magnitude smaller

  18. Evaluation of a real-time travel time prediction system in a freeway construction work zone : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A real-time travel time prediction system (TIPS) was evaluated in a construction work : zone. TIPS includes changeable message signs (CMSs) displaying the travel time and : distance to the end of the work zone to motorists. The travel times displayed...

  19. Multi-Temperature Zone, Droplet-based Microreactor for Increased Temperature Control in Nanoparticle Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Erdem, E. Yegân

    2013-12-12

    Microreactors are an emerging technology for the controlled synthesis of nanoparticles. The Multi-Temperature zone Microreactor (MTM) described in this work utilizes thermally isolated heated and cooled regions for the purpose of separating nucleation and growth processes as well as to provide a platform for a systematic study on the effect of reaction conditions on nanoparticle synthesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Optimization of Remediation Conditions using Vadose Zone Monitoring Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, O.; Mandelbaum, R.; Ronen, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Success of in-situ bio-remediation of the vadose zone depends mainly on the ability to change and control hydrological, physical and chemical conditions of subsurface. These manipulations enables the development of specific, indigenous, pollutants degrading bacteria or set the environmental conditions for seeded bacteria. As such, the remediation efficiency is dependent on the ability to implement optimal hydraulic and chemical conditions in deep sections of the vadose zone. Enhanced bioremediation of the vadose zone is achieved under field conditions through infiltration of water enriched with chemical additives. Yet, water percolation and solute transport in unsaturated conditions is a complex process and application of water with specific chemical conditions near land surface dose not necessarily result in promoting of desired chemical and hydraulic conditions in deeper sections of the vadose zone. A newly developed vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) allows continuous monitoring of the hydrological and chemical properties of the percolating water along deep sections of the vadose zone. Implementation of the VMS at sites that undergoes active remediation provides real time information on the chemical and hydrological conditions in the vadose zone as the remediation process progresses. Manipulating subsurface conditions for optimal biodegradation of hydrocarbons is demonstrated through enhanced bio-remediation of the vadose zone at a site that has been contaminated with gasoline products in Tel Aviv. The vadose zone at the site is composed of 6 m clay layer overlying a sandy formation extending to the water table at depth of 20 m bls. The upper 5 m of contaminated soil were removed for ex-situ treatment, and the remaining 15 m vadose zone is treated in-situ through enhanced bioremedaition. Underground drip irrigation system was installed below the surface on the bottom of the excavation. Oxygen and nutrients releasing powder (EHCO, Adventus) was spread below the

  1. Study on pollution control in residential kitchen based on the push-pull ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Bin; Chen, Feng; Dong, Zhibo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •The push-pull ventilation system is proposed to improve IAQ inside kitchen, where air is supplied through slot air curtain and then exhausted through range hood. •CO2 reduction efficiency with application of air curtain in experiment and simulation in breathing zone was 23.7% and 23.......1%, respectively. •By orthogonal method, the influence of factors on pollution control of the push-pull ventilation system was presented....

  2. 76 FR 47143 - Approval for Manufacturing Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Authority, Foreign-Trade Zone 153; Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., (Cardiovascular Devices), Riverside... of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., within Sites 11-13 of FTZ 153, located in Riverside County... behalf of Abbott Cardiovascular Systems, Inc., as described in the application and Federal Register...

  3. Database design for Physical Access Control System for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathishkumar, T., E-mail: satishkumart@igcar.gov.in; Rao, G. Prabhakara, E-mail: prg@igcar.gov.in; Arumugam, P., E-mail: aarmu@igcar.gov.in

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Database design needs to be optimized and highly efficient for real time operation. • It requires a many-to-many mapping between Employee table and Doors table. • This mapping typically contain thousands of records and redundant data. • Proposed novel database design reduces the redundancy and provides abstraction. • This design is incorporated with the access control system developed in-house. - Abstract: A (Radio Frequency IDentification) RFID cum Biometric based two level Access Control System (ACS) was designed and developed for providing access to vital areas of nuclear facilities. The system has got both hardware [Access controller] and software components [server application, the database and the web client software]. The database design proposed, enables grouping of the employees based on the hierarchy of the organization and the grouping of the doors based on Access Zones (AZ). This design also illustrates the mapping between the Employee Groups (EG) and AZ. By following this approach in database design, a higher level view can be presented to the system administrator abstracting the inner details of the individual entities and doors. This paper describes the novel approach carried out in designing the database of the ACS.

  4. Database design for Physical Access Control System for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathishkumar, T.; Rao, G. Prabhakara; Arumugam, P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Database design needs to be optimized and highly efficient for real time operation. • It requires a many-to-many mapping between Employee table and Doors table. • This mapping typically contain thousands of records and redundant data. • Proposed novel database design reduces the redundancy and provides abstraction. • This design is incorporated with the access control system developed in-house. - Abstract: A (Radio Frequency IDentification) RFID cum Biometric based two level Access Control System (ACS) was designed and developed for providing access to vital areas of nuclear facilities. The system has got both hardware [Access controller] and software components [server application, the database and the web client software]. The database design proposed, enables grouping of the employees based on the hierarchy of the organization and the grouping of the doors based on Access Zones (AZ). This design also illustrates the mapping between the Employee Groups (EG) and AZ. By following this approach in database design, a higher level view can be presented to the system administrator abstracting the inner details of the individual entities and doors. This paper describes the novel approach carried out in designing the database of the ACS.

  5. Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) defines the authorities, roles, and responsibilities of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and those contractor organizations participating in the Hanford Site' s Groundwater/Vadose Zone (GW/VZ) Integration Project. The PMP also describes the planning and control systems, business processes, and other management tools needed to properly and consistently conduct the Integration Project scope of work

  6. Magnetron sputtering system with an annual discharge zone and two cathode modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savich, V. A.; Yasyunas, A. A.; Kovrigo, V. M.; Kotov, D. A.; Shiripov, V. Ya.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, general discharge characteristics of a cylindrical magnetron sputtering system with an annual sputtering zone and a high target usage coefficient designed for transparent conducting coatings are shown. Two coupled DC-cathodes are used to improve coating uniformity. Radial sputtered material fluxes are being created. The engineered magnetic system is extremely balanced (G-factor is much higher than 2) and thus provides maximal effective operating power higher than 6 kW. The effectiveness of a magnetic trap results in a fast work cycle (less than 1.5 min) and a high target material usage coefficient (higher than 40%). A multipole magnetic field with null magnetic flux density zones lower target’s surface is being created. There is an influence between cathode modules despite mutual magnetic isolation, so magnetic conductors-shunts are used to weaken it. The magnetron can be used to sputter both metals and conducting ceramics (including ITO). (authors)

  7. Internal Flow Management in a Multi-Zone Climate Control Unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, we examine a dynamic model describing the evolution of internal climate conditions in a closed environment partitioned into zones for which different climate conditions must be guaranteed. The zones are not separated, large air masses are exchanged among them, and the behavior

  8. Internal flow management in a multi-zone climate control unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Persis, C.; Jessen, Jan Jacob; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution, we examine a dynamic model describing the evolution of internal climate conditions in a closed environment partitioned into zones for which different climate conditions must be guaranteed. The zones are not separated, large air masses are exchanged among them, and the behavior...

  9. Adaptive tracking control for active suspension systems with non-ideal actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Sun, Weichao; Jing, Xingjian; Gao, Huijun; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-07-01

    As a critical component of transportation vehicles, active suspension systems are instrumental in the improvement of ride comfort and maneuverability. However, practical active suspensions commonly suffer from parameter uncertainties (e.g., the variations of payload mass and suspension component parameters), external disturbances and especially the unknown non-ideal actuators (i.e., dead-zone and hysteresis nonlinearities), which always significantly deteriorate the control performance in practice. To overcome these issues, this paper synthesizes an adaptive tracking control strategy for vehicle suspension systems to achieve suspension performance improvements. The proposed control algorithm is formulated by developing a unified framework of non-ideal actuators rather than a separate way, which is a simple yet effective approach to remove the unexpected nonlinear effects. From the perspective of practical implementation, the advantages of the presented controller for active suspensions include that the assumptions on the measurable actuator outputs, the prior knowledge of nonlinear actuator parameters and the uncertain parameters within a known compact set are not required. Furthermore, the stability of the closed-loop suspension system is theoretically guaranteed by rigorous mathematical analysis. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented adaptive control scheme is confirmed using comparative numerical simulation validations.

  10. Application of the zone-melting technique to metal chelate systems-VI A new apparatus for zone-melting chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, S; Kobayashi, H; Ueno, K

    1973-07-01

    An improved apparatus has been constructed for zone-melting chromatography. An essential feature of the apparatus is that the length of the molten zone can be kept constant during a zone-melting operation, by employing heating and cooling compartments which are separated from each other by double partition plates. Each compartment is heated or cooled with jets of hot or cold air. The apparatus is suitable for organic materials melting in the range between 40 degrees and 180 degrees . The distribution of metal ion along the column after zone melting of copper acetylacetonate in 2-methoxynaphthalene was a smooth curve. The plot of the position of maximum concentration, x(max), against the number of zone passes, n, gave a relationship in accordance with theoretical prediction.

  11. Tidal-Fluvial and Estuarine Processes in the Lower Columbia River: II. Water Level Models, Floodplain Wetland Inundation, and System Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay, David A.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.

    2016-04-26

    Spatially varying water-level regimes are a factor controlling estuarine and tidal-fluvial wetland vegetation patterns. As described in Part I, water levels in the Lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) are influenced by tides, river flow, hydropower operations, and coastal processes. In Part II, regression models based on tidal theory are used to quantify the role of these processes in determining water levels in the mainstem river and floodplain wetlands, and to provide 21-year inundation hindcasts. Analyses are conducted at 19 LCRE mainstem channel stations and 23 tidally exposed floodplain wetland stations. Sum exceedance values (SEVs) are used to compare wetland hydrologic regimes at different locations on the river floodplain. A new predictive tool is introduced and validated, the potential SEV (pSEV), which can reduce the need for extensive new data collection in wetland restoration planning. Models of water levels and inundation frequency distinguish four zones encompassing eight reaches. The system zones are the wave- and current-dominated Entrance to river kilometer (rkm) 5; the Estuary (rkm-5 to 87), comprised of a lower reach with salinity, the energy minimum (where the turbidity maximum normally occurs), and an upper estuary reach without salinity; the Tidal River (rkm-87 to 229), with lower, middle, and upper reaches in which river flow becomes increasingly dominant over tides in determining water levels; and the steep and weakly tidal Cascade (rkm-229 to 234) immediately downstream from Bonneville Dam. The same zonation is seen in the water levels of floodplain stations, with considerable modification of tidal properties. The system zones and reaches defined here reflect geological features and their boundaries are congruent with five wetland vegetation zones

  12. Thermal structure and geodynamics of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Ikuko

    The thermal structure of subduction zones depends on the age-controlled thermal state of the subducting slab and mantle wedge flow. Observations indicate that the shallow part of the forearc mantle wedge is stagnant and the slab-mantle interface is weakened. In this dissertation, the role of the interface strength in controlling mantle wedge flow, thermal structure, and a wide range of subduction zone processes is investigated through two-dimensional finite-element modelling and a global synthesis of geological and geophysical observations. The model reveals that the strong temperature-dependence of the mantle strength always results in full slab-mantle decoupling along the weakened part of the interface and hence complete stagnation of the overlying mantle. The interface immediately downdip of the zone of decoupling is fully coupled, and the overlying mantle is driven to flow at a rate compatible with the subduction rate. The sharpness of the transition from decoupling to coupling depends on the rheology assumed and increases with the nonlinearity of the flow system. This bimodal behaviour of the wedge flow gives rise to a strong thermal contrast between the cold stagnant and hot flowing parts of the mantle wedge. The maximum depth of decoupling (MDD) thus dictates the thermal regime of the forearc. Observed surface heat flow patterns and petrologically and geochemically estimated mantle wedge temperatures beneath the volcanic arc require an MDD of 70--80 km in most, if not all, subduction zones regardless of their thermal regime of the slab. The common MDD of 70--80 km explains the observed systematic variations of the petrologic, seismological, and volcanic processes with the thermal state of the slab and thus explains the rich diversity of subduction zones in a unified fashion. Models for warm-slab subduction zones such as Cascadia and Nankai predict shallow dehydration of the slab beneath the cold stagnant part of the mantle wedge, which provides ample fluid

  13. Water movement through a shallow unsaturated zone in an inland arid region: Field drip irrigation experiment under matrix potential control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T.; Han, D.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    It is vital to study soil water movement in unsaturated zone for evaluating and improving current irrigation mode for prevention and control of soil secondary salinization, especially in inland arid area, where is characterized by strong evaporation, poor drainage system and shallow water table depth. In this study, we investigated the applicability of drip irrigation under matrix potential control during cotton growth seasons in an inland arid region of northwest China. Combined physical observation with stable isotopes tracing method, we studied soil water flow system and recharge sources of shallow groundwater in heavy (Pilot 1) and light (Pilot 2) saline-alkali cotton fields. Evaporation depths (about 50-60 cm) are about the same for both pilots, but infiltration depths (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 150 cm for Pilot 2) are very different due to different soil texture, soil structure and soil salt content. Middle layer (about 100 cm thick) is a critical barrier for water exchange between surface and deep layer. Irrigation water is the major source (about 79.6% for Pilot 1 and 81.6% for Pilot 2), while evapotranspiration is the major sink (about 80.7% for Pilot 1 and 83.1% for Pilot 2) of unsaturated zone. The increase of soil water storage is not enough to make up the water shortage of middle layer and thus drip irrigation water doesn't recharge into groundwater for both pilots. Water table rise (about 60 cm for Pilot 1 and 50 cm for Pilot 2) could be caused by lateral groundwater flow instead of vertical infiltration. This irrigation mode could retard the water table rise in this region. However, improving horizontal drainage system may be indispensable for sustainable agriculture development. The study can provide important basis for soil secondary salinization prevention and agricultural water management in inland arid areas.

  14. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  15. Dike zones on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, M. S.; Sukhanov, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    Venusian dike zone structures were identified from Venera 15 and 16 radar images. These include: a zone of subparallel rows centered at 30 deg N, 7 deg E; a system of intersecting bands centered at 67 deg N, 284 deg E; polygonal systems in lavas covering the structural base uplift centered at 47 deg N, 200 deg E; a system of light bands in the region of the ring structure centered at 43 deg N, 13 deg E; and a dike band centered at 27 deg N, 36 deg E.

  16. Fault zone hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bense, V. F.; Gleeson, T.; Loveless, S. E.; Bour, O.; Scibek, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deformation along faults in the shallow crust (research effort of structural geologists and hydrogeologists. However, we find that these disciplines often use different methods with little interaction between them. In this review, we document the current multi-disciplinary understanding of fault zone hydrogeology. We discuss surface- and subsurface observations from diverse rock types from unlithified and lithified clastic sediments through to carbonate, crystalline, and volcanic rocks. For each rock type, we evaluate geological deformation mechanisms, hydrogeologic observations and conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Outcrop observations indicate that fault zones commonly have a permeability structure suggesting they should act as complex conduit-barrier systems in which along-fault flow is encouraged and across-fault flow is impeded. Hydrogeological observations of fault zones reported in the literature show a broad qualitative agreement with outcrop-based conceptual models of fault zone hydrogeology. Nevertheless, the specific impact of a particular fault permeability structure on fault zone hydrogeology can only be assessed when the hydrogeological context of the fault zone is considered and not from outcrop observations alone. To gain a more integrated, comprehensive understanding of fault zone hydrogeology, we foresee numerous synergistic opportunities and challenges for the discipline of structural geology and hydrogeology to co-evolve and address remaining challenges by co-locating study areas, sharing approaches and fusing data, developing conceptual models from hydrogeologic data, numerical modeling, and training interdisciplinary scientists.

  17. Research on a New Control Scheme of Photovoltaic Grid Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of photovoltaic grid power generation system control scheme to solve the problems of the conventional photovoltaic grid power generation systems is presented. To aim at the oscillation and misjudgment of traditional perturbation observation method, an improved perturbation observation method comparing to the next moment power is proposed, combining with BOOST step-up circuit to realize the maximum power tracking. To counter the harmonic pollution problem in photovoltaic grid power generation system, the deadbeat control scheme in fundamental wave synchronous frequency rotating coordinate system of power grid is presented. A parameter optimization scheme based on positive feedback of active frequency shift island detection to solve the problems like the nondetection zone due to the import of disturbance in traditional island detection method is proposed. Finally, the results in simulation environment by MATLAB/Simulink simulation and experiment environment verify the validity and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  18. Robust Adaptive Stabilization of Linear Time-Invariant Dynamic Systems by Using Fractional-Order Holds and Multirate Sampling Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alonso-Quesada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a strategy for designing a robust discrete-time adaptive controller for stabilizing linear time-invariant (LTI continuous-time dynamic systems. Such systems may be unstable and noninversely stable in the worst case. A reduced-order model is considered to design the adaptive controller. The control design is based on the discretization of the system with the use of a multirate sampling device with fast-sampled control signal. A suitable on-line adaptation of the multirate gains guarantees the stability of the inverse of the discretized estimated model, which is used to parameterize the adaptive controller. A dead zone is included in the parameters estimation algorithm for robustness purposes under the presence of unmodeled dynamics in the controlled dynamic system. The adaptive controller guarantees the boundedness of the system measured signal for all time. Some examples illustrate the efficacy of this control strategy.

  19. Conflict resolution and alert zone estimation in air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Vincent Hao-Hung

    The current air traffic control (ATC) system provides separations among all aircraft through pre-defined routes and flight procedures, and active controller participation. In particular, en route separations are achieved by choices of different flight routes, different flight levels, and speed control. During the final descent approach over an extended terminal area, aircraft separations are achieved by speed changes, altitude changes, and path stretching. Recently, a concept of free flight has been proposed for future air traffic management. In the proposed free flight environment, aircraft operators can change flight paths in real time, in order to achieve the best efficiency for the aircraft. Air traffic controllers are only supposed to intervene when situation warrants, to resolve potential conflicts among aircraft. In both cases, there is a region around each aircraft called alert zone. As soon as another aircraft touches the alert zone of own aircraft, either the own aircraft or both aircraft must initiate avoidance maneuvers to resolve a potential conflict. This thesis develops a systematic approach based on nonlinear optimal control theories to estimate alert zones in two aircraft conflict scenarios. Specifically, point-mass aircraft models are used to describe aircraft motions. Separate uses of heading, speed, and altitude control are first examined, and then the synergetic use of two control authorities are studied. Both cooperative maneuvers (in which both aircraft act) and non-cooperative maneuvers (in which the own aircraft acts alone) are considered. Optimal control problems are formulated to minimize the initial relative separation between the two aircraft for all possible initial conditions, subject to the requirement that inter-aircraft separation at any time satisfies the separation requirement. These nonlinear optimal control problems are solved numerically using a collation approach and the NPSOL software line for nonlinear programming. In

  20. Development of hardwood seed zones for Tennessee using a geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, L.S.; Schlarbaum, S.E.; Van Manen, F.; Cecich, R.A.; Saxton, A.M.; Schneider, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    For species that have no or limited information on genetic variation and adaptability to nonnative sites, there is a need for seed collection guidelines based on biological, climatological, and/or geographical criteria. Twenty-eight hardwood species are currently grown for reforestation purposes at the East Tennessee State Nursery. The majority of these species have had no genetic testing to define guidelines for seed collection location and can be distributed to sites that have a very different environment than that of seed origin(s). Poor survival and/or growth may result if seedlings are not adapted to environmental conditions at the planting location. To address this problem, 30 yr of Tennessee county precipitation and minimum temperature data were analyzed and grouped using a centroid hierarchical cluster analysis. The weather data and elevational data were entered into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and separately layered over Bailey's Ecoregions to develop a seed zone system for Tennessee. The seed zones can be used as a practical guideline for collecting seeds to ensure that the resulting seedlings will be adapted to planting environments.

  1. Modelling Ecosystem Dynamics of the Oxygen Minimum Zones in the Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.; Eggert, A.

    2016-02-01

    The Angola Gyre and the Northern Benguela Upwelling System are two major oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) of different kind connected by the system of African Eastern Boundary Currents. We discuss results from a 3-dimensional coupled biogeochemical model covering both oxygen-deficient systems. The biogeochemical model component comprises trophic levels up to zooplankton. Physiological properties of organisms are parameterized from field data gained mainly in the course of the project "Geochemistry and Ecology of the Namibian Upwelling System" (GENUS). The challenge of the modelling effort is the different nature of both systems. The Angola Gyre, located in a "shadow zone" of the tropical Atlantic, has a low productivity and little ventilation, hence a long residence time of water masses. In the northern Benguela Upwelling System, trade winds drive an intermittent, but permanent nutrient supply into the euphotic zone which fuels a high coastal productivity, large particle export and high oxygen consumption from dissimilatory processes. In addition to the local processes, oxygen-deficient water formed in the Angola Gyre is one of the source water masses of the poleward undercurrent, which feeds oxygen depleted water into the Benguela system. In order to simulate the oxygen distribution in the Benguela system, both physical transport as well as local biological processes need to be carefully adjusted in the model. The focus of the analysis is on the time scale and the relative contribution of the different oxygen related processes to the oxygen budgets in both the oxygen minimum zones. Although these are very different in both the OMZ, the model is found as suitable to produce oxygen minimum zones comparable with observations in the Benguela and the Angola Gyre as well. Variability of the oxygen concentration in the Angola Gyre depends strongly on organismic oxygen consumption, whereas the variability of the oxygen concentration on the Namibian shelf is governed mostly by

  2. Material flow enhancement in production assembly lines under application of zoned order picking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Živanić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduced research work relates to the possibility of material flow enhancement in production systems, with the apostrophe on material order picking in production assembly lines. The paper presents basic rules and the results related to formed computer models of zoned order picking systems under the application of developed bound cavities method.

  3. The effect of nonlinearity on unstable zones of Mathieu equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-02-09

    Feb 9, 2017 ... Abstract. Mathieu equation is a well-known ordinary differential equation in which the excitation term appears as the non-constant coefficient. The mathematical modelling of many dynamic systems leads to Mathieu equation. The determination of the locus of unstable zone is important for the control of ...

  4. Multiple-Time-Scales Hierarchical Frequency Stability Control Strategy of Medium-Voltage Isolated Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhuoli; Yang, Ping; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an islanded medium-voltage (MV) microgrid placed in Dongao Island is presented, which integrates renewable-energy-based distributed generations (DGs), energy storage system (ESS), and local loads. In an isolated microgrid without connection to the main grid to support the frequency......, it is more complex to control and manage. Thus in order to maintain the frequency stability in multiple-time-scales, a hierarchical control strategy is proposed. The proposed control architecture divides the system frequency in three zones: (A) stable zone, (B) precautionary zone and (C) emergency zone...... of Zone B. Theoretical analysis, time-domain simulation and field test results under various conditions and scenarios in the Dongao Island microgrid are presented to prove the validity of the introduced control strategy....

  5. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) as an Emergent System: A Dynamic Systems Theory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Aghdam, Saeed

    2017-03-01

    This paper sets out to present a novel construal of one of the notions of Vygotskian cultural-historical theory viz., zone of proximal development (ZPD) drawing upon dynamic systems theory. The principal thesis maintains that ZDP is an emergent and dynamic system which is engendered by a dialectical concatenation of psychogenesic and sociogenesic facets of human development over time. It is reasoned that Vygotskian cultural-historical theory of human development, by invoking dialectical logic, has transcended Cartesian substance dualism and in turn has proffered a monistic and process-anchored ontology for emerging becoming of human consciousness. Likewise, it is contended that dynamic systems theory, having assumed fluent flux of reality with a capital R as its ontological axiom, entails a consilience of cognitive and contextual conceptual schemes to describe, explain, and optimize human development. The paper concludes by drawing some interpretive conclusions in regard to ZPD from dynamic systems theory perspective.

  6. Implications of multiple risk factors for delineation of disease control zones: Case study on foot-and-mouth disease occurrence in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrisostom, Ayebazibwe; Okurut, Ademun Anna Rose; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    strategies to promote disease control and livestock trade in endemic countries was to introduce the concept of disease-free zones within which specific sanitary and market standards have to be met. In Africa, it is only Namibia, Botswana and South Africa that have ever had FMD free OIE-declared zones......, water, animal products, utensils and livestock-human contacts. Like other developing countries, animal production and marketing are heavily constrained by limited access to lucrative international markets because of failure to meet the required standards by the World Trade Organization. One of the major....... In pursuit of possibilities of beef export to EU and other markets within Africa by the year 2020, Uganda delineated two disease control zones (DCZs) in areas with large livestock populations and as a consequence high risk for FMD, thus requiring high capital investment. This paper highlights the multiple...

  7. A/M Area Vadose Zone Monitoring Plan (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupar, J.; Jarosch, T.R.; Jackson, D.G. Jr.; Looney, B.B.; Jerome, K.M.; Riha, B.D.; Rossabi, J.; Van Pelt, R.S.

    1998-03-01

    Characterization and monitoring data from implementation and the first two and one half years of vadose zone remediation operations indicate that this activity has substantially improved the performance of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action Program. During this period, vadose zone remediation removed approximately 225, 000 lbs (100,000 Kg) of chlorinated solvents (CVOCs) from the subsurface. Further, vadose zone remediation system operation increased the overall CVOC removal rate of the A/M Area Groundwater Corrective Action by 300% to 500% during this period versus the groundwater pump and treat system along. Various support activities have been performed to support operation and documentation of performance of the vadose zone remediation system. These activities address performance of existing systems (contaminant distributions, zone of influence, and process monitoring data), evaluation of suspect sources, evaluation of alternative/enhancement technologies, and initial development of remediation goals. In particular, the most recent A/M vadose zone remediation support activities (described in WSRC-RP-97-109) were completed and the results provide key documentation about system performance

  8. Fatal accidents in nighttime vs. daytime highway construction work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arditi, David; Lee, Dong-Eun; Polat, Gul

    2007-01-01

    Awareness about worker safety in nighttime construction has been a major concern because it is believed that nighttime construction creates hazardous work conditions. However, only a few studies provide valuable comparative information about accident characteristics of nighttime and daytime highway construction activities. This study investigates fatal accidents that occurred in Illinois highway work zones in the period 1996-2001 in order to determine the safety differences between nighttime and daytime highway construction. The lighting and weather conditions were included into the study as control parameters to see their effects on the frequency of fatal accidents occurring in work zones. According to this study, there is evidence that nighttime construction is more hazardous than daytime construction. The inclusion of a weather parameter into the analysis has limited effect on this finding. The study justifies establishing an efficient work zone accident reporting system and taking all necessary measures to enhance safety in nighttime work zones.

  9. Modernization of control system using the digital control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J. A.; Fernandez, L.; Jimenez, A.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, all plant automation tendencies are based on the use of Digital Control System. In big industrial plants the control systems employed are Distributed Control Systems (DCS). The addition of these systems in nuclear power plants,implies an important adaptation process, because most of them were installed using analog control systems. This paper presents the objectives and the first results obtained, in a modernization project, focused in obtaining an engineering platform for making test and analysis of changes prior to their implementation in a nuclear plant. Modernization, Upgrade, DCS, Automation, Simulation, Training. (Author)

  10. Temperature and composition of carbonate cements record early structural control on cementation in a nascent deformation band fault zone: Moab Fault, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Keith R.; Crider, Juliet G.; Huntington, Katharine W.

    2016-10-01

    Fluid-driven cementation and diagenesis within fault zones can influence host rock permeability and rheology, affecting subsequent fluid migration and rock strength. However, there are few constraints on the feedbacks between diagenetic conditions and structural deformation. We investigate the cementation history of a fault-intersection zone on the Moab Fault, a well-studied fault system within the exhumed reservoir rocks of the Paradox Basin, Utah, USA. The fault zone hosts brittle structures recording different stages of deformation, including joints and two types of deformation bands. Using stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen, clumped isotope thermometry, and cathodoluminescence, we identify distinct source fluid compositions for the carbonate cements within the fault damage zone. Each source fluid is associated with different carbonate precipitation temperatures, luminescence characteristics, and styles of structural deformation. Luminescent carbonates appear to be derived from meteoric waters mixing with an organic-rich or magmatic carbon source. These cements have warm precipitation temperatures and are closely associated with jointing, capitalizing on increases in permeability associated with fracturing during faulting and subsequent exhumation. Earlier-formed non-luminescent carbonates have source fluid compositions similar to marine waters, low precipitation temperatures, and are closely associated with deformation bands. The deformation bands formed at shallow depths very early in the burial history, preconditioning the rock for fracturing and associated increases in permeability. Carbonate clumped isotope temperatures allow us to associate structural and diagenetic features with burial history, revealing that structural controls on fluid distribution are established early in the evolution of the host rock and fault zone, before the onset of major displacement.

  11. Distribution of effluent injected into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, southeastern Florida, 1997–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey N.; Decker, Jeremy D.

