Duque Escobar, Gonzalo
Las presentes notas relacionadas con la definición de riesgo y amenaza, y la aplicación de estos conceptos para eventos como los relacionados con la inestabilidad de las vertientes, pueden tener importancia para las comunidades de la región andina. Este trabajo se ocupa de una de las amenazas más importantes del medio tropical andino: los deslizamientos de tierra vistos desde la óptica de los desastres naturales. Se definen los movimientos de masas. Luego se discuten los parámetros de la ines...
Jensen, K.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; Chew, C. C.
Tropical wetlands play a significant role in global atmospheric methane and terrestrial water storage. Despite the growing number of remote sensing products from satellite sensors, both spatial distribution and temporal variability of wetlands remain highly uncertain. An emerging innovative approach to mapping wetlands is offered by GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R), a bistatic radar concept that takes advantage of GNSS transmitting satellites to yield observations with global coverage and rapid revisit time. This technology offers the potential to capture dynamic inundation changes in wetlands at higher temporal fidelity and sensitivity under the canopy than presently possible. We present an integrative analysis of radiometric modeling, ground measurements, and several microwave remote sensing datasets traditionally used for wetland observations. From a theoretical standpoint, GNSS-R sensitivities for vegetation and wetlands are investigated with a bistatic radar model in order to understand the interactions of the signal with various land surface components. GNSS reflections from the TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1), Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), and Cyclone GNSS (CYGNSS) missions are tested experimentally with contemporaneous (1) field measurements collected from the Pacaya Samiria National Reserve in the Peruvian Amazon, (2) imaging radar from Sentinel-1 and PALSAR-2 observed over a variety of tropical wetland systems, and (3) pan-tropical coarse-resolution (25km) microwave datasets (Surface Water Microwave Product Series). We find that GNSS-R data provide the potential to extend capabilities of current remote sensing techniques to characterize surface inundation extent, and we explore how to maximize synergism between different satellite sensors to produce an enhanced wetland monitoring product.
Brackins, J. T.; Kalyanapu, A. J.
The Northern Indian Ocean Bay of Bengal region, including parts of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka, is the largest bay in the world and is structured in such a manner as to produce the world's largest tropical cyclone (TC) storm surges (SS), with approximately five surge events greater than 5 meters in magnitude each decade. (Needham et al. 2015). Although some studies have been performed to attempt to capture the magnitude and location of historical surges (Shaji et al. 2014) and to model surges in the immediate sense, there is a notable lack of application to the effects on coastal infrastructure in these areas. Given that these areas are some of the most densely populated and least economically able to prepare and recover, it is important to consider the potential effects of storm surge to discover areas where improvements can be made with the limited resources available to these areas. To this end, an ADvanced-CIRCulation (ADCIRC) model (Luettich and Westerink 2004) was created for the Bay of Bengal, using the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO 2014) as bathymetric and topographic data, and a combination of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) records for storm tracks. For the state of Andhra Pradesh, several major TC events ranging from 1977 to 2014 were selected to be modeled with the goal of creating hazard maps of storm surge inundation and velocity for the state. These hazard maps would be used to identify high-vulnerability areas with the goal of implementing land-use planning and coastal development practices that will aid in ameliorating both the loss of life and economic damages sustained as a result of these TCs.
McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Alvarez, J.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Schroeder, R.; Podest, E.; Chapman, B. D.; Zimmermann, R.
We have been assembling a global-scale Earth System Data Record (ESDR) of natural Inundated Wetlands to facilitate investigations on their role in climate, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and biodiversity. The ESDR comprises (1) Fine-resolution (100 meter) maps, delineating wetland extent, vegetation type, and seasonal inundation dynamics for regional to continental-scale areas, and (2) global coarse-resolution (~25 km), multi-temporal mappings of inundated area fraction (Fw) across multiple years. During March 2013, the NASA/JPL L-band polarimetric airborne imaging radar, UAVSAR, conducted airborne studies over regions of South America including portions of the western Amazon basin. We collected UAVSAR datasets over regions of the Amazon basin during that time to support systematic analyses of error sources related to the Inundated Wetlands ESDR. UAVSAR datasets were collected over Pacaya Samiria, Peru, Madre de Dios, Peru, and the Napo River in Ecuador. We derive landcover classifications from the UAVSAR datasets emphasizing wetlands regions, identifying regions of open water and inundated vegetation. We compare the UAVSAR-based datasets with those comprising the ESDR to assess uncertainty associated with the high resolution and the coarse resolution ESDR components. Our goal is to create an enhanced ESDR of inundated wetlands with statistically robust uncertainty estimates. The ESDR documentation will include a detailed breakdown of error sources and associated uncertainties within the data record. This work was carried out in part within the framework of the ALOS Kyoto & Carbon Initiative. PALSAR data were provided by JAXA/EORC and the Alaska Satellite Facility. Portions of this work were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Karim, Fazlul; Dutta, Dushmanta; Marvanek, Steve; Petheram, Cuan; Ticehurst, Catherine; Lerat, Julien; Kim, Shaun; Yang, Ang
Floodplain wetlands and their hydrological connectivity with main river channels in the Australian wet-dry tropics are under increasing pressure from global climate change and water resource development, and there is a need for modelling tools to estimate the time dynamics of connectivity. This paper describes an integrated modelling framework combining conceptual rainfall-runoff modelling, river system modelling and hydrodynamic (HD) modelling to estimate hydrological connectivity between wetlands and rivers in the Flinders and Gilbert river catchments in northern Australia. Three historical flood events ranging from a mean annual flood to a 35-year return period flood were investigated using a two dimensional HD model (MIKE 21). Inflows from upstream catchments were estimated using a river network model. Local runoff within the HD modelling domain was simulated using the Sacramento rainfall-runoff model. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) derived 30 m DEM was used to reproduce floodplain topography, stream networks and wetlands in the HD model. The HD model was calibrated using stream gauge data and inundation maps derived from satellite (MODIS: MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) imagery. An algorithm was developed to combine the simulated water heights with the DEM to quantify inundation and flow connection between wetlands and rivers. The connectivity of 18 ecologically important wetlands on the Flinders floodplain and 7 on the Gilbert floodplain were quantified. The impacts of climate change and water resource development on connectivity to individual wetlands were assessed under a projected dry climate (2nd driest of 15 GCMs), wet climate (2nd wettest of 15 GCMs) and dam conditions. The results indicate that changes in rainfall under a wetter and drier future climate could have large impacts on area, duration and frequency of inundation and connectivity. Topographic relief, river bank elevation and flood magnitude were found to be the key
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to assess people's willingness to join a community-based health insurance (CHI model in El Páramo, a rural area in Ecuador, and to determine factors influencing this willingness. A second objective was to identify people's understanding and attitudes toward the presented CHI model. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a structured questionnaire. Of an estimated 829 households, 210 were randomly selected by two-stage cluster sampling. Attitudes toward the scheme were assessed. Information on factors possibly influencing willingness to join was collected and related to the willingness to join. To gain an insight into a respondent's possible ability to pay, health care expenditure on the last illness episode was assessed. Feasibility was defined as at least 50% of household heads willing to join the scheme. RESULTS: Willingness to join the CHI model for US$30 per year was 69.3%. With affiliation, 92.2% of interviewees stated that they would visit the local health facility more often. Willingness to join was found to be negatively associated with education. Other variables showed no significant association with willingness to join. The study showed a positive attitude toward the CHI scheme. Substantial health care expenditures on the last illness episode were documented. CONCLUSIONS: The investigation concludes that CHI in the study region is feasible. However, enrollments are likely to be lower than the stated willingness to join. Still, a CHI scheme should present an interesting financing alternative in rural areas where services are scarce and difficult to sustain.OBJETIVO: El objetivo principal de este estudio fue evaluar la voluntad de los habitantes de El Páramo, una zona rural en el Ecuador, de participar en un seguro de salud comunitario y determinar los factores que influían en dicha voluntad. Otro objetivo fue identificar la comprensión y las actitudes de la poblaci
Full Text Available Desde mediados de los años noventa se ha producido en España una expansiónextraordinaria del aprovechamiento de la energía eólica para la generación de electrici-dad. La disponibilidad de zonas con potencial eólico estimable junto con las políticas deapoyo a las energías renovables, sobre todo a la eólica, han contribuido a un enormedesarrollo industrial y tecnológico de este sector. España es líder mundial, tanto enpotencia instalada, donde ocupa el tercer puesto detrás de Alemania y Estados Unidos,como en número y volumen de empresas que participan en los distintos ámbitos de laenergía eólica. En este artículo se analizan las características del sector eólico español.
Mark E. Olson
Full Text Available En zonas tropicales secas, el árbol de la moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam. es objeto de gran atención por parte de los productores, en tanto que crece el número de proveedores que promueven la planta como panacea. Ante esta situación, es necesario separar los usos que están identificados y fundamentados por el conocimiento científico de aquellos que no lo están. Con base en el presente estudio y en la literatura, se presenta un resumen de las bases científicas que sustentan algunos de los beneficios de la moringa, en la medida de lo que hasta hoy se conoce. Los análisis comprueban que la harina de hoja de la moringa se compara favorablemente con la leche en polvo en cuanto a sus componentes de proteína y de calcio y tiene, adicionalmente, un alto contenido de vitamina A. Además de su valor nutritivo, las hojas son ricas en antioxidantes, entre los cuales destacan los isotiocianatos, los cuales parecen presentar propiedades anticancerígenas, hipotensoras, hipoglucemiantes y antibióticas. Las concentraciones de factores antinutritivos en las hojas, tales como inhibidores de proteasas, taninos, saponinas y lectinas, son insignificantes. La mayoría de los estudios sobre las cualidades benéficas de la moringa se han llevado a cabo in vitro o en animales; por lo tanto, se desconocen las dosis necesarias para producir algún efecto benéfico en humanos. Sin embargo, dado que los beneficios potenciales son muchos y los niveles de sustancias antinutricionales bajísimos, no encontramos argumentos en contra del consumo de la planta. En resumen, Moringa oleifera es un alimento nutritivo y benéfico que ofrece características muy atractivas para establecer su cultivo en comunidades sostenibles en el trópico seco de México y otros países de Latinoamérica.Farmers in the dry tropics are increasingly turning their attention to the moringa tree (Moringa oleifera Lam., while the plant is increasingly touted as a cure-all for ailments from cancer
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal storms and other meteorological phenomenon can have a significant impact on how high water levels rise and how often. The inundation analysis program is...
Ahearn, Elizabeth A.; Lombard, Pamela J.
Flint Brook, a tributary to the Third Branch White River in Roxbury, Vermont, has a history of flooding the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department’s Roxbury Fish Culture Station (the hatchery) and surrounding infrastructure. Flooding resulting from tropical storm Irene on August 28–29, 2011, caused widespread destruction in the region, including extensive and costly damages to the State-owned hatchery and the transportation infrastructure in the Town of Roxbury, Vermont. Sections of State Route 12A were washed out, and several bridges and culverts on Oxbow Road, Thurston Hill Road, and the New England Central Railroad in Roxbury were heavily damaged. Record high peak-discharge estimates of 2,140 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) and 4,320 ft3/s were calculated for Flint Brook at its confluence with the Third Branch White River and for the Third Branch White River at about 350 feet (ft) downstream from the hatchery, respectively. The annual exceedance probabilities (AEPs) of the peak discharges for Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River were less than 0.2 percent (less than a one in 500 chance of occurring in a given year). Hydrologic and hydraulic analyses of Flint Brook and the Third Branch White River were done to investigate flooding at the hatchery in Roxbury and support efforts by the Federal Emergency Management Agency to assist State and local mitigation and reconstruction efforts. During the August 2011 flood, the majority of flow from Flint Brook (97 percent or 2,070 ft3/s) diverged from its primary watercourse due to a retaining wall failure immediately upstream of Oxbow Road and inundated the hatchery. Although a minor amount of flow from the Third Branch White River could have overtopped State Route 12A and spilled into the hatchery, the Third Branch White River did not cause flood damages or exacerbate flooding at the hatchery during the August 2011 flood. The Third Branch White River which flows adjacent to the hatchery does not flood the hatchery
Pineux, N.; Degré, A.
Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the
hurricanes (tropical) with a 50-year and a 100-year return period, and one winter storm ( extratropical ) occurred in October 1982. There are a total of 15...under the 0-m and 2-m SLR scenarios, respectively. • Tropical and extratropical storms induce extensive coastal inundation around the military...1 NUMERICAL MODELING OF COASTAL INUNDATION AND SEDIMENTATION BY STORM SURGE, TIDES, AND WAVES AT NORFOLK, VIRGINIA, USA Honghai Li 1 , Lihwa Lin 1
Ford, M.; Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.
Atoll islands are highly vulnerable to a range of inundation hazards. The impacts of such hazards are expected to be magnified as a result of continued sea-level rise. Both recent and historic inundation events provide unique insights into the requisite conditions necessary to initiate island inundation. A number of recent and historic inundation events are presented in order to examine the oceanographic and meteorological conditions driving inundation of a densely populated, urbanized atoll in the central Pacific. Analysis of inundation events suggests that a number of key drivers contribute to the spatial and temporal extent of island inundation, with unique degrees of predictability and resultant impact signatures apparent on island geomorphology and local anthropogenic activities. Results indicate three distinct drivers of inundation hazards exist. Firstly, tropical storms and typhoons elevate sea level through inverse barometric setup, wind setup and a range of wave driven processes and have caused considerable impact on atolls within the Marshall Islands. Secondly, super-elevated sea level conditions resulting from the combination of seasonal high tides and quasi-cyclical La Nina conditions drive inundation of low-lying lagoon facing coastal areas. Thirdly, long period swell conditions, typically generated by distant storms, can elevate reef-flat water levels through wave setup and infragravity wave oscillations. Such wave conditions can over wash the ocean-facing island ridge, often inundating large sections of the island. Reef-flat wave conditions are tidally modulated, with inundation events typically occurring around high tide. However, the two most recent destructive swell-driven inundation events have occurred while tide levels were significantly lower than spring tide levels, suggesting high water levels are not a necessary prerequisite for wave-driven inundation. The different modes of inundation are discussed and grounded within recent and historic
Sippel, S.J.; Hamilton, S.K.; Melack, J.M.; Choudhury, B.J.
The 37 GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), which was operated on board the Nimbus-7 satellite, provides a sensitive indicator of surface water. These data can provide information on seasonal inundation patterns in large tropical wetlands such as the Amazon River floodplain. Although the SMMR data are of low resolution, we were able to estimate the area inundated within a group of pixels by using linear mixing models which incorporate the major end-members of the observed microwave signatures. The models were then used to estimate seasonal changes in inundation area over a 7-year period for a 34,550 km 2 area along the Amazon River near Manaus. The seasonal changes in inundation area determined using mixing models correlate well with changes in river stage. (author)
The hydrodynamic forces experienced by an inundated bridge deck have great importance in the design of bridges. Specifically, the drag force, lift force, and the moment acting on the bridge deck under various levels of inundation and a range of flow ...
Setyandito, Oki; Wijayanti, Yureana; Alwan, Muhammad; Chayati, Cholilul; Meilani
A Sustainable and integrated plan in order to solve urban storm inundation problem, is an urgent issue in Indonesia. A reliable and complete datasets of urban storm inundation area in Indonesia should become its basis to give clear description of inundation area for formulating the best solution. In this study, Statistics Indonesia data in thirty three provinces were assessed during 2000 until 2012 providing data series of urban flood area, flood frequency and land cover changes. Drainage system condition in big cities should be well understood to ensure its infrastructure condition and performance. If inundation occurred, it can be concluded that there is drainage system problem. Inundation data is also important for drainage system design process in the future. The study result is provided estimation of urban storm inundation area based on calculation of Statistics Indonesia data. Moreover, this study is preceded by analyzing and reviewing the capacity of existing drainage channel, using case study of Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara. Rainfall data was obtained from three rainfall stations surround Mataram City. The storm water quantity was calculated using three different approaches as follows: 1) Rational Method; 2) Summation of existing inundation and surface run off discharge; 3) Discharge calculation from existing channel dimensions. After that, the result of these approaches was compared. The storm water quantity gap was concluded as quantity of inundation. The result shows that 36% of drainage channel in Brenyok Kanan River sub system could not accommodate the storm water runoff in this area, which causing inundation. The redesign of drainage channel using design discharge from Rational Method approach should be performed. Within area with the lowest level topography, a construction of detention or storage pond is essential to prevent inundation in this area. Furthermore, the benefits and drawbacks of the statistics database are discussed. Recommendations
Bales, J.D.; Wagner, C.R.
Flood inundation maps typically have been used to depict inundated areas for floods having specific exceedance levels. The uncertainty associated with the inundation boundaries is seldom quantified, in part, because all of the sources of uncertainty are not recognized and because data available to quantify uncertainty seldom are available. Sources of uncertainty discussed in this paper include hydrologic data used for hydraulic model development and validation, topographic data, and the hydraulic model. The assumption of steady flow, which typically is made to produce inundation maps, has less of an effect on predicted inundation at lower flows than for higher flows because more time typically is required to inundate areas at high flows than at low flows. Difficulties with establishing reasonable cross sections that do not intersect and that represent water-surface slopes in tributaries contribute additional uncertainties in the hydraulic modelling. As a result, uncertainty in the flood inundation polygons simulated with a one-dimensional model increases with distance from the main channel.
W. G. Strupczewski
Full Text Available The Flood Frequency Analysis (FFA concentrates on probability distribution of peak flows of flood hydrographs. However, examination of floods that haunted and devastated the large parts of Poland lead us to revision of the views on the assessment of flood risk of Polish rivers. It turned out that flooding is caused not only by the overflow of the levee crest but also due to the prolonged exposure to high water on levees structure causing dangerous leaks and breaches that threaten their total destruction. This is because the levees are weakened by long-lasting water pressure and as a matter of fact their damage usually occurs after the culmination has passed the affected location. The probability of inundation is the total of probabilities of exceeding embankment crest by flood peak and the probability of washout of levees. Therefore, in addition to the maximum flow one should also consider the duration of high waters in a river channel. In the paper the new two-component model of flood dynamics: "Duration of high waters–Discharge Threshold–Probability of non-exceedance" (DqF, with the methodology of its parameter estimation was proposed as a completion to the classical FFA methods. Such a model can estimate the duration of stages (flows of an assumed magnitude with a given probability of exceedance. The model combined with the technical evaluation of the probability of levee breaches due to the duration (d of flow above alarm stage gives the annual probability of inundation caused by the embankment breaking. The results of theoretical investigation were illustrated by a practical example of the model implementation to the series of daily flow of the Vistula River at Szczucin. Regardless of promising results, the method of risk assessment due to prolonged exposure of levees to high water is still in its infancy despite its great cognitive potential and practical importance. Therefore, we would like to point out the need for and usefulness of
JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory
A simulation environment is being developed for the prediction and analysis of the inundation consequences for infrastructure systems from extreme flood events. This decision support architecture includes a GIS-based environment for model input development, simulation integration tools for meteorological, hydrologic, and infrastructure system models and damage assessment tools for infrastructure systems. The GIS-based environment processes digital elevation models (30-m from the USGS), land use/cover (30-m NLCD), stream networks from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and soils data from the NRCS (STATSGO) to create stream network, subbasins, and cross-section shapefiles for drainage basins selected for analysis. Rainfall predictions are made by a numerical weather model and ingested in gridded format into the simulation environment. Runoff hydrographs are estimated using Green-Ampt infiltration excess runoff prediction and a 1D diffusive wave overland flow routing approach. The hydrographs are fed into the stream network and integrated in a dynamic wave routing module using the EPA's Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) to predict flood depth. The flood depths are then transformed into inundation maps and exported for damage assessment. Hydrologic/hydraulic results are presented for Tropical Storm Allison.
Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin
Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.
Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada). School of Engineering; Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)
Recent advancements in modelling inundation due to dam failures have allowed easier and more illustrative analyses of potential outcomes. This paper described new model and mapping capabilities available using the HEC-RAS hydraulic model in concert with geographic information systems (GIS). The study area was the upper reaches of Canagagigue Creek and the Woolwich Dam near Elmira, Ontario. A hydraulic analysis of a hypothetical dam failure was developed based on the summer probable maximum flood (PMF) event. Limits extended from Woolwich Dam to downstream of the Town of Elmira. An incoming summer PMF hydrograph was set as the upstream boundary condition in the upstream model. Simulation parameters include simulation time-step; implicit weighting factor; water surface calculation tolerance; and output calculation interval. Peak flows were presented, as well as corresponding flood inundation results through the Town of Elmira. The hydraulic model results were exported to a GIS in order to develop inundation maps for emergency management planning. Results from post-processing included inundation maps for each of the simulated time-steps as well as an inundation animation for the duration of the dam breach. It was concluded that the modelling tools presented in the study can be applied to other dam safety assessment projects in order to develop effective and efficient emergency preparedness plans through public consultation and the establishment of impact zones. 1 tab., 2 figs.
Tidal salt marsh is a key defense against, yet is especially vulnerable to, the effects of accelerated sea level rise. To determine whether salt marshes in southern New England will be stable given increasing inundation over the coming decades, we examined current loss patterns, inundation-productivity feedbacks, and sustaining processes. A multi-decadal analysis of salt marsh aerial extent using historic imagery and maps revealed that salt marsh vegetation loss is both widespread and accelerating, with vegetation loss rates over the past four decades summing to 17.3 %. Landward retreat of the marsh edge, widening and headward expansion of tidal channel networks, loss of marsh islands, and the development and enlargement of interior depressions found on the marsh platform contributed to vegetation loss. Inundation due to sea level rise is strongly suggested as a primary driver: vegetation loss rates were significantly negatively correlated with marsh elevation (r2 = 0.96; p = 0.0038), with marshes situated below mean high water (MHW) experiencing greater declines than marshes sitting well above MHW. Growth experiments with Spartina alterniflora, the Atlantic salt marsh ecosystem dominant, across a range of elevations and inundation regimes further established that greater inundation decreases belowground biomass production of S. alterniflora and, thus, negatively impacts organic matter accumulation. These results suggest that southern New England salt ma
Luettich, R.; Westerink, J. J.
Coastal counties are home to nearly 60% of the U.S. population and industry that accounts for over 16 million jobs and 10% of the U.S. annual gross domestic product. However, these areas are susceptible to some of the most destructive forces in nature, including tsunamis, floods, and severe storm-related hazards. Since 1900, tropical cyclones making landfall on the US Gulf of Mexico Coast have caused more than 9,000 deaths; nearly 2,000 deaths have occurred during the past half century. Tropical cyclone-related adjusted, annualized losses in the US have risen from 1.3 billion from 1949-1989, to 10.1 billion from 1990-1995, and $35.8 billion per year for the period 2001-2005. The risk associated with living and doing business in the coastal areas that are most susceptible to tropical cyclones is exacerbated by rising sea level and changes in the characteristics of severe storms associated with global climate change. In the five years since hurricane Katrina devastated the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast, considerable progress has been made in the development and utilization of high resolution coupled storm surge and wave models. Recent progress will be presented with the ADCIRC + SWAN storm surge and wave models. These tightly coupled models use a common unstructured grid in the horizontal that is capable of covering large areas while also providing high resolution (i.e., base resolution down to 20m plus smaller subgrid scale features such as sea walls and levees) in areas that are subject to surge and inundation. Hydrodynamic friction and overland winds are adjusted to account for local land cover. The models scale extremely well on modern high performance computers allowing rapid turnaround on large numbers of compute cores. The models have been adopted for FEMA National Flood Insurance Program studies, hurricane protection system design and risk analysis, and quasi-operational forecast systems for several regions of the country. They are also being evaluated as
This thesis presents a study of the potential for biological control of lepidopterous pests on cabbage crops in the Netherlands, by means of inundative releases of the egg parasite Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). The objective of this study is to investigate the
Jisan, Mansur Ali; Bao, Shaowu; Pietrafesa, Leonard J.
The hydrodynamic model Delft3D is used to study the impact of sea level rise (SLR) on storm surge and inundation in the coastal region of Bangladesh. To study the present-day inundation scenario, the tracks of two known tropical cyclones (TC) were used: Aila (Category 1; 2009) and Sidr (Category 5; 2007). Model results were validated with the available observations. Future inundation scenarios were generated by using the strength of TC Sidr, TC Aila and an ensemble of historical TC tracks but incorporating the effect of SLR. Since future change in storm surge inundation under SLR impact is a probabilistic incident, a probable range of future change in the inundated area was calculated by taking into consideration the uncertainties associated with TC tracks, intensities and landfall timing. The model outputs showed that the inundated area for TC Sidr, which was calculated as 1860 km2, would become 31 % larger than the present-day scenario if a SLR of 0.26 m occurred during the mid-21st-century climate scenario. Similarly to that, an increasing trend was found for the end-21st-century climate scenario. It was found that with a SLR of 0.54 m, the inundated area would become 53 % larger than the present-day case. Along with the inundation area, the impact of SLR was examined for changes in future storm surge level. A significant increase of 14 % was found in storm surge level for the case of TC Sidr at Barisal station if a SLR of 0.26 m occurred in the mid-21st century. Similarly to that, an increase of 29 % was found at storm surge level with a SLR of 0.54 m in this location for the end-21st-century climate scenario. Ensemble projections based on uncertainties of future TC events also showed that, for a change of 0.54 m in SLR, the inundated area would range between 3500 and 3750 km2, whereas for present-day SLR simulations it was found within the range of 1000-1250 km2. These results revealed that even if the future TCs remain at the same strength as at present, the
Weber, M. R.
Full Text Available This holiday residential area at Leysin is very much in the new style of tourist development centres. The present project involves 20 apartments, each of which can house a family of four or five persons. Each unit has three main rooms, a bathroom and a small kitchen. This residential complex also includes a house for the porter. The auxiliary services are also installed in the same building, namely: reception office, stores, washing equipment and central heating.Por su planeamiento, la zona residencial de vacaciones de Leysin se sitúa en la nueva tendencia del turismo social. El conjunto realizado agrupa 20 apartamentos, con capacidad para alojar familias de cuatro a cinco personas durante algunas semanas. Cada unidad consta de tres habitaciones principales, cuarto de baño y una pequeña cocina. Completa este conjunto residencial una edificación que aloja la vivienda del conserje, y los servicios comunes: recepción, almacén, lavadero y central de calefacción.
Full Text Available Partiendo de los relatos de los mismos maestros, se establecen las características de los procesos de socialización y construcción de identidad en el contexto de la guerra, ubicando luego las formas de enunciación de esa identidad por parte de los propios maestros. El que sus interacciones cotidianas se desarrollen en un contexto caracterizado por el miedo generado por las vivencias de acciones de guerra como combates, masacres, señalamientos y amenazas, además marcadas por la impunidad, la no reparación y la percepción de indefensión, hace que la identidad del maestro, que está constituida por su propia historia personal, por la conciencia de su rol público, por la valoración social de su profesión, y por su definición política, producen diferentes formas de enunciación de sí mismos, a la vez que determinantes del tipo de actitud que se asuma como mecanismo de sobrevivencia. De esta manera se ubican la “NORMALIDAD” que lleva a la naturalización del horror y la violencia, la “INDIFERENCIA” que actúa como mecanismo de evasión, el “AISLAMIENTO” similar al anterior pero que se caracteriza por su rol de protección, los “ACTOS MIMÉTICOS” que se plantean como necesaria respuesta ante la polarización exigida por los distintos actores armados, “A LOS FIERROS” donde por definición ideológica o identificación con uno de los actores armados el maestro asume un involucramiento activo en la guerra, “EL TRASLADO” como búsqueda de escape para garantizar la vida ante la amenaza y la presión directas, y por último “A JUGÁRSELA” como respuesta desde el compromiso vital, político o religioso, y que lleva a continuar en la zona y actuando de acuerdo a sus principios a pesar del riesgo que ello implica.
Brecht, Rüdiger; Bihlo, Alexander; MacLachlan, Scott; Behrens, Jörn
We present a novel meshless tsunami propagation and inundation model. We discretize the nonlinear shallow-water equations using a well-balanced scheme relying on radial basis function based finite differences. For the inundation model, radial basis functions are used to extrapolate the dry region from nearby wet points. Numerical results against standard one- and two-dimensional benchmarks are presented.
Verdin, James; Verdin, Kristine; Mathis, Melissa L.; Magadzire, Tamuka; Kabuchanga, Eric; Woodbury, Mark; Gadain, Hussein
The GIS Flood Tool (GFT) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance to provide a means for production of reconnaissance-level flood inundation mapping for data-sparse and resource-limited areas of the world. The GFT has also attracted interest as a tool for rapid assessment flood inundation mapping for the Flood Inundation Mapping Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The GFT can fill an important gap for communities that lack flood inundation mapping by providing a first-estimate of inundation zones, pending availability of resources to complete an engineering study. The tool can also help identify priority areas for application of scarce flood inundation mapping resources. The technical basis of the GFT is an application of the Manning equation for steady flow in an open channel, operating on specially processed digital elevation data. The GFT is implemented as a software extension in ArcGIS. Output maps from the GFT were validated at 11 sites with inundation maps produced previously by the Flood Inundation Mapping Program using standard one-dimensional hydraulic modeling techniques. In 80 percent of the cases, the GFT inundation patterns matched 75 percent or more of the one-dimensional hydraulic model inundation patterns. Lower rates of pattern agreement were seen at sites with low relief and subtle surface water divides. Although the GFT is simple to use, it should be applied with the oversight or review of a qualified hydraulic engineer who understands the simplifying assumptions of the approach.
Fowler, Kathleen K.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 7.7-mile reach of the White River at Petersburg, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at White River at Petersburg, Ind. (03374000). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (PTRI3).
wind waves and swells, and because of its relatively short period, .... Inundation modelling attempts to recreate the tsunami generation in deep or ... The preservation of tsunami deposits in the coastal geological record is a function of the.
Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.
Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)
Stockdon, Hilary F.; Thompson, David M.
Waves and storm surge associated with strong tropical storms are part of the natural process of barrier-island evolution and can cause extensive morphologic changes in coastal parks, leading to reduced visitor accessibility and enjoyment. Even at Fire Island National Seashore, a barrier-island coastal park in New York where extratropical storms (northeasters) dominate storm activity, the beaches are vulnerable to the powerful, sand-moving forces of hurricanes. The vulnerability of park beaches to inundation, and associated extreme coastal change, during a direct hurricane landfall can be assessed by comparing the elevations of storm-induced mean-water levels (storm surge) to the elevations of the crest of the sand dune that defines the beach system. Maps detailing the inundation potential for Category 1-4 hurricanes can be used by park managers to determine the relative vulnerability of various barrier-island parks and to assess which areas of a particular park are more susceptible to inundation and extreme coastal changes.
Schröter, Kai; Dransch, Doris; Fohringer, Joachim; Kreibich, Heidi
Data about the hazard and its consequences are scarce and not readily available during and shortly after a disaster. An information source which should be explored in a more efficient way is eyewitness accounts via social media. This research presents a methodology that leverages social media content to support rapid inundation mapping, including inundation extent and water depth in the case of floods. It uses quantitative data that are estimated from photos extracted from social media posts and their integration with established data. Due to the rapid availability of these posts compared to traditional data sources such as remote sensing data, areas affected by a flood, for example, can be determined quickly. Key challenges are to filter the large number of posts to a manageable amount of potentially useful inundation-related information, and to interpret and integrate the posts into mapping procedures in a timely manner. We present a methodology and a tool ("PostDistiller") to filter geo-located posts from social media services which include links to photos and to further explore this spatial distributed contextualized in situ information for inundation mapping. The June 2013 flood in Dresden is used as an application case study in which we evaluate the utilization of this approach and compare the resulting spatial flood patterns and inundation depths to 'traditional' data sources and mapping approaches like water level observations and remote sensing flood masks. The outcomes of the application case are encouraging. Strengths of the proposed procedure are that information for the estimation of inundation depth is rapidly available, particularly in urban areas where it is of high interest and of great value because alternative information sources like remote sensing data analysis do not perform very well. The uncertainty of derived inundation depth data and the uncontrollable availability of the information sources are major threats to the utility of the approach.
Full Text Available Shortly after the launch of ALOS PALSAR L-band SAR by the Japan Space Exploration Agency (JAXA, a program to develop an Earth Science Data Record (ESDR for inundated wetlands was funded by NASA. Using established methodologies, extensive multi-temporal L-band ALOS ScanSAR data acquired bi-monthly by the PALSAR instrument onboard ALOS were used to classify the inundation state for South America for delivery as a component of this Inundated Wetlands ESDR (IW-ESDR and in collaboration with JAXA’s ALOS Kyoto and Carbon Initiative science programme. We describe these methodologies and the final classification of the inundation state, then compared this with results derived from dual-season data acquired by the JERS-1 L-band SAR mission in 1995 and 1996, as well as with estimates of surface water extent measured globally every 10 days by coarser resolution sensors. Good correspondence was found when comparing open water extent classified from multi-temporal ALOS ScanSAR data with surface water fraction identified from coarse resolution sensors, except in those regions where there may be differences in sensitivity to widespread and shallow seasonal flooding event, or in areas that could be excluded through use of a continental-scale inundatable mask. It was found that the ALOS ScanSAR classification of inundated vegetation was relatively insensitive to inundated herbaceous vegetation. Inundation dynamics were examined using the multi-temporal ALOS ScanSAR acquisitions over the Pacaya-Samiria and surrounding areas in the Peruvian Amazon.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar y dar elementos para la acción en las áreas inundables de la ciudad de Bella Unión. Si bien las inundaciones no generan una situación de desastre, afectan fuertemente la economía local, impactando sobre sectores muy vulnerables de la población. El área inundable se ha visto incrementada a partir de 1979 por la puesta en funcionamiento de la represa de Salto Grande. Las acciones de indemnización se presentan como una oportunidad para realizar estudios pormenorizados de la zona y definir acciones convergentes e integrales para gestionar estas áreas. Se desarrolla una metodología basada en el análisis de la interacción del sistema hídrico con el sistema territorial, que permite reconocer los distintos niveles de riesgo de la zona afectada y los impactos asociados, considerando tanto el nivel de la amenaza como la vulnerabilidad de sus pobladores. El análisis incorpora igualmente las potencialidades de la zona, de forma de incorporar el río al imaginario colectivo de la ciudad.This study aims to characterize and provide items to operate in flooded areas of Bella Union city. Although floodings cannot be defined as disasters, they strongly affect the local economy, as they have an impact on vulnerable sectors of the population. Its floodplain has increased since 1979 by the installation of Salto Grande dam. Compensation actions arepresented as an opportunity for developing detailed studies of the area and definingfurther con vergent and integrated actions to manage these areas. The methodology is based on the analysis of the interaction of water and territorial systems, recognizing different levels of risk in the affected area and the associated impacts. It considers both the level of hazard and vulnerability of its inhabitants. It also recognizes the potential of the area to incorporate the river to the city's collective imaginary.
Full Text Available Muchas especies de plantas tienen fuertes asociaciones con las zonas riparias, pues crecen a lo largo de las márgenes del agua. El microclima húmedo de la zona riparia y la humedad del suelo, creados tanto por el afloramiento de agua como por el agua del terreno cercana a la superficie, tiende a hacerlos hábitats favorables para muchos anfibios y algunos mamíferos pequeños. Comenzando en el borde del agua y avanzando progresivamente hacia el interior del bosque, frecuentemente se definen bandas sucesivas de vegetación, mediante cambios muy pequeños en la topografía. Estos ecosistemas tienen muchos atributos que realzan su diversidad biológica: límites, patrones sucesionales, disposición vertical en estratos y microhábitats especiales definidos por sus rasgos físicos. Pececillos de río, ranas y ardillas, algas, platanus, sauces, pinos y encinos, todos ellos prosperan conjuntamente a lo largo de las playas de las corrientes de agua.
Oishi, Y.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.
Recently off-shore tsunami observation stations based on cabled ocean bottom pressure gauges are actively being deployed especially in Japan. These cabled systems are designed to provide real-time tsunami data before tsunamis reach coastlines for disaster mitigation purposes. To receive real benefits of these observations, real-time analysis techniques to make an effective use of these data are necessary. A representative study was made by Tsushima et al. (2009) that proposed a method to provide instant tsunami source prediction based on achieving tsunami waveform data. As time passes, the prediction is improved by using updated waveform data. After a tsunami source is predicted, tsunami waveforms are synthesized from pre-computed tsunami Green functions of linear long wave equations. Tsushima et al. (2014) updated the method by combining the tsunami waveform inversion with an instant inversion of coseismic crustal deformation and improved the prediction accuracy and speed in the early stages. For disaster mitigation purposes, real-time predictions of tsunami inundation are also important. In this study, we discuss the possibility of real-time tsunami inundation predictions, which require faster-than-real-time tsunami inundation simulation in addition to instant tsunami source analysis. Although the computational amount is large to solve non-linear shallow water equations for inundation predictions, it has become executable through the recent developments of high performance computing technologies. We conducted parallel computations of tsunami inundation and achieved 6.0 TFLOPS by using 19,000 CPU cores. We employed a leap-frog finite difference method with nested staggered grids of which resolution range from 405 m to 5 m. The resolution ratio of each nested domain was 1/3. Total number of grid points were 13 million, and the time step was 0.1 seconds. Tsunami sources of 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake were tested. The inundation prediction up to 2 hours after the
Stephens, T.; Bledsoe, B. P.; Miller, A. J.; Lee, G.
Changing precipitation, rapid urbanization, and population growth interact to create unprecedented challenges for flood mitigation and management. Standard methods for estimating risk from flood inundation maps generally involve simulations of floodplain hydraulics for an established regulatory discharge of specified frequency. Hydraulic model results are then geospatially mapped and depicted as a discrete boundary of flood extents and a binary representation of the probability of inundation (in or out) that is assumed constant over a project's lifetime. Consequently, existing methods utilized to define flood hazards and assess risk management are hindered by deterministic approaches that assume stationarity in a nonstationary world, failing to account for spatio-temporal variability of climate and land use as they translate to hydraulic models. This presentation outlines novel techniques for portraying flood hazards and the results of multiple flood inundation maps spanning hydroclimatic regions. Flood inundation maps generated through modeling of floodplain hydraulics are probabilistic reflecting uncertainty quantified through Monte-Carlo analyses of model inputs and parameters under current and future scenarios. The likelihood of inundation and range of variability in flood extents resulting from Monte-Carlo simulations are then compared with deterministic evaluations of flood hazards from current regulatory flood hazard maps. By facilitating alternative approaches of portraying flood hazards, the novel techniques described in this presentation can contribute to a shifting paradigm in flood management that acknowledges the inherent uncertainty in model estimates and the nonstationary behavior of land use and climate.
Cohen, Sagy; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Kettner, Albert; Bates, Bradford; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Huang, Yu-Fen; Munasinghe, Dinuke; Zhang, Jiaqi
Information on flood inundation extent is important for understanding societal exposure, water storage volumes, flood wave attenuation, future flood hazard, and other variables. A number of organizations now provide flood inundation maps based on satellite remote sensing. These data products can efficiently and accurately provide the areal extent of a flood event, but do not provide floodwater depth, an important attribute for first responders and damage assessment. Here we present a new methodology and a GIS-based tool, the Floodwater Depth Estimation Tool (FwDET), for estimating floodwater depth based solely on an inundation map and a digital elevation model (DEM). We compare the FwDET results against water depth maps derived from hydraulic simulation of two flood events, a large-scale event for which we use medium resolution input layer (10 m) and a small-scale event for which we use a high-resolution (LiDAR; 1 m) input. Further testing is performed for two inundation maps with a number of challenging features that include a narrow valley, a large reservoir, and an urban setting. The results show FwDET can accurately calculate floodwater depth for diverse flooding scenarios but also leads to considerable bias in locations where the inundation extent does not align well with the DEM. In these locations, manual adjustment or higher spatial resolution input is required.
The term "tropical glacier" calls to mind balmy nights and palm trees on one hand and cold, blue ice on the other. Certainly author Gabriel Garcia Marqez exploited this contrast in One Hundred Years of Solitude. We know that tropical fish live in warm, Sun-kissed waters and tropical plants provide lush, dense foliage populated by colorful tropical birds. So how do tropical glaciers fit into this scene? Like glaciers everywhere, tropical glaciers form where mass accumulation—usually winter snow—exceeds mass loss, which is generally summer melt. Thus, tropical glaciers exist at high elevations where precipitation can occur as snowfall exceeds melt and sublimation losses, such as the Rwenzori Mountains in east Africa and the Maoke Range of Irian Jaya.
Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrate...
Low level releases of 137 Cs to streams has resulted in concentrations greater than background levels in soils, sediments and plants of the Savannah River swamp. The object of this study was to determine the effect of inundation on the absorption of 137 Cs by water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) which is dominant in the swamp and is able to survive and grow well under flooded conditions. Results show that actively growing young water tupelo absorb about twice as much 137 Cs when grown in the laboratory under inundated conditions suggesting that in the spring, when inundated conditions usually exist and rapid growth occurs, uptake of 137 Cs is high. Some Cs is transported from soil depths and returned to soil surface via incorporation into leaves and subsequent leaf fall, thus continually mixing Cs which was buried below the soil surface. (U.K.)
Fukutani, Yo; Anawat, Suppasri; Abe, Yoshi; Imamura, Fumihiko
We performed a stochastic evaluation of tsunami inundation by using results of stochastic tsunami hazard assessment at the Soma port in the Tohoku coastal area. Eleven fault zones along the Japan trench were selected as earthquake faults generating tsunamis. The results show that estimated inundation area of return period about 1200 years had good agreement with that in the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. In addition, we evaluated quantitatively tsunami risk for four types of building; a reinforced concrete, a steel, a brick and a wood at the Soma port by combining the results of inundation assessment and tsunami fragility assessment. The results of quantitative estimating risk would reflect properly vulnerability of the buildings, that the wood building has high risk and the reinforced concrete building has low risk. (author)
Schumann, G.; Andreadis, K.; Castillo, C. J.
To date there is no coherent and consistent database on observed or simulated flood event inundation and magnitude at large scales (continental to global). The only compiled data set showing a consistent history of flood inundation area and extent at a near global scale is provided by the MODIS-based Dartmouth Flood Observatory. However, MODIS satellite imagery is only available from 2000 and is hampered by a number of issues associated with flood mapping using optical images (e.g. classification algorithms, cloud cover, vegetation). Here, we present for the first time a proof-of-concept study in which we employ a computationally efficient 2-D hydrodynamic model (LISFLOOD-FP) complemented with a sub-grid channel formulation to generate a complete flood inundation climatology of the past 40 years (1973-2012) for the entire Australian continent. The model was built completely from freely available SRTM-derived data, including channel widths, bank heights and floodplain topography, which was corrected for vegetation canopy height using a global ICESat canopy dataset. Channel hydraulics were resolved using actual channel data and bathymetry was estimated within the model using hydraulic geometry. On the floodplain, the model simulated the flow paths and inundation variables at a 1 km resolution. The developed model was run over a period of 40 years and a floodplain inundation climatology was generated and compared to satellite flood event observations. Our proof-of-concept study demonstrates that this type of model can reliably simulate past flood events with reasonable accuracies both in time and space. The Australian model was forced with both observed flow climatology and VIC-simulated flows in order to assess the feasibility of a model-based flood inundation climatology at the global scale.
Gebhardt, S.; Huth, J.; Wehrmann, T.; Schettler, I.; Künzer, C.; Schmidt, M.; Dech, S.
The Mekong Delta in Vietnam offers natural resources for several million inhabitants. However, a strong population increase, changing climatic conditions and regulatory measures at the upper reaches of the Mekong lead to severe changes in the Delta. Extreme flood events occur more frequently, drinking water availability is increasingly limited, soils show signs of salinization or acidification, species and complete habitats diminish. During the Monsoon season the river regularly overflows its banks in the lower Mekong area, usually with beneficial effects. However, extreme flood events occur more frequently causing extensive damage, on the average once every 6 to 10 years river flood levels exceed the critical beneficial level X-band SAR data are well suited for deriving inundated surface areas. The TerraSAR-X sensor with its different scanning modi allows for the derivation of spatial and temporal high resolved inundation masks. The paper presents an automated procedure for deriving inundated areas from TerraSAR-X Scansar and Stripmap image data. Within the framework of the German-Vietnamese WISDOM project, focussing the Mekong Delta region in Vietnam, images have been acquired covering the flood season from June 2008 to November 2008. Based on these images a time series of the so called watermask showing inundated areas have been derived. The product is required as intermediate to (i) calibrate 2d inundation model scenarios, (ii) estimate the extent of affected areas, and (iii) analyze the scope of prior crisis. The image processing approach is based on the assumption that water surfaces are forward scattering the radar signal resulting in low backscatter signals to the sensor. It uses multiple grey level thresholds and image morphological operations. The approach is robust in terms of automation, accuracy, robustness, and processing time. The resulting watermasks show the seasonal flooding pattern with inundations starting in July, having their peak at the end
Goertz, J.; Kaihatu, J. M.; Kalligeris, N.; Lynett, P. J.; Synolakis, C.
Field surveys performed in the wake of the 2010 Mentawai tsunami event have described the belief of local residents that offshore islands serve as possible tsunami sheltering mechanisms, reducing the corresponding inundation on beaches behind the islands, despite the fact that deduced inundation from debris lines show this to be in fact untrue (Hill et al. 2012). Recent numerical model studies (Stefanakis et al. 2014) have shown that inundation levels on beaches behind conical islands are indeed higher than they are on open coastlines. While work has been done on tsunami amplification on the lee side of islands (Briggs et al. 1995), no work has been done concerning tsunami inundation on beach areas behind the islands. A series of experiments to address this were conducted in the Directional Wave Basin (DWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory at Oregon State University in summer 2016. A series of four sheet metal islands (two with a full conical section, two truncated at the water line) were placed at varying distances from the toe of a 1/10 sloping beach. Incident wave conditions consisting of solitary waves and full-stroke "dam break" waves were run over the islands. Free surface elevations, velocities, and beach runup were measured, with the intent of determining relationships between the wave condition, the island geometry and distance from the beach, and the tsunami characteristics. A series of runup measurements from a particular set of experiments can be seen in Figure 1. Based on these preliminary analyses, it was determined that: A) inundation was always amplified behind the island relative to areas outside this shadow zone; and B) inundation was generally highest with the island closest to the beach, except in the case where the tsunami wave broke prior to reaching the island. In this latter scenario, the inundation behind the island increased with island distance from the beach. The development of relationships between the inundation levels
Suzuoki, Yukihiro; Rangoonwala, Amina; Ramsey, Elijah W.
Maps representing the presence and absence of surface inundation in the Louisiana coastal zone were created from available satellite scenes acquired by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency's Advanced Land Observing Satellite and by the European Space Agency's Envisat from late 2006 through summer 2009. Detection of aboveground surface flooding relied on the well-documented and distinct signature of decreased backscatter in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which is indicative of inundated marsh in the Gulf of Mexico. Even though decreases in backscatter were distinctive, the multiplicity of possible interactions between changing flood depths and canopy height yielded complex SAR-based representations of the marshes.
Blain, Cheryl Ann; Preller, Ruth H
The impact of coastal flooding and inundation on Navy operational missions and the existing Navy requirements for resolution and accuracy relevant to coastal inundation are presented. High resolution (less than 500 m...
Structure of a tropical island forest area directly affected by the hydroelectric power station of Pilar, Guaraciaba County, Minas Gerais; Estrutura de uma floresta estacional semidecidual insular em area diretamente afetada pela Usina Hidreletrica de Pilar, Guaraciaba, Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais
Meira-Neto, Joao Augusto Alves; Silva, Alexandre Francisco da [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Vegetal; Souza, Agostinho Lopes de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Paula, Alessandro de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Botanica
Electrical energy consumption in Brazil is increasing and new hydroelectric power stations are required. This work was carried out at a semi deciduous tropical island forest in Guaraciaba, MG to look for composition peculiarities and to provide a structural model which could be applied to reduce environmental damages caused by Pilar HPS. The point-centered quarter method was applied totalizing 50 sample units. Fifty five species were sampled and a Shannon diversity index (H) of 3.429 nats/individual found. The most important species were longiracemosus, Tapirira guianensis, Pera glabrata, Copaifera langsdorffii, Callophyllum brasiliensis and Guapira opposita. The Guaraciaba island forest presented the peculiarity of Podocarpus sellowii occurrence sellowii occurrence, a rare gymnosperm species that does not occur at nearby forests. The Guaraciaba island forest is probably representative of an original alluvial forest at Piranga valley. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Terry, James P.; Etienne, Samuel
Transported coastal boulders have increasingly come to represent a valuable element of investigations within the broader framework of multi-proxy approaches applied to coastal hazard studies. Through a case study on Taveuni Island in Fiji, this paper outlines some approaches and hindrances to effective timing of prehistorical high-energy marine inundation events (storms and tsunamis) on tropical coastlines from the evidence of reef-platform carbonate boulders. Various sources of errors are outlined that investigators must consider when attempting to use carbonate boulder ages as a surrogate for timing past events. On Taveuni, uranium : thorium dates with a high level of precision (1-7 years) suggest that major inundation events have a return period of approximately 40-45 years since 1650 AD. Of particular importance, considerably different age dates are provided by coral samples sourced from the top and bottom (i.e. opposite faces) of individual boulders, so highlighting interpretation biases that must be avoided.
Horton, B.; Corbett, D. R.; Donnelly, J. P.; Kemp, A.; Lin, N.; Lindeman, K.; Mann, M. E.; Peltier, W. R.; Rahmstorf, S.
Future inundation of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts will depend upon sea-level rise and the intensity and frequency of tropical cyclones, each of which will be affected by climate change. Through ongoing, collaborative research we are employing new interdisciplinary approaches to bring about a step change in the reliability of predictions of such inundation. The rate of sea level rise along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts increased throughout the 20th century. Whilst there is widespread agreement that it continue to accelerate during the 21st century, great uncertainty surrounds its magnitude and geographic variability. Key uncertainties include the role of continental ice sheets, mountain glaciers, and ocean density changes. Insufficient understanding of these complex physical processes precludes accurate prediction of sea-level rise. New approaches using semi-empirical models that relate instrumental records of climate and sea-level rise have projected up to 2 m of sea-level rise by AD 2100. But the time span of instrumental sea-level records is insufficient to adequately constrain the climate:sea-level relationship. We produced new, high-resolution proxy sea-level reconstructions to provide crucial additional constraints to such semi-empirical models. Our dataset spans the alternation between the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' and 'Little Ice Age'. Before the models can provide appropriate data for coastal management and planning, they must be complemented with regional estimates of sea-level rise. Therefore, the proxy sea-level data has been collected from four study areas (Connecticut, New Jersey, North Carolina and Florida) to accommodate the required extent of regional variability. In the case of inundation arising from tropical cyclones, the historical and observational records are insufficient for predicting their nature and recurrence, because they are such extreme and rare events. Moreover, future storm surges will be superimposed on background sea
Andi Dwi Riyanto
Full Text Available Transaksi bisnis jual beli e-Commerce saat ini memasuki mulai bergeser memanfaatkan perangkat gadget/smartphone. Perkembangan inilah yang disebut dengan m-Commerce, yakni memanfaatkan smartphone untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli barang. Zona Komputer Banjarnegara telah memiliki website e-Commerce. Namun demikian, Zona Komputer berinovasi untuk menjadi yang terdepan dalam melayani konsumen yakni dengan membuat m-Commerce untuk memudahkan pelanggan dalam transaksi jual beli. Metode pengembangan sistem yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu menggunakan metode waterfall. Dari hasil penelitian ini akan dihasilkan sebuah aplikasi mobile untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli pada toko komputer Zona Komputer Banjarnegara.Kata Kunci: e-Commerce, m-Commerce, android
Andi Dwi Riyanto; Khatirudin Ma’arif
Transaksi bisnis jual beli e-Commerce saat ini memasuki mulai bergeser memanfaatkan perangkat gadget/smartphone. Perkembangan inilah yang disebut dengan m-Commerce, yakni memanfaatkan smartphone untuk melakukan transaksi jual beli barang. Zona Komputer Banjarnegara telah memiliki website e-Commerce. Namun demikian, Zona Komputer berinovasi untuk menjadi yang terdepan dalam melayani konsumen yakni dengan membuat m-Commerce untuk memudahkan pelanggan dalam transaksi jual beli. Metode pengembang...
Tablazon, J.; Caro, C. V.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Briones, J. B. L.; Dasallas, L.; Lapidez, J. P.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Ladiero, C.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Mungcal, M. T. F.; Malano, V.
A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water over the astronomical tides, generated by an approaching storm. This event poses a major threat to the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013. This hydro-meteorological hazard is one of the main reasons for the high number of casualties due to the typhoon, with 6300 deaths. It became evident that the need to develop a storm surge inundation map is of utmost importance. To develop these maps, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH) simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. The Japan Meteorological Agency storm surge model was used to simulate storm surge heights. The frequency distribution of the maximum storm surge heights was calculated using simulation results of tropical cyclones under a specific public storm warning signal (PSWS) that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of inundation for a specific PSWS using the probability of exceedance derived from the frequency distribution. Buildings and other structures were assigned a probability of exceedance depending on their occupancy category, i.e., 1% probability of exceedance for critical facilities, 10% probability of exceedance for special occupancy structures, and 25% for standard occupancy and miscellaneous structures. The maps produced show the storm-surge-vulnerable areas in Metro Manila, illustrated by the flood depth of up to 4 m and extent of up to 6.5 km from the coastline. This information can help local government units in developing early warning systems, disaster preparedness and mitigation plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline
Baptista, M.; Miranda, J.; Omira, R.; Catalao Fernandes, J.
Lisbon city is located inside the estuary of Tagus river, 20 km away from the Atlantic ocean. The city suffered great damage from tsunamis and its downtown was flooded at least twice in 1531 and 1755. Since the installation of the tide-gage network, in the area, three tsunamis caused by submarine earthquakes, were recorded in November 1941, February 1969 and May 1975. The most destructive tsunamis listed along Tagus Estuary are the 26th January 1531, a local tsunami event restricted to the Tagus Estuary, and the well known 1st November 1755 transoceanic event, both following highly destructive earthquakes, which deeply affected Lisbon. The economic losses due to the impact of the 1755 tsunami in one of Europe’s 18t century main harbor and commercial fleets were enormous. Since then the Tagus estuary suffered strong morphologic changes manly due to dredging works, construction of commercial and industrial facilities and recreational docks, some of them already projected to preserve Lisbon. In this study we present preliminary inundation maps for the Tagus estuary area in the Lisbon County, for conditions similar to the 1755 tsunami event, but using present day bathymetric and topographic maps. Inundation modelling is made using non linear shallow water theory and the numerical code is based upon COMCOT code. Nested grids resolutions used in this study are 800 m, 200 m and 50 m, respectively. The inundation is discussed in terms of flow depth, run up height, maximum inundation area and current flow velocity. The effects of estuary modifications on tsunami propagation are also investigated.
Fang, N. Z.; Cotter, J.; Gao, S.; Bedient, P. B.; Yung, A.; Penland, C.
Hurricane Harvey struck the Gulf Coast as Category 4 on August 25, 2017 with devastating and life-threatening floods in Texas. Harris County received up to 49 inches of rainfall over a 5-day period and experienced flooding level and impacts beyond any previous storm in Houston's history. The depth-duration-frequency analysis reveals that the areal average rainfall for Brays Bayou surpasses the 500-year rainfall in both 24 and 48 hours. To cope with this unprecedented event, the researchers at the University of Texas at Arlington and Rice University worked closely with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the National Weather Service (NWS), the Texas Division of Emergency Management (TDEM), Walter P. Moore and Associates, Inc. and Halff Associates, to conduct a series of meteorological, hydrologic and hydraulic analyses to delineate flood inundation maps. Up to eight major watersheds in Harris County were delineated based the available QPE data from WGRFC. The inundation map over Brays Bayou with their impacts from Hurricane Harvey was delineated in comparison with those of 100-, 500-year, and Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) design storms. This presentation will provide insights for both engineers and planners to re-evaluate the existing flood infrastructure and policy, which will help build Houston stronger for future extreme storms. The collaborative effort among the federal, academic, and private entities clearly demonstrates an effective approach for flood inundation mapping initiatives for the nation.