    2018-02-09

    Nonhazardous, secondarily treated, domestic wastewater (effluent) has been injected about 1 kilometer below land surface into the Boulder Zone of the Floridan aquifer system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southeastern Florida. The Boulder Zone contains saline, nonpotable water. Effluent transport out of the injection zone is a risk of underground effluent injection. At the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, injected effluent was detected outside the Boulder Zone. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, investigated effluent transport from the Boulder Zone to overlying permeable zones in the Floridan aquifer system.One conceptual model is presented to explain the presence of effluent outside of the injection zone in which effluent injected into the Boulder Zone was transported to the Avon Park permeable zone, forced by buoyancy and injection pressure. In this conceptual model, effluent injected primarily into the Boulder Zone reaches a naturally occurring feature (a karst-collapse structure) near an injection well, through which the effluent is transported vertically upward to the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The effluent is then transported laterally through the uppermost major permeable zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer to another naturally occurring feature northwest of the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, through which it is then transported vertically upward into the Avon Park permeable zone. In addition, a leak within a monitoring well, between monitoring zones, allowed interflow between the Avon Park permeable zone and the Upper Floridan aquifer. A groundwater flow and effluent transport simulation of the hydrogeologic system at the North District Wastewater Treatment Plant, based on the hypothesized and non-unique conceptualization of the subsurface hydrogeology and flow system, generally replicated measured effluent constituent

  12. Coordination of Nordic system operators in the electric power market - profit from improved capacity utilization and a more flexible division into price zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2001-08-01

    This report evaluates the possible profits of establishing a common system operator function in the Nordic electric power market. The main focus is placed on how to deal with congestion in the transmission grid. To estimate possible profits from a better utilization of the resources in the Nordic grid, the authors have analyzed socio-economic profits for several load scenarios. A simplified model of the Nordic stock area was used in the calculations. The existence of two methods of dealing with congestion in the grid may lead to reduced capacity utilization and to greater price differences than necessary. The examples show that ''indirect'' congestion control may be very expensive and that considerable cost reduction can be achieved by improved exploitation of congestion. This implies that if the Nordic area is divided into price zones, it is advantageous to regard the grid as an entity independent of national borders and system operators and to let the real transmission limitations determine the price zoning

  13. Disposal of low and medium level radioactive waste in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, V.M.; Zhylinsky, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The peculiarity of Chernobyl exclusion zone is the existence of constant and a lot of temporary points of radioactive waste of Chernobyl origin disposal in it. Chernobyl zone (exclusion zone) is the territory round Chernobyl NPP restricted in the results of Chernobyl accident with no inhabitants in it and where the economic activity was almost stopped. Nowadays the apparatus is developed the test and assembling of the automatic control system are conducted. All the results of the radioactive waste mass measurement brought to the PRAWD by car automatically put into the PC. The devices of radiation control are moving above the RAW surface with the help of robot-manipulator. The delivery of RAW to the PRAMW is produced by special cars in circulating or single containers or loaded in bulk in the body of lorries with the closed roofs

  14. Development of Decision-Making Automated System for Optimal Placement of Physical Access Control System’s Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Olga; Semenova, Zinaida

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study is a detailed analysis of physical protection systems development for information resources. The optimization theory and decision-making mathematical apparatus is used to formulate correctly and create an algorithm of selection procedure for security systems optimal configuration considering the location of the secured object’s access point and zones. The result of this study is a software implementation scheme of decision-making system for optimal placement of the physical access control system’s elements.

  15. Intelligent emissions controller for substance injection in the post-primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifman, Jaques; Feldman, Earl E.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Glickert, Roger W.

    2003-01-01

    The control of emissions from fossil-fired boilers wherein an injection of substances above the primary combustion zone employs multi-layer feedforward artificial neural networks for modeling static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected substances into the upper region of the furnace and the emissions exiting the furnace. Multivariable nonlinear constrained optimization algorithms use the mathematical expressions from the artificial neural networks to provide the optimal substance distribution that minimizes emission levels for a given total substance injection rate. Based upon the optimal operating conditions from the optimization algorithms, the incremental substance cost per unit of emissions reduction, and the open-market price per unit of emissions reduction, the intelligent emissions controller allows for the determination of whether it is more cost-effective to achieve additional increments in emission reduction through the injection of additional substance or through the purchase of emission credits on the open market. This is of particular interest to fossil-fired electrical power plant operators. The intelligent emission controller is particularly adapted for determining the economical control of such pollutants as oxides of nitrogen (NO.sub.x) and carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by fossil-fired boilers by the selective introduction of multiple inputs of substances (such as natural gas, ammonia, oil, water-oil emulsion, coal-water slurry and/or urea, and combinations of these substances) above the primary combustion zone of fossil-fired boilers.

  16. Research on seasonal indoor thermal environment and residents' control behavior of cooling and heating systems in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Chihye; Chun, Chungyoon [Department of Housing and Interior Design, College of Human Ecology, Graduate School, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-11-15

    Indoor thermal environments and residents' control behavior of cooling and heating systems were investigated in Seoul, Korea and compared with the results of previous studies. Twenty-four houses in summer, six houses in autumn and 36 houses in winter were used in this study. The measurement of temperature, humidity and air conditioner usage behavior was carried out. The clo-value, thermal comfort, sensation and basic data of the houses were also investigated. The indoor thermal environment in the summer had a high temperature and a high humidity ratio compare to standard comfort zone. Most of the indoor thermal environments at the time of starting the air conditioner in the summer were out of the comfort zone. Some of the data recorded while the air conditioner was stopped were in the comfort zone, but in many cases the temperature was relatively higher than comfort zone. Most indoor climate distributions in the winter were in the comfort zone and the indoor climate in autumn coincided well with the criteria of the comfort zone. Compared with results of previous studies in these 25 years, indoor ambient average temperature in winter has increased and the comfort temperature has increased in the heating period and decreased in the cooling period. This result indicates that the development of an HVAC system has created an expectation of comfort for residents and has shifted their thermal comfort zone warmer in winter and cooler in summer. (author)

  17. Calibration method of liquid zone controller using the ex-core detector signal of CANDU 6 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D.H.; Lee, E.K.; Shin, H.C.; Bae, S.M.; Hong, S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a new LZC calibration method and measurement system. ► Photo-neutron effect, reactor core size, and detector position were evaluated and tested. ► We applied the new method and system to Wolsong NPP Unit 1. ► The LZC calibration test was well completed, and the requirement of the test was satisfied. - Abstract: The Phase-B test (low-power reactor physics test) is one of the commissioning tests for Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors that ensures the safe and reliable operation of the core during the design lifetime. The Phase-B test, which includes the approach to the first criticality at low reactor powers, is performed to verify the feasibility of the reactor’s physics design and to ensure the integrity of the control and protection facilities. The commissioning testing of pressurized heavy water moderated reactors (PHWRs) is usually performed only once (at the initial commissioning after construction). The large-scale facilities of the Wolsong nuclear power plant (NPP) Unit 1 have been gradually improved since May 2009 to extend its lifetime. The refurbishment was completed in April 2011 – then this NPP has been in operation again. We discusses the new methodology and measurement system that uses an ex-core detector signal for liquid zone controller (LZC) calibration of the Phase-B test instead of conventional methods. The inverse kinetic equation in the reactivity calculator is modified to treat the 17 delayed neutron groups including 11 photo-neutron fractions. The signal acquisition resolution of the reactivity calculator was enhanced and installed reactivity calculating module by each channel. The ex-core detector was confirmed to be applicable to a large reactor core, such as the CANDU 6 by comparison with the in-core flux detector signal. A preliminary test was performed in Wolsong NPP Unit 2 to verify the robustness of the reactivity calculator. This test convincingly demonstrated that the reactivity calculator

  18. Development and Application of a Planning Support System for Regional Spatial Functional Zoning Based on GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional spatial functional zoning in China is a large-scale strategic planning and requires very advanced planning decision support technology. With respect to spatial functional zoning, the planning support system (PSS is introduced as one of the most popular computer aided planning systems at the present time in this paper, and is further explained with the example of the latest regional main functional area (RMFA planning in China. On the Visual Studio.NET visualization development platform, the planning decision model, planning decision method, and GIS are organically integrated and customized by using the component-type secondary development technology of the ArcGIS Engine with the development language VB.NET. Hence, a highly efficient and flexible planning support system of regional main functional areas (RMFA-PSS is established. It was adopted in the research of the Beijing–Tianjin area in China and accordingly two types of main functional area planning are acquired. The RMFA-PSS offers an efficient and flexible decision support with regard to RMFA planning. The research can provide a reference for further PSS development and applications related to other types of spatial functional zoning.

  19. A PSO based unified power flow controller for damping of power system oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shayeghi, H. [Technical Engineering Dept., Univ. of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Daneshgah Street, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran); Shayanfar, H.A. [Center of Excellence for Power Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Dept., Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran); Jalilzadeh, S.; Safari, A. [Technical Engineering Dept., Zanjan Univ., Zanjan (Iran)

    2009-10-15

    On the basis of the linearized Phillips-Herffron model of a single-machine power system, we approach the problem of select the best input control signal of the unified power flow controller (UPFC) and design optimal UPFC based damping controller in order to enhance the damping of the power system low frequency oscillations. The potential of the UPFC supplementary controllers to enhance the dynamic stability is evaluated. This controller is tuned to simultaneously shift the undamped electromechanical modes to a prescribed zone in the s-plane. The problem of robustly UPFC based damping controller is formulated as an optimization problem according to the eigenvalue-based multiobjective function comprising the damping factor, and the damping ratio of the undamped electromechanical modes to be solved using particle swarm optimization technique (PSO) that has a strong ability to find the most optimistic results. To ensure the robustness of the proposed damping controller, the design process takes into account a wide range of operating conditions and system configurations. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is demonstrated through eigenvalue analysis, nonlinear time-domain simulation and some performance indices studies. The results analysis reveals that the tuned PSO based UPFC controller using the proposed multiobjective function has an excellent capability in damping power system low frequency oscillations and enhance greatly the dynamic stability of the power systems. Moreover, the system performance analysis under different operating conditions show that the {delta}{sub E} based controller is superior to the m{sub B} based controller. (author)

  20. Evaluation of a real-time travel time prediction system in a freeway construction work zone : final report, March 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A real-time travel time prediction system (TIPS) was evaluated in a construction work zone. TIPS includes changeable message signs (CMSs) displaying the travel time and distance to the end of the work zone to motorists. The travel times displayed by ...

  1. Application of vadose-zone monitoring system for real-time characterization of leachate percolation in and under a municipal landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, Imri; Siebner, Hagar; Dahan, Ofer

    2017-09-01

    Leachates from solid-waste landfills are considered a severe threat to groundwater quality. The fate of pollutants in the waste and underlying unsaturated zone is crucial for evaluating environmental risks and selecting a restoration strategy. In this study, a vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) installed in a municipal landfill was used, for the first time, to continuously track leachates percolation dynamics and assess their chemical transformation across the entire thickness of the waste body (15m) and underlying unsaturated zone (16m) to the water table. Winter rains were found to quickly infiltrate through the waste and underlying vadose zone despite a clay cover that was implemented as part of a restoration and leachate-prevention strategy. Within the waste body, the flow pattern was controlled by preferential flow paths, which changed frequently. It is hypothesized that ongoing decomposition of the waste creates dynamic variations in the waste's physical structure and flow pattern. Water samples collected from the waste layer indicated the formation of highly polluted leachates. The chemical composition in the waste body showed extreme variability between sampling points with respect to DOC (407-31,464mg/L), BOD/COD ratios (0.07-0.55), Fe 2+ (6.8-1154mg/L), ammonium (68-2924mg/L) and heavy metal concentrations. Environmental hot spots creating concentrated, aggressive, "acid-phase" leachates still exist in the waste more than 13years after closing the landfill. However, continuous changes in the flow pattern and moisture distribution affected the creation and decay of such environments. In the underlying sandy vadose zone, some sections repeatedly exhibited stronger and faster flow characteristics than others. These local fluxes of concentrated leachates rapidly transported heavy contaminant loads toward the groundwater. However results showed evidence of continual attenuation processes in the deep vadose zone, with the anaerobic digestion of organic matter

  2. Maskless, parallel patterning with zone-plate array lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, D. J. D.; Gil, Dario; Menon, Rajesh; Mondol, Mark K.; Smith, Henry I.; Anderson, Erik H.

    1999-01-01

    Zone-plate array lithography (ZPAL) is a maskless lithography scheme that uses an array of shuttered zone plates to print arbitrary patterns on a substrate. An experimental ultraviolet ZPAL system has been constructed and used to simultaneously expose nine different patterns with a 3x3 array of zone plates in a quasidot-matrix fashion. We present exposed patterns, describe the system design and construction, and discuss issues essential to a functional ZPAL system. We also discuss another ZPAL system which operates with 4.5 nm x radiation from a point source. We present simulations which show that, with our existing x-ray zone plates and this system, we should be able to achieve 55 nm resolution. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  3. Electric Drive Discrete Control System with Automatic Switching-On Reserve for Autonomous Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsytovich L.I.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at developing of control the water supply system’s electric drives for autonomous settlement. The system provides automatic switching to a reserve control channel at refusal of any of the functional elements of the working regulation channel. Usually, such systems have a test signal generator and analyzer to system response to their impact. This result to an increase in the structural redundancy of the system, increase its cost and increase the requirements for the staff qualification. A specific feature of the system is its ability to self-diagnosis of catastrophic malfunctions of scheme’s components and an automatic switching-on the reserve control channels, without applying any test signals to the whole complex of electrical equipment. Multi-zone integrating regulator with frequency-pulse-width modulation realizes this technical solution. Control system structure and signals timing diagrams are presented. The construction principle of adaptive interval-code synchronization device with improved noise stability to control the voltage regulators serving for smooth start-up of asynchronous motors of water pumps is considered as well. Such solution allowing increase noise stability and reliability work of the system in conditions of limited power electrical networks, which is characteristic for the autonomous settlements. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of power electronics and information electronics, electric drives and process automation.

  4. MODELING OF THERMOELECTRIC SYSTEM FOR LOCAL THERMAL EFFECTS ON HUMAN FOREARM ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a model of the thermoelectric system for the thermal effect on the human forearm. The model is implemented on the basis of numerical solution of differentialequations of heat conduction for bodies of complex configuration. Two-dimensional and onedimensional graphs of the temperature change in different zones of the object of exposure aregiven.

  5. Tracking Control Based on Recurrent Neural Networks for Nonlinear Systems with Multiple Inputs and Unknown Deadzone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of trajectory tracking for a broad class of uncertain nonlinear systems with multiple inputs each one subject to an unknown symmetric deadzone. On the basis of a model of the deadzone as a combination of a linear term and a disturbance-like term, a continuous-time recurrent neural network is directly employed in order to identify the uncertain dynamics. By using a Lyapunov analysis, the exponential convergence of the identification error to a bounded zone is demonstrated. Subsequently, by a proper control law, the state of the neural network is compelled to follow a bounded reference trajectory. This control law is designed in such a way that the singularity problem is conveniently avoided and the exponential convergence to a bounded zone of the difference between the state of the neural identifier and the reference trajectory can be proven. Thus, the exponential convergence of the tracking error to a bounded zone and the boundedness of all closed-loop signals can be guaranteed. One of the main advantages of the proposed strategy is that the controller can work satisfactorily without any specific knowledge of an upper bound for the unmodeled dynamics and/or the disturbance term.

  6. The habitable zone and extreme planetary orbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Stephen R; Gelino, Dawn M

    2012-10-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon the percentage of the total orbit which is spent within the habitable zone. Key Words: Extrasolar planets-Habitable zone-Astrobiology.

  7. Distributed Flexibility Characterization and Resource Allocation Strategies for Multi-zone Commercial Buildings in the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, He; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2015-12-15

    The HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air- Conditioning) system of commercial buildings is a complex system with a large number of dynamically interacting components. In particular, the thermal dynamics of each zone are coupled with those of the neighboring zones. In this paper, we study a multi-agent based approach to model and control commercial building HVAC system for providing grid services. In the multi-agent system (MAS), individual zones are modeled as agents that can communicate, interact, and negotiate with one another to achieve a common objective. We first propose a distributed characterization method on the aggregated airflow (and thus fan power) flexibility that the HVAC system can provide to the ancillary service market. Then, we propose a Nash-bargaining based airflow allocation strategy to track a dispatch signal (that is within the offered flexibility limit) while respecting the preference and flexibility of individual zones. Moreover, we devise a distributed algorithm to obtain the Nash bargaining solution via dual decomposition and average consensus. Numerical simulations illustrate that the proposed distributed protocols are much more scalable than the centralized approaches especially when the system becomes larger and more complex.

  8. A comparative performance study of sound zoning methods in a reflective environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olik, Marek; Francombe, Jon; Coleman, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Whilst sound zoning methods have typically been studied under anechoic conditions, it is desirable to evaluate the performance of various methods in a real room. Three control methods were implemented (delay and sum, DS; acoustic contrast control, ACC; and pressure matching, PM) on two regular 24...... monophonic auralisations from measured system responses to collect ratings of perceived distraction due to the alternate audio programme. Distraction ratings were a ected by control method and programme material....

  9. Modeling the Effects of Duration and Size of the Control Zones on the Consequences of a Hypothetical African Swine Fever Epidemic in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Christensen, Hanne; Wulff, Sisse Birk; Boklund, Anette

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease. The disease is endemic in certain regions in Eastern Europe constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is important to continuously explore strategies that can effectively control an epidemic of ASF. A previously published and well documented simulation model for ASF virus spread between herds was used to examine the epidemiologic and economic impacts of the duration and size of the control zones around affected herds. In the current study, scenarios were run, where the duration of the protection and surveillance zones were reduced from 50 and 45 days to 35 and 25 days or to 35 and 25 days, respectively. These scenarios were run with or without enlargement of the surveillance zone around detected herds from 10 to 15 km. The scenarios were also run with only clinical or clinical and serological surveillance of herds within the zones. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on influential input parameters in the model. The model predicts that reducing the duration of the protection and surveillance zones has no impact on the epidemiological consequences of the epidemics, while it may result in a substantial reduction in the total economic losses. In addition, the model predicts that increasing the size of the surveillance zone from 10 to 15 km may reduce both the epidemic duration and the total economic losses, in case of large epidemics. The ranking of the control strategies by the total costs of the epidemics was not influenced by changes of input parameters in the sensitivity analyses. PMID:29616228

  10. Advanced Vadose Zone Simulations Using TOUGH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finsterle, S.; Doughty, C.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Moridis, G.J.; Pan,L.; Xu, T.; Zhang, Y.; Pruess, K.

    2007-02-01

    The vadose zone can be characterized as a complex subsurfacesystem in which intricate physical and biogeochemical processes occur inresponse to a variety of natural forcings and human activities. Thismakes it difficult to describe, understand, and predict the behavior ofthis specific subsurface system. The TOUGH nonisothermal multiphase flowsimulators are well-suited to perform advanced vadose zone studies. Theconceptual models underlying the TOUGH simulators are capable ofrepresenting features specific to the vadose zone, and of addressing avariety of coupled phenomena. Moreover, the simulators are integratedinto software tools that enable advanced data analysis, optimization, andsystem-level modeling. We discuss fundamental and computationalchallenges in simulating vadose zone processes, review recent advances inmodeling such systems, and demonstrate some capabilities of the TOUGHsuite of codes using illustrative examples.

  11. Uranium removal during low discharge in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Moore, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra river system supplies more dissolved uranium to the ocean than any other system in the world (Sarin et al., 1990; Sackett et al., 1973). However, there have been no investigations to determine whether riverine supplies of uranium are altered by geochemical reactions in the river-ocean mixing zone. In this study, uranium and salinity data were collected in the Ganges-Brahmaputra mixing zone during a period of low river discharge. The uranium distribution with salinity shows that in waters <12 ppt salinity, uranium activities are significantly lower than predicted from conservative mixing of river and seawater. This suggests that uranium is being removed within the mixing zone. The behavior of uranium in the Ganges-Brahmaputra is in sharp contrast to its behavior in the Amazon mixing zone where McKee et al. (1978) found uranium activities significantly higher than predicted from conservative mixing. The contrasting behaviors for uranium in these systems are due to the different locations where mixing between river and seawater occurs. For the Amazon, mixing takes place on the continental shelf whereas for the Ganges-Brahmaputra, mixing occurs within shoreline sedimentary environments. The physiochemical processes controlling uranium removal to sediment deposits in the Amazon are partly known. The authors discuss mechanisms which may be removing uranium to suspended and mangrove sediments in the Ganges-Brahmaputra

  12. Zone edge effects with variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems may offer solutions to enhance water use efficiency by addressing variability within a field. However, the design of VRI systems should be considered to maximize application uniformity within sprinkler zones, while minimizing edge effects between such zones alo...

  13. A Low-Level Real-Time In Situ Monitoring System for Tritium in Groundwater and Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, J. T.; Levitt, D. G.

    2002-12-01

    Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen produced as a by-product of the nuclear fuel cycle. It is also an integral part of the nuclear weapons industry and has been released into the environment through both the production and testing of nuclear weapons. There are many sites across the DOE complex where tritium has been released into the subsurface through the disposal of radioactive waste and at the Nevada Test Site, through the underground testing of nuclear weapons. Numerous DOE facilities have an on-going regulatory need to be able to monitor tritium concentrations in groundwater within deep hydrologic zones and in the shallower non-saturated vadose zone beneath waste disposal pits and shafts and other release sites. Typical access to groundwater is through deep monitoring wells and situated in remote locations. In response to this need, Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) and its subcontractor, the University of Nevada Las Vegas (UNLV) Harry Reid Center (HRC) for Environmental Studies has conducted the applied research and engineering and produced a real time, in situ monitoring system for the detection and measurement of low levels of tritium in the groundwater and in the shallower vadose zone. The monitoring system has been deployed to measure tritium in both the vadose zone near a subsurface radioactive waste package and the groundwater in a deep hydrologic reservoir at the Nevada Test Site. The monitoring system has been designed to detect tritium in the subsurface below federal and/or state regulatory limits for safe drinking water and has been successfully demonstrated. The development effort is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory and the DOE Nevada Operations Office Advanced Monitoring Systems Initiative (AMSI).

  14. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Conca

    2000-12-20

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion.

  15. Unsaturated Zone and Saturated Zone Transport Properties (U0100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conca, J.

    2000-01-01

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) summarizes transport properties for the lower unsaturated zone hydrogeologic units and the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain and provides a summary of data from the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone Transport Test (UZTT). The purpose of this report is to summarize the sorption and transport knowledge relevant to flow and transport in the units below Yucca Mountain and to provide backup documentation for the sorption parameters decided upon for each rock type. Because of the complexity of processes such as sorption, and because of the lack of direct data for many conditions that may be relevant for Yucca Mountain, data from systems outside of Yucca Mountain are also included. The data reported in this AMR will be used in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations and as general scientific support for various Process Model Reports (PMRs) requiring knowledge of the transport properties of different materials. This report provides, but is not limited to, sorption coefficients and other relevant thermodynamic and transport properties for the radioisotopes of concern, especially neptunium (Np), plutonium (Pu), Uranium (U), technetium (Tc), iodine (I), and selenium (Se). The unsaturated-zone (UZ) transport properties in the vitric Calico Hills (CHv) are discussed, as are colloidal transport data based on the Busted Butte UZTT, the saturated tuff, and alluvium. These values were determined through expert elicitation, direct measurements, and data analysis. The transport parameters include information on interactions of the fractures and matrix. In addition, core matrix permeability data from the Busted Butte UZTT are summarized by both percent alteration and dispersion

  16. Big Data, data integrity, and the fracturing of the control zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Lagoze

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite all the attention to Big Data and the claims that it represents a “paradigm shift” in science, we lack understanding about what are the qualities of Big Data that may contribute to this revolutionary impact. In this paper, we look beyond the quantitative aspects of Big Data (i.e. lots of data and examine it from a sociotechnical perspective. We argue that a key factor that distinguishes “Big Data” from “lots of data” lies in changes to the traditional, well-established “control zones” that facilitated clear provenance of scientific data, thereby ensuring data integrity and providing the foundation for credible science. The breakdown of these control zones is a consequence of the manner in which our network technology and culture enable and encourage open, anonymous sharing of information, participation regardless of expertise, and collaboration across geographic, disciplinary, and institutional barriers. We are left with the conundrum—how to reap the benefits of Big Data while re-creating a trust fabric and an accountable chain of responsibility that make credible science possible.

  17. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  19. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  20. Temperature control of the four-zone split inverter air conditioners using LMI expression based on LQR for mixed H2/H∞

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, YauBin; Wu, Min-Der; Chang, Yu-Choung

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal control gains were obtained from the linear matrix inequalities with mixed H 2 and H ∞ control algorithm. • The proposed method guaranteed convergence, stability, and provided a way for disturbance rejection and energy savings. • The coupling effects occurred among the compressor speed, opening degrees, evaporator temperatures and superheats. • The system identification and thermal dynamics equations could obtain the inner and outer loop transfer functions. • All simulations in this paper were in discrete time domain. - Abstract: Air conditioners in either commercial or residential buildings consume substantial electricity. Enhancing the air conditioner efficiency by using a new control scheme is critical. In four-zone multi-evaporator air conditioner systems, coupling effects occur among the compressor speed, the degree of opening of the four electronic expansion valves, the temperatures of the four evaporators, and the four superheats. The system identification and thermodynamic equations could be used to obtain the inner and outer loop transfer functions between the air conditioner and its environment. A variable structure (switching) for the proportional integral anti-windup method could circumvent the saturation phenomenon generated from the integral controller. The optimal control gains were obtained from the linear matrix inequalities (LMI) based on a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) with a mixed H 2 and H ∞ control algorithm. In a simulated example, this efficient method, through those feedback gains, guaranteed convergence and stability. In addition, the results indicated that the proposed LMI using a mixed H 2 and H ∞ control method is also an alternative way for disturbance rejection and energy savings in buildings

  1. Health status and indicators of stress-regulatory systems in children with cardiorheumatologic diseases from the zone of anti-terrorist operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Lebets

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. To characterize the health status of children from the antiterrorist operation zone in the east of Ukraine with cardiorheumatologic pathology and to study the indicators of stress-regulating systems was the purpose of our work. Materials and methods. A clinical and instrumental exa­mination was performed in 126 children aged 8–18 years, 92 of them from the anti-terrorist operation zone and 34 immigrant children from the Donetsk and Luhansk regions. The comparison group consisted of 509 children of the same age from the Kharkiv region and Kharkiv. The intensity of stress-realizing systems was determined by the level of cortisol, thiobarbituric acid-active products and diene conjugates in the blood serum, epinephrine and norepinephrine in daily urine. The state of stress-limiting systems was assessed by the content of serotonin, reduced glutathione, activity of glutathione pe­roxidase and superoxide dismutase in the blood and melatonin in daily urine. Results. In the structure of somatic pathology of children and adolescents from zone of military operations in the east of Ukraine, cardiorheumatologic diseases rank se­cond, the first place belongs to diseases of the digestive system. In 34.1 % of children admitted to the institute for the first time, the deterioration of health occurred against the background of psychoemotional stress and lack of conditions for treatment in the main place of residence. In the structure of patients’ complaints, astheno-neurotic ones prevailed, which was significantly more frequent in children of the first group. Also, various psychosomatic disorders, diseases of the digestive system and endocrinopathy were diagnosed most often. The study of stress-regulating systems in children from the anti-terrorist operation zone revealed some differences in the indicators, taking into account the nosology. Thus, patients with cardiovascular patho­logy had an activation of stress-realizing systems, and

  2. Control-technical optimization of topped denitrification through fuzzy control; Regelungstechnische Optimierung der vorgeschalteten Denitrifikation durch Anwendung von Fuzzy-Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, U. [Hydroplan Ingenieurgesellschaft, Worms (Germany); Poepel, H.J. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. WAR - Wasserversorgung, Abwassertechnik, Abfalltechnik, Umwelt- und Raumplanung

    1999-07-01

    The present paper describes complex fuzzy systems for controlling nitrogen elimination at plants with topped denitrification. For the design and testing of the fuzzy systems, dynamic simulation calculations and experimental tests were carried out in a semi-technical pilot plant. The controlling fuzzy systems indicate the supposed oxygen values for individual tank areas and the most appropriate partitioning of the activated sludge tank (anoxic/aerobic zone) as a function of the input quantities used. It is established that, with the more flexible control behaviour, a more stable nitrogen elimination and, at the same time, a cut in the amount of air transferred to the system can be attained in comparison with a conventional control. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags werden komplexe Fuzzy-Systeme zur Regelung der Stickstoffelimination in Anlagen mit vorgeschalteter Denitrifikation vorgestellt. Zum Entwurf und zur Erprobung der Fuzzy-Systeme wurden dynamische Simulationsrechnungen und experimentelle Untersuchungen an einer halbtechnischen Versuchsanlage durchgefuehrt. Die uebergeordneten Fuzzy-Systeme geben in Abhaengigkeit der verwendeten Eingangsgroessen Sauerstoffsollwerte fuer die einzelnen Beckenbereiche und die jeweils guenstigste Aufteilung des Belebungsbeckens (anoxische/aerobe Zone) vor. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass durch das flexible Reglerverhalten eine stabilere Stickstoffelimination und gleichzeitig eine Einsparung an eingetragener Luftmenge im Vergleich zu einem konventionellen Regelsystem erreicht werden kann. (orig.)

  3. Embedded Controller Design for Pig Stable Ventilation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jan Jacob

    This thesis focuses on zone based climate control in pig stables and how to implement climate controllers in a new range of products. The presented controllers are based on simple models of climate dynamics and simple models of actuators. The implementation uses graphical point and click features....... The thesis is a collection of eight papers. The first two papers deal with the mplementation of controllers and how to integrate the development of controllers into a complete framework that can provide different services e.g. remote monitoring. The same framework is also capable of automatically generating...

  4. 23 CFR 750.708 - Acceptance of state zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acceptance of state zoning. 750.708 Section 750.708... BEAUTIFICATION Outdoor Advertising Control § 750.708 Acceptance of state zoning. (a) 23 U.S.C. 131(d) provide... within areas . . . which are zoned industrial or commercial under authority of State law.” Section 131(d...

  5. Aplikasi Root Zone Cooling System Untuk Perbaikan Pembentukan Umbi Bawang Merah (Allium cepa var. aggregatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwahyuningsih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this research can be formulated as follows: to analyze the effect of different root zone temperature to some extent the temperature is 10oC, 15oC, control and vernalization of plant growth and the formation of shallot bulbs by using aeroponic system. The experimental design used was a draft Plots Divided (Split Plot Design, which is arranged in a randomized block design with four replications. The main plot is a vernalization treatment (without vernalization and with vernalization. The subplots in the form of a nutrient solution temperature at 10oC, 15oC, and without cooling system as a control. The parameters measured were the number of leaves, the number of tillers, the number of bulbs, the weight of bulbs and the wet weight of root. There are no interaction between the annealing temperature by vernalization to the number of leaves, the bulb number, the weight of bulbs, and the weight of the roots. Cooling temperatures nutrient solution to improving root growth and bulb formation of shallot. Optimal root growth can improve nutrient uptaken by plants then can improve plant growth and bulb yield larger and heavier. Temperatures suitable for shallot cultivation in lowland tropical for producing tubers with quenching temperature is 10°C, non vernalization.

  6. Design Optimization of a Small-Scale Polygeneration Energy System in Different Climate Zones in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ghaem Sigarchian

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Design and performance of polygeneration energy systems are highly influenced by several variables, including the climate zone, which can affect the load profile as well as the availability of renewable energy sources. To investigate the effects, in this study, the design of a polygeneration system for identical residential buildings that are located in three different climate zones in Iran has been investigated. To perform the study, a model has previously developed by the author is used. The performance of the polygeneration system in terms of energy, economy and environment were compared to each other. The results show significant energetic and environmental benefits of the implementation of polygeneration systems in Iran, especially in the building that is located in a hot climate, with a high cooling demand and a low heating demand. Optimal polygeneration system for an identical building has achieved a 27% carbon dioxide emission reduction in the cold climate, while this value is around 41% in the hot climate. However, when considering the price of electricity and gas in the current energy market in Iran, none of the systems are feasible and financial support mechanisms or other incentives are required to promote the application of decentralized polygeneration energy systems.

  7. System-Scale Model of Aquifer, Vadose Zone, and River Interactions for the Hanford 300 Area - Application to Uranium Reactive Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Bacon, Diana H.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Parker, Kyle R.; Waichler, Scott R.; Williams, Mark D.

    2013-10-01

    This report represents a synthesis and integration of basic and applied research into a system-scale model of the Hanford 300 Area groundwater uranium plume, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Richland Operations (DOE-RL) office. The report integrates research findings and data from DOE Office of Science (DOE-SC), Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM), and DOE-RL projects, and from the site remediation and closure contractor, Washington Closure Hanford, LLC (WCH). The three-dimensional, system-scale model addresses water flow and reactive transport of uranium for the coupled vadose zone, unconfined aquifer, and Columbia River shoreline of the Hanford 300 Area. The system-scale model of the 300 Area was developed to be a decision-support tool to evaluate processes of the total system affecting the groundwater uranium plume. The model can also be used to address “what if” questions regarding different remediation endpoints, and to assist in design and evaluation of field remediation efforts. For example, the proposed cleanup plan for the Hanford 300 Area includes removal, treatment, and disposal of contaminated sediments from known waste sites, enhanced attenuation of uranium hot spots in the vadose and periodically rewetted zone, and continued monitoring of groundwater with institutional controls. Illustrative simulations of polyphosphate infiltration were performed to demonstrate the ability of the system-scale model to address these types of questions. The use of this model in conjunction with continued field monitoring is expected to provide a rigorous basis for developing operational strategies for field remediation and for defining defensible remediation endpoints.

  8. Progress Report on the US Critical Zone Observatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) program supported by the National Science Foundation originated from the recommendation of the Earth Science community published in the National Research Council report "Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Sciences" (2001) to establish natural laboratories to study processes and systems of the Critical Zone - the surface and near-surface environment sustaining nearly all terrestrial life. After a number of critical zone community workshops to develop a science plan, the CZO program was initiated in 2007 with three sites and has now grown to 10 sites and a National Office, which coordinates research, education and outreach activities of the network. Several of the CZO sites are collocated with sites supported by the US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and the Long Term Agricultural Research (LTAR) programs, and the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Future collaboration with additional sites of these networks will add to the potential to answer questions in a more comprehensive manner and in a larger regional scale about the critical zone form and function. At the international level, CZOs have been established in many countries and strong collaborations with the US program have been in place for many years. The next step is the development of a coordinated international program of critical zone research. The success of the CZO network of sites can be measured in transformative results that elucidate properties and processes controlling the critical zone and how the critical zone structure, stores and fluxes respond to climate and land use change. This understanding of the critical zone can be used to enhance resilience and sustainability, and restore ecosystem function. Thus, CZO science can address major societal challenges. The US CZO network is a facility open to research of the critical zone community at large. Scientific data and information about the US program are available at www.criticalzone.org.

  9. Installation dismantling system, working process and hood utilizable in this system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, J.C.; Mulcey, P.; Morel, P.; Vavasseur, C.

    1989-01-01

    The system for dismantling an installation under a controlled atmosphere is made by a tool polluting the atmosphere, a gas blanket creating a continement zone around the tool, an extractor removing polluted gas from the zone, a purifier for the extracted gas and a controller regulating the flow of gas in the blanket and keeping the installation at constant pressure [fr

  10. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  11. Integrated control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that instrument manufacturers must develop standard network interfaces to pull together interrelated systems such as automatic start-up, optimization programs, and online diagnostic systems. In the past individual control system manufacturers have developed their own data highways with proprietary hardware and software designs. In the future, electric utilities will require that future systems, irrespective of manufacturer, should be able to communicate with each other. Until now the manufactures of control systems have not agreed on the standard high-speed data highway system. Currently, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in conjunction with several electric utilities and equipment manufactures, is working on developing a standard protocol for communicating between various manufacturers' control systems. According to N. Michael of Sargent and Lundy, future control room designs will require that more of the control and display functions be accessible from the control room through CRTs. There will be less emphasis on traditional hard-wired control panels

  12. Evaluation of mobile work zone alarm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Maintenance of highways often involves mobile work zones for various types of low speed moving operations such as : striping and sweeping. The speed differential between the moving operation and traffic, and the increasing problem of : distracted dri...

  13. Reactor control system. PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At present, 23 units of PWR type reactors have been operated in Japan since the start of Mihama Unit 1 operation in 1970 and various improvements have been made to upgrade operability of power stations as well as reliability and safety of power plants. As the share of nuclear power increases, further improvements of operating performance such as load following capability will be requested for power stations with more reliable and safer operation. This article outlined the reactor control system of PWR type reactors and described the control performance of power plants realized with those systems. The PWR control system is characterized that the turbine power is automatic or manually controlled with request of the electric power system and then the nuclear power is followingly controlled with the change of core reactivity. The system mainly consists of reactor automatic control system (control rod control system), pressurizer pressure control system, pressurizer water level control system, steam generator water level control system and turbine bypass control system. (T. Tanaka)

  14. BSF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Ishii, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Sasaki, H.; Sakai, I.

    1982-08-01

    The booster synchrotron utilization facility (BSF) is a facility which utilizes the four fifths of available beam pulses from the KEK booster synchrotron. The BSF control system includes the beam line control, interactions with the PS central control room and the experimental facilities, and the access control system. A brief description of the various components in the control system is given. (author)

  15. Improving the effectiveness of smart work zone technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of sensor network systems for work zone traffic estimation. The comparative analysis is : performed on a work zone modeled in microsimulation and calibrated with field data from two Illinois work zones. Realis...

  16. Optical bi-sensorial measurement system for production control of extruded profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckenmann, A.; Bernstein, J.

    2008-09-01

    Extruded profiles are semi-finished products (made out of steel, brass, aluminum, synthetics...) which are appointed for wide applications in manufacturing of technical products. As yet used optical sensors in process control working to the shading technology detect the object's shadow orthographically to the axis of illumination. As a consequence they record it unattached by the profiles coat in measurement range at any point of the measured profile with high precision. As a matter of fact, concave zones cannot be captured. Alternatively the measurement of concave zones can be arranged by light-section systems. These do not comply with the required accuracy, are comparatively slow and moreover affected by dislocations of the section of the profile. A measurement system including a light-section and a shading system combines the advantages of both optical systems. It is to serve with a reliable conception for the assembly of a bi-sensorial measurement system consisting of both systems as well as suitable methods of analysis for the in-line inspection of concave profiles. As a result it contains conclusions concerning requirements of the light source, the arrangement of this source and the cameras, obtainable precision and sampling rate as well as the essential synchronization of both systems. After designing an appropriate prototype, the selected light-section system and the shading system will be synchronized and aligned. Therefore, the metered geometrical data will be merged for the evaluation of form deviation. So, developed and adapted software supports and contains proposals to the uncertainty after successful tests. The system and a calibration method will be proved in production where robustness will be a most critical despite of heat, dust and vibrations. The target uncertainty of less than 0.1 mm at every section of the profiles coat has to be met.

  17. Modeling the Effects of Duration and Size of the Control Zones on the Consequences of a Hypothetical African Swine Fever Epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halasa, Tariq; Bøtner, Anette; Mortensen, Sten

    2018-01-01

    control an epidemic of ASF. A previously published and well documented simulation model for ASF virus spread between herds was used to examine the epidemiologic and economic impacts of the duration and size of the control zones around affected herds. In the current study, scenarios were run, where......African swine fever (ASF) is a notifiable infectious disease. The disease is endemic in certain regions in Eastern Europe constituting a risk of ASF spread toward Western Europe. Therefore, as part of contingency planning, it is important to continuously explore strategies that can effectively...... or clinical and serological surveillance of herds within the zones. Sensitivity analysis was conducted on influential input parameters in the model. The model predicts that reducing the duration of the protection and surveillance zones has no impact on the epidemiological consequences of the epidemics, while...

  18. Operation Request Gatekeeper: A software system for remote access control of diagnostic instruments in fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abla, G.; Schissel, D. P.; Fredian, T. W.; Stillerman, J. A.; Greenwald, M. J.; Stepanov, D. N.; Ciarlette, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Tokamak diagnostic settings are repeatedly modified to meet the changing needs of each experiment. Enabling the remote diagnostic control has significant challenges due to security and efficiency requirements. The Operation Request Gatekeeper (ORG) is a software system that addresses the challenges of remotely but securely submitting modification requests. The ORG provides a framework for screening all the requests before they enter the secure machine zone and are executed by performing user authentication and authorization, grammar validation, and validity checks. A prototype ORG was developed for the ITER CODAC that satisfies their initial requirements for remote request submission and has been tested with remote control of the KSTAR Plasma Control System. This paper describes the software design principles and implementation of ORG as well as worldwide test results.

  19. Targeting heat recovery and reuse in industrial zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Milana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the usage of fossil fuels in industrial sectors by meeting the requirements of production processes, new heat integration and heat recovery approaches are developed. The goal of this study is to develop an approach to increase energy efficiency of an industrial zone by recovering and reusing waste heat via indirect heat integration. Industrial zones usually consist of multiple independent plants, where each plant is supplied by an independent utility system, as a decentralized system. In this study, a new approach is developed to target minimum energy requirements where an industrial zone would be supplied by a centralized utility system instead of decentralized utility system. The approach assumes that all process plants in an industrial zone are linked through the central utility system. This method is formulated as a linear programming problem (LP. Moreover, the proposed method may be used for decision making related to energy integration strategy of an industrial zone. In addition, the proposed method was applied on a case study. The results revealed that saving of fossil fuel could be achieved. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI172063

  20. Conservatism in SRS Criticality Alarm System 12 Rad Zone Calculations - How Much is Enough?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, K.R.

    2002-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) uses two methods (i.e., Approximate Method and MCNP) of calculating the 12-rad zone. The reasons for the two-tier approach are described in Ref. 1 and 2. Lately, there have been occasions in which the use of either the Approximate Method (AM) or MCNP3 calculations indicated potential facility impacts. For example, one or both methods may indicate that a 12-rad zone extends outside of relatively thick shielding, or extends to the roof of a facility, or extends through shielding to part of a stairwell. In such cases, a criticality alarm system may have to be installed to protect workers in a small, localized area from a potential dose that is not substantially greater than 12 rad in air. But, is the potential dose really greater than 12 rad in air? A subcommittee was appointed to look into the two 12-rad zone calculation methods for the purpose of identifying items contributing to over-conservatism and under-conservatism, and to recommend a path forward

  1. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  2. VADOSE ZONE STUDIES AT AN INDUSTRIAL CONTAMINATED SITE: THE VADOSE ZONE MONITORING SYSTEM AND CROSS-HOLE GEOPHYSICS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez de Vera, Natalia; Beaujean, Jean; Jamin, Pierre; Nguyen, Frédéric; Dahan, Ofer; Vanclooster, Marnik; Brouyère, Serge

    2014-01-01

    In situ vadose zone characterization is essential to improve risk characterization and remediation measures for soil and groundwater contamination. However, most available technologies have been developed in the context of agricultural soils. Most of these methodologies are not applicable at industrial sites, where soils and contamination differ in origin and composition. In addition, they are applicable only in the first meters of soils, leaving deeper vadose zones with lack of informatio...

  3. Giving perspective to cliff exposures with ground penetrating radar: Devonian lacustrine shore zone architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Steven; Moreau, Julien; Archer, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    The orbitally-controlled cyclic lacustrine successions of the Middle Devonian in Northern Scotland contains repeated developments of shore zone sandstones. However, due to the cliff-forming nature of the succession and the attitude of the sections through these sandstones, interpretation of this facies has been problematic. To better understand the shore zone systems, we carried out very high resolution sedimentary logging and constructed photo-panels which were combined with high resolution GPR profiling (250 MHz). To ensure close ties between the sedimentary logs and the GPR data, the cliffs were accessed using rope access techniques while GPR grids were shot directly above. The profiles were shot mainly in the strike direction of what was thought to be the shore elongation every 5-10 m and every 20-30 m in the dip direction. Shore zone systems of 3 different sequences have been imaged for a total of 1155 m of GPR profile collected. This configuration has allowed 3D visualisation of the architecture of the shore zone systems and, in combination with detailed sedimentology, provided insights into the generation of the dynamic shore zone environments. The coastal cliffs of northern Scotland expose sedimentary cycles on average 16-m-thick which record deep lake, perennial lake and playa environments. The shore zone deposits reach 2 to 3.5 m in thickness. Loading and discrete channel forms are recognised in both the GPR data and sedimentary logs through the lower portion of the lake shore zone successions. Up-section the sandstone beds appear to become amalgamated forming subtle low angle accretionary bar complexes which although visible in outcrop, after careful investigation, can be fully visualised and examined in the GPR data. The 3D visualisation allowed mapping the architecture and distribution of the bars . The orientation of these features, recognised from the survey, is consistent with extensive palaeocurrent measurements from oscillation ripples. Further

  4. Simplified model-based optimal control of VAV air-conditioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif, N.; Kajl, S.; Sabourin, R. [Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Construction Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The improvement of Variable Air Volume (VAV) system performance is one of several attempts being made to minimize the high energy use associated with the operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. A Simplified Optimization Process (SOP) comprised of controller set point strategies and a simplified VAV model was presented in this paper. The aim of the SOP was to determine supply set points. The advantage of the SOP over previous methods was that it did not require a detailed VAV model and optimization program. In addition, the monitored data for representative local-loop control can be checked on-line, after which controller set points can be updated in order to ensure proper operation by opting for real situations with minimum energy use. The SOP was validated using existing monitoring data and a model of an existing VAV system. Energy use simulations were compared to that of the existing VAV system. At each simulation step, 3 controller set point values were proposed and studied using the VAV model in order to select a value for each point which corresponded to the best performance of the VAV system. Simplified VAV component models were presented. Strategies for controller set points were described, including zone air temperature, duct static pressure set points; chilled water supply set points and supply air temperature set points. Simplified optimization process calculations were presented. Results indicated that the SOP provided significant energy savings when applied to specific AHU systems. In a comparison with a Detailed Optimization Process (DOP), the SOP was capable of determining set points close to those obtained by the DOP. However, it was noted that the controller set points determined by the SOP need a certain amount of time to reach optimal values when outdoor conditions or thermal loads are significantly changed. It was suggested that this disadvantage could be overcome by the use of a dynamic incremental value, which

  5. Geophysical Responses of Hydrocarbon-impacted Zones at the Various Contamination Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C.; Ko, K.; Son, J.; Kim, J.

    2008-12-01

    One controlled experiment and two field surveys were conducted to investigate the geoelectrical responses of hydrocarbon-contaminated zones, so called smeared zone, on the geophysical data at the hydrocarbon- contaminated sites with various conditions. One controlled physical model experiment with GPR using fresh gasoline and two different 3-D electrical resistivity investigations at the aged sites. One field site (former military facilities for arms maintenance) was mainly contaminated with lubricating oils and the other (former gas station) was contaminated with gasoline and diesel, respectively. The results from the physical model experiment show that GPR signals were enhanced when LNAPL was present as a residual saturation in the water-saturated system due to less attenuation of the electromagnetic energy through the soil medium of the hydrocarbon-impacted zone (no biodegradation), compared to when the medium was saturated with only water (no hydrocarbon impaction). In the former gas station site, 3-D resistivity results demonstrate that the highly contaminated zones were imaged with low resistivity anomalies since the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons has been undergone for many years, causing the drastic increase in the TDS at the hydrocarbon-impacted zones. Finally, 3-D resistivity data obtained from the former military maintenance site show that the hydrocarbon-contaminated zones show high resistivity anomalies since the hydrocarbons such as lubricating oils at the contaminated soils were not greatly influenced by microbial degradation and has relatively well kept their original physical properties of high electrical resistivity. The results of the study illustrated that the hydrocarbon-impacted zones under various contamination conditions yielded various geophysical responses which include (1) enhanced GPR amplitudes at the fresh LNAPL (Gasoline to middle distillates) spill sites, (2) low electrical resistivity anomalies due to biodegradation at the

  6. DETERMINATION OF THE ZONE ENDANGERED BY METHANE EXPLOSION IN GOAF WITH CAVING OF LONGWALLS VENTILATED ON „Y” SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław BRODNY

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most dangerous and most commonly present risks in hard coal mines is methane hazard. During exploitation by longwall system with caving, methane is emitted to mine heading from the mined coal and coal left in a pile. A large amount of methane also flows from neighboring seams through cracks and fissures formed in rock mass. In a case of accumulation of explosive methane concentration in goaf zone and with appropriate oxygen concentration and occur-rence of initials (e.g. spark or endogenous fire, it may come to the explosion of this gas. In the paper there are present-ed results of numerical analysis of mixture of air and methane streams flow through the real heading system of a mine, characterized by high methane hazard. The aim of the studies was to analyze the ventilation system of considered head-ing system and determination of braking zones in goaf zone, in which dangerous and explosive concertation of methane can occur with sufficient oxygen concentration equal to at least 12%. Determination of position of these zones is neces-sary for the selection of appropriate parameters of the ventilation system to ensure safety of the crew. Analysis of the scale of methane hazard allows to select such a ventilation system of exploitation and neighboring headings that ensures chemical composition of mining atmosphere required by regulation, and required efficiency of methane drainage. The obtained results clearly show that numerical methods, combined with the results of tests in real conditions can be suc-cessfully used for the analysis of variants of processes related to ventilation of underground mining, and also in the anal-ysis of emergency states.

  7. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  8. Controls on deep drainage beneath the root soil zone in snowmelt-dominated environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J. C.; Harpold, A. A.; Kampf, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Snowmelt is the dominant source of streamflow generation and groundwater recharge in many high elevation and high latitude locations, yet we still lack a detailed understanding of how snowmelt is partitioned between the soil, deep drainage, and streamflow under a variety of soil, climate, and snow conditions. Here we use Hydrus 1-D simulations with historical inputs from five SNOTEL snow monitoring sites in each of three regions, Cascades, Sierra, and Southern Rockies, to investigate how inter-annual variability on water input rate and duration affects soil saturation and deep drainage. Each input scenario was run with three different soil profiles of varying hydraulic conductivity, soil texture, and bulk density. We also created artificial snowmelt scenarios to test how snowmelt intermittence affects deep drainage. Results indicate that precipitation is the strongest predictor (R2 = 0.83) of deep drainage below the root zone, with weaker relationships observed between deep drainage and snow persistence, peak snow water equivalent, and melt rate. The ratio of deep drainage to precipitation shows a stronger positive relationship to melt rate suggesting that a greater fraction of input becomes deep drainage at higher melt rates. For a given amount of precipitation, rapid, concentrated snowmelt may create greater deep drainage below the root zone than slower, intermittent melt. Deep drainage requires saturation below the root zone, so saturated hydraulic conductivity serves as a primary control on deep drainage magnitude. Deep drainage response to climate is mostly independent of soil texture because of its reliance on saturated conditions. Mean water year saturations of deep soil layers can predict deep drainage and may be a useful way to compare sites in soils with soil hydraulic porosities. The unit depth of surface runoff often is often greater than deep drainage at daily and annual timescales, as snowmelt exceeds infiltration capacity in near-surface soil layers

  9. REMOTE SYNTHESIS AND CONTROL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OF SYSTEM-DYNAMIC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Masloboev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The general line of research is concerned with development of information technologies and computer simulation tools for management information and analytical support of complex semistructured systems. Regional socio-economic systems are consideredas a representative of this system type. Investigation is carried out within the bounds of development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safety until 2020 in the Murmansk region, specifically under engineering of high end information infrastructure for innovation and security control problem-solving of regional development. Research methodology consists of system dynamics modeling method, distributed information system engineering technologies, pattern-based modeling and design techniques. The work deals with development of toolkit for decision-making information support problem-solving in the field of innovation security management of regional economics. For that purpose a system-dynamic models suite of innovation process standard components and information technology for remote formation and control of innovation business simulation models under research have been developed. Designed toolkit provides innovation security index dynamics forecasting and innovation business effectiveness of regional economics. Information technology is implemented within the bounds of thin client architecture and is intended for simulation models design process automation of complex systems. Technology implementation software tools provide pattern-based system-dynamic models distributed formation and simulation control of innovation processes. The technology provides availability and reusability index enhancement of information support facilities in application to innovation process simulation at the expense of distributed access to innovation business simulation modeling tools and model synthesis by the reusable components, simulating standard elements of innovation

  10. Basement control in the development of the early cretaceous West and Central African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Guiraud, René

    1993-12-01

    The structural framework of the Precambrian basement of the West and Central African Rift System (WCARS) is described in order to examine the role of ancient structures in the development of this Early Cretaceous rift system. Basement structures are represented in the region by large Pan-African mobile belts (built at ca. 600 Ma) surrounding the > 2 Ga West African, Congo and Sao Francisco cratons. Except for the small Gao trough (eastern Mali) located near the contact nappe of the Pan-African Iforas suture zone along the edge of the West African craton, the entire WCARS is located within the internal domains of the Pan-African mobile belts. Within these domains, two main structural features occur as the main basement control of the WCARS: (1) an extensive network of near vertical shear zones which trend north-south through the Congo, Brazil, Nigeria, Niger and Algeria, and roughly east-west through northeastern Brazil and Central Africa. The shear zones correspond to intra-continental strike-slip faults which accompanied the oblique collision between the West African, Congo, and Sao Francisco cratons during the Late Proterozoic; (2) a steep metamorphic NW-SE-trending belt which corresponds to a pre-Pan-African (ca. 730 Ma) ophiolitic suture zone along the eastern edge of the Trans-Saharian mobile belt. The post-Pan-African magmatic and tectonic evolution of the basement is also described in order to examine the state of the lithosphere prior to the break-up which occurred in the earliest Cretaceous. After the Pan-African thermo-tectonic event, the basement of the WCARS experienced a long period of intra-plate magmatic activity. This widespread magmatism in part relates to the activity of intra-plate hotspots which have controlled relative uplift, subsidence and occasionally block faulting. During the Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic, this tectonic activity was restricted to west of the Hoggar, west of Aïr and northern Cameroon. During the Late Jurassic

  11. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  12. New Vectorial Propulsion System and Trajectory Control Designs for Improved AUV Mission Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Masmitja

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV are proving to be a promising platform design for multidisciplinary autonomous operability with a wide range of applications in marine ecology and geoscience. Here, two novel contributions towards increasing the autonomous navigation capability of a new AUV prototype (the Guanay II as a mix between a propelled vehicle and a glider are presented. Firstly, a vectorial propulsion system has been designed to provide full vehicle maneuverability in both horizontal and vertical planes. Furthermore, two controllers have been designed, based on fuzzy controls, to provide the vehicle with autonomous navigation capabilities. Due to the decoupled system propriety, the controllers in the horizontal plane have been designed separately from the vertical plane. This class of non-linear controllers has been used to interpret linguistic laws into different zones of functionality. This method provided good performance, used as interpolation between different rules or linear controls. Both improvements have been validated through simulations and field tests, displaying good performance results. Finally, the conclusion of this work is that the Guanay II AUV has a solid controller to perform autonomous navigation and carry out vertical immersions.

  13. New Vectorial Propulsion System and Trajectory Control Designs for Improved AUV Mission Autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmitja, Ivan; Gonzalez, Julian; Galarza, Cesar; Gomariz, Spartacus; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Del Rio, Joaquin

    2018-04-17

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) are proving to be a promising platform design for multidisciplinary autonomous operability with a wide range of applications in marine ecology and geoscience. Here, two novel contributions towards increasing the autonomous navigation capability of a new AUV prototype (the Guanay II) as a mix between a propelled vehicle and a glider are presented. Firstly, a vectorial propulsion system has been designed to provide full vehicle maneuverability in both horizontal and vertical planes. Furthermore, two controllers have been designed, based on fuzzy controls, to provide the vehicle with autonomous navigation capabilities. Due to the decoupled system propriety, the controllers in the horizontal plane have been designed separately from the vertical plane. This class of non-linear controllers has been used to interpret linguistic laws into different zones of functionality. This method provided good performance, used as interpolation between different rules or linear controls. Both improvements have been validated through simulations and field tests, displaying good performance results. Finally, the conclusion of this work is that the Guanay II AUV has a solid controller to perform autonomous navigation and carry out vertical immersions.

  14. CORMIX2: An expert system for hydrodynamic mixing zone analysis of conventional and toxic multiport diffuser discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar, P.J.; Jirka, G.H.

    1991-12-01

    One of the most important tasks in the management of water quality is the ability to achieve pollutant concentrations within regulated standards. The Cornell Mixing Zone Expert System (CORMIX) is a series of software systems for the analysis, prediction, and design of aqueous toxic or conventional pollutant discharges into watercourses, with emphasis on the geometry and dilution characteristics of the initial mixing zone. The present development, subsystem CORMIX2 is concerned with submerged multiport discharges into flowing water environments, such as rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. It includes effects of ambient stratification, dynamic attachment of the plume to the bottom of the receiving water, and the limiting case of stagnant conditions

  15. Unsteady Flows Control Hydrologic Turnover Rates in Antarctic Hyporheic Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; McKnight, D. M.; Lyons, W. B.; Saelens, E.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrologic turnover of the hyporheic zone (HZ) is the process of HZ flowpaths receiving water and solutes from the stream channel while simultaneously contributing water and solutes from the HZ back to the stream channel. The influence of hydrologic turnover on HZ solute storage depends on the relative magnitude of hyporheic exchange rates (i.e. physical transport) and biogeochemical reaction rates. Because both exchange rates and reaction rates are unsteady in natural systems, the availability of solutes in the HZ is controlled by the legacy of hydraulic and biological conditions. In this study, we quantify the influence of unsteady flows on hydrologic turnover of the HZ. We study a glacial melt stream in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (MDVs). The MDVs provide an ideal setting for investigating hydrologic and chemical storage characteristics of HZs, because nearly all streamflow is generated from glacier melt and the HZ is vertically bounded by continuous permafrost. A dense network of shallow groundwater wells and piezometers was installed along a 60-meter reach of Von Guerard Stream. 12 days of continuous water level data in each well was used to compute the magnitude and direction of 2D hydraulic gradients between the stream channel and lateral hyporheic aquifer. Piezometers were sampled daily for stable isotope abundances. The direction and magnitude of the cross-valley (CV), perpendicular to the thalweg, component of hydraulic gradients is sensitive to daily flood events and exhibits significant spatial heterogeneity. CV gradients are consistently oriented from the hyporheic aquifer towards the stream channel on 2 sections of the study reach, whereas CV gradients are consistently oriented from the stream channel towards the hyporheic aquifer on 1 section. Three sections show diel changes in orientation of CV gradients, coincident with the passage of daily flood events. During a 4-day period of low flows, the HZ is isotopically distinct from the stream

  16. Unc-51 controls active zone density and protein composition by downregulating ERK signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Wairkar, Yogesh P.; Toda, Hirofumi; Mochizuki, Hiroaki; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo; Tomoda, Toshifumi; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Efficient synaptic transmission requires the apposition of neurotransmitter release sites opposite clusters of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Transmitter is released at active zones, which are composed of a large complex of proteins necessary for synaptic development and function. Many active zone proteins have been identified, but little is known of the mechanisms that ensure that each active zone receives the proper complement of proteins. Here we use a genetic analysis in Drosoph...

  17. Decay of the pulsed thermal neutron flux in two-zone hydrogenous systems - Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP standard data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiacek, Urszula; Krynicka, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed neutron experiments in two-zone spherical and cylindrical geometry has been simulated using the MCNP code. The systems are built of hydrogenous materials. The inner zone is filled with aqueous solutions of absorbers (H 3 BO 3 or KCl). It is surrounded by the outer zone built of Plexiglas. The system is irradiated with the pulsed thermal neutron flux and the thermal neutron decay in time is observed. Standard data libraries of the thermal neutron scattering cross-sections of hydrogen in hydrogenous substances have been used to simulate the neutron transport. The time decay constant of the fundamental mode of the thermal neutron flux determined in each simulation has been compared with the corresponding result of the real pulsed neutron experiment

  18. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-01-01

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  19. Investigation of the Impact of the Upstream Induction Zone on LIDAR Measurement Accuracy for Wind Turbine Control Applications using Large-Eddy Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simley, Eric; Pao, Lucy Y; Gebraad, Pieter; Churchfield, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Several sources of error exist in lidar measurements for feedforward control of wind turbines including the ability to detect only radial velocities, spatial averaging, and wind evolution. This paper investigates another potential source of error: the upstream induction zone. The induction zone can directly affect lidar measurements and presents an opportunity for further decorrelation between upstream wind and the wind that interacts with the rotor. The impact of the induction zone is investigated using the combined CFD and aeroelastic code SOWFA. Lidar measurements are simulated upstream of a 5 MW turbine rotor and the true wind disturbances are found using a wind speed estimator and turbine outputs. Lidar performance in the absence of an induction zone is determined by simulating lidar measurements and the turbine response using the aeroelastic code FAST with wind inputs taken far upstream of the original turbine location in the SOWFA wind field. Results indicate that while measurement quality strongly depends on the amount of wind evolution, the induction zone has little effect. However, the optimal lidar preview distance and circular scan radius change slightly due to the presence of the induction zone

  20. Control systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Nise, Norman S

    1995-01-01

    This completely updated new edition shows how to use MATLAB to perform control-system calculations. Designed for the professional or engineering student who needs a quick and readable update on designing control systems, the text features a series of tightly focused examples that clearly illustrate each concept of designing control systems. Most chapters conclude with a detailed application from the two case studies that run throughout the book: an antenna asimuth control system and a submarine. The author also refers to many examples of design methods.