Full Text Available The availability of water surface inundation with high spatial resolution is of fundamental importance in several applications such as hydrology, meteorology and ecology. Medium spatial resolution sensors, like MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, exhibit a significant potential to study inundation dynamics over large areas because of their high temporal resolution. However, the low spatial resolution provided by MODIS is not appropriate to accurately delineate inundation over small scale. Successful downscaling of water inundation from coarse to fine resolution would be crucial for improving our understanding of complex inundation characteristics over the regional scale. Therefore, in this study, we propose an innovative downscaling method based on the normalized difference water index (NDWI statistical regression algorithm towards generating small-scale resolution inundation maps from MODIS data. The method was then applied to the Poyang Lake of China. To evaluate the performance of the proposed downscaling method, qualitative and quantitative comparisons were conducted between the inundation extent of MODIS (250 m, Landsat (30 m and downscaled MODIS (30 m. The results indicated that the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation showed significant improvement over the original MODIS observations when compared with simultaneous Landsat (30 m inundation. The edges of the lakes become smoother than the results from original MODIS image and some undetected water bodies were delineated with clearer shapes in the downscaled MODIS (30 m inundation map. With respect to high-resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ derived inundation, the downscaling procedure has significantly increased the R2 and reduced RMSE and MAE both for the inundation area and for the value of landscape metrics. The main conclusion of this study is that the downscaling algorithm is promising and quite feasible for the inundation mapping over small-scale lakes.
Aires, Filipe; Prigent, Catherine; Papa, Fabrice
The Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellite (GIEMS) provides multi-year monthly variations of the global surface water extent at about 25 kmx25 km resolution, from 1993 to 2007. It is derived from multiple satellite observations. Its spatial resolution is usually compatible with climate model outputs and with global land surface model grids but is clearly not adequate for local applications that require the characterization of small individual water bodies. There is today a strong demand for high-resolution inundation extent datasets, for a large variety of applications such as water management, regional hydrological modeling, or for the analysis of mosquitos-related diseases. Even for climate applications, the GIEMS resolution might be limited given recent results on the key importance of the smallest ponds in the emission of CH4, as compared to the largest ones. If the inundation extent is combined to altimetry measurements to obtain water volume changes, and finally river discharge to the ocean (Frappart et al. 2011), then a better resolved inundation extent will also improve the accuracy of these estimates. In the context of the SWOT mission, the downscaling of GIEMS has multiple applications uses but a major one will be to use the SWOT retrievals to develop a downscaling of GIEMS. This SWOT-compatible downscaling could then be used to built a SWOT-compatible high-resolution database back in time from 1993 to the SWOT launch date. This extension of SWOT record is necessary to perform climate studies related to climate change. This paper present three approaches to do downscale GIEMS. Two basins will be considered for illustrative purpose, Amazon, Niger and Mekhong. - Aires, F., F. Papa, C. Prigent, J.-F. Cretaux and M. Berge-Nguyen, Characterization and downscaling of the inundation extent over the Inner Niger delta using a multi-wavelength retrievals and Modis data, J. of Hydrometeorology, in press, 2014. - Aires, F., F. Papa and C. Prigent, A long
Kim, Seungbum; Brisco, Brian; Poncos, Valentin
Inundation and consequent anoxic condition induce methane release, which is one of the most potent greenhouse gases. Boreal regions contain large amounts of organic carbon, which is a potentially major methane emission source under climatic warming conditions. Boreal wetlands in particular are one of the largest sources of uncertainties in global methane budget. Wetland spatial extent together with the gas release rate remains highly unknown. Characterization of the existing inundation database is poor, because of the inundation under clouds and dense vegetation. In this work, the inundation extent is derived using brightness temperature data acquired by the L-band Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite, which offers the L-band capabilities to penetrate clouds and vegetation at 3-day revisit. The fidelity of the SMAP watermask is assessed as a first step in this investigation by comparing with the following data sets: 3-m resolution maps derived using Radarsat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data in northern Canada and multi-sensor climatology over Siberia. Because Radarsat coverages are limited despite its high spatial resolution, at the time and location where Radarsats are not available, we also compare with 3-km resolution SMAP SAR data that are concurrent with the SMAP radiometer data globally until July 2015. Inundation extents were derived with Radarsat, SMAP SAR, and SMAP radiometer over the 60 km x 60km area at Peace Athabasca Delta (PAD), Canada on 6 days in spring and summer 2015. The SMAP SAR results match the locations of Radarsat waterbodies. However, the SMAP SAR underestimates the water extent, mainly over mixed pixels that have subpixel land presence. The threshold value (-3 dB) applied to the SMAP SAR was determined previously over the global domain. The threshold is dependent on the type of local landcover within a mixed pixel. Further analysis is needed to locally optimize the threshold. The SMAP radiometer water fraction over Peace
Raven, Peter H.
Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)
Martin, Zachary W.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (NWS site CRWI3).Flood profiles were computed for the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03339500, Sugar Creek at Crawfordsville, Ind., and high-water marks from the flood of April 19, 2013, which reached a stage of 15.3 feet. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 4.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 16.0 ft, which is the highest stage interval of the current USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 2 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar]) data having a 0.49-ft root mean squared error and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability
Jing, Hongmei; Lacap, Donnabella C; Lau, Chui Yim; Pointing, Stephen B
The 16S rRNA gene-defined bacterial diversity of tropical intertidal geothermal vents subject to varying degrees of seawater inundation was investigated. Shannon-Weaver diversity estimates of clone library-derived sequences revealed that the hottest pools located above the mean high-water mark that did not experience seawater inundation were most diverse, followed by those that were permanently submerged below the mean low-water mark. Pools located in the intertidal were the least biodiverse, and this is attributed to the fluctuating conditions caused by periodic seawater inundation rather than physicochemical conditions per se. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that a ubiquitous Oscillatoria-like phylotype accounted for 83% of clones. Synechococcus-like phylotypes were also encountered at each location, whilst others belonging to the Chroococcales, Oscillatoriales, and other non-phototrophic bacteria occurred only at specific locations along the gradient. All cyanobacterial phylotypes displayed highest phylogenetic affinity to terrestrial thermophilic counterparts rather than marine taxa.
DeVries, B.; Huang, W.; Huang, C.; Jones, J. W.; Lang, M. W.; Creed, I. F.; Carroll, M.
The function of wetlandscapes in hydrological and biogeochemical cycles is largely governed by surface inundation, with small wetlands that experience periodic inundation playing a disproportionately large role in these processes. However, the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of inundation in these wetland systems are still poorly understood, resulting in large uncertainties in global water, carbon and greenhouse gas budgets. Satellite imagery provides synoptic and repeat views of the Earth's surface and presents opportunities to fill this knowledge gap. Despite the proliferation of Earth Observation satellite missions in the past decade, no single satellite sensor can simultaneously provide the spatial and temporal detail needed to adequately characterize inundation in small, dynamic wetland systems. Surface water data products must therefore integrate observations from multiple satellite sensors in order to address this objective, requiring the development of improved and coordinated algorithms to generate consistent estimates of surface inundation. We present a suite of algorithms designed to detect surface inundation in wetlands using data from a virtual constellation of optical and radar sensors comprising the Landsat and Sentinel missions (DeVries et al., 2017). Both optical and radar algorithms were able to detect inundation in wetlands without the need for external training data, allowing for high-efficiency monitoring of wetland inundation at large spatial and temporal scales. Applying these algorithms across a gradient of wetlands in North America, preliminary findings suggest that while these fully automated algorithms can detect wetland inundation at higher spatial and temporal resolutions than currently available surface water data products, limitations specific to the satellite sensors and their acquisition strategies are responsible for uncertainties in inundation estimates. Further research is needed to investigate strategies for
Bates, P. D.; Smith, A.; Sampson, C. C.; Alfieri, L.; Neal, J. C.
In this work we present first validation results for a hyper-resolution global flood inundation model. We use a true hydrodynamic model (LISFLOOD-FP) to simulate flood inundation at 1km resolution globally and then use downscaling algorithms to determine flood extent and depth at 90m spatial resolution. Terrain data are taken from a custom version of the SRTM data set that has been processed specifically for hydrodynamic modelling. Return periods of flood flows along the entire global river network are determined using: (1) empirical relationships between catchment characteristics and index flood magnitude in different hydroclimatic zones derived from global runoff data; and (2) an index flood growth curve, also empirically derived. Bankful return period flow is then used to set channel width and depth, and flood defence impacts are modelled using empirical relationships between GDP, urbanization and defence standard of protection. The results of these simulations are global flood hazard maps for a number of different return period events from 1 in 5 to 1 in 1000 years. We compare these predictions to flood hazard maps developed by national government agencies in the UK and Germany using similar methods but employing detailed local data, and to observed flood extent at a number of sites including St. Louis, USA and Bangkok in Thailand. Results show that global flood hazard models can have considerable skill given careful treatment to overcome errors in the publicly available data that are used as their input.
Sep 25, 2012 ... 2College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A & F University, Yangling, ... Key words: Mouse, non-intact zona embryos, adenovirus vector with green fluorescent protein (pAd-GFP), .... Based on microscopic examination, the ZP of some ..... permeable structure of ZP that allowed penetration of.
Fátima Vanegas Zúñiga
Full Text Available El Plan de Acción para el Manejo de las Zonas Costeras de Nicaragua fue formulado durante la primera fase del programa “Manejo Integral de las Zonas Costeras de Nicaragua” (MAIZCo. La agencia ejecutora de la primera fase fue la Dirección General del Ambiente (DGA del Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARENA. Las estrategias y propuestas de acciones inmediatas formuladas en el Plan de Acción están basadas en un marco conceptual y un diagnóstico de las potencialidades y problemática de la Zona Costera. Tanto el marco conceptual como el diagnostico fueron desarrollados en un intenso proceso de interacción con los actores sustantivos. Una serie de entrevistas y talleres a nivel local, regional y nacional fueron organizados. Un primer paso incluyó la definición de los siguientes dos principios guías para el Manejo Integral de las Zonas Costeras en Nicaragua. El objetivo general del plan es facilitar un uso sostenible de los recursos naturales en las zonas Costeras de Nicaragua para el beneficio de toda la sociedad. Además, como objetivos específicos se considera contribuir al crecimiento económico; mantener la integridad de los ecosistemas costeros; contribuir a una distribución equitativa de los bienes y servicios producidos por los recursos naturales; y facilitar un efectivo y eficiente manejo. El diagnóstico de las zonas costeras incluyó: Nicaragua tiene extensivos recursos naturales en el área costera, los cuales podrían –pero no- jugar un substancial rol en el desarrollo social y económico de Nicaragua. La problemática general no es la degradación de los ecosistemas costeros, pero si en general los recursos están subexplotados y los beneficios no están bien distribuidos. Un uso indiscriminado, sin embargo, podría significar en un futuro inmediato la sobreexplotación de ecosistemas específicos (ejemplo: áreas de manglares en la costa Pacífica y especies (ejemplos: la langosta en la costa Atl
Wang, Shu; Callaway, Ragan M.; Zhou, Dao-Wei
had the strongest drought tolerance after early drought; (iii) mesic species were more likely to suffer reduced later growth after either inundation or drought experience. Invasive species benefitted more from early inundation than did native species, but native species grew better after experiencing...
Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Kongko, W.; Harig, S.; Horspool, N.; Hanung, R.; Rojali, A.; Maher, N.; Fountain, L.; Fuchs, A.; Hossen, J.; Upi, S.; Dewanto, S. E.; Cummins, P. R.
Tsunami inundation models provide fundamental information about coastal areas that may be inundated in the event of a tsunami along with additional parameters such as flow depth and velocity. This can inform disaster management activities including evacuation planning, impact and risk assessment and coastal engineering. A fundamental input to tsunami inundation models is adigital elevation model (DEM). Onshore DEMs vary widely in resolution, accuracy, availability and cost. A proper assessment of how the accuracy and resolution of DEMs translates into uncertainties in modelled inundation is needed to ensure results are appropriately interpreted and used. This assessment can in turn informdata acquisition strategies depending on the purpose of the inundation model. For example, lower accuracy elevation data may give inundation results that are sufficiently accurate to plan a community's evacuation route but not sufficient to inform engineering of a vertical evacuation shelters. A sensitivity study is undertaken to assess the utility of different available onshore digital elevation models for tsunami inundation modelling. We compare airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR), ASTER and SRTM against high resolution (historical tsunami run-up data. Large vertical errors (> 10 m) and poor resolution of the coastline in the ASTER and SRTM elevation models cause modelled inundation to be much less compared with models using better data and with observations. Therefore we recommend that ASTER and SRTM should not be used for modelling tsunami inundation in order to determine tsunami extent or any other measure of onshore tsunami hazard. We suggest that for certain disaster management applications where the important factor is the extent of inundation, such as evacuation planning, airborne IFSAR provides a good compromise between cost and accuracy; however the representation of flow parameters such as depth and velocity is not sufficient to inform detailed
Jaffe, Bruce E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Buckley, Mark L.; Watt, Steve; Apotsos, Alex; Stevens, Andrew W.; Richmond, Bruce M.
U.S. Geological Survey scientists investigated the coastal impacts of the September 29, 2009, South Pacific tsunami in Tutuila, American Samoa in October and November 2009, including mapping the alongshore variation in the limit of inundation. Knowing the inundation limit is useful for planning safer coastal development and evacuation routes for future tsunamis and for improving models of tsunami hazards. This report presents field data documenting the limit of inundation at 18 sites around Tutuila collected in the weeks following the tsunami using Differential GPS (DGPS). In total, 15,703 points along inundation lines were mapped. Estimates of DGPS error and uncertainty in interpretation of the inundation line are provided as electronic files that accompany this report.
An ensemble forecasting scheme for tsunami inundation is presented. The scheme consists of three elemental methods. The first is a hierarchical Bayesian inversion using Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC). The second is Montecarlo sampling from a probability density function of multidimensional normal distribution. The third is ensamble analysis of tsunami inundation simulations with multiple tsunami sources. Simulation based validation of the model was conducted. A tsunami scenario of M9.1 Nankai earthquake was chosen as a target of validation. Tsunami inundation around Nagoya Port was estimated by using synthetic tsunami waveforms at offshore GPS buoys. The error of estimation of tsunami inundation area was about 10% even if we used only ten minutes observation data. The estimation accuracy of waveforms on/off land and spatial distribution of maximum tsunami inundation depth is demonstrated.
Mori, Nobuhito; Mai, Paul Martin; Goda, Katsuichiro; Yasuda, Tomohiro
earthquake in the Tohoku region to conduct thorough sensitivity analyses and to quantify the inundation variability. The numerical results indicate a strong influence of the reference source models on inundation variability, and demonstrate significant
Tablazon, J.; Caro, C. V.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Briones, J. B. L.; Dasallas, L.; Lapidez, J. P.; Santiago, J.; Suarez, J. K.; Ladiero, C.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Mungcal, M. T. F.; Malano, V.
A storm surge is the sudden rise of sea water generated by an approaching storm, over and above the astronomical tides. This event imposes a major threat in the Philippine coastal areas, as manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013 where more than 6000 people lost their lives. It has become evident that the need to develop an early warning system for storm surges is of utmost importance. To provide forecasts of the possible storm surge heights of an approaching typhoon, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-Project NOAH) simulated historical tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility. Bathymetric data, storm track, central atmospheric pressure, and maximum wind speed were used as parameters for the Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge Model. The researchers calculated the frequency distribution of maximum storm surge heights of all typhoons under a specific Public Storm Warning Signal (PSWS) that passed through a particular coastal area. This determines the storm surge height corresponding to a given probability of occurrence. The storm surge heights from the model were added to the maximum astronomical tide data from WXTide software. The team then created maps of probable area inundation and flood levels of storm surges along coastal areas for a specific PSWS using the results of the frequency distribution. These maps were developed from the time series data of the storm tide at 10 min intervals of all observation points in the Philippines. This information will be beneficial in developing early warnings systems, static maps, disaster mitigation and preparedness plans, vulnerability assessments, risk-sensitive land use plans, shoreline defense efforts, and coastal protection measures. Moreover, these will support the local government units' mandate to raise public awareness, disseminate information about storm surge hazards, and implement appropriate counter
Full Text Available Detailed information about coastal inundation is vital to understanding dynamic and populated areas that are impacted by storm surge and flooding. To understand these natural hazard risks, lidar elevation surfaces are frequently used to model inundation in coastal areas. A single-value surface method is sometimes used to inundate areas in lidar elevation surfaces that are below a specified elevation value. However, such an approach does not take into consideration hydrologic connectivity between elevation grids cells resulting in inland areas that should be hydrologically connected to the ocean, but are not. Because inland areas that should drain to the ocean are hydrologically disconnected by raised features in a lidar elevation surface, simply raising the water level to propagate coastal inundation will lead to inundation uncertainties. We took advantage of this problem to identify hydrologically disconnected inland areas to point out that they should be considered for coastal inundation, and that a lidar-based hydrologic surface should be developed with hydrologic connectivity prior to inundation analysis. The process of achieving hydrologic connectivity with hydrologic-enforcement is not new, however, the application of hydrologically-enforced lidar elevation surfaces for improved coastal inundation mapping as approached in this research is innovative. In this article, we propagated a high-resolution lidar elevation surface in coastal Staten Island, New York to demonstrate that inland areas lacking hydrologic connectivity to the ocean could potentially be included in inundation delineations. For inland areas that were hydrologically disconnected, we evaluated if drainage to the ocean was evident, and calculated an area exceeding 11 ha (~0.11 km2 that could be considered in inundation delineations. We also assessed land cover for each inland area to determine the type of physical surfaces that would be potentially impacted if the inland areas
Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.
Detailed information about coastal inundation is vital to understanding dynamic and populated areas that are impacted by storm surge and flooding. To understand these natural hazard risks, lidar elevation surfaces are frequently used to model inundation in coastal areas. A single-value surface method is sometimes used to inundate areas in lidar elevation surfaces that are below a specified elevation value. However, such an approach does not take into consideration hydrologic connectivity between elevation grids cells resulting in inland areas that should be hydrologically connected to the ocean, but are not. Because inland areas that should drain to the ocean are hydrologically disconnected by raised features in a lidar elevation surface, simply raising the water level to propagate coastal inundation will lead to inundation uncertainties. We took advantage of this problem to identify hydrologically disconnected inland areas to point out that they should be considered for coastal inundation, and that a lidar-based hydrologic surface should be developed with hydrologic connectivity prior to inundation analysis. The process of achieving hydrologic connectivity with hydrologic-enforcement is not new, however, the application of hydrologically-enforced lidar elevation surfaces for improved coastal inundation mapping as approached in this research is innovative. In this article, we propagated a high-resolution lidar elevation surface in coastal Staten Island, New York to demonstrate that inland areas lacking hydrologic connectivity to the ocean could potentially be included in inundation delineations. For inland areas that were hydrologically disconnected, we evaluated if drainage to the ocean was evident, and calculated an area exceeding 11 ha (~0.11 km2) that could be considered in inundation delineations. We also assessed land cover for each inland area to determine the type of physical surfaces that would be potentially impacted if the inland areas were considered as
Spaulding, M. L.
The vision for STORMTOOLS is to provide access to a suite of coastal planning tools (numerical models et al), available as a web service, that allows wide spread accessibly and applicability at high resolution for user selected coastal areas of interest. The first product developed under this framework were flood inundation maps, with and without sea level rise, for varying return periods for RI coastal waters. The flood mapping methodology is based on using the water level vs return periods at a primary NOAA water level gauging station and then spatially scaling the values, based on the predictions of high resolution, storm and wave simulations performed by Army Corp of Engineers, North Atlantic Comprehensive Coastal Study (NACCS) for tropical and extratropical storms on an unstructured grid, to estimate inundation levels for varying return periods. The scaling for the RI application used Newport, RI water levels as the reference point. Predictions are provided for once in 25, 50, and 100 yr return periods (at the upper 95% confidence level), with sea level rises of 1, 2, 3, and 5 ft. Simulations have also been performed for historical hurricane events including 1938, Carol (1954), Bob (1991), and Sandy (2012) and nuisance flooding events with return periods of 1, 3, 5, and 10 yr. Access to the flooding maps is via a web based, map viewer that seamlessly covers all coastal waters of the state at one meter resolution. The GIS structure of the map viewer allows overlays of additional relevant data sets (roads and highways, wastewater treatment facilities, schools, hospitals, emergency evacuation routes, etc.) as desired by the user. The simplified flooding maps are publically available and are now being implemented for state and community resilience planning and vulnerability assessment activities in response to climate change impacts.
Full Text Available Various types of artificial neural networks (ANNs have been successfully applied in hydrological fields, but relatively scant on multistep-ahead flood inundation forecasting, which is very difficult to achieve, especially when dealing with forecasts without regular observed data. This study proposes a recurrent configuration of nonlinear autoregressive with exogenous inputs (NARX network, called R-NARX, to forecast multistep-ahead inundation depths in an inundation area. The proposed R-NARX is constructed based on the recurrent neural network (RNN, which is commonly used for modeling nonlinear dynamical systems. The models were trained and tested based on a large number of inundation data generated by a well validated two-dimensional simulation model at thirteen inundation-prone sites in Yilan County, Taiwan. We demonstrate that the R-NARX model can effectively inhibit error growth and accumulation when being applied to online multistep-ahead inundation forecasts over a long lasting forecast period. For comparison, a feedforward time-delay and an online feedback configuration of NARX networks (T-NARX and O-NARX were performed. The results show that (1 T-NARX networks cannot make online forecasts due to unavailable inputs in the constructed networks even though they provide the best performances for reference only; and (2 R-NARX networks consistently outperform O-NARX networks and can be adequately applied to online multistep-ahead forecasts of inundation depths in the study area during typhoon events.
Tsai, C.; Yeh, J. J. J.
A primary function of flood inundation mapping is to forecast flood hazards and assess potential losses. However, uncertainties limit the reliability of inundation hazard assessments. Major sources of uncertainty should be taken into consideration by an optimal flood management strategy. This study focuses on the 20km reach downstream of the Shihmen Reservoir in Taiwan. A dam failure induced flood herein provides the upstream boundary conditions of flood routing. The two major sources of uncertainty that are considered in the hydraulic model and the flood inundation mapping herein are uncertainties in the dam break model and uncertainty of the roughness coefficient. The perturbance moment method is applied to a dam break model and the hydro system model to develop probabilistic flood inundation mapping. Various numbers of uncertain variables can be considered in these models and the variability of outputs can be quantified. The probabilistic flood inundation mapping for dam break induced floods can be developed with consideration of the variability of output using a commonly used HEC-RAS model. Different probabilistic flood inundation mappings are discussed and compared. Probabilistic flood inundation mappings are hoped to provide new physical insights in support of the evaluation of concerning reservoir flooded areas.
Hosseiny, S. M. H.; Zarzar, C.; Gomez, M.; Siddique, R.; Smith, V.; Mejia, A.; Demir, I.
The National Water Model (NWM) provides a platform for operationalize nationwide flood inundation forecasting and mapping. The ability to model flood inundation on a national scale will provide invaluable information to decision makers and local emergency officials. Often, forecast products use deterministic model output to provide a visual representation of a single inundation scenario, which is subject to uncertainty from various sources. While this provides a straightforward representation of the potential inundation, the inherent uncertainty associated with the model output should be considered to optimize this tool for decision making support. The goal of this study is to produce ensembles of future flood inundation conditions (i.e. extent, depth, and velocity) to spatially quantify and visually assess uncertainties associated with the predicted flood inundation maps. The setting for this study is located in a highly urbanized watershed along the Darby Creek in Pennsylvania. A forecasting framework coupling the NWM with multiple hydraulic models was developed to produce a suite ensembles of future flood inundation predictions. Time lagged ensembles from the NWM short range forecasts were used to account for uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecasts. The forecasts from the NWM were input to iRIC and HEC-RAS two-dimensional software packages, from which water extent, depth, and flow velocity were output. Quantifying the agreement between output ensembles for each forecast grid provided the uncertainty metrics for predicted flood water inundation extent, depth, and flow velocity. For visualization, a series of flood maps that display flood extent, water depth, and flow velocity along with the underlying uncertainty associated with each of the forecasted variables were produced. The results from this study demonstrate the potential to incorporate and visualize model uncertainties in flood inundation maps in order to identify the high flood risk zones.
Vajta, G; Peura, T T; Holm, P; Páldi, A; Greve, T; Trounson, A O; Callesen, H
Culture of mammalian zygotes individually and in small groups results in lower developmental rates than culture of large groups. Zona-free zygotes also have impaired developmental potential in current culture systems. This paper describes a new approach to resolve the problems, the Well of the Well (WOW) system. Small wells (WOWs) were formed in four-well dishes by melting the bottom with heated steel rods. The WOWs were then rinsed, the wells were filled with medium, and the embryos were placed into the WOWs. To test the value of the WOW system a 3 x 3 factorial experiment was performed. Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured from day 1 to day 7 (day 0: day of insemination) using three modules (single embryos, embryo groups of five, or single zona-digested embryos) and three different culture systems (400 microl medium, 200 microl drops, or WOWs). An additional control group consisted of 40 to 50 embryos cultured in 400 microl medium. The WOW system resulted in higher blastocyst/oocyte rates for all three modules (single: 59%; group of five: 61%; single zona-digested: 53%) than the culture in drops or in wells (P WOWs per well. The cell number of blastocysts cultured in the WOW system did not differ from that of the controls. Apart from its theoretical value in revealing the role of different factors influencing embryo development in vitro, the WOW system may have immediate practical consequences in certain areas of mammalian embryo production. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Trusdell, Frank A.; Zoeller, Michael H.
Lava flows from Mauna Loa volcano, on the Island of Hawaiʻi, constitute a significant hazard to people and property. This report addresses those lava flow hazards, mapping 18 potential lava inundation zones on the island.
Fowler, Kathleen K.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.3-mile reach of the White River near Edwardsport, (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03360730, White River near Edwardsport, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site (site EDWI3.)
Loeb, Roos; Lamers, Leon P.M.; Roelofs, Jan G.M.
After flooding, iron reduction in riverine wetlands may cause the release of large quantities of phosphorus. As phosphorus is an important nutrient causing eutrophication in aquatic systems, it is important to have a tool to predict this potential release. In this study we examined the P release to the soil pore water in soil cores from floodplains in the Netherlands and from less anthropogenically influenced floodplains from Poland. During the inundation experiment, concentrations of P in the pore water rose to 2-90 times the initial concentrations. P release was not directly related to the geographic origin of the soils. An important predictor variable of P release was found in the ratio between the concentration of iron-bound P and amorphous iron. This ratio may provide a practical tool for the selection of new areas for wetland creation, and for impact assessment of plans for riverine wetland restoration and floodwater storage. - Mobilisation of phosphorus in floodplain wetland soils can be predicted with easily measurable soil characteristics
Loeb, Roos [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Lamers, Leon P.M.; Roelofs, Jan G.M. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)
After flooding, iron reduction in riverine wetlands may cause the release of large quantities of phosphorus. As phosphorus is an important nutrient causing eutrophication in aquatic systems, it is important to have a tool to predict this potential release. In this study we examined the P release to the soil pore water in soil cores from floodplains in the Netherlands and from less anthropogenically influenced floodplains from Poland. During the inundation experiment, concentrations of P in the pore water rose to 2-90 times the initial concentrations. P release was not directly related to the geographic origin of the soils. An important predictor variable of P release was found in the ratio between the concentration of iron-bound P and amorphous iron. This ratio may provide a practical tool for the selection of new areas for wetland creation, and for impact assessment of plans for riverine wetland restoration and floodwater storage. - Mobilisation of phosphorus in floodplain wetland soils can be predicted with easily measurable soil characteristics.
Barberopoulou, A.; Rees, D.
Numerical simulations are commonly used to help estimate tsunami hazard, improve evacuation plans, issue or cancel tsunami warnings, inform forecasting and hazard assessments and have therefore become an integral part of hazard mitigation among the tsunami community. Many numerical codes exist for simulating tsunamis, most of which have undergone extensive benchmarking and testing. Tsunami hazard or risk assessments employ these codes following a deterministic or probabilistic approach. Depending on the scope these studies may or may not consider uncertainty in the numerical simulations, the effects of tides, variable friction or estimate financial losses, none of which are necessarily trivial. Distributed manning coefficients, the roughness coefficients used in hydraulic modeling, are commonly used in simulating both riverine and pluvial flood events however, their use in tsunami hazard assessments is primarily part of limited scope studies and for the most part, not a standard practice. For this work, we investigate variations in manning coefficients and their effects on tsunami inundation extent, pattern and financial loss. To assign manning coefficients we use land use maps that come from the New Zealand Land Cover Database (LCDB) and more recent data from the Ministry of the Environment. More than 40 classes covering different types of land use are combined into major classes such as cropland, grassland and wetland representing common types of land use in New Zealand, each of which is assigned a unique manning coefficient. By utilizing different data sources for variable manning coefficients, we examine the impact of data sources and classification methodology on the accuracy of model outputs.
Bulliner, E. A., IV; Lindner, G. A.; Bouska, K.; Paukert, C.; Jacobson, R. B.
Within large-river ecosystems, floodplains serve a variety of important ecological functions. A recent survey of 80 managers of floodplain conservation lands along the Upper and Middle Mississippi and Lower Missouri Rivers in the central United States found that the most critical information needed to improve floodplain management centered on metrics for characterizing depth, extent, frequency, duration, and timing of inundation. These metrics can be delivered to managers efficiently through cloud-based interactive maps. To calculate these metrics, we interpolated an existing one-dimensional hydraulic model for the Lower Missouri River, which simulated water surface elevations at cross sections spaced (step. To translate these water surface elevations to inundation depths, we subtracted a merged terrain model consisting of floodplain LIDAR and bathymetric surveys of the river channel. This approach resulted in a 29000+ day time series of inundation depths across the floodplain using grid cells with 30 m spatial resolution. Initially, we used these data on a local workstation to calculate a suite of nine spatially distributed inundation metrics for the entire model domain. These metrics are calculated on a per pixel basis and encompass a variety of temporal criteria generally relevant to flora and fauna of interest to floodplain managers, including, for example, the average number of days inundated per year within a growing season. Using a local workstation, calculating these metrics for the entire model domain requires several hours. However, for the needs of individual floodplain managers working at site scales, these metrics may be too general and inflexible. Instead of creating a priori a suite of inundation metrics able to satisfy all user needs, we present the usage of Google's cloud-based Earth Engine API to allow users to define and query their own inundation metrics from our dataset and produce maps nearly instantaneously. This approach allows users to
Strauch, Kellan R.
Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of the St. Marys River at Decatur, Indiana, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/), depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) of the St. Marys River at Decatur (USGS station number 04181500). The maps are useful for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation by referencing concurrent USGS streamgage information at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, the streamgage information was provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed during this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.
Pérez Lozano, David
El objetivo del proyecto es el levantamiento topográfico tanto del Auditorio El Batel como de la carretera, rotonda y césped justo debajo de la muralla para así poseer de unos planos más actualizados que complementen los ya hechos en su día y que por tanto han quedado desfasados debido a la metamorfosis que ha experimentado, especialmente, la zona en la que ahora yace El Batel. El proyecto está ubicado en la ciudad de Cartagena cuyo emplazamiento es el Auditorio El Batel, Paseo...
Aristizabal, F.; Judge, J.
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been widely used to detect surface water inundation and provides an advantage over multi-spectral instruments due to cloud penetration and higher spatial resolutions. However, detecting inundation for densely vegetated and urban areas with SAR remains a challenge due to corner reflection and diffuse scattering. Additionally, flat urban surfaces such as roads exhibit similar backscatter coefficients as urban surface water. Differences between inundated and non-inundated backscatter over vegetated land covers of static spatial domains have been demonstrated in previous studies. However, these backscatter differences are sensitive to changes in water depth, soil moisture, SAR sensor parameters, terrain, and vegetation properties. These factors tend to make accurate inundation mapping of heterogeneous regions across varying spatial and temporal extents difficult with exclusive use of SAR. This study investigates the utility of auxiliary data specifically high-resolution (10m) terrain information in conjunction with SAR (10m) for detecting inundated areas. Digital elevation models provide an absolute elevation which could enhance inundation mapping given a limited study extent with similar topography. To counter this limitation, a hydrologically relevant terrain index is proposed known as the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) which normalizes topography to the local relative elevation of the nearest point along the relevant drainage line. HAND has been used for assisting remote sensing inundation mapping in the pre-processing stage as a terrain correction tool and as a post-processing mask that eliminates areas of low inundation risk. While the latter technique is useful for reduction of commission errors, it does not employ HAND for reducing omission errors that can occur from dense vegetation, spectral noise, and urban features. Sentinel-1 dual-pol SAR as well as auxiliary HAND will be used as predictors by various supervised and
Jang, Dongmin; Park, Junghyun; Yuk, Jin-Hee; Joh, MinSu
Due to typhoons, the south coastal cities including Busan in South Korea coastal are very vulnerable to a surge, wave and corresponding coastal inundation, and are affected every year. In 2016, South Korea suffered tremendous damage by typhoon 'Chaba', which was developed near east-north of Guam on Sep. 28 and had maximum 10-minute sustained wind speed of about 50 m/s, 1-minute sustained wind speed of 75 m/s and a minimum central pressure of 905 hpa. As 'Chaba', which is the strongest since typhoon 'Maemi' in 2003, hit South Korea on Oct. 5, it caused a massive economic and casualty damage to Ulsan, Gyeongju and Busan in South Korea. In particular, the damage of typhoon-induced coastal inundation in Busan, where many high-rise buildings and residential areas are concentrated near coast, was serious. The coastal inundation could be more affected by strong wind-induced wave than surge. In fact, it was observed that the surge height was about 1 m averagely and a significant wave height was about 8 m at coastal sea nearby Busan on Oct. 5 due to 'Chaba'. Even though the typhoon-induced surge elevated the sea level, the typhoon-induced long period wave with wave period of more than 15s could play more important role in the inundation. The present work simulated the coastal inundation induced by 'Chaba' in Busan, South Korea considering the effects of typhoon-induced surge and wave. For 'Chaba' hindcast, high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) was applied using a reanalysis data produced by NCEP (FNL 0.25 degree) on the boundary and initial conditions, and was validated by the observation of wind speed, direction and pressure. The typhoon-induced coastal inundation was simulated by an unstructured gird model, Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM), which is fully current-wave coupled model. To simulate the wave-induced inundation, 1-way downscaling technique of multi domain was applied. Firstly, a mother's domain including Korean peninsula was
Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves
Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species' specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it
Melack, J. M.; MacIntyre, S.; Forsberg, B. R.; Amaral, J. H.; Barbosa, P.
Inundation areas and wetland habitats for the lowland Amazon basin derived remote sensing with synthetic aperture radar are combined with measurements of greenhouse gas evasion derived from field measurements and new formulations of atmosphere-water. On-going field studies in representative aquatic habitats on the central Amazon floodplain are combining monthly measurements of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations and fluxes to the atmosphere with deployment of meteorological sensors and high-resolution thermistors and optical dissolved oxygen sensors. A real-time cavity ringdown spectrometer is being used to determine the gas concentrations; vertical profiles were obtained by using an equilibrator to extract gases from water, and floating chambers are used to assess fluxes. Gas fluxes varied as a function of season, habitat and water depth. Greatest carbon dioxide fluxes occurred during high and falling water levels. During low water, periods with high chlorophyll, indicative of phytoplankton, the flux of carbon dioxide switched from being emitted from the lake to being taken-up by the lake some of the time. The highest pCO2 concentration (5500 μatm) was about three times higher than the median (1700 μatm). Higher CO2 fluxes were observed in open water than in areas with flooded or floating vegetation. In contrast, methane fluxes were higher in vegetated regions. We measured turbulence as rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy based on microstructure profiling. Comparison of these measurements with those calculated from meteorological and time series measurements validated new equations for turbulent kinetic energy dissipation (TKE) rates during moderate winds and cooling and illustrated that the highest dissipation rates occurred under heating. Measured gas exchange coefficients (k600) were similar to those based on the TKE dissipation rates and are well described using the surface renewal model. These k values are several times higher than
Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Li, Juan
μg mL–1 cytochalasin B and 10 μg mL–1 cycloheximide in PZM-3 medium for 4 h. ZP was removed by 3.3 mg mL–1 pronase. Both zona-intact (PAZI) and zona-free (PAZF) embryos were cultured individually for 6 days either in time-lapse incubator (Embryoscope D, Unisense A/S, Aarhus, Denmark) for 15-min......). The timing of morulae was recorded when they completed compaction. Good blastocysts were defined when they expanded to 1.5 times larger than oocytes and formed regular blastocoel cavity with uniform colour and distribution of cells. Timing data were analysed by Student's t-test, while development rates....... 22, 234). In the present study, we expanded this study to include also the timing of early development and the resulting quality and robustness (for vitrification) of porcine PA embryos. Parthenogenetic activation was made first by an electric pulse (1.26 kV cm–1, 80 μs) and then by incubation with 5...
Full Text Available The Ogallala Aquifer is an important source of irrigation water on the Texas High plains; however, significant decreases in saturated thickness threaten its future use for irrigation. A better understanding of the roles of playas, ephemeral surface ponds, in aquifer recharge is needed to establish levels of withdrawals that will meet either established desired future conditions or sustainability. In this study, data regarding playa inundation, depth to groundwater, precipitation and land cover from 2001 to 2011 were collected and analyzed to ascertain associations between these characteristics for four study areas on the Texas High plains. Each area covered 40,000–70,000 ha. Three of the study areas in Hockley, Floyd and Swisher counties were chosen because their center contained a playa instrumented to measure weather and depth of inundation. There were 20 distinct inundation events at the three instrumented playas between 2006 and 2010. For each of these inundations, water loss exceeded rates of potential evapotranspiration (ET by a factor of 1.6–15.7 times, implying that infiltration was occurring. Playa inundation in all four study areas was also assessed by analyzing images from the National Agricultural Imaginary program. Data on depth to groundwater were analyzed from 2000 to 2010 to determine annual changes of stored water. Annual changes in groundwater were weakly associated with surface area of inundated playas in late summer, but was strongly associated with annual rainfall. Rates of infiltration based on playa water loss versus potential ET, and volume of water in playas was more than sufficient to account for annual changes in groundwater. Land use adjoining the playas had less of influence on playa inundation than annual rainfall. These results strengthen the argument that water storage in playas on the Texas High Plains is an important source of water for aquifer recharge.
Kristina A. Dahl
Full Text Available Recurrent, tidally driven coastal flooding is one of the most visible signs of sea level rise. Recent studies have shown that such flooding will become more frequent and extensive as sea level continues to rise, potentially altering the landscape and livability of coastal communities decades before sea level rise causes coastal land to be permanently inundated. In this study, we identify US communities that will face effective inundation—defined as having 10% or more of livable land area flooded at least 26 times per year—with three localized sea level rise scenarios based on projections for the 3rd US National Climate Assessment. We present these results in a new, online interactive tool that allows users to explore when and how effective inundation will impact their communities. In addition, we identify communities facing effective inundation within the next 30 years that contain areas of high socioeconomic vulnerability today using a previously published vulnerability index. With the Intermediate-High and Highest sea level rise scenarios, 489 and 668 communities, respectively, would face effective inundation by the year 2100. With these two scenarios, more than half of communities facing effective inundation by 2045 contain areas of current high socioeconomic vulnerability. These results highlight the timeframes that US coastal communities have to respond to disruptive future inundation. The results also underscore the importance of limiting future warming and sea level rise: under the Intermediate-Low scenario, used as a proxy for sea level rise under the Paris Climate Agreement, 199 fewer communities would be effectively inundated by 2100.
Kuldeep, K.; Garg, P. K.; Garg, R. D.
The frequent occurrence of repeated flood events in many regions of the world causing damage to human life and property has augmented the need for effective flood risk management. Microwave satellite data is becoming an indispensable asset for monitoring of many environmental and climatic applications as numerous space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors are offering the data with high spatial resolutions and multi-polarization capabilities. The implementation and execution of Flood mapping, monitoring and management applications has become easier with the availability of SAR data which has obvious advantages over optical data due to its all weather, day and night capabilities. In this study, the exploitation of the SAR dataset for hydraulic modelling and disaster management has been highlighted using feature extraction techniques for water area identification and water level extraction within the floodplain. The availability of high precision digital elevation model generated from the Cartosat-1 stereo pairs has enhanced the capability of retrieving the water depth maps by incorporating the SAR derived flood extent maps. This paper illustrates the flood event on June 2013 in Yamuna River, Haryana, India. The water surface profile computed by combining the topographic data with the RISAT-1 data accurately reflects the true water line. Water levels that were computed by carrying out the modelling using hydraulic model in HECRAS also suggest that the water surface profiles provided by the combined use of topographic data and SAR accurately reflect the true water line. The proposed approach has also been found better in extraction of inundation within vegetated areas.
Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.
Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad
En esta investigación se busca encontrar un balance entre el diseño de un espacio tropical, y las pautas acústicas necesarias para el estudio musical, aprovechando al máximo la energía natural del ambiente y el clima tropical de la zona. Para ello, se analizan casos a nivel nacional e internacional, se estudia al usuario y se genera una discusión con base en los resultados obtenidos y la información bibliográfica obtenida en la investigación.
Borggaard, Ole K.
and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...
Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a
Full Text Available Seventeen neglected tropical diseases (NTDs have been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO. It is estimated that over 1 billion people are infected with NTDs, with a further 1 billion at risk. The majority of NTDs occur in the tropics and sub-tropics and have particular characteristics in common.
Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific contributions in the field of freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One issue is published annually but this number may be increased. Original research papers and short communications on any aspect of tropical freshwater ...
Gláucia Moraes Dias
Full Text Available The climatic characteristics of the country favor the cultivation of tropical flowers. The continued expansion of this market is due the beauty, exoticit nature and postharvest longevity of flower. However, little is known about the postharvest of tropical plants. Therefore, this paper provides information on harvest, handling and storage of cut tropical plantspostharvest, storage temperature, conditioning solution.
Lentz, Erika E.; Thieler, E. Robert; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Stippa, Sawyer R.; Horton, Radley M.; Gesch, Dean B.
Sea-level rise (SLR) poses a range of threats to natural and built environments, making assessments of SLR-induced hazards essential for informed decision making. We develop a probabilistic model that evaluates the likelihood that an area will inundate (flood) or dynamically respond (adapt) to SLR. The broad-area applicability of the approach is demonstrated by producing 30x30m resolution predictions for more than 38,000 sq km of diverse coastal landscape in the northeastern United States. Probabilistic SLR projections, coastal elevation and vertical land movement are used to estimate likely future inundation levels. Then, conditioned on future inundation levels and the current land-cover type, we evaluate the likelihood of dynamic response versus inundation. We find that nearly 70% of this coastal landscape has some capacity to respond dynamically to SLR, and we show that inundation models over-predict land likely to submerge. This approach is well suited to guiding coastal resource management decisions that weigh future SLR impacts and uncertainty against ecological targets and economic constraints.
DeVries, Ben; Huang, Chengquan; Lang, Megan W.; Jones, John W.; Huang, Wenli; Creed, Irena F.; Carroll, Mark L.
We present a fully automated and scalable algorithm for quantifying surface water inundation in wetlands. Requiring no external training data, our algorithm estimates sub-pixel water fraction (SWF) over large areas and long time periods using Landsat data. We tested our SWF algorithm over three wetland sites across North America, including the Prairie Pothole Region, the Delmarva Peninsula and the Everglades, representing a gradient of inundation and vegetation conditions. We estimated SWF at 30-m resolution with accuracies ranging from a normalized root-mean-square-error of 0.11 to 0.19 when compared with various high-resolution ground and airborne datasets. SWF estimates were more sensitive to subtle inundated features compared to previously published surface water datasets, accurately depicting water bodies, large heterogeneously inundated surfaces, narrow water courses and canopy-covered water features. Despite this enhanced sensitivity, several sources of errors affected SWF estimates, including emergent or floating vegetation and forest canopies, shadows from topographic features, urban structures and unmasked clouds. The automated algorithm described in this article allows for the production of high temporal resolution wetland inundation data products to support a broad range of applications.
Nystrom, Elizabeth A.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 2.6-mile reach of the Schoharie Creek at Prattsville, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Schoharie Creek at Prattsville (station number 01350000). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained online from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/) or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/), which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site. National Weather Service-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas and depths of flood inundation.
Full Text Available This paper proposes a new rapid simplified inundation model (NRSIM for flood inundation caused by rainstorms in an urban setting that can simulate the urban rainstorm inundation extent and depth in a data-scarce area. Drainage basins delineated from a floodplain map according to the distribution of the inundation sources serve as the calculation cells of NRSIM. To reduce data requirements and computational costs of the model, the internal topography of each calculation cell is simplified to a circular cone, and a mass conservation equation based on a volume spreading algorithm is established to simulate the interior water filling process. Moreover, an improved D8 algorithm is outlined for the simulation of water spilling between different cells. The performance of NRSIM is evaluated by comparing the simulated results with those from a traditional rapid flood spreading model (TRFSM for various resolutions of digital elevation model (DEM data. The results are as follows: (1 given high-resolution DEM data input, the TRFSM model has better performance in terms of precision than NRSIM; (2 the results from TRFSM are seriously affected by the decrease in DEM data resolution, whereas those from NRSIM are not; and (3 NRSIM always requires less computational time than TRFSM. Apparently, compared with the complex hydrodynamic or traditional rapid flood spreading model, NRSIM has much better applicability and cost-efficiency in real-time urban inundation forecasting for data-sparse areas.
Hu, Maochuan; Sayama, Takahiro; Zhang, Xingqi; Tanaka, Kenji; Takara, Kaoru; Yang, Hong
Low impact development (LID) has attracted growing attention as an important approach for urban flood mitigation. Most studies evaluating LID performance for mitigating floods focus on the changes of peak flow and runoff volume. This paper assessed the performance of LID practices for mitigating flood inundation hazards as retrofitting technologies in an urbanized watershed in Nanjing, China. The findings indicate that LID practices are effective for flood inundation mitigation at the watershed scale, and especially for reducing inundated areas with a high flood hazard risk. Various scenarios of LID implementation levels can reduce total inundated areas by 2%-17% and areas with a high flood hazard level by 6%-80%. Permeable pavement shows better performance than rainwater harvesting against mitigating urban waterlogging. The most efficient scenario is combined rainwater harvesting on rooftops with a cistern capacity of 78.5 mm and permeable pavement installed on 75% of non-busy roads and other impervious surfaces. Inundation modeling is an effective approach to obtaining the information necessary to guide decision-making for designing LID practices at watershed scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available GIS (Geographic Information System can be used to combine multiple hydrologic data and geographic data for FIA (Flood Impact Assessment. For a developing country like China, a lot of geographic data is in the CAD (Computer Aided Design format. The commonly used method for converting CAD into DEM may result in data loss. This paper introduces a solution for the conversion between CAD data and DEM data. The method has been applied to the FIA based on the topographic map of CAD in Hanjiang River. When compared with the other method, the new method solves the data loss problem. Besides, the paper use GIS to simulate the inundation range, area, and the depth distribution of flood backwater. Based on the analysis, the author concludes: (1 the differences of the inundation areas between the flood of HQ100 and the flood of HQ50 are small. (2 The inundation depth shows a decreasing trend along the upstream of the river. (3 The inundation area less than 4 m in flood of HQ50 is larger than that in flood of HQ100, the result is opposite when the inundation depth is greater than 4 m. (4 The flood loss is 392.32 million RMB for flood of HQ50 and 610.02 million RMB for flood of HQ100. The method can be applied to FIA.
Full Text Available With the increase in urbanization, the surface of earth and its climate are changing. These changes resulted in more frequent floodingand storm inundation in urban areas. The challenges of flooding can be addressed through several computational procedures. Due to its numerous advantages, accessible web services can be chosen as a proper format for determining the storm inundation. Web services have facilitated the integration and interactivity of the web applications. Such services made the interaction between machines more feasible. Web services enable the heterogeneous software systems to communicate with each other. A Web Processing Service (WPS makes it possible to process spatial data with different formats. In this study, we developed a WPS to automatically calculate the amount of storm inundation caused by rainfall in urban areas. The method we used for calculating the storm inundation is based on a simplified hydrologic model which estimates the final status of inundation. The simulation process and water transfer between subcatchments are carried out respectively, without user’s interference. The implementation of processing functions in a form of processing web services gives the capability to reuse the services and apply them in other services. As a result, it would avoid creating the duplicate resources.
Full Text Available China’s largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake, is characterized by rapid changes in its inundation area and hydrodynamics, so in this study, a hydrodynamic model of Poyang Lake was established to simulate these long-term changes. Inundation information was extracted from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS remote sensing data and used to calibrate the wetting and drying parameter by assessing the accuracy of the simulated inundation area and its boundary. The bottom friction parameter was calibrated using current velocity measurements from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP. The results show the model is capable of predicting the inundation area dynamic through cross-validation with remotely sensed inundation data, and can reproduce the seasonal dynamics of the water level, and water discharge through a comparison with hydrological data. Based on the model results, the characteristics of the current velocities of the lake in the wet season and the dry season of the lake were explored, and the potential effect of the current dynamic on water quality patterns was discussed. The model is a promising basic tool for prediction and management of the water resource and water quality of Poyang Lake.
Fernando Glasinovic Duhalde
La ciudad de la Serena vive hoy Llna compleja crisis de crecimiento. Se duplican sus habitantes cada 30 .lúas, pero es(;"Í dejando vacío el casco histótico. ¿Seguirá extendiéndose ilimitadamente o crecerá "desde dentro" ocupando grandes manzanas edificadas pero vacías de gente. Este trabajo, que no es la historia de una acción terminada sino más bien la relación de su inicio, revisa aspectos relevantes a considerar en la delimitación de la Zona Típica de la Ciudad, comenzando el análisis desd...
Jevtić Radoje B.
Full Text Available One of the most important and the most complex tasks in human protection and human safety in objects is the projecting of the object evacuation. There are many factors that could effect on the opportune living of object such as object assignment, arrangement of rooms, arrangement of furniture, arrangement of exits, occupant speed and many other that human lives and material properties depend on. This is very important for objects with great number of humans, such as high residential objects, shopping centers, schools, hospitals etc. This paper has written to show the possible evacuation situations and calculate minimal time for evacuation in case of the shopping center 'Zona I' in Niš.
Pérez de Arce,Rodrigo
¿El árbol urbano como mitigación? ¡Falso! Desmontando el sentido supuesto para el "impacto ambiental", tan usado por algunas corrientes actuales del urbanismo, Pérez de Arce reinvindica las zonas áridas del planeta como origen del jardín y la ciudad. A partir de la revisión de la incorporación del árbol en el espacio público santiaguino, la discusión se centra en la relación entre sequía, sombra, trazados y la capacidad del jardín y la arquitectura de generar una cualidad ambiental urbana....
Jose Luis Javier Pérez Martín
Full Text Available El conocimiento de la historia de la conservación de nuestro Patrimonio Construido, precisa del estudio del marco político y social de cada periodo, la integración de las corrientes internacionales, su adaptación, desarrollo normativo, estructuras organizativas, etc., para finalmente prestar atención a las personas que llevaron a cabo las intervenciones, entendiendo su propio debate intelectual y crítico. Entre las distintas respuestas estructuradas, encontramos un grupo de Arquitectos dotados de entidad propia, respaldados por un amplio marco legislativo, al que no se ha prestado una atención específica como grupo, aunque si a sus componentes, dada su notoriedad individual. Nos referimos a los denominados Arquitectos de Zona o Arquitectos Conservadores de Zona, cuya figura es fijada por la Ley de 1933, o mejor dicho por su Reglamento de 1936, aunque su existencia es anterior, permaneciendo hasta los albores de la Democracia. Abstract The knowledge of the history of the conservation of our Built Heritage, requires the study of the political and social framework of each period, the integration of international currents, their adaptation, normative development, organizational structures, etc., to finally pay attention to the people who carried out the interventions understanding their own intellectual and critical debate. Among the different structured responses, we find a group of architects endowed with their own entity, backed by a broad legislative framework, which has not been given specific attention as a group, although its components, given its individual notoriety. We refer to the so-called Zone Architects or Area Conservation Architects, whose figure is set by the Law of 1933, or rather by its Regulations of 1936, although its existence is earlier, remaining until the dawn of Democracy.
Jesús Ballesteros C
Full Text Available Objetivo. Contribuir al conocimiento de la diversidad de especies de murciélagos en cuatro localidades de la subregión costanera del departamento de Córdoba. Materiales y métodos. Durante los meses noviembre y diciembre del 2005, se realizó la exploración de la comunidad de murciélagos en cuatro localidades de la zona costanera del departamento de Córdoba. Mediante la metodología de evaluación ecológica rápida (EER, se eligieron áreas con fragmentos boscosos representativos de la zona costanera, con formación vegetal característica de bosque seco tropical. Se realizaron capturas de murciélagos, utilizando redes de niebla durante dos noches seguidas en cada sitio seleccionado, con un esfuerzo de muestreo de 40 horas/red. Resultados. Se registraron 15 especies de murciélagos distribuidos en 10 géneros y 3 familias. La especie más abundante fue Artibeus jamaicensis con el 36,6% de las capturas, seguida de Sturnira lilium y Glossophaga soricina 13,8 y 10,9%, respectivamente. Se registró la presencia de la especie Desmodus rotundus (murciélago vampiro, vector del virus de la rabia bovina. Conclusiones. Los datos indicaron que aún con el alto grado de intervención humana existente en la subregión costanera, y que pese a la homogenización de la matriz del paisaje por los efectos de la ganadería extensiva, los fragmentos de bosques estudiados presentan una importante riqueza de murciélagos, que son considerados tolerantes a habitats con disturbios y de áreas abiertas, especialmente de la familia Phyllostomidae que fue la mejor representada con 12 especies.
Grover, Patrick; Khayer, Yasmin; Naumov, Aleksey [4DM Inc., Toronto, (Canada); Zhang, Yibing [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, (Canada)
Inundation mapping is a key factor of Ontario Power Generation's dam safety program. It is the basis for determining the hazard potential classification of the dam by modelling the consequences of a hypothetical dam failure. This paper presented the project for updating the inundation mapping and consequence analysis study at the Niagara Pump generating station (PGS) reservoir. A complete hydrotechnical assessment of the Niagara PGS reservoir was conducted. The modelling of various breach scenarios was carried out using the 2-D hydrodynamic software MIKE 21 in order to provide the hydraulic data necessary for producing the inundation maps. Updated EPRP maps were produced and a consequence analysis was performed which confirmed the existing hazard classification. The ArcGIS system was used as the underlying framework for all major components of the project. It was found that the use of GIS technologies improve the efficiency of both modelling and analysis.
Matt J O'Callaghan
Full Text Available Riparian habitats are subjected to frequent inundation (flooding and are characterised by food webs that exhibit variability in aquatic/terrestrial subsidies across the ecotone. The strength of this subsidy in active riparian floodplains is thought to underpin local biodiversity. Terrestrial invertebrates dominate the fauna, exhibiting traits that allow exploitation of variable aquatic subsidies while reducing inundation pressures, leading to inter-species micro-spatial positioning. The effect these strategies have on prey selection is not known. This study hypothesised that plasticity in prey choice from either aquatic or terrestrial sources is an important trait linked to inundation tolerance and avoidance.We used hydrological, isotopic and habitat analyses to investigate the diet of riparian Coleoptera in relation to inundation risk and relative spatial positioning in the floodplain. The study examined patch scale and longitudinal changes in utilisation of the aquatic subsidy according to species traits. Prey sourced from terrestrial or emerging/stranded aquatic invertebrates varied in relation to traits for inundation avoidance or tolerance strategies. Traits that favoured rapid dispersal corresponded with highest proportions of aquatic prey, with behavioural traits further predicting uptake. Less able dispersers showed minimal use of aquatic subsidy and switched to a terrestrial diet under moderate inundation pressures. All trait groups showed a seasonal shift in diet towards terrestrial prey in the early spring. Prey selection became exaggerated towards aquatic prey in downstream samples.Our results suggest that partitioning of resources and habitat creates overlapping niches that increase the processing of external subsidies in riparian habitats. By demonstrating functional complexity, this work advances understanding of floodplain ecosystem processes and highlights the importance of hydrological variability. With an increasing interest
Tanaka, T.; Tachikawa, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.; Yorozu, K.
Flood is one of the most hazardous disasters and causes serious damage to people and property around the world. To prevent/mitigate flood damage through early warning system and/or river management planning, numerical modelling of flood-inundation processes is essential. In a literature, flood-inundation models have been extensively developed and improved to achieve flood flow simulation with complex topography at high resolution. With increasing demands on flood-inundation modelling, its computational burden is now one of the key issues. Improvements of computational efficiency of full shallow water equations are made from various perspectives such as approximations of the momentum equations, parallelization technique, and coarsening approaches. To support these techniques and more improve the computational efficiency of flood-inundation simulations, this study proposes an Automatic Domain Updating (ADU) method of 2-D flood-inundation simulation. The ADU method traces the wet and dry interface and automatically updates the simulation domain in response to the progress and recession of flood propagation. The updating algorithm is as follow: first, to register the simulation cells potentially flooded at initial stage (such as floodplains nearby river channels), and then if a registered cell is flooded, to register its surrounding cells. The time for this additional process is saved by checking only cells at wet and dry interface. The computation time is reduced by skipping the processing time of non-flooded area. This algorithm is easily applied to any types of 2-D flood inundation models. The proposed ADU method is implemented to 2-D local inertial equations for the Yodo River basin, Japan. Case studies for two flood events show that the simulation is finished within two to 10 times smaller time showing the same result as that without the ADU method.
Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.
Digital flood-inundation maps for the Saline and Wabash Rivers referenced to elevations on the Ohio River in southern Illinois were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The inundation maps, accessible through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (gage heights) at the USGS streamgage at Ohio River at Old Shawneetown, Illinois-Kentucky (station number 03381700). Current gage height and flow conditions at this USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/usa/nwis/uv?03381700. In addition, this streamgage is incorporated into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) by the National Weather Service (NWS). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. That NWS forecasted peak-stage information, also shown on the Ohio River at Old Shawneetown inundation Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, eight water-surface elevations were mapped at 5-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from just above the NWS Action Stage (31 ft) to above the maximum historical gage height (66 ft). The elevations of the water surfaces were compared to a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) by using a Geographic Information System (GIS) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. These maps, along with information on the Internet regarding current gage heights from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, provide emergency management personnel and residents with information that is critical for flood response activities such as evacuations and road closures, as well as for post-flood recovery efforts.
Full Text Available Floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters that threaten communities and properties. In recent decades, flooding has claimed more lives, destroyed more houses and ruined more agricultural land than any other natural hazard. The accurate prediction of the areas of inundation from flooding is critical to saving lives and property, but relies heavily on accurate digital elevation and hydrologic models. The 2011 Brisbane floods provided a unique opportunity to capture high resolution digital aerial imagery as the floods neared their peak, allowing the capture of areas of inundation over the various city suburbs. This high quality imagery, together with accurate LiDAR data over the area and publically available volunteered geographic imagery through repositories such as Flickr, enabled the reconstruction of flood extents and the assessment of both area and depth of inundation for the assessment of damage. In this study, approximately 20 images of flood damaged properties were utilised to identify the peak of the flood. Accurate position and height values were determined through the use of RTK GPS and conventional survey methods. This information was then utilised in conjunction with river gauge information to generate a digital flood surface. The LiDAR generated DEM was then intersected with the flood surface to reconstruct the area of inundation. The model determined areas of inundation were then compared to the mapped flood extent from the high resolution digital imagery to assess the accuracy of the process. The paper concludes that accurate flood extent prediction or mapping is possible through this method, although its accuracy is dependent on the number and location of sampled points. The utilisation of LiDAR generated DEMs and DSMs can also provide an excellent mechanism to estimate depths of inundation and hence flood damage
McDougall, K.; Temple-Watts, P.
Floods are one of the most destructive natural disasters that threaten communities and properties. In recent decades, flooding has claimed more lives, destroyed more houses and ruined more agricultural land than any other natural hazard. The accurate prediction of the areas of inundation from flooding is critical to saving lives and property, but relies heavily on accurate digital elevation and hydrologic models. The 2011 Brisbane floods provided a unique opportunity to capture high resolution digital aerial imagery as the floods neared their peak, allowing the capture of areas of inundation over the various city suburbs. This high quality imagery, together with accurate LiDAR data over the area and publically available volunteered geographic imagery through repositories such as Flickr, enabled the reconstruction of flood extents and the assessment of both area and depth of inundation for the assessment of damage. In this study, approximately 20 images of flood damaged properties were utilised to identify the peak of the flood. Accurate position and height values were determined through the use of RTK GPS and conventional survey methods. This information was then utilised in conjunction with river gauge information to generate a digital flood surface. The LiDAR generated DEM was then intersected with the flood surface to reconstruct the area of inundation. The model determined areas of inundation were then compared to the mapped flood extent from the high resolution digital imagery to assess the accuracy of the process. The paper concludes that accurate flood extent prediction or mapping is possible through this method, although its accuracy is dependent on the number and location of sampled points. The utilisation of LiDAR generated DEMs and DSMs can also provide an excellent mechanism to estimate depths of inundation and hence flood damage
Storm, John B.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.8-mile reach of the Leaf River at Hattiesburg, Mississippi (Miss.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Hattiesburg, City of Petal, Forrest County, Mississippi Emergency Management Agency, Mississippi Department of Homeland Security, and the Emergency Management District. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Leaf River at Hattiesburg, Miss. (station no. 02473000). Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation by use of USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Leaf River at Hattiesburg, Miss. streamgage (02473000) and documented high-water marks from recent and historical floods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1.0-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS
Ji Son Jang
Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan algunos resultados acerca del uso de tú en el marco de una investigación sobre la selección pronominal llevada a cabo en tres municipios del departamento colombiano de Antioquia: 1 la ciudad de Medellín, capital del departamento; 2 Carmen de Viboral, ubicada a una hora de la capital en automóvil y 3 Andes, que se sitúa a unas tres horas de la capital en coche. Los informantes comprenden edades entre 13 y 34 años. La variable social para este artículo es el lugar de residencia de los informantes: zona urbana (Medellín, medio rural (Carmen de Viboral o rural (Andes. Para llevar a cabo esta investigación se aplicó a 1490 informantes un cuestionario que mostraba distintos tipos de interacción que se dan en dichas zonas. Tres técnicas estadísticas se aplicaron a estos datos: tamaño de muestra óptimo para distribuciones multinomiales; análisis de varianza con un solo factor (ANOVA; y prueba de hipótesis para proporciones. Se encontró que, en la gran mayoría de relaciones interpersonales solidarias, el tuteo se usa más en Medellín que en Carmen de Viboral y en este último municipio más que en Andes.
Jayakumar, S.; Ilangovan, D.; Naik, K.A .; Gowthaman, R.; Tirodkar, G.; Naik, G.N.; Ganesan, P.; ManiMurali, R.; Michael, G.S.; Raman, M.V.; Bhattacharya, G.C.
protected by coastal dunes, had higher inundation values compared to places where the coast is protected by dunes. Also, wherever there are openings in the du nes (either due to anthropogenic acti v ity or due to other reasons), inund a tion...
Lombard, Pamela J.; Bent, Gardner C.
A series of nine digital flood-inundation maps were developed for an 8-mile reach of the Hoosic River in North Adams and Williamstown, Massachusetts, by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The coverage of the maps extends from the confluence with the North Branch Hoosic River to the Vermont State line. Peak flows with 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities were computed for the reach from updated flood-frequency analyses. These peak flows were routed through a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic model to obtain the corresponding peak water-surface elevations, and to place the tropical storm Irene flood of August 28, 2011 into historical context. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the current (2014) stage-discharge relation at the USGS streamgage Hoosic River near Williamstown, Massachusetts (01332500), and from documented high-water marks from the tropical storm Irene flood, which had approximately a 1-percent annual exceedance probability.
Velasco Llanos Vicente
Full Text Available El gusano cortador de la hoja del algodonero, comúnmente llamado Alabama por todos los plantadores de algodón de la región de Armero, ha merecido y seguirá mereciendo una especial atención, ya que constituye la plaga más importante de cuantas diezman los cultivos de algodón. Si bien es cierto que otros insectos como el gusano rosado colombiano de las cápsulas del algodonero (SacadodespyralisDyar (7; nuevo género y nueva especie, según W m. Schaus, y el pulgón (AphisgossypiiGlov. causan daños de consideración, ninguno de ellos ha mostrado, en esta zona, la enorme voracidad y por lo tanto la fuerza destructora del insecto que tratamos. El Alabama fue la causa de casi todos los fracasos que tuvieron los primeros cultivadores en algunas regiones del interior del país. En ese entonces no había facilidad para su control, como la hay ahora, y era muy común ver un cultivo devastado en pocos días por la plaga en mención, sin que hubiera manera de destruirla. El hecho indiscutible de haberse iniciado el cultivo del algodón en la región de Armero sobre bases técnicas, de haber recibido el apoyo irrestricto y entusiasta de los,gobiernos departamental y nacional, de crear entidades y centros de investigación al servicio de la economía del país, y de poseer vías accesibles a,los mercados de importancia, son las razones inmediatas del éxito rotundo y progresivo de la industria algodonera en esta zona. A pesar de todo esto, el Alabama se presentó desde el primer momento y ha continuado haciendo sus daños de cosecha en cosecha, obligando a,los cultivadores a equiparse con máquinas espolvoreadoras de diversos tipos y a usar los insecticidas aconsejados por la técnica que les dieron resultados positivos; yel insecto, que antes constituía un problema para el cultivo, pasó a ser solo objeto de una inversión en el presupuesto del cultivador.
Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard
at all developmental stages, but the difference was only significant at the five-cell stage. When compared with development of zona-intact embryos, ZP removal decreased the overall blastocyst percentage (83.9 ± 2.0 vs. 72.5 ± 2.9, respectively) and especially the percentage of good morphology (grades 1......, the developmental percentages, the frequency of apoptosis, and robustness after removal of the ZP by pronase. Three experiments were made between zona-free PA embryos and zona-intact embryos: (1) determination of the timing of developmental stages using time-lapse observations for 6 days; (2) determination...
Arindra Trisna Widiansyah
Pantai Gatra merupakan salah satu ekowisata pantai di Kabupaten Malang yang memiliki zona pasang surut dengan substrat dominan batu. Substrat berbatu merupakan daerah yang paling padat makroorganismenya. Arthropoda dan Echinodermata mempunyai peranan penting dari segi sumber makanan maupun ekologi. Mengingat belum adanya pelaporan jenis Arthropoda dan Echinodermata di zona pasang surut Pantai Gatra, maka dilakukan penelitian inventarisasi di daerah ini. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah invetarisasi jenis Arthropoda dan Echinodermata. Hasil penelitian tentang inventarisasi jenis Arthropoda dan Echinodermata di zona pasang surut pantai Gatra Kabupaten Malang, secara keseluruhan ditemukan 14 jenis, 13 genus, dan 11 famili dari filum Arthropoda dan Echinodermata.
Silvia A. Razzetto
Full Text Available Characterized by an actual hydrographic web, the entrerrianas lands presents at the half of the XX century productive patterns exclusively agro-pecuarios. The inundation of april 1959, considered in Argentina a "national disaster" left under water over 20.000 km2 of land. Since Concordia to the delta and during three months, the province seemed to have a hydric cloak over richly productive lands. Amazed by the situation the inhabitants affected by it look for protection on the highlands and on the main cities. The national, province and town government made up a help strategy which counted with the spontaneous solidarity participation of the population. The approximation to written and oral testimonies, representatives of the collective memory allows us to visualize the socio-economic effects produced on the Gualeguaychú Department by the '59 inundation, evaluated at that time, as the biggest on the hydrographic regional history.Caracterizada por una verdadera maraña hidrográfica, las tierras entrerrianas presentan a mediados del siglo XX, rasgos productivos exclusivamente agro-pecuarios. La inundación de abril de 1959, considerada en la Argentina un "desastre nacional", deja bajo las aguas una extensión que supera los 20.000 km2. Desde Concordia hasta el delta y durante tres meses, la provincia observa un continuo manto hídrico sobre tierras ricamente productivas. Sorprendidos por la situación, los pobladores afectados buscan protección en las zonas altas y en ciudades cabeceras de Departamento. El gobierno nacional, provincial y los municipales diseñan estrategias de auxilio con el concurso espontáneamente solidario de la población. Aproximarnos a registros testimoniales escritos y orales, representativos de los que guarda aún la memoria colectiva, permite visualizar efectos socio-económicos producidos en el Departamento Gualeguaychú por la inundación del '59, evaluada en ese tiempo, la de mayor envergadura en la historia
Adeniyi Ganiyu Adeogun
Full Text Available This paper presents outcome of our investigation on the influence of modeling parameters on 1D-2D hydrodynamic inundation model for sewer overflow, developed through coupling of an existing 1D sewer network model (SWMM and 2D inundation model (BREZO. The 1D-2D hydrodynamic model was developed for the purpose of examining flood incidence due to surcharged water on overland surface. The investigation was carried out by performing sensitivity analysis on the developed model. For the sensitivity analysis, modeling parameters, such as mesh resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM resolution and roughness were considered. The outcome of the study shows the model is sensitive to changes in these parameters. The performance of the model is significantly influenced, by the Manning's friction value, the DEM resolution and the area of the triangular mesh. Also, changes in the aforementioned modeling parameters influence the Flood characteristics, such as the inundation extent, the flow depth and the velocity across the model domain. Keywords: Inundation, DEM, Sensitivity analysis, Model coupling, Flooding
Spieksma, JFM; Schouwenaars, JM
When modelling groundwater behaviour in wetlands, there are specific problems related to the presence of open water in small-sized mosaic patterns. A simple quasi two-dimensional model to predict water level fluctuations in partially inundated wetlands is presented. In this model, the ratio between
Smith, Laurence C.
The growing availability of multi-temporal satellite data has increased opportunities for monitoring large rivers from space. A variety of passive and active sensors operating in the visible and microwave range are currently operating, or planned, which can estimate inundation area and delineate flood boundaries. Radar altimeters show great promise for directly measuring stage variation in large rivers. It also appears to be possible to obtain estimates of river discharge from space, using ground measurements and satellite data to construct empirical curves that relate water surface area to discharge. Extrapolation of these curves to ungauged sites may be possible for the special case of braided rivers.Where clouds, trees and floating vegetation do not obscure the water surface, high-resolution visible/infrared sensors provide good delineation of inundated areas. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors can penetrate clouds and can also detect standing water through emergent aquatic plants and forest canopies. However, multiple frequencies and polarizations are required for optimal discrimination of various inundated vegetation cover types. Existing single-polarization, fixed-frequency SARs are not sufficient for mapping inundation area in all riverine environments. In the absence of a space-borne multi-parameter SAR, a synergistic approach using single-frequency, fixed-polarization SAR and visible/infrared data will provide the best results over densely vegetated river floodplains.
Full Text Available Low-lying coastal regions and their populations are at risk during storm surge events and high freshwater discharges from upriver. An integrated storm surge and flood inundation modeling system was used to simulate storm surge and inundation in the Tsengwen River basin and the adjacent coastal area in southern Taiwan. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model with an unstructured grid was used, which was driven by the tidal elevation at the open boundaries and freshwater discharge at the upriver boundary. The model was validated against the observed water levels for three typhoon events. The simulation results for the model were in reasonable agreement with the observational data. The model was then applied to investigate the effects of a storm surge, freshwater discharge, and a storm surge combined with freshwater discharge during an extreme typhoon event. The super Typhoon Haiyan (2013 was artificially shifted to hit Taiwan: the modeling results showed that the inundation area and depth would cause severe overbank flow and coastal flooding for a 200 year return period flow. A high-resolution grid model is essential for the accurate simulation of storm surges and inundation.
Whitehead, Matthew; Ostheimer, Chad J.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a total of 19.7 miles of the Grand River, the Red Cedar River, and Sycamore Creek were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Lansing, Michigan, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, show estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at three USGS streamgages: Grand River at Lansing, MI (04113000), Red Cedar River at East Lansing, MI (04112500), and Sycamore Creek at Holt Road near Holt, MI (04112850). Near-real-time stages at these streamgages can be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at all of these sites.
Nystrom, Elizabeth A.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile reach of the White River in Indianapolis, Indiana, from 0.3 miles upstream of Michigan Street to the Harding Street Generating Station dam (at the confluence with Lick Creek), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the White River at Indianapolis, Ind. (station number 03353000). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service athttp://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site.
Gao, Wei; Shen, Qiu; Zhou, Yuehua; Li, Xin
Floods are among the most expensive natural hazards experienced in many places of the world and can result in heavy losses of life and economic damages. The objective of this study is to analyze flood inundation in ungauged basins by performing near-real-time detection with flood extent and depth based on multi-source remote sensing data. Via spatial distribution analysis of flood extent and depth in a time series, the inundation condition and the characteristics of flood disaster can be reflected. The results show that the multi-source remote sensing data can make up the lack of hydrological data in ungauged basins, which is helpful to reconstruct hydrological sequence; the combination of MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) surface reflectance productions and the DFO (Dartmouth Flood Observatory) flood database can achieve the macro-dynamic monitoring of the flood inundation in ungauged basins, and then the differential technique of high-resolution optical and microwave images before and after floods can be used to calculate flood extent to reflect spatial changes of inundation; the monitoring algorithm for the flood depth combining RS and GIS is simple and easy and can quickly calculate the depth with a known flood extent that is obtained from remote sensing images in ungauged basins. Relevant results can provide effective help for the disaster relief work performed by government departments.
Prinzing, A.; Dauber, J.; Hammer, E.; Hammouti, N.; Bohning-Gaese, K.
Many plant species use ants as seed dispersers. This dispersal mode is considered to be susceptible to disturbances, but the effect of natural, small-scale disturbances is still unknown. We investigated how small-scale disturbances due to inundation affect seed dispersal in Viola reichenbachiana, a
Full Text Available During the flooding events, the operation of Chao Phraya Dam to control downstream water discharge is one of the causes of the inundation occuring over the upstream area. The purposes of this research are to study the effects of the operation of Chao Phraya Dam upon the upstream flood inundation and to find out the new measures of the flood mitigation in the upstream areas of Chao Phraya Dam by using a hydrodynamic model. The results show that Manning's n in the Chao Phraya River and its tributaries is 0.030-0.035 in the main channels and 0.050-0.070 in the flood plain areas. The backwater due to the operation of the Chao Praya dam affects as far as 110 kilometers upstream. New methods of water diversion can mitigate the flood inundation without the effect on the floating rice fields. The construction of reservoirs in the Upper Sakaekang River Basin and the Upper Yom River Basin will mitigate the flood not only in their own basins but also in the Lower Chao Phraya River Basin. The coordinated operation of the Chao Phraya Dam, the regulators and the upper basin reservoirs will efficiently mitigate the flood inundation.
C. Satheesh Kumar
Full Text Available Tsunami impact study has been undertaken along Chennai coast starting from Pulicat to Kovalam. The study area Chennai coast is mainly devoted to prepare large scale action plan maps on tsunami inundation incorporating land use details derived from satellite data along with cadastral data using a GIS tool. Under tsunami inundation mapping along Chennai coast an integrated approach was adopted to prepare thematic maps on land use/land cover and coastal geomorphology using multispectral remote sensing data. The RTK dGPS instruments are used to collect elevation contour data at 0.5 m intervals for the Chennai coast. The GIS tool has been used to incorporate the elevation data, tsunami inundation markings obtained immediately after tsunami and thematic maps derived from remote sensing data. The outcome of this study provides an important clue on variations in tsunami inundation along Chennai coast, which is mainly controlled by local geomorphologic set-up, coastal zone elevation including coastal erosion protection measures and near shore bathymetry. This study highlights the information regarding most vulnerable areas of tsunami and also provides indication to demarcate suitable sites for rehabilitation.
Shang, H.; Li, J.; Menenti, M.
The soil wetness condition is a useful indicator of inundation hazard in floodplains, such as the Poyang Lake floodplain. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) passive microwave data were used to monitor water-saturated soil and open water areas of the Poyang Lake floodplain from 2001 to 2008,
Yang, Jie; Zhang, Huichen; Yu, Xuan; Graf, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.
Ocean surges cause seawater inundation of coastal inland areas. Subsequently, seawater infiltrates into coastal aquifers and threatens the fresh groundwater resource. The severity of resulting salinization can be affected by hydrogeological factors including aquifer properties and hydrologic conditions, however, little research has been done to assess these effects. To understand the impacts of hydrogeological factors on groundwater salinization, we numerically simulated an ocean-surge inundation event on a two-dimensional conceptual coastal aquifer using a coupled surface-subsurface approach. We varied model permeability (including anisotropy), inland hydraulic gradient, and recharge rate. Three salinization-assessment indicators were developed, based on flushing time, depth of salt penetration, and a combination of the two, weighted flushing time, with which the impact of hydrogeological factors on groundwater vulnerability to salinization were quantitatively assessed. The vulnerability of coastal aquifers increases with increasing isotropic permeability. Low horizontal permeability (kx) and high vertical permeability (kz) lead to high aquifer vulnerability, and high kx and low kz lead to low aquifer vulnerability. Vulnerability decreases with increasing groundwater hydraulic gradient and increasing recharge rate. Additionally, coastal aquifers with a low recharge rate (R ≤ 300 mm yr-1) may be highly vulnerable to ocean-surge inundation. This study shows how the newly introduced indicators can be used to quantitatively assess coastal aquifer vulnerability. The results are important for global vulnerability assessment of coastal aquifers to ocean-surge inundation.
Vu, M. T.; Liong, S. Y.; Raghavan, V. S.; Liew, S. C.
Climate change is expected to cause increases in extreme climatic events such as heavy rainstorms and rising tidal level. Heavy rainstorms are known to be serious causes of flooding problems in big cities. Thus, high density residential and commercial areas along the rivers are facing risks of being flooded. For that reason, inundated area determination is now being considered as one of the most important areas of research focus in flood forecasting. In such a context, this paper presents the development of a floodmap in determining flood-prone areas and its volumes. The areas and volumes of flood are computed by the inundated level using the existing digital elevation model (DEM) of a hypothetical catchment chosen for study. The study focuses on the application of Flood Early Warning System (Delft — FEWS, Deltares), which is designated to work with the SOBEK (Delft) to simulate the extent of stormwater on the ground surface. The results from FEWS consist of time-series of inundation maps in Image file format (PNG) and ASCII format, which are subsequently imported to ArcGIS for further calculations. In addition, FEWS results provide options to export the video clip of water spreading out over the catchment. Consequently, inundated area and volume will be determined by the water level on the ground. Final floodmap is displayed in colors created by ArcGIS. Various flood map results corresponding to climate change scenarios will be displayed in the main part of the paper.
Murphy Alexandra T.
Full Text Available Flooding events that impede railway infrastructure can cause severe travel delays for the general public and large fines in delayed minutes for the rail industry. Early warnings of flood inundation can give more time to implement mitigation measures which help reduce cancellations, delays and fines. Initial work is reported on the development of a real-time flood inundation forecasting and mapping system for the Cowley Bridge track area near Exeter, UK. This location is on one of the main access routes to South West England and has suffered major floods in the past resulting in significant transport impacts. Flood forecasting systems in the UK mainly forecast river level/flow rather than extent and depth of flood inundation. Here, the development of a chain of coupled models is discussed that link rainfall to river flow, river level and flood extent for the rail track area relating to Cowley Bridge. Historical events are identified to test model performance in predicting inundation of railway infrastructure. The modelling system will operate alongside a series of in-situ sensors chosen to enhance the flood mapping forecasting system. Sensor data will support offline model calibration/verification and real-time data assimilation as well as monitoring flood conditions to inform track closure decisions.
Czuba, Christiana R.; Fallon, James D.; Lewis, Corby R.; Cooper, Diane F.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.3-mile reach of the Mississippi River in Saint Paul, Minnesota, were developed through a multi-agency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and in collaboration with the National Weather Service. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service site at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/inundation.php, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at the Mississippi River at Saint Paul (05331000). The National Weather Service forecasted peak-stage information at the streamgage may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Mississippi River by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the most recent stage-discharge relation at the Robert Street location (rating curve number 38.0) of the Mississippi River at Saint Paul (streamgage 05331000), as well as an approximate water-surface elevation-discharge relation at the Mississippi River at South Saint Paul (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers streamgage SSPM5). The model also was verified against observed high-water marks from the recent 2011 flood event and the water-surface profile from existing flood insurance studies. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 25 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals ranging from approximately bankfull stage to greater than the highest recorded stage at streamgage 05331000. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model, derived from high-resolution topography
Menke, Chad D.; Bunch, Aubrey R.; Kim, Moon H.
Digital flood-inundation maps for an 11-mile reach of the Tippecanoe River that extends from County Road W725N to State Road 18 below Oakdale Dam, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03333050, Tippecanoe River near Delphi, Ind. Current conditions at the USGS streamgages in Indiana may be obtained online at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/current/?type=flow. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. That forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, water-surface profiles were simulated for the stream reach by means of a hydraulic one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at USGS streamgage 03333050, Tippecanoe River near Delphi, Ind., and USGS streamgage 03332605, Tippecanoe River below Oakdale Dam, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to simulate 13 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals reference to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the
Coon, William F.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the Flatrock River on the western side of Columbus, Indiana, from County Road 400N to the river mouth at the confluence with Driftwood River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Flatrock River at Columbus (station number 03363900). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service, which also presents the USGS data, at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/. Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Flatrock River streamgage, high-water marks that were surveyed following the flood of June 7, 2008, and water-surface profiles from the current flood-insurance study for the City of Columbus. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 9 ft or near bankfull to 20 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37 ft
Studley, Seth E.
The October 31, 1998, flood on Cowskin Creek in western Wichita, Kansas, caused millions of dollars in damages. Emergency management personnel and flood mitigation teams had difficulty in efficiently identifying areas affected by the flooding, and no warning was given to residents because flood-inundation information was not available. To provide detailed information about future flooding on Cowskin Creek, high-resolution estimated flood-inundation maps were developed using geographic information system technology and advanced hydraulic analysis. Two-foot-interval land-surface elevation data from a 1996 flood insurance study were used to create a three-dimensional topographic representation of the study area for hydraulic analysis. The data computed from the hydraulic analyses were converted into geographic information system format with software from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Hydrologic Engineering Center. The results were overlaid on the three-dimensional topographic representation of the study area to produce maps of estimated flood-inundation areas and estimated depths of water in the inundated areas for 1-foot increments on the basis of stream stage at an index streamflow-gaging station. A Web site (http://ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/cowskin.floodwatch) was developed to provide the public with information pertaining to flooding in the study area. The Web site shows graphs of the real-time streamflow data for U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations in the area and monitors the National Weather Service Arkansas-Red Basin River Forecast Center for Cowskin Creek flood-forecast information. When a flood is forecast for the Cowskin Creek Basin, an estimated flood-inundation map is displayed for the stream stage closest to the National Weather Service's forecasted peak stage. Users of the Web site are able to view the estimated flood-inundation maps for selected stages at any time and to access information about this report and about flooding in general. Flood
Caldas, A.; Dahl, K. A.; Spanger-Siegfried, E.; Udvardy, S.
The Union of Concerned Scientists conducted an analysis of exposure to chronic inundation along the US coastline, using three localized sea level rise projections—Highest, Intermediate-High and Intermediate-Low—drawn from the 2014 National Climate Assessment. Chronic inundation is defined as flooding of 10 percent or more of usable land area at least 26 times per year. The goal of the analysis was to identify not only which communities would face this type of disruptive inundation, but also when, and over how much of their area. By having a timeframe and different scenarios, communities can prepare according to the time they have, and their tolerance for risk. We also used the Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) at the Census tract level to identify which of these communities might be differentially impacted because of socioeconomic factors. We found that, by 2035, 170 communities will be facing chronic inundation. That number jumps to between 490 and 670 by the end of the century, depending on the scenario. Under the two higher scenarios, more than half of communities facing chronic inundation by 2035 contain tracts with high socioeconomic vulnerability today. Using the Intermediate-Low scenario as a proxy for sea level rise were the long-term temperature goals outlined in the Paris Climate Agreement were met, we found that up to 380 communities could avoid chronic inundation this century. The results are accessible within an interactive online tool, which zooms in to street level, therefore providing specific information that communities, city planners, and elected officials need to plan and prepare. Preparatory measures could include defending against the sea, accommodating and learning to live with water, or retreating from areas that are too hard to live in anymore. Each of these measures has challenges, and communities will need to adopt a portfolio of actions to prepare and protect themselves. Depending on their inundation response time, communities might
Thompson, A W; Furness, A I; Stone, C; Rade, C M; Ortí, G
This study investigates zona pellucida (ZP) ultrastructure in fertilized eggs of annual killifishes (suborder Aplocheiloidei), a group of highly specialized fishes that are able to survive desiccation for several weeks to months before they hatch. Little is known about ZP or chorionic ultrastructure sustaining these life-history modes, so scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to describe this trait in a large number of aplocheiloids with a focus on the family Rivulidae and the genus Hypsolebias. New images of ZP ultrastructure for 52 aplocheiloid species are provided, more than doubling the number characterized thus far. The evolution of chorionic structure within this group is studied using these new data. Characters were coded into a morphological matrix and optimized onto a consensus phylogeny to assess phylogenetic signal and reconstruct ancestral character states. Although ZP characters seem highly homoplastic and exhibit a large amount of structural convergence among lineages, aplocheiloid killifishes have evolved a number of unique structures associated with the chorion. Some annual species seem to have lost long filaments because eggs are deposited in the soil instead of being adhered to aquatic plants. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Sundstedt, Stina; Nordh, Erik; Linder, Jan; Hedström, Johanna; Finizia, Caterina; Olofsson, Katarina
The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been improved, but management of signs like swallowing problems is still challenging. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates the cardinal motor symptoms and improves quality of life, but its effect on swallowing is not fully explored. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life before and after caudal zona incerta DBS (cZI DBS) in comparison with a control group. Nine PD patients (2 women and 7 men) completed the self-report Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) before and 12 months after cZI DBS surgery. The postoperative data were compared to 9 controls. Median ages were 53 years (range, 40-70 years) for patients and 54 years (range, 42-72 years) for controls. No significant differences were found between the pre- or postoperative scores. The SWAL-QOL total scores did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. The PD patients reported significantly lower scores in the burden subscale and the symptom scale. Patients with PD selected for cZI DBS showed good self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life, in many aspects equal to controls. The cZI DBS did not negatively affect swallowing-specific quality of life in this study.
Oride, Aki; Kanasaki, Haruhiko; Hara, Tomomi; Ohta, Hiroko; Kyo, Satoru
To identify the factors that characterize cycles with empty zona pellucida (EZP). Thirty-six oocyte retrieval cycles from which EZP were collected and another 36 cycles from which no EZP was collected were compared. The patients were divided into three groups: those with no EZP collected during any cycle, those with EZP collected during all cycles, and those experiencing cycles both with and without EZP. The mean number of oocytes collected per cycle was higher in the cycles with EZP than without EZP. The fertilization rate of the collected oocytes and the rate of good embryo formation were significantly lower in the cycles with EZP. No significant difference was observed between the three groups in terms of age, number of oocytes collected, or hormone levels before and after the oocyte retrieval. The fertilization and pregnancy rates were highest in the patients with no EZP being collected during any cycle, followed by those experiencing cycles both with and without EZP, and then by those with EZP collected during all cycles. The observation of lower fertilization, poor embryo formation, and a low pregnancy rate in the patients with EZP suggests the poor quality of oocytes that were collected with EZP in the same cycle.
Yan, K.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Giustarini, L.; Solomatine, D. P.
The extreme consequences of recent catastrophic events have highlighted that flood risk prevention still needs to be improved to reduce human losses and economic damages, which have considerably increased worldwide in recent years. Flood risk management and long term floodplain planning are vital for living with floods, which is the currently proposed approach to cope with floods. To support the decision making processes, a significant issue is the availability of data to build appropriate and reliable models, from which the needed information could be obtained. The desirable data for model building, calibration and validation are often not sufficient or available. A unique opportunity is offered nowadays by globally available data which can be freely downloaded from internet. This might open new opportunities for filling the gap between available and needed data, in order to build reliable models and potentially lead to the development of global inundation models to produce floodplain maps for the entire globe. However, there remains the question of what is the real potential of those global remote sensing data, characterized by different accuracy, for global inundation monitoring and how to integrate them with inundation models. This research aims at contributing to understand whether the current globally and freely available remote sensing data (e.g. SRTM, SAR) can be actually used to appropriately support inundation modelling. In this study, the SRTM DEM is used for hydraulic model building, while ENVISAT-ASAR satellite imagery is used for model validation. To test the usefulness of these globally and freely available data, a model based on the high resolution LiDAR DEM and ground data (high water marks) is used as benchmark. The work is carried out on a data-rich test site: the River Alzette in the north of Luxembourg City. Uncertainties are estimated for both SRTM and LiDAR based models. Probabilistic flood inundation maps are produced under the framework of
Hassaan, M A; Abdrabo, M A
Sea level changes are typically caused by several natural phenomena, including ocean thermal expansion, glacial melt from Greenland and Antarctica. Global average sea level is expected to rise, through the twenty-first century, according to the IPCC projections by between 0.18 and 0.59 cm. Such a rise in sea level will significantly impact coastal area of the Nile Delta, consisting generally of lowland and is densely populated areas and accommodates significant proportion of Egypt's economic activities and built-up areas. The Nile Delta has been examined in several previous studies, which worked under various hypothetical sea level rise (SLR) scenarios and provided different estimates of areas susceptible to inundation due to SLR. The paper intends, in this respect, to identify areas, as well as land use/land cover, susceptible to inundation by SLR based upon most recent scenarios of SLR, by the year 2100 using GIS. The results indicate that about 22.49, 42.18, and 49.22 % of the total area of coastal governorates of the Nile Delta would be susceptible to inundation under different scenarios of SLR. Also, it was found that 15.56 % of the total areas of the Nile Delta that would be vulnerable to inundation due to land subsidence only, even in the absence of any rise in sea level. Moreover, it was found that a considerable proportion of these areas (ranging between 32.32 and 53.66 %) are currently either wetland or undeveloped areas. Furthermore, natural and/or man-made structures, such as the banks of the International Coastal Highway, were found to provide unintended protection to some of these areas. This suggests that the inundation impact of SLR on the Nile Delta is less than previously reported.
Tursina, Syamsidik, Kato, Shigeru
In a long term, sea level rise is anticipated to give devastating effects on Banda Aceh, as one of the coastal cities in the northern tip of Sumatra. The growth of the population and buildings in the city has come to the stage where the coastal area is vulnerable to any coastal hazard. Some public facilities and settlements have been constructed and keep expanding in the future. According to TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite images, 7 mm/year the sea level has been risen between 1992 and 2015 in this area. It is estimated that in the next 100 years, there will be 700 mm additional sea level rise which will give a setback more over to a rather flat area around the coast. This research is aim at investigating the influence of sea level rise toward the tsunami inundation on the land area particularly the impacts on Banda Aceh city. Cornell Multigrid Coupled Tsunami Model (COMCOT) simulation numerically generated tsunami propagation. Topography and bathymetry data were collected from GEBCO and updated with the available nautical chart (DISHIDROS, JICA, and field measurements). Geological movement of the underwater fault was generated using Piatanesi and Lorito of 9.15 Mw 2004 multi-fault scenario. The inundation area produced by COMCOT revealed that the inundation area was expanded to several hundred meters from the shoreline. To investigate the impacts of tsunami wave on Banda Aceh, the inundation area were digitized and analyzed with Quantum GIS spatial tools. The Quantum GIS analyzed inundations area affected by the projected tsunami. It will give a new tsunami-prone coastal area map induced by sea level rise in 100 years.
Full Text Available We present a multi-sensor Bayesian passive microwave retrieval algorithm for flood inundation mapping at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The algorithm takes advantage of observations from multiple sensors in optical, short-infrared, and microwave bands, thereby allowing for detection and mapping of the sub-pixel fraction of inundated areas under almost all-sky conditions. The method relies on a nearest-neighbor search and a modern sparsity-promoting inversion method that make use of an a priori dataset in the form of two joint dictionaries. These dictionaries contain almost overlapping observations by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder (SSMIS on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F17 satellite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on board the Aqua and Terra satellites. Evaluation of the retrieval algorithm over the Mekong Delta shows that it is capable of capturing to a good degree the inundation diurnal variability due to localized convective precipitation. At longer timescales, the results demonstrate consistency with the ground-based water level observations, denoting that the method is properly capturing inundation seasonal patterns in response to regional monsoonal rain. The calculated Euclidean distance, rank-correlation, and also copula quantile analysis demonstrate a good agreement between the outputs of the algorithm and the observed water levels at monthly and daily timescales. The current inundation products are at a resolution of 12.5 km and taken twice per day, but a higher resolution (order of 5 km and every 3 h can be achieved using the same algorithm with the dictionary populated by the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM Microwave Imager (GMI products.
Takbiri, Zeinab; Ebtehaj, Ardeshir M.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi
We present a multi-sensor Bayesian passive microwave retrieval algorithm for flood inundation mapping at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The algorithm takes advantage of observations from multiple sensors in optical, short-infrared, and microwave bands, thereby allowing for detection and mapping of the sub-pixel fraction of inundated areas under almost all-sky conditions. The method relies on a nearest-neighbor search and a modern sparsity-promoting inversion method that make use of an a priori dataset in the form of two joint dictionaries. These dictionaries contain almost overlapping observations by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder (SSMIS) on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F17 satellite and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the Aqua and Terra satellites. Evaluation of the retrieval algorithm over the Mekong Delta shows that it is capable of capturing to a good degree the inundation diurnal variability due to localized convective precipitation. At longer timescales, the results demonstrate consistency with the ground-based water level observations, denoting that the method is properly capturing inundation seasonal patterns in response to regional monsoonal rain. The calculated Euclidean distance, rank-correlation, and also copula quantile analysis demonstrate a good agreement between the outputs of the algorithm and the observed water levels at monthly and daily timescales. The current inundation products are at a resolution of 12.5 km and taken twice per day, but a higher resolution (order of 5 km and every 3 h) can be achieved using the same algorithm with the dictionary populated by the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Microwave Imager (GMI) products.
Neal, J. C.; Wood, M.; Bermúdez, M.; Hostache, R.; Freer, J. E.; Bates, P. D.; Coxon, G.
Remote sensing of flood inundation extent has long been a potential source of data for constraining and correcting simulations of floodplain inundation. Hydrodynamic models and the computing resources to run them have developed to the extent that simulation of flood inundation in two-dimensional space is now feasible over large river basins in near real-time. However, despite substantial evidence that there is useful information content within inundation extent data, even from low resolution SAR such as that gathered by Envisat ASAR in wide swath mode, making use of the information in a data assimilation system has proved difficult. He we review recent applications of the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) and Particle Filter for assimilating SAR data, with a focus on the River Severn UK and compare these with complementary research that has looked at the internal error sources and boundary condition errors using detailed terrestrial data that is not available in most locations. Previous applications of the EnKF to this reach have focused on upstream boundary conditions as the source of flow error, however this description of errors was too simplistic for the simulation of summer flood events where localised intense rainfall can be substantial. Therefore, we evaluate the introduction of uncertain lateral inflows to the ensemble. A further limitation of the existing EnKF based methods is the need to convert flood extent to water surface elevations by intersecting the shoreline location with a high quality digital elevation model (e.g. LiDAR). To simplify this data processing step, we evaluate a method to directly assimilate inundation extent as a EnKF model state rather than assimilating water heights, potentially allowing the scheme to be used where high-quality terrain data are sparse.
Dilmen, Derya I.; Roe, Gerard H.; Wei, Yong; Titov, Vasily V.
On September 29, 2009 at 17:48 UTC, an M w = 8.1 earthquake in the Tonga Trench generated a tsunami that caused heavy damage across Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga. One of the worst hits was the volcanic island of Tutuila in American Samoa. Tutuila has a typical tropical island bathymetry setting influenced by coral reefs, and so the event provided an opportunity to evaluate the relationship between tsunami dynamics and the bathymetry in that typical island environment. Previous work has come to differing conclusions regarding how coral reefs affect tsunami dynamics through their influence on bathymetry and dissipation. This study presents numerical simulations of this event with a focus on two main issues: first, how roughness variations affect tsunami run-up and whether different values of Manning's roughness parameter, n, improve the simulated run-up compared to observations; and second, how depth variations in the shelf bathymetry with coral reefs control run-up and inundation on the island coastlines they shield. We find that no single value of n provides a uniformly good match to all observations; and we find substantial bay-to-bay variations in the impact of varying n. The results suggest that there are aspects of tsunami wave dissipation which are not captured by a simplified drag formulation used in shallow-water waves model. The study also suggests that the primary impact of removing the near-shore bathymetry in coral reef environment is to reduce run-up, from which we conclude that, at least in this setting, the impact of the near-shore bathymetry is to increase run-up and inundation.
Dilmen, Derya I.; Roe, Gerard H.; Wei, Yong; Titov, Vasily V.
On September 29, 2009 at 17:48 UTC, an M w = 8.1 earthquake in the Tonga Trench generated a tsunami that caused heavy damage across Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga. One of the worst hits was the volcanic island of Tutuila in American Samoa. Tutuila has a typical tropical island bathymetry setting influenced by coral reefs, and so the event provided an opportunity to evaluate the relationship between tsunami dynamics and the bathymetry in that typical island environment. Previous work has come to differing conclusions regarding how coral reefs affect tsunami dynamics through their influence on bathymetry and dissipation. This study presents numerical simulations of this event with a focus on two main issues: first, how roughness variations affect tsunami run-up and whether different values of Manning's roughness parameter, n, improve the simulated run-up compared to observations; and second, how depth variations in the shelf bathymetry with coral reefs control run-up and inundation on the island coastlines they shield. We find that no single value of n provides a uniformly good match to all observations; and we find substantial bay-to-bay variations in the impact of varying n. The results suggest that there are aspects of tsunami wave dissipation which are not captured by a simplified drag formulation used in shallow-water waves model. The study also suggests that the primary impact of removing the near-shore bathymetry in coral reef environment is to reduce run-up, from which we conclude that, at least in this setting, the impact of the near-shore bathymetry is to increase run-up and inundation.
Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A
A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management.
The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...
Author Guidelines. 2012 Author Guidelines: Instructions to Authors: TROPICAL VETERINARIAN welcomes original work on all aspects of veterinary science as practiced in the Tropics, including livestock production and management, animal disease (domestic and wild), various aspects of preventive medicine and public ...
This paper discusses the question of tropical cyclone propagation or why the average tropical cyclone moves 1-2 m/s faster and usually 10-20 deg to the left of its surrounding (or 5-7 deg radius) deep layer (850-300 mb) steering current...
Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.
The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...
Catarina S. Oliveira
Full Text Available A zona resulta da reativação do vírus varicela-zoster, latente na raíz dorsal dos gânglios sensitivos e nos gânglios dos nervos cranianos, após a resolução da varicela. Existem poucos estudos sobre as complicações da zona na população pediátrica. Enquanto que nos adultos está preconizada terapêutica antivírica específica contra o herpes zoster, nas crianças imunocompetentes o tratamento antivírico é questionável.Os adolescentes encontram-se entre estes dois grupos. O aciclovir é o único antivírico aprovado pela FDA para o tratamento da zona em crianças com menos de dois anos de idade. O valaciclovir, que apresenta uma maior biodisponibilidade, encontra-se aprovado como terapêutica contra a zona nos doentes entre os dois e os 17 anos. Descreve-se o caso de um adolescente, com zona, sem antecedentes patológicos de relevo, que sob terapêutica com aciclovir desenvolveu meningite a herpes-zoster. Questiona-se a abordagem clinica mais correta nos adolescentes imunocompetentes com zona.
Mei, Chao; Liu, Jiahong; Wang, Hao; Shao, Weiwei; Xia, Lin; Xiang, Chenyao; Zhou, Jinjun
Urban inundation is a serious challenge that increasingly confronts the residents of many cities, as well as policymakers, in the context of rapid urbanization and climate change worldwide. In recent years, source control measures (SCMs) such as green roofs, permeable pavements, rain gardens, and vegetative swales have been implemented to address flood inundation in urban settings, and proven to be cost-effective and sustainable. In order to investigate the ability of SCMs on reducing inundation in a community-scale urban drainage system, a dynamic rainfall-runoff model of a community-scale urban drainage system was developed based on SWMM. SCMs implementing scenarios were modelled under six design rainstorm events with return period ranging from 2 to 100 years, and inundation risks of the drainage system were evaluated before and after the proposed implementation of SCMs, with a risk-evaluation method based on SWMM and analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Results show that, SCMs implementation resulting in significantly reduction of hydrological indexes that related to inundation risks, range of reduction rates of average flow, peak flow, and total flooded volume of the drainage system were 28.1-72.1, 19.0-69.2, and 33.9-56.0 %, respectively, under six rainfall events with return periods ranging from 2 to 100 years. Corresponding, the inundation risks of the drainage system were significantly reduced after SCMs implementation, the risk values falling below 0.2 when the rainfall return period was less than 10 years. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of SCMs on mitigating inundation, and quantified the potential of SCMs on reducing inundation risks in the urban drainage system, which provided scientific references for implementing SCMs for inundation control of the study area.
Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...
Saldívar-Hernández, Analilia; González-González, María E; Sánchez-Tusié, Ana; Maldonado-Rosas, Israel; López, Pablo; Treviño, Claudia L; Larrea, Fernando; Chirinos, Mayel
The mammalian oocyte extracellular matrix known as the zona pellucida (ZP) acts as a barrier to accomplish sperm fusion with the female gamete. Although penetration of the ZP is a limiting event to achieve fertilization, this is one of the least comprehended stages of gamete interaction. Even though previous studies suggest that proteases of sperm origin contribute to facilitate the passage of sperm through the ZP, in human this process is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the ability of human sperm to degrade recombinant human ZP (rhZPs) proteins and to characterize the proteases involved in this process. Purified rhZP2, rhZP3 and rhZP4 proteins were incubated with capacitated sperm and the proteolytic activity was determined by Western blot analysis. To further characterize the proteases involved, parallel incubations were performed in the presence of the protease inhibitors o-phenanthroline, benzamidine and MG-132 meant to block the activity of metalloproteases, serine proteases and the proteasome, respectively. Additionally, protease inhibitors effect on sperm-ZP binding was evaluated by hemizona assay. The results showed that rhZPs were hydrolyzed in the presence of capacitated sperm. O-phenanthroline inhibited the degradation of rhZP3, MG-132 inhibited the degradation of rhZP4 and benzamidine inhibited the degradation of the three proteins under investigation. Moreover, hemizona assays demonstrated that sperm proteasome inhibition impairs sperm interaction with human native ZP. This study suggests that sperm proteasomes could participate in the degradation of ZP, particularly of the ZP4 protein. Besides, metalloproteases may be involved in specific degradation of ZP3 while serine proteases may contribute to unspecific degradation of the ZP. These findings suggest that localized degradation of ZP proteins by sperm is probably involved in ZP penetration and may be of help in understanding the mechanisms of fertilization in humans.
Li, N.; Yamazaki, Y.; Roeber, V.; Cheung, K. F.; Chock, G.
Global warming is posing an imminent threat to coastal communities worldwide. Under the IPCC RCP8.5 scenario, we utilize hurricane events downscaled from a CMIP5 global climate model using the stochastic-deterministic method of Emanuel (2013, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.) in a pilot study to develop an inundation map with projected sea-level rise for the urban Honolulu coast. The downscaling is performed for a 20-year period from 2081 to 2100 to capture the ENSO, which strongly influences the hurricane activity in the Pacific. A total of 50 simulations provide a quasi-stationary dataset of 1000 years for probabilistic analysis of the flood hazards toward the end of the century. We utilize the meta-model Hakou, which is based on precomputed hurricane scenarios using ADCIRC, SWAN, and a 1D Boussinesq model (Kennedy et al., 2012, Ocean Modelling), to estimate the annual maximum inundation along the project coastline at the present sea level. Screening of the preliminary results identifies the most severe three events for detailed inundation modeling using the package of Li et al. (2014, Ocean Modelling) at the projected sea level. For each event, the third generation spectral model WAVEWATCH III of Tolman (2008, Ocean Modelling) provides the hurricane waves and the circulation model NEOWAVE of Yamazaki et al. (2009, 2011, Int. J. Num. Meth. Fluids) computes the surge using a system of telescopic nested grids from the open ocean to the project coastline. The output defines the boundary conditions and initial still-water elevation for computation of phase-resolving surf-zone and inundation processes using the 2D Boussinesq model of Roeber and Cheung (2012, Coastal Engineering). Each computed inundation event corresponds to an annual maximum, and with 1000 years of data, has an occurrence probability of 0.1% in a given year. Barring the tail of the distribution, aggregation of the three computed events allow delineation of the inundation zone with annual exceedance probability
Hoppe, Heidi L.; Watson, Kara M.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 2.75-mile reach of the Saddle River from 0.2 mile upstream from the Interstate 80 bridge in Rochelle Park to 1.5 miles downstream from the U.S. Route 46 bridge in Lodi, New Jersey, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Saddle River at Lodi, New Jersey (station 01391500). Current conditions for estimating near real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/uv?site_no=01391500. The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the Saddle River at Lodi, New Jersey streamgage and documented high-water marks from recent floods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 11 water-surface profiles for flood stages at the Saddle River streamgage at 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum, North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), and ranging from bankfull, 0.5 ft below NWS Action Stage, to the extent of the stage-discharge rating, which is approximately 1 ft higher than the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. Action Stage is the stage which when reached by a rising stream the NWS or a partner needs to take some type of mitigation action in
Kim, Moon H.
Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximately 4.8-mile reach of the Wabash River at Lafayette, Indiana (Ind.) were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03335500, Wabash River at Lafayette, Ind. Current streamflow conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the internet at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv?site_no=03335500. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system (https://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS AHPS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages, including the Wabash River at Lafayette, Ind. NWS AHPS-forecast peak-stage information may be used with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.For this study, flood profiles were computed for the Wabash River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03335500, Wabash River at Lafayette, Ind., and high-water marks from the flood of July 2003 (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [USACE], 2007). The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 23 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model derived
Kim, Moon H.; Johnson, Esther M.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a reach of the North Branch Elkhart River at Cosperville, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Detroit District. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 04100222, North Branch Elkhart River at Cosperville, Ind. Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv?site_no=04100222. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS AHPS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages, including the North Branch Elkhart River at Cosperville, Ind. NWS AHPS-forecast peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the North Branch Elkhart River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 04100222, North Branch Elkhart River at Cosperville, Ind., and preliminary high-water marks from the flood of March 1982. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine four water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS
Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 15.5-mi reach of the DuPage River from Plainfield to Shorewood, Illinois, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Will County Stormwater Management Planning Committee. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (gage heights or stages) at the USGS streamgage at DuPage River at Shorewood, Illinois (sta. no. 05540500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/usa/nwis/uv?05540500. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages. The NWS-forecasted peak-stage information, also shown on the DuPage River at Shorewood inundation Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was then used to determine nine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from NWS Action stage of 6 ft to the historic crest of 14.0 ft. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (derived from Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data) by using a Geographic Information System (GIS) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. These maps, along with information on the Internet regarding current gage height from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from the NWS, provide emergency
Fowler, Kathleen K.
Digital flood-inundation maps for an 1.8-mile reach of the East Fork White River near Bedford, Indiana (Ind.) were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selectedwater levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03371500, East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind. Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv?site_no=03371500. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages, including the East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the East Fork White River reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03371500, East Fork White River near Bedford, Ind., and documented high-water marks from the flood of June 2008. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 20 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM, derived from
Menke, Chad D.; Kim, Moon H.; Fowler, Kathleen K.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9-mile reach of the St. Marys River that extends from South Anthony Boulevard to Main Street at Fort Wayne, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Fort Wayne. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 04182000 St. Marys River near Fort Wayne, Ind. Current conditions at the USGS streamgages in Indiana may be obtained from the National Water Information System: Web Interface. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system. The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated at USGS streamgages. That forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, water-surface profiles were simulated for the stream reach by means of a hydraulic one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relation at the USGS streamgage 04182000 St. Marys River near Fort Wayne, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to simulate 11 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A flood inundation map was generated for each water-surface profile stage (11 maps in all) so that for any given flood stage users will be
Fisher, C. K.; Pan, M.; Wood, E. F.
Throughout the world, there is an increasing need for new methods and data that can aid decision makers, emergency responders and scientists in the monitoring of flood events as they happen. In many regions, it is possible to examine the extent of historical and real-time inundation occurrence from visible and infrared imagery provided by sensors such as MODIS or the Landsat TM; however, this is not possible in regions that are densely vegetated or are under persistent cloud cover. In addition, there is often a temporal mismatch between the sampling of a particular sensor and a given flood event, leading to limited observations in near real-time. As a result, there is a need for alternative methods that take full advantage of complimentary remotely sensed data sources, such as available microwave brightness temperature observations (e.g., SMAP, SMOS, AMSR2, AMSR-E, and GMI), to aid in the estimation of global flooding. The objective of this work was to develop a high-resolution mapping of inundated areas derived from multiple satellite microwave sensor observations with a daily temporal resolution. This system consists of first retrieving water fractions from complimentary microwave sensors (AMSR-2 and SMAP) which may spatially and temporally overlap in the region of interest. Using additional information in a Random Forest classifier, including high resolution topography and multiple datasets of inundated area (both historical and empirical), the resulting retrievals are spatially downscaled to derive estimates of the extent of inundation at a scale relevant to management and flood response activities ( 90m or better) instead of the relatively coarse resolution water fractions, which are limited by the microwave sensor footprints ( 5-50km). Here we present the training and validation of this method for the 2015 floods that occurred in Houston, Texas. Comparing the predicted inundation against historical occurrence maps derived from the Landsat TM record and MODIS
Full Text Available After the extreme flood event of the Elbe in 2002 the definition of flood risk areas by law and their simulation became more important in Germany. This paper describes a concept of an analysis framework to improve the localisation and duration of validity of flood inundation maps. The two-dimensional finite difference model TrimR2D is used and linked to a Monte-Carlo routine for parameter sampling as well as to selected performance measures. The purpose is the investigation of the impact of different spatial resolutions and the influence of changing land uses in the simulation of flood inundation areas. The technical assembling of the framework is realised and beside the model calibration, first tests with different parameter ranges were done. Preliminary results show good correlations with observed data, but the investigation of shifting land uses reflects only poor changes in the flood extension.
Kaiser, G.; Kortenhaus, A.
The mega-tsunami of Dec. 26, 2004 strongly impacted the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand and devastated coastal ecosystems as well as towns, settlements and tourism resorts. In addition to the tragic loss of many lives, the destruction or damage of life-supporting infrastructure, such as buildings, roads, water & power supply etc. caused high economic losses in the region. To mitigate future tsunami impacts there is a need to assess the tsunami hazard and vulnerability in flood prone areas at the Andaman Sea coast in order to determine the spatial distribution of risk and to develop risk management strategies. In the bilateral German-Thai project TRAIT research is performed on integrated risk assessment for the Provinces Phang Nga and Phuket in southern Thailand, including a hazard analysis, i.e. modelling tsunami propagation to the coast, tsunami wave breaking and inundation characteristics, as well as vulnerability analysis of the socio-economic and the ecological system in order to determine the scenario-based, specific risk for the region. In this presentation results of the hazard analysis and the inundation simulation are presented and discussed. Numerical modelling of tsunami propagation and inundation simulation is an inevitable tool for risk analysis, risk management and evacuation planning. While numerous investigations have been made to model tsunami wave generation and propagation in the Indian Ocean, there is still a lack in determining detailed inundation patterns, i.e. water depth and flow dynamics. However, for risk management and evacuation planning this knowledge is essential. As the accuracy of the inundation simulation is strongly depending on the available bathymetric and the topographic data, a multi-scale approach is chosen in this work. The ETOPO Global Relief Model as a bathymetric basis and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM90) have been widely applied in tsunami modelling approaches as these data are free and almost world
Ways in which the use of radioisotopes and radiation can help to improve the agriculture of tropical Africa were discussed by a panel of experts. The panel included scientists from Africa, Europe, and the United States, most of whom had had actual experience dealing with agricultural problems in various parts of tropical Africa. The experts agreed that radioisotopes and radiation might now be employed to particular advantage in tropical Africa to improve crop nutrition and combat insect pests. Other applications discussed were in the fields of hydrology, plant breeding and food preservation
Ways in which the use of radioisotopes and radiation can help to improve the agriculture of tropical Africa were discussed by a panel of experts. The panel included scientists from Africa, Europe, and the United States, most of whom had had actual experience dealing with agricultural problems in various parts of tropical Africa. The experts agreed that radioisotopes and radiation might now be employed to particular advantage in tropical Africa to improve crop nutrition and combat insect pests. Other applications discussed were in the fields of hydrology, plant breeding and food preservation
Goda, Katsuichiro; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Mori, Nobuhito; Mai, Paul Martin
distributions. Stochastic tsunami scenarios are generated based on the spectral analysis and synthesis method with regards to an inverted source model. To assess spatial inundation processes accurately, tsunami modeling is conducted using bathymetry
Xie, Lian; Liu, Huiqing; Peng, Machuan
The effects of wave-current interactions on the storm surge and inundation induced by Hurricane Hugo in and around the Charleston Harbor and its adjacent coastal regions are examined by using a three-dimensional (3-D) wave-current coupled modeling system. The 3-D storm surge and inundation modeling component of the coupled system is based on the Princeton ocean model (POM), whereas the wave modeling component is based on the third-generation wave model, simulating waves nearshore (SWAN). The results indicate that the effects of wave-induced surface, bottom, and radiation stresses can separately or in combination produce significant changes in storm surge and inundation. The effects of waves vary spatially. In some areas, the contribution of waves to peak storm surge during Hurricane Hugo reached as high as 0.76 m which led to substantial changes in the inundation and drying areas simulated by the storm surge model.