  1. Discrete control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Discrete Control Systems establishes a basis for the analysis and design of discretized/quantized control systemsfor continuous physical systems. Beginning with the necessary mathematical foundations and system-model descriptions, the text moves on to derive a robust stability condition. To keep a practical perspective on the uncertain physical systems considered, most of the methods treated are carried out in the frequency domain. As part of the design procedure, modified Nyquist–Hall and Nichols diagrams are presented and discretized proportional–integral–derivative control schemes are reconsidered. Schemes for model-reference feedback and discrete-type observers are proposed. Although single-loop feedback systems form the core of the text, some consideration is given to multiple loops and nonlinearities. The robust control performance and stability of interval systems (with multiple uncertainties) are outlined. Finally, the monograph describes the relationship between feedback-control and discrete ev...

  2. Quantitative safety assessment of air traffic control systems through system control capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingjing

    Quantitative Safety Assessments (QSA) are essential to safety benefit verification and regulations of developmental changes in safety critical systems like the Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems. Effectiveness of the assessments is particularly desirable today in the safe implementations of revolutionary ATC overhauls like NextGen and SESAR. QSA of ATC systems are however challenged by system complexity and lack of accident data. Extending from the idea "safety is a control problem" in the literature, this research proposes to assess system safety from the control perspective, through quantifying a system's "control capacity". A system's safety performance correlates to this "control capacity" in the control of "safety critical processes". To examine this idea in QSA of the ATC systems, a Control-capacity Based Safety Assessment Framework (CBSAF) is developed which includes two control capacity metrics and a procedural method. The two metrics are Probabilistic System Control-capacity (PSC) and Temporal System Control-capacity (TSC); each addresses an aspect of a system's control capacity. And the procedural method consists three general stages: I) identification of safety critical processes, II) development of system control models and III) evaluation of system control capacity. The CBSAF was tested in two case studies. The first one assesses an en-route collision avoidance scenario and compares three hypothetical configurations. The CBSAF was able to capture the uncoordinated behavior between two means of control, as was observed in a historic midair collision accident. The second case study compares CBSAF with an existing risk based QSA method in assessing the safety benefits of introducing a runway incursion alert system. Similar conclusions are reached between the two methods, while the CBSAF has the advantage of simplicity and provides a new control-based perspective and interpretation to the assessments. The case studies are intended to investigate the

  3. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  4. Two-zone model of coronal hole structure in the high corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Kundu, M.R.; Yoshimura, H.

    1988-01-01

    The two-zone coronal hole structure model presently proposed for the high corona at 1.5-1.7 solar radii emerges from a comparison of computation results for the potential magnetic fields of the corona and meter-decameter radio observations. The two zones of a coronal hole are defined by the configuration of magnetic field lines around a coronal hole: (1) the central hole of an open diverging magnetic field line system; and (2) the boundary zone between the central zone of the open field line system and the closed field line system or systems surrounding the open field line system. 19 references

  5. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  6. Design, fabrication, and application of a directional thermal processing system for controlled devitrification of metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Megan Anne Lamb

    The potential of using metallic glass as a pathway to obtaining novel morphologies and metastable phases has been garnering attention since their discovery. Several rapid solidification techniques; such as gas atomization, melt spinning, laser melting, and splat quenching produce amorphous alloys. A directional thermal processing system (DTPS) was designed, fabricated and characterized for the use of zone processing or gradient-zone processing of materials. Melt-spun CuZr metallic glass alloy was subjected to the DTPS and the relaxation and crystallization responses of the metallic glass were characterized. A range of processing parameters were developed and analyzed that would allow for devitrification to occur. The relaxation and crystallization responses were compared with traditional heat treatment methods of metallic glasses. The new processing method accessed equilibrium and non-equilibrium phases of the alloy and the structures were found to be controllable and sensitive to processing conditions. Crystallized fraction, crystallization onset temperature, and structural relaxation were controlled through adjusting the processing conditions, such as the hot zone temperature and sample velocity. Reaction rates computed from isothermal (TTT) transformation data were not found to be reliable, suggesting that the reaction kinetics are not additive. This new processing method allows for future studying of the thermal history effects of metallic glasses.

  7. Fast Oxidation Processes in a Naturally Reduced Aquifer Zone Caused by Dissolved Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Jemison, N. E.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Bush, R. P.

    2014-12-01

    of the water table at the Rifle, CO site may play an important role in introducing oxygen into the system. Although oxygen was introduced directly to the naturally reduced zones in these experiments, delivery of oxidants to the system may normally be controlled by other oxidative pathways in which oxygen plays an indirect role.

  8. Definition of a critical confining zone using surface geophysical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.; Harthill, N.; Blohm, M.; Phillips, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Definition of the hydrogeologic framework in layered sediments of fluvial and deltaic origin is a difficult challenge for environmental characterization and remediation programs due to the lithologic and stratigraphic heterogeneities inherent in these settings. These heterogeneties often control contaminant transport and the effectiveness of remediation alternatives, Surface geophysical surveys can be cost-effective methods for characterization, but individual methods have inherent limitations in resolution and sensitivity. A synergistic approach, utilizing two geophysical survey methods was applied, to define and examine the nature and extent of a deep confining zone of regulatory importance, the Crouch Branch Confining Unit, in Coastal Plain sediments at the Savannah River Site. TDEM accurately maps the overall conductance (product of thickness and electrical conductivity) of a confining zone clay facies; from variation in conductance, changes in lithology of the conforming zone can be inferred. Shear wave seismic reflection surveys map the depth to the clay layers, and the clay layer thickness, but provides little information on the lithologic nature of the confining zone. Integrated interpretation of the combined data set (including all available borehole logs) allows for delineation of the lateral and vertical extent of clay-dominated zones, sand-dominated zones, key stratigraphic horizons, and erosional features associated with unconformities. This approach has resulted in the collection of critical information that will be used to optimize remedial system design, representing a significant cost savings to environmental restoration programs at the Savannah River Site

  9. Minicomputer controlled test system for process control and monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worster, L.D.

    A minicomputer controlled test system for testing process control and monitoring systems is described. This system, in service for over one year, has demonstrated that computerized control of such testing has a real potential for expanding the scope of the testing, improving accuracy of testing, and significantly reducing the time required to do the testing. The test system is built around a 16-bit minicomputer with 12K of memory. The system programming language is BASIC with the addition of assembly level routines for communication with the peripheral devices. The peripheral devices include a 100 channel scanner, analog-to-digital converter, visual display, and strip printer. (auth)

  10. Multi-Zone hybrid model for failure detection of the stable ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Soltani, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a conceptual multi-zone model for climate control of a live stock building is elaborated. The main challenge of this research is to estimate the parameters of a nonlinear hybrid model. A recursive estimation algorithm, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is implemented for estimation....... Since the EKF is sensitive to the initial guess, in the following the estimation process is split up into simple parts and approximate parameters are found with a non recursive least squares method in order to provide good initial values. Results based on experiments from a real life stable facility...

  11. Critical zone structure controls concentration-discharge relationships and solute generation in forested tropical montane watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymore, Adam S.; Brereton, Richard L.; Ibarra, Daniel E.; Maher, Kate; McDowell, William H.

    2017-07-01

    Concentration-discharge (C-Q) relationships are poorly known for tropical watersheds, even though the tropics contribute a disproportionate amount of solutes to the global ocean. The Luquillo Mountains in Puerto Rico offer an ideal environment to examine C-Q relationships across a heterogeneous tropical landscape. We use 10-30 years of weekly stream chemistry data across 10 watersheds to examine C-Q relationships for weathering products (SiO2(aq), Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+) and biologically controlled solutes (dissolved organic carbon [DOC], dissolved organic nitrogen [DON], NH4+, NO3-, PO43-, K+, and SO42-). We analyze C-Q relationships using power law equations and a solute production model and use principal component analysis to test hypotheses regarding how the structure of the critical zone controls solute generation. Volcaniclastic watersheds had higher concentrations of weathering solutes and smaller tributaries were approximately threefold more efficient at generating these solutes than larger rivers. Lithology and vegetation explained a significant amount of variation in the theoretical maximum concentrations of weathering solutes (r2 = 0.43-0.48) and in the C-Q relationships of PO43- (r2 = 0.63) and SiO2(aq) (r2 = 0.47). However, the direction and magnitude of these relationships varied. Across watersheds, various forms of N and P displayed variable C-Q relationships, while DOC was consistently enriched with increasing discharge. Results suggest that PO43- may be a useful indicator of watershed function. Relationships between C-Q and landscape characteristics indicate the extent to which the structure and function of the Critical zone controls watershed solute fluxes.

  12. Potential of trees leaf/ bark to control atmospheric metals in a gas and petrochemical zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mojgan; Ramavandi, Bahman; Sanati, Ali Mohammad; Sorial, George A; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Tahmasebi, Saeid

    2018-05-22

    Leaf and bark of trees are tools for assessing the effects of the heavy metals pollution and monitoring the environmental air quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Ni, Pb, V, and Co metals in four tree/shrub species (Conocarpus erectus, Nerium oleander, Bougainvillea spectabilis willd, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) in the heavily industrial zone of Asaloyeh, Iran. Two industrial zones (sites 1 and 2), two urban areas (sites 3 and 4), and two rural areas (sites 5 and 6) in the Asaloyeh industrial zone and an uncontaminated area as a control were selected. Sampling from leaf and bark of trees was carried out in spring 2016. The metals content in the washed and unwashed leaf and bark was investigated. The results showed that four studied metals in N. oleander, C. erectus, and B. spectabilis willd in all case sites were significantly higher than that of in the control site (p < 0.05). The highest concentration of metals was found in sites 3, 4, and 6; this was due to dispersion of the pollutants from industrial environments by dominant winds. The highest comprehensive bio-concentration index (CBCI) was found in leaf (0.37) and bark (0.12) of N. oleander. The maximum metal accumulation index (MAI) in the samples was found in leaf of N. oleander (1.58) and in bark of H. rosa-sinensis (1.95). The maximum bio-concentration factor (BCF) was seen for cobalt metal in the N. oleander leaf (0.89). The nickel concentration in washed-leaf samples of C. erectus was measured to be 49.64% of unwashed one. In general, the N. oleander and C. erectus species were found to have the highest absorption rate from the atmosphere and soil than other studied species, and are very suitable tools for managing air pollution in highly industrialized areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of modular amphibious vehicles for conducting research in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeziulin, Denis; Makarov, Vladimir; Belyaev, Alexander; Beresnev, Pavel; Kurkin, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    The project aims to create workable running systems of research complexes, moving along the bottom of coastal areas (in shallow waters) for investigation of waves, currents, sediment transport; investigation of ecosystems and biodiversity assessment of organisms; inspection and monitoring environmental conditions and anthropogenic load on nature; bathymetric studies. With all the variety of functional capabilities of modern robotic systems, possibilities of their application in the context of the study of coastal zones are extremely limited. Conducting research using aerial vehicles is limited to safety conditions of flight. Use of floating robotic systems in environmental monitoring and ecosystem research is only possible in conditions of relatively «soft» wave climate of the coastal zone. For these purposes, there are special amphibians such as remote-controlled vehicle Surf Rover [Daily, William R., Mark A. Johnson, and Daniel A. Oslecki. «Initial Development of an Amphibious ROV for Use in Big Surf.» Marine Technology Society 28.1 (1994): 3-10. Print.], mobile system MARC-1 [«The SPROV'er.» Florida Institute of Technology: Department of Marine and. Environmental Systems. Web. 05 May 2010.]. The paper describes methodological approaches to the selection of the design parameters of a new system.

  14. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  15. Impacts of terracing on soil erosion control and crop yield in two agro-ecological zones of Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutebuka, Jules; Ryken, Nick; Uwimanzi, Aline; Nkundwakazi, Olive; Verdoodt, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion remains a serious limiting factor to the agricultural production in Rwanda. Terracing has been widely adopted in many parts of the country in the past years, but its effectiveness is not yet known. Besides the standard radical (bench) terraces promoted by the government, also progressive terraces (with living hedges) become adopted mainly by the farmers. The aim of this study was to measure short-term (two consecutive rainy seasons 2016A and 2016B) run-off and soil losses for existing radical (RT) and progressive (PT) terraces versus non-protected (NP) fields using erosion plots installed in two agro-ecological zones, i.e. Buberuka highlands (site Tangata) and Eastern plateau (site Murehe) and determine their impacts on soil fertility and crop production. The erosion plot experiment started with a topsoil fertility assessment and during the experiment, maize was grown as farmer's cropping preference in the area. Runoff data were captured after each rainfall event and the collected water samples were dried to determine soil loss. Both erosion control measures reduced soil losses in Tangata, with effectiveness indices ranging from 43 to 100% when compared to the NP plots. RT showed the highest effectiveness, especially in season A. In Murehe, RT minimized runoff and soil losses in both seasons. Yet, the PT were largely inefficient, leading to soil losses exceeding those on the NP plots (ineffectiveness index of -78% and -65% in season A and B, respectively). Though topsoil fertility assessment in the erosion plots showed that the soil quality parameters were significantly higher in RT and NP plots compared to the PT plots on both sites, maize grain yield was not correlated with the physical effectiveness of the erosion control measures. Finally, the effectiveness of soil erosion control measures as well as their positive impacts on soil fertility and production differ not only by terracing type but also by agro-ecological zone and the management or

  16. A national control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, A.

    1975-01-01

    An effective control of nuclear fissionable material is dependent on three different kinds of control, the industry - laboratory management, a national control system and an international safeguards system. The national systems of control differ greatly between various industrialized countries. Two principal reasons for fact can be mentioned. The type and the amounts for nuclear material may be different depending upon the stage of development of the nuclear industry in the country in question. Another reason may be that the country may wish to establish a very elaborate national system of control in order to minimize the IAEA control as much as possible. The two safeguards agreements between the Agency and Sweden on one hand and the Agency and Japan on the other hand can serve as examples for the understanding of the latitude of the IAEA safeguards system under NPT due to the influence of the national control system. If it thus is apparent that the national control system is strongly interrelated to the international safeguards system it is equally influenced by the control and accountancy systems which exist at the nuclear plants and development laboratories. A detailed study of national control systems and their relations to plant management control would fall outside the scope of this article. Some important features will however be examined. (author)

  17. [Baroreflexes originated in vertebral artery zones upon peripheral vein tonus, systemic arterial blood pressure, and external respiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadzhanian, N A; Kupriianov, S V

    2008-06-01

    The investigation was intended to study the role ofbaroreceptors ofhemodynamically isolated zone of vertebral arteries in regulation of peripheral veins tonus, arterial pressure and external respiration. Pressure decrease in this vascular reflexogenic zone led to reflex responses of increase in femoral vein tonus, elevation of blood pressure level and stimulation of external respiration. The opposite reflex responses of cardio-respiratory functional system to initial pressure activation of vertebral arteries baroreceptors are observed. Basing on generalization of our own findings and similar physiological and morphological researches of other authors, it is established that afferentation from the vertebral artery zone is a reflexogenic factor of somatic muscles' veins tonus regulation. These reflexes of capacity vessels tonic activity changes are part of cardio-respiratory responses of maintaining the tissue gaseous exchange.

  18. Chaotic Zones around Rotating Small Bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lages, José; Shevchenko, Ivan I. [Institut UTINAM, Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers THETA, CNRS, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon F-25030 (France); Shepelyansky, Dima L., E-mail: jose.lages@utinam.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique du CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, Toulouse F-31062 (France)

    2017-06-01

    Small bodies of the solar system, like asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, cometary nuclei, and planetary satellites, with diameters smaller than 1000 km usually have irregular shapes, often resembling dumb-bells or contact binaries. The spinning of such a gravitating dumb-bell creates around it a zone of chaotic orbits. We determine its extent analytically and numerically. We find that the chaotic zone swells significantly if the rotation rate is decreased; in particular, the zone swells more than twice if the rotation rate is decreased 10 times with respect to the “centrifugal breakup” threshold. We illustrate the properties of the chaotic orbital zones in examples of the global orbital dynamics about asteroid 243 Ida (which has a moon, Dactyl, orbiting near the edge of the chaotic zone) and asteroid 25143 Itokawa.

  19. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system near "Boulder Zone" deep wells in Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department, acquired, processed, and interpreted seismic-reflection data near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields to determine if geologic factors may contribute to the upward migration of injected effluent into that upper part of the Floridan aquifer system designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an underground source of drinking water. The depth of the Boulder Zone at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields ranges from about 2,750 to 3,300 feet below land surface (ft bls), whereas overlying permeable zones used as alternative drinking water supply range in depth from about 825 to 1,580 ft bls at the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields. Seismic-sequence stratigraphy and geologic structures imaged on seismic-reflection profiles created for the study describe the part of the Floridan aquifer system overlying and within the Boulder Zone. Features of the Floridan aquifer system underlying the Boulder Zone were not studied because seismic-reflection profiles acquired near the North and South District “Boulder Zone” Well Fields lacked adequate resolution at such depths.

  20. Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

  1. Oxygenated gasoline release in the unsaturated zone - Part 1: Source zone behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

    2011-11-01

    Oxygenates present in gasoline, such as ethanol and MTBE, are a concern in subsurface contamination related to accidental spills. While gasoline hydrocarbon compounds have low solubility, MTBE and ethanol are more soluble, ethanol being completely miscible with water. Consequently, their fate in the subsurface is likely to differ from that of gasoline. To evaluate the fate of gasoline containing oxygenates following a release in the unsaturated zone shielded from rainfall/recharge, a controlled field test was performed at Canadian Forces Base Borden, in Ontario. 200L of a mixture composed of gasoline with 10% ethanol and 4.5% MTBE was released in the unsaturated zone, into a trench 20cm deep, about 32cm above the water table. Based on soil cores, most of the ethanol was retained in the source, above the capillary fringe, and remained there for more than 100 days. Ethanol partitioned from the gasoline to the unsaturated pore-water and was retained, despite the thin unsaturated zone at the site (~35cm from the top of the capillary fringe to ground surface). Due to its lower solubility, most of the MTBE remained within the NAPL as it infiltrated deeper into the unsaturated zone and accumulated with the gasoline on top of the depressed capillary fringe. Only minor changes in the distribution of ethanol were noted following oscillations in the water table. Two methods to estimate the capacity of the unsaturated zone to retain ethanol are explored. It is clear that conceptual models for sites impacted by ethanol-fuels must consider the unsaturated zone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)

  3. Sensitivity Analysis of Temperature Control Parameters and Study of the Simultaneous Cooling Zone during Dam Construction in High-Altitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are unprecedented difficulties in building concrete gravity dams in the high altitude province Tibet with problems induced by lack of experience and technologies and unique weather conditions, as well as the adoption of construction materials that are disadvantageous to temperature control and crack prevention. Based on the understandings of the mentioned problems and leveraging the need of building gravity dam in Tibet, 3D finite element method is used to study the temperature control and crack prevention of the dam during construction. The calculation under recommend temperature control measures and standards shows that the height and number of simultaneous cooling zone have the more obvious influencers on concrete stress; therefore, it is suggested to increase the height of simultaneous cooling zone to decrease the stress caused by temperature gradient of adjoin layers so as to raise the safety level of the whole project. The research methods and ideas used on this project have significant values and can be taken as references in similar projects in high altitude regions.

  4. Determination of pumper truck intervention ratios in zones with high fire potential by using geographical information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricak, Burak; Kucuk, Omer; Enez, Korhan

    2014-01-01

    Fighting forest fires not only depends on the forest type, topography, and weather conditions, but is also closely related to the technical properties of fire-fighting equipment. Firefighting is an important part of fire management planning. However, because of the complex nature of forests, creating thematic layers to generate potential fire risk maps is difficult. The use of remote sensing data has become an efficient method for the discrete classification of potential fire risks. The study was located in the Central District of the Kastamonu Regional Forest Directorate, covering an area of 24,320 ha, 15,685 ha of which is forested. On the basis of stand age, crown closure, and tree species, the sizes and distributions of potential fire risk zones within the study area were determined using high-resolution GeoEye satellite imagery and geographical information system data. The status of pumper truck intervention in zones with high fire risk and the sufficiency of existing forest roads within an existing forest network were discussed based on combustible matter characteristics. Pumper truck intervention was 83% for high-risk zones, 79% for medium-risk zones, and 78% for low-risk zones. A pumper truck intervention area map along existing roads was also created.

  5. Chaos as the hub of systems dynamics. The part I-The attitude control of spacecraft by involving in the heteroclinic chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshin, Anton V.

    2018-06-01

    In this work the chaos in dynamical systems is considered as a positive aspect of dynamical behavior which can be applied to change systems dynamical parameters and, moreover, to change systems qualitative properties. From this point of view, the chaos can be characterized as a hub for the system dynamical regimes, because it allows to interconnect separated zones of the phase space of the system, and to fulfill the jump into the desirable phase space zone. The concretized aim of this part of the research is to focus on developing the attitude control method for magnetized gyrostat-satellites, which uses the passage through the intentionally generated heteroclinic chaos. The attitude dynamics of the satellite/spacecraft in this case represents the series of transitions from the initial dynamical regime into the chaotic heteroclinic regime with the subsequent exit to the final target dynamical regime with desirable parameters of the attitude dynamics.

  6. Management of Control System Information SecurityI: Control System Patch Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quanyan Zhu; Miles McQueen; Craig Rieger; Tamer Basar

    2011-09-01

    The use of information technologies in control systems poses additional potential threats due to the frequent disclosure of software vulnerabilities. The management of information security involves a series of policy-making on the vulnerability discovery, disclosure, patch development and patching. In this paper, we use a system approach to devise a model to understand the interdependencies of these decision processes. In more details, we establish a theoretical framework for making patching decision for control systems, taking into account the requirement of functionability of control systems. We illustrate our results with numerical simulations and show that the optimal operation period of control systems given the currently estimated attack rate is roughly around a half a month.

  7. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-01

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  8. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-15

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  9. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  10. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  11. The recent avifauna of the central and eastern Civilian Control Zone near the Demilitarized Zone in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghwa Yoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our survey of the avifauna in the eastern and central parts of the Civilian Control Zone (CCZ in 2012 and 2013 found a total of 14,390 individuals of 159 species belonging to 17 orders, 44 families and 88 genera. The 159 species of birds found in the central and eastern CCZ constitute 29.4% of the 540 bird species recorded in the Korean Peninsula, showing considerable biodiversity in the bird species that inhabit the surveyed regions. In the central CCZ, we found 9,916 individuals of 117 bird species. And in the eastern CCZ, 4,474 individuals of 127 species were found. There were a particularly large number of Gruiformes and Anseriformes because much of the CCZ, with the exception of mountain land, has been developed as reservoirs and arable farmland. Species diversity appeared high in mountain regions, while regions that included the coast and farmlands showed low diversity.

  12. Prevention of Backover Fatalities in Highway Work Zones: A Synthesis of Current Practices and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to synthesize current practices and procedures on the prevention of backing fatalities in highway work zones. First, general work zone safety hazards are reviewed, particularly blind areas are identified. Second, engineering controls currently in use are examined and explained to help understand what steps can be taken to prevent future backing fatalities. Third, administrative controls (including signalers, drivers, and workers-on-foot training are also discussed. Fourth, existing technology controls are reviewed for use in aiding equipment operators in identifying when pedestrian personnel are in dangerous areas around their equipment (i.e., back-up camera, radar. Fifth, recommendations are made based on the comprehensive review of the backover fatality prevention techniques in construction work zones and the conducted testing results of several commercially available systems. Recommendations on engineering and technology controls are discussed, with detailed information such as improving internal traffic control plans, and integrating technology with traffic control plans. Information and drawings are provided to illustrate how to design work zones, and the internal traffic flow diagrams are created using the integrated technology available, and site specific characteristics. The drawings represent examples of using different types of technology, in different scenarios using the proper legend, as well as using the proper general and technology notes to help explain the traffic control plan, ensuring that full comprehension is made. Recommendations on administrative controls are also given such as how to conduct safety meetings, electing safety officers, how to set regulations and guidelines for workers, and how to handle training. Training should be used as a backover fatality prevention method for pedestrian workers, flaggers, spotters, and equipment operators. Finally, a summary and discussion of future research

  13. Control and automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Zillich, H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of control and automation systems for energy uses. General remarks about control and automation schemes are followed by a description of modern process control systems along with process control processes as such. After discussing the particular process control requirements of nuclear power plants the paper deals with the reliability and availability of process control systems and refers to computerized simulation processes. The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to descriptions of the operating floor, ergonomic conditions, existing systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, the electromagnetic influences on digital circuits as well as of light wave uses. (HAG) [de

  14. Research on a novel DDC-based capacity controller for the direct-expansion variable-air-volume A/C system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Wu, E-mail: chenwu73@263.ne [School of Marine Engineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian Province 361021 (China); Deng Shiming [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-01-15

    A direct-expansion (DX) variable-air-volume (VAV) air-conditioning (A/C) system consists of a VAV air-distribution sub-system and a DX refrigeration plant. This paper reports in detail on a novel capacity controller developed for the DX VAV A/C system to regulate its compressor speed and hence its cooling capacity. The capacity controller consisted of both a numerical calculation algorithm (NCA), which was fundamentally based on the principle of energy balance using a number of real-time measured system's operating parameters, and a dead-band for decoupling the control actions from both the capacity controller and a conventional PI feedback controller for regulating the opening of an electronic expansion valve (EEV) in the refrigeration plant. To study the feasibility of the capacity controller, an experimental rig for the DX VAV A/C system having two conditioned spaces was built and experimental tests were carried out. The test results showed that using the capacity controller, the cooling capacity of the system's refrigeration plant can be accurately and continuously regulated and the supply air temperature well maintained at its desired value. The desirable independent zoning-control for space air temperatures can be successfully achieved by the DX VAV A/C system and the control performance for air temperatures in the conditioned space was highly satisfactory.

  15. Research on a novel DDC-based capacity controller for the direct-expansion variable-air-volume A/C system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wu [School of Marine Engineering, Jimei University, Xiamen, Fujian Province 361021 (China); Deng, Shiming [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon (China)

    2010-01-15

    A direct-expansion (DX) variable-air-volume (VAV) air-conditioning (A/C) system consists of a VAV air-distribution sub-system and a DX refrigeration plant. This paper reports in detail on a novel capacity controller developed for the DX VAV A/C system to regulate its compressor speed and hence its cooling capacity. The capacity controller consisted of both a numerical calculation algorithm (NCA), which was fundamentally based on the principle of energy balance using a number of real-time measured system's operating parameters, and a dead-band for decoupling the control actions from both the capacity controller and a conventional PI feedback controller for regulating the opening of an electronic expansion valve (EEV) in the refrigeration plant. To study the feasibility of the capacity controller, an experimental rig for the DX VAV A/C system having two conditioned spaces was built and experimental tests were carried out. The test results showed that using the capacity controller, the cooling capacity of the system's refrigeration plant can be accurately and continuously regulated and the supply air temperature well maintained at its desired value. The desirable independent zoning-control for space air temperatures can be successfully achieved by the DX VAV A/C system and the control performance for air temperatures in the conditioned space was highly satisfactory. (author)

  16. Research on a novel DDC-based capacity controller for the direct-expansion variable-air-volume A/C system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wu; Deng Shiming

    2010-01-01

    A direct-expansion (DX) variable-air-volume (VAV) air-conditioning (A/C) system consists of a VAV air-distribution sub-system and a DX refrigeration plant. This paper reports in detail on a novel capacity controller developed for the DX VAV A/C system to regulate its compressor speed and hence its cooling capacity. The capacity controller consisted of both a numerical calculation algorithm (NCA), which was fundamentally based on the principle of energy balance using a number of real-time measured system's operating parameters, and a dead-band for decoupling the control actions from both the capacity controller and a conventional PI feedback controller for regulating the opening of an electronic expansion valve (EEV) in the refrigeration plant. To study the feasibility of the capacity controller, an experimental rig for the DX VAV A/C system having two conditioned spaces was built and experimental tests were carried out. The test results showed that using the capacity controller, the cooling capacity of the system's refrigeration plant can be accurately and continuously regulated and the supply air temperature well maintained at its desired value. The desirable independent zoning-control for space air temperatures can be successfully achieved by the DX VAV A/C system and the control performance for air temperatures in the conditioned space was highly satisfactory.