Rojali, Aditia; Budiaji, Abdul Somat; Pribadi, Yudhistira Satya; Fatria, Dita; Hadi, Tri Wahyu
This paper addresses on the numerical modeling approaches for flood inundation in urban areas. Decisive strategy to choose between 1D, 2D or even a hybrid 1D-2D model is more than important to optimize flood inundation analyses. To find cost effective yet robust and accurate model has been our priority and motivation in the absence of available High Performance Computing facilities. The application of 1D, 1D/2D and full 2D modeling approach to river flood study in Jakarta Ciliwung river basin, and a comparison of approaches benchmarked for the inundation study are presented. This study demonstrate the successful use of 1D/2D and 2D system to model Jakarta Ciliwung river basin in terms of inundation results and computational aspect. The findings of the study provide an interesting comparison between modeling approaches, HEC-RAS 1D, 1D-2D, 2D, and ANUGA when benchmarked to the Manggarai water level measurement.
Harry V. Wang
Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy inflicted heavy damage in New York City and the New Jersey coast as the second costliest storm in history. A large-scale, unstructured grid storm tide model, Semi-implicit Eulerian Lagrangian Finite Element (SELFE, was used to hindcast water level variation during Hurricane Sandy in the mid-Atlantic portion of the U.S. East Coast. The model was forced by eight tidal constituents at the model’s open boundary, 1500 km away from the coast, and the wind and pressure fields from atmospheric model Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS provided by Weatherflow Inc. The comparisons of the modeled storm tide with the NOAA gauge stations from Montauk, NY, Long Island Sound, encompassing New York Harbor, Atlantic City, NJ, to Duck, NC, were in good agreement, with an overall root mean square error and relative error in the order of 15–20 cm and 5%–7%, respectively. Furthermore, using large-scale model outputs as the boundary conditions, a separate sub-grid model that incorporates LIDAR data for the major portion of the New York City was also set up to investigate the detailed inundation process. The model results compared favorably with USGS’ Hurricane Sandy Mapper database in terms of its timing, local inundation area, and the depth of the flooding water. The street-level inundation with water bypassing the city building was created and the maximum extent of horizontal inundation was calculated, which was within 30 m of the data-derived estimate by USGS.
Roland, Mark A.; Underwood, Stacey M.; Thomas, Craig M.; Miller, Jason F.; Pratt, Benjamin A.; Hogan, Laurie G.; Wnek, Patricia A.
A series of 28 digital flood-inundation maps was developed for an approximate 25-mile reach of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The study was selected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) national Silver Jackets program, which supports interagency teams at the state level to coordinate and collaborate on flood-risk management. This study to produce flood-inundation maps was the result of a collaborative effort between the USACE, National Weather Service (NWS), Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC), The Harrisburg Authority, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These maps are accessible through Web-mapping applications associated with the NWS, SRBC, and USGS. The maps can be used in conjunction with the real-time stage data from the USGS streamgage 01570500, Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., and NWS flood-stage forecasts to help guide the general public in taking individual safety precautions and will provide local municipal officials with a tool to efficiently manage emergency flood operations and flood mitigation efforts. The maps were developed using the USACE HEC–RAS and HEC–GeoRAS programs to compute water-surface profiles and to delineate estimated flood-inundation areas for selected stream stages. The maps show estimated flood-inundation areas overlaid on high-resolution, georeferenced, aerial photographs of the study area for stream stages at 1-foot intervals between 11 feet and 37 feet (which include NWS flood categories Action, Flood, Moderate, and Major) and the June 24, 1972, peak-of-record flood event at a stage of 33.27 feet at the Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., streamgage.
Tavakoly, A. A.; Afshari, S.; Omranian, E.; Feng, D.; Rajib, A.; Snow, A.; Cohen, S.; Merwade, V.; Fekete, B. M.; Sharif, H. O.; Beighley, E.
Various hydraulic/GIS-based tools can be used for illustrating spatial extent of flooding for first-responders, policy makers and the general public. The objective of this study is to compare four flood inundation modeling tools: HEC-RAS-2D, Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis (GSSHA), AutoRoute and Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND). There is a trade-off among accuracy, workability and computational demand in detailed, physics-based flood inundation models (e.g. HEC-RAS-2D and GSSHA) in contrast with semi-empirical, topography-based, computationally less expensive approaches (e.g. AutoRoute and HAND). The motivation for this study is to evaluate this trade-off and offer guidance to potential large-scale application in an operational prediction system. The models were assessed and contrasted via comparability analysis (e.g. overlapping statistics) by using three case studies in the states of Alabama, Texas, and West Virginia. The sensitivity and accuracy of physical and semi-eimpirical models in producing inundation extent were evaluated for the following attributes: geophysical characteristics (e.g. high topographic variability vs. flat natural terrain, urbanized vs. rural zones, effect of surface roughness paratermer value), influence of hydraulic structures such as dams and levees compared to unobstructed flow condition, accuracy in large vs. small study domain, effect of spatial resolution in topographic data (e.g. 10m National Elevation Dataset vs. 0.3m LiDAR). Preliminary results suggest that semi-empericial models tend to underestimate in a flat, urbanized area with controlled/managed river channel around 40% of the inundation extent compared to the physical models, regardless of topographic resolution. However, in places where there are topographic undulations, semi-empericial models attain relatively higher level of accuracy than they do in flat non-urbanized terrain.
Ricardo Rueda González
Full Text Available
PROFAMILIA siempre preocupada por los problemas sociales del país y con apoyo de la Agencia Internacional para el Desarrollo de los Estados Unidos realizó una investigación del más alto nivel que se enfocó primordialmente a la población de desplazados.
Por ello consideramos de gran importancia divulgar a través de esta respetable revista las conclusiones de este interesante trabajo denominado “Salud sexual y reproductiva en zonas marginadas. Situación de las mujeres desplazadas” en Colombia.
Situación de las mujeres desplazadas
Características de la población
En los hogares entrevistados, la mayor proporción (73% de los jefes de hogar son hombres, el 27% tiene jefatura femenina. Los menores de 15 años representan el 46% de la población de los hogares entrevistados; los adolescentes de 13 a 19 años comprenden el 14% y las mujeres en edad fértil (15-49 años, el 24.2 de la población de los hogares entrevistados. El número promedio de personas por hogar es 4.9.
El 21% de los habitantes mayores de 6 años no ha tenido acceso a la educación formal, el 57% ha aprobado algún curso de primaria, el 21% alguno de secundaria y menos del 1% aprobó algún año de universidad. Es mayor la proporción de hombres sin educación que la de mujeres.
El 56% de la población en los hogares entrevistados está afiliada al sistema general de seguridad en salud, en su mayor proporción (28% a Administradoras del Régimen Subsidiado y en segundo orden como vinculadas (20% al mismo régimen subsidiado; sólo un 8% de las personas pertenece al régimen contributivo...
DeJager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Yin, Yao; Hoy, Erin E.
Questions How is the distribution of different plant communities associated with patterns of flood inundation across a large floodplain landscape? Location Thirty-eight thousand nine hundred and seventy hectare of floodplain, spanning 320 km of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Methods High-resolution elevation data (Lidar) and 30 yr of daily river stage data were integrated to produce a ‘floodscape’ map of growing season flood inundation duration. The distributions of 16 different remotely sensed plant communities were quantified along the gradient of flood duration. Results Models fitted to the cumulative frequency of occurrence of different vegetation types as a function of flood duration showed that most types exist along a continuum of flood-related occurrence. The diversity of community types was greatest at high elevations (0–10 d of flooding), where both upland and lowland community types were found, as well as at very low elevations (70–180 d of flooding), where a variety of lowland herbaceous communities were found. Intermediate elevations (20–60 d of flooding) tended to be dominated by floodplain forest and had the lowest diversity of community types. Conclusions Although variation in flood inundation is often considered to be the main driver of spatial patterns in floodplain plant communities, few studies have quantified flood–vegetation relationships at broad scales. Our results can be used to identify targets for restoration of historical hydrological regimes or better anticipate hydro-ecological effects of climate change at broad scales.
Bruwier, M; Mustafa, A; Aliaga, D G; Archambeau, P; Erpicum, S; Nishida, G; Zhang, X; Pirotton, M; Teller, J; Dewals, B
The objective of this paper is to investigate the respective influence of various urban pattern characteristics on inundation flow. A set of 2000 synthetic urban patterns were generated using an urban procedural model providing locations and shapes of streets and buildings over a square domain of 1×1km 2 . Steady two-dimensional hydraulic computations were performed over the 2000 urban patterns with identical hydraulic boundary conditions. To run such a large amount of simulations, the computational efficiency of the hydraulic model was improved by using an anisotropic porosity model. This model computes on relatively coarse computational cells, but preserves information from the detailed topographic data through porosity parameters. Relationships between urban characteristics and the computed inundation water depths have been based on multiple linear regressions. Finally, a simple mechanistic model based on two district-scale porosity parameters, combining several urban characteristics, is shown to capture satisfactorily the influence of urban characteristics on inundation water depths. The findings of this study give guidelines for more flood-resilient urban planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Papaioannou, George; Vasiliades, Lampros; Loukas, Athanasios; Aronica, Giuseppe T.
Probabilistic flood inundation mapping is performed and analysed at the ungauged Xerias stream reach, Volos, Greece. The study evaluates the uncertainty introduced by the roughness coefficient values on hydraulic models in flood inundation modelling and mapping. The well-established one-dimensional (1-D) hydraulic model, HEC-RAS is selected and linked to Monte-Carlo simulations of hydraulic roughness. Terrestrial Laser Scanner data have been used to produce a high quality DEM for input data uncertainty minimisation and to improve determination accuracy on stream channel topography required by the hydraulic model. Initial Manning's n roughness coefficient values are based on pebble count field surveys and empirical formulas. Various theoretical probability distributions are fitted and evaluated on their accuracy to represent the estimated roughness values. Finally, Latin Hypercube Sampling has been used for generation of different sets of Manning roughness values and flood inundation probability maps have been created with the use of Monte Carlo simulations. Historical flood extent data, from an extreme historical flash flood event, are used for validation of the method. The calibration process is based on a binary wet-dry reasoning with the use of Median Absolute Percentage Error evaluation metric. The results show that the proposed procedure supports probabilistic flood hazard mapping at ungauged rivers and provides water resources managers with valuable information for planning and implementing flood risk mitigation strategies.
Loftis, Jon Derek; Wang, Harry V.; DeYoung, Russell J.
This report on a Virginia Institute for Marine Science project demonstrates that the sub-grid modeling technology (now as part of Chesapeake Bay Inundation Prediction System, CIPS) can incorporate high-resolution Lidar measurements provided by NASA Langley Research Center into the sub-grid model framework to resolve detailed topographic features for use as a hydrological transport model for run-off simulations within NASA Langley and Langley Air Force Base. The rainfall over land accumulates in the ditches/channels resolved via the model sub-grid was tested to simulate the run-off induced by heavy precipitation. Possessing both the capabilities for storm surge and run-off simulations, the CIPS model was then applied to simulate real storm events starting with Hurricane Isabel in 2003. It will be shown that the model can generate highly accurate on-land inundation maps as demonstrated by excellent comparison of the Langley tidal gauge time series data (CAPABLE.larc.nasa.gov) and spatial patterns of real storm wrack line measurements with the model results simulated during Hurricanes Isabel (2003), Irene (2011), and a 2009 Nor'easter. With confidence built upon the model's performance, sea level rise scenarios from the ICCP (International Climate Change Partnership) were also included in the model scenario runs to simulate future inundation cases.
Steven N. Ward
Full Text Available Most analyses of storm surge and inundation solve equations of continuity and momentum on fixed finite-difference/finite-element meshes. I develop a completely new approach that uses a momentum equation to accelerate bits or balls of water over variable depth topography. The thickness of the water column at any point equals the volume density of balls there. In addition to being more intuitive than traditional methods, the tsunami ball approach has several advantages. (a By tracking water balls of fixed volume, the continuity equation is satisfied automatically and the advection term in the momentum equation becomes unnecessary. (b The procedure is meshless in the finite-difference/finite-element sense. (c Tsunami balls care little if they find themselves in the ocean or inundating land. (d Tsunami ball calculations of storm surge can be done on a laptop computer. I demonstrate and calibrate the method by simulating storm surge and inundation around New Orleans, Louisiana caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and by comparing model predictions with field observations. To illustrate the flexibility of the tsunami ball technique, I run two “What If” hurricane scenarios—Katrina over Savannah, Georgia and Katrina over Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
Li, Ning; Roeber, Volker; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Heitmann, Troy W.; Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai
Modeling of storm-induced coastal inundation has primarily focused on the surge generated by atmospheric pressure and surface winds with phase-averaged effects of the waves as setup. Through an interoperable model package, we investigate the role of phase-resolving wave processes in simulation of coastal flood hazards. A spectral ocean wave model describes generation and propagation of storm waves from deep to intermediate water, while a non-hydrostatic storm-tide model has the option to couple with a spectral coastal wave model for computation of phase-averaged processes in a near-shore region. The ocean wave and storm-tide models can alternatively provide the wave spectrum and the surface elevation as the boundary and initial conditions for a nested Boussinesq model. Additional surface-gradient terms in the Boussinesq equations maintain the quasi-steady, non-uniform storm tide for modeling of phase-resolving surf and swash-zone processes as well as combined tide, surge, and wave inundation. The two nesting schemes are demonstrated through a case study of Hurricane Iniki, which made landfall on the Hawaiian Island of Kauai in 1992. With input from a parametric hurricane model and global reanalysis and tidal datasets, the two approaches produce comparable significant wave heights and phase-averaged surface elevations in the surf zone. The nesting of the Boussinesq model provides a seamless approach to augment the inundation due to the individual waves in matching the recorded debris line along the coast.
Juliastuti, Setyandito, Oki
The Indonesian Regulation which refers to the ICOLD Regulation (International Committee on Large Dam required have the Emergency Action Plan (EAP) guidelines because of the dams have potential failure. In EAP guidelines there is a management of evacuation where the determination of the inundation map based on flood modeling. The purpose of the EAP is to minimize the risk of loss of life and property in downstream which caused by dam failure. This paper will describe about develop flood modeling and inundation map in Krisak dam using numerical methods through dam break analysis (DBA) using hydraulic model Zhong Xing HY-21. The approaches of dam failure simulation are overtopping and piping. Overtopping simulation based on quadrangular, triangular and trapezium fracture. Piping simulation based on cracks of orifice. Using results of DBA, hazard classification of Krisak dam is very high. The nearest village affected dam failure is Singodutan village (distance is 1.45 kilometer from dam) with inundation depth is 1.85 meter. This result can be used by stakeholders such as emergency responders and the community at risk in formulating evacuation procedure.
Diana Patricia Alvarado-Solano
Full Text Available En el departamento del Valle del Cauca, la distribución de Bosque Seco Tropical (BsT se ha asociado al valle geográfico del río Cauca ubicado en la zona plana. Actualmente en esta zona, su cobertura se ha reducido a pocos relictos que se encuentran bajo alguna figura de conservación y mantienen áreas representativas de las formaciones vegetales sssstípicas de este bioma. Este trabajo se enfocó en el reconocimiento de la distribución espacial de formaciones vegetales de BsT en el departamento del Valle del Cauca. Se empleó información cartográfica secundaria para reconocer los biomas, ecosistemas y usos del suelo del área de estudio y en zonas adyacentes del piedemonte y montañas. Un modelo digital de elevaciones fue utilizado para realizar análisis altitudinales. En un sistema de información geográfico se aplicaron técnicas de geoprocesamiento y análisis geoespacial entre la información cartográfica y satelital. Los resultados evidencian que pese al avanzado deterioro de las coberturas de bosque seco en la zona plana, alrededor del 80 % se localiza en ecosistemas de montaña, específicamente en zonas de transición hacia bosques húmedos. A futuro, el potencial de estas áreas deberá evaluarse para ser incluidas en estrategias de conservación y restauración del bosque seco así como en el diseño de procesos adaptativos frente al cambio climático.
The sensitivity and variability of spatial tsunami inundation footprints in coastal cities and towns due to a megathrust subduction earthquake in the Tohoku region of Japan are investigated by considering different fault geometry and slip distributions. Stochastic tsunami scenarios are generated based on the spectral analysis and synthesis method with regards to an inverted source model. To assess spatial inundation processes accurately, tsunami modeling is conducted using bathymetry and elevation data with 50 m grid resolutions. Using the developed methodology for assessing variability of tsunami hazard estimates, stochastic inundation depth maps can be generated for local coastal communities. These maps are important for improving disaster preparedness by understanding the consequences of different situations/conditions, and by communicating uncertainty associated with hazard predictions. The analysis indicates that the sensitivity of inundation areas to the geometrical parameters (i.e., top-edge depth, strike, and dip) depends on the tsunami source characteristics and the site location, and is therefore complex and highly nonlinear. The variability assessment of inundation footprints indicates significant influence of slip distributions. In particular, topographical features of the region, such as ria coast and near-shore plain, have major influence on the tsunami inundation footprints.
2015 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 473. Introduction ... diabetes.[2,3] Tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a terminology .... the importance of seeking medical attention immediately.
Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...
Ji Son Jang
Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan algunos resultados de una investigación sobre la selección pronominal acerca del uso del usted, llevada a cabo en tres municipios del departamento colombiano de Antioquia: la ciudad de Medellín (zona urbana; Carmen de Viboral (zona semirrural, y Andes (zona rural. La población estudiada está constituida por los informantes de edades entre 13 y 34 años. La variable social para este artículo es el lugar de la vivienda de los informantes (zona urbana, semirrural o rural. Para llevar a cabo la investigación, se aplicó un cuestionario, en el cual aparecen distintos tipos interaccionales, a los informantes en las zonas mencionadas; se obtuvieron 1940 informantes. La estadística muestra que, en la gran mayoría de relaciones interpersonales, en Andes se usa más el usted que en Carmen de Viboral y, en este último municipio, más que en Medellín.
Fowler, Kathleen K.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9.5-mile reach of the Patoka River in and near the city of Jasper, southwestern Indiana (Ind.), from the streamgage near County Road North 175 East, downstream to State Road 162, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Patoka River at Jasper, Ind. (station number 03375500). The Patoka streamgage is located at the upstream end of the 9.5-mile river reach. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, although flood forecasts and stages for action and minor, moderate, and major flood stages are not currently (2017) available at this site (JPRI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Patoka River at Jasper, Ind., streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of April 30, 2017. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute five water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 15 feet (ft), or near bankfull, to 19 ft. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98 ft vertical accuracy and 4.9 ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these flood-inundation maps, along with real
Strauch, Kellan R.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs, created digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.3-mile reach of the Elkhart River at Goshen, Indiana, extending from downstream of the Goshen Dam to downstream from County Road 17. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to nine selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Elkhart River at Goshen (station number 04100500). Current conditions for the USGS streamgages in Indiana may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, stream stage data have been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Elkhart River at Goshen streamgage. The hydraulic model was then used to compute nine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from approximately bankfull (5 ft) to greater than the highest recorded water level (13 ft). The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital-elevation model (DEM), derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and 3.9-ft horizontal resolution in order to delineate the area flooded at each
Fowler, Kathleen K.; Kim, Moon H.; Menke, Chad D.
Digital flood-inundation maps for an 11.2 mile reach of the Driftwood River and a 5.2 mile reach of Sugar Creek, both near Edinburgh, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Camp Atterbury Joint Maneuver Training Center, Edinburgh, Indiana. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 03363000 Driftwood River near Edinburgh, Ind. Current conditions at the USGS streamgage in Indiana may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/current/?type=flow. In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/. The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often collocated at USGS streamgages. That forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relations at the USGS streamgage 03363000 Driftwood River near Edinburgh, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to determine elevations throughout the study reaches for nine water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to nearly the highest recorded water level at the USGS streamgage 03363000 Driftwood River near Edinburgh, Ind. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geospatial digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to
Lombard, Pamela J.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.3-mi reach of the Wabash River from 0.1 mi downstream of the Interstate 70 bridge to 1.1 miles upstream of the Route 63 bridge, Terre Haute, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to select water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Wabash River at Terre Haute (station number 03341500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03341500&agency_cd=USGS&p"). In addition, the same data are provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps//). Within this system, the NWS forecasts flood hydrographs for the Wabash River at Terre Haute that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Wabash River at the Terre Haute streamgage. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 22 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft interval referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bank-full to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02-ft horizontal accuracy) to delineate the area flooded at each water
Lombard, Pamela J.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.4-mile reach of the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana, from where the Flatrock and Driftwood Rivers combine to make up East Fork White River to just upstream of the confluence of Clifty Creek with the East Fork White River, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03364000&agency_cd=USGS&). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasts flood hydrographs for the East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana at their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system Website (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/), that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at USGS streamgage 03364000, East Fork White River at Columbus, Indiana. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data), having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02 ft
Skalski, T.; Kedzior, R.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.
Under natural conditions, river channels and floodplains are shaped by flow and sediment regime and are one of the most dynamic ecosystems. At present, European river floodplains are among the most endangered landscapes due to human modifications to river systems, including channel regulation and floodplain urbanization, and land use changes in the catchments. Situated in a transition zone between terrestrial and aquatic environments, exposed riverine sediments (ERS) play a key role in the functioning of riverine ecosystems. This study aimed to verify whether the bare granular substrate is the only factor responsible for sustaining the biota associated with ERS or the inundation frequency also plays a role, modifying the potential of particular species to colonize these habitats. Ground beetles (Col. Carabidae) were selected as the investigated group of organisms and the study was carried out in Porębianka, a Polish Carpathian stream flowing through both unconstrained channel sections and sections with varied channelization schemes (rapid hydraulic structures, concrete revetments or rip-rap of various age). In each of the distinguished channel types, four replicates of 10 pitfall traps were established in three rows varying in distance to the mean water level (at three different benches). Almost 7000 individuals belonging to 102 species were collected on 60 plots. Forward selection of redundancy analysis revealed four factors significantly describing the variation in ground beetle species data: bank modification, potential bankfull discharge, frequency of inundation and plant height. Most of the biggest species were ordered at the positive site of first axis having the highest values of periods between floods. Total biomass of ground beetles and mean biomass of individuals differed significantly between sites of various frequency of inundation, whereas the variation in abundance and species richness of ground beetles was independent of the river dynamics. The body
Lim, Tow Keang; Siow, Wen Ting
Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities. Fuelled by the ease of air travel, novel zoonotic infections originating from the tropics have led to global respiratory pandemics. As such, clinicians worldwide should be aware of these new conditions as well as classical tropical bacterial pneumonias such as melioidosis. Rarer entities such as co-infections of leptospirosis and chikungunya or dengue will need careful consideration as well. In this review, we highlight aetiologies of pneumonia seen more commonly in the tropics compared with temperate regions, their disease burden, variable clinical presentations as well as impact on healthcare delivery. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Francesca F Norman
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to the growth in international travel and immigration, NTDs may be diagnosed in countries of the western world, but there has been no specific focus in the literature on imported NTDs. METHODS: Retrospective study of a cohort of immigrants and travelers diagnosed with one of the 13 core NTDs at a Tropical Medicine Referral Unit in Spain during the period April 1989-December 2007. Area of origin or travel was recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 6168 patients (2634 immigrants, 3277 travelers and 257 VFR travelers in the cohort. NTDs occurred more frequently in immigrants, followed by VFR travelers and then by other travelers (p<0.001 for trend. The main NTDs diagnosed in immigrants were onchocerciasis (n = 240, 9.1% acquired mainly in sub-Saharan Africa, Chagas disease (n = 95, 3.6% in immigrants from South America, and ascariasis (n = 86, 3.3% found mainly in immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Most frequent NTDs in travelers were: schistosomiasis (n = 43, 1.3%, onchocerciasis (n = 17, 0.5% and ascariasis (n = 16, 0.5%, and all were mainly acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. The main NTDs diagnosed in VFR travelers were onchocerciasis (n = 14, 5.4%, and schistosomiasis (n = 2, 0.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of imported NTDs is emerging as these infections acquire a more public profile. Specific issues such as the possibility of non-vectorial transmission outside endemic areas and how some eradication programmes in endemic countries may have an impact even in non-tropical western countries are addressed. Recognising NTDs even outside tropical settings would allow specific prevention and control measures to be implemented and may create unique opportunities for research in future.
Marcos Mergarejo Netto
Full Text Available The Zona da Mata region of Minas Gerais spreads throughout an area equivalent to 6,09% of the State, with a population of 2,029,168 inhabitants, distributed through 142 municipalities, of which 70,23% have less than 10.000 inhabitants and low levels of urbanization. Nowadays, the economy is equivalent to 8,37% of the State’s GDP and approximately 11% of the population. Zona da Mata displays low per capita income, and an economic performance that falls short to its great potentials. Besides, the ongoing economic stagnation together with the lowering of quality of life indexes have exacerbated intra-regional discrepancies. This work explores the geohitory of Zona da Mata Region of Minas Gerais, seeking for historical determinants of current socioeconomic conditions.
Vajta, Gabor; Peura, T T; Holm, Peter
(WOW) system. Small wells (WOWs) were formed in four-well dishes by melting the bottom with heated steel rods. The WOWs were then rinsed, the wells were filled with medium, and the embryos were placed into the WOWs. To test the value of the WOW system a 3 x 3 factorial experiment was performed. Bovine......Culture of mammalian zygotes individually and in small groups results in lower developmental rates than culture of large groups. Zona-free zygotes also have impaired developmental potential in current culture systems. This paper describes a new approach to resolve the problems, the Well of the Well...... embryos cultured in 400 microl medium. The WOW system resulted in higher blastocyst/oocyte rates for all three modules (single: 59 group of five: 61 single zona-digested: 53 than the culture in drops or in wells (P well...
Carmena Ferreira de França
Full Text Available A compartimentação morfológica da zona costeira de Soure e Salvaterra, margem leste da Ilha de Marajó (PA; baseia-se em dados de sensores remotos, nas características geológicas, topográficas e vegetacionais levantadas em trabalhos de campo e na revisão da literatura sobre a região do Golfão Amazônico. A área de estudo subdivide-se em duas grandes unidades: planalto costeiro e planície costeira. O planalto costeiro é constituído por sedimentos areno-argilosos terciários do Grupo Barreiras/Pós-Barreiras, correspondendo a um relevo aplainado com suaves ondulações e cotas topográficas acima de 5 m (baixo platô. A cobertura vegetal apresenta matas secundárias, capoeiras e cerrados. A planície costeira é constituída por sedimentos lamosos e arenosos holocênicos, depositados sob influência de correntes de maré e ondas, apresentando cotas topográficas abaixo de 5 m. A cobertura vegetal é representada por mangues, campos inundáveis e restingas. As sub- unidades da planície costeira são: paleocanal, terraço arenoso, planície lamosa de supramaré, planície lamosa de intermaré, cordões arenosos antigos, cordões arenosos de dunas e praias atuais, canais de maré e deltas de maré vazante.
O director do Departamento de Biologia da Universidade dos Açores, em entrevista ao "Correio dos Açores", refere que as ilhas açorianas tem na zona costeira uma verdadeira fronteira entre o mundo terrestre e o mundo marinho, representando um dos ecossistemas mais ricos do arquipélago. Mas esta zona, com cinco a sete milhões de anos, está mal descrita e incompletamente conhecida, sendo o meio mais transformado por numerosos factores inerentes à presença do Homem. Segundo adianta, o...
Tobón, Jorge Iván
La zona de Llanogrande es una región fundamental en el desarrollo de Antioquia y es la de más rápido crecimiento poblacional, comercial e industrial del Departamento. Esto hace que se demande grandes cantidades de agua, siendo la subterránea una de las principales fuentes actuales y hacia el futuro. Con este trabajo se pretende aportar al conocimiento de la dinámica del agua en la zona vadosa de la Terraza de Llanogrande (Rionegro – Antioquia), a partir de las propiedades físicas e hidrául...
Hernando Vargas-Uricoechea; Carlos Hernán Sierra-Torres; Claudia Milena Holguín Betancourt; Laura Cristancho Torres
Los Desórdenes por Deficiencia de Yodo (DDY) son uno de los mayores problemas en salud pública en el mundo actual, en especial en niños y embarazadas. Estos trastornos truncan el desarrollo socioeconómico en aquellas zonas que los padecen; las poblaciones que viven en zonas yodo-deficientes siempre van a estar expuestas a sufrir las consecuencias originadas por esta deficiencia, en especial el aumento en la mortalidad perinatal, retardo mental, alteraciones en la síntesis de hormonas tiroide...
Vizcaíno Cortés, Gloria
El objetivo de dicho proyecto es la realización de un levantamiento topográfico de dicha zona de la ciudad de Cartagena y el correspondiente plano topográfico, parte de la necesidad de actualizar un plano realizado por la Comunidad Autónoma de Murcia ya que el actual se encuentra obsoleto. Mediante este proyecto fin de carrera se pretende llevar a cabo la realización de un plano a escala 1/500 de la zona. Haremos una modernización de la cartografía además de incluir los cambios realizados por...
Sergio Souza da Cunha
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the association between asthma and atopy in a cohort of children living in a large urban center in Brazil. Atopy was defined by the presence of allergen-specific IgE in serum or by a positive skin prick test. METHODS: In a sample of 1 445 Brazilian children, the association between the prevalence of asthma, skin prick test positivity, and allergen-specific IgE in serum was investigated. RESULTS: The prevalence of asthma was 22.6%. The presence of serum allergen-specific IgE was frequent in asthmatics and nonasthmatics, and the prevalence of asthma increased only with levels of allergen-specific IgE > 3.5 kilounits/L. The proportion of asthma attributable to atopy was estimated to be 24.5% when atopy was defined by the presence of allergen-specific IgE. With a given level of specific IgE, no association between skin test reactivity and asthma was observed. Skin prick tests were less sensitive than specific IgE for detection of atopy. CONCLUSIONS: Most asthma cases in an urban underprivileged setting in Brazil were not attributable to atopy. This observation has important implications for understanding the risk factors for the asthma epidemic in Latin AmericaOBJETIVO: Explorar la relación entre el asma y la atopia en una cohorte de niños que viven en un gran centro urbano de Brasil. En este estudio, se considera atopia la detección de IgE sérica específica de algún alérgeno o un resultado positivo a la prueba de punción cutánea. MÉTODOS: Se estudió la relación entre la prevalencia del asma, el resultado positivo a la prueba de punción cutánea y la detección de IgE sérica específica de algún alérgeno en una muestra de 1 445 niños brasileños. RESULTADOS: El asma registró una prevalencia de 22,6%. La presencia de IgE séricas específicas de alérgenos fue frecuente tanto en los asmáticos como en los no asmáticos, y la prevalencia del asma fue mayor solo cuando el valor detectado de la IgE específica del alérgeno era > 3,5 kilounidades/litro. Se calculó que la atopia definida como la detección de IgE específicas de alérgenos es responsable de 24,5% de los casos de asma. No se observó ninguna relación entre la reactividad a la prueba de punción cutánea y el asma en función de los valores de IgE específicas. La prueba de punción cutánea es menos sensible que la detección de IgE específicas en lo que respecta al diagnóstico de atopia. CONCLUSIONES: La mayoría de los casos de asma que se registran en entornos urbanos desfavorecidos de Brasil no son atribuibles a atopia. Esta observación tiene implicaciones importantes en lo que respecta a la comprensión de los factores de riesgo que predisponen a la epidemia de asma en América Latina
New hydrological insights for the region: The results revealed that there is observable inter-annual variability in inundation extent in the Barotse Floodplain with prominent differences demonstrated in both the flood ascending/peak and receding period. For the period 2003–2013 the results indicated a rising trend in inundation extent with a Mann–Kendall Z statistic of 1.71 and increase in magnitude of 33.1 km2 at significance level alpha of 0.05. Strong correlations between inundation extent and water level and between inundation extent and discharge with correlation coefficients of determination of 0.86 and 0.89 respectively were observed. For the period 2000–2011 water level time series showed a rising trend with the Mann–Kendall Z statistic of 2.97 and increase in magnitude of 0.1 m at significance level alpha of 0.05. Overall, during the period 1952–2004 discharge in the floodplain showed a declining trend with Mann–Kendall Z statistics of −2.88 and −3.38 at the inlet and outlet of the floodplain respectively. By correlation inference, the overall inundation extent trend in the floodplain was in a downward movement. Rainfall and discharge variability, high evapotranspiration and the changes in the land cover-use in the catchment of the floodplain are largely the factors affecting the observed variability and trends in inundation extent in the floodplain. The presented remote sensing based approach significantly reduces the need for the expensive and time limiting traditional physical field based wetland inundation mapping methods that form a limitation for achieving progress in wetland monitoring especially in open and sparsely gauged floodplains such as the Barotse.
Widlansky, Matthew J; Timmermann, Axel; Cai, Wenju
Global mean sea levels are projected to gradually rise in response to greenhouse warming. However, on shorter time scales, modes of natural climate variability in the Pacific, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), can affect regional sea level variability and extremes, with considerable impacts on coastal ecosystems and island nations. How these shorter-term sea level fluctuations will change in association with a projected increase in extreme El Niño and its atmospheric variability remains unknown. Using present-generation coupled climate models forced with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations and subtracting the effect of global mean sea level rise, we find that climate change will enhance El Niño-related sea level extremes, especially in the tropical southwestern Pacific, where very low sea level events, locally known as Taimasa, are projected to double in occurrence. Additionally, and throughout the tropical Pacific, prolonged interannual sea level inundations are also found to become more likely with greenhouse warming and increased frequency of extreme La Niña events, thus exacerbating the coastal impacts of the projected global mean sea level rise.
Rebolho, Cédric; Furusho-Percot, Carina; Blaquière, Simon; Brettschneider, Marco; Andréassian, Vazken
Traditionally, flood inundation maps are computed based on the Shallow Water Equations (SWE) in one or two dimensions, with various simplifications that have proved to give good results. However, the complexity of the SWEs often requires a numerical resolution which can need long computing time, as well as detailed cross section data: this often results in restricting these models to rather small areas abundant with high quality data. This, along with the necessity for fast inundation mapping, are the reason why rapid inundation models are being designed, working for (almost) any river with a minimum amount of data and, above all, easily available data. Our model tries to follow this path by using a 100m DEM over France from which are extracted a drainage network and the associated drainage areas. It is based on two pre-existing methods: (1) SHYREG (Arnaud et al.,2013), a regionalized approach used to calculate the 2-year and 10-year flood quantiles (used as approximated bankfull flow and maximum discharge, respectively) for each river pixel of the DEM (below a 10 000 km2 drainage area) and (2) SOCOSE (Mailhol,1980), which gives, amongst other things, an empirical formula of a characteristic flood duration (for each pixel) based on catchment area, average precipitation and temperature. An overflow volume for each river pixel is extracted from a triangular shaped synthetic hydrograph designed with SHYREG quantiles and SOCOSE flood duration. The volume is then spread from downstream to upstream one river pixel at a time. When the entire hydrographic network is processed, the model stops and generates a map of potential inundation area associated with the 10-year flood quantile. Our model can also be calibrated using past-events inundation maps by adjusting two parameters, one which modifies the overflow duration, and the other, equivalent to a minimum drainage area for river pixels to be flooded. Thus, in calibration on a sample of 42 basins, the first draft of the
Fowler, Kathleen K.
Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.3-mile reach of the Wabash River and a 7.6-mile reach of the Eel River at Logansport, Indiana (Ind.), were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage Wabash River at Logansport, Ind. (sta. no. 03329000) and USGS streamgage Eel River near Logansport, Ind. (sta. no. 03328500). Current conditions for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation using USGS streamgage information may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/. In addition, information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated with USGS streamgages. NWS-forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. For this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgages 03329000, Wabash River at Logansport, Ind., and 03328500, Eel River near Logansport, Ind. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine five water-surface profiles for flood stage at 1-foot intervals referenced to the Wabash River streamgage datum, and four water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the Eel River streamgage datum. The stages range from bankfull to approximately the highest
Oishi, Y.; Imamura, F.; Sugawara, D.
An accurate prediction of tsunami inundation is important for disaster mitigation purposes. One approach is to approximate the tsunami wave source through an instant inversion analysis using real-time observation data (e.g., Tsushima et al., 2009) and then use the resulting wave source data in an instant tsunami inundation simulation. However, a bottleneck of this approach is the large computational cost of the non-linear inundation simulation and the computational power of recent massively parallel supercomputers is helpful to enable faster than real-time execution of a tsunami inundation simulation. Parallel computers have become approximately 1000 times faster in 10 years (www.top500.org), and so it is expected that very fast parallel computers will be more and more prevalent in the near future. Therefore, it is important to investigate how to efficiently conduct a tsunami simulation on parallel computers. In this study, we are targeting very fast tsunami inundation simulations on the K computer, currently the fastest Japanese supercomputer, which has a theoretical peak performance of 11.2 PFLOPS. One computing node of the K computer consists of 1 CPU with 8 cores that share memory, and the nodes are connected through a high-performance torus-mesh network. The K computer is designed for distributed-memory parallel computation, so we have developed a parallel tsunami model. Our model is based on TUNAMI-N2 model of Tohoku University, which is based on a leap-frog finite difference method. A grid nesting scheme is employed to apply high-resolution grids only at the coastal regions. To balance the computation load of each CPU in the parallelization, CPUs are first allocated to each nested layer in proportion to the number of grid points of the nested layer. Using CPUs allocated to each layer, 1-D domain decomposition is performed on each layer. In the parallel computation, three types of communication are necessary: (1) communication to adjacent neighbours for the
The Tropical Agro-Sciences Division has two functions: conduct research on the impact of air pollution on tropical agricultural and to provide training to UPR graduate students and visiting scientists. Since the reorientation of the Center's interests under ERDA, the Division has directed its research activities, with particular emphasis on the effects of atmospheric pollution on tropical agriculture in the Guayanilla-Penuelas region, which has a fossil-fuel power plant, petroleum refineries, and associated industries. This new area of research is important to ERDA because the knowledge gained regarding the effects of air pollution related to energy technology on the agricultural environment and productivity will be useful in planning future energy developments. Information about the potential harm of air pollutants to man through the food chain and about ways of alleviating their impact on agriculture are of practical importance. Studies of the mechanisms involved in pollution injury, protection, and tolerance are of basic significance
Baba, Yasuyuki; Ishigaki, Taisuke; Toda, Keiichi; Nakagawa, Hajime
Many urbanized cities in Japan are located in alluvial plains, and the vulnerability of urbanized areas to flood disaster is highlighted by flood attacks due to heavy rain fall or typhoons. Underground spaces located in the urbanized area are flood-prone areas, and the intrusion of flood watar into underground space inflicted severe damages on urban functions and infrastructures. In a similar way, low-lying areas like "bowl-shaped" depression and underpasses under highway and railroad bridges are also prone to floods. The underpasses are common sites of accidents of submerged vehicles, and severe damage including human damage occasionally occurs under flooding conditions. To reduce the damage due to inundation in underground space, needless to say, early evacuation is one of the most important countermeasures. This paper shows some experimental results of evacuation tests from underground spaces under inundated situations. The difficulities of the evacuation from underground space has been investigated by using real scale models (door, staircase and vehicle), and the limit for safety evacuation is discussed. From the results, it is found that water depth of 0.3 - 0.4m would be a critical situation for the evacuation from underground space through staircases and door and that 0.7 - 0.8m deep on the ground would be also a critical situation for safety evacuation though the doors of the vehicle. These criteria have some possibility to vary according to different inundated situations, and they are also influenced by the individual variation like the difference of physical strength. This means that these criteria requires cautious stance to use although they show a sort of an index of the limitation for saftty evacuation from underground space.
Rodríguez-Rincón, J. P.; Pedrozo-Acuña, A.; Breña-Naranjo, J. A.
This investigation aims to study the propagation of meteorological uncertainty within a cascade modelling approach to flood prediction. The methodology was comprised of a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, a distributed rainfall-runoff model and a 2-D hydrodynamic model. The uncertainty evaluation was carried out at the meteorological and hydrological levels of the model chain, which enabled the investigation of how errors that originated in the rainfall prediction interact at a catchment level and propagate to an estimated inundation area and depth. For this, a hindcast scenario is utilised removing non-behavioural ensemble members at each stage, based on the fit with observed data. At the hydrodynamic level, an uncertainty assessment was not incorporated; instead, the model was setup following guidelines for the best possible representation of the case study. The selected extreme event corresponds to a flood that took place in the southeast of Mexico during November 2009, for which field data (e.g. rain gauges; discharge) and satellite imagery were available. Uncertainty in the meteorological model was estimated by means of a multi-physics ensemble technique, which is designed to represent errors from our limited knowledge of the processes generating precipitation. In the hydrological model, a multi-response validation was implemented through the definition of six sets of plausible parameters from past flood events. Precipitation fields from the meteorological model were employed as input in a distributed hydrological model, and resulting flood hydrographs were used as forcing conditions in the 2-D hydrodynamic model. The evolution of skill within the model cascade shows a complex aggregation of errors between models, suggesting that in valley-filling events hydro-meteorological uncertainty has a larger effect on inundation depths than that observed in estimated flood inundation extents.
Shastry, A. R.; Durand, M. T.; Neal, J. C.; Fernandez, A.; Hamilton, I.; Kari, S.; Laborde, S.; Mark, B. G.; Arabi, M.; Moritz, M.; Phang, S. C.
The Logone floodplain in northern Cameroon is an excellent example of coupled human-natural systems because of strong couplings between the social, ecological and hydrologic systems. Overbank flow from the Logone River in September and October is essential for agriculture and fishing livelihoods. Fishers dig canals to catch fish during the flood's recession to the river in November and December by installing nets at the intersection of canals and the river. Fishing canals connect the river to natural depressions in the terrain and may serve as a man-made extension of the river drainage network. In the last four decades, there has been an exponential increase in the number of canals which may affect flood hydraulics and the fishery. The goal of this study is to characterize the relationship between the fishing canals and flood dynamics in the Logone floodplain, specifically, parameters of flooding and recession timings and the duration of inundation. To do so, we model the Bara region ( 30 km2) of the floodplain using LISFLOOD-FP, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with sub-grid parameterizations of canals. We use a simplified version of the hydraulic system at a grid-cell size of 30-m, using synthetic topography, parameterized fishing canals, and representing fishnets as a combination of weir and mesh screens. The inflow at Bara is obtained from a separate, lower resolution (1-km grid-cell) model forced by daily discharge records obtained from Katoa, located 25-km upstream of Bara. Preliminary results show more canals lead to early recession of flood and a shorter duration of flood inundation. A shorter duration of flood inundation reduces the period of fish growth and will affect fisher catch returns. Understanding the couplings within the system is important for predicting long-term dynamics and the impact of building more fishing canals.
Mocan, N. [Crozier and Associates Inc., Collingwood, ON (Canada); Joy, D.M. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Rungis, G. [Grand River Conservation Authority, Cambridge, ON (Canada)
A study was conducted to determine the extent of flood inundation given a hypothetical dam breach scenario of the Woolwich Dam located in the Grand River Watershed, 2.5 km north of the Town of Elmira, Ontario. The dam is operated by the Grand River Conservation Authority and was constructed to provide low-flow augmentation to Canagagigue Creek. Advances in the computational capabilities of numerical models along with the availability of fine resolution geospatial data has lead to significant advances in the evaluation of catastrophic consequences due to the ensuing flood waters when dams fail. The hydraulic models HEC-RAS and HEC-GeoRAS were used in this study along with GIS to produce high resolution spatial and temporal flood inundation mapping. Given the proximity to the Town of Elmira, the dam is classified as having a high hazard potential. The large size and high hazard potential of the dam suggests that the Inflow Design Flood (IDF) is the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) event. The outlet structure of the spillway consists of 4 ogee-type concrete spillways equipped with radial gates. A low-level concrete pipe located within the spillway structure provides spillage for maintenance purposes. The full flow capacity of the spillway structure is 297 cubic metres per second at the full supply level of 364.8 metres. In addition to GIS flood inundation maps, this paper included the results of flood hydrographs, water surface profiles and peak flow data. It was concluded that techniques used in this analysis should be considered for use in the development of emergency management planning and dam safety assessments across Canada. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.
Full Text Available The overall objective of the study is to generate information for an enhanced land use planning with respect to flood hazards. The study assesses the potential impact of climate change by simulating a dam break scenario in a high intensity rainfall event and evaluates the vulnerability risk in the downstream region by integrating ArcGIS and Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS technologies. In the past century, the evidence of climate changes are observed in terms of increase in high intensity rainfall events. These events are of high concern, as increased inflow rates may increase the probability of a dam failure, leading to higher magnitude flooding events involving multiple consequences. The 100 year historical rainfall data for the central Mississippi region reveals an increased trend in the intensity of rainfall rates after the 1970s. With more than 10% of high hazard dams in the central region, the damage can be far accumulative. The study determines occurrence of the high intensity rainfall event in the past 100 years for central Mississippi and simulates a Ross Barnett Reservoir dam break scenario and evaluates the vulnerability risks due to inundation in the immediate downstream region, which happens to be the State Capital. The results indicate that the inundation due to a Ross Barnett Reservoir failure under high intensity rainfall event is comparable to a catastrophic flood event experienced by the region in 1979, which almost equals a 200-year flood magnitude. The results indicate that the extent and depth of flood waters poses a significant destructive threat to the state capital, inundating various infrastructural and transportation networks.
Anselmetti, Flavio; Hilbe, Michael; Strupler, Michael; Baumgartner, Christoph; Bolz, Markus; Braschler, Urs; Eberli, Josef; Liniger, Markus; Scheiwiller, Peter; Strasser, Michael
Due to their smaller dimensions and confined bathymetry, lakes act as model oceans that may be used as analogues for the much larger oceans and their margins. Numerous studies in the perialpine lakes of Central Europe have shown that their shores were repeatedly struck by several-meters-high tsunami waves, which were caused by subaquatic slides usually triggered by earthquake shaking. A profound knowledge of these hazards, their intensities and recurrence rates is needed in order to perform thorough tsunami-hazard assessment for the usually densely populated lake shores. In this context, we present results of a study combining i) basinwide slope-stability analysis of subaquatic sediment-charged slopes with ii) identification of scenarios for subaquatic slides triggered by seismic shaking, iii) forward modeling of resulting tsunami waves and iv) mapping of intensity of onshore inundation in populated areas. Sedimentological, stratigraphical and geotechnical knowledge of the potentially unstable sediment drape on the slopes is required for slope-stability assessment. Together with critical ground accelerations calculated from already failed slopes and paleoseismic recurrence rates, scenarios for subaquatic sediment slides are established. Following a previously used approach, the slides are modeled as a Bingham plastic on a 2D grid. The effect on the water column and wave propagation are simulated using the shallow-water equations (GeoClaw code), which also provide data for tsunami inundation, including flow depth, flow velocity and momentum as key variables. Combining these parameters leads to so called «intensity maps» for flooding that provide a link to the established hazard mapping framework, which so far does not include these phenomena. The current versions of these maps consider a 'worst case' deterministic earthquake scenario, however, similar maps can be calculated using probabilistic earthquake recurrence rates, which are expressed in variable amounts of
Eddyn Solórzano Chavez
Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo comparar el perfil sensorial de muestras de cacao de varias zonas productoras del país. Con este propósito el Laboratorio de Calidad Integral de Cacao y Chocolate de la Estación Experimental Tropical Pichilingue del INIAP, recibió muestras de 11 asociaciones de productores. Un panel de cinco miembros con experiencia en degustación de pasta de cacao (licor produjo datos para los siguientes componentes del sabor: cacao, acidez, amargor, astringencia, caramelo, floral, frutal, nuez y verde. El análisis comparativo de las muestras se llevó a cabo mediante la prueba no paramétrica de Kruskal & Wallis. El grado de asociación de distintos pares de variables se examinó mediante un análisis correlacional. La relación entre muestras también se exploró mediante el análisis multivariado de componentes principales. Este análisis condujo a la identificación de las variables originales que más aportaron a la varianza de los dos primeros componentes principales. Diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre muestras se detectaron solo para el sabor a cacao. Las correlaciónes más altas se dieron entre las variables frutal y verde, frutal y astringencia, frutal y amargor, y frutal y nuez, la mayoría de signo negativo. Las variables con más aportación a la varianza (35.20% del primer componente principal fueron frutal, verde y amargor. Acidez, floral y nuez hicieron la mayor aportación al segundo componente principal. La aparente estructuración de dos grupos muestrales en el plano definido sugiere semejanzas y diferencias en su perfil sensorial.
Ono, T.; Takahashi, T.
Non-structural mitigation measures such as flood hazard map based on estimated inundation area have been more important because heavy rains exceeding the design rainfall frequently occur in recent years. However, conventional method may lead to an underestimation of the area because assumed locations of dike breach in river flood analysis are limited to the cases exceeding the high-water level. The objective of this study is to consider the uncertainty of estimated inundation area with difference of the location of dike breach in river flood analysis. This study proposed multiple flood scenarios which can set automatically multiple locations of dike breach in river flood analysis. The major premise of adopting this method is not to be able to predict the location of dike breach correctly. The proposed method utilized interval of dike breach which is distance of dike breaches placed next to each other. That is, multiple locations of dike breach were set every interval of dike breach. The 2D shallow water equations was adopted as the governing equation of river flood analysis, and the leap-frog scheme with staggered grid was used. The river flood analysis was verified by applying for the 2015 Kinugawa river flooding, and the proposed multiple flood scenarios was applied for the Akutagawa river in Takatsuki city. As the result of computation in the Akutagawa river, a comparison with each computed maximum inundation depth of dike breaches placed next to each other proved that the proposed method enabled to prevent underestimation of estimated inundation area. Further, the analyses on spatial distribution of inundation class and maximum inundation depth in each of the measurement points also proved that the optimum interval of dike breach which can evaluate the maximum inundation area using the minimum assumed locations of dike breach. In brief, this study found the optimum interval of dike breach in the Akutagawa river, which enabled estimated maximum inundation area
Fowler, Kathleen K.; Menke, Chad D.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 10.2-mile reach of the Wabash River from Sevenmile Island to 3.7 mile downstream of Memorial Bridge (officially known as Lincoln Memorial Bridge) at Vincennes, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at USGS streamgage 03343010, Wabash River at Memorial Bridge at Vincennes, Ind. Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site.For this study, flood profiles were computed for the Wabash River reach by means of a one-dimensional stepbackwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relations at USGS streamgage 03343010, Wabash River at Memorial Bridge at Vincennes, Ind., and preliminary high-water marks from a high-water event on April 27, 2013. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to determine 19 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 10 feet (ft) or near bankfull to 28 ft, the highest stage of the current stage-discharge rating curve. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System (GIS) digital elevation model (DEM, derived from Light Detection and Ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps—along with Internet information
Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The
Afshari, Shahab; Tavakoly, Ahmad A.; Rajib, Mohammad Adnan; Zheng, Xing; Follum, Michael L.; Omranian, Ehsan; Fekete, Balázs M.
The objective of this study is to compare two new generation low-complexity tools, AutoRoute and Height Above the Nearest Drainage (HAND), with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model (Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System, HEC-RAS 2D). The assessment was conducted on two hydrologically different and geographically distant test-cases in the United States, including the 16,900 km2 Cedar River (CR) watershed in Iowa and a 62 km2 domain along the Black Warrior River (BWR) in Alabama. For BWR, twelve different configurations were set up for each of the models, including four different terrain setups (e.g. with and without channel bathymetry and a levee), and three flooding conditions representing moderate to extreme hazards at 10-, 100-, and 500-year return periods. For the CR watershed, models were compared with a simplistic terrain setup (without bathymetry and any form of hydraulic controls) and one flooding condition (100-year return period). Input streamflow forcing data representing these hypothetical events were constructed by applying a new fusion approach on National Water Model outputs. Simulated inundation extent and depth from AutoRoute, HAND, and HEC-RAS 2D were compared with one another and with the corresponding FEMA reference estimates. Irrespective of the configurations, the low-complexity models were able to produce inundation extents similar to HEC-RAS 2D, with AutoRoute showing slightly higher accuracy than the HAND model. Among four terrain setups, the one including both levee and channel bathymetry showed lowest fitness score on the spatial agreement of inundation extent, due to the weak physical representation of low-complexity models compared to a hydrodynamic model. For inundation depth, the low-complexity models showed an overestimating tendency, especially in the deeper segments of the channel. Based on such reasonably good prediction skills, low-complexity flood models can be considered as a suitable alternative for fast
Mawdsley, Robert; French, Jon; Fujiyama, Taku; Achutan, Kamalasudhan
Storm surge inundation of port facilities can cause damage to critical elements of infrastructure, significantly disrupt port operations and cause downstream impacts on vital supply chains. A tidal surge in December 2013 in the North Sea partly flooded the Port of Immingham, which handles the largest volume of bulk cargo in the UK including major flows of coal and biomass for power generation. This flooding caused damage to port and rail transport infrastructure and disrupted operations for several weeks. This research aims to improve resilience to storm surges using hydrodynamic modelling coupled to an agent-based model of port operations. Using the December 2013 event to validate flood extent, depth and duration, we ran a high resolution hydrodynamic simulation using the open source Telemac 2D finite element code. The underlying Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was derived from Environment Agency LiDAR data, with ground truthing of the flood defences along the port frontage. Major infrastructure and buildings are explicitly resolved with varying degrees of permeability. Telemac2D simulations are run in parallel and take only minutes on a single 16 cpu compute node. Inundation characteristics predicted using Telemac 2D differ from a simple Geographical Information System 'bath-tub' analysis of the DEM based upon horizontal application of the maximum water level across the port topography. The hydrodynamic simulation predicts less extensive flooding and more closely matches observed flood extent. It also provides more precise depth and duration curves. Detailed spatial flood depth and duration maps were generated for a range of tide and surge scenarios coupled to mean sea-level rise projections. These inundation scenarios can then be integrated with critical asset databases and an agent-based model of port operation (MARS) that is capable of simulating storm surge disruption along wider supply chains. Port operators are able to act on information from a particular
Koshimura, S.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Musa, A.; Murashima, Y.
With use of modern computing power and advanced sensor networks, a project is underway to establish a new system of real-time tsunami inundation forecasting, damage estimation and mapping to enhance society's resilience in the aftermath of major tsunami disaster. The system consists of fusion of real-time crustal deformation monitoring/fault model estimation by Ohta et al. (2012), high-performance real-time tsunami propagation/inundation modeling with NEC's vector supercomputer SX-ACE, damage/loss estimation models (Koshimura et al., 2013), and geo-informatics. After a major (near field) earthquake is triggered, the first response of the system is to identify the tsunami source model by applying RAPiD Algorithm (Ohta et al., 2012) to observed RTK-GPS time series at GEONET sites in Japan. As performed in the data obtained during the 2011 Tohoku event, we assume less than 10 minutes as the acquisition time of the source model. Given the tsunami source, the system moves on to running tsunami propagation and inundation model which was optimized on the vector supercomputer SX-ACE to acquire the estimation of time series of tsunami at offshore/coastal tide gauges to determine tsunami travel and arrival time, extent of inundation zone, maximum flow depth distribution. The implemented tsunami numerical model is based on the non-linear shallow-water equations discretized by finite difference method. The merged bathymetry and topography grids are prepared with 10 m resolution to better estimate the tsunami inland penetration. Given the maximum flow depth distribution, the system performs GIS analysis to determine the numbers of exposed population and structures using census data, then estimates the numbers of potential death and damaged structures by applying tsunami fragility curve (Koshimura et al., 2013). Since the tsunami source model is determined, the model is supposed to complete the estimation within 10 minutes. The results are disseminated as mapping products to
Martin, Zachary W.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 7.5-mile reach of the White River at Noblesville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science website at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the White River at Noblesville, Ind., streamgage (USGS station number 03349000). Real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at the same site as the USGS streamgage (NWS site NBLI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current (2016) stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03349000, White River at Noblesville, Ind., and documented high-water marks from the floods of September 4, 2003, and May 6, 2017. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 15 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 10.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 24.0 ft, which is the highest stage interval of the current (2016) USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 2 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability of these maps, along with internet
Fowler, Kathleen K.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 1.9-mile reach of Cedar Creek at Auburn, Indiana (Ind.), from the First Street bridge, downstream to the streamgage at 18th Street, then ending approximately 1,100 feet (ft) downstream of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science web site at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. (station number 04179520). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, although forecasts of flood hydrographs are not available at this site (ABBI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Cedar Creek at 18th Street at Auburn, Ind. streamgage and the documented high-water marks from the flood of March 11, 2009. The calibrated hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft, or near bankfull, to 13 ft, in 1-foot increments. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging [lidar] data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each water level.The availability of these maps, along with internet information regarding current stage from the USGS streamgage at Cedar Creek
Coon, William F.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9-mile (mi) reach of the Mississinewa River from 0.75 mi upstream from the Pennsylvania Street bridge in Marion, Indiana, to 0.2 mi downstream from State Route 15 were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Office of Community and Rural Affairs. The flood inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Mississinewa River at Marion (station number 03326500). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site. Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated by using the current stage-discharge relation at the Mississinewa River streamgage, in combination with water-surface profiles from historic floods and from the current (2002) flood-insurance study for Grant County, Indiana. The hydraulic model was then used to compute seven water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-fo (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 10 ft, which is near bankfull, to 16 ft, which is between the water levels associated with the estimated 10- and 2-percent annual exceedance probability floods (floods with recurrence interval between 10 and 50 years) and equals the “major flood stage” as defined by the NWS. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) data having a 0.98 ft vertical accuracy and 4.9 ft
Martin, Zachary W.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 3.2-mile reach of North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science website at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding that correspond to selected water levels (stages) at the North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Ind., streamgage (USGS station number 03371650). Real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also shows observed USGS stages at the same site as the USGS streamgage (NWS site NFSI3).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional, step-backwater hydraulic modeling software developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated using the current (2015) stage-discharge rating at the USGS streamgage 03371650, North Fork Salt Creek at Nashville, Ind. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 12 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals, except for the highest profile of 22.9 ft, referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 12.0 ft (the NWS “action stage”) to 22.9 ft, which is the highest stage of the current (2015) USGS stage-discharge rating curve and 1.9 ft higher than the NWS “major flood stage.” The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from light detection and ranging data having a 0.98-ft vertical accuracy and 4.9-ft horizontal resolution) to delineate the area flooded at each stage.The availability of these maps, along with information regarding current stage from the USGS
Shen, X.; Anagnostou, E. N.; Zeng, Z.; Kettner, A.; Hong, Y.
Compared to optical sensors, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) works all-day all-weather. In addition, its spatial resolution does not decrease with the height of the platform and is thus applicable to a range of important studies. However, existing studies did not address the operational demands of real-time inundation mapping. The direct proof is that no water body product exists for any SAR-based satellites. Then what is missing between science and products? Automation and quality. What makes it so difficult to develop an operational inundation mapping technique based on SAR data? Spectrum-wise, unlike optical water indices such as MNDWI, AWEI etc., where a relative constant threshold may apply across acquisition of images, regions and sensors, the threshold to separate water from non-water pixels in each SAR images has to be individually chosen. The optimization of the threshold is the first obstacle to the automation of the SAR data algorithm. Morphologically, the quality and reliability of the results have been compromised by over-detection caused by smooth surface and shadowing area, the noise-like speckle and under-detection caused by strong-scatter disturbance. In this study, we propose a three-step framework that addresses all aforementioned issues of operational inundation mapping by SAR data. The framework consists of 1) optimization of Wishart distribution parameters of single/dual/fully-polarized SAR data, 2) morphological removal of over-detection, and 3) machine-learning based removal of under-detection. The framework utilizes not only the SAR data, but also the synergy of digital elevation model (DEM), and optical sensor-based products of fine resolution, including the water probability map, land cover classification map (optional), and river width. The framework has been validated throughout multiple areas in different parts of the world using different satellite SAR data and globally available ancillary data products. Therefore, it has the potential
Ng, Z. F.; Gisen, J. I.; Akbari, A.
Topography dataset is an important input in performing flood inundation modelling. However, it is always difficult to obtain high resolution topography that provide accurate elevation information. Fortunately, there are some open source topography datasets available with reasonable resolution such as SRTM and ASTER-GDEM. In Malaysia particularly in Kuantan, the modelling research on the floodplain area is still lacking. This research aims to: a) to investigate the suitability of ASTER-GDEM to be applied in the 1D-2D flood inundation modelling for the Kuantan River Basin; b) to generate flood inundation map for Kuantan river basin. The topography dataset used in this study is ASTER-GDEM to generate physical characteristics of watershed in the basin. It is used to perform rainfall runoff modelling for hydrological studies and to delineate flood inundation area in the Flood Modeller. The results obtained have shown that a 30m resolution ASTER-GDEM is applicable as an input for the 1D-2D flood modelling. The simulated water level in 2013 has NSE of 0.644 and RSME of 1.259. As a conclusion, ASTER-GDEM can be used as one alternative topography datasets for flood inundation modelling. However, the flood level obtained from the hydraulic modelling shows low accuracy at flat urban areas.
We develop a framework for assessing the sensitivity and variability of tsunami inundation characteristics for stochastic physics-based scenarios of mega-thrust subduction earthquakes. The method is applied to the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake, and tested against observed inundation maps at several locations along the Tohoku coast, using 11 different, previously published, rupture models for this devastating tsunamgenic earthquake. The earthquake rupture models differ in fault dimension (length and width), geometry (dip, strike and top-edge depth), as well as asperity characteristics (slip heterogeneity on the fault plane). The resulting source variability allows exploring a wide range of tsunami scenarios for an Mw9 mega-thrust subduction earthquake in the Tohoku region to conduct thorough sensitivity analyses and to quantify the inundation variability. The numerical results indicate a strong influence of the reference source models on inundation variability, and demonstrate significant sensitivity of inundation to the details of the rupture realization. Therefore, relying on a single particular earthquake rupture model as a representative case when varying earthquake source characteristics may lead to under-representation of the variability of potential scenarios. Moreover, the proposed framework facilitates the rigorous development of critical scenarios for tsunami hazard and risk assessments, which are particularly useful for tsunami hazard mapping and disaster preparedness planning.
Podhoranyi, M.; Kuchar, S.; Portero, A.
The primary objective of this study is to present techniques that cover usage of a hydrodynamic model as the main tool for monitoring and assessment of flood events while focusing on modelling of inundation areas. We analyzed the 2010 flood event (14th May - 20th May) that occurred in the Moravian-Silesian region (Czech Republic). Under investigation were four main catchments: Opava, Odra, Olše and Ostravice. Four hydrodynamic models were created and implemented into the Floreon+ platform in order to map inundation areas that arose during the flood event. In order to study the dynamics of the water, we applied an unsteady flow simulation for the entire area (HEC-RAS 4.1). The inundation areas were monitored, evaluated and recorded semi-automatically by means of the Floreon+ platform. We focused on information about the extent and presence of the flood areas. The modeled flooded areas were verified by comparing them with real data from different sources (official reports, aerial photos and hydrological networks). The study confirmed that hydrodynamic modeling is a very useful tool for mapping and monitoring of inundation areas. Overall, our models detected 48 inundation areas during the 2010 flood event.
.... Separate bulletins are issued for the Western Pacific and the Indian Ocean. TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION ALERT - Defines a specific area when synoptic, satellite, or other germane data indicate development of a significant tropical cyclone (TC...
Floods impact more people globally than any other type of natural disaster. It has been established by experience that the most effective means to reduce the property damage and life loss caused by floods is the development of flood early warning systems. However, advances for such a system have been constrained by the difficulty in estimating rainfall continuously over space (catchment-. national-, continental-. or even global-scale areas) and time (hourly to daily). Particularly, insufficient in situ data, long delay in data transmission and absence of real-time data sharing agreements in many trans-boundary basins hamper the development of a real-time system at the regional to global scale. In many countries around the world, particularly in the tropics where rainfall and flooding co-exist in abundance, satellite-based precipitation estimation may be the best source of rainfall data for those data scarce (ungauged) areas and trans-boundary basins. Satellite remote sensing data acquired and processed in real time can now provide the space-time information on rainfall fluxes needed to monitor severe flood events around the world. This can be achieved by integrating the satellite-derived forcing data with hydrological models, which can be parameterized by a tailored geospatial database. An example that is a key to this progress is NASA's contribution to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), launched in November 1997. Hence, in an effort to evolve toward a more hydrologically-relevant flood alert system, this talk articulates a module-structured framework for quasi-global flood potential naming, that is 'up to date' with the state of the art on satellite rainfall estimation and the improved geospatial datasets. The system is modular in design with the flexibility that permits changes in the model structure and in the choice of components. Four major components included in the system are: 1) multi-satellite precipitation estimation; 2) characterization of
García Pallarés, Jesús
Propuesta metodológica para el desarrollo de los ritmos y zonas de entrenamiento de la resistencia en función de la posición de los hitos fisiológicos de la vía aeróbica y sus factores limitantes.
Oback, B; Wiersema, AT; Gaynor, P; Laible, G; Tucker, FC; Oliver, JE; Miller, AL; Troskie, HE; Wilson, KL; Forsyth, JT; Berg, MC; Cockrem, K; Mcmillan, [No Value; Tervit, HR; Wells, DN
As the demand for cloned embryos and offspring increases, the need arises for the development of nuclear transfer procedures that are improved in both efficiency and ease of operation. Here, we describe a novel zona-free cloning method that doubles the throughput in cloned bovine embryo production
Rosalba Ruiz Vega
Full Text Available Se presenta el catálogo de la vegetación epifita vascular de un sector del Parque Nacional Natural Paramillo (PNNP y zona amortiguadora (Córdoba, Colombia. Se realizaron muestreos en un área de 0,1 hectárea, donde se colectaron todas las epífitas vasculares distribuidas en los forófitos que presentaron un DAP ≥2,5 cm en cuatro sectores, El Silencio (interior del PNNP, Tuis Tuis, Tuis Tuis Arriba y Alto de Chibogadó (zona amortiguadora, correspondientes al bosque húmedo tropical (Bh-T en el municipio de Tierralta. Se encontraron 2504 individuos de epífitas vasculares. El catálogo contiene 73 especies distribuidas en 41 géneros y 18 familias. El sector Tuis Tuis presentó el mayor número de especies (33. Las familias mejor representadas corresponden a las Araceae, Bromeliaceae y Orchidaceae, destacándose por mayor número de especies y géneros la familia Orchidaceae (20/15. Los géneros más diversos fueron Anthurium con ocho especies, Guzmania seis, Tillandsia y Aechmea con cinco cada uno. Los helechos reúnen solo el 6 % de la flora epifita. Se reportan nuevos registros de especies para el departamento de Córdoba (39, ampliando el rango de distribución de este grupo de plantas en el país.
Tropical geometry is a relatively new field of mathematics that studies the tropicalization map: a map that assigns a certain type of polyhedral complex, called a tropical variety, to an embedded algebraic variety. In a sense, it translates algebraic geometric statements into combinatorial ones. An
Cmdr. David Gray; National Weather Service 5. Cooperation with the Naval Environmental Pacific Region for the startup of 24-hour operatiois at Ponape...0.1 27.7 TOTAL CASES 3 1 1 4 12 27 54 56 30 25 7 1 221 * (GRAY, 1979) TABLE 4-3 ANNUAL VARIATION C SOTR MUSHER TROPICAL CYCLOUZ BY O(EN BASIN SOUTH
5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...
Gras, C; Chapoy, P; Aubry, P
Tropical sprue is a disease of the small intestine characterized by a malabsorption syndrome with a subtotal or partial mucosal atrophy. It is observed in Asia and Central America. It appears to be rare in Africa but its real frequency is unknown as small bowel biopsys are not routinely done. Bacterial overgrowth as well as giardiasis may be trigger factors of the disease the pathogenesis of which is still incompletely understood. The disease beginning as chronic diarrhea is later on characterized by an aphtoïd stomatitis and a macrocytic anemia. Treatment with antibiotics and folic acid is efficient and has a diagnostic value. If treatment is started lately, vitamin B 12 is then also necessary. In any intestinal syndrome observed in tropical areas without an ascertained etiologic diagnosis, peroral biopsie of the small intestine is requested. However, with the use of pediatric endoscope it will be possible to appreciate the respective incidence of tropical sprue and asymptomatic tropical sprue in Africa South of the Sahara.
Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison
Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...
kilometer track running through tropical forest. The track is a combination of a bauxite /dirt base with grades on the road up to 20 percent and log...bridges crossing 11 creeks. The track site is located in a private concession used mainly for gold mining ; however, logging operations are active in the
Ji, X.; Shen, C.
Flood inundation presents substantial societal hazards and also changes biogeochemistry for systems like the Amazon. It is often expensive to simulate high-resolution flood inundation and propagation in a long-term watershed-scale model. Due to the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction, high resolution and large local flow velocity both demand prohibitively small time steps even for parallel codes. Here we develop a parallel surface-subsurface process-based model enhanced by multi-resolution meshes that are adaptively switched on or off. The high-resolution overland flow meshes are enabled only when the flood wave invades to floodplains. This model applies semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian (SISL) scheme in solving dynamic wave equations, and with the assistant of the multi-mesh method, it also adaptively chooses the dynamic wave equation only in the area of deep inundation. Therefore, the model achieves a balance between accuracy and computational cost.
Medina, C.; Gomez-Enri, J.; Alonso, J. J.; Villares, P.
The surface extent of a lake reflects its water storage variations. This information has important hydrological and operational applications. However, there is a lack of information regarding this subject because the traditional methodologies for this purposes (ground surveys, aerial photos) requires high resources investments. Remote sensing techniques (optical/radar sensors) permit a low cost, constant and accurate monitoring of this parameter. The objective of this study was to determine the surface variations of Lake Izabal, the largest one in Guatemala. The lake is located close to the Caribbean Sea coastline. The climate in the region is predominantly cloudy and rainy, being the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) the best suited sensor for this purpose. Although several studies have successfully used SAR products in detecting land-water boundaries, all of them highlighted some sensor limitations. These limitations are mainly caused by roughened water surfaces caused by strong winds which are frequent in Lake Izabal. The ESA's ASAR data products were used. From the set of 9 ASAR images used, all of them have wind-roughened ashore waters in several levels. Here, a chain of image processing steps were applied in order to extract a reliable shoreline. The shoreline detection is the key task for the surface estimation. After the shoreline extraction, the inundated area of the lake was estimated. In-situ lake level measurements were used for validation. The results showed good agreement between the inundated areas estimations and the lake level gauges.
Du, J.; Kimball, J. S.; Galantowicz, J. F.; Kim, S.; Chan, S.; Reichle, R. H.; Jones, L. A.; Watts, J. D.
A method to monitor global land surface water (fw) inundation dynamics was developed by exploiting the enhanced fw sensitivity of L-band (1.4 GHz) passive microwave observations from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. The L-band fw (fwLBand) retrievals were derived using SMAP H-polarization brightness temperature (Tb) observations and predefined L-band reference microwave emissivities for water and land endmembers. Potential soil moisture and vegetation contributions to the microwave signal were represented from overlapping higher frequency Tb observations from AMSR2. The resulting fwLBand global record has high temporal sampling (1-3 days) and 36-km spatial resolution. The fwLBand annual averages corresponded favourably (R=0.84, pretrievals showed favourable classification accuracy for water (commission error 31.84%; omission error 28.08%) and land (commission error 0.82%; omission error 0.99%) and seasonal wet and dry periods when compared to independent water maps derived from Landsat-8 imagery. The new fwLBand algorithms and continuing SMAP and AMSR2 operations provide for near real-time, multi-scale monitoring of global surface water inundation dynamics, potentially benefiting hydrological monitoring, flood assessments, and global climate and carbon modeling.
Tape, Ken D.; Flint, Paul L.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Gaglioti, Benjamin V.
The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a 'tipping point' whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes.
Full Text Available Sinabung volcano, located above the Sumatra subduction of the Indo-Australian plate under the Eurasian plate, became active in 2010 after about 400 years of quiescence. We use ALOS/PALSAR interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR images to measure surface deformation from February 2007 to January 2011. We model the observed preeruption inflation and coeruption deflation using Mogi and prolate spheroid sources to infer volume changes of the magma chamber. We interpret that the inflation was due to magma accumulation in a shallow reservoir beneath Mount Sinabung and attribute the deflation due to magma withdrawal from the shallow reservoir during the eruption as well as thermoelastic compaction of erupted material. The pyroclastic flow extent during the eruption is then derived from the LAHARZ model based on the coeruption volume from InSAR modeling and compared to that derived from the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ image. The pyroclastic flow inundation extents between the two different methods agree at about 86%, suggesting the capability of mapping pyroclastic flow inundation by combing radar and optical imagery as well as flow modeling.
Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Schumann, Guy; Brandimarte, Luigia; Bates, Paul
In recent years, the availability of new emerging data (e.g. remote sensing, intelligent wireless sensors, etc) has led to a sudden shift from a data-sparse to a data-rich environment for hydrological and hydraulic modelling. Furthermore, the increased socioeconomic relevance of river flood studies has motivated the development of complex methodologies for the simulation of the hydraulic behaviour of river systems. In this context, this study aims at assessing the capability of coarse resolution SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery to support and quickly validate flood inundation models in near real time. A hydraulic model of a 98km reach of the River Po (Italy), previously calibrated on a high-magnitude flood event with extensive and high quality field data, is tested using a SAR flood image, acquired and processed in near real time, during the June 2008 low-magnitude event. Specifically, the image is an acquisition by the ENVISAT-ASAR sensor in wide swath mode and has been provided through ESA (European Space Agency) Fast Registration system at no cost 24 hours after the acquisition. The study shows that the SAR image enables validation and improvement of the model in a time shorter than the flood travel time. This increases the reliability of model predictions (e.g. water elevation and inundation width along the river reach) and, consequently, assists flood management authorities in undertaking the necessary prevention activities.
Full Text Available On 29 September 2009 at 17:48:11 UTC, a large earthquake of magnitude 8 struck off-shore of the Samoa Islands and generated a large tsunami that destroyed several villages and caused more than 160 fatalities. This report first presents the characteristics of the earthquake and discusses the best estimations for the fault parameters, which are the necessary input data for the hydrodynamic tsunami calculations. Then, the assessment of the near-real time systems invoked by the Global Disasters Alert and Coordination System (GDACS1 and the post-event calculations are performed, making comparisons with the observed tidal measurements and post-event survey. It was found that the most severely damaged locations are the Southern section of the Western Samoa Islands, Tutuila Isl in American Samoa and Niuatoputapu Isle in Tonga. This is in agreement with the locations indicated by the Red Cross as the most affected and with the results of the post-tsunami surveys. Furthermore, an attempt was made to map the inundation events using more detailed digital elevation models (DEM and hydrodynamic modelling with good results. The flooded areas for which we had satellite images and post-tsunami surveys confirm the inundated areas identified correctly by the hydrodynamic model. Indications are given on the DEM grid size needed for the different simulations.
Full Text Available Extreme rainfall causes surface runoff to flow towards lowlands and subterranean facilities, such as subway stations and buildings with underground spaces in densely packed urban areas. These facilities and areas are therefore vulnerable to catastrophic submergence. However, flood modeling of underground space has not yet been adequately studied because there are difficulties in reproducing the associated multiple horizontal layers connected with staircases or elevators. This study proposes a convenient approach to simulate underground inundation when two layers are connected. The main facet of this approach is to compute the flow flux passing through staircases in an upper layer and to transfer the equivalent quantity to a lower layer. This is defined as the ‘adaptive transfer method’. This method overcomes the limitations of 2D modeling by introducing layers connecting concepts to prevent large variations in mesh sizes caused by complicated underlying obstacles or local details. Consequently, this study aims to contribute to the numerical analysis of flow in inundated underground spaces with multiple floors.
Full Text Available Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests.
Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Herault, Bruno; Dejean, Alain
Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between 'Aechmea-areas' and 'control-areas' of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests.
Hénaut, Yann; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Azémar, Frédéric; Céréghino, Régis; Herault, Bruno; Dejean, Alain
Tank bromeliads are good models for understanding how climate change may affect biotic associations. We studied the relationships between spiders, the epiphytic tank bromeliad, Aechmea bracteata, and its associated ants in an inundated forest in Quintana Roo, Mexico, during a drought period while, exceptionally, this forest was dry and then during the flooding that followed. We compared spider abundance and diversity between ‘Aechmea-areas’ and ‘control-areas’ of the same surface area. We recorded six spider families: the Dipluridae, Ctenidae, Salticidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Linyphiidae among which the funnel-web tarantula, Ischnothele caudata, the only Dipluridae noted, was the most abundant. During the drought period, the spiders were more numerous in the Aechmea-areas than in the control-areas, but they were not obligatorily associated with the Aechmea. During the subsequent flooding, the spiders were concentrated in the A. bracteata patches, particularly those sheltering an ant colony. Also, a kind of specificity existed between certain spider taxa and ant species, but varied between the drought period and subsequent flooding. We conclude that climatic events modulate the relationship between A. bracteata patches and their associated fauna. Tank bromeliads, previously considered only for their ecological importance in supplying food and water during drought, may also be considered refuges for spiders during flooding. More generally, tank bromeliads have an important role in preserving non-specialized fauna in inundated forests. PMID:25494055
Kim, Youngil; Ullah, Sami; Roulet, Nigel T; Moore, Tim R
The inundation of boreal forests and peatlands through the construction of hydroelectric reservoirs can increase carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission. To establish controls on emission rates, we incubated samples of forest and peat soils, spruce litter, forest litter and peatland litter collected from boreal ecosystems in northern Quebec for 16 weeks and measured CO2 and CH4 production rates under flooded or non-flooded conditions and varying oxygen concentration and temperature. CO2 production under flooded conditions was less than under non-flooded conditions (5-71 vs. 5-85 mg Cg(-1) C), but CH4 production under flooded conditions was larger than under non-flooded conditions (1-8158 vs. 0-86 μg Cg(-1) C). The average CO2 and CH4 production rate factor for flooded:non-flooded conditions was 0.76 and 1.32, respectively. Under flooded conditions, high oxygen concentrations increased CO2 production in peat soils but decreased CH4 production in forest and peat soils and spruce litter. Warmer temperatures (from 4 to 22°C) raised both CO2 production in peat soils and peatland litter, and CH4 production in peat soils and spruce litter. This study shows that the direction and/or strength of CO2 and CH4 fluxes change once boreal forests and peatlands are inundated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kress, Michael E.; Benimoff, Alan I.; Fritz, William J.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Blanton, Brian O.; Dzedzits, Eugene
Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012, near Brigantine, New Jersey, and had a transformative impact on Staten Island and the New York Metropolitan area. Of the 43 New York City fatalities, 23 occurred on Staten Island. The borough, with a population of approximately 500,000, experienced some of the most devastating impacts of the storm. Since Hurricane Sandy, protective dunes have been constructed on the southeast shore of Staten Island. ADCIRC+SWAN model simulations run on The City University of New York's Cray XE6M, housed at the College of Staten Island, using updated topographic data show that the coast of Staten Island is still susceptible to tidal surge similar to those generated by Hurricane Sandy. Sandy hindcast simulations of storm surges focusing on Staten Island are in good agreement with observed storm tide measurements. Model results calculated from fine-scaled and coarse-scaled computational grids demonstrate that finer grids better resolve small differences in the topography of critical hydraulic control structures, which affect storm surge inundation levels. The storm surge simulations, based on post-storm topography obtained from high-resolution lidar, provide much-needed information to understand Staten Island's changing vulnerability to storm surge inundation. The results of fine-scale storm surge simulations can be used to inform efforts to improve resiliency to future storms. For example, protective barriers contain planned gaps in the dunes to provide for beach access that may inadvertently increase the vulnerability of the area.
Vanderhoof, Melanie; Distler, Hayley; Mendiola, Di Ana; Lang, Megan
Natural variability in surface-water extent and associated characteristics presents a challenge to gathering timely, accurate information, particularly in environments that are dominated by small and/or forested wetlands. This study mapped inundation extent across the Upper Choptank River Watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, occurring within both Maryland and Delaware. We integrated six quad-polarized Radarsat-2 images, Worldview-3 imagery, and an enhanced topographic wetness index in a random forest model. Output maps were filtered using light detection and ranging (lidar)-derived depressions to maximize the accuracy of forested inundation extent. Overall accuracy within the integrated and filtered model was 94.3%, with 5.5% and 6.0% errors of omission and commission for inundation, respectively. Accuracy of inundation maps obtained using Radarsat-2 alone were likely detrimentally affected by less than ideal angles of incidence and recent precipitation, but were likely improved by targeting the period between snowmelt and leaf-out for imagery collection. Across the six Radarsat-2 dates, filtering inundation outputs by lidar-derived depressions slightly elevated errors of omission for water (+1.0%), but decreased errors of commission (−7.8%), resulting in an average increase of 5.4% in overall accuracy. Depressions were derived from lidar datasets collected under both dry and average wetness conditions. Although antecedent wetness conditions influenced the abundance and total area mapped as depression, the two versions of the depression datasets showed a similar ability to reduce error in the inundation maps. Accurate mapping of surface water is critical to predicting and monitoring the effect of human-induced change and interannual variability on water quantity and quality.
Kim, Karl; Pant, Pradip; Yamashita, Eric
Honolulu is susceptible to coastal flooding hazards. Like other coastal cities, Honolulu&s long-term economic viability and sustainability depends on how well it can adapt to changes in the natural and built environment. While there is a disagreement over the magnitude and extent of localized impacts associated with climate change, it is widely accepted that by 2100 there will be at least a meter in sea level rise (SLR) and an increase in extreme weather events. Increased exposure and vulnerabilities associated with urbanization and location of human activities in coastal areas warrants serious consideration by planners and policy makers. This article has three objectives. First, flooding due to the combined effects of SLR and episodic hydro-meteorological and geophysical events in Honolulu are investigated and the risks to the community are quantified. Second, the risks and vulnerabilities of critical infrastructure and the surface transportation system are described. Third, using the travel demand software, travel distances and travel times for evacuation from inundated areas are modeled. Data from three inundation models were used. The first model simulated storm surge from a category 4 hurricane similar to Hurricane Iniki which devastated the island of Kauai in 1992. The second model estimates inundation based on five tsunamis that struck Hawaii. A 1-m increase in sea level was included in both the hurricane storm surge and tsunami flooding models. The third model used in this article generated a 500-year flood event due to riverine flooding. Using a uniform grid cell structure, the three inundation maps were used to assess the worst case flooding scenario. Based on the flood depths, the ruling hazard (hurricane, tsunami, or riverine flooding) for each grid cell was determined. The hazard layer was analyzed with socioeconomic data layers to determine the impact on vulnerable populations, economic activity, and critical infrastructure. The analysis focused both
Flynn, Robert H.; Hayes, Laura
Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximately100-mile length of Lake Champlain in Addison, Chittenden, Franklin, and Grand Isle Counties in Vermont and northern Clinton County in New York were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the International Joint Commission (IJC). The flood-inundationmaps, which can be accessed through the International Joint Commission (IJC) Web site at http://www.ijc.org/en_/, depict estimates of the areal extent flooding correspondingto selected water levels (stages) at the USGS lake gage on the Richelieu River (Lake Champlain) at Rouses Point, N.Y. (station number 04295000). In this study, wind and seiche effects (standing oscillating wave with a long wavelength) were not taken into account and the flood-inundation mapsreflect 11 stages (elevations) for Lake Champlain that are static for the study length of the lake. Near-real-time stages at this lake gage, and others on Lake Champlain, may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at the Richelieu River (Lake Champlain) at Rouses Point.Static flood boundary extents were determined for LakeChamplain in Addison, Chittenden, Franklin, and Grand Isle Counties in Vermont and northern Clinton County in New York using recently acquired (2013–2014) lidar (light detection and ranging) and may be referenced to any of the five USGS lake gages on Lake Champlain. Of these five lakgages, USGS lake gage 04295000, Richelieu River (Lake Champlain) at Rouses Point, N.Y., is the only USGS lake gage that is also a National Weather Service prediction location. Flood boundary extents for the Lake Champlain static flood-inundation map corresponding to the May 201 flood(103.2 feet [ft], National Geodetic Vertical Datum [NGVD] 29) were evaluated by comparing these boundary
Román, G C; Spencer, P S; Schoenberg, B S
Tropical myeloneuropathies include tropical ataxic neuropathy and tropical spastic paraparesis. These disorders occur in geographic isolates in several developing countries and are associated with malnutrition, cyanide intoxication from cassava consumption, tropical malabsorption (TM), vegetarian diets, and lathyrism. TM-malnutrition was a probable cause of myeloneuropathies among Far East prisoners of war in World War II. Clusters of unknown etiology occur in India, Africa, the Seychelles, several Caribbean islands, Jamaica, and Colombia. Treponemal infection (yaws) could be an etiologic factor in the last two. Tropical myeloneuropathies, a serious health problem, are multifactorial conditions that provide unsurpassed opportunities for international cooperation and neurologic research.
O'Connor, Jim; Atwater, Brian F.; Cohn, Timothy A.; Cronin, Thomas M.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Smith, Christopher G.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.
Most nuclear powerplants in the United States are near rivers, large lakes, or oceans. As evident from the Fukushima Daiichi, Japan, disaster of 2011, these water bodies pose inundation threats. Geologic records can extend knowledge of rare hazards from flooding, storm surges, and tsunamis. This knowledge can aid in assessing the safety of critical structures such as dams and energy plants, for which even remotely possible hazards are pertinent. Quantitative analysis of inundation from geologic records perhaps is most developed for and applied to riverine flood hazards, but because of recent natural disasters, geologic investigations also are now used widely for understanding tsunami hazards and coastal storm surges.
Ma. del Carmen Hernández
Full Text Available El presente trabajo reconoce la composición, estructura y distribución espacial del ensamble de crustáceos bentónicos de Alchichica, un lago salino tropical ubicado en el extremo oriental del altiplano mexicano. El lago presenta una riqueza taxonómica de crustáceos bentónicos compuesta por 1 anfípodo (Hyalella azteca, 1 isópodo (Caecidotea williamsi y 2 ostrácodos (Limnocythere inopinata y Candona sp.. Comparada con otros lagos tropicales, la riqueza de especies es reducida. A pesar de lo anterior, es importante mencionar el grado elevado de endemismo representado por C. williamsi, recientemente descrita para el lago Alchichica; adicionalmente, es factible que tanto Candona como H. azteca sean especies nuevas y endémicas del lago. Los crustáceos bentónicos se distribuyen desde la zona litoral hasta la zona más profunda del lago (62 m con abundancias y riqueza taxonómica variables. Los ostrácodos fueron los crustáceos que con mayor frecuencia se recolectaron en el lago, en la zona litoral, en el talud, y en la zona profunda de la que son habitantes exclusivos. Los anfípodos constituyeron el segundo grupo en abundancia de la zona litoral y talud y estuvieron ausentes en la zona profunda. Los isópodos sólo se encuentran asociados a los depósitos de tufa, hábitat característico del lago que se extiende a lo largo del talud, por lo que con las técnicas de muestreo tradicional empleadas en el presente estudio no fueron capturados. En este ensamble de crustáceos predominan las especies de desarrollo directo y con posiciones tróficas que incluyen componentes herbívoros (H. azteca, omnívoros (C. williamsi y bacterívoros (L. inopinata y Candona sp..This work acknowledges the composition, structure and spatial distribution of the benthic crustaceans assemblage of Alchichica, a tropical saline lake located in the easternmost portion of the Mexican highlands. The benthic crustaceans' assemblage was comprised by 1 amphipod
Bent, Gardner C.; Lombard, Pamela J.; Dudley, Robert W.
A series of 10 digital flood-inundation maps were developed for a 3.3-mile reach of the North River in Colrain, Charlemont, and Shelburne, Massachusetts, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The coverage of the maps extends from the confluence of the East and West Branch North Rivers to the Deerfield River. Peak-flow estimates at the 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities were computed for the reach from updated flood-frequency analyses. These peak flows were routed through a one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic model to obtain the corresponding peak water-surface elevations and to place the tropical storm Irene flood of August 28, 2011, into historical context. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the current  stage-discharge relation at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage North River at Shattuckville, MA (station number 01169000), and from documented high-water marks from the tropical storm Irene flood, which had a peak flow with approximately a 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability.
Full Text Available Climate change is altering sea level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0.82 m NAVD88 to 1.49 m NAVD88 in a field experiment at Laws Point, part of the Plum Island Sound Estuary (MA. Significantly lower salinities, pH, sulfides, phosphates, and ammonium were measured in the sand-amended sediments than in the natural sediments. In natural sediments there was a pattern of increasing salinity with increasing elevation while in the sand-amended sediments the trend was reversed, showing decreasing salinity with increasing elevation. Sulfide concentrations generally increased from low to high inundation with highest concentrations at the highest inundation (i.e., at the lowest elevations. High pore water phosphate concentrations were measured at low elevations in the natural sediments, but the sand-amended treatments had mostly low concentrations of phosphate and no consistent pattern with elevation. At the end of the experiment the lowest elevations generally had the highest measures of pore water ammonium. Soil carbon dioxide emissions were greatest in the sand-amended mesocosms and at higher elevations. Differences in coarse root and rhizome abundances and volumes among the sediment treatments were detected with CT imaging, but by 20 weeks the natural and sand-amended treatments showed similar total belowground biomass at the intermediate and high elevations. Although differences in
Hess, Laura Lorraine
The ability of synthetic aperture radar to detect flooding and vegetation structure was evaluated for three seasonally inundated floodplain sites supporting a broad variety of wetland and upland vegetation types: two reaches of the Solimoes floodplain in the central Amazon, and the Magela Creek floodplain in Northern Territory, Australia. For each site, C- and L-band polarimetric Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) data was obtained at both high- and low-water stages. Inundation status and vegetation structure were documented simultaneous with the SIR-C acquisitions using low-altitude videography and ground measurements. SIR-C images were classified into cover states defined by vegetation physiognomy and presence of standing water, using a decision-tree model with backscattering coefficients at HH, VV, and HV polarizations as input variables. Classification accuracy was assessed using user's accuracy, producer's accuracy, and kappa coefficient for a test population of pixels. At all sites, both C- and L-band were necessary to accurately classify cover types with two dates. HH polarization was most. useful for distinguishing flooded from non-flooded vegetation (C-HH for macrophyte versus pasture, L-HH for flooded versus non-flooded forest), and cross-polarized L-band data provided the best separation between woody and non-woody vegetation. Increases in L-HH backscattering due to flooding were on the order of 3--4 dB for closed-canopy varzea and igapo forest, and 4--7 dB, for open Melaleuca woodland. The broad range of physiognomies and stand structures found in both herbaceous and woody wetland communities, combined with the variation in the amount of emergent canopy caused by water level fluctuations and phenologic changes, resulted in a large range in backscattering characteristics of wetland communities both within and between sites. High accuracies cannot be achieved for these communities using single-date, single-band, single-polarization data, particularly in the
Wu, Guiping; Liu, Yuanbo
Poyang Lake is the largest freshwater lake in China, with high morphological complexity from south to north. In recent years, the lake has experienced expansion and shrinkage processes over both short- and long-term scales, resulting in significant hydrological, ecological and economic problems. Exactly how and how rapidly the processes of spatial change have occurred in the lake during the expansion and shrinkage periods is unknown. Such knowledge is of great importance for policymakers as it may help with flood/drought prevention, land use planning and lake ecological conservation. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal distribution and changing processes of inundation in Poyang Lake based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level-1B data from 2000 to 2011. A defined water variation rate (WVR) and inundation frequency (IF) indicator revealed the water surface submersion and exposure processes of lake expansion and shrinkage in different zones which were divided according to the lake's hydrological and topographic features. Regional differences and significant seasonality variability were found in the annual and monthly mean IF. The monthly mean IF increased slowly from north to south during January-August but decreased quickly from south to north during September-December. During the lake expansion period, the lake-type water body zone (Zone II) had the fastest expansion rate, with a mean monthly WVR value of 34.47% in February-March, and was followed by the channel-type water body zone (Zone I) in March-May (22.47%). However, during the lake shrinkage period, rapid shrinkage first appeared around the alluvial delta zones in August-October. The sequence of lake surface shrinkage from August to December is exactly opposite to that of lake expansion from February to July. These complex inundation characteristics and changing process were driven by the high temporal variability of the river flows, the morphological diversity of the
Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection. Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED). Date Released: 5/29/2008.
Carod-Artal, F J
Eighty-five percent of all epileptics live in tropical regions. Prenatal risk factors, traumatic brain injuries and different parasitic infestations of the central nervous system (CNS) are the reasons behind the high prevalence of epilepsy. This work reviews the main parasitic infestations causing epilepsy in the tropics. Neurocysticercosis is the main cause of focal epilepsy in early adulthood in endemic areas (30-50%). All the phases of cysticerci (viable, transitional and calcified) are associated with epileptic seizures. Anti-cysticercus treatment helps get rid of cysticerci faster and reduces the risk of recurrence of seizures in patients with viable cysts. Symptomatic epilepsy can be the first manifestation of neuroschistosomiasis in patients without any systemic symptoms. The pseudotumoral form can trigger seizures secondary to the presence of granulomas and oedemas in the cerebral cortex. The eggs of Schistosoma japonicum are smaller, reach the CNS more easily and trigger epileptic seizures more frequently. Toxocariasis and sparganosis are other parasitic infestations that can give rise to symptomatic seizures. The risk factors for suffering chronic epilepsy after cerebral malaria are a positive familial history of epilepsy and a history of episodes of fever and cerebral malaria that began with coma or which progressed with multiple, prolonged epileptic seizures. About 20% of patients with cerebral infarction secondary to Chagas disease present late vascular epilepsy as a complication. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prognosis, risk of recurrence and modification of the natural course of seizures associated with tropical parasitic infestations, except for the case of neurocysticercosis.
Jhon Fredy Ardila León
El área de inundación se determina a partir de información vector (Curvas de nivel obtenida del Modelo Digital de Elevación (MDE, asumiendo que el nivel de la inundación no excedió los 2 metros de altura con respecto al nivel medio del Río Soapaga y tomando como punto de referencia la cota 2210. Adicionalmente, se realiza un geoprocesamiento entre la capa predial urbana del municipio y el área delimitada, para estimar el número de predios y las áreas afectadas por la inundación.
Juan Ignacio Rivera
Full Text Available Las zonas laterales de carreteras son elementos destinados a reducir la severidad de accidentes por salida de calzada. La peligrosidad es un indicador de cumplimiento de este objetivo. Existen pocos métodos para medir peligrosidad, que usualmente dependen de la disponibilidad de datos de accidentes. Este trabajo estudia los factores que explican la peligrosidad con base en modelos existentes y el análisis de datos de campo. Se determinó que el despeje lateral junto a las barreras de protección, especialmente en curvas con taludes inclinados, es significativo para explicar la peligrosidad. Se determinó que en rectas y curvas sin barreras de protección es relevante el tipo de objeto y su posición en la zona lateral.
Full Text Available Taiwan usually suffers severe inundation disasters during typhoons and strong rainstorms, and therefore flood mitigation is considered an important issue. To assess the effect of the Yuansantze flood diversion tunnel (YFDT on flood mitigation at the upstream reaches of the Keelung River, a three-dimensional, unstructured grid, Finite-Volume, primitive equation Community Ocean Model (FVCOM was used. The model was validated with observed data for water levels and inundation extent during different typhoon events. The simulated results show a good agreement with field measurements of water level with three historical typhoon events but underestimated the measured inundation extent with Typhoon Nari. The validated model was then applied to assess the flood mitigation and economic loss with the YFDT. The results demonstrated that the river level decreases approximately 3 m with the YFDT and that the inundation extent decreases by more than 50% in the Ruifang District with YFDT. The YDFT aims to not only mitigate hazards but also reduce economic losses. The average annual expected benefit after construction of the YFDT is approximately 184 million NTD in the Ruifang District.
Strauch, Kellan R.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Kayla J.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 12.5-mile reach of the Big Papillion Creek from 0.6 mile upstream from the State Street Bridge to the 72nd Street Bridge in Omaha, Nebraska, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Papio-Missouri River Natural Resources District. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage on the Big Papillion Creek at Fort Street at Omaha, Nebraska (station 06610732). Near-real-time stages at this streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at this site.
Lucey, J.; Reager, J. T., II; Lopez, S. R.
Floods annually cause several weather-related fatalities and financial losses. According to NOAA and FEMA, there were 43 deaths and 18 billion dollars paid out in flood insurance policies during 2005. The goal of this work is to improve flood prediction and flood risk assessment by creating a general model of predictability of extreme runoff generation using various NASA products. Using satellite-based flood inundation observations, we can relate surface water formation processes to changes in other hydrological variables, such as precipitation, storage and soil moisture, and understand how runoff generation response to these forcings is modulated by local topography and land cover. Since it is known that a flood event would cause an abnormal increase in surface water, we examine these underlying physical relationships in comparison with the Dartmouth Flood Observatory archive of historic flood events globally. Using ground water storage observations (GRACE), precipitation (TRMM or GPCP), land use (MODIS), elevation (SRTM) and surface inundation levels (SWAMPS), an assessment of geological and climate conditions can be performed for any location around the world. This project utilizes multiple linear regression analysis evaluating the relationship between surface water inundation, total water storage anomalies and precipitation values, grouped by average slope or land use, to determine their statistical relationships and influences on inundation data. This research demonstrates the potential benefits of using global data products for early flood prediction and will improve our understanding of runoff generation processes.
Tidal salt marsh is a key defense against, yet is especially vulnerable to, the effects of accelerated sea level rise. To determine whether salt marshes in southern New England will be stable given increasing inundation over the coming decades, we examined current loss patterns, ...
Temmerman, S.; Bouma, T.J.; Govers, G.; Lauwaet, D.
This study provides new insights in the relative role of tidal creeks and the marsh edge in supplying water and sediments to and from tidal marshes for a wide range of tidal inundation cycles with different high water levels and for marsh zones of different developmental stage. Net import or export
Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri
Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) was evaluated as a method to operationally monitor the occurrence and distribution of storm- and tidal-related flooding of spatially extensive coastal marshes within the north-central Gulf of Mexico. Maps representing the occurrence of marsh surface inundation were created from available Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-Band SAR (PALSAR) (L-band) (21 scenes with HH polarizations in Wide Beam [100 m]) data and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT) Advanced SAR (ASAR) (C-band) data (24 scenes with VV and HH polarizations in Wide Swath [150 m]) during 2006-2009 covering 500 km of the Louisiana coastal zone. Mapping was primarily based on a decrease in backscatter between reference and target scenes, and as an extension of previous studies, the flood inundation mapping performance was assessed by the degree of correspondence between inundation mapping and inland water levels. Both PALSAR- and ASAR-based mapping at times were based on suboptimal reference scenes; however, ASAR performance seemed more sensitive to reference-scene quality and other types of scene variability. Related to water depth, PALSAR and ASAR mapping accuracies tended to be lower when water depths were shallow and increased as water levels decreased below or increased above the ground surface, but this pattern was more pronounced with ASAR. Overall, PALSAR-based inundation accuracies averaged 84% (n = 160), while ASAR-based mapping accuracies averaged 62% (n = 245).
Junk, Woifgang Johannes
Resumo No decorrer de estudos limnológicos nas áreas inundáveis (várzea) do Médio Amazonas, encontraram-se dificuldades na aplicação da terminologia, dos conceitos e da metodologia desenvolvidas para os sistemas clássicos de água parada e água corrente. As pronunciadas oscilações periódicas do nível de água, em combinação com mudanças entre a fase aquática e a fase terrestre em grande escala, provocam condições, que não correspondem nem a lagos e rios nem a pântanos e águas temporárias. Uma r...
Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Sappington, Jacob N.
Two sets of digital flood-inundation map libraries that spanned a combined 16.7-mile reach of the Meramec River that extends upstream from Valley Park, Missouri, to downstream from Fenton, Mo., were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis Metropolitan Sewer District, Missouri Department of Transportation, Missouri American Water, and Federal Emergency Management Agency Region 7. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science website at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the cooperative USGS streamgages on the Meramec River at Valley Park, Mo., (USGS station number 07019130) and the Meramec River at Fenton, Mo. (USGS station number 07019210). Near-real-time stage data at these streamgages may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites (listed as NWS sites vllm7 and fnnm7, respectively).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a calibrated one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic model. The model was calibrated using a stage-discharge relation at the Meramec River near Eureka streamgage (USGS station number 07019000) and documented high-water marks from the flood of December 2015 through January 2016.The calibrated hydraulic model was used to compute two sets of water-surface profiles: one set for the streamgage at Valley Park, Mo. (USGS station number 07019130), and one set for the USGS streamgage on the Meramec River at Fenton, Mo. (USGS station number 07019210). The water-surface profiles were produced for stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the datum from each streamgage and
Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J.R.
Three tidal marshes in Able Tasman National Par, New Zealand, were studied using geochemical, sedimentological and radiometric dating techniques. Charcoal and plant material samples were taken from one core in each inlet for 14 C analysis. radiocarbon ages were converted to dendrocalibrated years . All samples produced a terrestrial 13 C signal. Near surface samples were date d by measuring 137 Cs. A 1700 year record of catastrophic saltwater inundations (CSI) events (Tsunami) was produced. Up to four such events were identified, with ruptures of one or more of the Wellington, Wairarapa and Alpine Faults being the most likely tsunamigenic source. CSI signatures include: peaks in Fe and/or S, a peak in fines and contemporaneous or delayed peaks in organic content and/or loss on ignition (LOI). Geochemical data in association with grain size analyses proved to be a valuable tool in the interpretation of these events
Zona Hambat Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan Candida albicans diisolasi dari denture stomatitis xi + 43 halaman Ekstrak daun sirih merah merupakan salah satu obat tradisional yang saat ini banyak digunakan masyarakat Indonesia. Ekstrak daun sirih merah ini dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri dan jamur disebabkan karena adanya senyawa alkaloid, flavonoid, polifenol, tanin dan minyak atsiri. Salah satu bakteri dan jamur yang dapat dihambat oleh ekstrak daun sir...
Rodríguez Ruíz, Julián.
Full Text Available El objeto de este documento consiste en analizar si los movimientos en la “inflación medida” recogen adecuadamente el fenómeno inflacionario para algunos países de la zona euro. Para ello se utiliza la metodología propuesta por Quah y Valhey basada en sistemas de Vectores Autorregresivos Estructurales. La aproximación es consistente con la interpretación de la curva de Phillips a largo plazo.
Dráb, T.; Ren, Štěpán; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra; Liberda, J.
Roč. 100, SEP 15 2017 (2017), s. 80-87 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-05547S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Glycosidases * Oocyte development * Zona pellucida * Follicle Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2016
Dráb, T.; Ren, Štěpán; Maňásková-Postlerová, Pavla; Tichá, M.; Jonáková, Věra; Liberda, J.
Roč. 100, Sep 15 2017 (2017), s. 80-87 ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-05547S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : glycosidases * follicle * oocyte development * zona pellucida * AWN 1 spermadhesin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemical research methods Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2016
Full Text Available Perbedaan tingkat aktifitas gempabumi tektonik di zona subduksi dapat disebabkan oleh banyak faktor. Salah satu faktornya diduga akibat adanya pengaruh dari kecepatan relatif pergerakan lempeng. Studi terhadap hubungan antara kecepatan gerak lempeng dengan seismisitas dilakukan dengan menggunakan data gempabumi dan kecepatan relatif pergerakan lempeng pada beberapa zona subduksi di dunia. Jumlah data gempabumi diplot sebagai fungsi dari kecepatan relatif pergerakan lempeng. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa tingkat seismisitas gempabumi di zona subduksi dipengaruhi oleh kecepatan relatif pergerakan lempeng. Kedua parameter menunjukkan hubungan linear yang sangat baik dengan koefisien korelasi 0,98. Secara fisis hal ini menegaskan bahwa hukum kekekalan energi berlaku pada proses pergerakan lempeng di zona subduksi, dimana energi gerak lempeng berubah ke dalam bentuk pelepasan energi berupa gempabumi. Hasil studi ini juga menunjukkan bahwa jumlah gempabumi dengan magnitudo lebih besar dari 4 dan kedalaman lebih kecil dari 60 km dapat dihitung secara teoritis dengan menggunakan rumusan empiris. Subduction zones are seismically the most active areas around the world. However, the seismicity rate among subduction zones is different. This can be caused by many reasons. One of them expected to be influenced by the relative plate velocity. Analysis of correlation between relative plate velocities and seismicity rate around subduction zones in the world has been done in this study. The correlation was analysed by plotting number of earthquake events as function of relative plate velocities. The results show that the seismicity rate is linearly influenced by relative plate velocities with the correlation coefficient of 0,98. Physically it is asserted that the law of conservation of energy applies to the movement of the plates in subduction zones, where plate motion changed to energy in the form of energy release of earthquakes. The results of this
Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Gallagher, D.
Storm surge has enough destructive power to damage buildings and infrastructure, erode beaches, and threaten human life across large geographic areas, hence posing the greatest threat of all the hurricane hazards. The United States Gulf of Mexico has proven vulnerable to hurricanes as it has been hit by some of the most destructive hurricanes on record. With projected rises in sea level and increases in hurricane activity, there is a need to better understand the associated risks for disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response. GIS has become a critical tool in enhancing disaster planning, risk assessment, and emergency response by communicating spatial information through a multi-layer approach. However, there is a need for a near real-time method of identifying areas with a high risk of being impacted by storm surge. Research was conducted alongside Baron, a private industry weather enterprise, to facilitate automated modeling and visualization of storm surge inundation and vulnerability on a near real-time basis. This research successfully automated current flood hazard mapping techniques using a GIS framework written in a Python programming environment, and displayed resulting data through an Application Program Interface (API). Data used for this methodology included high resolution topography, NOAA Probabilistic Surge model outputs parsed from Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds, and the NOAA Census tract level Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). The development process required extensive data processing and management to provide high resolution visualizations of potential flooding and population vulnerability in a timely manner. The accuracy of the developed methodology was assessed using Hurricane Isaac as a case study, which through a USGS and NOAA partnership, contained ample data for statistical analysis. This research successfully created a fully automated, near real-time method for mapping high resolution storm surge inundation and vulnerability for the
Shilling, F.; Waetjen, D.; Grijalva, E.
We describe a method to monitor shoreline inundation and changes in response to sea level rise (SLR) using a network of time-lapse cameras. We found for coastal tidal marshes that this method was sensitive to vertical changes in sea level of 20 cm has occurred in the San Francisco Bay and other US coastal areas and is likely to rise by another 30-45 cm by mid-century, which will flood and erode many coastal ecosystems, highways, and urban areas. This rapid degree of rise means that it is imperative to co-plan for natural and built systems. Many public facilities are adjacent to shoreline ecosystems, which both protect infrastructure from wave and tide energy and are home to regulated species and habitats. Accurate and timely information about the actual extent of SLR impacts to shorelines will be critical during built-system adaptation. Currently, satellite-sourced imagery cannot provide the spatial or temporal resolution necessary to investigate fine-scale shoreline changes, leaving a gap between predictive models and knowing how, where and when these changes are occurring. The method described is feasible for near-term (1 to 10 years) to long-term application and can be used for measuring fine-resolution shoreline changes (organize photographs that could be combined with related external data (e.g., gauged water levels) to create an information mashup. This information could be used to validate models predicting shoreline inundation and loss, inform SLR-adaptation planning, and to visualize SLR impacts to the public.
Claff, Salirian R; Sullivan, Leigh A; Burton, Edward D; Bush, Richard T; Johnston, Scott G
The oxidation and acidification of sulfidic soil materials results in the re-partitioning of metals, generally to more mobile forms. In this study, we examine the partitioning of Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn in the acidified surface soil (0-0.1 m) and the unoxidised sub-soil materials (1.3-1.5 m) of an acid sulfate soil landscape. Metal partitioning at this acidic site was then compared to an adjacent site that was previously acidified, but has since been remediated by tidal re-inundation. Differences in metal partitioning were determined using an optimised six-step sequential extraction procedure which targets the "labile", "acid-soluble", "organic", "crystalline oxide", "pyritic" and "residual" fractions. The surficial soil materials of the acidic site had experienced considerable losses of Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni compared to the underlying parent material due to oxidation and acidification, yet only minor losses of Fe and Zn. In general, the metals most depleted from the acidified surface soil materials exhibited the greatest sequestration in the surface soil materials of the tidally remediated site. An exception to this was iron, which accumulated to highly elevated concentrations in the surficial soil materials of the tidally remediated site. The "acid-soluble", "organic" and "pyritic" fractions displayed the greatest increase in metals following tidal remediation. This study demonstrates that prolonged tidal re-inundation of severely acidified acid sulfate soil landscapes leads to the immobilisation of trace metals through the surficial accumulation of iron oxides, organic material and pyrite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tong, Rui; Komma, Jürgen
The estimation of flood is essential for disaster alleviation. Hydrodynamic models are implemented to predict the occurrence and variance of flood in different scales. In practice, the calibration of hydrodynamic models aims to search the best possible parameters for the representation the natural flow resistance. Recent years have seen the calibration of hydrodynamic models being more actual and faster following the advance of earth observation products and computer based optimization techniques. In this study, the Hydrologic Engineering River Analysis System (HEC-Ras) model was set up with high-resolution digital elevation model from Laser scanner for the river Inn in Tyrol, Austria. 10 largest flood events from 19 hourly discharge gauges and flood inundation maps were selected to calibrate the HEC-Ras model. Manning roughness values and lateral inflow factors as parameters were automatically optimized with the Shuffled complex with Principal component analysis (SP-UCI) algorithm developed from the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA). Different objective functions (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient, the timing of peak, peak value and Root-mean-square deviation) were used in single or multiple way. It was found that the lateral inflow factor was the most sensitive parameter. SP-UCI algorithm could avoid the local optimal and achieve efficient and effective parameters in the calibration of HEC-Ras model using flood extension images. As results showed, calibration by means of gauged discharge data and flood inundation maps, together with objective function of Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient, was very robust to obtain more reliable flood simulation, and also to catch up with the peak value and the timing of peak.
Tape, Ken D; Flint, Paul L; Meixell, Brandt W; Gaglioti, Benjamin V
The Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska is characterized by thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, and the rate of coastal erosion has increased during the last half-century. Portions of the coast are <1 m above sea level for kilometers inland, and are underlain by ice-rich permafrost. Increased storm surges or terrestrial subsidence would therefore expand the area subject to marine inundation. Since 1976, the distribution of molting Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) on the Arctic Coastal Plain has shifted from inland freshwater lakes to coastal marshes, such as those occupying the Smith River and Garry Creek estuaries. We hypothesized that the movement of geese from inland lakes was caused by an expansion of high quality goose forage in coastal areas. We examined the recent history of vegetation and geomorphological changes in coastal goose habitat by combining analysis of time series imagery between 1948 and 2010 with soil stratigraphy dated using bomb-curve radiocarbon. Time series of vertical imagery and in situ verification showed permafrost thaw and subsidence of polygonal tundra. Soil stratigraphy and dating within coastal estuaries showed that non-saline vegetation communities were buried by multiple sedimentation episodes between 1948 and 1995, accompanying a shift toward salt-tolerant vegetation. This sedimentation allowed high quality goose forage plants to expand, thus facilitating the shift in goose distribution. Declining sea ice and the increasing rate of terrestrial inundation, sedimentation, and subsidence in coastal estuaries of Alaska may portend a ‘tipping point’ whereby inland areas would be transformed into salt marshes. (letter)
Jourdy V. James Heredia
Full Text Available Portugal, Irlanda, Grecia y España, nombrados por sus iniciales los PIGS de la zona euro, desde el 2010 hasta la actualidad han reflejado desequilibrios fiscales considerables y niveles de endeudamiento que se han hecho inmanejables. A la vez que padecen profundas crisis en sus sistemas bancarios, pobres tasas de crecimiento económico y altos niveles de de desempleo. Ante esta situación la investigación analiza las diferentes políticas económicas (monetaria, fiscal, así como el tipo de cambio en la zona euro y se llega a la conclusión que la salida de la actual situación de crisis de los PIGS depende del logro de un crecimiento económico sostenido. Sobre esta base, la solución al problema económico de los PIGS parecer ser política y, a corto plazo incluye: la necesidad de una cooperación mayor dentro de la eurozona así como cambios en la política económica seguida hasta el momento y en la principal institución monetaria de la zona, entre otros elementos.