  17. Control system design guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  18. Indirect control of quantum systems via an accessor: pure coherent control without system excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, H C; Dong Hui; Sun, C P; Liu, X F

    2009-01-01

    A pure indirect control of quantum systems via a quantum accessor is investigated. In this control scheme, we do not apply any external classical excitation fields on the controlled system and we control a quantum system via a quantum accessor and classical control fields control the accessor only. Complete controllability is investigated for arbitrary finite-dimensional quantum systems and exemplified by two- and three-dimensional systems. The scheme exhibits some advantages; it uses less qubits in the accessor and does not depend on the energy-level structure of the controlled system

  19. Ventricular Zone Disruption in Human Neonates With Intraventricular Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAllister, James P.; Guerra, Maria Montserrat; Ruiz, Leandro Castaneyra; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Dominguez-Pinos, Dolores; Sival, Deborah; den Dunnen, Wilfred; Morales, Diego M.; Schmidt, Robert E.; Rodriguez, Esteban M.; Limbrick, David D.

    2017-01-01

    To determine if ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) alterations are associated with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, we compared postmortem frontal and subcortical brain samples from 12 infants with IVH and 3 nonneurological disease controls

  20. Intelligent control systems 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoureshi, R.

    1991-01-01

    The field of artificial intelligence (Al) has generated many useful ideas and techniques that can be integrated into the design of control systems. It is believed and, for special cases, has been demonstrated, that integration of Al into control systems would provide the necessary tools for solving many of the complex problems that present control techniques and Al algorithms are unable to do, individually. However, this integration requires the development of basic understanding and new fundamentals to provide scientific bases for achievement of its potential. This book presents an overview of some of the latest research studies in the area of intelligent control systems. These papers present techniques for formulation of intelligent control, and development of the rule-based control systems. Papers present applications of control systems in nuclear power plants and HVAC systems

  1. The mediator-modulator brain system in minks exposed to radiation factors of the Chernobyl NPP 10-km zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishunina, T.M.; Kalinskaya, L.N.; Pil'kevich, L.I.; Kononenko, V.Ya.; Ryasenko, V.I.; Bogdanova, T.I.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the activity of the important metabolizing mediators/modulators of the central nervous system: adenosine, angiotensin and GABA as well as specific bonding of 14 C-GABA by synaptic membranes of brain structures in minks who were in the 10-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP from 0.5 months to 3 years. Adenosine deaminase, angiotensin converting enzyme and glutamate decarboxylase activities endured significant changes in the hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, cerebral, cortex, medulla oblongata and midbrain of minks; the direction and the extent of manifestation of those changes depend on the term of animals' stay in the zone. The GABA reception in the cerebral cortex and medulla oblongata increased significantly and progressively with the prolongation of exposure to radiation. It is concluded that the variety of changes, their regional-specificity and dependence on exposure of animals to the radiation factors of the Chernobyl NPP 10-km zone may induce development of serious complications not only in nervous but in some other systems

  2. FFTF control system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrick, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The FFTF control systems provide control equipment for safe and efficient operation of the plant. For convenience, these systems will be divided into three parts for discussions: (1) Plant Protection System (PPS); (2) Plant Control System (PCS); and (3) General Observations. Performance of each of these systems is discussed

  3. Entry-Control Systems Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    The function of an entry-control system in a total Physical Protection System is to allow the movement of authorized personnel and material through normal access routes, yet detect and delay unauthorized movement of personnel and material from uncontrolled areas. The ten chapters of this handbook cover: introduction, credentials, personnel identity verification systems, special nuclear materials monitors, metal detectors, explosives sensors, package search systems, criteria for selection of entry-control equipment, machine-aided manual entry-control systems, and automated entry-control systems. A system example and its cost are included as an appendix

  4. Analysis of Small ruminant market system in different agro-climatic zones of Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ramesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the marketing system of small ruminants in three different agro-climatic zones of Karnataka in India. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 60 small ruminant farmers from three viz. Bijapur (Arid zone, Gulbarga (Semi-arid zone and Udupi (Coastal zone district of Karnataka state. A structured questionnaire which had earlier been subject to face validity and has a reliability coefficient of 0.87 was used to collect data from the samples respondents. Data was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS.The results of the study revealed that marketing of small ruminants is haphazard in the study areas. Majority of the respondents (85% sold their animal when they needed cash for home consumption followed by to pay off loan (28.3% was the main reason to sell their animals. Important marketing channels were relatives and friends, local markets and village collectors. Farmers gave different reasons for selling their animals through different channels. Majority of the farmers used relatives and friends as one of the marketing channels. Most of farmers also felt that there was a difference in the price offered by village collectors and the price they were getting in the livestock markets. And a few of them were of the opinion that village collectors were not reliable in marketing. Price of the animals was establishing based on the body confirmation of the animal. Study also revealed that injured animals fetch less value than the healthy animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(5.000: 288-293

  5. Nuclear free zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoffel, T.

    1987-01-01

    Health professionals have played a leading role in alerting and educating the public regarding the danger of nuclear war which has been described as the last epidemic our civilization will know. Having convinced most people that the use of nuclear weapons would mean intolerable consequences, groups such as Physicians for Social Responsibility have focused on the second critical question how likely is it that these weapons will be used? The oultlook is grim. This article describes the nuclear free zone movement, explores relevant legal questions, and shows how the political potential of nuclear free zones threatens to open a deep rift in the American constitutional system

  6. Formation of disorder aluminium zones in an immiscible lead-aluminium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, R Z; Zhang, L H; Sui, M L; Wang, Y M

    2004-01-01

    High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations show evidence for the formation of disorder Al zones around some faceted Pb inclusions embedded in an Al matrix in immiscible lead-aluminium samples, which were prepared by a melt-spun method and then aged for about two months at room temperature. Furthermore, it is found that, both before and after ageing, all such Pb inclusions have a cube-cube orientation relationship with the Al matrix. The results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations give an extensive analysis of the formation of the disorder Al zones and provide a reasonable explanation for the HRTEM finding: the existence of oxygen soluted in the Pb inclusions at higher temperatures may lead to the formation of the disorder Al zone in the aged sample. The dependence of the thickness of the disorder Al zone on the amount of oxygen soluted in the Pb inclusion at higher temperatures, and the average stress in the equilibrium configuration of a MD cell, is discussed

  7. An analysis of coastal zone management in England and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.D.R.

    1998-08-01

    The coastal zone is an area of crucial economic and ecological significance, which has increasingly been recognised in land-use planning. Within the coastal zone, integrating land-use planning and environmental management is recognised as one way to minimise trade-offs of interest between economic development and environmental objectives. Many governments are currently discussing the potential role of integrated coastal zone management (CZM) within their planning systems, while some international organisations promote CZM as a means to counter the loss of coastal resources due to human occupation of the coast. This thesis examines how the coastal zone in the United Kingdom is perceived and how effectively CZM is being promoted as a planning model to secure sustainable coastal development through the integration of planning policies. Policy integration is not a quixotic quest, but a model suggesting appropriate methods to manage and reduce conflicts. Any planning model can be traceable to varying assumptions and propositions from political thought, which in turn arises from different political practices. Each CZM plan thus reflects the planning and policy culture of its national system. In order to provide a context within which to assess the UK approach, the development of CZM in the Netherlands is also examined. Both national planning systems have comprehensive statutory land-use planning systems, while marine issues are controlled sectorally by central government. Neither administration has a national CZM policy framework. This thesis therefore includes a comparison of two management plans: the Wash Estuary Management Plan and Integraal Beleidsplan Voordelta. By comparing the organisational structures, policy development and implementation, the case studies provide an insight into the national CZM planning strategy currently being followed in the UK. Finally, the thesis concludes by identifying ways in which CZM might be further improved in the UK and also

  8. The development of radiation hardened robot for nuclear facility - Development of embedded controller for hydraulic robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Kook; Kim, Jae Kwon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    We designed and implemented a reliable hierarchical control system for hydraulic robots for nuclear power plant maintenance. In hazardous environments such as nuclear power plants, robot systems or automated equipment should be used instead of human being for maintenance and repair. Such robot should guarantee high reliability in hazardous environments such as high radiation or high temperature. The overall system is composed of three hierarchical subsystems: i) supervisory controller in safe zone for operator interaction with monitoring and commanding and graphic user interface, ii) master controller in semi-hazardous zone for control function, and iii) slave controller in hazardous zone for sensing and actuation. These subsystems are connected with suitable communication channels: a) master-slave communication channel implemented with CAN (Control Area Network) and b) supervisory-master communication with Ethernet. The master and the slave controllers construct a feedback closed-loop control system. In order to improve reliability, the slave controller is duplicated using cold-standby scheme, and master-slave communication channel is also duplicated. The overall system is implemented harmonically, and we obtained fast control interval of 1msec, which is sufficient for high-performance real-time control. 12 refs., 58 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  9. SimZones: An Organizational Innovation for Simulation Programs and Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussin, Christopher J; Weinstock, Peter

    2017-08-01

    The complexity and volume of simulation-based learning programs have increased dramatically over the last decade, presenting several major challenges for those who lead and manage simulation programs and centers. The authors present five major issues affecting the organization of simulation programs: (1) supporting both single- and double-loop learning experiences; (2) managing the training of simulation teaching faculty; (3) optimizing the participant mix, including individuals, professional groups, teams, and other role-players, to ensure learning; (4) balancing in situ, node-based, and center-based simulation delivery; and (5) organizing simulation research and measuring value. They then introduce the SimZones innovation, a system of organization for simulation-based learning, and explain how it can alleviate the problems associated with these five issues.Simulations are divided into four zones (Zones 0-3). Zone 0 simulations include autofeedback exercises typically practiced by solitary learners, often using virtual simulation technology. Zone 1 simulations include hands-on instruction of foundational clinical skills. Zone 2 simulations include acute situational instruction, such as clinical mock codes. Zone 3 simulations involve authentic, native teams of participants and facilitate team and system development.The authors also discuss the translation of debriefing methods from Zone 3 simulations to real patient care settings (Zone 4), and they illustrate how the SimZones approach can enable the development of longitudinal learning systems in both teaching and nonteaching hospitals. The SimZones approach was initially developed in the context of the Boston Children's Hospital Simulator Program, which the authors use to illustrate this innovation in action.

  10. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  11. Which key properties controls the preferential transport in the vadose zone under transient hydrological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, J.; Vanderborght, J.; Puetz, T.; Gerke, H. H.; Rupp, H.; Wollschlaeger, U.; Stumpp, C.; Priesack, E.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    % arrival time and potential key soil properties, site factors and boundary conditions will be presented in order to identify key properties which control the preferential transport in the vadose zone under transient hydrological conditions.

  12. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighipour, Nader; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results

  13. CALCULATING THE HABITABLE ZONE OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS. II. P-TYPE BINARIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighipour, Nader [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii-Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kaltenegger, Lisa [MPIA, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany)

    2013-11-10

    We have developed a comprehensive methodology for calculating the circumbinary habitable zone (HZ) in planet-hosting P-type binary star systems. We present a general formalism for determining the contribution of each star of the binary to the total flux received at the top of the atmosphere of an Earth-like planet and use the Sun's HZ to calculate the inner and outer boundaries of the HZ around a binary star system. We apply our calculations to the Kepler's currently known circumbinary planetary systems and show the combined stellar flux that determines the boundaries of their HZs. We also show that the HZ in P-type systems is dynamic and, depending on the luminosity of the binary stars, their spectral types, and the binary eccentricity, its boundaries vary as the stars of the binary undergo their orbital motion. We present the details of our calculations and discuss the implications of the results.

  14. T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, H.M.; Andreychek, T.P.; Beeson, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    There are a large number of sites around the world containing TRU (transuranic) waste, low level waste (LLW), and hazardous areas that require teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Teleoperation of the equipment is required to reduce the risk to operating personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator system (T-Rex) is designed to fill this requirement at low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), multiple end effectors and a quick-change system. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator with a hydraulic control system, the integration of an onboard remote control system, vision system, and the design of a remote control station

  15. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  16. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  17. FY 1999 report on the results of the experimental verification and assessment on the establishment of a centralized load control system. Experimental verification on the establishment of a centralized load control system; 1999 nendo fuka shuchu seigyo system kakuritsu jissho shiken system no shiken hyoka. Fuka shuchu seigyo system kakuritsu jissho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The indirect load control system appropriately supplies information on the state of electricity use, peak adjustment financial incentive, etc. through TV at users. The direct load control system controls air conditioner by radio from control station. The indirect/direct load control effect per user in peak zone of a week day at 15:00 at highest temperature of 30 degrees C or more is 80-100W, which is equivalent to 13% of the electric power consumption. A certain effect was verified. The use of electricity with ideas has been settled consciously, and the continuity of action and consciousness is recognized. When hot days at highest temperature of 30 degrees C or more last, the rate of users which use electricity with ideas decreases, and the control effect becomes lower. As a result of having supplied on a day at highest temperature above 30 degrees C the information on energy saving different from usual, the higher control effect than usual was acquired. It will continue to the certain and effective control to effectively make the direct control which is not dependent upon actions of users such as the supply of information different from usual at the time of the continued unusual summer heat and the increasing demand for air conditioner, and the control of air conditioner focussing on a certain time. (NEDO)

  18. Model predictive control for a thermostatic controlled system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model predictive control scheme to provide temperature set-points to thermostatic controlled cooling units in refrigeration systems. The control problem is formulated as a convex programming problem to minimize the overall operating cost of the system. The foodstuff temperat......This paper proposes a model predictive control scheme to provide temperature set-points to thermostatic controlled cooling units in refrigeration systems. The control problem is formulated as a convex programming problem to minimize the overall operating cost of the system. The foodstuff...

  19. Work zone and operation enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation contractors are required to implement Traffic Control Plans (TCPs) to protect and direct traffic through work zones. The design and implementation of TCPs have shown variation from project-to-project across the Sta...

  20. A Study on Establishment of Buffer Zone of Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Park, Joo Wan; Ju, Min Su; Kim, Chang Lak; Park, Jin Baek

    2008-01-01

    A new proposed repository has a final capacity of 800,000 drums radioactive waste. Most of foreign repositories have a general practice of segregating control zones which mainly contributes to classification of degree of control, whether it is called buffer zone or not. Domestic regulatory requirements of establishment of buffer zone in a repository are not much different from those of nuclear power plants for operation period, in which satisfactory design objective or performance objective is the most important factor in determination of the buffer zone. The meaning of buffer zone after closure is a minimum requested area which can prevent inadvertent intruders from leading to non-allowable exposure during institutional control period. Safety assessment with drinking well scenario giving rise to the highest probability of exposure among the intruder's actions can verify fulfillment of the buffer zone which is determined by operational safety of the repository. At present. for the repository to be constructed in a few years, the same procedure and concept as described in this paper are applied that can satisfy regulatory requirements and radiological safety as well. However, the capacity of the repository will be stepwise extended upto 800,000 drums, consequently its layout will be varied too. Timely considerations will be necessary for current boundary of the buffer zone which has been established on the basis of 100,000 drums disposal.

  1. Agricultural adaptation to water scarcity in the Sri Lankan dry zone: A comparison of two water managment regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The island nation of Sri Lanka is divided into two agro-climatic zones: the southwestern wet zone and the northeastern dry zone. The dry zone is exposed to drought-like conditions for several months each year. Due to the sporadic nature of rainfall, dry zone livelihoods depend on the successful storage, capture, and distribution of water. Traditionally, water has been captured in rain-fed tanks and distributed through a system of dug canals. Recently, the Sri Lankan government has diverted the waters of the nation's largest river through a system of centrally managed reservoirs and canals and resettled farmers to cultivate this newly irrigated land. This study uses remotely sensed MODIS and LANDSAT imagery to compare vegetation health and cropping patterns in these distinct water management regimes under different conditions of water scarcity. Of particular interest are the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and institutional factors that affect cropping patterns, including field position, water storage capacity, and control of water resources. Results suggest that under known conditions of water scarcity, farmers cultivate other field crops in lieu of paddy. Cultivation changes depend to a large extent on the institutional distance between water users and water managers as well as the fragmentation of water resources within the system.

  2. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocek, P; Gebauer, P; Beckers, J L

    2001-04-01

    Phthalate buffers are currently used in capillary electrophoresis as robust electrolyte systems for indirect detection. This contribution demonstrates that these buffers show regularly not only successful regions of mobilities of analytes (sample window) but also regions of failure where the migration of analytes is strongly deteriorated due to the presence of a system zone. System zones in phthalate buffers may be easily detected by UV detection and manifest themselves as peaks or dips. Peak shape diagrams are advantageously used for the prediction of the migration behavior of system zones in phthalate background electrolyte (BGE) systems at various pH. It is shown that the mobility of the system zone varies strongly with pH, is practically zero at pH values below 4 and above 7, and shows a maximum at pH 5. Thus, the system peak may coincide either with the peaks of various analytes or with the electroosmotic flow (EOF) peak. Experiments are given showing the effects of such coincidences as, e.g., zigzag detection patterns, double EOF peaks, and/or unusually broad peaks/dips. The message of this contribution is to show how to understand the electrophoretic properties of phthalate BGEs that, regardless of possible failure regions, may be successfully used in the analytical practice of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE).

  3. System control and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindner, H.; Oestergaard, J.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid and ongoing development in the energy sector has consequences for system control at all levels. In relation to system control and communication the control system is challenged in five important ways: 1) Expectations for security of supply, robustness and vulnerability are becoming more stringent, and the control system plays a big part in meeting these expectations. 2) Services are becoming increasingly based on markets that involve the transmission system operators (TSOs), generators and distribution companies. Timely, accurate and secure communication is essential to the smooth running of the markets. 3) Adding large amounts of renewable energy (RE) to the mix is a challenge for control systems because of the intermittent availability of many RE sources. 4) Increasing the number of active components in the system, such as small CHP plants, micro-CHP and intelligent loads, means that the system control will be much more complex. 5) In the future it is likely that power, heat, gas, transport and communication systems will be tighter coupled and interact much more. (au)

  4. COORDINATION IN MULTILEVEL NETWORK-CENTRIC CONTROL SYSTEMS OF REGIONAL SECURITY: APPROACH AND FORMAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Masloboev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with development of methods and tools for mathematical and computer modeling of the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security. This research is carried out under development strategy implementation of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation and national safeguarding for the period before 2020 in the Murmansk region territory. Creation of unified interdepartmental multilevel computer-aided system is proposed intended for decision-making information support and socio-economic security monitoring of the Arctic regions of Russia. The distinctive features of the investigated system class are openness, self-organization, decentralization of management functions and decision-making, weak hierarchy in the decision-making circuit and goal generation capability inside itself. Research techniques include functional-target approach, mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory and principles of network-centric control of distributed systems with pro-active components and variable structure. The work considers network-centric management local decisions coordination problem-solving within the multilevel distributed systems intended for information support of regional security. The coordination problem-solving approach and problem formalization in the multilevel network-centric control systems of regional security have been proposed based on developed multilevel recurrent hierarchical model of regional socio-economic system complex security. The model provides coordination of regional security indexes, optimized by the different elements of multilevel control systems, subject to decentralized decision-making. The model specificity consists in application of functional-target technology and mathematical apparatus of multilevel hierarchical system theory for coordination procedures implementation of the network-centric management local decisions. The work-out and research results can find further

  5. Role of the convergence zone over West Africa in controlling Saharan mineral dust load and transport in the boreal summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen M. Doherty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During summer, large amounts of mineral dust are emitted and transported from North Africa over the tropical North Atlantic towards the Caribbean with the exact quantity varying greatly from year to year. Much effort has been made to explain the variability of summer season mineral dust load, for example, by relating dust variability to teleconnection indices such as ENSO and the NAO. However, only weak relationships between such climate indices and the abundance of mineral dust have been found. In this work, we demonstrate the role of the near-surface convergence zone over West Africa in controlling dust load and transport of mineral dust. We apply the ‘Center of Action’ approach to obtain indices that quantify the movement and strength of the convergence zone using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. The latitudinal position of the convergence zone is significantly correlated with the quantity of mineral dust at Barbados over the period 1965–2003 (r=−0.47. A southward displacement of the convergence zone is associated with both increased near-surface flow and decreased precipitation over the dust source regions of the southern Saharan desert, Sahel and Lake Chad. This in turn reduces soil moisture and vegetation, furthering the potential for dust emission. In contrast, the intensity of the convergence zone is not correlated with dust concentration at Barbados. We conclude that the coupling of changes in near-surface winds with changes in precipitation in source regions driven by a southward movement of the convergence zone most directly influence dust load at Barbados and over the tropical North Atlantic during summer.

  6. Ecosystems and climate interactions in the boreal zone of northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vygodskaya, N N; Groisman, P Ya; Tchebakova, N M; Kurbatova, J A; Panfyorov, O; Parfenova, E I; Sogachev, A F

    2007-01-01

    The climate system and terrestrial ecosystems interact as they change. In northern Eurasia these interactions are especially strong, span all spatial and timescales, and thus have become the subject of an international program: the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). Without trying to cover all areas of these interactions, this paper introduces three examples of the principal micrometeorological, mesometeorological and subcontinental feedbacks that control climate-terrestrial ecosystem interactions in the boreal zone of northern Eurasia. Positive and negative feedbacks of forest paludification, of windthrow, and of climate-forced displacement of vegetation zones are presented. Moreover the interplay of different scale feedbacks, the multi-faceted nature of ecosystems-climate interactions and their potential to affect the global Earth system are shown. It is concluded that, without a synergetic modeling approach that integrates all major feedbacks and relationships between terrestrial ecosystems and climate, reliable projections of environmental change in northern Eurasia are impossible, which will also bring into question the accuracy of global change projections

  7. Fault zone controlled seafloor methane seepage in the rupture area of the 2010 Maule Earthquake, Central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Geersen, Jacob; Scholz, Florian; Linke, Peter; Schmidt, Mark; Lange, Dietrich; Behrmann, Jan H.; Völker, David; Hensen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Seafloor seepage of hydrocarbon-bearing fluids has been identified in a number of marine forearcs. However, temporal variations in seep activity and the structural and tectonic parameters that control the seepage often remain poorly constrained. Subduction-zone earthquakes for example, are often discussed to trigger seafloor seepage but causal links that go beyond theoretical considerations have not yet been fully established. This is mainly due to the inaccessibility of offshore epicentral a...

  8. 19 CFR 146.26 - System review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false System review. 146.26 Section 146.26 Customs... (CONTINUED) FOREIGN TRADE ZONES Inventory Control and Recordkeeping System § 146.26 System review. The operator shall perform an annual internal review of the inventory control and recordkeeping system and...

  9. Weak Compliance Undermines the Success of No-Take Zones in a Large Government-Controlled Marine Protected Area

    KAUST Repository

    Campbell, Stuart J.

    2012-11-30

    The effectiveness of marine protected areas depends largely on whether people comply with the rules. We quantified temporal changes in benthic composition, reef fish biomass, and fishing effort among marine park zones (including no-take areas) to assess levels of compliance following the 2005 rezoning of the government-controlled Karimunjawa National Park (KNP), Indonesia. Four years after the rezoning awareness of fishing regulations was high amongst local fishers, ranging from 79.5±7.9 (SE) % for spatial restrictions to 97.7±1.2% for bans on the use of poisons. Despite this high awareness and strong compliance with gear restrictions, compliance with spatial restrictions was weak. In the four years following the rezoning reef fish biomass declined across all zones within KNP, with >50% reduction within the no-take Core and Protection Zones. These declines were primarily driven by decreases in the biomass of groups targeted by local fishers; planktivores, herbivores, piscivores, and invertivores. These declines in fish biomass were not driven by changes in habitat quality; coral cover increased in all zones, possibly as a result of a shift in fishing gears from those which can damage reefs (i.e., nets) to those which cause little direct damage (i.e., handlines and spears). Direct observations of fishing activities in 2009 revealed there was limited variation in fishing effort between zones in which fishing was allowed or prohibited. The apparent willingness of the KNP communities to comply with gear restrictions, but not spatial restrictions is difficult to explain and highlights the complexities of the social and economic dynamics that influence the ecological success of marine protected areas. Clearly the increased and high awareness of fishery restrictions following the rezoning is a positive step. The challenge now is to understand and foster the conditions that may facilitate compliance with spatial restrictions within KNP and marine parks worldwide. © 2012

  10. The Habitable Zone Gallery 2.0: The Online Exoplanet System Visualization Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. O.; Kane, S. R.; Gelino, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery 2.0 provides new and improved visualization and data analysis tools to the exoplanet habitability community and beyond. Modules include interactive habitable zone plotting and downloadable 3D animations.

  11. Plug-and-Play Control – Modifying Control Systems Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, K; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Often, when new sensor or actuator hardware be- comes available for use in a control system, it is desirable to retain the existing control system and apply the new control capabilities in a gradual fashion rather than decommissioning the entire existing system and replacing it with an altogether...... new control system. However, this requires that the existing controller remains in action, and the new control law component is added to the existing system. This paper formally introduces the concept of Plug-and-Play control and proposes two different methods of introducing new control components...

  12. FY 1999 report on the results of the experimental verification on the establishment of a centralized load control system. Study of an advanced centralized load control system, etc.; 1999 nendo fuka shuchu seigyo system kakuritsu jissho shikehn kodo fuka shuchu seigyo system nado no kenkyu. Fuka shuchu seigyo system kakuritsu jissho shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The paper described the FY 1999 results of the experimental verification on a centralized load control system for the residential electric power demand. The air conditioning control is effective for load leveling, and for it, it is important to infiltrate the consciousness of energy saving into people. Users are not very interested in the information on power rates, would rather tend to seek comfortableness, and are less conscious of energy saving on days of unusual summer heat. Further, the power control in peal time zone was made by indicating users the actual state of power use by a combination of the two-way communication and the automatic meter reading system. However, at present, it cannot be denied that the power rate is higher even in indirect load control equipment with necessary/minimum conditions than the existing power source. It is a must to reduce the cost. The liberalization of electric power is progressing fast, and incentives for DSM are decreasing, but each of advanced countries is getting sensitive to the obedience to COP3. In addition to DSM such as the rebate program and financing program by the existing surcharge system, they are making efforts for development/promotion of new energy by creating the green electric power market. The load control technology is expected which does not disturb comfortableness and amenity of users. (NEDO)

  13. RFID card based access control system with counter for Indus Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jathar, M.R.; Vikas, Meshram; Patidar, S.C.

    2015-01-01

    As per norms of the Atomic energy regulatory board (AERB) to operate a facility in round the clock which has a potential of radiation exposure, radiation safety rules are to be followed. Indus -1 and Indus-2 are synchrotron radiation sources which are open for various users round the clock. To monitor the persons inside the defined zone at any given time, a system is setup consisting of RF ID cards and their readers along with dedicated software. Software is developed in Visual Basic and uses UDP network protocol for receiving data from readers installed at various locations and connected to local area network. The paper describes the access control scheme followed in Indus Accelerator Complex. (author)

  14. The Habitable Zone and Extreme Planetary Orbits

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Stephen R.; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2012-01-01

    The habitable zone for a given star describes the range of circumstellar distances from the star within which a planet could have liquid water on its surface, which depends upon the stellar properties. Here we describe the development of the habitable zone concept, its application to our own solar system, and its subsequent application to exoplanetary systems. We further apply this to planets in extreme eccentric orbits and show how they may still retain life-bearing properties depending upon...

  15. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  16. Formation of albitite-hosted uranium within IOCG systems: the Southern Breccia, Great Bear magmatic zone, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montreuil, Jean-François; Corriveau, Louise; Potter, Eric G.

    2015-03-01

    Uranium and polymetallic U mineralization hosted within brecciated albitites occurs one kilometer south of the magnetite-rich Au-Co-Bi-Cu NICO deposit in the southern Great Bear magmatic zone (GBMZ), Canada. Concentrations up to 1 wt% U are distributed throughout a 3 by 0.5 km albitization corridor defined as the Southern Breccia zone. Two distinct U mineralization events are observed. Primary uraninite precipitated with or without pyrite-chalcopyrite ± molybdenite within magnetite-ilmenite-biotite-K-feldspar-altered breccias during high-temperature potassic-iron alteration. Subsequently, pitchblende precipitated in earthy hematite-specular hematite-chlorite veins associated with a low-temperature iron-magnesium alteration. The uraninite-bearing mineralization postdates sodic (albite) and more localized high-temperature potassic-iron (biotite-magnetite ± K-feldspar) alteration yet predates potassic (K-feldspar), boron (tourmaline) and potassic-iron-magnesium (hematite ± K-feldspar ± chlorite) alteration. The Southern Breccia zone shares attributes of the Valhalla (Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) albitite-hosted U deposits but contains greater iron oxide contents and lower contents of riebeckite and carbonates. Potassium, Ni, and Th are also enriched whereas Zr and Sr are depleted with respect to the aforementioned albitite-hosted U deposits. Field relationships, geochemical signatures and available U-Pb dates on pre-, syn- and post-mineralization intrusions place the development of the Southern Breccia and the NICO deposit as part of a single iron oxide alkali-altered (IOAA) system. In addition, this case example illustrates that albitite-hosted U deposits can form in albitization zones that predate base and precious metal ore zones in a single IOAA system and become traps for U and multiple metals once the tectonic regime favors fluid mixing and oxidation-reduction reactions.