Liu, Kai; Kim, Juhyun; Kim, Dong Won; Zhang, Yi Stephanie; Bao, Hechen; Denaxa, Myrto; Lim, Szu-Aun; Kim, Eileen; Liu, Chang; Wickersham, Ian R.; Pachnis, Vassilis; Hattar, Samer; Song, Juan; Brown, Solange P.; Blackshaw, Seth
Multiple populations of wake-promoting neurons have been characterized in mammals, but few sleep-promoting neurons have been identified1. Wake-promoting cell types include hypocretin and GABA (γ-aminobutyric-acid)-releasing neurons of the lateral hypothalamus, which promote the transition to wakefulness from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep2,3. Here we show that a subset of GABAergic neurons in the mouse ventral zona incerta, which express the LIM homeodomain factor Lhx6 and are activated by sleep pressure, both directly inhibit wake-active hypocretin and GABAergic cells in the lateral hypothalamus and receive inputs from multiple sleep–wake-regulating neurons. Conditional deletion of Lhx6 from the developing diencephalon leads to decreases in both NREM and REM sleep. Furthermore, selective activation and inhibition of Lhx6-positive neurons in the ventral zona incerta bidirectionally regulate sleep time in adult mice, in part through hypocretin-dependent mechanisms. These studies identify a GABAergic subpopulation of neurons in the ventral zona incerta that promote sleep. PMID:28847002
Rubén D. Paz Morales
Full Text Available Ecuador con la Constitución de 2008 sentó las bases para la matriz productiva como nuevo modelo de desarrollo en el Ecuador, y con ello se creó todo un andamiaje de instituciones, reglamentos y créditos de largo plazo que apunten a desarrollar armónicamente las empresas ya existentes y a crear nuevos emprendimientos con el fin de aprovechar la materia prima existente en el país. La creación de las zonas de desarrollo por la SENPLADES fue fundamental para organizar por número de habitantes cada una de ellas. La zona 8 conformada por Guayaquil, Durán y Samborondón, es una de las de mayor dinamismo comercial. El Proyecto IC-ULVR 13-19 presenta una investigación exploratoria sobre los derivados del plátano verde en la matriz productiva, para cuyo fin se aplicó una observación guiada a autoservicios de la zona y una encuesta online para conocer los gustos y preferencias de los consumidores.
Cobb, A.; Harvey, C. F.
Tropical peatlands cover many low-lying areas in the tropics. In tropical peatlands, a feedback between hydrology, landscape morphology, and carbon storage causes waterlogged organic matter to accumulate into gently mounded land forms called peat domes over thousands of years. Peat domes have a stable morphology in which peat production is balanced by loss and net precipitation is balanced by lateral flow, creating a link between peatland morphology, rainfall patterns and drainage networks. We show how landscape morphology can be used to make inferences about hydrologic processes in tropical peatlands. In particular, we show that approaches using simple storage-discharge relationships for catchments are especially well suited to tropical peatlands, allowing river forecasting based on peatland morphology in catchments with tropical peatland subcatchments.
Ruiz Ordóñez, Jorge Alberto
Programa de doctorado: Turismo integral, interculturalidad y desarrollo sostenible [ES] El presente trabajo de investigación propone un sistema de indicadores para una gestión sostenible del turismo en las zonas marino-costeras de Guatemala.
Full Text Available Wetland inundation is crucial to the survival and prosperity of fauna and flora communities in wetland ecosystems. Even small changes in surface inundation may result in a substantial impact on the wetland ecosystem characteristics and function. This study presented a novel method for wetland inundation mapping at a subpixel scale in a typical wetland region on the Zoige Plateau, northeast Tibetan Plateau, China, by combining use of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI data. A reference subpixel inundation percentage (SIP map at a Landsat-8 OLI 30 m pixel scale was first generated using high resolution UAV data (0.16 m. The reference SIP map and Landsat-8 OLI imagery were then used to develop SIP estimation models using three different retrieval methods (Linear spectral unmixing (LSU, Artificial neural networks (ANN, and Regression tree (RT. Based on observations from 2014, the estimation results indicated that the estimation model developed with RT method could provide the best fitting results for the mapping wetland SIP (R2 = 0.933, RMSE = 8.73% compared to the other two methods. The proposed model with RT method was validated with observations from 2013, and the estimated SIP was highly correlated with the reference SIP, with an R2 of 0.986 and an RMSE of 9.84%. This study highlighted the value of high resolution UAV data and globally and freely available Landsat data in combination with the developed approach for monitoring finely gradual inundation change patterns in wetland ecosystems.
Full Text Available River deltas belong to the most densely settled places on earth. Although they only account for 5% of the global land surface, over 550 million people live in deltas. These preferred livelihood locations, which feature flat terrain, fertile alluvial soils, access to fluvial and marine resources, a rich wetland biodiversity and other advantages are, however, threatened by numerous internal and external processes. Socio-economic development, urbanization, climate change induced sea level rise, as well as flood pulse changes due to upstream water diversion all lead to changes in these highly dynamic systems. A thorough understanding of a river delta’s general setting and intra-annual as well as long-term dynamic is therefore crucial for an informed management of natural resources. Here, remote sensing can play a key role in analyzing and monitoring these vast areas at a global scale. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the potential of intra-annual time series analyses at dense temporal, but coarse spatial resolution for inundation characterization in five river deltas located in four different countries. Based on 250 m MODIS reflectance data we analyze inundation dynamics in four densely populated Asian river deltas—namely the Yellow River Delta (China, the Mekong Delta (Vietnam, the Irrawaddy Delta (Myanmar, and the Ganges-Brahmaputra (Bangladesh, India—as well as one very contrasting delta: the nearly uninhabited polar Mackenzie Delta Region in northwestern Canada for the complete time span of one year (2013. A complex processing chain of water surface derivation on a daily basis allows the generation of intra-annual time series, which indicate inundation duration in each of the deltas. Our analyses depict distinct inundation patterns within each of the deltas, which can be attributed to processes such as overland flooding, irrigation agriculture, aquaculture, or snowmelt and thermokarst processes. Clear differences between mid
Aoi, S.; Yamamoto, N.; Suzuki, W.; Hirata, K.; Nakamura, H.; Kunugi, T.; Kubo, T.; Maeda, T.
In the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, in which huge tsunami claimed a great deal of lives, the initial tsunami forecast based on hypocenter information estimated using seismic data on land were greatly underestimated. From this lesson, NIED is now constructing S-net (Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench) which consists of 150 ocean bottom observatories with seismometers and pressure gauges (tsunamimeters) linked by fiber optic cables. To take full advantage of S-net, we develop a new methodology of real-time tsunami inundation forecast using ocean bottom observation data and construct a prototype system that implements the developed forecasting method for the Pacific coast of Chiba prefecture (Sotobo area). We employ a database-based approach because inundation is a strongly non-linear phenomenon and its calculation costs are rather heavy. We prepare tsunami scenario bank in advance, by constructing the possible tsunami sources, and calculating the tsunami waveforms at S-net stations, coastal tsunami heights and tsunami inundation on land. To calculate the inundation for target Sotobo area, we construct the 10-m-mesh precise elevation model with coastal structures. Based on the sensitivities analyses, we construct the tsunami scenario bank that efficiently covers possible tsunami scenarios affecting the Sotobo area. A real-time forecast is carried out by selecting several possible scenarios which can well explain real-time tsunami data observed at S-net from tsunami scenario bank. An advantage of our method is that tsunami inundations are estimated directly from the actual tsunami data without any source information, which may have large estimation errors. In addition to the forecast system, we develop Web services, APIs, and smartphone applications and brush them up through social experiments to provide the real-time tsunami observation and forecast information in easy way to understand toward urging people to evacuate.
Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Bhaskaran, Prasad K
The coastal region bordering the East coast of India is a thickly populated belt exposed to high risk and vulnerability from natural hazards such as tropical cyclones. Tropical cyclone frequencies that develop over the Bay of Bengal (average of 5-6 per year) region are much higher as compared to the Arabian Sea thereby posing a high risk factor associated with storm surge, inland inundation, wind gust, intense rainfall, etc. The Odisha State in the East coast of India experiences the highest number of cyclone strikes as compared to West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. To express the destructive potential resulting from tropical cyclones the Power Dissipation Index (PDI) is a widely used metric globally. A recent study indicates that PDI for cyclones in the present decade have increased about six times as compared to the past. Hence there is a need to precisely ascertain the coastal vulnerability and risk factors associated with high intense cyclones expected in a changing climate. As such there are no comprehensive studies attempted so far on the determination of Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Odisha coast that is highly prone to cyclone strikes. With this motivation, the present study makes an attempt to investigate the physical, environmental, social, and economic impacts on coastal vulnerability associated with tropical cyclones for the Odisha coast. The study also investigates the futuristic projection of coastal vulnerability over this region expected in a changing climate scenario. Eight fair weather parameters along with storm surge height and onshore inundation were used to estimate the Physical Vulnerability Index (PVI). Thereafter, the PVI along with social, economic, and environmental vulnerability was used to determine the overall CVI using the GIS based approach. The authors believe that the comprehensive nature of this study is expected to benefit coastal zone management authorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tropicalism and Romanticism: Francisco Mourelle de la Rúa’s Journey around the Pacific Ocean (1780-1781 Tropicalísimo y romanticismo: el viaje de Francisco Mourelle de la Rúa por el Océano Pacífico (1780-1781
José María GARCÍA SÁNCHEZ
Full Text Available The torrid or tropical Zone limited by the two tropics of cancer and Capricorn was imagined by the greatest powers of the 18 century, Spain, France, and Great Britain as a meeting area of the otherness where the tropical discourses, ambivalent, appeared written either with dose of ferocity and infertility, or exoticism and abundance. Francisco Mourelle de la Rua was one of the most experienced sailors that plied the international waters during the last third of the eighteenth century, one of his trips included one of the «tropical» zones par excellence, the trip embarked from San Blas in Nayarit in Mexico and his return to Manila is the object of analysis of this study.La zona tórrida o tropical limitada por los dos trópicos de capricornio y de cáncer fue imaginada por las mayores potencias del siglo XVIII, España, Francia e Inglaterra, como una zona de encuentro de la otredad donde los discursos tropicalistas, ambivalentes, aparecieron escritos con dosis o bien de ferocidad e infertilidad, o bien de exotismo y abundancia. Francisco Mourelle de la Rúa fue uno de los navegantes más experimentados que surcaron las aguas internacionales durante el último tercio del siglo XViii, uno de sus viajes comprendió una de las zonas «tropicales» por excelencia, el viaje emprendido desde San Blas de nayarit en México hasta Manila y su regreso es el objeto de análisis de este estudio.
Carlos Mario González-Duque; Johana Cortés-Araujo; Beatriz Helena Aristizábal-Zuluaga
El análisis de niveles de (PM 10 ) y su asociación con la meteorología, altura de capa de mezcla y fuentes de contaminación, se realizó en la ciudad tropical andina de Manizales durante un periodo de dos años (enero 2010 a diciembre 2012). Los mayores niveles de PM 10 se observaron en zonas con alta influencia vehicular, con valores de PM 10 en un intervalo de 18 - 69 μg m -3 . Las concentraciones de material particulado fueron influenciadas por factores meteorológicos, mostrando una ...
Full Text Available Keberadaan manifestasi panasbumi di sekitar Gunungapi Slamet tidak dapat dipisahkan dari zona-zona permeabilitas yang berkembang. Lokasi-lokasi lulus air tersebut (zona permeabel yang memungkinkan terbentuknya sirkulasi fluida tempat air masuk untuk mengisi reservoir panas bumi dan air keluar ke permukaan bumi sebagai manifesatasi mata air panasbumi di sekitar Gunungapi Slamet. Publikasi yang berupa hasil penelitian ini mencoba mengidentifikasi zona-zona permeabel tersebut berdasarkan anaslisis kerapatan kelurusan yang terekam dalam citra SRTM. Identifikasi kelurusan-kelurusan pada citra berdasarkan komponen-komponen interpretasi citra, yaitu tona, tekstur, pola, bentuk dan relief. Hasil analisis tersebut dikompilasi dengan data struktur geologi regional yang sebelumnya telah diidentifikasi dan data lapangan berupa manifestasi mata air panas. Lokasi-lokasi dengan kerapatan kelurusan yang tinggi pada citra SRTM umumnya bersesuaian dengan zona struktur geologi regional keberadaan manifestasi mata air panas. Daerah tersebut memanjang relatif utara-selatan di bagian barat dan timur-barat di bagian selatan peta. Daerah-daerah inilah yang merupakan daerah lulus air tempat fluida bersirkulasi membentuk sistem panasbumi Gunungapi Slamet.
Watanabe, Masashi; Goto, Kazuhisa; Bricker, Jeremy D.; Imamura, Fumihiko
We examined the quantitative difference in the distribution of tsunami and storm deposits based on numerical simulations of inundation and sediment transport due to tsunami and storm events on the Sendai Plain, Japan. The calculated distance from the shoreline inundated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami was smaller than that inundated by storm surges from hypothetical typhoon events. Previous studies have assumed that deposits observed farther inland than the possible inundation limit of storm waves and storm surge were tsunami deposits. However, confirming only the extent of inundation is insufficient to distinguish tsunami and storm deposits, because the inundation limit of storm surges may be farther inland than that of tsunamis in the case of gently sloping coastal topography such as on the Sendai Plain. In other locations, where coastal topography is steep, the maximum inland inundation extent of storm surges may be only several hundred meters, so marine-sourced deposits that are distributed several km inland can be identified as tsunami deposits by default. Over both gentle and steep slopes, another difference between tsunami and storm deposits is the total volume deposited, as flow speed over land during a tsunami is faster than during a storm surge. Therefore, the total deposit volume could also be a useful proxy to differentiate tsunami and storm deposits.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to analyze difference and compare the determinants of stunting among under five years children considering different ecosystem in Kupang. It is an observational study using case control of under five children with and without stunting. There were 132 subjects chosen from lowland, middleland region, and mountainous ecosystem zones. Data was analyzed using Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis. The analysis resumes that determinants of stunting in lowland area is energy intake (p=0.002; OR=0.059; 95%CI:0.010-0.359, energy intake is a protective factor, in the middleland region is love and cares (p=0.002; OR=9.247; 95%CI:2.213-38.644 and sanitation (p=0.046; OR=2.832; 95%CI:1.020-7.860. Furthermore, the environmental sanitation as the factor in mountainous area (p=0.034; OR=3.978; 95%CI:1.112-14.230. The impact of stunting if left untreated will cause problems for generation in the future, for example impairment of mental development and physical growth, and it will end in poverty and the threat of life survival, so it need a proper intervention to handle it.Keywords: determinants, ecosystem zone, stuntingABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis gambaran dan membandingkan pengaruh variabel faktor penentu stunting anak balita pada berbagai zona ekosistem di Kabupaten Kupang. Jenis penelitian menggunakan desain observational dengan rancangan case control antara kelompok balita stunting dan normal. Jumlah subjek penelitian ini sebanyak 132 subjek yang terbagi pada tiga zona ekosistem dataran rendah, dataran sedang, dan pegunungan pada bulan Maret 2015. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan Analisis Regresi Logistik Berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor penentu stunting pada zona ekosistem di Kabupaten Kupang adalah sanitasi lingkungan (p=0,002; OR=2,307; 95%CI:0,120-0,721, dan kejadian sakit (p=0,007; OR=0,294; 95%CI:0,120-0,721; di zona ekosistem dataran rendah adalah asupan energi (p=0,002; OR=0
Brun, J. P.
Full Text Available Granite intrusion in the upper crust along a crustal-scale shear zone has been modeled by injecting a Newtonian fluid (low-viscosity silicone putty into a sandpack containing a ductile layer of silicone putty which acted as a potential décollement level along which the injected material could spread. The strike-slip regime was obtained using a mobile rigid basal plate sliding horizontally. Boundary conditions were chosen in order to analyze the influence of different rheologic profiles of the upper crust on the pattern of the intrusion. Experiments showed that: 1 intrusions are elongate and their long axis tends to track the principal stretching direction associated with the strike-slip regime, 2 intrusions are asymmetric shaped in horizontal view, with the development of a sheared tail trailing behind the intrusion, 3 the strike slip environment allowed local rising of the injected fluid along faults formed in the overburden, 4 when the crustal rheologic profile is similar in both sides of the shear zone, intrusions are asymmetric drop shaped, 5 when the viscosity of materials above the feeding pipe is higher that viscosity of materials of the other side of the shear zone, the asymmetric drop shape not appears. Lizio leucogranite of the South Armorican Shear Zone (South Brittany, France emphasize that our experiments can explain the geometry of many syntectonic' granites emplaced along strike-slip zones. They further shed some light on mechanisms of pluton intrusion in the upper crust.El emplazamiento de granitoides en zonas de desgarre de la corteza superior se ha modelizado inyectando un fluido newtoniano en un paquete de arena en el cual se intercala una capa dúctil de silicona que actúa como un nivel de despegue potencial en el cual el material inyectado puede expandirse. El régimen de desgarre se obtiene utilizando una placa basal rígida y móvil que desliza horizontalmente. Se ha analizado la influencia de diferentes perfiles reol
Griswold, Julia P.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Bard, Joseph A.
inundation zones accompanying this report, shown in two different map perspectives, is intended to augment (not replace) the existing hazard maps for Mount Adams (W.E. Scott and others, 1995; Vallance, 1999). The maps in this report show potential areas of inundation by lahars of different initial volumes, which are determined by a computer model, LAHARZ (Iverson and others, 1998; Schilling, 1998). One map sheet presents LAHARZ-determined inundation areas on a normal plan-view shaded-relief map of the study area; the other gives an oblique perspective of the landscape with raised topography, as if one were viewing the landscape at an angle from an aircraft (Jenny and Patterson, 2007). LAHARZ was developed after the original hazard maps (based only on mapping of geologic deposits) were made. Predicted inundation zones on these maps provide an alternative approach to estimation of areas that could be inundated as lahars of different volumes pass through the valley. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the exact location of the hazard-zone boundaries shown on these maps, as well as on earlier maps.
A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.
Li, P. Peggy; Knosp, Brian W.; Vu, Quoc A.; Yi, Chao; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.
The JPL Tropical Cyclone Infor ma tion System (TCIS) is a Web portal (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov) that provides researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane parameters together with large-scale and convection resolving model outputs. It provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution satellite (see figure), airborne, and in-situ observations in both image and data formats. Large-scale datasets depict the surrounding environmental parameters such as SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and aerosol loading. Model outputs and analysis tools are provided to evaluate model performance and compare observations from different platforms. The system pertains to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storm, the air-sea interaction processes, and the larger-scale environment as depicted by ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Currently, the TCIS is populated with satellite observations of all tropical cyclones observed globally during 2005. There is a plan to extend the database both forward in time till present as well as backward to 1998. The portal is powered by a MySQL database and an Apache/Tomcat Web server on a Linux system. The interactive graphic user interface is provided by Google Map.
This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…
Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.
Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping
Lovette, J. P.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Blanton, B.; Duncan, J. M.; Stillwell, L.
The National Water Model (NWM) has provided a novel framework for near real time flood inundation mapping across CONUS at a 10m resolution. In many regions, this spatial scale is quickly being surpassed through the collection of high resolution lidar (1 - 3m). As one of the leading states in data collection for flood inundation mapping, North Carolina is currently improving their previously available 20 ft statewide elevation product to a Quality Level 2 (QL2) product with a nominal point spacing of 0.7 meters. This QL2 elevation product increases the ground points by roughly ten times over the previous statewide lidar product, and by over 250 times when compared to the 10m NED elevation grid. When combining these new lidar data with the discharge estimates from the NWM, we can further improve statewide flood inundation maps and predictions of at-risk areas. In the context of flood risk management, these improved predictions with higher resolution elevation models consistently represent an improvement on coarser products. Additionally, the QL2 lidar also includes coarse land cover classification data for each point return, opening the possibility for expanding analysis beyond the use of only digital elevation models (e.g. improving estimates of surface roughness, identifying anthropogenic features in floodplains, characterizing riparian zones, etc.). Using the NWM Height Above Nearest Drainage approach, we compare flood inundation extents derived from multiple lidar-derived grid resolutions to assess the tradeoff between precision and computational load in North Carolina's coastal river basins. The elevation data distributed through the state's new lidar collection program provide spatial resolutions ranging from 5-50 feet, with most inland areas also including a 3 ft product. Data storage increases by almost two orders of magnitude across this range, as does processing load. In order to further assess the validity of the higher resolution elevation products on
Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9-mile reach of the Des Plaines River from Riverwoods to Mettawa, Illinois, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Lake County Stormwater Management Commission and the Villages of Lincolnshire and Riverwoods. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (gage heights) at the USGS streamgage at Des Plaines River at Lincolnshire, Illinois (station no. 05528100). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/usa/nwis/uv?05528100. In addition, this streamgage is incorporated into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/) by the National Weather Service (NWS). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. The NWS forecasted peak-stage information, also shown on the Des Plaines River at Lincolnshire inundation Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The hydraulic model was then used to determine seven water-surface profiles for flood stages at roughly 1-ft intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from the 50- to 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flows. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a Geographic Information System (GIS) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) (derived from Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data) in order to delineate the area flooded at each water level. These maps, along with information on the Internet regarding current gage height from USGS streamgages and forecasted stream stages from
Lant, Jeremiah G.
Digital flood-inundation maps for an 8.9-mile reach of South Fork Little River at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Hopkinsville Community Development Services. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at South Fork Little River at Highway 68 By-Pass at Hopkinsville, Kentucky (station no. 03437495). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03437495). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often co-located at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the South Fork Little River reach by using HEC-RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2012) stage-discharge relation at the South Fork Little River at Highway 68 By-Pass at Hopkinsville, Kentucky, streamgage and measurements collected during recent flood events. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 13 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, most at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bank full to the estimated elevation of the 1.0-percent annual exceedance
Rendon, Samuel H.; Ashworth, Chad E.; Smith, S. Jerrod
Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and reliable water supplies, but they also entail risk: dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or misoperation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning the emergency response if a dam breach occurs. Accurate topographic data are vital for developing flood-inundation maps. This report presents results of a cooperative study by the city of Lawton, Oklahoma, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to model dam-breach scenarios at Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka near Lawton and to map the potential flood-inundation areas of such dam breaches. To assist the city of Lawton with completion of the emergency action plans for Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka Dams, the USGS collected light detection and ranging (lidar) data that were used to develop a high-resolution digital elevation model and a 1-foot contour elevation map for the flood plains downstream from Lakes Ellsworth and Lawtonka. This digital elevation model and field measurements, streamflow-gaging station data (USGS streamflow-gaging station 07311000, East Cache Creek near Walters, Okla.), and hydraulic values were used as inputs for the dynamic (unsteady-flow) model, Hydrologic Engineering Center's River Analysis System (HEC-RAS). The modeled flood elevations were exported to a geographic information system to produce flood-inundation maps. Water-surface profiles were developed for a 75-percent probable maximum
Siziba, Nqobizitha; Chimbari, Moses J.; Masundire, Hillary; Mosepele, Ketlhatlogile; Ramberg, Lars
Water extraction from floodplain river systems may alter patterns of inundation of adjacent wetlands and lead to loss of aquatic biodiversity. Water reaching the Okavango Delta (Delta), Botswana, may decrease due to excessive water extraction and climate change. However, due to poor understanding of the link between inundation of wetlands and biological responses, it is difficult to assess the impacts of these future water developments on aquatic biota. Large floods from 2009 to 2011 inundated both rarely and frequently flooded wetlands in the Delta, creating an opportunity to examine the ecological significance of flooding of wetlands with widely differing hydrological characteristics. We studied the assemblages of small fishes and microcrustaceans, together with their trophic relationships, in temporary wetlands of the lower Delta. Densities of microcrustaceans in temporary wetlands were generally lower than previously recorded in these habitats. Microcrustacean density varied with wetland types and hydrological phase of inundation. High densities of microcrustaceans were recorded in the 2009 to 2010 flooding season after inundation of rarely flooded sites. Large numbers of small fishes were observed during this study. Community structure of small fishes differed significantly across the studied wetlands, with poeciliids predominant in frequently flooded wetlands and juvenile cichlids most abundant in rarely flooded wetlands (analysis of similarity, P < 0.05). Small fishes of <20 mm fed largely on microcrustaceans and may have led to low microcrustacean densities within the wetlands. This result matched our prediction that rarely flooded wetlands would be more productive; hence, they supported greater populations of microcrustaceans and cichlids, which are aggressive feeders. However, the predominance of microcrustaceans in the guts of small fishes (<20 mm) suggests that predation by fishes may also be an important regulatory mechanism of microcrustacean
Roland, Mark A.; Hoffman, Scott A.
Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 8-mile reach of the West Branch Susquehanna River from approximately 2 miles downstream from the Borough of Lewisburg, extending upstream to approximately 1 mile upstream from the Borough of Milton, Pennsylvania, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict the estimated areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa. In addition, the information has been provided to the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) for incorporation into their Susquehanna Inundation Map Viewer (SIMV) flood warning system (http://maps.srbc.net/simv/). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information (http://water.weather.gov/ahps) for USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibration of the model was achieved using the most current stage-discharge relations (rating number 11.1) at USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., a documented water-surface profile from the December 2, 2010, flood, and recorded peak stage data. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 26 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 14 feet (ft) to 39 ft. Modeled flood stages, as defined by NWS, include Action Stage, 14 ft; Flood Stage, 18 ft; Moderate Flood Stage, 23 ft; and Major Flood Stage, 28 ft. Geographic information system (GIS) technology
Nalbantis, I.; Papageorgaki, I.; Sioras, P.; Ioannidis, Ch.
The planning, design and operation of flood damage reduction works or non-structural measures require the construction of maps that indicate zones to be potentially inundated during floods. Referring to floods due to heavy rainfall, the common procedure for flood mapping consists of the following five computational steps: (1) Frequency analysis of extreme rainfall; (2) construction of design hyetographs for various return periods; (3) construction of the related direct runoff hydrographs; (4) routing of these hydrographs through the hydrographic network; (5) mapping of the inundated area that corresponds to the temporally maximum depth for each location in the flood plain. Steps 3 through 5 require the use of spatial information which can be easily obtained from a Digital Surface Model (DSM). The DSM contains grid-based elevations of the ground or overlying objects that influence the propagation of flood waves. In this work, the SCS-CN method is used in step 3 in combination with a synthetic Unit Hydrograph based on the SCS dimensionless Unit Hydrograph. In step 4, the full one-dimensional Saint Venant equations for non-uniform unsteady flow on fixed bed are used, which are numerically solved. The impact of uncertainty in the DSM on the inundated area boundary is investigated. For this the Monte Carlo simulation method is employed to produce a large number of erroneous DSMs through introducing errors in elevation with a standard deviation equal to σ. These DSMs are then used for delineating potentially flooded areas. The standard deviation of the distance (from the riverbed axis) of the boundary of these areas, herein denoted as σF, is used as the measure of the resulting uncertainty. The link between σ and σF is examined for a spectrum of large return periods (100 to 10000). A computer experiment was set up based on data from two drainage basins. The first basin is located in East Attica and is drained by a branch of the Erasinos Torrent named the South
Mireya Alicia Rosas Lusett
Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra los procedimientos y resultados obtenidos del análisis de la energía trasmitida en techos y muros de las viviendas seleccionadas de la zona sur del estado de Tamaulipas, una de las cinco áreas establecidas dentro del proyecto “Desarrollo y validación de una metodología para estimar los impactos en el ahorro de energía por el uso de sistemas pasivo-constructivos en la edificación para diferentes climas de México”. Este proyecto fue financiado por la Convocatoria S0019-2009-01 del Fondo Sectorial de Sustentabilidad Energética SENER-CONACYT con registro Nº 118665, cuyo objetivo en su tercera etapa de ejecución, consistió en hacer uso de la herramienta Ener-Habitat, la cual fue desarrollada durante la segunda fase del proyecto. Con dicho programa de cálculo se determinaron los gastos de energía, comparativa de cuatro sistemas constructivos para muros y tres sistemas constructivos para losas utilizadas en la zona sur de Tamaulipas. Con la información obtenida y mediante el uso de la metodología desarrollada para estimar los impactos en el ahorro de energía, se evaluó el costo energético de cada uno de los sistemas constructivos. Con los resultados obtenidos se pudo determinar cuál era el muro y techo de menor gasto de energía para la zona de estudio. Adicionalmente se realizó un estudio de la influencia de la absortancia solar de la superficie exterior de los muros, cuyos resultados darán la pauta para diseñar una vivienda que pretende sea adecuada y cómoda al clima cálido húmedo que prevalece en el área.
Full Text Available Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para determinar la distribución espacial de la densidad (captura por unidad de área â€“ CPUA y de la estructura de tallas de Eucinostomus argenteus y su relación con las variables ambientales en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano. Los datos fueron se tomaron durante un crucero de investigación realizado en la época seca (febrero de 2006 entre Puerto Estrella (La Guajira y Santa Marta (Magdalena. Las muestras biológicas se colectaron con una red de arrastre (en estratos de profundidad < 50 m y 50-100 m siguiendo un diseño de muestreo sistemático. Los individuos maduros y de tallas mayores se encontraron distribuidos principalmente entre Manaure y Punta Gallinas, donde la plataforma continental es muy ancha y la oceanografía local esta modulada por la surgencia estacional. Los peces juveniles, se distribuyeron al sur del área de estudio, entre Boca Camarones y el Río Buritaca, cerca de la costa. En este sector la plataforma es muy estrecha y con alta productividad biológica por la presencia de ríos, manglares y pastos marinos, sirviendo como zona de alimentación y refugio para E. argenteus. En general los resultados sugieren que las variables ambientales son importantes para la distribución espacial de la abundancia y las tallas de E. argenteus en la zona norte del Caribe colombiano, siendo la temperatura y la profundidad las variables que predijeron mejor la distribución espacial de la especie.
Bustamante Betancur Orlando
Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta un estudio detallado de los suelos y clima de la región que comprende el proyecto hidroeléctrico Porce II de las Empresas Públicas de Medellín, comparativo con las condiciones que tienen las zonas caucheras del país y del mundo, con el fin de determinar las áreas aptas para el establecimiento de una explotación comercial. Se encontró que los requerimientos de clima y suelo del caucho están dentro de los parámetros que tiene la zona y de acuerdo con otras restricciones de pendiente y pedregosidad, se seleccionaron 1990 hectáreas para su establecimiento, distribuidas a lo largo y ancho de la cuenca hidrográfica. También se presenta en este artículo una descripción de las prácticas agronómicas del cultivo del caucho y las condiciones de manejo, propias para la zona estudiada. Se dan recomendaciones para las diferentes etapas relacionadas con la propagación y la producción de material vegetal (semillero, jardín clonal y vivero, la siembra y la explotación durante el período productivo de la plantación establecida. Finalmente se contemplan algunos aspectos sobre costos por actividades, la producción promedio de caucho seco y los ingresos en valores por hectárea año que genera el cultivo.
Felipe Fernandes de Araújo
Full Text Available Este documento tiene como objetivo discutir el surgimiento de una nueva tipología residencial que se ha extendido en el sur de Natal / RN, los condominios llamado Club. Su principal característica es la apelación a los artículos de ocio más diversos, que son utilizados por los empresarios urbanos como una forma de crear un nuevo estilo de vida y un nuevo producto que se vende. La base teórica de este trabajo se basa en el enfoque heterodoxo de la coordinación espacial realizada por Pedro Abramo. Esta perspectiva considera el espacio urbano como un conjunto de inventario de viviendas que son ofrecidas por los empresarios urbanos. En general, el orden urbano y el ambiente residencial es incierto, porque sufren cambios derivados de la aparición de las innovaciones de espacio causadas por empresarios urbanos en busca de beneficios extraordinarios. En el caso de la zona sur de Natal, la construcción de carreteras principales que conectan esta zona de la ciudad al vecino municipio de Parnamirim, que ha sido el blanco de la abundancia del mercado inmobiliario de Natal. El ciclo de vida de los inventarios residenciales de la Zona Sur de Natal ha cambiado con el tiempo, desde el principio de la vivienda en grandes alojamientos para la producción de proyectos verticais. En la actualidad, un fenómeno nuevo que se plantea es la propagación de una nueva clasificación, los condominios club. Al ser un caso reciente en que los proyectos se encuentran todavía en fase de lanzamiento o de la construcción, el estudio se llevará a cabo mediante el análisis de marketing utilizadas por los empresarios urbanos para atraer a los consumidores a través de panfletos y folletos.
Musser, Jonathan W.; Watson, Kara M.; Gotvald, Anthony J.
The passage of Hurricane Matthew through central and eastern North Carolina during October 7–9, 2016, brought heavy rainfall, which resulted in major flooding. More than 15 inches of rain was recorded in some areas. More than 600 roads were closed, including Interstates 95 and 40, and nearly 99,000 structures were affected by floodwaters. Immediately following the flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey documented 267 high-water marks, of which 254 were surveyed. North Carolina Emergency Management documented and surveyed 353 high-water marks. Using a subset of these highwater marks, six flood-inundation maps were created for hard-hit communities. Digital datasets of the inundation areas, study reach boundary, and water-depth rasters are available for download. In addition, peak gage-height data, peak streamflow data, and annual exceedance probabilities (in percent) were determined for 24 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located near the heavily flooded communities.
Shivers, Molly J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Grout, Trevor S.; Lewis, Jason M.
Dams provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, and storage of water supplies, but they also entail risk; dam breaches and resultant floods can cause substantial property damage and loss of life. The State of Oklahoma requires each owner of a high-hazard dam, which the Federal Emergency Management Agency defines as dams for which failure or improper operation probably will cause loss of human life, to develop an emergency action plan specific to that dam. Components of an emergency action plan are to simulate a flood resulting from a possible dam breach and map the resulting downstream flood-inundation areas. The resulting flood-inundation maps can provide valuable information to city officials, emergency managers, and local residents for planning an emergency response if a dam breach occurs.
Arimitsu, Tsuyoshi; Ooe, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Koji
Hydraulic experiments were conducted to estimate tsunami wave pressure acting on several different types of land structures and examine the influence of a seawall in front of the structure on tsunami wave pressure. Wave pressures were measured at some points on the structure. The existing hydrostatic formula tended to underestimate tsunami wave pressure under the condition of inundation flow with large Froude number. Estimation method of tsunami wave pressure using inundation depth and horizontal velocity at the front of the structure was proposed based on the experimental results. It was confirmed from comparison with the experiments that the vertical distribution of the maximum tsunami wave pressure can be reproduced by employing the proposed method in this study. (author)
Jordán, Juan C.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the diet of Phyllodactylus reissi, a nocturnal common gecko distributed from southern Ecuador to central Perú. A total of 15 individuals were captured inside buildings at Quebrada Faical, El Caucho and Bocana Murciélago in the Zona Reservada de Tumbes. Coleoptera and Blattoptera were the dominant preys from a total of six prey types found in stomachs. The number of prey per stomach were between 1 to 9, with 3 preys in average; the prey length average w...
Hernández Guzmán, Filogonio Jesús
Para incrementar la probabilidad de establecimiento de pastos, en siembras de temporal en zonas semiáridas, se caracterizaron física y fisiológicamente semillas de Banderita, Navajita; Buffel y Rhodes y, en base a dimensiones y utilizando tamiz, se clasificaron por tamaño de cariópside (TC) en chicos (Cch), medianos (CM) y grandes (CG). En Banderita y Buffel, los diámetros de tamiz para CG, CM y Cch fueron de 0.70, 0.59 y 0.50 mm y para Navajita y Rhodes, 0.59, 0.50 y 0.42 mm, respectivamente...
Edna Paola Pérez Rendón; Víctor Hugo Ramírez Builes; Andrés Javier Peña Quiñones
La zona cafetera colombiana está ubicada en- teramente en el hemisferio norte, entre los 1 y 11° grados de latitud, sobre la cordillera de los Andes. Esta condición (ecuatorial andina) ha hecho que se dé por sentado que la variación temporal de la temperatura es mínima y que por ello, en su mayor parte la variabilidad de este elemento es es- pacial, atribuible casi exclusivamente a los cambios en altura sobre el nivel del mar. En este estudio se exploran factores de variación al...
Aular, Jesús; Rodríguez, Yesenia; Roa, Sara; Iade, Patricia; Antolínez, María
En la zona andina de Venezuela existen especies del género Passiflora con elevado potencial agronómico. Con el objetivo de contribuir a su conocimiento, se estudiaron las características del fruto de P. ligularis Juss, P. mollisima HBK Bailey, P. mixta L. y P. quadrangularis L. colectadas en los estados Táchira, las tres primeras especies, y Mérida, la cuarta. Se empleó un diseño estadístico completamente al azar y se determinaron características físicas y químicas de la parte comestible del ...
Zanabria Pacheco, Pedro Fortunato
La investigación tiene como objetivo determinar la importancia en el uso de los invernaderos sostenibles para la producción de hortalizas en las zonas alto andinas del Curso. Para ello, se han diseñado y construido dos prototipos de invernaderos a 3330 msnm, variando la orientación y forma del techo, permitiendo la producción de hortalizas en la estación fría. A la vez está investigación servirá como base para aplicar el proyecto sobre la tecnología de producción sostenible de hortalizas bajo...
Fernando Glasinovic Duhalde
Este trabajo, que no es la historia de una acción terminada sino más bien la relación de su inicio, revisa aspectos relevantes a considerar en la delimitación de la Zona Típica de la Ciudad, comenzando el análisis desde los aspectos del diseño de la ciudad, trascendentes y fundamentales, que son iniciadores de una identidad urbana que es depositaria de una particular arquitectura que es también sensible a esta estructura subyacente que habita en la memoria colectiva.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802012000100006 Este artigo é um produto parcial da pesquisa “Reflexos da Vulnerabilidade Socioambiental nas Manifestações Musicais dos Jovens Paulistanos da Periferia”, identificando como recorte geográfico a periferia da Zona Sul da cidade de São Paulo. Trata-se de uma região que começou a se formar devido à ocupação populacional desordenada em áreas de manancial, onde a vulnerabilidade social é agravada por situações de risco e degradação ambiental, da...
Cardenas Nuñez, Gilberto; Cardenas Nuñez, Gilberto
El presente trabajo de Tesis enfatiza el aspecto geopolítico en el desarrollo de la Zona franca Industrial de Ilo (ZOFRI-IL0). La razón de tal énfasis es simple: por este aspecto específicamente es que se creó la ZOFRI-ILO. En consecuencia, el tratamiento del tema tiene que ver con la influencia geopolítica en las sucesivas etapas de su desarrollo, considerando sus posibilidades de desarrollo a futuro en el marco de las tendencias internacionales de la globalización de la economía mundial. ...
Tiñena Guiamet, Jaume
En aquest projecte es realitza una màquina omplidora semiautomàtica per a zones ATEX (Appareils destinés à êtreutilisés en ATmosphères EXplosives). Aquesta màquina té la capacitat d’omplir tot tipus de recipients amb capacitats des de 20 fins a 1500 litres. Perquè aquest procés sigui possible, un sistema de transportadors desplaça el palet buit fins la zona de dosificació, lloc on l’operari posiciona manualment el dosificador per posteriorment iniciar el cicle d’emplenat automàtic. L’opera...
Simancas Cabrera, José Fernando
Se ha efectuado un estudio de geología regional en la extremidad oriental de la zona Sudportuguesa estableciéndose nuevas unidades litoestratigráficas en los materiales del devonico superior y carbonífero inferior y en la cuenca del Viar. Se han estudiado los caracteres mineralógicos y geoquímicos del vulcanismo pretectónico del plutonismo sin-postectónico y del vulcanismo tardiherciano y se han establecido las deformaciones de plegamiento y la existencia de una notable cizalla frágil tardía ...
Simancas Cabrera, Jos?? Fernando
Se ha efectuado un estudio de geolog??a regional en la extremidad oriental de la zona Sudportuguesa estableci??ndose nuevas unidades litoestratigr??ficas en los materiales del devonico superior y carbon??fero inferior y en la cuenca del Viar. Se han estudiado los caracteres mineral??gicos y geoqu??micos del vulcanismo pretect??nico del plutonismo sin-postect??nico y del vulcanismo tardiherciano y se han establecido las deformaciones de plegamiento y la existencia de una notable cizalla fr??gi...
Heimann, David C.; Kelly, Brian P.; Studley, Seth E.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 39.7-mile reach of the Blue River and selected tributaries (Brush Creek, Indian Creek, and Dyke Branch) at Kansas City, Missouri, and vicinity, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Kansas City, Missouri. The flood-inundation maps, accessed through the USGS Flood-Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the spatial extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at 15 reference streamgages and associated stream reaches in the Blue River Basin. Near-real-time stage data from the streamgages may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at selected sites.
Ilangovan, D.; Jayakumar, S.; Gowthaman, R.; Tirodkar, G.; Ganesan, P.; Naik, G.N.; ManiMurali, R.; Michael, G.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Naik, K.A.
of Oceanography (NIO) and under the leadership of Dr. G. C. Battacharya, Scientist F, NIO,) surveys were carried out along several coastal areas of India for eliciting information about the inundation and several related aspects of the Tsunami. Different locations...
Friis, Ib; Balslev, Henrik
that involved Germany, Britain and France, until independence, which was brightened by exemplary collaboration. Muasya focussed on South Africa, which is the most developed country in sub-Saharan Africa with a well-functioning network of herbaria that covers widely different biota. Sanjappa outlined the history...... crisis. Friis gave a broad overview of the history of herbaria and botanical gardens and the changing conceptual frameworks behind their existence. Baldini talked about early Italian botanical collectors and the fate of their collections. Baas accounted for the Golden Age of Dutch botany during pre......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...
Leblanc, M.; Lemoalle, J.; Bader, J.-C.; Tweed, S.; Mofor, L.
SummaryLake Chad at the border of the Sahara desert in central Africa, is well known for its high sensitivity to hydroclimatic events. Gaps in in situ data have so far prevented a full assessment of the response of Lake Chad to the ongoing prolonged drought that started in the second half of the 20th century. Like many other wetlands and shallow lakes, the 'Small' Lake Chad includes large areas of water under aquatic vegetation which needs to be accounted for to obtain the total inundated area. In this paper, a methodology is proposed that uses Meteosat thermal maximum composite data (Tmax) to account for water covered by aquatic vegetation and provide a consistent monthly time series of total inundated area estimates for Lake Chad. Total inundation patterns in Lake Chad were reconstructed for a 15-yr period (1986-2001) which includes the peak of the drought (86-91) and therefore provides new observations on the hydrological functioning of the 'Small' Lake Chad. During the study period, Lake Chad remained below 16,400 km 2 (third quartile ˜8800 km 2). The variability of the inundated area observed in the northern pool (standard deviation σnorthern pool = 1980 km 2) is about 60% greater than that of the southern pool ( σsouthern pool = 1250 km 2). The same methodology could be applied to other large wetlands and shallow lakes in semi-arid or arid regions elsewehere using Meteosat (e.g. Niger Inland Delta, Sudd in Sudan, Okavango Delta) and other weather satellites (e.g., floodplains of the Lake Eyre Basin in Australia and Andean Altiplano Lakes in South America).
Full Text Available Floods are essential for the regeneration and growth of floodplain forests in arid and semiarid regions. However, river flows, and especially flood flows, have decreased greatly with the increase of water diversion from rivers and/or reservoir regulation, resulting in severe deterioration of floodplain ecosystems. Estimation of the flood stage that will inundate the floodplain forest is necessary for the forest's restoration or protection. To balance water use for economic purposes and floodplain forest protection, the inundated forest width method is proposed for estimating the minimum flood stage for floodplain forests from the inundated forest width-stage curve. The minimum flood stage is defined as the breakpoint of the inundated forest width-stage curve, and is determined directly or analytically from the curve. For the analytical approach, the problem under consideration is described by a multi-objective optimization model, which can be solved by the ideal point method. Then, the flood flow at the minimum flood stage (minimum flood flow, which is useful for flow regulation, can be calculated from the stage-discharge curve. In order to protect the forest in a river floodplain in a semiarid area in Xinjiang subject to reservoir regulation upstream, the proposed method was used to determine the minimum flood stage and flow for the forest. Field survey of hydrology, topography, and forest distribution was carried out at typical cross sections in the floodplain. Based on the survey results, minimum flood flows for six typical cross sections were estimated to be between 306 m3/s and 393 m3/s. Their maximum, 393 m3/s, was considered the minimum flood flow for the study river reach. This provides an appropriate flood flow for the protection of floodplain forest and can be used in the regulation of the upstream reservoir.
Lee, T.; Lee, C.; Kim, H.
Abstract Song-do international city was constructed by reclaiming land from the coastal waters of Yeonsu-gu, Incheon Metropolitan City, Republic of Korea. The □-shaped cyclic artificial water way has been considered for improving water quality, waterfront and internal drainage in Song-do international city. By improving water quality, various marine facilities, such as marina, artificial beach, marine terminal, and so on, will be set up around the artificial water way for the waterfront. Since the water stage of the artificial water way changes depending on water gates operations, it is necessary to develop an urban inundation warning model to evaluate safeties of the waterfront facilities and its passengers. By considering characteristics of urban watershed, we calculate discharge flowing into the water way using XP-SWMM model. As a result of estimating 100-year flood frequency, although there are slight differences in drainage sections, the maximum flood discharge occurs in 90-min rainfall duration. In order to consider impacts of tide and hydraulic structure, we establish Inland drainage plans through the analysis of unsteady flow using HEC-RAS. The urban inundation warning model is configured to issue a warning when the water plain elevation exceeds EL. 1.5m which is usually managed at EL. 1.0m. In this study, the design flood stage of artificial water way and urban inundation warning model are developed for Song-do international city, and therefore it is expected that a reliability of management and operation of the waterfront facilities is improved. Keywords : Artificial Water Way; Waterfront; Urban Inundation Warning Model. Acknowlegement This research was supported by a grant [MPSS-NH-2015-79] through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.
Guiping Wu; Yuanbo Liu
Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake are the two largest freshwater lakes in China. The lakes are located approximately 300 km apart on the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and are differently connected through their respective tributary systems, which will lead to different river–lake water exchanges and discharges. Thus, differences in their morphological and hydrological conditions should induce individual lake spatio-temporal inundation patterns. Quantitative comparative analyses of the dynam...
Neznal, M.; Gnojek, I.; Thinová, L.; Neubauer, L.
The inundation area of Ploučnice river has been contaminated by natural radionuclides during the early mining of the uranium ore deposit in the region of Stráž pod Ralskem, Northern Bohemia, i.e. in the seventies and in the eighties of the last century. The evaluation of the level of contamination has faced many problems. During several floods that occurred after the primary contamination, the contaminants were spread to a relatively large territory, but the level of contamination became fairly variable. Large regions have not been affected at all, and measured values of gamma dose rate are comparable with the values of natural background. On the other hand, a higher contamination can be found at small areas, often situated far from the river - for example in catchwater drains. Moreover, many contaminated areas are located in places that are difficult to reach. The topographical orientation is also intricate in such places. A study of temporal changes of contamination was based on a comparison of data obtained using two different methods: airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and detailed ground gamma dose rate and in situ gamma spectrometry measurements
Jung, Hahn Chul; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Moritz, Mark; Lee, Hyongki; Vassolo, Sara
Yearly flooding in the Logone floodplain makes an impact on agricultural, pastoral, and fishery systems in the Lake Chad Basin. Since the flooding extent and depth are highly variable, flood inundation mapping helps us make better use of water resources and prevent flood hazards in the Logone floodplain. The flood maps are generated from 33 multi temporal Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) during three years 2006 to 2008. Flooded area is classified using a short-wave infrared band whereas open water is classified by Iterative Self-organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) clustering. The maximum flooding extent in the study area increases up to approximately 5.8K km2 in late October 2008. The study also provides strong correlation of the flooding extents with water height variations in both the floodplain and the river based on a second polynomial regression model. The water heights are from ENIVSAT altimetry in the floodplain and gauge measurements in the river. Coefficients of determination between flooding extents and water height variations are greater than 0.91 with 4 to 36 days in phase lag. Floodwater drains back to the river and to the northeast during the recession period in December and January. The study supports understanding of the Logone floodplain dynamics in detail of spatial pattern and size of the flooding extent and assists the flood monitoring and prediction systems in the catchment.
Eagling, Jane; Worsfold, Paul J; Blake, William H; Keith-Roach, Miranda J
There is concern that sea level rise associated with projected climate change will lead to the inundation, flooding and erosion of soils and sediments contaminated with radionuclides at coastal nuclear sites, such as Dounreay (UK), with seawater. Here batch and column experiments were designed to simulate these scenarios and sequential extractions were used to identify the key radionuclide solid phase associations. Strontium was exchangeable and was mobilised rapidly by ion exchange with seawater Mg(2+) in both batch and column experiments. In contrast, U was more strongly bound to the sediments and mobilisation was initially limited by the influence of the sediment on the pH of the water. Release was only observed when the pH increased above 6.9, suggesting that the formation of soluble U(VI)-carbonate species was important. Under dynamic flow conditions, long term release was significant (47%), but controlled by slow desorption kinetics from a range of binding sites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aksoy, Hafzullah; Sadan Ozgur Kirca, Veysel; Burgan, Halil Ibrahim; Kellecioglu, Dorukhan
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are widely used in most studies on water resources. Especially, when the topography and geomorphology of study area are considered, GIS can ease the work load. Detailed data should be used in this kind of studies. Because of, either the complication of the models or the requirement of highly detailed data, model outputs can be obtained fast only with a good optimization. The aim in this study, firstly, is to determine flood-prone areas in a watershed by using a hydrological model considering two wetness indexes; the topographical wetness index, and the SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses) wetness index. The wetness indexes were obtained in the Quantum GIS (QGIS) software by using the Digital Elevation Model of the study area. Flood-prone areas are determined by considering the wetness index maps of the watershed. As the second stage of this study, a hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, was executed to determine flood inundation areas under different return period-flood events. River network cross-sections required for this study were derived from highly detailed digital elevation models by QGIS. Also river hydraulic parameters were used in the hydraulic model. Modelling technology used in this study is made of freely available open source softwares. Based on case studies performed on watersheds in Turkey, it is concluded that results of such studies can be used for taking precaution measures against life and monetary losses due to floods in urban areas particularly.
O. S. Balogun
Full Text Available Asa Dam in Ilorin, Nigeria was constructed in the1980s. The dam made of earth material has a length of 507 meters and height of 27 meters. The maximum capacity of the impoundment during the raining season is approximately 43 x 106 m3. Years after construction, tremendous physical development is taking place along the river channel starting from the dam axis towards downstream for a distance of approximately 12 km. It is estimated that several thousands of people are currently living and performing various activities within the vicinity of the river channel. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the risk involved in case of a possible dam break disaster. In view of this, a hypothetical dam break scenario was studied and analyzed using Hydrologic Engineering Center’s River Analysis System computer model. Unsteady flow simulation was performed using geometric data obtained from Digital Terrain Model with 100-year, 24 hr flow event. The HEC-RAS was used in concert with HEC-GeoRAS to assess the flood hazard along the approximately 12 km river channel. The simulated water surface elevations were exported to Arc GIS to produce an inundation map that graphically indicates the extent of the flood hazard. The results show that some important locations such as industrial, residential, motor parks, recreational and places of worship along the river length are prone to significant flood impact. This map serves as an input for emergency preparation programme in the event of the dam break.
Full Text Available Geographic Information Systems (GIS are widely used in most studies on water resources. Especially, when the topography and geomorphology of study area are considered, GIS can ease the work load. Detailed data should be used in this kind of studies. Because of, either the complication of the models or the requirement of highly detailed data, model outputs can be obtained fast only with a good optimization. The aim in this study, firstly, is to determine flood-prone areas in a watershed by using a hydrological model considering two wetness indexes; the topographical wetness index, and the SAGA (System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses wetness index. The wetness indexes were obtained in the Quantum GIS (QGIS software by using the Digital Elevation Model of the study area. Flood-prone areas are determined by considering the wetness index maps of the watershed. As the second stage of this study, a hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, was executed to determine flood inundation areas under different return period-flood events. River network cross-sections required for this study were derived from highly detailed digital elevation models by QGIS. Also river hydraulic parameters were used in the hydraulic model. Modelling technology used in this study is made of freely available open source softwares. Based on case studies performed on watersheds in Turkey, it is concluded that results of such studies can be used for taking precaution measures against life and monetary losses due to floods in urban areas particularly.
Kanungo, Reba; Shashikala; Karunasagar, I; Srinivasan, S; Sheela, Devi; Venkatesh, K; Anitha, P
Potentially pathogenic members of the Vibrionaceae family including Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahemolyticus were isolated from domestic sources of drinking water in coastal villages following sea water inundation during the tsunami in Southern India. Phenotypic and genotypic studies were done to confirm the identity and detection of toxins. Vibrio-gyr (gyrase B gene) was detected in all sixteen vibrio isolates. Toxin regulating genes i.e.: ctx gene, tdh gene, and trh gene, however were not detected in any of the strains, thereby ruling out presence of toxins which could endanger human life. Other potentially pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas and Plesiomonas were also isolated from hand pumps and wells, in a few localities. There was no immediate danger in the form of an outbreak or sporadic gastroenteritis at the time of the study. Timely chlorination and restoration of potable water supply to the flood affected population by governmental and nongovernmental agencies averted waterborne gastroenteritis. Assessment of quality of water and detection of potential virulent organisms is an important public health activity following natural disasters. This work highlights the importance of screening water sources for potentially pathogenic microorganisms after natural disasters to avert outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases.
Berti, M.; Simoni, A.
The transport and deposition mechanisms of debris flows are still poorly understood due to the complexity of the interactions governing the behavior of water-sediment mixtures. Empirical-statistical methods can therefore be used, instead of more sophisticated numerical methods, to predict the depositional behavior of these highly dangerous gravitational movements. We use widely accepted semi-empirical scaling relations and propose an automated procedure (DFLOWZ) to estimate the area potentially inundated by a debris flow event. Beside a digital elevation model (DEM), the procedure has only two input requirements: the debris flow volume and the possible flow-path. The procedure is implemented in Matlab and a Graphical User Interface helps to visualize initial conditions, flow propagation and final results. Different hypothesis about the depositional behavior of an event can be tested together with the possible effect of simple remedial measures. Uncertainties associated to scaling relations can be treated and their impact on results evaluated. Our freeware application aims to facilitate and speed up the process of susceptibility mapping. We discuss limits and advantages of the method in order to inform inexperienced users.
Hester, E. T.; Lin, A. Y. C.
River-floodplain interaction provides important benefits such as flood mitigation, provision of ecological habitat, and improved water quality. Human actions have historically reduced such interaction and associated benefits by diking, floodplain fill, and river regulation. In response, floodplain restoration has become popular in North America and Europe, but is less practiced in Asia. In Taiwan, unusually strong monsoons and steep terrain alter floodplain dynamics relative to elsewhere around the world, and provide a unique environment for floodplain management. We used numerical models of flow, transport, and reaction in river channels and floodplains to quantify the effect of river-floodplain interaction on water quality in Taiwan's strong monsoon and high topographic relief. We conducted sensitivity analyses of parameters such as river slope, monsoon severity, reservoir operation mode, degree of floodplain reconnection, contaminant reaction rate, and contaminant reaction type on floodplain connectivity and contaminant mitigation. We found significant differences in floodplain hydraulics and residence times in Taiwan's steep monsoonal environment relative to the shallower non-monsoonal environment typical of the eastern USA, with significant implications for water quality. For example, greater flashiness of floodplain inundation in Taiwan provides greater challenges for reconnecting sufficient floodplain volume to handle monsoonal runoff. Yet longer periods when floodplains are reliably dry means that such lands may have greater value for seasonal use such as parks or agriculture. The potential for floodplain restoration in Taiwan is thus significant, but qualitatively different than in the eastern USA.
John J. Milledge
Full Text Available In recent years there have been massive inundations of pelagic Sargassum, known as golden tides, on the beaches of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa, causing considerable damage to the local economy and environment. Commercial exploration of this biomass for food, fuel, and pharmaceutical products could fund clean-up and offset the economic impact of these golden tides. This paper reviews the potential uses and obstacles for exploitation of pelagic Sargassum. Although Sargassum has considerable potential as a source of biochemicals, feed, food, fertiliser, and fuel, variable and undefined composition together with the possible presence of marine pollutants may make golden tides unsuitable for food, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals and limit their use in feed and fertilisers. Discontinuous and unreliable supply of Sargassum also presents considerable challenges. Low-cost methods of preservation such as solar drying and ensiling may address the problem of discontinuity. The use of processes that can handle a variety of biological and waste feedstocks in addition to Sargassum is a solution to unreliable supply, and anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas is one such process. More research is needed to characterise golden tides and identify and develop commercial products and processes.
Huang, Z.; Borrero, J. C.; Qiu, Q.; Hill, E. M.; Li, L.; Sieh, K. E.
On 25 October 2010, an Mw~7.8 earthquake occurred on the Sumatra megathrust seaward of the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, generating a tsunami which killed approximately 500 people. Following the event, the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) initiated a post-tsunami field survey, collecting tsunami run-up data from more than 30 sites on Pagai Selatan, Pagai Utara and Sipora. The strongest tsunami effects were observed on several small islands offshore of Pagai Selatan, where runup exceeded 16 m. This presentation will focus on a detailed comparison between two tsunami propagation and inundation models: COMCOT (Cornell Multi-grid Coupled Tsunami model) and MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami). Simulations are initialized using fault models based on data from a 1-hz GPS system that measured co-seismic deformation throughout the region. Preliminary simulations suggest that 2-m vertical seafloor deformation over a reasonably large area is required to recreate most of the observed tsunami effects. Since the GPS data suggest that subsidence of the islands is small, this implies that the tsunami source region is somewhat narrower and located further offshore than described in recently published earthquake source models based on teleseismic inversions alone. We will also discuss issues such as bathymetric and topographic data preparation and the uncertainty in the modeling results due to the lack of high resolution bathymetry and topography in the study area.
Nghiem, S. V.; Nguyen, D. T.
In 2017, typhoons and hurricanes have inflicted catastrophic flooding across extensive regions in many countries on several continents, including Asia and North America. The U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requested urgent support for flood mapping and monitoring in an emergency response to the devastating flood situation. An innovative satellite remote sensing method, called the Depolarization Reduction Algorithm for Global Observations of inundatioN (DRAGON), has been developed and implemented for use with Sentinel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data at a resolution of 10 meters to identify, map, and monitor inundation including pre-existing water bodies and newly flooded areas. Because Sentinel SAR operates at C-band microwave frequency, it can be used for flood mapping regardless of could cover conditions typically associated with storms, and thus can provide immediate results without the need to wait for the clouds to clear out. In Southeast Asia, Typhoon Doksuri caused significant flooding across extensive regions in Vietnam and other countries in September 2017. Figure 1 presents the flood mapping result over a region around Hà Tĩnh (north central coast of Vietnam) showing flood inundated areas (in yellow) on 16 September 2017 together with pre-existing surface water (in blue) on 4 September 2017. This is just one example selected from a larger flood map covering an extensive region of about 250 km x 680 km all along the central coast of Vietnam.
Trusdell, Frank A.; Chadderton, Amy; Hinchliffe, Graham; Hara, Andrew; Patenge, Brent; Weber, Tom
At 0546 U.t.c. March 11, 2011, a Mw 9.0 ("great") earthquake occurred near the northeast coast of Honshu Island, Japan, generating a large tsunami that devastated the east coast of Japan and impacted many far-flung coastal sites around the Pacific Basin. After the earthquake, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami alert for the State of Hawaii, followed by a tsunami-warning notice from the local State Civil Defense on March 10, 2011 (Japan is 19 hours ahead of Hawaii). After the waves passed the islands, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) measured inundation (maximum inland distance of flooding), runup (elevation at maximum extent of inundation) and took photographs in coastal areas around the Island of Hawaiʻi. Although the damage in West Hawaiʻi is well documented, HVO's mapping revealed that East Hawaiʻi coastlines were also impacted by the tsunami. The intent of this report is to provide runup and inundation data for sites around the Island of Hawaiʻi.
Reid, Mark E.; Coe, Jeffrey A.; Brien, Dianne
Many debris flows increase in volume as they travel downstream, enhancing their mobility and hazard. Volumetric growth can result from diverse physical processes, such as channel sediment entrainment, stream bank collapse, adjacent landsliding, hillslope erosion and rilling, and coalescence of multiple debris flows; incorporating these varied phenomena into physics-based debris-flow models is challenging. As an alternative, we embedded effects of debris-flow growth into an empirical/statistical approach to forecast potential inundation areas within digital landscapes in a GIS framework. Our approach used an empirical debris-growth function to account for the effects of growth phenomena. We applied this methodology to a debris-flow-prone area in the Oregon Coast Range, USA, where detailed mapping revealed areas of erosion and deposition along paths of debris flows that occurred during a large storm in 1996. Erosion was predominant in stream channels with slopes > 5°. Using pre- and post-event aerial photography, we derived upslope contributing area and channel-length growth factors. Our method reproduced the observed inundation patterns produced by individual debris flows; it also generated reproducible, objective potential inundation maps for entire drainage networks. These maps better matched observations than those using previous methods that focus on proximal or distal regions of a drainage network.
McDougall, A. J.; Espinoza, T.; Hollier, C.; Limpus, D. J.; Limpus, C. J.
A risk assessment process was used to trial the impact of potential new operating rules on the frequency of nest inundation for the White-throated snapping turtle, Elseya albagula, in the impounded waters of the Burnett River, Queensland, Australia. The proposed operating rules would increase the barrage storage level during the turtle nesting season (May-July) and then would be allowed to reduce to a lower level for incubation for the rest of the year. These proposed operating rules reduce rates of nest inundation by altering water levels in the Ben Anderson Barrage impoundment of the Burnett River. The rules operate throughout the turtle reproductive period and concomitantly improve stability of littoral habitat and fishway operation. Additionally, the proposed rules are expected to have positive socio-economic benefits within the region. While regulated water resources will inherently have a number of negative environmental implications, these potential new operating rules have the capacity to benefit the environment while managing resources in a more sustainable manner. The operating rules have now been enacted in subordinate legislation and require the operator to maintain water levels to minimize turtle nest inundation.
Full Text Available Analysis of tsunami deposits from the Pantano Morghella area provided geological evidence for two inundations occurred along the south-eastern Ionian coast of Sicily. Pantano Morghella is a large pond characterised by a fine-grained sedimentation indicating a low-energy depositional environment. Two anomalous yellow sandy layers found at different depths indicate the occurrence of high-energy marine inundations. We studied sedimentological and paleontological features of the anomalous deposits as well as their spatial distribution observing the following properties: different facies with respect to the local stratigraphic sequence; erosive bases, rip-up clasts and broken elements testifying violent deposition mechanisms; macro and micro fauna of marine environment; relatively constant thickness throughout most of the depositional zone with thinning at the distal end; large sand sheets that extend inland. These observations, jointly with their infrequency in the sedimentary record and the age indicating a fast deposition, provided strong evidence for tsunami inundations. Correlations between anomalous layers and historical tsunamis are supported by radiocarbon and OSL dating results. The younger deposit is likely due to the 1908 near-source tsunami, whereas the flooding of the oldest event is most likely associated with a far and large source, the Crete 365 AD earthquake.
? A6) What is a sub-tropical cyclone? A7) What is an extratropical cyclone ? A8) What is storm surge easterly wave and what causes them? A5) What is a tropical disturbance, tropical depression, tropical storm and how is it different from storm tide ? A9) What is a "CDO" ? A10) What is a TUTT ? A11
Andreas, Heri; Usriyah; Zainal Abidin, Hasanuddin; Anggreni Sarsito, Dina
Tidal inundation (in Javanese they call it “Rob”) is now becoming a well known phenomenon along northern coast of Java Indonesia (Pantura). The occurrence of tidal inundation was recognized at least in the early 2000 and even earlier. In the recent years the tidal inundation comes not only at a high tide but even at the regular tide in some area across Pantura. In fact in location such as Pondok Bali, north of Blanakan, north of Pekalongan, north of Semarang and north west of Demak, seems those areas are sinking to the sea through times. Sea level rise and land subsidence are considered as main factors deriving the occurrence of this tidal inundation. We were using time series of high resolution satellite image data and insitu data measurements to mapping the tidal inundation along northern coast of Java. All available data from google data satellite archives (year 2000- recent years) and any available sources being analyze together with field surveys tagging and also from media information. As a result we can see the tidal inundation are taking place in Tanggerang, Jakarta, Bekasi, Cilamaya, Pondok Bali, Blanakan, Indramayu, Cirebon, Brebes, Tegal, Pemalang, Pekalongan, Kendal, Semarang, Demak, Gresik, Surabaya, Sidoarjo and Pasuruan.
Musser, Jonathan W.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 12.4-mile reach of Big Creek that extends from 260 feet above the McGinnis Ferry Road bridge to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgage at Big Creek below Hog Wallow Creek at Roswell, Georgia (02335757), were developed by the USGS in cooperation with the cities of Alpharetta and Roswell, Georgia. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at Big Creek near Alpharetta, Georgia (02335700). Real-time stage information from this USGS streamgage may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system http://water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs for many streams where the USGS operates streamgages and provides flow data. The forecasted peak-stage information for the USGS streamgage at Big Creek near Alpharetta (02335700), available through the AHPS Web site, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed for this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.
Diana Carolina Gutiérrez Ramírez
Full Text Available Interesa al presente artículo la zona de tolerancia como receptáculo de sexualidades marginalizadas en el que pululan prácticas, sujetos e imaginarios anormales, inmorales y transgresores a la norma sexual en la ciudad de Cali, entre 1960 y 1970. A partir de lo anterior se posibilitará un acercamiento al Estado como ejecutor de poder y a la zona como un lugar donde habita, vive y existe la diferencia. Teniendo presentes las dinámicas típicas de este espacio, se prestará atención a la forma como este lugar se convirtió en el sitio idóneo de venta y circulación del mercado pornográfico de la época. Esto con el fin de comprender el surgimiento y popularización de la narrativa pornográfica del escritor caleño Hernán Hoyos. En ese momento se realizará una lectura sobre los imaginarios y lugares comunes que se configuran en la obra de este autor. Por último, se intentará comprender al libro pornográfico, y las realidades que allí se tejen, como elemento configurador de la cultura popular.
Wong, Christopher Yee; Mills, James K
Laser zona drilling (LZD) is a required step in many embryonic surgical procedures, for example, assisted hatching and preimplantation genetic diagnosis. LZD involves the ablation of the zona pellucida (ZP) using a laser while minimizing potentially harmful thermal effects on critical internal cell structures. Develop a method for the automation and optimization of multipulse LZD, applied to cleavage-stage embryos. A two-stage optimization is used. The first stage uses computer vision algorithms to identify embryonic structures and determines the optimal ablation zone farthest away from critical structures such as blastomeres. The second stage combines a genetic algorithm with a previously reported thermal analysis of LZD to optimize the combination of laser pulse locations and pulse durations. The goal is to minimize the peak temperature experienced by the blastomeres while creating the desired opening in the ZP. A proof of concept of the proposed LZD automation and optimization method is demonstrated through experiments on mouse embryos with positive results, as adequately sized openings are created. Automation of LZD is feasible and is a viable step toward the automation of embryo biopsy procedures. LZD is a common but delicate procedure performed by human operators using subjective methods to gauge proper LZD procedure. Automation of LZD removes human error to increase the success rate of LZD. Although the proposed methods are developed for cleavage-stage embryos, the same methods may be applied to most types LZD procedures, embryos at different developmental stages, or nonembryonic cells.
Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues; Silva, Edvane Borges da; Silva, Alberto Antonio da
Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)
Edna Paola Pérez Rendón
Full Text Available La zona cafetera colombiana está ubicada enteramente en el hemisferio norte, entre los 1 y 11° grados de latitud, sobre la cordillera de los Andes. Esta condición (ecuatorial andina ha hecho que se dé por sentado que la variación temporal de la temperatura es mínima y que por ello, en su mayor parte la variabilidad de este elemento es espacial, atribuible casi exclusivamente a los cambios en altura sobre el nivel del mar. En este estudio se exploran factores de variación alternas, que muestran cómo, además de la altitud, otros factores, como la latitud, la zona de convergencia intertropical, El Niño Oscilación del Sur y el Cambio Climático, inciden sobre esta variable climática, que a su vez ejerce un papel fundamental sobre las plantaciones de cafeto.
Juan C. Jordán
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe the diet of Phyllodactylus reissi, a nocturnal common gecko distributed from southern Ecuador to central Perú. A total of 15 individuals were captured inside buildings at Quebrada Faical, El Caucho and Bocana Murciélago in the Zona Reservada de Tumbes. Coleoptera and Blattoptera were the dominant preys from a total of six prey types found in stomachs. The number of prey per stomach were between 1 to 9, with 3 preys in average; the prey length average was 8,98 mm with a range of 1 to 25mm; the prey volume average was 61,97 mm3 with a range of 0,13 to 670,8 mm3 . The snout-vent length and snout length were not significantly related with average prey lengths and volumes. Phyllodactylus reissi has generalist habits with respect to diet and shows a tendency to consume medium-sized preys in the Zona Reservada de Tumbes.
Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: email@example.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)
Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)
Familiari, Giuseppe; Heyn, Rosemarie; Relucenti, Michela; Sathananthan, Henry
The zona pellucida (ZP) is a unique extracellular coat surrounding the maturing oocyte, during ovulation, fertilization, and early embryo development. It is formed by three/four glycoproteins. Ultrastructural data obtained with transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were compared with molecular data on the glycoproteins network from ovulation to blastocyst formation. Molecular models are quite different to the morphology obtained with TEM, which shows a microfibrillar architecture, or with SEM, which shows a spongy or smooth surface. The saponin-ruthenium red-osmium tetroxide-thiocarbohydrazide technique allows to show the ZP real microfilamentous structure and the related functional changes. These results support an ultrastructural supramolecular model, more similar and comparable to molecular models related with the glycoprotein network. A detailed mapping of single mammalian ZP proteins and their relationship within the supramolecular architecture of the zona matrix would clearly supply insights into the molecular basis of sperm-egg recognition. Differences in ZP glycoproteins among mammals do not affect structural morphology; further studies are needed to clarify the relationships between ultrastructural and molecular organizations.
Lant, Jeremiah G.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.5-mile reach of Kentucky River at Frankfort, Kentucky, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the City of Frankfort Office of Emergency Management. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky (station no. 03287500). Current conditions for the USGS streamgage may be obtained online at the USGS National Water Information System site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/inventory?agency_code=USGS&site_no=03287500). In addition, the information has been provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/). The NWS forecasts flood hydrographs at many places that are often colocated at USGS streamgages. The forecasted peak-stage information, also available on the Internet, may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the Kentucky River reach by using HEC–RAS, a one-dimensional step-backwater model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The hydraulic model was calibrated by using the most current (2013) stage-discharge relation for the Kentucky River at Lock 4 at Frankfort, Kentucky, in combination with streamgage and high-water-mark measurements collected for a flood event in May 2010. The calibrated model was then used to calculate 26 water-surface profiles for a sequence of flood stages, at 1-foot intervals, referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from a stage near bankfull to the elevation that breached the levees protecting the City of Frankfort. To delineate the flooded area at
Podest, E.; McDonald, K. C.; Schröder, R.; Pinto, N.; Zimmermann, R.; Horna, V.
Palm swamp wetlands are prevalent in the Amazon basin, including extensive regions in northern Peru. These ecosystems are characterized by constant surface inundation and moderate seasonal water level variation. The combination of constantly saturated soils, giving rise to low oxygen conditions, and warm temperatures year-round can lead to considerable methane release to the atmosphere. Because of the widespread occurrence and expected sensitivity of these ecosystems to climate change, knowledge of their spatial extent and inundation state is crucial for assessing the associated land-atmosphere carbon exchange. Precise spatio-temporal information on palm swamps is difficult to gather because of their remoteness and difficult accessibility. Spaceborne microwave remote sensing is an effective tool for characterizing these ecosystems since it is sensitive to surface water and vegetation structure and allows monitoring large inaccessible areas on a temporal basis regardless of atmospheric conditions or solar illumination. We are developing a remote sensing methodology using multiple resolution microwave remote sensing data to determine palm swamp distribution and inundation state over focus regions in the Amazon basin in northern Peru. For this purpose, two types of multi-temporal microwave data are used: 1) high-resolution (100 m) data from the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) to derive maps of palm swamp extent and inundation from dual-polarization fine-beam and multi-temporal HH-polarized ScanSAR, and 2) coarse resolution (25 km) combined active and passive microwave data from QuikSCAT and AMSR-E to derive inundated area fraction on a weekly basis. We compare information content and accuracy of the coarse resolution products to the PALSAR-based datasets to ensure information harmonization. The synergistic combination of high and low resolution datasets will allow for characterization of palm swamps and
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Yamada, I [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)
It was in 1950s when felling of tropical forests started in earnest, in 1970s felling of forest trees in Southeast Asia reached its peak and the destnation of exportation of most of them was Japan. Besides, among the present overseas development assistance projects (ODA) of Japan, her role to be played in connection with tropical forests is not small and its funds, which surpass by far the budget for forestry of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), are aiding cooperation projects on forestry in many places in the world. Nevertheless, in Japan, the understanding of tropical forests is insufficient and its realities have not been known. In this article, based on the experience and knowledge of the author who stayed in Kalimantan, various kinds of problems concerning tropical forests are explained, the realities are introduced on information, well trained people, funds and philosophy which are far short in pursuance of the problems of tropical forests. Furthermore, as the issues hereafter, such proposals on tropical forests are made as protection of natural forests, planned operation in respecting self renewal ability of the secondary forests and afforestation of alang-alang grassy plains resulted from the failure of burning felled trees and grasses for making the land arable. 1 ref..
Hess, Glen W.; Haluska, Tana L.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9.1-mile reach of the Coast Fork Willamette River near Creswell and Goshen, Oregon, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected stages at the USGS streamgage at Coast Fork Willamette River near Goshen, Oregon (14157500), at State Highway 58. Current stage at the streamgage for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/or/nwis/uv/?site_no=14157500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060. In addition, the National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, areas of inundation were provided by USACE. The inundated areas were developed from flood profiles simulated by a one-dimensional unsteady step‑backwater hydraulic model. The profiles were checked by the USACE using documented high-water marks from a January 2006 flood. The model was compared and quality assured using several other methods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine eight water-surface profiles at various flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 11.8 to 19.8 ft, approximately 2.6 ft above the highest recorded stage at the streamgage (17.17 ft) since 1950. The intervals between stages are variable and based on annual exceedance probability discharges, some of which approximate NWS action stages.The areas of inundation and water depth grids provided to USGS by USACE were used to create interactive flood‑inundation maps. The availability of these maps with current stage from USGS streamgage and forecasted stream stages from the NWS provide emergency management
This article deals with the issues east - west in two novels: "White Fortress" by OrhanPamuk and "ZonaZamfirova" by StevanSremac. The focus is on the treatment of these two entities as separate categories, according to their significance in the novels, and also according to their importance to the culture of the East and West. It is determined the analysis of the categories "east" and "west" in the novels "White Fortress" by OrhanPamuk and ZonaZamfirova by StevanSremacod simply because t...
Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.; Fewtrell, T. J.
In this we paper we consider two related questions. First, we address the issue of how much physical complexity is necessary in a model in order to simulate floodplain inundation to within validation data error. This is achieved through development of a single code/multiple physics hydraulic model (LISFLOOD-FP) where different degrees of complexity can be switched on or off. Different configurations of this code are applied to four benchmark test cases, and compared to the results of a number of industry standard models. Second we address the issue of how parameter sensitivity and transferability change with increasing complexity using numerical experiments with models of different physical and geometric intricacy. Hydraulic models are a good example system with which to address such generic modelling questions as: (1) they have a strong physical basis; (2) there is only one set of equations to solve; (3) they require only topography and boundary conditions as input data; and (4) they typically require only a single free parameter, namely boundary friction. In terms of complexity required we show that for the problem of sub-critical floodplain inundation a number of codes of different dimensionality and resolution can be found to fit uncertain model validation data equally well, and that in this situation Occam's razor emerges as a useful logic to guide model selection. We find also find that model skill usually improves more rapidly with increases in model spatial resolution than increases in physical complexity, and that standard approaches to testing hydraulic models against laboratory data or analytical solutions may fail to identify this important fact. Lastly, we find that in benchmark testing studies significant differences can exist between codes with identical numerical solution techniques as a result of auxiliary choices regarding the specifics of model implementation that are frequently unreported by code developers. As a consequence, making sound
Whipple, A. A.; Viers, J. H.
Interaction between rivers and their floodplains create dynamic physical conditions supporting freshwater ecosystems. The natural flood regimes to which native species are adapted are often profoundly altered by interacting factors including water management, land use change, and climate change. Reintroducing dynamic flood regimes through enhancing river-floodplain connectivity is a common floodplain restoration objective. However, it is often difficult to determine how various actions (or a combination of actions), such as levee setbacks or environmental flow releases, will impact physical conditions relevant to ecological functions, such as depth, velocity, duration, timing, and connectivity, and how these might change in the future. Understanding changes to these dynamic conditions requires improved quantification of spatiotemporal variability of floodplain inundation patterns, in essence a floodplain's hydrospatial regime. The research presented here develops this concept by quantifying the hydrospatial regime of a floodplain along the lower Cosumnes River, California, both before and after levee-removal restoration, and uses this to evaluate how effects of restoration may be altered with changing hydrology due to climate change. This approach uses spatial analysis in R to summarize metrics based on estimated spatially-distributed depth and velocity, derived from 2D hydrodynamic modeling output for pre- and post-restoration conditions. This is performed for an historical and two future periods of daily flow of the largely unregulated Cosumnes River, driven by a subset of global climate models. We show that responses to restoration vary across the hydrospatial domain and further consider these differences in floodplain dynamics in relation to hydroclimatic change. This research refines expectations for restoration and overall provides readily applied methods to inform planning and management of floodplain ecosystems within the context of climate change
Ma, Guanyu; Yang, Tianliang; Zhao, Qing; Kubanek, Julia; Pepe, Antonio; Dong, Hongbin; Sun, Zhibin
As global warming problem is becoming serious in recent decades, the global sea level is continuously rising. This will cause damages to the coastal deltas with the characteristics of low-lying land, dense population, and developed economy. Continuously reclamation costal intertidal and wetland areas are making Shanghai, the mega city of Yangtze River Delta, more vulnerable to sea level rise. In this paper, we investigate the land subsidence temporal evolution of patterns and processes on a stretch of muddy coast located between the Yangtze River Estuary and Hangzou Bay with differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) analyses. By exploiting a set of 31 SAR images acquired by the ENVISAT/ASAR from February 2007 to May 2010 and a set of 48 SAR images acquired by the COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) sensors from December 2013 to March 2016, coherent point targets as long as land subsidence velocity maps and time series are identified by using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm. With the DInSAR constrained land subsidence model, we predict the land subsidence trend and the expected cumulative subsidence in 2020, 2025 and 2030. Meanwhile, we used altimetrydata and densely distributed in the coastal region are identified (EEMD) algorithm to obtain the average sea level rise rate in the East China Sea. With the land subsidence predictions, sea level rise predictions, and high-precision digital elevation model (DEM), we analyze the combined risk of land subsidence and sea level rise on the coastal areas of Shanghai. The potential inundated areas are mapped under different scenarios.
Full Text Available The impact of saline water inundation on freshwater aquaculture was evaluated through risk assessment tools. Fishponds in low-lying areas of Sagar and Basanti block are prone to saline water flooding. Respondents of Sagar block considered events like cyclone and coastal flooding as extreme risk; erratic monsoon, storm surge and land erosion as high risk; temperature rise, sea level rise, hot & extended summer and precipitation as medium risk. Likewise, in Basanti block the respondents rated cyclone as extreme risk; erratic monsoon, storm surge as high risk; temperature rise, hot & extended summer, land erosion, and precipitation as medium risk; coastal flooding and sea level rise as low risk. Fish farmers of Sagar block classified the consequences of saline water flooding like breach of pond embankment and mass mortality of fishes as extreme risk; escape of existing fish stock and diseases as high risk; entry of unwanted species, retardation of growth and deterioration of water quality as medium risk; and damage of pond environment as low risk. Farmers of Basanti block categorised breach of pond dyke, mass mortality of fishes and entry of unwanted species as extreme risk; escape of fish and diseases as high risk; retardation of growth as medium risk; deterioration of water quality and damage of pond environment as low risk. To reduce the threats against saline water ingression, farmers are taking some coping measures like increase in pond dyke height; repair and strengthening of dyke; plantation on dyke; dewatering and addition of fresh water; application of chemicals/ lime/ dung; addition of tree branches in pond for hide outs etc.
Zia, Ibrahim; Zafar, Hina; Shahzad, Muhammad I.; Meraj, Mohsin; Kazmi, Jamil H.
Indus Deltaic Region (IDR) in Pakistan is an erosion vulnerable coast due to the high deep water wave energy. Livelihood of millions of people depends on the fisheries and mangrove forests in IDR. IDR consists of many creeks where Daboo is a major creek located at southeast of the largest city of Pakistan, Karachi. Unfortunately, there has been no detailed study to analyze the damages of sea water intrusion at a large temporal and spatial scale. Therefore, this study is designed to estimate the effects of sea water inundation based on changing sea water surface salinity and sea surface temperature (SST). Sea surface salinity and SST data from two different surveys in Daboo creek during 1986 and 2010 are analyzed to estimate the damages and extent of sea water intrusion. Mean salinity has increased 33.33% whereas mean SST decreased 13.79% from 1987 to 2010. Spatio-temporal analysis of creek area using LANDSAT 5 Thematic mapper (TM) data for the years 1987 and 2010 shows significant amount of erosion at macro scale. Creek area has increased approximately 9.93% (260.86 m2 per year) which is roughly equal to 60 extensive sized shrimp farms. Further Land Use Land Cover (LULC) analyses for years 2001 and 2014 using LANDSAT 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has indicated 42.3% decrease in cultivated land. Wet mud flats have spread out at the inner mouth of creek with enormous increase of 123.3%. Significant sea water intrusion has increased the area of barren land by 37.9%. This also resulted in overall decrease of 6.7% in area covered by mangroves. Therefore, this study recorded a significant evidence of sea water intrusion in IDR that has caused serious damages to community living in the area, economical losses. Additionally, it has also changed the environment by reducing creek biological productivity as reported by earlier studies over other regions of the world.
Jesús A. Blanco-Moreno
Full Text Available Se realiza un análisis estructural a escala regional de la zona de fallas La Trocha, a partir de la interpretación de un gran volumen de información geólogo–geofísica, la cual fue clasificada como: morfométrica, gravimétrica, geológica de superficie y del subsuelo. Se obtuvo el modelo digital del terreno (MDT, a partir de la digitalización de 24 cartas del Mapa Topográfico de la República de Cuba 1:50000, editado por el Instituto Cubano de Geodesia y Cartografía en 1977. El procesamiento del MDT permitió obtener los principales morfoalineamientos de la región. Se procesó la información obtenida del levantamiento gravimétrico de la Cuenca Central a escala 1:100000, elaborándose los mapas de anomalías de Bouguer, continuaciones analíticas ascendentes y de gradientes. La información geológica de superficie se tomó del Mapa Geológico de la República de Cuba 1:100000, editado por el Instituto de Geología y Paleontología en el año 2001; la información geológica del subsuelo proviene de pozos perforados en la Cuenca Central. La información geólogo–geofísica se procesó digitalmente en su totalidad. La interpretación combinada de esta información permitió un acercamiento a las características geométricas de la zona de fallas La Trocha. Se establecieron las direcciones predominantes en la zona de desplazamiento principal y la posible evolución de los esfuerzos tectónicos. Se propone un modelo de evolución para la región, considerando la existencia de una estructura en flor negativa, la cual ajusta las características existentes y explica el desarrollo simultáneo de una cuenca tensional, la Cuenca Central.
Full Text Available We studied the arboreal composition of the tropical mountain rainforest’s upper canopy in the San Martín Pajapán volcano, Tatahuicapan, Veracruz, México (18°26’ N; 94°17’ W. Two forest stands were studied, one in an exposed position and one protected. The Shannon index of diversity and the Jaccard index of affinity were calculated to calculate affinities between plots and between stands of different environmental exposures. The average Shannon value was 3.391 +0.121 for the exposed zone and 3.511 +0.53 for the protected zone. There is a greater species number and tree density in the exposed stand. This difference might be caused be different orientation to dominant winds. The diversity index value is high is similar between the stands, despite the important difference in species composition. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1571-1579. Epub 2008 September 30.El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer la composición arbórea del bosque tropical lluvioso en el volcán de San Martín Pajapán. Se comparan dos áreas en diferente exposición: expuesta a los vientos dominates y protegida de los vientos. El valor medio del índice de diversidad de Shannon es de 3.391 +0.121 para la zona expuesta y 3.511 +0.53 para la protegida. El número de especies y la densidad de árboles por hectárea es mayor en la zona expuesta y la composición de especies es muy diferente entre las parcelas.
Girlaine Pereira Oliveira
Full Text Available Objetivou-se realizar a caracterização física e química de acessos de manga Ubá na região da Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais, visando a identificar materiais de interesse industrial. Frutos fisiologicamente maduros foram colhidos e transportados para o Laboratório de Análise de Frutas da UFV, onde foram lavados, tratados com fungicida Prochloraz (Sportak 450 CE, Hoeschst Schering AgrEvo UK Ltd., Inglaterra, na dose de 49,5g100L-1 de água, por 10 minutos e secos ao ar. Em seguida, foram tratados com Ethephon, ácido 2-cloroetil fosfônico, (Ethrel 240g de ethephon.L-1, RHône-Poulenc Agro Brasil LTDA na concentração de 1g i.a.L-1 juntamente com espalhante adesivo Adesil (760g i L-1, Nufarm Indústria Química e Farmacêutica S.A. na concentração de 20mL 100L-1 durante 5 minutos e secos ao ar. Em seguida, foram armazenados a 20±1°C e umidade relativa de 90% e avaliados após o completo amadurecimento. Os frutos que apresentaram melhores características para o processamento industrial foram os provenientes dos acessos 7, 11, 16, 17, 21, 26, 28, 47, 48, 53, 54 e 56. A massa de fruto, firmeza, teor de sólidos solúveis e teor de ácido ascórbico são as características que apresentaram maior variabilidade dos acessos de mangueira Ubá. A variabilidade genética existente nas mangueiras Ubá, em Visconde do Rio Branco propicia disponibilizar materiais para futuros trabalhos de melhoramento genético e implantação de banco de germoplasma.The objective of this paper was to carry out the physical and chemical characterization of mango Uba access in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, to identify materials of industrial interest. Physiologically mature fruits were harvested and transported to the Laboratory of Analysis of Fruit of the UFV, where they were washed, treated with fungicide Prochloraz (Sportak 450 EC, Hoechst Schering AgrEvo UK Ltd., England at a dose of 49.5g 100L-1 water, for 10 minutes and air dried. After that, they were
González Almaguer, Carlos Alberto; Montejano, Gerardo; Vázquez Feijoo, Horacio; Nieto Barrera, Jorge; Lloveras Macià, Joaquín
La Ingeniería concurrente (CE) ha atraído más atención en los últimos años debido a que su aplicación reduce el tiempo de diseño de productos desde su concepción hasta su manufactura masiva, mejorando la calidad y el desempeño de los equipos de trabajo en la organización rompiendo las barreras de la ingeniería secuencial. El presente documento muestra una metodología para la realización de proyectos rurales con nuevos productos agroindustriales o su innovación en zonas marginad...
Enrique Pérez Campuzano
Full Text Available En los estudios urbanos la diferenciación socioespacial es uno de los temas recurrentes, sin embargo, existen pocos estudios en América Latina. En esta investigación se describe la segregación socioespacial en la Zona Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México (ZMCM y se utilizan variables demográficas y de vivienda del II Conteo General de Población y Vivienda, 2005, para establecer la diferenciación interna. Los resultados indican la existencia de segregación al interior de la ciudad, identificándose una herradura que va del sur al poniente y un sector al norponiente que presenta los mayores niveles de consolidación, un anillo intermedio con una mezcla social y una periferia con los mayores rezagos.
Zhang, Xiaobing; van den Pol, Anthony N
The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin. In contrast, stimulation of excitatory axons from the parasubthalamic nucleus to PVT or direct stimulation of PVT glutamate neurons reduced food intake. These data suggest an unexpected robust orexigenic potential for the ZI GABA neurons. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Booth, Paul J; Tan, Shijian J; Holm, Peter
cytoplast was agglutinated to a single granulosa cell (primary cultures grown in 0.5% serum for 2-5 days prior to use) in phytohaemagglutinin-P. Subsequently, each half cytoplast-granulosa cell couplet was simultaneously electrofused together and to another half cytoplast. Reconstructed embryos were...... activated in calcium ionophore A23187 followed by DMAP and were then individually cultured in microwells in NCSU-23 medium. On day 7 after activation, blastocyst yield and total cell numbers were counted. Of 279 attempted reconstructed NT embryos, 85.0 +/- 2.8% (mean +/- SEM; n = 5 replicates) successfully...... fused and survived activation. The blastocyst rate (per successfully fused and surviving embryo) was 4.8 +/- 2.3% (11/236; range, 0-12.8. Total blastocyst cell count was 36.0 +/- 4.5 (range, 18-58 cells). The blastocyst rate and total cell numbers of parthenogenetically activated and zona-free control...
Muller,Márcia; Silva,Jean Carlos Cardozo da; Fabris,José Luís
Neste trabalho propomos um experimento simples que tem por finalidade auxiliar no aprendizado dos fenômenos de interferência e difração da luz. Após uma análise pertinente da teoria de Fresnel da difração, os conhecimentos são aplicados na compreensão do funcionamento das placas de zonas de Fresnel. Apresentamos uma descrição detalhada dos processos usados para a fabricação e caracterização destas placas zonais, o que possibilita a produção de lentes difrativas com a distância focal desejada ...
producción de cuerpos ocultos (particularmente de mujeres que son expuestos al peligro y que pueden ser “matados” con impunidad? ¿Es el control violento de estos cuerpos invisibles/excluidos un requisito para mantener intacta la ilusión de la unidad del cuerpo del Estado soberano? Prestar atención a las zonas de clandestinidad que persisten en los Estados democráticos puede ayudar a arrojar luz no sólo sobre las precarias formas de ciudadanía de las personas que integran el cuerpo político de manera marginal, sino también sobre las intervenciones violentas, pero ocultas, por las cuales el Estado soberano mantiene su poder y las jerarquías de género en que se asienta.
Full Text Available Twenty mature female rabbits were divided into two equal groups. The first group was immunized with zona pellucida (ZP antigen and the second group was injected with phosphate buffered saline (PBS at the corresponding time of immunization (control group. When bred by male rabbits, the conception rate in the immunized group (30% was significantly lower (P<0.001 than 100% recorded for the unimmunized (control group. The litter size was 1.67 ± 0.50 for the immunized group and was significantly lower than 7.3 ± 0.82 for the control group (P< 0.001. It is concluded that ZP antigens may become better candidates for contraception than steroids.
On 6 August 1985 the South Pacific Forum, a body comprising the independent and self-governing countries of the South Pacific (Australia, the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Western Samoa), endorsed the text of the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty and opened it for signature [Spanish] El 6 de agosto de 1985 el Foro del Pacifico Sur, organo compuesto por los paises independientes y autonomos del Pacifico Sur (Australia, Fiji, Islas Cook, Islas Salomon, Kiribati, Nauru, Niue, Nueva Zelandia, Papua Nueva Guinea, Samoa Occidental, Tonga, Tuvalu, y Vanuatu), aprobo el texto del Tratado sobre la Zona Desnuclearizada del Pacifico-Sur y lo abrio a la firma.
Kurachi, H.; Wakimoto, H.; Sakumoto, T.; Aono, T.; Kurachi, K.
The specific radioimmunoassay system was developed for the titration of the antibodies to porcine zona pellucida (ZP) in human sera by using 125 I-labeled purified porcine ZP as antigen, which is known to have cross-reactivity with human ZP. The antibodies in human sera were detected in 3 of 11 (27%) women with unexplained infertility, in 16 of 48 (33%) amenorrheic patients, in 4 of 12 (33%) fertile women, and in 3 of 10 (30%) men. Moreover, antibody titers in infertile women were no higher than those in fertile women and in men. These results seem to suggest that the antibodies in human sera that cross-react with porcine ZP may not be an important factor in causing infertility in women
Hernández-Ramírez, Angélica María; García-Méndez, Socorro
Seasonally dry tropical forests are considered as the most endangered ecosystem in lowland tropics. The aim of this study was to characterize the floristic composition, richness, diversity, structure and regeneration of a seasonally dry tropical forest landscape constituted by mature forest, secondary forest and seasonally inundated forest located in the Northeastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. We used the Gentry's standard inventory plot methodology (0.1 ha per forest type in 2007) for facilitating comparison with other Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. A total of 77 species belonging to 32 families were observed in the study area. Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae were the families with the largest taxonomic richness in the three forest types. Low levels of β diversity were observed among forest types (0.19-0.40), suggesting a high turnover of species at landscape level. The non-regenerative species were dominant (50-51 %), followed by regenerative species (30- 28 %), and colonizer species (14-21 %) in the three forest types. Zoochory was the most common dispersal type in the study area. The 88 % of the observed species in the study area were distributed in Central America. Some floristic attributes of the seasonally dry tropical forest of the Yucatán Peninsula, fall into the values reported for Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. Natural disturbances contributed to explain the high number of individuals, the low number of liana species, as well as the low values of basal area observed in this study. Our results suggested that the seasonally dry tropical forest of Yucatán Peninsula seems to be resilient to natural disturbances (hurricane) in terms of the observed number of species and families, when compared with the reported values in Mesoamerican seasonally dry tropical forests. Nonetheless, the recovery and regeneration of vegetation in long-term depends on animal-dispersed species. This study highlights the importance of
F. D. Rivero
Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis affects people who live in the tropics, but it also extends to temperate regions where its low incidence rate may lead to misdiagnose it. Inside the host this nematode may remain silent for many years, nevertheless, in patients infected with HIV its reactivation leads to a disseminated infection in ectopic sites. This report presents the case of a 34 years-old man infected with HIV who lived in a highland area in the province of Córdoba, Argentina. He was admitted to the hospital because of a complicated Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and prednisone treatment. A few days after admission his conditions deteriorated badly, a sputum examination revealed filariform larvae of S. stercoralis, he was then given oral ivermectin medication (200 µg/kg/d. Malabsorption and ileus were installed and he died from multiorganic failure. The evolution of HIV infection to AIDS, a steroids treatment and therapy failure despite oral ivermectin triggered larvae proliferation and lead to disseminated hyperinfection until he died. This report presents not only the first case of disseminated strongyloidiasis detected in our Hospital but also an indigenous infection acquired in a non-endemic area. An awareness of an increased predisposition to this infection, especially in immunocompromised patients with malabsorption and ileus is of paramount importance, since failure to initiate appropriate therapy can lead to catastrophic outcomes, as illustrated in this case report.Strongyloides stercoralis es un geohelminto que afecta a los pobladores que residen tanto en regiones tropicales como templadas. Dentro de sus huéspedes inmunocompetentes puede permanecer inadvertido durante años; no obstante, en pacientes infectados por el VIH su reactivación puede conducir a una diseminación de larvas hacia sitios ectópicos. Este informe muestra el caso de un paciente masculino VIH positivo oriundo de una zona
Moro, L N; Jarazo, J; Buemo, C; Hiriart, M I; Sestelo, A; Salamone, D F
The aim of this study was to evaluate three different cloning strategies in the domestic cat (Felis silvestris) and to use the most efficient to generate wild felid embryos by interspecific cloning (iSCNT) using Bengal (a hybrid formed by the cross of Felis silvestris and Prionailurus bengalensis) and tiger (Panthera tigris) donor cells. In experiment 1, zona-free (ZP-free) cloning resulted in higher fusion and expanded blastocyst rates with respect to zona included cloning techniques that involved fusion or injection of the donor cell. In experiment 2, ZP-free iSCNT and embryo aggregation (2X) were assessed. Division velocity and blastocyst rates were increased by embryo aggregation in the three species. Despite fewer tiger embryos than Bengal and cat embryos reached the blastocyst stage, Tiger 2X group increased the percentage of blastocysts with respect to Tiger 1X group (3.2% vs 12.1%, respectively). Moreover, blastocyst cell number was almost duplicated in aggregated embryos with respect to non-aggregated ones within Bengal and tiger groups (278.3 ± 61.9 vs 516.8 ± 103.6 for Bengal 1X and Bengal 2X groups, respectively; 41 vs 220 ± 60 for Tiger 1X and Tiger 2X groups, respectively). OCT4 analysis also revealed that tiger blastocysts had higher proportion of OCT4-positive cells with respect to Bengal blastocysts and cat intracytoplasmic sperm injection blastocysts. In conclusion, ZP-free cloning has improved the quality of cat embryos with respect to the other cloning techniques evaluated and was successfully applied in iSCNT complemented with embryo aggregation. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
VILLA GRAJALES ANA MARÍA
Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de establecer una alternativa de corredor ecológico de conexión estructural en las comunas 1, 2, 3 y 4 de la zona nor-oriental del municipio de Medellín, orientada a la protección del suelo verde existente y a la toma de decisiones en cuanto a la generación de nuevo suelo, utilizando las métricas del paisaje y herramientas geoinformaticas. Se utilizó un área de 400 m² como Unidad Mínima Cartografiable (UMC, encontrándose 296 ha (19,4% de áreas verdes respecto a las 1.527 ha de área de estudio, predominando la cobertura de pasto con 95,4 ha, mientras que la zona arbolada, con un área de 26,1 ha, mostró el mayor aislamiento (99,1 m, y el rastrojo alto con 48,7 ha presentó la mayor agregación (16,4 m. Se priorizaron ocho (8 fragmentos para la conservación, seleccionados a través del Índice de Calidad del Fragmento (ICF, sumando en total 26 ha. El corredor se estableció con un ancho de 80 m, arrojando un área total de 73,2 ha, asociada, en su mayoría, a retiros de quebradas.
Full Text Available Los Desórdenes por Deficiencia de Yodo (DDY son uno de los mayores problemas en salud pública en el mundo actual, en especial en niños y embarazadas. Estos trastornos truncan el desarrollo socioeconómico en aquellas zonas que los padecen; las poblaciones que viven en zonas yodo-deficientes siempre van a estar expuestas a sufrir las consecuencias originadas por esta deficiencia, en especial el aumento en la mortalidad perinatal, retardo mental, alteraciones en la síntesis de hormonas tiroideas, hipotiroidismo, hipertiroidismo y bocio. La mejor forma de evaluar los DDY es por medio de la yoduria y la mejor estrategia para reducir la prevalencia de estos desórdenes en la población es a través de la yodación universal de la sal. Para actualizar el conocimiento de esta problemática –tanto en el mundo como en Colombia- se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura médica expuesta en las bases de datos de MEDLINE y de LILACS. En total, la búsqueda arrojó la presencia de 723 artículos, la revisión de sus resúmenes permitió escoger inicialmente 114 artículos, de los cuales se decidió incluir en la revisión a 60 de ellos. Se encontró que en Colombia el diagnóstico de DDI es subvalorado, desconociéndose la problemática actual y el estado del yodo poblacional, por lo que es necesario realizar estos estudios, ya que es evidente el abandono político de este problema prevenible, predecible y tratable.
Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.
The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside.
Karlsson, Fredrik; Olofsson, Katarina; Blomstedt, Patric; Linder, Jan; van Doorn, Jan
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the caudal zona incerta (cZi) pitch characteristics of connected speech in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: The authors evaluated 16 patients preoperatively and 12 months after DBS surgery. Eight…
Gabriel Costa Correia
Full Text Available O presente artigo discorrerá sobre um estudo de caso realizado sobre o Alternate Reality Game (ARG Zona Incerta, realizado por membros da equipe da revista Superinteressante, publicação da Editora Abril, como estratégia de marketing alternativa para o produto Guaraná Antarctica, da empresa de bebidas AMBEV.
Sati, Leyla; Cayli, Sevil; Delpiano, Elena; Sakkas, Denny
In mammalian species, acquisition of sperm fertilization competence is dependent on the phenomenon of sperm capacitation. One of the key elements of capacitation is protein tyrosine phosphorylation (TP) in various sperm membrane regions. In previous studies performed, the pattern of TP was examined in human sperm bound to zona pellucida of oocytes. In the present comparative study, TP patterns upon sperm binding to the zona pellucida or hyaluronic acid (HA) were investigated in spermatozoa arising from the same semen samples. Tyrosine phosphorylation, visualized by immunofluorescence, was localized within the acrosomal cap, equatorial head region, neck, and the principal piece. Tyrosine phosphorylation has increased in a time-related manner as capacitation progressed, and the phosphorylation pattern was identical within the principal piece and neck, regardless of the sperm bound to the zona pellucida or HA. Thus, the data demonstrated that the patterns of sperm activation-related TP were similar regardless of the spermatozoa bound to zona pellucida or HA. Further, sperm with incomplete development, as detected by excess cytoplasmic retention, failed to exhibit TP. PMID:24077441
María del Refugio Carrasco Quintero
Conclusión: Aunque la desnutrición aguda (identificada por el peso ya no es un problema en las zonas rurales de México, la desnutrición crónica (expresada como baja estatura sigue siendo frecuente y se relaciona con alteraciones en el desarrollo mental de la población infantil.
Adriana Mercedes Corso
Full Text Available Este artículo es una exploración metodológica e historiográfica de los registrosnotariales y surge de nuestro estudio en curso de la zona bananera delMagdalena desde 1890 hasta 1930. Nuestro propósito es alertar a los estudiantesde historia sobre algunas
Isabel Maria Augusto de Sousa Rosa
Full Text Available Prosseguindo os propósitos deste Il Seminário internacional “Conservazione del Património Arquitectónico e Urbano”, onde irão ser confrontadas as experiências realizadas em Itália e Portugal no âmbito da conservação do património arquitectónico e urbano, são apresentados dois casos de estudo, objectivando a salvaguarda dos centros históricos, realizados em duas cidades portuguesas - Tomar (Centro Histórico e Lisboa (Zona Monumental Ajuda-Belém. Os dois Planos então realizados – Tomar, em 1996, e zona monumental Ajuda-Belém, em 2004 – ambos recorrendo a suporte informático, evidenciam na “decalage” de 8 anos, a importância dos avanços tecnológicos e informáticos, patente no projecto mais recente (Zona Monumental Ajuda - Belém, quer na aquisição e processamento de dados, quer ainda na consulta dos mesmos, processos que se têm revelado valiosíssimos para a conservação e salvaguarda do património arquitectónico, urbano e ambiental desta zona da cidade de Lisboa.
The Zona da Mata is a region situated in the domain of the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This domain stretches along the Brazilian coast from north to south and ranks among the top five of the 25 biodiversity hotspots, the richest and the
Assem, Shireen K
Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines.
Habel, Shellie; Fletcher, Charles H; Rotzoll, Kolja; El-Kadi, Aly I
Many of the world's largest cities face risk of sea-level rise (SLR) induced flooding owing to their limited elevations and proximities to the coastline. Within this century, global mean sea level is expected to reach magnitudes that will exceed the ground elevation of some built infrastructure. The concurrent rise of coastal groundwater will produce additional sources of inundation resulting from narrowing and loss of the vertical unsaturated subsurface space. This has implications for the dense network of buried and low-lying infrastructure that exists across urban coastal zones. Here, we describe a modeling approach that simulates narrowing of the unsaturated space and groundwater inundation (GWI) generated by SLR-induced lifting of coastal groundwater. The methodology combines terrain modeling, groundwater monitoring, estimation of tidal influence, and numerical groundwater-flow modeling to simulate future flood scenarios considering user-specified tide stages and magnitudes of SLR. We illustrate the value of the methodology by applying it to the heavily urbanized and low-lying Waikiki area of Honolulu, Hawaii. Results indicate that SLR of nearly 1 m generates GWI across 23% of the 13 km 2 study area, threatening $5 billion of taxable real estate and 48 km of roadway. Analysis of current conditions reveals that 86% of 259 active cesspool sites in the study area are likely inundated. This suggests that cesspool effluent is currently entering coastal groundwater, which not only leads to degradation of coastal environments, but also presents a future threat to public health as GWI would introduce effluent at the ground surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana; Matias, Luis
This study constitutes the first assessment of probabilistic tsunami inundation in the NE Atlantic region, using an event-tree approach. It aims to develop a probabilistic tsunami inundation approach for the NE Atlantic coast with an application to two test sites of ASTARTE project, Tangier-Morocco and Sines-Portugal. Only tsunamis of tectonic origin are considered here, taking into account near-, regional- and far-filed sources. The multidisciplinary approach, proposed here, consists of an event-tree method that gathers seismic hazard assessment, tsunami numerical modelling, and statistical methods. It presents also a treatment of uncertainties related to source location and tidal stage in order to derive the likelihood of tsunami flood occurrence and exceedance of a specific near-shore wave height during a given return period. We derive high-resolution probabilistic maximum wave heights and flood distributions for both test-sites Tangier and Sines considering 100-, 500-, and 1000-year return periods. We find that the probability that a maximum wave height exceeds 1 m somewhere along the Sines coasts reaches about 55% for 100-year return period, and is up to 100% for 1000-year return period. Along Tangier coast, the probability of inundation occurrence (flow depth > 0m) is up to 45% for 100-year return period and reaches 96% in some near-shore costal location for 500-year return period. Acknowledgements: This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3).
Liu, Z.; Rajib, M. A.; Jafarzadegan, K.; Merwade, V.
Application of land surface/hydrologic models within an operational flood forecasting system can provide probable time of occurrence and magnitude of streamflow at specific locations along a stream. Creating time-varying spatial extent of flood inundation and depth requires the use of a hydraulic or hydrodynamic model. Models differ in representing river geometry and surface roughness which can lead to different output depending on the particular model being used. The result from a single hydraulic model provides just one possible realization of the flood extent without capturing the uncertainty associated with the input or the model parameters. The objective of this study is to compare multiple hydraulic models toward generating ensemble flood inundation extents. Specifically, relative performances of four hydraulic models, including AutoRoute, HEC-RAS, HEC-RAS 2D, and LISFLOOD are evaluated under different geophysical conditions in several locations across the United States. By using streamflow output from the same hydrologic model (SWAT in this case), hydraulic simulations are conducted for three configurations: (i) hindcasting mode by using past observed weather data at daily time scale in which models are being calibrated against USGS streamflow observations, (ii) validation mode using near real-time weather data at sub-daily time scale, and (iii) design mode with extreme streamflow data having specific return periods. Model generated inundation maps for observed flood events both from hindcasting and validation modes are compared with remotely sensed images, whereas the design mode outcomes are compared with corresponding FEMA generated flood hazard maps. The comparisons presented here will give insights on probable model-specific nature of biases and their relative advantages/disadvantages as components of an operational flood forecasting system.
Nghiem, S. V.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Nguyen, D. T.
Hurricane Harvey inflicted historical catastrophic flooding across extensive regions around Houston and southeast Texas after making landfall on 25 August 2017. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) requested urgent supports for flood mapping and monitoring in an emergency response to the extreme flood situation. An innovative satellite remote sensing method, called the Depolarization Reduction Algorithm for Global Observations of inundatioN (DRAGON), has been developed and implemented for use with Sentinel synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data at a resolution of 10 meters to identify, map, and monitor inundation including pre-existing water bodies and newly flooded areas. Results from this new method are hydrologically consistent and have been verified with known surface waters (e.g., coastal ocean, rivers, lakes, reservoirs, etc.), with clear-sky high-resolution WorldView images (where waves can be seen on surface water in inundated areas within a small spatial coverage), and with other flood maps from the consortium of Global Flood Partnership derived from multiple satellite datasets (including clear-sky Landsat and MODIS at lower resolutions). Figure 1 is a high-resolution (4K UHD) image of a composite inundation map for the region around Rosharon (in Brazoria County, south of Houston, Texas). This composite inundation map reveals extensive flooding on 29 August 2017 (four days after Hurricane Harvey made landfall), and the inundation was still persistent in most of the west and south of Rosharon one week later (5 September 2017) while flooding was reduced in the east of Rosharon. Hurricane Irma brought flooding to a number of areas in Florida. As of 10 September 2017, Sentinel SAR flood maps reveal inundation in the Florida Panhandle and over lowland surfaces on several islands in the Florida Keys. However, Sentinel SAR results indicate that flooding along the Florida coast was not extreme despite Irma was a Category-5 hurricane that might
Yoshii, Takumi; Matsuyama, Masafumi; Koshimura, Shunichi; Mas, Erick; Matsuoka, Masashi; Jimenez, Cesar
The severe earthquake of Mw 8.8 occurred on 27 Feb. 2010 at the center of Chile. The tsunami generated by the earthquake attacked the coast of Chile and it propagated to the Pacific Ocean coastline. The field survey on the disaster damages due to the tsunami was conducted near Talcahuano in Chile to prepare for the great tsunamis accompanied by the earthquakes predicted to occur near Japan within several decades. The aims of this field survey were to survey disaster damages especially relevant to electric equipments and to develop the survey method based on a chemical analysis of the inundated soil which supplies objective data with high accuracy compared to the conventional methods. In the survey area, the average of inundation heights was 6 m, however it locally reached up to 25 m. The maximum sea-level height of the series of the tsunamis was recorded in the third or fourth wave (roughly 3 hours after the earthquake occurrence). The first floors of houses were severely destroyed and some ships were carried and left on land by the tsunamis. Furthermore, the large amount of sediment was deposited in towns. Removing the drifted ships and tsunami deposit is important consideration for quick recovery from a disaster due to a tsunami. The soil samples were obtained from both the inundated and the not-inundated position. The stirred solution was made by the soil and ultrapure water, then, the content of water-soluble ions, electric conductivity (EC), and pH were measured. The soil obtained in the tsunami inundated area contains much water-soluble ions (Na + , Mg 2+ , Cl - , Br - , SO 4 2- ) compared to the samples obtained in the not-inundated area. The discriminant analysis of the tsunami inundation was conducted using the amount of ions in the soil. High discriminant accuracy (over 90%) was obtained with Na + , Mg 2+ , Cl - , Br - , SO 4 2- and EC. Br - , Cl - , Na + are believed to be suitable for the discriminant analysis about tsunamis considering the contaminant
Jisan, M. A.; Bao, S.; Pietrafesa, L.; Pullen, J.
An interactively coupled atmosphere-ocean model was used to investigate the impacts of future ocean warming, both at the surface and the layers below, on the track and intensity of a hurricane and its associated storm surge and inundation. The category-5 hurricane Matthew (2016), which made landfall on the South Carolina coast of the United States, was used for the case study. Future ocean temperature changes and sea level rise (SLR) were estimated based on the projection of Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)'s Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5. After being validated with the present-day observational data, the model was applied to simulate the changes in track, intensity, storm surge and inundation that Hurricane Matthew would cause under future climate change scenarios. It was found that a significant increase in hurricane intensity, storm surge water level, and inundation area for Hurricane Matthew under future ocean warming and SLR scenarios. For example, under the RCP 8.5 scenario, the maximum wind speed would increase by 17 knots (14.2%), the minimum sea level pressure would decrease by 26 hPa (2.85%), and the inundated area would increase by 401 km2 (123%). By including the effect of SLR for the middle-21st-century scenario, the inundated area will further increase by up to 49.6%. The increase in the hurricane intensity and the inundated area was also found for the RCP 2.6 scenario. The response of sea surface temperature was analyzed to investigate the change in intensity. A comparison was made between the impacts when only the sea surface warming is considered versus when both the sea surface and the underneath layers are considered. These results showed that even without the effect of SLR, the storm surge level and the inundated area would be higher due to the increased hurricane intensity under the influence of the future warmer ocean temperature. The coupled effect of ocean warming and SLR would cause the
Nielsen, Mogens Gissel; Christian, K.; Malte, H.
The small ant Camponotus anderseni lives exclusively in twigs of the mangrove tree Sonneratia alba, and during inundation, the entrance hole is blocked with a soldier's head which effectively prevents flooding. The nests can be very crowded, with the ants and coccids filling up to 50% of the volume...... is to avoid drowning without suffering anoxia or hypercapnia, and they show a remarkable ability to adapt to the extreme conditions in the mangrove and exploit a niche where the density of other ants is insignificant....
Fukutani, Yo; Imamura, Fumihiko; Tokunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Ichiro
We propose a quantitative evaluation method of overall tsunami risk that the entire facility group over a wide area holds. We considerably reduced the calculation cost for tsunami inundation depth by adopting the evaluation method using energy conservation law as compared with the evaluation method using non-linear long wave equation. For financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies with contractors over a wide area and business companies with multiple their assets and facilities in various places, the proposed evaluation method in this study could be a useful approach to implement their risk-based management decisions for tsunami risk. (author)
Musser, Jonathan W.
Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5.3-mile reach of South Fork Peachtree Creek that extends from about 500 feet above the Brockett Road bridge to the Willivee Drive bridge were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with DeKalb County, Georgia. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage at South Fork Peachtree at Casa Drive, near Clarkston, Georgia (02336152). Real-time stage information from this USGS streamgage may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ and can be used in conjunction with these maps to estimate near real-time areas of inundation. The National Weather Service (NWS) is incorporating results from this study into the Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood-warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps/).