  17. Fluid flow and permeabilities in basement fault zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinsworth, Allan; Koehn, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Fault zones are important sites for crustal fluid flow, specifically where they cross-cut low permeability host rocks such as granites and gneisses. Fluids migrating through fault zones can cause rheology changes, mineral precipitation and pore space closure, and may alter the physical and chemical properties of the host rock and deformation products. It is therefore essential to consider the evolution of permeability in fault zones at a range of pressure-temperature conditions to understand fluid migration throughout a fault's history, and how fluid-rock interaction modifies permeability and rheological characteristics. Field localities in the Rwenzori Mountains, western Uganda and the Outer Hebrides, north-west Scotland, have been selected for field work and sample collection. Here Archaean-age TTG gneisses have been faulted within the upper 15km of the crust and have experienced fluid ingress. The Rwenzori Mountains are an anomalously uplifted horst-block located in a transfer zone in the western rift of the East African Rift System. The north-western ridge is characterised by a tectonically simple western flank, where the partially mineralised Bwamba Fault has detached from the Congo craton. Mineralisation is associated with hydrothermal fluids heated by a thermal body beneath the Semliki rift, and has resulted in substantial iron oxide precipitation within porous cataclasites. Non-mineralised faults further north contain foliated gouges and show evidence of leaking fluids. These faults serve as an analogue for faults associated with the Lake Albert oil and gas prospects. The Outer Hebrides Fault Zone (OHFZ) was largely active during the Caledonian Orogeny (ca. 430-400 Ma) at a deeper crustal level than the Ugandan rift faults. Initial dry conditions were followed by fluid ingress during deformation that controlled its rheological behaviour. The transition also altered the existing permeability. The OHFZ is a natural laboratory in which to study brittle fault

  18. Petrology, chronology and sequence of vein systems: Systematic magmatic and hydrothermal history of a major intracontinental shear zone, Canadian Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pe-Piper, Georgia; Piper, David J. W.; McFarlane, Chris R. M.; Sangster, Chris; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Boucher, Brandon

    2018-04-01

    Intra-continental shear zones developed during continental collision may experience prolonged magmatism and mineralization. The Cobequid Shear Zone formed part of a NE-SW-trending, orogen-parallel shear system in the late Devonian-early Carboniferous, where syn-tectonic granite-gabbro plutons and volcanic rocks 4 km thick were progressively deformed. In late Carboniferous to Permian, Alleghanian collision of Africa with Laurentia formed the E-W trending Minas Fault Zone, reactivating parts of the Cobequid Shear Zone. The 50 Ma history of hydrothermal mineralization following pluton emplacement is difficult to resolve from field relationships of veins, but SEM study of thin sections provides clear detail on the sequence of mineralization. The general paragenesis is: albite ± quartz ± chlorite ± monazite → biotite → calcite, allanite, pyrite → Fe-carbonates, Fe-oxides, minor sulfides, calcite and synchysite. Chronology was determined from literature reports and new U-Pb LA-ICPMS dating of monazite and allanite in veins. Vein mineralization was closely linked to magmatic events. Vein emplacement occurred preferentially during fault movement recognised from basin-margin inversion, as a result of fractures opening in the damage zone of master faults. The sequence of mineralization, from ca. 355 Ma riebeckite and albite veins to ca. 327 (-305?) Ma siderite-magnetite and sulfide mineralization, resembles Precambrian iron-oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) systems in the literature. The abundant magmatic Na, halogens and CO2 in veins and some magmatic bodies, characteristic of IOCG systems, were derived from the deeply subducted Rheic Ocean slab with little terrigenous sediment. Regional extension of the Magdalen Basin caused asthenospheric upwelling and melting of the previously metasomatized sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Crustal scale strike-slip faulting facilitated the rise of magmas, resulting in high heat flow driving an active hydrothermal system. Table S2

  19. Structural evolution of the Irtysh Shear Zone: implication for the Late Paleozoic amalgamation of multiple arc systems in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2015-04-01

    The NW-SE Irtysh Shear Zone represents a major tectonic boundary in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, recording the amalgamation history between the peri-Siberian orogenic system and the Kazakhstan orogenic system. The structural evolution and geodynamics of this shear zone is still poorly documented. Here we present new structural data complemented by chronological data in an attempt to unravel the geodynamic significance of the Irtysh Shear Zone in the context of accretion history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Our results show three episodes of deformation for the shear zone. D1 foliation is locally recognized in low strain area and recorded by garnet inclusions, whereas D2 is represented by a sub-horizontal fabric and related NW-SE lineation. D3 is characterized by a transpersonal deformation event, to form a series of NW-SE mylonitic belts with sinistral kinematics, and to overprint D2 fabric forming regional-scale NW-SE upright folds. A paragneiss sample from the shear zone yielded the youngest detrital zircon peaks in the late Carboniferous, placing a maximum age constraint on the deformation, which overlaps in time with the late Paleozoic collision between the Chinese Altai and the intraoceanic arc system of the East Junggar and West Junggar. We interpret three episodes of deformation to represent orogenic thickening (D1), collapse (D2) and thickening (D3) in response to this collisional event. Sinistral shearing (D3) together with the coeval dextral shearing in the Tianshan accommodate eastward extrusion of the Kazakhstan orogenic system during the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Acknowledgements: This study was financially supported by the Major Basic Research Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant: 2014CB440801), Hong Kong Research Grant Council (HKU705311P and HKU704712P), National Science Foundation of China (41273048, 41273012) and a HKU CRCG grant. The work is a contribution of the Joint

  20. Application of a New Dynamic Heating System Model Using a Range of Common Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Fong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the overall heating energy consumptions using various control strategies, secondary heat emitters, and primary plant for a building. Previous research has successfully demonstrated that a dynamic distributed heat emitter model embedded within a simplified third-order lumped parameter building model is capable of achieving improved results when compared to other commercially available modelling tools. With the enhanced ability to capture transient effects of emitter thermal capacity, this research studies the influence of control strategies and primary plant configurations on the rate of energy consumption of a heating system. Four alternative control strategies are investigated: zone feedback; weather-compensated; a combination of both of these methods; and thermostatic control. The plant alternative configurations consist of conventional boilers, biomass boilers, and heat pumps supporting radiator heating and underfloor heating. The performance of the model is tested on a primary school building and can be applied to any residential or commercial building with a heating system. Results show that the new methods reported offer greater detail and rigor in the conduct of building energy modelling.

  1. Controlling chaotic systems via nonlinear feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ju H.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a new method to control chaotic systems is proposed. Using Lyapunov method, we design a nonlinear feedback controller to make the controlled system be stabilized. A numerical example is given to illuminate the design procedure and advantage of the result derived

  2. Applied Control Systems Design

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2012-01-01

    Applied Control System Design examines several methods for building up systems models based on real experimental data from typical industrial processes and incorporating system identification techniques. The text takes a comparative approach to the models derived in this way judging their suitability for use in different systems and under different operational circumstances. A broad spectrum of control methods including various forms of filtering, feedback and feedforward control is applied to the models and the guidelines derived from the closed-loop responses are then composed into a concrete self-tested recipe to serve as a check-list for industrial engineers or control designers. System identification and control design are given equal weight in model derivation and testing to reflect their equality of importance in the proper design and optimization of high-performance control systems. Readers’ assimilation of the material discussed is assisted by the provision of problems and examples. Most of these e...

  3. Microcomputer-controlled world time display for public area viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yep, S.; Rashidian, M.

    1982-05-01

    The design, development, and implementation of a microcomputer-controlled world clock is discussed. The system, designated international Time Display System (ITDS), integrates a Geochron Calendar Map and a microcomputer-based digital display to automatically compensate for daylight savings time, leap year, and time zone differences. An in-depth technical description of the design and development of the electronic hardware, firmware, and software systems is provided. Reference material on the time zones, fabrication techniques, and electronic subsystems are also provided.

  4. Expert systems in process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.

    1987-01-01

    To illustrate where the fundamental difference between expert systems in classical diagnosis and in industrial control lie, the work of process control instrumentation is used as an example for the job of expert systems. Starting from the general process of problem-solving, two classes of expert systems can be defined accordingly. (orig.) [de

  5. ZONING OF COASTAL AREA FOR MARINE AQUACULTURE Š PRESENT SITUATIONS AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lav Bavčević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We already acepted that Croatian economical and geopolitical possition can bee improved only with better utilization of coastal area. Under these conditions mariculture also makes a part od sea master plan because demands for mariculture are focused on clean environmental conditions to obtain economic benefits. Increased pressure to the coastal area is global trend and if not planed and organized can provoke conflicts and can affect further development. Under these condition, marine aquaculture is frequent subject of many discussion focused on the environmental impact. Conflict of different interest in coastal area with no argumentation is putting marine aquaculture in worst position related with tourism and industry. Hard argumentations is laying in noneadequate frame of work in some facilities and to take advantake competitors are preasenting marine aquaculture in worst picture. Marine aquaculture product has to be health product, which can be completely damaged because of non-responsible approach of other activity. Mariculture also can suffer from self-pollution as for example tourism and must be well planed and managed. Fecal pollution from towns, pollution from bad controlled tourists activity, industry, influence of intensive and non controlled agriculture in coast line, are also potential danger for quality of all sea products and also cultured products from marine aquaculture. High quality of marine products can be obtained by zoning of coastal area, and in concept of these zoning it is necessary to define the zones for marine aquaculture. Procedure of zoning has to be divided in three steps: deetrmination of present status of area, definition of shore land for making mariculture related shore infrastructure and definitions of areas suitable for mariculture with limits of production. These can make positive situations with avoiding conflicts in exploitation of common resources in future. Zone for marine aquaculture has to be controlled

  6. Modernization of turbine control system and reactor control system in Almaraz 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido, C.; Diez, J.; Carrasco, J. A.; Lopez, L.

    2005-01-01

    The replacement of the Turbine Control System and Reactor Control System are part of the Almaraz modernization program for the Instrumentation and Control. For these upgrades Almaraz has selected the Ovation Platform that provides open architecture and easy expansion to other systems, these platforms is highly used in many nuclear and thermal plants around the world. One of the main objective for this project were to minimize the impact on the installation and operation of the plant, for that reason the project is implemented in two phases, Turbine Control upgrade and Reactor Control upgrade. Another important objective was to increase the reliability of the control system making them fully fault tolerant to single failures. The turbine Control System has been installed in Units 1 and 2 while the Reactor Control System will be installed in 2006 and 2007 outages. (Author)

  7. Digital control system of advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Huaqing; Zhang Rui; Liu Lixin

    2001-01-01

    This article produced the Digital Control System For Advanced Reactor made by NPIC. This system uses Siemens SIMATIC PCS 7 process control system and includes five control system: reactor power control system, pressurizer level control system, pressurizer pressure control system, steam generator water level control system and dump control system. This system uses three automatic station to realize the function of five control system. Because the safety requisition of reactor is very strict, the system is redundant. The system configuration uses CFC and SCL. the human-machine interface is configured by Wincc. Finally the system passed the test of simulation by using RETRAN 02 to simulate the control object. The research solved the key technology of digital control system of reactor and will be very helpful for the nationalization of digital reactor control system

  8. A viscoplastic shear-zone model for episodic slow slip events in oceanic subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Meng, L.

    2016-12-01

    Episodic slow slip events occur widely along oceanic subduction zones at the brittle-ductile transition depths ( 20-50 km). Although efforts have been devoted to unravel their mechanical origins, it remains unclear about the physical controls on the wide range of their recurrence intervals and slip durations. In this study we present a simple mechanical model that attempts to account for the observed temporal evolution of slow slip events. In our model we assume that slow slip events occur in a viscoplastic shear zone (i.e., Bingham material), which has an upper static and a lower dynamic plastic yield strength. We further assume that the hanging wall deformation is approximated as an elastic spring. We envision the shear zone to be initially locked during forward/landward motion but is subsequently unlocked when the elastic and gravity-induced stress exceeds the static yield strength of the shear zone. This leads to backward/trenchward motion damped by viscous shear-zone deformation. As the elastic spring progressively loosens, the hanging wall velocity evolves with time and the viscous shear stress eventually reaches the dynamic yield strength. This is followed by the termination of the trenchward motion when the elastic stress is balanced by the dynamic yield strength of the shear zone and the gravity. In order to account for the zig-saw slip-history pattern of typical repeated slow slip events, we assume that the shear zone progressively strengthens after each slow slip cycle, possibly caused by dilatancy as commonly assumed or by progressive fault healing through solution-transport mechanisms. We quantify our conceptual model by obtaining simple analytical solutions. Our model results suggest that the duration of the landward motion increases with the down-dip length and the static yield strength of the shear zone, but decreases with the ambient loading velocity and the elastic modulus of the hanging wall. The duration of the backward/trenchward motion depends

  9. Interpretation of vadose zone monitoring system data near Engineered Trench 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Whiteside, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-12-12

    The E-Area Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VZMS) includes lysimeter sampling points at many locations alongside and angling beneath the Engineered Trench #1 (ET1) disposal unit footprint. The sampling points for ET1 were selected for this study because collectively they showed consistently higher tritium (H-3) concentrations than lysimeters associated with other trench units. The VZMS tritium dataset for ET1 from 2001 through 2015 comprises concentrations at or near background levels at approximately half of locations through time, concentrations up to about 600 pCi/mL at a few locations, and concentrations at two locations that have exceeded 1000 pCi/mL. The highest three values through 2015 were 6472 pCi/mL in 2014 and 4533 pCi/mL in 2013 at location VL-17, and 3152 pCi/mL in 2007 at location VL-15. As a point of reference, the drinking water standard for tritium and a DOE Order 435.1 performance objective in the saturated zone at the distant 100-meter facility perimeter is 20 pCi/mL. The purpose of this study is to assess whether these elevated concentrations are indicative of a general trend that could challenge 2008 E-Area Performance Assessment (PA) conclusions, or are isolated perturbations that when considered in the context of an entire disposal unit would support PA conclusions.

  10. Test results of HTTR control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motegi, Toshihiro; Iigaki, Kazuhiko; Saito, Kenji; Sawahata, Hiroaki; Hirato, Yoji; Kondo, Makoto; Shibutani, Hideki; Ogawa, Satoru; Shinozaki, Masayuki; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Kawasaki, Kozo

    2006-06-01

    The plant control performance of the IHX helium flow rate control system, the PPWC helium flow rate control system, the secondary helium flow rate control system, the inlet temperature control system, the reactor power control system and the outlet temperature control system of the HTTR are obtained through function tests and power-up tests. As the test results, the control systems show stable control response under transient condition. Both of inlet temperature control system and reactor power control system shows stable operation from 30% to 100%, respectively. This report describes the outline of control systems and test results. (author)

  11. Small-Scale Surf Zone Geometric Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    using stereo imagery techniques. A waterproof two- camera system with self-logging and internal power was developed using commercial-off-the-shelf...estimates. 14. SUBJECT TERMS surface roughness, nearshore, aerodynamic roughness, surf zone, structure from motion, 3D imagery 15. NUMBER OF... power was developed using commercial-off-the- shelf components and commercial software for operations 1m above the sea surface within the surf zone

  12. Control of Precambrian basement deformation zones on emplacement of the Laramide Boulder batholith and Butte mining district, Montana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; O'Neill, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    What are the roles of deep Precambrian basement deformation zones in the localization of subsequent shallow-crustal deformation zones and magmas? The Paleoproterozoic Great Falls tectonic zone and its included Boulder batholith (Montana, United States) provide an opportunity to examine the importance of inherited deformation fabrics in batholith emplacement and the localization of magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits. Northeast-trending deformation fabrics predominate in the Great Falls tectonic zone, which formed during the suturing of Paleoproterozoic and Archean cratonic masses approximately 1,800 mega-annum (Ma). Subsequent Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic deformation fabrics trend northwest. Following Paleozoic through Early Cretaceous sedimentation, a Late Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt with associated strike-slip faulting developed across the region, wherein some Proterozoic faults localized thrust faulting, while others were reactivated as strike-slip faults. The 81- to 76-Ma Boulder batholith was emplaced along the reactivated central Paleoproterozoic suture in the Great Falls tectonic zone. Early-stage Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced concurrent with east-directed thrust faulting and localized primarily by northwest-trending strike-slip and related faults. The late-stage Butte Quartz Monzonite pluton was localized in a northeast-trending pull-apart structure that formed behind the active thrust front and is axially symmetric across the underlying northeast-striking Paleoproterozoic fault zone, interpreted as a crustal suture. The modeling of potential-field geophysical data indicates that pull-apart?stage magmas fed into the structure through two funnel-shaped zones beneath the batholith. Renewed magmatic activity in the southern feeder from 66 to 64 Ma led to the formation of two small porphyry-style copper-molybdenum deposits and ensuing world-class polymetallic copper- and silver-bearing veins in the Butte mining district. Vein orientations

  13. The ILC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.; Saunders, C.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, b.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larson, R.S.; Downing, R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the last ICALEPCS, a small multi-region team has developed a reference design model for a control system for the International Linear Collider as part of the ILC Global Design Effort. The scale and performance parameters of the ILC accelerator require new thinking in regards to control system design. Technical challenges include the large number of accelerator systems to be controlled, the large scale of the accelerator facility, the high degree of automation needed during accelerator operations, and control system equipment requiring 'Five Nines' availability. The R and D path for high availability touches the control system hardware, software, and overall architecture, and extends beyond traditional interfaces into the technical systems. Software considerations for HA include fault detection through exhaustive out-of-band monitoring and automatic state migration to redundant systems, while the telecom industry's emerging ATCA standard - conceived, specified, and designed for High Availability - is being evaluated for suitability for ILC front-end electronics.

  14. WVSAMB Color Digital Orthophotos North Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color orthophotography of the State of West Virginia (West Virginia State Plane Coordinate System North Zone). The W.V. state plane system has two...

  15. Singularity-Free Neural Control for the Exponential Trajectory Tracking in Multiple-Input Uncertain Systems with Unknown Deadzone Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Humberto Pérez-Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory tracking for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems in which the number of possible states is equal to the number of inputs and each input is preceded by an unknown symmetric deadzone is considered. The unknown dynamics is identified by means of a continuous time recurrent neural network in which the control singularity is conveniently avoided by guaranteeing the invertibility of the coupling matrix. Given this neural network-based mathematical model of the uncertain system, a singularity-free feedback linearization control law is developed in order to compel the system state to follow a reference trajectory. By means of Lyapunov-like analysis, the exponential convergence of the tracking error to a bounded zone can be proven. Likewise, the boundedness of all closed-loop signals can be guaranteed.

  16. Control system integration

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, T J

    2008-01-01

    This lecture begins with a definition of an accelerator control system, and then reviews the control system architectures that have been deployed at the larger accelerator facilities. This discussion naturally leads to identification of the major subsystems and their interfaces. We shall explore general strategies for integrating intelligent devices and signal processing subsystems based on gate arrays and programmable DSPs. The following topics will also be covered: physical packaging; timing and synchronization; local and global communication technologies; interfacing to machine protection systems; remote debugging; configuration management and source code control; and integration of commercial software tools. Several practical realizations will be presented.

  17. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  18. ALFA Detector Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

  19. A web accessible scientific workflow system for vadoze zone performance monitoring: design and implementation examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, E.; Versteeg, R.; Ankeny, M.; Stormberg, G.

    2005-12-01

    Long term performance monitoring has been identified by DOE, DOD and EPA as one of the most challenging and costly elements of contaminated site remedial efforts. Such monitoring should provide timely and actionable information relevant to a multitude of stakeholder needs. This information should be obtained in a manner which is auditable, cost effective and transparent. Over the last several years INL staff has designed and implemented a web accessible scientific workflow system for environmental monitoring. This workflow environment integrates distributed, automated data acquisition from diverse sensors (geophysical, geochemical and hydrological) with server side data management and information visualization through flexible browser based data access tools. Component technologies include a rich browser-based client (using dynamic javascript and html/css) for data selection, a back-end server which uses PHP for data processing, user management, and result delivery, and third party applications which are invoked by the back-end using webservices. This system has been implemented and is operational for several sites, including the Ruby Gulch Waste Rock Repository (a capped mine waste rock dump on the Gilt Edge Mine Superfund Site), the INL Vadoze Zone Research Park and an alternative cover landfill. Implementations for other vadoze zone sites are currently in progress. These systems allow for autonomous performance monitoring through automated data analysis and report generation. This performance monitoring has allowed users to obtain insights into system dynamics, regulatory compliance and residence times of water. Our system uses modular components for data selection and graphing and WSDL compliant webservices for external functions such as statistical analyses and model invocations. Thus, implementing this system for novel sites and extending functionality (e.g. adding novel models) is relatively straightforward. As system access requires a standard webbrowser

  20. The CEBAF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.A. III.

    1995-01-01

    CEBAF has recently upgraded its accelerator control system to use EPICS, a control system toolkit being developed by a collaboration among laboratories in the US and Europe. The migration to EPICS has taken place during a year of intense commissioning activity, with new and old control systems operating concurrently. Existing CAMAC hardware was preserved by adding a CAMAC serial highway link to VME; newer hardware developments are now primarily in VME. Software is distributed among three tiers of computers: first, workstations and X terminals for operator interfaces and high level applications; second, VME single board computers for distributed access to hardware and for local control processing; third, embedded processors where needed for faster closed loop operation. This system has demonstrated the ability to scale EPICS to controlling thousands of devices, including hundreds of embedded processors, with control distributed among dozens of VME processors executing more than 125,000 EPICS database records. To deal with the large size of the control system, CEBAF has integrated an object oriented database, providing data management capabilities for both low level I/O and high level machine modeling. A new callable interface which is control system independent permits access to live EPICS data, data in other Unix processes, and data contained in the object oriented database

  1. Output controllability of nonlinear systems with bounded control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael; D'Attellis, Carlos

    1990-01-01

    The control problem treated in this paper is the output controllability of a nonlinear system in the form: x = f(x) + g(x)u(t); y = h(x), using bounded controls. The approach to the problem consists of a modification in the system using dynamic feedback in such a way that the input/output behaviour of the closed loop matches the input/output behaviour of a completely output-controllable system with bounded controls. Sufficient conditions are also put forward on the system so that a compact set in the output space may be reached in finite time using uniformally bounded controls, and a result on output regulation in finite time with asymptotic state stabilization is obtained. (Author)

  2. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  3. Multi-component controllers in reactor physics optimality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldemir, T.

    1978-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for the optimality analysis of thermal reactor assemblies with multi-component control vectors. The neutronics of the system under consideration is assumed to be described by the two-group diffusion equations and constraints are imposed upon the state and control variables. It is shown that if the problem is such that the differential and algebraic equations describing the system can be cast into a linear form via a change of variables, the optimal control components are piecewise constant functions and the global optimal controller can be determined by investigating the properties of the influence functions. Two specific problems are solved utilizing this approach. A thermal reactor consisting of fuel, burnable poison and moderator is found to yield maximal power when the assembly consists of two poison zones and the power density is constant throughout the assembly. It is shown that certain variational relations have to be considered to maintain the activeness of the system equations as differential constraints. The problem of determining the maximum initial breeding ratio for a thermal reactor is solved by treating the fertile and fissile material absorption densities as controllers. The optimal core configurations are found to consist of three fuel zones for a bare assembly and two fuel zones for a reflected assembly. The optimum fissile material density is determined to be inversely proportional to the thermal flux

  4. Evaluation of work zone split traffic symbol sign : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Effective signage that is easy to understand facilitates safe driving through a work zone. While the guidance for work zone signage in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) is suitable for many conditions, there may be instances where...

  5. SPring-8 beamline control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, T; Konishi, H; Kimura, H; Furukawa, Y; Tamasaku, K; Nakatani, T; Tanabe, T; Matsumoto, N; Ishii, M; Ishikawa, T

    1998-05-01

    The SPring-8 beamline control system is now taking part in the control of the insertion device (ID), front end, beam transportation channel and all interlock systems of the beamline: it will supply a highly standardized environment of apparatus control for collaborative researchers. In particular, ID operation is very important in a third-generation synchrotron light source facility. It is also very important to consider the security system because the ID is part of the storage ring and is therefore governed by the synchrotron ring control system. The progress of computer networking systems and the technology of security control require the development of a highly flexible control system. An interlock system that is independent of the control system has increased the reliability. For the beamline control system the so-called standard model concept has been adopted. VME-bus (VME) is used as the front-end control system and a UNIX workstation as the operator console. CPU boards of the VME-bus are RISC processor-based board computers operated by a LynxOS-based HP-RT real-time operating system. The workstation and the VME are linked to each other by a network, and form the distributed system. The HP 9000/700 series with HP-UX and the HP 9000/743rt series with HP-RT are used. All the controllable apparatus may be operated from any workstation.

  6. Assessing recharge using remotely sensed data in the Guarani Aquifer System outcrop zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, M. C.; Oliveira, P. T. S.; Melo, D. D.; Wendland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater recharge is an essential hydrology component for sustainable water withdrawal from an aquifer. The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is the largest (~1.2 million km2) transboundary groundwater reservoir in South America, supplying freshwater to four countries: Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. However, recharge in the GAS outcrop zones is one of the least known hydrological variables, in part because studies from hydrological data are scarce or nonexistent. We assess recharge using the water-budget as the difference of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET). Data is derived from remotely sensed estimates of P (TRMM 3B42 V7) and ET (MOD16) in the Onça Creek watershed over the 2004­-12 period. This is an upland-flat watershed (slope steepness < 1%) dominated by sand soils and representative of the GAS outcrop zones. We compared the remote sensing approach against Water Table Fluctuation (WTF) method and another water-budget using ground-based measurements. Uncertainty propagation analysis were also performed. On monthly basis, TRMM P exhibited a great agreement with ground-based P data (R2 = 0.86 and RMSE = 41 mm). Historical (2004-12) mean(±sd) satellite-based recharge (Rsat) was 537(±224) mm y-1, while ground-based recharge using water-budget (Rgr) and WTF (Rwtf) method was 469 mm y-1 and 311(±150) mm y-1, respectively. We found that ~440 mm y-1 is a reasonable historical mean (between Rsat, Rgr and Rwtf) recharge for the study area over 2004-2012 period. The latter mean recharge estimate is about 29% of the mean historical P (1,514 mm y-1). Our results provide the first insight about an intercomparison of water budget from remote sensing and measured data to estimate recharge in the GAS outcrop zone. These results should be useful for future studies on assessing recharge in the GAS outcrop zones. Since accurate and precise recharge estimation still is a gap, our recharge satellite-based is considered acceptable for the Onça Creek

  7. A design and study of the effects of selectivity on binary separation in a four-zone simulated moving bed for systems with linear isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Cremasco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The simulated moving bed (SMB is potentially an economical method for the separation and purification of natural products because it is a continuous processes and can achieve higher productivity, higher product recovery, and higher purity than batch chromatographic processes. Despite the advantages of SMB, one of the challenges is to specify its zone flow rates and switching time. In this case it is possible to use the standing wave analysis. In this method, in a binary system, when certain concentration waves are confined to specific zones, high product purity and yield can be assured. Appropriate zone flow rates, zone lengths and step time are chosen to achieve standing waves. In this study the effects of selectivity on yield, throughput, solvent consumption, port switching time, and product purity for a binary system are analyzed. The results show that for a given selectivity the maximum throughput decreases with increasing yield, while solvent consumption and port switching time increase with increasing yield. To achieve the same purity and yield, a system with higher selectivity has a higher throughput and lower solvent consumption.

  8. On the Planning and Design of Hospital Circulation Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Verderber, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    This present literature review explores current issues and research inconsistencies regarding the design of hospital circulation zones and the associated health-related outcomes. Large general hospitals are immense, highly sophisticated institutions. Empirical studies have indicated excessively institutional environments in large medical centers are a cause of negative effects to occupants, including stress, anxiety, wayfinding difficulties and spatial disorientation, lack of cognitional control, and stress associated with inadequate access to nature. The rise of patient-centered and evidence-based movements in healthcare planning and design has resulted in a general rise in the quality of hospital physical environments. However, as a core component of any healthcare delivery system, hospital circulation zones have tended to remain neglected within the comparatively broad palette of research conducted and reported to date. A systematic literature review was conducted based upon combinations of key words developed vis-à-vis a literature search in 11 major databases in the realm of the health sciences and the planning and design of built environments for healthcare. Eleven peer-reviewed articles were included in the analysis. Six research themes were identified according to associated health-related outcomes, including wayfinding difficulties and spatial disorientation, communication and socialization patterns, measures and control of excessive noise, patient fall incidents, and occupants' stress and satisfaction levels. Several knowledge gaps as well as commonalities in the pertinent research literature were identified. Perhaps the overriding finding is that occupants' meaningful exposure to views of nature from within hospital circulation zones can potentially enhance wayfinding and spatial navigation. Future research priories on this subject are discussed.