Hdeib, Rouya; Abdallah, Chadi; Moussa, Roger; Colin, Francois
Developing flood inundation maps of defined exceedance probabilities is required to provide information on the flood hazard and the associated risk. A methodology has been developed to model flood inundation in poorly gauged basins, where reliable information on the hydrological characteristics of floods are uncertain and partially captured by the traditional rain-gauge networks. Flood inundation is performed through coupling a hydrological rainfall-runoff (RR) model (HEC-HMS) with a hydraulic model (HEC-RAS). The RR model is calibrated against the January 2013 flood event in the Awali River basin, Lebanon (300 km2), whose flood peak discharge was estimated by post-event measurements. The resulting flows of the RR model are defined as boundary conditions of the hydraulic model, which is run to generate the corresponding water surface profiles and calibrated against 20 post-event surveyed cross sections after the January-2013 flood event. An uncertainty analysis is performed to assess the results of the models. Consequently, the coupled flood inundation model is simulated with design storms and flood inundation maps are generated of defined exceedance probabilities. The peak discharges estimated by the simulated RR model were in close agreement with the results from different empirical and statistical methods. This methodology can be extended to other poorly gauged basins facing common stage-gauge failure or characterized by floods with a stage exceeding the gauge measurement level, or higher than that defined by the rating curve.
Marcos Silveira WREGE
Full Text Available Entre os pinus tropicais, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis é uma variedade natural, oriunda de região com clima tropical na América Central. A espécie se aclimatou bem em várias partes do mundo, em regiões com alta pluviosidade e temperaturas elevadas. Embora não tolere geadas severas, pode ser plantada em partes da região Sul do Brasil onde o clima é mais quente e a frequência de geadas é menor e é indicado para plantio em boa parte do Brasil, em mais de 3,5 milhões de km2 . Essa é uma variedade que apresenta alto rendimento em madeira de boa qualidade, além de possibilitar a exploração da resina. Neste trabalho, são apresentadas as regiões no Brasil que apresentam potencial para cultivo dessa variedade em regime de silvicultura intensiva, tomando como base sua região de origem no mundo. São indicadas para plantio comercial as zonas com os menores riscos de geada nos estados da região Sul, no Estado de São Paulo e nas demais regiões que oferecem condições climáticas favoráveis, principalmente de disponibilidade hídrica para o desenvolvimento dessa variedade de pinus. – Among tropical pines, Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis is a natural variation from the tropical regions of Central America. The species has adapted well in various parts of the world, in regions with high rainfall and high temperatures. Although intolerance to severe frosts, it can be grown in parts of southern Brazil, where the climate is hot, with infrequent frosts and even can be used for commercial planting in over 3.5 million square kilometers.This variety presents high yield in quality wood as well as resin. This work shows regions in Brazil where environmental conditions are favorable for commercial plantations with this variety, by making comparisons with the conditions in its origin. Climatic zones within the Southern Region, as well as in the state of São Paulo and elsewhere with the lowest risks of frost and plenty of water for the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2001, fifty tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were observed...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2000 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2000, forty-five tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were...
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Goldsmith, F. B
.... Barbier -- Can non-market values save the tropical forests? / D. Pearce -- The role of policy and institutions / James Mayers and Stephen Bass -- Modelling tropical land use change and deforestation...
Potter, G L; Ellsaesser, H W; MacCracken, M C; Luther, F M
A computer model of climate changes resulting from removal of tropical rain forests to increase arable acreage is described. A chain of consequences is deduced from the model which begins with deforestation and ends with overall global cooling and a reduction in precipitation. A model of the global water budget shows that the reduction in precipitation is accompanied by cooling in the upper tropical troposphere, a lowering of the tropical tropopause, and a warming of the lower tropical stratosphere. (HLW)
Fisher, Irene; Phillips, Patrick J.; Colella, Kaitlyn; Fisher, Shawn C.; Tagliaferri, Tristen N.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.
Coastal onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) were inundated by Hurricane Sandy's storm tide. This study compares the shallow groundwater quality (nutrients, pharmaceuticals, and hormones) downgradient of OWDS before and after Hurricane Sandy, where available, and establishes a baseline for wastewater influence on groundwater in coastal communities inundated by Hurricane Sandy. Nutrients and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) were detected in shallow groundwater downgradient of OWDS in two settings along the New Jersey and New York coastlines: 1) a single, centralized OWDS in a park; and 2) multiple OWDS (cesspools) in low-density residential and mixed-use/medium density residential areas. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were lidocaine (40%), carbamazepine (36%), and fexofenadine, bupropion, desvenlafaxine, meprobamate, and tramadol (24–32%). Increases in the number and total concentration of pharmaceuticals after Hurricane Sandy may reflect other factors (seasonality, usage) besides inundation, and demonstrate the importance of analyzing for a wide variety of CECs in regional studies.
Shim, J. B.; Won, C. Y.; Park, J.; Lee, K.
Korea experiences frequent flood disasters, which cause considerable economic losses and damages to towns and farms. Especially, a regional torrential storm is about 98.5mm/hr on September 21, 2010 in Seoul. The storm exceeds the capacity of urban drainage system of 75mm/hr, and 9,419 houses. How to monitor and control the urban flood disasters is an important issue in Korea. To mitigate the flood damage, a customizing system was developed to estimate urban floods and inundation using by integrating drainage system data and river information database which are managed by local governments and national agencies. In the case of Korean urban city, there are a lot of detention ponds and drainage pumping stations on end of drainage system and flow is going into river. The drainage pumping station, it is very important hydraulic facility for flood control between river and drainage system. So, it is possible to occur different patterns of flood inundation according to operation rule of drainage pumping station. A flood disaster is different damage as how to operate drainage pumping station and plan operation rule.
Sippel, S.J.; Hamilton, S.K.; Melack, J.M.; Novo, E.M.M.
Inundation patterns in Amazon River floodplains are revealed by analysis of the 37GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer on the Nimbus-7 satellite. Flooded area is estimated at monthly intervals for January 1979 through August 1987 using mixing models that account for the major landscape units with distinctive microwave emission characteristics. Results are presented separately for 12 longitudinal reaches along the Amazon River main stem in Brazil as well as for three major tributaries (the Jurua, Purus and Madeira rivers). The total area along the Amazon River main stem that was flooded (including both floodplain and open water) varied between 19 000 and 91 000 km 2 . The correlation between flooded area and river stage is used to develop a predictive relationship and reconstruct regional inundation patterns in the floodplain of the Amazon River main stem over the past 94 years of stage records (1903± 1996). The mean flooded area along the Amazon River during this 94-year period was 46 800 km 2 , of which the openwater surfaces of river channels and floodplain lakes comprised about 20 700 km 2 . (author)
Avtar, Ram; Singh, Chander Kumar; Shashtri, Satayanarayan; Mukherjee, Saumitra
Ken-Betwa river link is one of the pilot projects of the Inter Linking of Rivers program of Government of India in Bundelkhand Region. It will connect the Ken and Betwa rivers through a system of dams, reservoirs, and canals to provide storage for excess rainfall during the monsoon season and avoid floods. The main objective of this study is to identify erosional and inundation prone zones of Ken-Betwa river linking site in India using remote sensing and geographic information system tools. In this study, Landsat Thematic Mapper data of year 2005, digital elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, and other ancillary data were analyzed to create various thematic maps viz. geomorphology, land use/land cover, NDVI, geology, soil, drainage density, elevation, slope, and rainfall. The integrated thematic maps were used for hazard zonation. This is based on categorizing the different hydrological and geomorphological processes influencing the inundation and erosion intensity. Result shows that the southern part of the study area which lies in Panna district of Madhya Pradesh, India, is more vulnerable than the other areas.
Yi, Qitao; Xie, Kai; Sun, Pengfei; Kim, Youngchul
Extensive coal mining in the Huainan Coal Mines, Anhui China, in light of the local hydrology and geology, has resulted in extensive land subsidence and submergence around the mines. This has led to the formation of large (>100 km(2)) lakes. Three representative lakes were selected to study the mechanisms of phosphorus (P) unavailability for primary production from the perspective of sedimentary environments, which in turn owe their formation to permanently inundated agricultural soils. Two important issues were considered: (1) potential of P transport from the cultivated soil column toward surface sediments and (2) characterization of P behavior in view of regional ecological rehabilitation and conservation. Accordingly, we conducted field sediment analyses, combined with simulation experiments of soil column inundation/submergence lasting for four months. Enrichment of Fe-(hydr)oxides in surface sediments was verified to be the main reason for limitations in regional P availability in water bodies. Iron (Fe), but not its bound P, moved upward from the submerged soil column to the surface. However, an increasing upward gradient in the contents of organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (TP), and different P fractions was caused by spatial heterogeneity in soil properties. Phosphorus was unable to migrate upward toward the surface sediments as envisioned, because of complex secondary reactions within soil minerals. Phosphorus bound to Fe and/or Al comprised over 50% of TP, which has important implications for local ecological rehabilitation and water conservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Omira, R.; Matias, L.; Baptista, M. A.
This study constitutes a preliminary assessment of probabilistic tsunami inundation in the NE Atlantic region. We developed an event-tree approach to calculate the likelihood of tsunami flood occurrence and exceedance of a specific near-shore wave height for a given exposure time. Only tsunamis of tectonic origin are considered here, taking into account local, regional, and far-field sources. The approach used here consists of an event-tree method that gathers probability models for seismic sources, tsunami numerical modeling, and statistical methods. It also includes a treatment of aleatoric uncertainties related to source location and tidal stage. Epistemic uncertainties are not addressed in this study. The methodology is applied to the coastal test-site of Sines located in the NE Atlantic coast of Portugal. We derive probabilistic high-resolution maximum wave amplitudes and flood distributions for the study test-site considering 100- and 500-year exposure times. We find that the probability that maximum wave amplitude exceeds 1 m somewhere along the Sines coasts reaches about 60 % for an exposure time of 100 years and is up to 97 % for an exposure time of 500 years. The probability of inundation occurrence (flow depth >0 m) varies between 10 % and 57 %, and from 20 % up to 95 % for 100- and 500-year exposure times, respectively. No validation has been performed here with historical tsunamis. This paper illustrates a methodology through a case study, which is not an operational assessment.
Elsey-Quirk, T.; Middleton, B.A.; Proffitt, C.E.
We examined the effects of cold stratification and salinity on seed flotation of eight salt marsh species. Four of the eight species were tested for germination success under different stratification, salinity, and flooding conditions. Species were separated into two groups, four species received wet stratification and four dry stratification and fresh seeds of all species were tested for flotation and germination. Fresh seeds of seven out of eight species had flotation times independent of salinity, six of which had average flotation times of at least 50 d. Seeds of Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens had the shortest flotation times, averaging 24 and 26 d, respectively. Following wet stratification, the flotation time of S. alterniflora seeds in higher salinity water (15 and 36 ppt) was reduced by over 75% and germination declined by more than 90%. Wet stratification reduced the flotation time of Distichlis spicata seeds in fresh water but increased seed germination from 2 to 16% in a fluctuating inundation regime. Fresh seeds of Iva frutescens and S. alternflora were capable of germination and therefore are non-dormant during dispersal. Fresh seeds of I. frutescens had similar germination to dry stratified seeds ranging 25-30%. Salinity reduced seed germination for all species except for S. alterniflora. A fluctuating inundation regime was important for seed germination of the low marsh species and for germination following cold stratification. The conditions that resulted in seeds sinking faster were similar to the conditions that resulted in higher germination for two of four species. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.
M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton
Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....
Daniel H. Henning
This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...
Metro Washington Park Zoo, Portland, OR. Educational Services Div.
This packet is designed to assist teachers in creating a tropical animals lesson plan that centers around a visit to the zoo. A teacher packet is divided into eight parts: (1) goals and objectives; (2) what to expect at the zoo; (3) student activities (preparatory activities, on-site activities, and follow-up activities); (4) background…
Tropical Journal of Medical Research publishes original research work, review articles, important case report, short communications, and innovations in medicine and related fields. Vol 16, No 2 (2012). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles ...
Stock, Jan H.
A number of Copepoda of the family Lichomolgidae, all endoparasitic in tropical holothurians, has been described. All belong to the group of genera related to Paranthessius, as borne out by the structure of their appendages, although the body-shape often has undergone modifications due to the
Evans, M. N.; Schrag, D. P.; Poussart, P. F.; Anchukaitis, K. J.
The terrestrial tropics remain an important gap in the growing high resolution proxy network used to characterize the mean state and variability of the hydrological cycle. Here we review early efforts to develop a new class of proxy paleorainfall/humidity indicators using intraseasonal to interannual-resolution stable isotope data from tropical trees. The approach invokes a recently published model of oxygen isotopic composition of alpha-cellulose, rapid methods for cellulose extraction from raw wood, and continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry to develop proxy chronological, rainfall and growth rate estimates from tropical trees, even those lacking annual rings. Isotopically-derived age models may be confirmed for modern intervals using trees of known age, radiocarbon measurements, direct measurements of tree diameter, and time series replication. Studies are now underway at a number of laboratories on samples from Costa Rica, northwestern coastal Peru, Indonesia, Thailand, New Guinea, Paraguay, Brazil, India, and the South American Altiplano. Improved sample extraction chemistry and online pyrolysis techniques should increase sample throughput, precision, and time series replication. Statistical calibration together with simple forward modeling based on the well-observed modern period can provide for objective interpretation of the data. Ultimately, replicated data series with well-defined uncertainties can be entered into multiproxy efforts to define aspects of tropical hydrological variability associated with ENSO, the meridional overturning circulation, and the monsoon systems.
Wright, S Joseph
Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.
Korevaar, D. A.; Visser, B. J.
Podoconiosis or 'endemic non-filarial elephantiasis' is a tropical disease caused by exposure of bare feet to irritant alkaline clay soils. This causes an asymmetrical swelling of the feet and lower limbs due to lymphoedema. Podoconiosis has a curable pre-elephantiasic phase. However, once
Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout
How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical
The aim of the research presented here is to acquire knowledge of the past, present, and future composition, stability, sensitivity, and variability of the troposphere. We focus mostly on the tropical regions because it has received little attention so far, measurements here are scarce, and large
as calculated for all tro ical cyclones in each year, is shown in fTa le 5-2A. Table 5-2B includes along-track and cross-track errors for 1987. A...so that the ATCM can maintain the tropical storm circulation during the forecast. Also, sensitivity experiments are being conducted to fmd the best
the global system. The improvement is almost uniform in the extratropics , while in the tropics clear improvements tend to occur in the immediate...surrounding of storms . The latter result suggests that the limited area analysis provides a better representation of the interactions between the...circulation of the storm and the wind field in its immediate vicinity. 2
Journal Homepage Image. We seek to encourage pharmaceutical and allied research of tropical and international relevance and to foster multidisciplinary research and collaboration among scientists, the pharmaceutical industry and the healthcare professionals. We publish articles in pharmaceutical sciences and related ...
Tropical deforestation is a significant cause of global carbon emissions and biodiversity loss. A new study shows that deforestation today leaves a carbon and biodiversity debt to be paid over subsequent years. This has potentially profound implications for forest conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhuang, Qianlai; Zhu, Xudong; He, Yujie; Prigent, Catherine; Melillo, Jerry M; Kicklighter, David W; David McGuire, A; Prinn, Ronald G
Estimates of the seasonal and interannual exchanges of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ) between land ecosystems north of 45°N and the atmosphere are poorly constrained, in part, because of uncertainty in the temporal variability of water-inundated land area. Here we apply a process-based biogeochemistry model to evaluate how interannual changes in wetland inundation extent might have influenced the overall carbon dynamics of the region during the time period 1993–2004. We find that consideration by our model of these interannual variations between 1993 and 2004, on average, results in regional estimates of net methane sources of 67.8 ± 6.2 Tg CH 4 yr −1 , which is intermediate to model estimates that use two static inundation extent datasets (51.3 ± 2.6 and 73.0 ± 3.6 Tg CH 4 yr −1 ). In contrast, consideration of interannual changes of wetland inundation extent result in regional estimates of the net CO 2 sink of −1.28 ± 0.03 Pg C yr −1 with a persistent wetland carbon sink from −0.38 to −0.41 Pg C yr −1 and a upland sink from −0.82 to −0.98 Pg C yr −1 . Taken together, despite the large methane emissions from wetlands, the region is a consistent greenhouse gas sink per global warming potential (GWP) calculations irrespective of the type of wetland datasets being used. However, the use of satellite-detected wetland inundation extent estimates a smaller regional GWP sink than that estimated using static wetland datasets. Our sensitivity analysis indicates that if wetland inundation extent increases or decreases by 10% in each wetland grid cell, the regional source of methane increases 13% or decreases 12%, respectively. In contrast, the regional CO 2 sink responds with only 7–9% changes to the changes in wetland inundation extent. Seasonally, the inundated area changes result in higher summer CH 4 emissions, but lower summer CO 2 sinks, leading to lower summer negative greenhouse gas forcing. Our analysis further
Luo, Xiangyu; Li, Hong-Yi; Leung, L. Ruby; Tesfa, Teklu K.; Getirana, Augusto; Papa, Fabrice; Hess, Laura L.
In the Amazon Basin, floodplain inundation is a key component of surface water dynamics and plays an important role in water, energy and carbon cycles. The Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART) was extended with a macroscale inundation scheme for representing floodplain inundation. The extended model, named MOSART-Inundation, was used to simulate surface hydrology of the entire Amazon Basin. Previous hydrologic modeling studies in the Amazon Basin identified and addressed a few challenges in simulating surface hydrology of this basin, including uncertainties of floodplain topography and channel geometry, and the representation of river flow in reaches with mild slopes. This study further addressed four aspects of these challenges. First, the spatial variability of vegetation-caused biases embedded in the HydroSHEDS digital elevation model (DEM) data was explicitly addressed. A vegetation height map of about 1 km resolution and a land cover dataset of about 90 m resolution were used in a DEM correction procedure that resulted in an average elevation reduction of 13.2 m for the entire basin and led to evident changes in the floodplain topography. Second, basin-wide empirical formulae for channel cross-sectional dimensions were refined for various subregions to improve the representation of spatial variability in channel geometry. Third, the channel Manning roughness coefficient was allowed to vary with the channel depth, as the effect of riverbed resistance on river flow generally declines with increasing river size. Lastly, backwater effects were accounted for to better represent river flow in mild-slope reaches. The model was evaluated against in situ streamflow records and remotely sensed Envisat altimetry data and Global Inundation Extent from Multi-Satellites (GIEMS) inundation data. In a sensitivity study, seven simulations were compared to evaluate the impacts of the five modeling aspects addressed in this study. The comparisons showed that
T. J. Dunkerton
Full Text Available The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i a region of
Full Text Available La zona de influencia costera de isla Gorgona es un área marina protegida localizada en el Pacífico Oriental Tropical (POT de Colombia. Aunque alberga uno de los arrecifes coralinos más desarrollados del POT, la caracterización de las condiciones oceanógraficas superficiales locales y su variabilidad temporal y espacial han sido escasamente abordadas. Para incrementar el conocimiento sobre la variabilidad de la temperatura y la salinidad en esta localidad se realizaron registros sistemáticos de estas variables durante cuatro periodos (septiembre 2005, diciembre 2005, marzo 2006 y junio 2006, se instalaron sensores de registro continuo de temperatura a f 5 m de profundidad en la zona oriental y occidental de la isla, y se realizó un monitoreo del patrón local de circulación superficial utilizando un perfilador de corrientes (AWAK-ADCP durante junio 2006 y febrero 2007. Se identificaron dos períodos contrastantes para las condiciones oceanógraficas en la capa superficial (0-50 m de la columna de agua: un período cálido y de baja salinidad superficial entre mayo y diciembre (profundidad termoclina 47 m y un período frío y salino entre enero y abril (profundidad termoclina 7,5 m. Se descartó la presencia de proceso local de surgencia y los resultados indicaron una fuerte influencia de procesos de mesoescala (surgencia en el Panamá Bight sobre la variabilidad temporal de las condiciones oceanógraficas en la zona de estudio. En este mismo sentido se sugiere que la variabilidad espacial estaría más asociada a procesos climáticos regionales (patrón de precipitación y la cercanía de la zona de estudio al complejo deltaico río Patía - río Sanquianga.The near shore zone of Gorgona Island is a protected marine area located in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP of Colombia. Although this is home to one of the most developed coral reefs in the ETP, the characteristics of the local oceanographic conditions at the surface and their
Vélez Vargas León Darío
Full Text Available De acuerdo con los objetivos de este Panel sobre las formas de producción agrícola en Colombia, la primera parte de esta ponencia describirá y evaluará los sistemas de producción campesinos en unos de los frentes de colonización más activos en la Amazonía colombiana, el Departamento del Guaviare. Luego de ubicar geográfica, histórica, biofísica y socio-económicamente la zona de estudio y también respecto a los usos del suelo, la ponencia centrará sus análisis en los sistemas de producción que se presentan en las zonas de influencia de los ríos Guaviare y Guayabera (Terrazas y Vegas. El estudio de los sistemas de producción en la zona referida, se inicia con la descripción analítica de la apropiación del medio natural por parte del colono. A continuación se describen y analizan los principales usos del suelo particularizando el uso agrícola, en donde se estudian los cultivos, los arreglos productivos y sus principales limitantes. Después de estudiar los sistemas de producción a nivel de zona, se estudian a nivel de unidad de producción, analizando la racionalidad y estrategias que adopta el colono para su manejo. En la segunda parte la ponencia, se discute el rol de los profesionales agrarios y de los centros de educación superior en estos sistemas de producci6n y en las zonas de colonización y se concluye que los primeros no están capacitados para afrontar, de manera adecuada, las necesidades y posibilidades de estos sistemas y de estas zonas, ya que los centros donde se han formado, no suministran los elementos necesarios para ello, a pesar de que históricamente la frontera agrícola de Colombia ha crecido gracias al proceso permanente de colonización.
Full Text Available Ganancia genética esperada en Acacia mangium en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica. Con el objetivo de seleccionar los materiales de mayor crecimiento y calidad de fuste en Acacia mangium, se evaluó un ensayo de progenie de Acacia mangium Willd. conformado por veinticinco familias. El ensayo fue establecido en Los Chiles, zona norte de Costa Rica, en 2006 con evaluaciones en el 2007 y en 2010. Se utilizó material genético seleccionado por la Cooperativa de Conservación y Mejoramiento Genético Forestal "GENFORES", en Costa Rica y Colombia. Cada familia estuvo representada por 48 progenies, plantadas en cuatro parejas distribuidas en forma aleatoria dentro de cada uno de los seis bloques del ensayo. Se evaluó el diámetro a la altura de pecho "DAP", incremento en DAP, adaptabilidad al sitio, número de trozas comerciales, bifurcación, altura de bifurcación, calidad de las primeras cuatro trozas. Se determinó el volumen de madera comercial por árbol y hectárea. Los datos fueron analizados por medio del software SELEGEN de EMBRAPA para obtener los parámetros genéticos. Todos los caracteres registraron valores de heredabilidad media familiar superiores a 0,68. Si se seleccionaran los dos mejores individuos dentro de las mejores doce familias, se obtendría una ganancia genética del 40,8% en volumen comercial/ha a los cuatro años de edad. Esta ganancia corresponde a un volumen comercial de 91,65 m3/ha, a una tasa de 22,9 m3/ha/año. Las dos procedencias derivadas de Colombia son signifi cativamente superiores a los demás materiales evaluados. El análisis de correlación genética entre caracteres muestra que la tasa de crecimiento diamétrico se expresa desde temprana edad en esta especie, lo que podría ser utilizado a futuro en una selección a menor edad.
Carlos Muñoz Ruiz
Full Text Available Se evaluaron los diferentes productos químicos, utilizados en el control de Sigatoka negra en banano, en el cultivo de plátano, en la zona de Santa Clara de San Carlos. Uno de los principales objetivos fue generar un programa de manejo químico de la enfermedad para la zona de San Carlos, posible de ser transferido a otras zonas plataneras del país; el otro objetivo fue establecer las bases para automatizar las actividades culturales de manejo de plantaciones de musáceas, mediante la creación de un Software para computadora y asequible por internet.
Full Text Available IntroducciónEn Bolivia la malaria ocurre en la frontera con Brasil debido a Plasmodium vivax 85 % y Plasmodium falciparum 15 %. La ONG ADRA (Agencia Adventista de Recursos Asistenciales está implementando allá un proyecto de malaria mediante CV (colaboradores voluntarios, que realizan diagnóstico y tratamiento.Material y MétodosLa implementación del diagnóstico y tratamiento involucró a 160 CV. El estudio se efectuó en dos momentos en 2011 y 2012, evaluando 44 y 102 CV respectivamente.ResultadosLa edad promedio de los CV era de 37 años y 32 % eran mujeres. En 2011 y 2012 los CV tenían material de apoyo 87 y 92 %, conocían la información básica de malaria 96 y 93 % respectivamente. En la observación de realización de la prueba, el 50 % no verifica el periodo de expiración, 28 % no anota el nombre del paciente, 18 % no recoge adecuadamente la sangre con la pipeta, 18 % lee con anterioridad al tiempo, 25 % no anota el resultado en formulario, 40 % no elimina materiales usados, 16 % no informa el resultado. En relación al tratamiento a niños mejoró de 64 a 84 % en P. vivax y de 66 a 75 % en P. falciparum, en los tratamientos de adultos con P. falciparum es de 93 y 89 % respectivamente.DiscusiónLos CV deben mejorar el llenado del registro, la realización de la prueba rápida y se debe mejorar la dosificación de tratamientos, para ello un monitoreo de la implementación es importante.
Nielsen, Martha G.; Dudley, Robert W.
Salt marshes are ecosystems that provide many important ecological functions in the Gulf of Maine. The U.S. Geological Survey investigated salt marshes in and around Acadia National Park from Penobscot Bay to the Schoodic Peninsula to map the potential for landward migration of marshes using a static inundation model of a sea-level rise scenario of 60 centimeters (cm; 2 feet). The resulting inundation contours can be used by resource managers to proactively adapt to sea-level rise by identifying and targeting low-lying coastal areas adjacent to salt marshes for conservation or further investigation, and to identify risks to infrastructure in the coastal zone. For this study, the mapping of static inundation was based on digital elevation models derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) topographic data collected in October 2010. Land-surveyed control points were used to evaluate the accuracy of the LiDAR data in the study area, yielding a root mean square error of 11.3 cm. An independent accuracy assessment of the LiDAR data specific to salt-marsh land surfaces indicated a root mean square error of 13.3 cm and 95-percent confidence interval of ± 26.0 cm. LiDAR-derived digital elevation models and digital color aerial photography, taken during low tide conditions in 2008, with a pixel resolution of 0.5 meters, were used to identify the highest elevation of the land surface at each salt marsh in the study area. Inundation contours for 60-cm of sea-level rise were delineated above the highest marsh elevation for each marsh. Confidence interval contours (95-percent,± 26.0 cm) were delineated above and below the 60-cm inundation contours, and artificial structures, such as roads and bridges, that may present barriers to salt-marsh migration were mapped. This study delineated 114 salt marshes totaling 340 hectares (ha), ranging in size from 0.11 ha (marshes less than 0.2 ha were mapped only if they were on Acadia National Park property) to 52 ha, with a median
César Fresneda Saldarriaga
Full Text Available Los suelos de las zonas tropicales son suelos que están altamente influenciados por factores tales como el clima, la temperatura, la vegetación, entre otros, lo que genera una amplia variedad de perfiles con propiedades ingenieriles particulares, que difieren de las características de los suelos de regiones templadas. En este artículo se presenta un análisis geotécnico descriptivo de un suelo tropical laterítico, ubicado en un talud en el municipio de Girardota, Antioquia (Colombia. El análisis se centra en la caracterización del estrato superior del perfil, determinando sus propiedades físicas, mecánicas, mineralógicas y estructurales a partir de ensayos más adecuados y específicos para este tipo de suelos (clasificación miniatura compactada tropical rápida, análisis químicos Δph, microscopía electrónica de barrido, difracción de rayos x, succión matricial, desagregación, colapso, etc., que permitan definir la influencia que la laterización tiene en el comportamiento geotécnico del mismo.
Full Text Available Los suelos tropicales son aquellos que debido a factores como el clima, la humedad y otras condiciones propias del trópico, p oseen características físicas, químicas, mineralógicas y mecánicas diferentes a los su elos de las zonas templadas. Dichas particularidades y la acción contaminante en el medio producida por el hombre, son la motivación del presente artículo, el cual pretende analizar u n suelo de origen residual tropical ubicado en el municipio de Guarne – A ntioquia (Colombia, mediante la realización de ensayos de laboratorio, algunos de los cuales son más adecuados para caracterizar este tipo de suelos (Clasificación Miniatura Compactado Tropical, S ucción, Pinhole Test, Desagregación, Índice de Colapso, Dif racción de rayos “X”, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, a muestras tanto en estado natural como contaminadas con una solución jabonosa, para establecer las diferencias entre las características geotécn icas de dicho suelo en ambas condiciones y posterior mente, discutir la influencia que tiene el contaminante en sus propiedades.
Ogunleye, P.O.; Okujeni, C.D.
The Zona uranium is located at the NE flank of the Peta syncline, which is an arm of the Middle Gongola Basin. The hostreok- the Cretaceous Bima sandstone bears the imprint of more than two preore tectonic episodes which are thought to have resulted from reactivation of paleolineaments in the basement since the Pan African Orogeny. The mineralized zone occurs at point of intersection of a set of NE-SW trending shear zone and N-S fracture system. The centre of the ore zone exhibits intense alteration features such as sericitization, ferruginization, silification, remobilization and powdering of the rock matrix. These alteration features diminish progressively from the core to the periphery of the ore zone. The main uraniferous minerals identified are phosphouranylite and meta-autunite. These occur mainly absorbed to iron oxides, in silicified veinlets and partly disseminated in the matrix of the sandstone. Evaluation of the analytical data of 9 elements in 67 rock samples suggest a close link between ferruginization and enrichment of uranium. A model involving the leaching of the uranium from conceal volcanics (rhyolites) and granites at depths by heated groundwater residual magmatic solutions is proposed
Moros-Nicolás, C; Leza, A; Chevret, P; Guillén-Martínez, A; González-Brusi, L; Boué, F; Lopez-Bejar, M; Ballesta, J; Avilés, M; Izquierdo-Rico, M J
The zona pellucida (ZP) is an extracellular envelope that surrounds mammalian oocytes. This coat participates in the interaction between gametes, induction of the acrosome reaction, block of polyspermy and protection of the oviductal embryo. Previous studies suggested that carnivore ZP was formed by three glycoproteins (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4), with ZP1 being a pseudogene. However, a recent study in the cat found that all four proteins were expressed. In the present study, in silico and molecular analyses were performed in several carnivores to clarify the ZP composition in this order of mammals. The in silico analysis demonstrated the presence of the ZP1 gene in five carnivores: cheetah, panda, polar bear, tiger and walrus, whereas in the Antarctic fur seal and the Weddell seal there was evidence of pseudogenisation. Molecular analysis showed the presence of four ZP transcripts in ferret ovaries (ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4) and three in fox ovaries (ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4). Analysis of the fox ZP1 gene showed the presence of a stop codon. The results strongly suggest that all four ZP genes are expressed in most carnivores, whereas ZP1 pseudogenisation seems to have independently affected three families (Canidae, Otariidae and Phocidae) of the carnivore tree.
Ogunleye, P O [Centre For Energy Research And Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria); Okujeni, C D [Department Of Geology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria (Nigeria)
The Zona uranium is located at the NE flank of the Peta syncline, which is an arm of the Middle Gongola Basin. The hostreok- the Cretaceous Bima sandstone bears the imprint of more than two preore tectonic episodes which are thought to have resulted from reactivation of paleolineaments in the basement since the Pan African Orogeny. The mineralized zone occurs at point of intersection of a set of NE-SW trending shear zone and N-S fracture system. The centre of the ore zone exhibits intense alteration features such as sericitization, ferruginization, silification, remobilization and powdering of the rock matrix. These alteration features diminish progressively from the core to the periphery of the ore zone. The main uraniferous minerals identified are phosphouranylite and meta-autunite. These occur mainly absorbed to iron oxides, in silicified veinlets and partly disseminated in the matrix of the sandstone. Evaluation of the analytical data of 9 elements in 67 rock samples suggest a close link between ferruginization and enrichment of uranium. A model involving the leaching of the uranium from conceal volcanics (rhyolites) and granites at depths by heated groundwater residual magmatic solutions is proposed.
María Guadalupe Vega López
Full Text Available Este estudio tiene como objetivos determinar la prevalencia de víctimas de acoso escolar en alumnos de escuelas secundarias públicas de la zona metropolitana de Guadalajara, México, e identificar factores asociados al hecho de ser víctima en el pe- ríodo 2009-2011. Se realizó un estudio de tipo transversal analítico. Se diseñó una mues- tra probabilística polietápica de escuelas secundarias públicas y se estudiaron 1.706 alumnos entre 11 y 16 años. Se aplicó un instrumento con cuatro apartados que permitió identificar a las víctimas de acoso y se utilizó un modelo de regresión logística para me- dir la asociación entre los factores analizados y el ser víctima de acoso. La prevalencia de acoso escolar fue del 17,6% (IC95% 15,8; 19,5. Factores de carácter personal, como sentir que no es aceptado por el grupo o no pasar mucho tiempo con amigos, fueron los que tuvieron una asociación más fuerte y estadísticamente significativa con el hecho de ser víctima de acoso en la escuela.
Moradi, M.; Kavosh Tehrani, M.
The weighted density functional theory proposed by Tara zona is applied to study the solid-liquid interface. In the last two decades the weighted density functional became a useful tool to consider the properties of inhomogeneous liquids. In this theory, the role of the size of molecules or the particles of which the matter is composed, was found to be important. In this research we study a hard sphere fluid beside a hard wall. For this study the liquid is an inhomogeneous system. We use the definition of the direct correlation function as a second derivative of free energy with respect to the density. We use this definition and the definition of the weighting function, then we minimize the grand potential with respect to the density to get the Euler Lagrange equation and we obtain an integral equation to find the inhomogeneous density profile. The obtained density profile as a function of the distance from the wall, for different bulk density is pitted in three dimensions. We also calculate the pressure and compare it with the Carnahan-Starling results, and finally we obtained the surface tension at liquid-solid interface and compared it with the results of Monte Carlo simulation
Booth, Paul J; Tan, Shijian; Reipurth, Rikke
Contemporary nuclear transfer techniques often require the involvement of skilled personnel and extended periods of micromanipulation. Here, we present details of the development of a nuclear transfer technique for somatic cells that is both simpler and faster than traditional methods. The techni......Contemporary nuclear transfer techniques often require the involvement of skilled personnel and extended periods of micromanipulation. Here, we present details of the development of a nuclear transfer technique for somatic cells that is both simpler and faster than traditional methods....... The technique comprises the bisection of zona-free oocytes and the reconstruction of embryos comprising two half cytoplasts and a somatic cell by adherence using phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA) followed by an electropulse and subsequent culture in microwells (termed WOWs--well of the well). The development......-intact zygotes were not different in either blastocyst yield (44.6 +/- 2.4% versus 51.8 +/- 13.5% [mean +/- SEM]) or quality (126.3 +/- 48.4 versus 119.9 +/- 32.6 total cells), and exposure of zygotes to PHA-P did not reduce blastocyst yields compared to vehicle control (40.8 +/- 11.6% versus 47.1 +/- 20...
Bernardo, Ana Lucia; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Dall'Olio, Attilio; Carneiro, Clemente Jose Gusmao
A water balance experiment was carried out in a red-yellow podzolic soil of the Northern Zona da Mata region, in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Six 11 m x 3m plots were planted with the IPA-206 variety of caupi beans (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp), which was genetically modified at the IPA Research Center in order to improve its resistance to water stress. The experiments were performed in two different periods of the year, so that the influence of the amount of rainfall on the crop yield could be evaluated. Stored water and water potential gradient at the 0-90 cm depth layer, were measured through the use of neutron probes and mercury manometers, respectively. The dry season results a water stress throughout the growing cycle, resulting in a low yield (548 Kg/ha). In contrast, the large amount of rainfall that occurred during the wet season, was sufficient to avoid water stress to the plant root system, leading to a significant increase in the crop yield, (1014 kg/ha). The evapotranspiration component has been estimated as 3,57 mm/day and 4,07 mm/day, respectively. (author)
J. E. Hernández-Pichardo
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve ICSI, appropiate sperm selection and oocyte activation is necessary. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficiency of fertilization using ICSI with chemically activated ovine oocytes and sperm selected by swim up (SU or swim up + zona pellucida (SU + ZP binding. Results Experiment 1, 4–20 replicates with total 821 in vitro matured oocytes were chemically activated with ethanol, calcium ionophore or ionomycin, to determine oocyte activation (precense of one PN. Treatments showed similar results (54, 47, 42 %, respectively but statistically differents (P 0.05. Conclusions Chemical activation induces higher ovine oocyte activation than mechanical activation. Ethanol slightly displays higher oocyte activation than calcium ionophore and ionomicine. Sperm selection with SU + ZP increased AR/A and AR/D rates in comparison with SU in fresh and frozen-thawed sperm. According to this, in terms of fertilization rates, chemical activation after ICSI increased oocyte PN formation compared to mechanical activation. Also, fresh sperm treated with SU and SU + ZP were significantly different than frozen-thawed sperm, but between sperm treatments no significant differences were obtained.
Harold Jiménez Quesada
Full Text Available La Coopeprocesadora de infusiones naturales de la zona del Caribe de Costa Rica es un proyecto académico ideado para la dinamización y desarrollo de la comunidad de Siquirres. El proyecto busca rescatar el valor del medio natural como recurso clave para la creación de empleos a través de nuevas actividades industriales en la región. La arquitectura de la Coopeprocesadora consta de una piel inspirada en el origami y el rescate de elementos clave para el manejo bioclimático de los espacios. The Natural Infusion Processing Cooperative of the caribbean zone of Costa Rica is an academic project designed for the dynamization and development of the community of Siquirres. The project seeks to rescue the value of the natural environment as a key resource for job creation through new industrial activities in the region. The architecture of the processing cooperative consists of a skin inspired by origami and the rescue of key elements for the bioclimatic management of spaces.
Chamorro, David; Alarcón, Lourdes; Ponce, Arturo; Tapia, Rocio; González-Aguilar, Héctor; Robles-Flores, Martha; Mejía-Castillo, Teresa; Segovia, José; Bandala, Yamir; Juaristi, Eusebio; González-Mariscal, Lorenza
Here, we have analyzed the subcellular destiny of newly synthesized tight junction protein zona occludens (ZO)-2. After transfection in sparse cells, 74% of cells exhibit ZO-2 at the nucleus, and after 18 h the value decreases to 17%. The mutation S369A located within the nuclear exportation signal 1 of ZO-2 impairs the nuclear export of the protein. Because Ser369 represents a putative protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation site, we tested the effect of PKC inhibition and stimulation on the nuclear export of ZO-2. Our results strongly suggest that the departure of ZO-2 from the nucleus is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser369 by novel PKCepsilon. To test the route taken by ZO-2 from synthesis to the plasma membrane, we devised a novel nuclear microinjection assay in which the nucleus served as a reservoir for anti-ZO-2 antibody. Through this assay, we demonstrate that a significant amount of newly synthesized ZO-2 goes into the nucleus and is later relocated to the plasma membrane. These results constitute novel information for understanding the mechanisms that regulate the intracellular fate of ZO-2.
Mallimaci María Cristina
Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la seroprevalencia de la infección por Trypanosoma cruzi en Ushuaia, la ciudad más austral del mundo. Métodos. Se analizaron muestras de suero de 2 991 personas, obtenidas entre enero de 1995 y diciembre de 1996. Las muestras fueron procesadas por hemaglutinación indirecta (HAI e inmunoensayo enzimático (ELISA o inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI. Resultados. La seroprevalencia general de la infección por T. cruzi fue de 6,8%. La prevalencia según el país de origen fue de 41,1% en los bolivianos, 5,0% en los argentinos y 0,9% en los chilenos; en embarazadas fue de 5,9%, en exámenes obligatorios de 6,3% y en consultas dirigidas de 30,8%. Conclusiones. Se destaca la magnitud de la infección por T. cruzi en una zona donde no existe el insecto vector. Debido al riesgo de la transmisión congénita y transfusional, es necesario mantener el control de la sangre a transfundir y reforzar el seguimiento de los hijos de mujeres infectadas para un diagnóstico precoz y tratamiento oportuno de la infección.
Sodo, Juan Manuel
Full Text Available [es] Pese a su tardía colocación como objeto legitimado al interior de las ciencias sociales, especialmente en América latina, los estudios sobre fútbol son abundantes. Contando con producciones de numerosos países, la masa textual generada al respecto crece y prolifera. No es nuestra intención en este artículo reponerla en la exhaustividad del detalle. Más bien se trata, primero, de cartografiar las procedencias disciplinares de esos textos. Y luego, de situar zonas de vacancia para investigaciones provenientes desde una mirada comunicacional. [en] In spite of its late placement as legitimized object to the interior of the social sciences, specially in Latin America, the studies on football are abundant. Relying on productions of numerous countries, the textual mass generated in the matter grows and proliferates. It is not our intention in this article to recover it with the thoroughness of the detail. Rather than that, the objective is to map the disciplinarian origins of these texts. And then, of placing zones of vacancy for researches that come from a communication perspective
Full Text Available An ultrastructural localization of lectin receptors on the zona pellucida (ZP of porcine antral oocytes and on the granulosa cells was performed using a panel of horseradish peroxidase- labelled lectins in conjunction with antiperoxidase antibody and protein A-gold. In some cases, lectin incubation was preceded by sialidase digestion. WGA-, Con-A-, UEA-I-, RCA-I-, PNA- and SBA-reactive sites were distributed differently in the porcine ZP. Sialidase digestion increased the positivity obtained with RCA-I and it was necessary to promote PNA and SBA reactivity. These results indicated that the ZP contained N-acetylglucosamine, a-mannose, a- fucose, b-Gal-(1-4GlcNAc, b-Gal- (1-3GalNAc, b-GalNAc and sialic acid residues. We also observed the presence of vesicles in both the ooplasm and granulosa cells, showing a similar lectin binding pattern to that of the ZP, thus suggesting that the oocyte and granulosa cells are the site of synthesis of ZP glucidic determinants.
Lucila Godínez Montoya
Full Text Available La investigación consistió en identificar los factores que determinan el ingreso corrien - te mensual de los hogares en la zona rural de Chiapas, aparte de las propias actividades agrícolas. Se planteó un modelo econométrico, en el cual el logaritmo del ingreso fue la variable dependiente y las explicativas fueron el sexo del jefe del hogar, la edad, la edad al cuadrado, jefe del hogar con primaria completa, jefe del hogar con secundaria com - pleta, jefe del hogar con preparatoria completa, los integrantes del hogar, perceptores de ingresos ocupados y los años de estudio del jefe del hogar. Los resultados indican que tanto el modelo como todos los coeficientes estimados fueron significativos y con los signos esperados; existiendo una relación directa entre la variable dependiente con el sexo, la edad; la primaria, secundaria y preparatoria completas, perceptores de ingre - sos ocupados y los años de estudio, y una relación inversa con la edad al cuadrado y los integrantes del hogar.
Anita Thea Saraswati
Full Text Available Aktivitas tektonik yang terjadi di bumi merupakan hal yang masih terus diteliti sampai sekarang. Sumatera yang terletak pada area Sunda Megathrust, yang merupakan zona subduksi Lempeng Indo-Australia dan Lempeng Eurasia, mengakibatkan daerah ini rentan dengan aktivitas seismogenic. Salah satu akibat dari adanya pergerakan kedua lempeng ini adalah terbentuknya tatanan tektonik di wilayah Sumatera. GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer menawarkan metode yang cepat dengan cakupan global untuk mendapatkan data gayaberat bumi. Dengan memanfaatkan hitungan dari spherical harmonic coeffisien (SHC serta dilengkapi dengan data Digital Elevation Model (DEM, dapat diketahui nilai anomali gayaberat pada suatu wilayah. Distribusi anomali gayaberat mampu mencerminkan kondisi tektonik di suatu area. Variasi spasial dari anomali gayaberat menunjukkan bahwa pada palung yang terbentuk akibat subduksi kedua lempeng memiliki nilai anomali gayaberat negatif dengan nilai rata-rata sebesar -42.8729 mgal. Forearc ridge yang terbentuk akibat konvergensi lempeng memiliki nilai anomali gayaberat positif, sedangkan forearc basin yang merupakan cekungan diantara backarc dan forearc ridge, memiliki nilai anomali gayaberat negatif yang lebih kuat daripada yang terdapat pada Sunda Megathrust. Variasi temporal yang teramati menunjukkan bahwa distribusi anomali gayaberat positif yang terdapat pada prisma akresi di kedua tepian palung bergerak semakin mendekati Sunda Megathrust pada tiap seri pengamatannya, sedangkan distribusi anomali gayaberat negatif pada palung laut dan forearc basin membentuk suatu pola distribusi yang semakin menyempit sehingga menyebabkan semakin curamnya gradient anomali gayaberat pada area di sekitarnya.
Cornejo, Susana; Herrera, Ariel; Hilas, Elena; Gigena, Y Pablo
El capital social supone importantes inversiones materiales, simbólicas y de esfuerzos. Conocer el capital social de una comunidad puede facilitar la comprensión del beneficio de las relaciones comunitarias para la promoción de salud. Con el objetivo de reconocer los componentes del capital social de padres de escolares atendiendo una escuela en una zona vulnerable de la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina, indagamos a través de grupos focales acerca de elementos esenciales del capital social. La asintonía socio-cultural entre los pobladores originarios y los reubicados, la estigmatización policial y el clientelismo político han generado desconfianza del uno hacia el otro en diferentes aspectos convivenciales, siendo la familia la única red de apoyo. La escuela se reconoce como espacio adonde la gente espontáneamente se organiza para invertir en redes sociales, presentándose así con potencialidad para la promoción de conductas saludables, por el lugar simbólico que ocupa para los padres.
Johnson, Wesley; Dai, Changsheng; Liu, Jun; Wang, Xian; Luu, Devin K; Zhang, Zhuoran; Ru, Changhai; Zhou, Chao; Tan, Min; Pu, Huayan; Xie, Shaorong; Peng, Yan; Luo, Jun; Sun, Yu
Mammalian oocytes such as mouse oocytes have a highly elastic outer membrane, zona pellucida (ZP) that cannot be penetrated without significantly deforming the oocyte, even with a sharp micropipette. Piezo drill devices leverage lateral and axial vibration of the micropipette to accomplish ZP penetration with greatly reduced oocyte deformation. However, existing piezo drills all rely on a large lateral micropipette vibration amplitude ( 20 ) and a small axial vibration amplitude (0.1 ). The very large lateral vibration amplitude has been deemed to be necessary for ZP penetration although it also induces larger oocyte deformation and more oocyte damage. This paper reports on a new piezo drill device that uses a flexure guidance mechanism and a systematically designed pulse train with an appropriate base frequency. Both simulation and experimental results demonstrate that a small lateral vibration amplitude (e.g., 2 ) and an axial vibration amplitude as large as 1.2 were achieved. Besides achieving 100% effectiveness in the penetration of mouse oocytes (n = 45), the new piezo device during ZP penetration induced a small oocyte deformation of 3.4 versus larger than 10 using existing piezo drill devices.
Saint-Clair Cordeiro da Trindade Júnior
Full Text Available Uma fase de rápida ocupação do território foi inaugurada a partir da década de 1960 na Amazônia. A presença de empresários, especuladores e migrantes, mediados por ações intencionais do Estado, definiu uma nova forma de ocupação territorial para a região. As estratégias de ação se basearam em pelo menos três tipos principais de ordenamento do território. Não obstante a continuidade existente entre eles, expressam-se em diferentes geometrias do desenvolvimento: os pontos (polos de crescimento, as linhas (eixos de integração e as zonas (zoneamento ecológico-ecomico. Considerando esses diferentes arranjos territoriais, o artigo busca considerar o papel assumido pelas cidades em cada uma dessas estratégias de desenvolvimento regional, de forma a mostrar mudanças e continuidades que se fazem presentes na história regional recentente da Amazônia
Diego Falconí Travez
Full Text Available Pablo Palacio, escritor ecuatoriano de la segunda década del siglo pasado, se encargó de construir en sus relatos un catálogo de cuerpos raros con sexualidades ambiguas e inquietantes que se alejan del canon andino al que él pertenece. No obstante, una de las cuestiones que más llama la atención es que varios de esos cuerpos son disciplinados por ciertos discursos de poder de un modo violento. Este trabajo explora desde la teoría literaria dichas vejaciones tomando en consideración la violencia sobre las identidades de mujeres y homosexuales en dos de sus relatos, e indaga sobre cuestiones como la economía de la representación, la violencia, su relación con el texto literario y la vulnerabilidad, como requisito sine qua non de las vejaciones, en ciertos cuerpos en la zona de los Andes.
Ricardo Siloto da Silva
Full Text Available Desde o estabelecimento das primeiras cidades, as áreas marginais aos rios são amplamente incorporadas na produção do espaço urbano. Visando contribuir para a reversão dos impactos da urbanização sobre estas áreas, o trabalho apresenta um método expedito para análise da qualidade ambiental nas zonas ripárias urbanas. Foi definido um conjunto de variáveis interdisciplinares e critérios de análise, e foram coletados dados em córregos localizados em cidades distintas. Como resultados parciais, o estudo identificou dificuldades quanto ao procedimento de coleta de dados o que conduziu a alteração dos critérios de análise para o sistema canal fluvial-zona ripária.
José Rafael Vásquez Polo
Full Text Available En el estudio se evaluaron las diferentes formas de hierro (Fe y aluminio (Al presentes en suelos cultivados y en áreas de bosque de la zona norte del departamento del Magdalena (Colombia. Se seleccionaron seis zonas de muestreo localizadas entre 0 y 1000 m.s.n.m. Se utilizaron tres técnicas selectivas de extracción de Fe y Al con los agentes extractantes: pirofosfato de sodio, oxalato ácido de amonio, y ditionito citrato bicarbonato. Los contenidos totales de Fe y Al fueron determinados mediante un ataque ácido y cuantificación por absorción atómica. El análisis de varianza multivariado mostró diferencias significativas (P 3% del Al total, lo que sugiere que un alto contenido de Al forma parte de estructuras cristalinas.
Javier Chávez Meléndez
Full Text Available El Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (BID desarrolló una metodología basada en una serie de indicadores denominada ICES (iniciativa de ciudades emergentes sustentables, que como primera etapa propone el diagnóstico de una ciudad o zona conurbada para poder planear las acciones futuras de mejora (BID, 2014. Este proyecto de investigación se sustentó en este modelo y en el modelo del IMCO. Para lo cual, se desarrolló una investigación descriptiva, con enfoque cuantitativo basada en el desarrollo de la dimensión de competitividad urbana en la zona sur de Tamaulipas. Los resultados obtenidos se presentan y permiten generar un espacio de acciones de planeación, reflexión y de formulación de políticas públicas.
Chague-Goff, C.; Goff, J. R.; Wong, H. K.; Sugawara, D.; SzczuciEski, W.
The 11 March 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami inundated large areas of farmland on the Sendai Plain, leaving behind a discontinuous, but extensive, sandy to muddy deposit coating paddy rice fields. Two months after the tsunami, many areas were still inundated on the low-lying plain. Salt crusts were also observed in many places where saltwater had evaporated. Field surveys were carried out in May, August, October 2011 and February 2012 along a ~ 5 km transect north of Sendai airport, to assess the environmental impact and temporal extent of the tsunami on farmland, with particular emphasis on contamination by salts. Evaporation led to elevated conductivity in ponded water, canals and channels in May 2011 (from brackish to saline), and while rainfall resulted in dilution, brackish water was still recorded in August and October 2011, and even in a few areas in February 2012. Our study revealed that not only the sediment deposited by the tsunami (sand-dominated up to 2.9 km inland, and mud-dominated up to 4.65 km inland) but also the underlying soil was contaminated by saltwater. Concentrations of up to 10.5% Cl, 6.6% Na, 2.8% SO4 and 440 mg kg-1 Br were recorded in May 2011 in surface sediment where seawater had ponded for a long time, as shown by extensive salt crust residues. The underlying rice paddy soil was also contaminated by saltwater, down to 15 cm depth, as revealed by high levels of water-leachable ions and cations. Data gathered over four sampling seasons 2, 5, 9 and 11 months after the tsunami show that the salt content generally decreased with time. Ion concentrations were however higher in February 2012 than in October 2011, probably due to evaporation following long periods with low precipitation. In February 2012, the area with chloride concentrations likely to result in brine damage in rice seedlings still extended from ~2.3 to ~3.3 km inland, with soil contamination by salt measured down to 15 cm depth in some places. Rice production was halted in 2011, and
Suzuki, W.; Yamamoto, N.; Miyoshi, T.; Aoi, S.
If the tsunami inundation information can be rapidly and stably forecast before the large tsunami attacks, the information would have effectively people realize the impeding danger and necessity of evacuation. Toward that goal, we have developed a prototype system to perform the real-time tsunami inundation forecast for Chiba prefecture, eastern Japan, using off-shore ocean bottom pressure data observed by the seafloor observation network for earthquakes and tsunamis along the Japan Trench (S-net) (Aoi et al., 2015, AGU). Because tsunami inundation simulation requires a large computation cost, we employ a database approach searching the pre-calculated tsunami scenarios that reasonably explain the observed S-net pressure data based on the multi-index method (Yamamoto et al., 2016, EPS). The scenario search is regularly repeated, not triggered by the occurrence of the tsunami event, and the forecast information is generated from the selected scenarios that meet the criterion. Test operation of the prototype system using the actual observation data started in April, 2017 and the performance and behavior of the system during non-tsunami event periods have been examined. It is found that the treatment of the noises affecting the observed data is the main issue to be solved toward the improvement of the system. Even if the observed pressure data are filtered to extract the tsunami signals, the noises in ordinary times or unusually large noises like high ocean waves due to storm affect the comparison between the observed and scenario data. Due to the noises, the tsunami scenarios are selected and the tsunami is forecast although any tsunami event does not actually occur. In most cases, the selected scenarios due to the noises have the fault models in the region along the Kurile or Izu-Bonin Trenches, far from the S-net region, or the fault models below the land. Based on the parallel operation of the forecast system with a different scenario search condition and
Javier Enrique Tovar-Puentes
Full Text Available La zona de amortiguamiento del Santuario de Flora y Fauna de Iguaque viene siendo afectada por los residentes aledaños, que expanden la frontera agrícola y ejercen presión hacia el área protegida en busca de mejorar sus condiciones socio-económicas y la variedad de alimentos para la familia; situación que genera un conflicto socio-ambiental. Partiendo de la importancia que en la actualidad se le ha dado al tema ecológico y medioambiental, se ha considerado fundamental buscar alternativas concretas de manejo que muestren un impacto positivo desde los puntos de vista ambiental, social, económico y agroecológico, derivándose del aprovechamiento racional de los recursos ecológicos. Dentro de las múltiples alternativas planteadas por el Estado y los gobiernos sectoriales, se habla del desarrollo sostenible, un modelo innovador que permite desplegar políticas productivas desarrolladas incluso en ambientes protegidos por el Estado, caso en concreto, el predio “Buena Vista”, en la zona de amortiguamiento del Santuario de Flora y Fauna de Iguaque, en el municipio de Arcabuco; en este predio se realizó una planificación para zonificar y dividir las aéreas, determinando los tipos de producción agroecológica que se adapten a las características de la zona, identificando las labores que facilitan la ubicación de los diferentes sistemas productivos, y así establecer una cadena productiva familiar diferente al monocultivo de papa, que faciliten la mano de obra y repercutan en la actividad social de la comunidad y ambiental en la zona amortiguadora.
Full Text Available Objetivo. En este trabajo se propone un esquema de tres fases para evaluar el riesgo en salud en las zonas mineras. La validación del esquema se efectuó en una zona de San Luis Potosí, México. Material y métodos. El monitoreo incluyó análisis de metales en suelo superficial, polvo residencial y agua de pozos. La biodisponibilidad se midió como el nivel de arsénico urinario en niños de las áreas contaminadas. La evaluación toxicológica consistió en análisis de la hepatotoxicidad (niveles de aspartato transaminasa y neurotoxicidad (niveles de dopamina y de sus metabolitos en ratas tratadas con residuos mineros. Resultados. Se encontró contaminación por arsénico y plomo en suelo y polvo. La biodisponibilidad fue positiva: 71% de los niños analizados tuvieron niveles urinarios de arsénico por arriba del valor normal. Los estudios de toxicidad mostraron daño hepático y alteraciones neuroquímicas en las ratas tratadas con el residuo. Conclusiones. El método fue útil para demostrar