  9. The African swine fever control zone in South Africa and its current relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noluvuyo R. Magadla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF has been reported in South Africa since the early 20th century. The disease has been controlled and confined to northern South Africa over the past 80 years by means of a well-defined boundary line, with strict control measures and movement restrictions north of this line. In 2012, the first outbreak of ASF outside the ASF control zone since 1996 occurred. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current relevance of the ASF control line as a demarcation line between endemic ASF (north areas and ASF-free (south area and to determine whether there was a need to realign its trajectory, given the recent outbreaks of ASF, global climate changes and urban development since the line’s inception. A study of ASF determinants was conducted in an area 20 km north and 20 km south of the ASF control line, in Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West and Gauteng provinces between May 2008 and September 2012. The study confirmed that warthogs, warthog burrows and the soft tick reservoir, Ornithodoros moubata, are present south of the ASF control line, but no virus or viral DNA was detected in these ticks. There appears to be an increasing trend in the diurnal maximum temperature and a decrease in humidity along the line, but the impact of these changes is uncertain. No discernible changes in minimum temperatures and average rainfall along the disease control line were observed between 1992 and 2014. Even though the reservoirs were found south of the ASF boundary line, the study concluded that there was no need to realign the trajectory of the ASF disease control line, with the exception of Limpopo Province. However, the provincial surveillance programmes for the reservoir, vector and ASF virus south of this line needs to be maintained and intensified as changing farming practices may favour the spread of ASF virus beyond the control line. Keywords: African swine fever; warthog burrow; Ornithodoros moubata;control line

  10. Plagioclase Textures and Zoning Patterns in the Miocene Dowdy Ranch Andesite, Central California Coast Ranges: Implications for Open and Closed System Behavior in Magmatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavishi, D. K.; Metzger, E. P.; Miller, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    The Miocene Dowdy Range Andesite (DRA) of the Central California Coast Ranges is part of a northwestward-younging sequence of volcanic rocks that were apparently formed by northward movement of the Mendocino triple junction, formation of a slab window, and infilling by asthenospheric mantle. The highly porphyritic andesite contains plagioclase phenocrysts with a wide array of disequilibrium textures and zoning patterns, providing an opportunity to reconstruct andesite-forming processes in a tectonic environment that evolved from subduction to transform motion. The DRA encloses metasedimentary, granulitic, and gabbroic xenoliths (described elsewhere) and displays arc-like trace element chemistry. It features glomeroporphyritic, intersertal and hyalopilitic textures with plagioclase as the dominant phase both as phenocrysts and in the groundmass. Other groundmass minerals include orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and ilmenite. Plagioclase exhibits normal, reverse, oscillatory and patchy zoning patterns and sieve and sponge textures, with several populations of plagioclase crystals observed on the scale of a single thin section. The presence of abundant quartz xenocrysts rimmed by augite and absence of mafic enclaves suggest that incorporation of crustal material played an important role in forming the andesite. Preliminary examination of back-scattered electron images and electron microprobe analysis of zoned plagioclase shows both concordant and discordant relationships between An and FeO, suggesting that the andesite was formed by a combination of open and closed system magmatic processes. Plagioclase cores vary from An 45-65%. Clear rims surrounding spongy zones are common and show abrupt and significant (~10-50% An and 5-20% FeO) increases in both An and FeO, as expected for magma recharge by more mafic magma. Clear rim compositions are consistent from sample to sample, suggesting that the phenocrysts experienced a common history during later stages of

  11. The impact of an urban sewerage system on childhood diarrhoea in Tehran, Iran: a concurrent control field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Ali-Asghar; Rastegarpour, Ali; Sohrabi, Mohammad-Reza

    2009-05-01

    The stepwise implementation of the Tehran Sewerage Project provided a convenient setting for which health impacts of an urban sewerage system could be examined with appropriate controls. In 2001, Tehran municipal districts 17 and 18 had no sewerage system connections, but areas within these districts had been planned to be connected by 2006. These areas were chosen as an intervention group. Neighbouring areas, with a similar socio-economic status, that had not been planned to connect to the sewerage system by 2006, were chosen as controls. Homes within designated areas were randomized and surveyed twice to determine diarrhoea incidences for children aged 6-60 months, once in 2001, before connection to the sewerage system, and once again in 2006, after the intervention. By 2006, 76% of the homes in the intervention zones were connected to the sewerage system. In the first stage of the study, diarrhoea incidences for intervention and control groups were 18.6 and 16.6%, respectively. In the second stage, incidences decreased to 10.1 and 10.5%, respectively. Data collected from 4179 children demonstrated that the diarrhoea incidence had decreased by 46% in the intervention group, whereas it had decreased by 37% in the controls.

  12. Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, W. P.; Freeman, J.A.; Stegman, D. R.; Moresi, L.; May, D.

    2007-01-01

    Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel

  13. The APS control system network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorowicz, K.V.; McDowell, W.P.

    1995-01-01

    The APS accelerator control system is a distributed system consisting of operator interfaces, a network, and computer-controlled interfaces to hardware. This implementation of a control system has come to be called the open-quotes Standard Model.close quotes The operator interface is a UNDC-based workstation with an X-windows graphical user interface. The workstation may be located at any point on the facility network and maintain full functionality. The function of the network is to provide a generalized communication path between the host computers, operator workstations, input/output crates, and other hardware that comprise the control system. The crate or input/output controller (IOC) provides direct control and input/output interfaces for each accelerator subsystem. The network is an integral part of all modem control systems and network performance will determine many characteristics of a control system. This paper will describe the overall APS network and examine the APS control system network in detail. Metrics are provided on the performance of the system under various conditions

  14. Personal exposure control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Ken-ichi; Akashi, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear power stations are under strict radiation control. Exposure control for nuclear workers is the most important operation, and so carefully thought out measures are taken. This paper introduces Fuji Electric's personal exposure control system that meets strict exposure control and rationalizes control operations. The system has a merit that it can provide required information in an optimum form using the interconnection of a super minicomputer and exposure control facilities and realizes sophisticated exposure control operations. (author)

  15. Tectonic Constraints on the Evolution of Geothermal Systems in the Central Andean Volcanic Zone (CAVZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, E. E.; Tardani, D.; Aron, F.; Elizalde, J. D.; Sanchez-Alfaro, P.; Godoy, B.

    2017-12-01

    South of 19°S, geothermal fields and Pliocene-to-Holocene volcanic centers of the Central Andean Volcanic Zone are spatially associated with distinct, large-scale fault systems disrupting the volcanic arc, which control the architecture and dynamics of the fluids reservoirs at shallow crustal levels. Based on an extensive compilation of structural, lithological and isotopic data, and satellite imagery band-ratio analyses, we produced detailed maps of 13 areas comprising 19 identified and/or potential geothermal fields, to examine if particular local-scale tectonic configurations are associated to fluids migrating from different crustal levels. We defined three main tectonic environments according to the specific, kilometer-scale structural arrangement and its spatial relation to the geothermal surface manifestations. T1, dominated by left-lateral, pure strike-slip motion on a NW-trending duplex-like geometry with geothermal fields located along the faults - in turn distributed into five major subparallel zones cutting across the orogenic belt between ca. 20° and 27°S. T2, dominated by shortening on a series of N-trending thrust faults and fault-propagated folds, cut and displaced by the above mentioned NW-trending faults, with geothermal fields hosted at fault intersections and at fold hinges. And T3, characterized by transtension accommodated by NW-to-WNW-trending left-lateral/normal faults, with hot-springs lying along the fault traces. Interestingly, each of the independently defined tectonic environments has distinctive helium (in fluids) and strontium (in lavas) isotopic signatures and estimated geothermal reservoir temperatures. T1 shows a large 4He contribution, low 87Sr/86Sr ratio and temperatures varying between ca. 220°-310°C; T3 low 4He and high 87Sr/86Sr ratio and temperature (260°-320°C); T2 isotopic values fall between T1 and T3, yet showing the lowest (130°-250°C) temperatures. We suggest that these particular isotopic signatures are due to

  16. Control system pre-feedbacked for the super heated steam temperature in heat recovering units; Sistema de control pre-retroalimentado para la temperatura de vapor sobrecalentado en recuperadores de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Alvarez, Hilario; Madrigal Espinosa, Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The study that is presented corresponds to the analysis, design and development of a pre-feedbacked control system for the superheated steam temperature regulation in the heat recovery units of a combined cycle thermoelectric power plant. The designs of the feedback controller and the pre-feedback control system were implemented based in a linear model of the tempering zone. This linear model was obtained through the application of parametric identification techniques to the non-linear mathematical model of a combined cycle power plant. [Espanol] El estudio que se presenta corresponde al analisis, diseno y desarrollo de un sistema de control pre-retroalimentado para regular la temperatura de vapor sobrecalentado en los recuperadores de calor de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado. Los disenos del controlador retroalimentado y del sistema de control prealimentado se realizaron con base en un modelo lineal de la zona de atemperacion. Este modelo lineal se obtuvo aplicando tecnicas de identificacion parametrica al modelo matematico no-lineal de una central de ciclo combinado.

  17. Control system pre-feedbacked for the super heated steam temperature in heat recovering units; Sistema de control pre-retroalimentado para la temperatura de vapor sobrecalentado en recuperadores de calor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Alvarez, Hilario; Madrigal Espinosa, Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The study that is presented corresponds to the analysis, design and development of a pre-feedbacked control system for the superheated steam temperature regulation in the heat recovery units of a combined cycle thermoelectric power plant. The designs of the feedback controller and the pre-feedback control system were implemented based in a linear model of the tempering zone. This linear model was obtained through the application of parametric identification techniques to the non-linear mathematical model of a combined cycle power plant. [Espanol] El estudio que se presenta corresponde al analisis, diseno y desarrollo de un sistema de control pre-retroalimentado para regular la temperatura de vapor sobrecalentado en los recuperadores de calor de una central termoelectrica de ciclo combinado. Los disenos del controlador retroalimentado y del sistema de control prealimentado se realizaron con base en un modelo lineal de la zona de atemperacion. Este modelo lineal se obtuvo aplicando tecnicas de identificacion parametrica al modelo matematico no-lineal de una central de ciclo combinado.

  18. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  19. A nuclear-free zone for the Southwest Pacific: prospects and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, G.

    1983-01-01

    The Australian Government is currently seeking to promote the concept of a nuclear-free zone for the Southwest Pacific. This paper explores three fundamental questions concerning the Australian proposal. Firstly, what would be the boundaries of such a zone and what does 'nuclear-free' mean in this context Secondly, what are the prospects for agreement on the establishment of a zone. Could regional states and nuclear powers agree to what is being proposed. And finally, what would be the significance, in arms control terms, were such an agreement to be signed. Would it, in fact, achieve anything. In an approach to these questions, the author surveys the strategic situation in the region, the level and pattern of nuclear involvement, past experience with zone proposals, and the current positions of various regional states and nuclear weapons powers on this question. He concludes that the necessary basis for agreement does exist and that modest arms control objectives could be served by the establishment of such a zone

  20. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  1. Virtualization in control system environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, L.R.; Liu, D.K.; Wan, T.M.

    2012-01-01

    In large scale distributed control system, there are lots of common service composed an environment for the entire control system, such as the server system for the common software base library, application server, archive server and so on. This paper gives a description of a virtualization realization for control system environment including the virtualization for server, storage, network system and application for the control system. With a virtualization instance of the EPICS based control system environment that was built by the VMware vSphere v4, we tested the whole functionality of this virtualization environment in the SSRF control system, including the common server of the NFS, NIS, NTP, Boot and EPICS base and extension library tools, we also have applied virtualization to application servers such as the Archive, Alarm, EPICS gateway and all of the network based IOC. Specially, we test the high availability and VMotion for EPICS asynchronous IOC successful under the different VLAN configuration of the current SSRF control system network. (authors)

  2. Global challenges in integrated coastal zone management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    integration of data and information in policy and management, combining expertise from nature and social science, to reach a balanced and sustainable development of the coastal zone. This important book comprises the proceedings of The International Symposium on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, which took....../mitigation to change in coastal systems Coastal governance Linking science and management Comprising a huge wealth of information, this timely and well-edited volume is essential reading for all those involved in coastal zone management around the globe. All libraries in research establishments and universities where...

  3. Implications for metal and volatile cycles from the pH of subduction zone fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Matthieu E.; Connolly, James A. D.; Manning, Craig E.

    2016-11-01

    The chemistry of aqueous fluids controls the transport and exchange—the cycles—of metals and volatile elements on Earth. Subduction zones, where oceanic plates sink into the Earth’s interior, are the most important geodynamic setting for this fluid-mediated chemical exchange. Characterizing the ionic speciation and pH of fluids equilibrated with rocks at subduction zone conditions has long been a major challenge in Earth science. Here we report thermodynamic predictions of fluid-rock equilibria that tie together models of the thermal structure, mineralogy and fluid speciation of subduction zones. We find that the pH of fluids in subducted crustal lithologies is confined to a mildly alkaline range, modulated by rock volatile and chlorine contents. Cold subduction typical of the Phanerozoic eon favours the preservation of oxidized carbon in subducting slabs. In contrast, the pH of mantle wedge fluids is very sensitive to minor variations in rock composition. These variations may be caused by intramantle differentiation, or by infiltration of fluids enriched in alkali components extracted from the subducted crust. The sensitivity of pH to soluble elements in low abundance in the host rocks, such as carbon, alkali metals and halogens, illustrates a feedback between the chemistry of the Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system and the speciation of subduction zone fluids via the composition of the seawater-altered oceanic lithosphere. Our findings provide a perspective on the controlling reactions that have coupled metal and volatile cycles in subduction zones for more than 3 billion years7.

  4. Fault-controlled permeability and fluid flow in low-porosity crystalline rocks: an example from naturally fractured geothermal systems in the Southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, G.; Roquer, T.; Sepúlveda, J.; Veloso, E. A.; Morata, D.; Rowland, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Fault zones can control the location, emplacement, and evolution of economic mineral deposits and geothermal systems by acting as barriers and/or conduits to crustal fluid flow (e.g. magma, gas, oil, hydro-geothermal and groundwater). The nature of the fault control permeability is critical in the case of fluid flow into low porosity/permeability crystalline rocks, since structural permeability provides the main hydraulic conductivity to generate a natural fractured system. However, several processes accompanying the failure of rocks (i.e. episodic permeability given by cycling ruptures, mineral precipitation from fluids in veins, dissolution of minerals in the vicinity of a fracture) promote a complex time-dependent and enhancing/reducing fault-controlled permeability. We propose the Southern Volcanic Zone (Southern Andes, Chile) as a case study to evaluate the role of the structural permeability in low porosity crystalline rocks belonging to the Miocene North Patagonian Batholith. Recently published studies propose a relatively well-constrained first-order role of two active fault systems, the arc-parallel (NS to NNE trending) Liquiñe Ofqui Fault System and the arc-oblique (NW trending) Andean Transverse Fault Zones, in fluid flow at crustal scales. We now propose to examine the Liquiñe ( 39°S) and Maihue ( 40°S) areas as sites of interaction between these fault systems, in order to evaluate a naturally fractured geothermal system. Preliminary results indicate upwelling of thermal water directly from fractured granite or from fluvial deposits overlying granitoids. Measured temperatures of thermal springs suggest a low- to medium-enthalpy system, which could potentially be harnessed for use in geothermal energy applications (e.g. heating, wood dryer and green house), which are much needed in Southern Chile. Future work will aim to examine the nature of structural permeability from the regional to the microscopic scale connecting the paleo- and current- fluid

  5. Experimental constraints on partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Ö.; Nikogosian, I.; Mason, P. R. D.; Van Westrenen, W.; van Bergen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Fast diffusion and homogenization of divalent cations hamper the preservation of original chemical compositions and zoning patterns of igneous olivine phenocrysts. Sluggish intracrystalline diffusion of phosphorus in igneous olivine on the other hand allows the complex zoning patterns to be retained, making it a crucial element for reconstruction of cooling histories and evolution of the host magma. Crystallization rate variations, diffusion controlled growth or compositional controls on melt-mineral partitioning have been put forward as mechanisms controlling zoning of igneous olivine in phosphorus. Here, we investigate partitioning and zoning of phosphorus in igneous olivines by a comparison of natural and experimentally grown olivines. We explore the importance of variable degrees of undercooling and cooling rates in crystallizing melt (M1) with a starting composition equivalent to that of an Italian high-potassium basalt (Tliq=1274 °C). We examine the extent of compositional control on partitioning by varying the amount of alkali enrichment in starting compositions that are otherwise equivalent to melt M1. Olivine crystallization experiments were conducted in rhenium capsules suspended in a vertical 1-atm gas-mixing furnace at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (VUA) with fO2 buffered at 1.4 to 1.7 log units below the Ni-NiO buffer. Sets of dynamic crystallization experiments with various degrees of undercooling and controlled cooling rate experiments with varying cooling rates were performed. We compare the results with our extensive EPMA and LA-ICPMS dataset on olivines from Italian K-rich mafic lavas and olivine hosted primitive melt inclusions (MIs). Phosphorus concentrations in the natural olivines reach 435 ppm P and MIs contain up to 2.2 wt.% P2O5. High resolution (1-4 µm per pixel) element maps show both fine oscillatory, patchy and large scale sector zoning in P, uncorrelated with zoning in any other element. The MIs are almost always found in P-poor zones

  6. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-01-01

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone is the one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  7. Development of Hydrologic Characterization Technology of Fault Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Onishi, Tiemi; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2008-03-31

    Through an extensive literature survey we find that there is very limited amount of work on fault zone hydrology, particularly in the field using borehole testing. The common elements of a fault include a core, and damage zones. The core usually acts as a barrier to the flow across it, whereas the damage zone controls the flow either parallel to the strike or dip of a fault. In most of cases the damage zone isthe one that is controlling the flow in the fault zone and the surroundings. The permeability of damage zone is in the range of two to three orders of magnitude higher than the protolith. The fault core can have permeability up to seven orders of magnitude lower than the damage zone. The fault types (normal, reverse, and strike-slip) by themselves do not appear to be a clear classifier of the hydrology of fault zones. However, there still remains a possibility that other additional geologic attributes and scaling relationships can be used to predict or bracket the range of hydrologic behavior of fault zones. AMT (Audio frequency Magneto Telluric) and seismic reflection techniques are often used to locate faults. Geochemical signatures and temperature distributions are often used to identify flow domains and/or directions. ALSM (Airborne Laser Swath Mapping) or LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) method may prove to be a powerful tool for identifying lineaments in place of the traditional photogrammetry. Nonetheless not much work has been done to characterize the hydrologic properties of faults by directly testing them using pump tests. There are some uncertainties involved in analyzing pressure transients of pump tests: both low permeability and high permeability faults exhibit similar pressure responses. A physically based conceptual and numerical model is presented for simulating fluid and heat flow and solute transport through fractured fault zones using a multiple-continuum medium approach. Data from the Horonobe URL site are analyzed to demonstrate the

  8. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators.

  9. ISTTOK control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •ISTTOK fast controller. •All real-time diagnostic and actuators were integrated in the control platform. •100 μs control cycle under the MARTe framework. •The ISTTOK control system upgrade provides reliable operation with an improved operational space. -- Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak (Ip = 4 kA, BT = 0.5 T, R = 0.46 m, a = 0.085 m) is one of the few tokamaks with regular alternate plasma current (AC) discharges scientific programme. In order to improve the discharge stability and to increase the number of AC discharge cycles a novel control system was developed. The controller acquires data from 50 analog-to-digital converter (ADC) channels of real-time diagnostics and measurements: tomography, Mirnov coils, interferometer, electric probes, sine and cosine probes, bolometer, current delivered by the power supplies, loop voltage and plasma current. The system has a control cycle of 100 μs during which it reads all the diagnostics connected to the advanced telecommunications computing architecture (ATCA) digitizers and sends the control reference to ISTTOK actuators. The controller algorithms are executed on an Intel ® Q8200 chip with 4 cores running at 2.33 GHz and connected to the I/O interfaces through an ATCA based environment. The real-time control system was programmed in C++ on top of the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). To extend the duration of the AC discharges and the plasma stability a new magnetising field power supply was commissioned and the horizontal and vertical field power supplies were also upgraded. The new system also features a user-friendly interface based on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and Javascript to configure the controller parameters. This paper presents the ISTTOK control system and the consequent update of real-time diagnostics and actuators

  10. Robust lyapunov controller for uncertain systems

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-02-23

    Various examples of systems and methods are provided for Lyapunov control for uncertain systems. In one example, a system includes a process plant and a robust Lyapunov controller configured to control an input of the process plant. The robust Lyapunov controller includes an inner closed loop Lyapunov controller and an outer closed loop error stabilizer. In another example, a method includes monitoring a system output of a process plant; generating an estimated system control input based upon a defined output reference; generating a system control input using the estimated system control input and a compensation term; and adjusting the process plant based upon the system control input to force the system output to track the defined output reference. An inner closed loop Lyapunov controller can generate the estimated system control input and an outer closed loop error stabilizer can generate the system control input.

  11. Organization A Comprehensive System Of Insurance Coverage In The Potential Chemical And Biological Contamination Zone In Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a scientific rationale for an integrated approach to the provision of insurance coverage in the potential chemical and biological contamination zone. The following modern forms of chemical safety in the Russian Federation were considered: state reserve’s system, target program financing, state social insurance. The separate issue tackles the obligatory civil liability insurance for owners of dangerous objects. For improvement of the existing insurance protection system against emergency situations, risks were analyzed (shared on exogenous and endogenous. Among the exogenous risks including natural and climatic conditions of a region, its geographical arrangement, economic specialization, the seismic and terrorist risks were chosen and approaches to its solution were suggested. In endogenous risks’ group, the special focus is on wear and tear and obsolescence of hazardous chemical and biological object’s fixed assets. In case of high risk of an incident, it is suggested to increase in extent of insurance protection through self-insurance, a mutual insurance in the form of the organization of societies of a mutual insurance or the self-regulating organizations, and also development of voluntary insurance of a civil liability, both the owner of hazardous object, and regions of the Russian Federation and municipalities. The model of insurance coverage in the potential chemical and biological contamination zone is based on a differentiated approach to the danger level of the area. A matrix of adequate forms and types of insurance (required for insurance coverage of the population in the potential chemical and biological contamination zone was constructed. Proposed health risk management toolkit in the potential chemical and biological contamination zone will allow to use financial resources for chemical and biological safety in the regions more efficiently.

  12. Traffic flow characteristic and capacity in intelligent work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Intellgent transportation system (ITS) technologies are utilized to manage traffic flow and safety in : highway work zones. Traffic management plans for work zones require queuing analyses to determine : the anticipated traffic backups, but the predi...

  13. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  14. System-Awareness for Agent-based Power System Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten

    2010-01-01

    transition. This paper presents a concept for the representation and organization of control- and resource-allocation, enabling computational reasoning and system awareness. The principles are discussed with respect to a recently proposed Subgrid operation concept.......Operational intelligence in electric power systems is focused in a small number of control rooms that coordinate their actions. A clear division of responsibility and a command hierarchy organize system operation. With multi-agent based control systems, this control paradigm may be shifted...... to a more decentralized openaccess collaboration control paradigm. This shift cannot happen at once, but must fit also with current operation principles. In order to establish a scalable and transparent system control architecture, organizing principles have to be identified that allow for a smooth...

  15. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  16. Hydrogeologic controls on saturation profiles in heat-pipe-like hydrothermal systems: numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Mollika; Ghergut, Iulia; Graf, Thomas; Peche, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    work, we explore some mechanisms and geologic controls that can lead to the formation of extensive vapor-dominated zones within a two-phase system. In particular, we investigate the effect of vertical heterogeneity of permeability (stratified reservoir, containing a permeability barrier) on the liquid water saturation profile within a modified HP model. Though in field observations liquid water has been directly encountered only within the condensation zone at reservoir top, it was speculated that large amounts of liquid water might also exist below the condensation zone. This is of great practical significance to the exploitation of vapor-dominated reservoirs, as their longevity depends on the fluid reserves in place. Within this work, we demonstrate by numerical simulations of a modified HP model that high values of liquid water saturation (>0.8) can prevail even far below the condensation zone. Such findings are useful as a baseline for future calculations regarding the economic exploitation of vapor-dominated systems, where premature productivity drop (or dry-out) is the main issue of concern. References: Eastman, G. Y:, 1968: The heat pipe. Scientific American, 218(5):38-46. Preuss, K. A., 1985: A quantitative model of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs as heat pipes in fractured porous rock, Transactions, Geothermal Resources. Council, 9(2), 353-361. Truesdell, A. H., and White, D.E. 1973: Production of superheated Steam from Vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. Geothermics, 2(3-4), 154-173

  17. Work Zone Design and Operations Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Oregon Department of Transportation contractors are required to implement Traffic Control Plans (TCPs) to protect and direct traffic through work zones. The design and implementation of TCPs have shown variation from project-to-project across the Sta...

  18. Individual tree size inequality enhances aboveground biomass in homegarden agroforestry systems in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Mattsson, Eskil

    2017-01-01

    Individual tree size variation, which is generally quantified by variances in tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and height in isolation or conjunction, plays a central role in ecosystem functioning in both controlled and natural environments, including forests. However, none of the studies have been conducted in homegarden agroforestry systems. In this study, aboveground biomass, stand quality, cation exchange capacity (CEC), DBH variation, and species diversity were determined across 45 homegardens in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. We employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test for the direct and indirect effects of stand quality and CEC, via tree size inequality and species diversity, on aboveground biomass. The SEM accounted for 26, 8, and 1% of the variation in aboveground biomass, species diversity and DBH variation, respectively. DBH variation had the strongest positive direct effect on aboveground biomass (β=0.49), followed by the non-significant direct effect of species diversity (β=0.17), stand quality (β=0.17) and CEC (β=-0.05). There were non-significant direct effects of CEC and stand quality on DBH variation and species diversity. Stand quality and CEC had also non-significant indirect effects, via DBH variation and species diversity, on aboveground biomass. Our study revealed that aboveground biomass substantially increased with individual tree size variation only, which supports the niche complementarity mechanism. However, aboveground biomass was not considerably increased with species diversity, stand quality and soil fertility, which might be attributable to the adaptation of certain productive species to the local site conditions. Stand structure shaped by few productive species or independent of species diversity is a main determinant for the variation in aboveground biomass in the studied homegardens. Maintaining stand structure through management practices could be an effective approach for enhancing aboveground biomass in these dry

  19. ISABELLE half-cell control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Humphrey, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    The primary function of the ISABELLE half-cell control system is to monitor and control the magnet power supplies of the half-cell. In addition, the control system must be flexible enough that it can be expanded to become involved in additional areas such as vacuum and magnetic measurements. A control system based upon AGS control standards, but modified into a development tool for research and electrical engineering support was constructed. Special attention was given to the inherent differences between controlling an ISABELLE and a conventional fast cycling accelerator. The use of FORTRAN and BASIC networks, and microprocessors is reviewed insofar as they pertain to this system. Some general opinions on model control systems, based upon experience, are presented

  20. Complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of the Chornobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, Oleg; Fadeev, Mykhaylo; Kireev, Serhiy; Proskura, Mykola

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this work a general procedure of establishment the criterion of complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of alone areas of the Chornobyl exclusion zone is represented by the following three stages, namely: 1) Justification of the dose criterion of complete release by applying the fundamental approaches of regulating the prolonged exposure of the public on a basement of ICRP Publication No. 82; 2) Justification of a procedure for establishment of dose constraint through evaluation of the statistical distribution of a controlled radiation value through determination of the high boundary of the confidence interval; 3) Generalization of conversion coefficients (via the density of radioactive contamination of soil) and coverage coefficients for the dose forming factors of the public (inhalation intake of transuranium radionuclides both at natural and technogenic dust resuspension, peroral intake of 137 Cs and 90 Sr via food stuff, external exposure from 137 Cs); on a basis of these coefficients average doses and dose constraint of a critical group of the public are calculated. As it is shown in the work, the generalized criterion of complete release from regulatory control via the density of radioactive contamination of soil of the Chornobyl exclusion zone can be defined by dividing the recommended ICRP dose clearance level for situation of the post-accidental prolonged exposure of a critical group of the public, namely, 0.3 mSv·year -1 to the dose conversion coefficient (i.e. transfer from the superficial soil contamination of radioactivity to the dose constraint for the Chornobyl exclusion zone), namely, 12.9 μSv·year -1 /((kBq·M -2 ). Thus, a level of the density of radioactive contamination of soil, that provides the complete release from regulatory control makes 23.3 kBq·M -2 . For completion of the work on justification of the criterion of complete territory release in the conditions of

  1. Reduction of external noise of mobile energy facilities by using active noise control system in muffler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivaev, O. I.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Larionov, A. N.; Beliansky, R. G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper describes a method for the reducing emission of low-frequency noise of modern automotive vehicles into the environment. The importance of reducing the external noise of modern mobile energy facilities made in Russia is substantiated. Standard methods for controlling external noise in technology are of low efficiency when low-frequency sound waves are reduced. In this case, it is in the low-frequency zone of the sound range that the main power of the noise emitted by the machinery lies. The most effective way to reduce such sound waves is to use active noise control systems. A design of a muffler using a similar system is presented. This muffler allowed one to reduce the emission of increased noise levels into the environment by 7-11 dB and to increase acoustic comfort at the operator's workplace by 3-5 dB.

  2. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  3. Generic device controller for accelerator control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariotti, R.; Buxton, W.; Frankel, R.; Hoff, L.

    1987-01-01

    A new distributed intelligence control system has become operational at the AGS for transport, injection, and acceleration of heavy ions. A brief description of the functionality of the physical devices making up the system is given. An attempt has been made to integrate the devices for accelerator specific interfacing into a standard microprocessor system, namely, the Universal Device Controller (UDC). The main goals for such a generic device controller are to provide: local computing power; flexibility to configure; and real time event handling. The UDC assemblies and software are described

  4. Fault Tolerant Flight Control Using Sliding Modes and Subspace Identification-Based Predictive Control

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Bilal A.; El-Ferik, Sami; Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a cascade structure of a time-scale separated integral sliding mode and model predictive control is proposed as a viable alternative for fault-tolerant control. A multi-variable sliding mode control law is designed as the inner loop of the flight control system. Subspace identification is carried out on the aircraft in closed loop. The identified plant is then used for model predictive controllers in the outer loop. The overall control law demonstrates improved robustness to measurement noise, modeling uncertainties, multiple faults and severe wind turbulence and gusts. In addition, the flight control system employs filters and dead-zone nonlinear elements to reduce chattering and improve handling quality. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controller using conventional fighter aircraft without control redundancy.

  5. Fault Tolerant Flight Control Using Sliding Modes and Subspace Identification-Based Predictive Control

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Bilal A.

    2016-07-26

    In this work, a cascade structure of a time-scale separated integral sliding mode and model predictive control is proposed as a viable alternative for fault-tolerant control. A multi-variable sliding mode control law is designed as the inner loop of the flight control system. Subspace identification is carried out on the aircraft in closed loop. The identified plant is then used for model predictive controllers in the outer loop. The overall control law demonstrates improved robustness to measurement noise, modeling uncertainties, multiple faults and severe wind turbulence and gusts. In addition, the flight control system employs filters and dead-zone nonlinear elements to reduce chattering and improve handling quality. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed controller using conventional fighter aircraft without control redundancy.

  6. An efficient methodology for the analysis of primary frequency control of electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D.P. [Nikola Tesla Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Mijailovic, S.V. [Electricity Coordinating Center, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2000-06-01

    The paper presents an efficient methodology for the analysis of primary frequency control of electric power systems. This methodology continuously monitors the electromechanical transient processes with durations that last up to 30 s, occurring after the characteristic disturbances. It covers the period of short-term dynamic processes, appearing immediately after the disturbance, in which the dynamics of the individual synchronous machines is dominant, as well as the period with the uniform movement of all generators and restoration of their voltages. The characteristics of the developed methodology were determined based on the example of real electric power interconnection formed by the electric power systems of Yugoslavia, a part of Republic of Srpska, Romania, Bulgaria, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Albania (the second UCPTE synchronous zone). (author)

  7. ZONE: a finite element mesh generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, M.J.

    1976-05-01

    The ZONE computer program is a finite-element mesh generator which produces the nodes and element description of any two-dimensional geometry. The geometry is subdivided into a mesh of quadrilateral and triangular zones arranged sequentially in an ordered march through the geometry. The order of march can be chosen so that the minimum bandwidth is obtained. The node points are defined in terms of the x and y coordinates in a global rectangular coordinate system. The zones generated are quadrilaterals or triangles defined by four node points in a counterclockwise sequence. Node points defining the outside boundary are generated to describe pressure boundary conditions. The mesh that is generated can be used as input to any two-dimensional as well as any axisymmetrical structure program. The output from ZONE is essentially the input file to NAOS, HONDO, and other axisymmetric finite element programs. 14 figures

  8. Control rod shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Higashigawa, Yuichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod terminating system in a BWR type nuclear power plant, which stops an induction electric motor as rapidly as possible to terminate the control rods. Namely, the control rod stopping system controls reactor power by inserting/withdrawing control rods into a reactor by driving them by the induction electric motor. The system is provided with a control device for controlling the control rods and a control device for controlling the braking device. The control device outputs a braking operation signal for actuating the braking device during operation of the control rods to stop the operation of the control rods. Further, the braking device has at least two kinds of breaks, namely, a first and a second brakes. The two kinds of brakes are actuated by receiving the brake operation signals at different timings. The brake device is used also for keeping the control rods after the stopping. Even if a stopping torque of each of the breaks is small, different two kinds of brakes are operated at different timings thereby capable of obtaining a large stopping torque as a total. (I.S.)

  9. Drone Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  10. Tautological control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Andrew D

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents a description of a new modelling framework for nonlinear/geometric control theory. The framework is intended to be—and shown to be—feedback-invariant. As such, Tautological Control Systems provides a platform for understanding fundamental structural problems in geometric control theory. Part of the novelty of the text stems from the variety of regularity classes, e.g., Lipschitz, finitely differentiable, smooth, real analytic, with which it deals in a comprehensive and unified manner. The treatment of the important real analytic class especially reflects recent work on real analytic topologies by the author. Applied mathematicians interested in nonlinear and geometric control theory will find this brief of interest as a starting point for work in which feedback invariance is important. Graduate students working in control theory may also find Tautological Control Systems to be a stimulating starting point for their research.

  11. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  12. Vacuum control system of VEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R.B.; Bandopadhyay, D.L.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Pal, Sarbajit; Sarkar, D.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of modernization of VEC (Variable Energy Cyclotron), the Vacuum Control System is being upgraded to PLC based automated system from initial Relay based Manual system. EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System), a standard open source software tool for designing distributed control system, is chosen for developing the supervisory control software layer, leading towards a unified distributed control architecture of VEC Control System. A Modbus - TCP based IOC (I/O Controller) has been developed to communicate control data to PLC using Ethernet-TCP LAN. Keeping in mind, the operators' familiarity with MS-Windows, a MS-Windows based operator interface is developed using VB6. It is also used to test and evaluate EPICS compatibility to MS Windows. Several MS Windows ActiveX components e.g. text display, image display, alarm window, set-point input etc. have been developed incorporating Channel Access library of EPICS. Use of such components ease the programming complexity and reduce developmental time of the operator interface. The system is in the final phase of commissioning. (author)

  13. T-Rex system for operation in TRU, LLW, and hazardous zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, H.M.; Andreycheck, T.P.; Beeson, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    T-Rex stands for Transuranic Storage Area Remote Excavator that is dedicated to the retrieval of above ground waste containers and overburden at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. There are a number of sites around the world containing (transuranic) (TRU), low level (LLW), and hazardous wastes that requires teleoperated, heavy lift manipulators with long reach and high precision to handle the materials stored there. Remote operation of equipment will reduce the risk to personnel to as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) levels. The T-Rex is designed to fulfill this requirement at relatively low cost through the integration of a production front shovel excavator with a control system, local and remote operator control stations, a closed-circuit television system (CCTV), and multiple end effectors with quick changeout capability. This paper describes the conversion of an off-the-shelf excavator to a machine utilizing a modified hydraulic system, an integrated onboard remote control system, CCTV system, collision avoidance system, and a remote control station

  14. Remaining useful life estimation for deteriorating systems with time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic time-varying operational conditions pose great challenge to the estimation of system remaining useful life (RUL for the deteriorating systems. This paper presents a method based on probabilistic and stochastic approaches to estimate system RUL for periodically monitored degradation processes with dynamic time-varying operational conditions and condition-specific failure zones. The method assumes that the degradation rate is influenced by specific operational condition and moreover, the transition between different operational conditions plays the most important role in affecting the degradation process. These operational conditions are assumed to evolve as a discrete-time Markov chain (DTMC. The failure thresholds are also determined by specific operational conditions and described as different failure zones. The 2008 PHM Conference Challenge Data is utilized to illustrate our method, which contains mass sensory signals related to the degradation process of a commercial turbofan engine. The RUL estimation method using the sensor measurements of a single sensor was first developed, and then multiple vital sensors were selected through a particular optimization procedure in order to increase the prediction accuracy. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed method are presented in a comparison with existing methods for the same dataset.

  15. Researching on YH100 Numerical Control Servo Press Hydraulic Control System and Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the numerical control (NC servo press hydraulic control system and its control algorithm. The numerical control servo press performance and control principle of hydraulic control system are analyzed. According to the flow equation of the hydraulic control valve, hydraulic cylinder flow continuity equation and the force balance equation of the hydraulic cylinder with load press, the mathematical model of hydraulic control system is established. And the servo press hydraulic system transfer function is deduced. Introducing the suitable immune particle swarm control algorithm for servo press hydraulic system, and the control system block diagram is established. Immune algorithm is used to optimize new control parameters of the system and adopt the new optimization results to optimize the system simulation. The simulation result shows that the hydraulic system’s transition time controlled by the immune particle swarm algorithm is shorter than traditional ones, and the control performance is obviously improved. Finally it can be concluded that immune particle swarm PID control have these characteristics such as quickness, stability and accuracy. Applying this principle into application, the obtained YH100 numerical control servo press hydraulic control system meets the requirement.

  16. Incorporating Ecosystem Processes Controlling Carbon Balance Into Models of Coupled Human-Natural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W.; Brown, D. G.; Brunner, A.; Fouladbash, L.; Hadzick, Z.; Hutchins, M.; Kiger, S. E.; Makino, Y.; Nassauer, J. I.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R. L.; Sun, S.

    2012-12-01

    A key element in the study of coupled human-natural systems is the interactions of human populations with vegetation and soils. In human-dominated landscapes, vegetation production and change results from a combination of ecological processes and human decision-making and behavior. Vegetation is often dramatically altered, whether to produce food for humans and livestock, to harvest fiber for construction and other materials, to harvest fuel wood or feedstock for biofuels, or simply for cultural preferences as in the case of residential lawns with sparse trees in the exurban landscape. This alteration of vegetation and its management has a substantial impact on the landscape carbon balance. Models can be used to simulate scenarios in human-natural systems and to examine the integration of processes that determine future trajectories of carbon balance. However, most models of human-natural systems include little integration of the human alteration of vegetation with the ecosystem processes that regulate carbon balance. Here we illustrate a few case studies of pilot-study models that strive for this integration from our research across various types of landscapes. We focus greater detail on a fully developed research model linked to a field study of vegetation and soils in the exurban residential landscape of Southeastern Michigan, USA. The field study characterized vegetation and soil carbon storage in 5 types of ecological zones. Field-observed carbon storage in the vegetation in these zones ranged widely, from 150 g C/m2 in turfgrass zones, to 6,000 g C/m2 in zones defined as turfgrass with sparse woody vegetation, to 16,000 g C/m2 in a zone defined as dense trees and shrubs. Use of these zones facilitated the scaling of carbon pools to the landscape, where the areal mixtures of zone types had a significant impact on landscape C storage. Use of these zones also facilitated the use of the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC to simulate C trajectories and also

  17. Molecular differences in transition zone and peripheral zone prostate tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Carlsson, Jessica; Gerke, Travis; Tyekucheva, Svitlana; Penney, Kathryn L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Fall, Katja; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Pawitan, Yudi; Andersson, Sven-Olof; Andrén, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Prostate tumors arise primarily in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate, but 20–30% arise in the transition zone (TZ). Zone of origin may have prognostic value or reflect distinct molecular subtypes; however, it can be difficult to determine in practice. Using whole-genome gene expression, we built a signature of zone using normal tissue from five individuals and found that it successfully classified nine tumors of known zone. Hypothesizing that this signature captures tumor zone of origin, we assessed its relationship with clinical factors among 369 tumors of unknown zone from radical prostatectomies (RPs) and found that tumors that molecularly resembled TZ tumors showed lower mortality (P = 0.09) that was explained by lower Gleason scores (P = 0.009). We further applied the signature to an earlier study of 88 RP and 333 transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) tumor samples, also of unknown zone, with gene expression on ~6000 genes. We had observed previously substantial expression differences between RP and TURP specimens, and hypothesized that this might be because RPs capture primarily PZ tumors, whereas TURPs capture more TZ tumors. Our signature distinguished these two groups, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 87% (P zones. Zone of origin may be important to consider in prostate tumor biomarker research. PMID:25870172

  18. ISABELLE control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphrey, J.W.; Frankel, R.S.; Niederer, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Design principles for the Brookhaven ISABELLE control intersecting storage ring accelerator are described. Principal features include a locally networked console and control computer complex, a system wide process data highway, and intelligent local device controllers. Progress to date is summarized

  19. Replacement of the complete control system of the NPP Oskarshamn 1 by digital distributed control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.

    1998-01-01

    As part of an ongoing modernization program, Oskarshamn 1's I and C system and control room will be upgraded by ABB using its Advant Power range of digital, programmable process control system. Besides ensuring the higher level of safety that is demanded today, the new equipment provides the plant with an integrated system which will improve operator overview of operation and reduce risk of human error and serve as a platform for further improvements of the control room. This paper discusses in the example of Oskarshamn 1 how the complete control system of a nuclear power plant may be exchanged, the technical solution and the time schedule. Oskarshamn 1 is the first nuclear power plant in Sweden. It is a boiling water reactor built by ABB ATOM in Sweden between 1966 and 1971. According to this age the control system is semiconductor based and the reactor protection system is relays based. This makes the maintenance expensive and extensions nearly impossible. To extend the life period of this plant the owner has decided to improve the safety system and to replace the reactor protection system and safety related control and the non safety related control by a state of the art digital distributed control system of ABB. In March 1997 ABB got the order to replace the reactor protection system, the safety control system, to start the replacement of all control systems and to replace the old control room by a new ergonomically designed control room. Together with the exchange of the control system an enhancement of the safety system and of the emergency power supply will be implemented

  20. Phase Control in Nonlinear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Samuel; Seoane, Jesús M.; Mariño, Inés P.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Meucci, Riccardo

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Phase Control of Chaos * Description of the model * Numerical exploration of phase control of chaos * Experimental evidence of phase control of chaos * Phase Control of Intermittency in Dynamical Systems * Crisis-induced intermittency and its control * Experimental setup and implementation of the phase control scheme * Phase control of the laser in the pre-crisis regime * Phase control of the intermittency after the crisis * Phase control of the intermittency in the quadratic map * Phase Control of Escapes in Open Dynamical Systems * Control of open dynamical systems * Model description * Numerical simulations and heuristic arguments * Experimental implementation in an electronic circuit * Conclusions and Discussions * Acknowledgments * References

  1. Underwater hydraulic shock shovel control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-Ping; Luo, A.-Ni; Xiao, Hai-Yan

    2008-06-01

    The control system determines the effectiveness of an underwater hydraulic shock shovel. This paper begins by analyzing the working principles of these shovels and explains the importance of their control systems. A new type of control system’s mathematical model was built and analyzed according to those principles. Since the initial control system’s response time could not fulfill the design requirements, a PID controller was added to the control system. System response time was still slower than required, so a neural network was added to nonlinearly regulate the proportional element, integral element and derivative element coefficients of the PID controller. After these improvements to the control system, system parameters fulfilled the design requirements. The working performance of electrically-controlled parts such as the rapidly moving high speed switch valve is largely determined by the control system. Normal control methods generally can’t satisfy a shovel’s requirements, so advanced and normal control methods were combined to improve the control system, bringing good results.

  2. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantzsch, K; Braun, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Kersten, S; Arfaoui, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Schlenker, S; Tsarouchas, C A; Mindur, B; Hartert, J; Zimmermann, S; Talyshev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Poblaguev, A; Martin, T; Thompson, P D; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Hoffmann, D

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

  3. The ATLAS Detector Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantzsch, K.; Arfaoui, S.; Franz, S.; Gutzwiller, O.; Schlenker, S.; Tsarouchas, C. A.; Mindur, B.; Hartert, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Talyshev, A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Poblaguev, A.; Braun, H.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Kersten, S.; Martin, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Caforio, D.; Sbarra, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Nemecek, S.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Wynne, B.; Banas, E.; Hajduk, Z.; Olszowska, J.; Stanecka, E.; Bindi, M.; Polini, A.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Mandic, I.; Ertel, E.; Marques Vinagre, F.; Ribeiro, G.; Santos, H. F.; Barillari, T.; Habring, J.; Huber, J.; Arabidze, G.; Boterenbrood, H.; Hart, R.; Iakovidis, G.; Karakostas, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Mountricha, E.; Ntekas, K.; Filimonov, V.; Khomutnikov, V.; Kovalenko, S.; Grassi, V.; Mitrevski, J.; Phillips, P.; Chekulaev, S.; D'Auria, S.; Nagai, K.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Aielli, G.; Marchese, F.; Lafarguette, P.; Brenner, R.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are controlled and monitored by the Detector Control System (DCS) using a highly distributed system of 140 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC controls, and provide a synchronization mechanism with the ATLAS data acquisition system. Different databases are used to store the online parameters of the experiment, replicate a subset used for physics reconstruction, and store the configuration parameters of the systems. This contribution describes the computing architecture and software tools to handle this complex and highly interconnected control system.

  4. Far-zone contributions of airborne gravity anomalies' upward/downward continuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne gravimetry has become a vital technique in local gravity field approximation, and upward/downward continuation of gravity data is a key process of airborne gravimetry. In these procedures, the integral domain is divided into two parts, namely the near-zone and the far-zone. The far-zone contributions are approximated by the truncation coefficients and a global geo-potential model, and their values are controlled by several issues. This paper investigates the effects of flight height, the size of near-zone cap, and Remove-Compute-Restore (RCR technique upon far-zone contributions. Results show that at mountainous area the far-zone contributions can be ignored when EIGEN-6C of 360 degree is removed from the gravity data, together with a near-zone cap of 1° and a flight height less than 10 km, while at flat area EIGEN-6C of 180 degree is feasible.

  5. System to provide 3D information on geological anomaly zone in deep subsea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Kwon, O.; Kim, D.

    2017-12-01

    The study on building the ultra long and deep subsea tunnel of which length is 50km and depth is 200m at least, respectively, is underway in Korea. To analyze the geotechnical information required for designing and building subsea tunnel, topographic/geologiccal information analysis using 2D seabed geophysical prospecting and topographic, geologic, exploration and boring data were analyzed comprehensively and as a result, automation method to identify the geological structure zone under seabed which is needed to design the deep and long seabed tunnel was developed using geostatistical analysis. In addition, software using 3D visualized ground information to provide the information includes Gocad, MVS, Vulcan and DIMINE. This study is intended to analyze the geological anomaly zone for ultra deep seabed l and visualize the geological investigation result so as to develop the exclusive system for processing the ground investigation information which is convenient for the users. Particularly it's compatible depending on file of geophysical prospecting result and is realizable in Layer form and for 3D view as well. The data to be processed by 3D seabed information system includes (1) deep seabed topographic information, (2) geological anomaly zone, (3) geophysical prospecting, (4) boring investigation result and (5) 3D visualization of the section on seabed tunnel route. Each data has own characteristics depending on data and interface to allow interlocking with other data is granted. In each detail function, input data is displayed in a single space and each element is selectable to identify the further information as a project. Program creates the project when initially implemented and all output from detail information is stored by project unit. Each element representing detail information is stored in image file and is supported to store in text file as well. It also has the function to transfer, expand/reduce and rotate the model. To represent the all elements in

  6. The Development Evaluation of Economic Zones in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Zhe; Zhai, Yuming; Chen, Quan; Wang, Jiangtao

    2018-01-01

    After the Chinese reform and opening up, the construction of economic zones, such as Special Economic Zones, Hi-tech Zones and Bonded Zones, has played an irreplaceable role in China’s economic development. Currently, against the background of Chinese economic transition, research on development evaluation of economic zones has become popular and necessary. Similar research usually focuses on one specific field, and the methods that are used to evaluate it are simple. This research aims to analyse the development evaluation of zones by synthesis. A new hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) model that combines the DEMATEL technique and the DANP method is proposed. After establishing the evaluation criterion system and acquiring data, the influential weights of dimensions and criteria can be calculated, which will be a guide for forming measures of development. Shandong Peninsula Blue Economic Zone is used in the empirical case analysis. The results show that Transportation Conditions, Industrial Structure and Business Climate are the main influencing criteria and measures based on these criteria are proposed. PMID:29301304

  7. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    OpenAIRE

    Renuganth Varatharajoo; Ramly Ajir; Tamizi Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS) consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl...

  8. Evaluation of variable advisory speed limits in work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Variable advisory speed limit (VASL) systems could be effective at both urban and rural work zones, at both uncongested and congested sites. At uncongested urban work zones, the average speeds with VASL were lower than without VASL. But the standard ...

  9. Integrated seismic interpretation of the Carlsberg Fault zone, Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Thybo, Hans; Jørgensen, Mette Iwanouw

    2005-01-01

    the fault zone. The fault zone is a shadow zone to shots detonated outside the fault zone. Finite-difference wavefield modelling supports the interpretations of the fan recordings. Our fan recording approach facilitates cost-efficient mapping of fault zones in densely urbanized areas where seismic normal......We locate the concealed Carlsberg Fault zone along a 12-km-long trace in the Copenhagen city centre by seismic refraction, reflection and fan profiling. The Carlsberg Fault is located in a NNW-SSE striking fault system in the border zone between the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent...... earthquakes indicate that this area is tectonically active. A seismic refraction study across the Carlsberg Fault shows that the fault zone is a low-velocity zone and marks a change in seismic velocity structure. A normal incidence reflection seismic section shows a coincident flower-like structure. We have...

  10. Tuning method for multi-variable control system with PID controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Toshitaka

    1983-01-01

    Control systems, including thermal and nuclear power plants, generally and mainly use PID controllers consisting of proportional, integral and differential actions. These systems consist of multiple control loops which interfere with each other. Therefore, it is present status that the fine control of the system is carried out by the trial and error method because the adjusting procedure for a single control loop cannot be applied to a multi-loop system in most cases. In this report, a method to effectively adjust PID controller parameters in a short time in a control system which consists of multi-loops that interfere with each other. This method makes adjustment by using the control area as the evaluation function, which is the time-dependent integration of control deviation, the input to the PID controllers. In other words, the evaluation function is provided for each control result for every parameter (gain constant, reset rate, and differentiation time), and all parameters are simultaneously changed in the direction of minimizing the values of these evaluation functions. In the report, the principle of tuning method, the evaluation function for each of three parameters, and the adjusting system configuration for separately using for actual plant tuning and for control system design are described. It also shows the examples of application to the actual tuning of the control system for a thermal power plant and to a control system design. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Replacement of the complete control system of the NPP Oskarshamn 1 by digital distributed control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.

    1998-01-01

    As part of an ongoing modernization program, the I and C system and the control room of Oskarshamn 1 will be upgraded by ABB using its 'Advant Power' range of digital, programmable process control system. Besides ensuring the higher level of safety that is demanded today, the new equipment provides the plant with an integrated system which will improve operator interaction with the plant and reduce the risk of human error. The newly installed DCS system will serve also as a platform for further improvements of the control room. This paper discusses Oskarshamn 1 exchange of the complete control system of a nuclear power plant, the technical solution and the time schedule. Oskarshamn 1 is the first nuclear power plant in Sweden. It is a boiling water reactor built between 1966 and 1971 by ABB ATOM in Sweden. According to the plant age the control system is relay-based, while instrumentation and analogue control is semiconductor-based. This makes maintenance expensive and even worse, makes extensions nearly impossible. According to the safety standards of the 1960s, there is no separation between safety and non safety control and no seismic qualification. To extend the life of this plant the owner has decided to improve the safety system as well as to replace the reactor protection system, the safety related control and the non safety related control by a state-of-the-art digital distributed control system from ABB. In March 1997, ABB got the order to replace the reactor protection system, the safety control system and to start the replacement of all control systems. The old control room has to be replaced by a new ergonomically design. Together with the exchange of the control system the safety features of the plant and the emergency power supply has to be extended. (author)

  12. Manufacturing systems considered as time domain control systems : receding horizon control and observers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roset, B.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis considers manufacturing systems and model-based controller design, as well as their combinations. The objective of a manufacturing system is to create products from a selected group of raw materials and semifinished goods. In the field of manufacturing systems control is an important

  13. neural control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshazly, A.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic power stabilization control is the desired objective for any reactor operation , especially, nuclear power plants. A major problem in this area is inevitable gap between a real plant ant the theory of conventional analysis and the synthesis of linear time invariant systems. in particular, the trajectory tracking control of a nonlinear plant is a class of problems in which the classical linear transfer function methods break down because no transfer function can represent the system over the entire operating region . there is a considerable amount of research on the model-inverse approach using feedback linearization technique. however, this method requires a prices plant model to implement the exact linearizing feedback, for nuclear reactor systems, this approach is not an easy task because of the uncertainty in the plant parameters and un-measurable state variables . therefore, artificial neural network (ANN) is used either in self-tuning control or in improving the conventional rule-based exper system.the main objective of this thesis is to suggest an ANN, based self-learning controller structure . this method is capable of on-line reinforcement learning and control for a nuclear reactor with a totally unknown dynamics model. previously, researches are based on back- propagation algorithm . back -propagation (BP), fast back -propagation (FBP), and levenberg-marquardt (LM), algorithms are discussed and compared for reinforcement learning. it is found that, LM algorithm is quite superior

  14. RHIC control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, D.S. E-mail: dsbarton@bnl.gov; Binello, S.; Buxton, W.; Clifford, T.; D' Ottavio, T.; Hartmann, H.; Hoff, L.T.; Katz, R.; Kennell, S.; Kerner, T.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.R.; Olsen, R.; Piacentino, J.; Skelly, J.F

    2003-03-01

    The RHIC control system architecture is hierarchical and consists of two physical layers with a fiber-optic network connection. The Front-End Level systems consist of VME chassis with processors running a real-time operating system and both VME I/O modules and remote bus interfaces. Accelerator device software interfaces are implemented as objects in C++. The network implementation uses high speed, switched Ethernet technology. Specialized hardware modules were built for waveform control of power supplies, multiplexed signal acquisition, and timing services. The Console Level systems are Unix workstations. A strong emphasis has been given to developing highly reusable, standard software tools for use in building physics and diagnostic application software.

  15. RHIC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, D.S.; Binello, S.; Buxton, W.; Clifford, T.; D'Ottavio, T.; Hartmann, H.; Hoff, L.T.; Katz, R.; Kennell, S.; Kerner, T.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Morris, J.; Oerter, B.R.; Olsen, R.; Piacentino, J.; Skelly, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    The RHIC control system architecture is hierarchical and consists of two physical layers with a fiber-optic network connection. The Front-End Level systems consist of VME chassis with processors running a real-time operating system and both VME I/O modules and remote bus interfaces. Accelerator device software interfaces are implemented as objects in C++. The network implementation uses high speed, switched Ethernet technology. Specialized hardware modules were built for waveform control of power supplies, multiplexed signal acquisition, and timing services. The Console Level systems are Unix workstations. A strong emphasis has been given to developing highly reusable, standard software tools for use in building physics and diagnostic application software

  16. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  17. Generalized projective synchronization of chaotic nonlinear gyros coupled with dead-zone input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, M.-L.; Yan, J.-J.; Liao, T.-L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization problem of drive-response chaotic gyros coupled with dead-zone nonlinear input. Using the sliding mode control technique, a novel control law is established which guarantees generalized projective synchronization even when the dead-zone nonlinearity is present. Numerical simulations are presented to verify that the synchronization can be achieved by using the proposed synchronization scheme

  18. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  19. Energy-Efficient and Comfortable Buildings through Multivariate Integrated Control (ECoMIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birru, Dagnachew [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Wen, Yao-Jung [Philips Electronics North America Corporation, Andover, MA (United States); Rubinstein, Francis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Clear, Robert D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-10-28

    This project aims to develop an integrated control solution for enhanced energy efficiency and user comfort in commercial buildings. The developed technology is a zone-based control framework that minimizes energy usage while maintaining occupants’ visual and thermal comfort through control of electric lights, motorized venetian blinds and thermostats. The control framework is designed following a modular, scalable and flexible architecture to facilitate easy integration with exiting building management systems. The control framework contains two key algorithms: 1) the lighting load balancing algorithm and 2) the thermostat control algorithm. The lighting load balancing algorithm adopts a model-based closed-loop control approach to determine the optimal electric light and venetian blind settings. It is formulated into an optimization problem with minimizing lighting-related energy consumptions as the objective and delivering adequate task light and preventing daylight glare as the constraints. The thermostat control algorithm is based on a well-established thermal comfort model and formulated as a root-finding problem to dynamically determine the optimal thermostat setpoint for both energy savings and improved thermal comfort. To address building-wide scalability, a system architecture was developed for the zone-based control technology. Three levels of services are defined in the architecture: external services, facility level services and zone level services. The zone-level service includes the control algorithms described above as well as the corresponding interfaces, profiles, sensors and actuators to realize the zone controller. The facility level services connect to the zones through a backbone network, handle supervisory level information and controls, and thus facilitate building-wide scalability. The external services provide communication capability to entities outside of the building for grid interaction and remote access. Various aspects of the

  20. Modeling of electrical confined-capillary-discharge where the discharge zone is extended by an additional pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, E. [Propulsion Physics Laboratory, Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel)], E-mail: eyal_we@soreq.gov.il; Zoler, D.; Wald, S. [Propulsion Physics Laboratory, Soreq NRC, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Elias, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2009-03-02

    Plasma injectors are a source of pulsed, high momentum and temperature fluid. This fluid can serve as a very efficient reactive mixing and accelerating agent in several applications including chemical waste decomposition and hard materials coating. It can also serve as an efficient medium for synthesis of nano-particles and their deposition on various substrates. In those applications tuning the momentum and the thermodynamic properties of the plasma jet is of paramount importance as the quality of the interaction strongly depends on them. This Letter proposes a method and a model that will allow additional tuning to the thermodynamic properties of the plasma jet by adding an extension to the discharge zone. A steady state model of processes taking place in a realistic confined capillary discharge system is presented. A comparison between this system and the parameters characterizing a discharge in a 'conventional' ablative system is presented. The results obtained indicate that the non-discharge zone may provide an additional degree of freedom to optimize the system's performance. It enhances the control of the plasma parameters that allows optimal and predictable momentum control over the plasma jet. The theoretical predictions for the plasma parameters agree well with experimentally obtained data.

  1. Multicopter control with Navio using REX control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Ozana, Stepan

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with study of possible connection of the REXcontrols platform with Raspberry Pi based control system and Navio2 expansion board. This board is designed for development of autonomous robotic platforms type car, plane or multicopter. In this article, control system REXcontrols is introduced and its integration possibilities for control board Navio2 are discussed. The main discussed aspects are communication possibilities of the REXcontrols system with external scripts which further on allow control of this board. The main reasons for this undertaking are vast possibilities of archiving, visualization, signal processing and control which REXcontrols system allows. The control itself of the navio2 board is done through numerous interfaces. Specifically it is a pair of SPI data buses, an I2C data bus, UART and multiple GPIO pins. However, since REXcontrols control system has only limited access to these data buses, it is necessary to establish the communication through external scripts. For this purpose REXcontrols is equipped with mechanisms; SILO, EPC and REXLANG which are described in the article. Due to its simple implementation into REXcontrols and the option to utilize available libraries for communication with Navio2 board in external script, an EPC block was selected for the final implementation.

  2. TMX magnet control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerz, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    A control system utilizing a microcomputer has been developed that controls the power supplies driving the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) magnet set and monitors magnet coil operation. The magnet set consists of 18 magnet coils that are driven by 26 dc power supplies. There are two possible modes of operation with this system: a pulse mode where the coils are pulsed on for several seconds with a dc power consumption of 16 MW; and a continuous mode where the coils can run steady state at 10 percent of maximum current ratings. The processor has been given an active control role and serves as an interface between the operator and electronic circuitry that controls the magnet power supplies. This microcomputer also collects and processes data from many analog singal monitors in the coil circuits and numerous status signals from the supplies. Placing the microcomputer in an active control role has yielded a compact, cost effective system that simplifies the magnet system operation and has proven to be very reliable. This paper will describe the TMX magnet control sytem and discuss its development

  3. RAE-1 is expressed in the adult subventricular zone and controls cell proliferation of neurospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Natalia; Cedile, Oriane; Pollet-Villard, Xavier; Bagnis, Claude; Durbec, Pascale; Boucraut, José

    2011-01-01

    Improving and controlling the capacity of endogenous or grafted adult neural stem cells to repair the nervous system relies on a better knowledge of interactions between immune cells and neural stem cells. Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) family members comprise numerous proteins playing either immune or nonimmune function. Among the latter, MHC functions in the central nervous system has started to receive recent interest. Here, our first goal was to investigate the potential relationship between MHC class I molecules and neurogenesis. For the first time, we report the expression of two MHC class I-related members by neural stem/progenitor cells: retinoic acid early in