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Sample records for zon rossijskikh bystrykh

  1. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  2. Solar PV. Innovators talking; Zon PV. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.

  3. Nitrate Measurment in Water Source of Karaj City and Zonning it Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Shakib; J. Rahimi; M. Noori Sepehr; M. Zarrabi

    2015-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Nitrate is one of drinking water pollutant which is introduced to water body from municipal wastewater. Information on nitrate concentration and its distribution in water resource is necessary in safe drinking water supply. For that reason, the present work was done for investigation of nitrate in Karaj water supply resource and its zonning with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Materials and Methods: In this work, the nitrate concentration in 200 wells of Karaj w...

  4. Effects of temperature and time on deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZON content in corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauković Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are Fusarium mycotoxins that occur in corn and corn-based foods and they have been implicated in several animal and human diseases. Their effect on human health is unclear, however, fumonisins are considered to be risk factors for cancer. Baking, frying, and extrusion cooking of corn at high temperatures (190°C reduce fumonisin concentrations in foods, with the amount of reduction achieved depending on cooking time, temperature, recipe, and other factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of temperature (200 and 220 °C and time (15 and 20 min on the detoxification of corn flour deliberately contaminated with DON and ZON. After processing at 200°C for 15 min, an average of 12% and after 20 min an average of 15% of DON was lost. At 200°C ZON content was reduced by 22% (after 15 min and by 27% (after 20 min. Higher temperature (220°C did not significantly affect further reduction of DON or ZON content. The process was only partially effective in both cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053

  5. 78 FR 56978 - In the Matter of Carbiz, Inc., InZon Corporation, IQ Micro, Inc., Irwin Financial Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Carbiz, Inc., InZon Corporation, IQ Micro, Inc., Irwin Financial Corporation, and Princeton Media Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension... information concerning the securities of IQ Micro, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...

  6. A pulsed fast reactor; Un reacteur pulse a neutrons rapides; Impul'snyj reaktor na bystrykh nejtronakh; Reactor rapido pulsado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhin, G. E.; Blokhintsev, D. I.; Blyumkina, Yu. A.; Bondarenko, I. I.; Deryagin, B. N.; Zajmovskij, A. S.; Zinov' ev, V. P.; Kazachkovskij, O. D.; Krasnoyarov, N. V.; Lejpunskij, A. I.; Malykh, V. A.; Nazarov, P. M.; Nikolaev, S. K.; Stavisskij, Yu. Ya.; Ukraintsev, F. I.; Frank, I. M.; Shapiro, F. Ji.; Yazvitskij, Yu. S. [Akademiya Nauk, Moscow, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    los impulsos de potencia. Asimismo, se efectuaron mediciones del periodo de los neutrones instantaneos, de la fraccion efectiva de neutrones retardados y de los coeficientes de variacion de la reactividad en funcion de la temperatura. (author) [Russian] Impul'snyj reaktor na bystrykh nejtronakh (IBR) rabotaet na nominal'noj moshchnosti v Obedinennom institute yadernykh issledovanij s dekabrya 1960 goda. Reaktor ispol'zuetsya v kachestve impul'snogo istochnika nejtronov dlya fizicheskikh ehksperimentov, provodimykh metodom vremeni proleta. Provodyatsya izmereniya polnogo secheniya, secheniya zakhvata dlya promezhutochnykh nejtronov, issledo- vaniya vzaimodejstviya medlennykh nejtronov s tverdym telom i s zhidkost'yu, izmereniya spektrov nejtronov, ustanavlivayushchikhs ya v. razlichnykh sredakh. V doklade opisany osnovy konstruktsii reaktora i rezul'taty ego issledovanij. Osnovnoj rezhim raboty reaktora-rezhim periodicheskikh impul'sov. Impul'sy moshchnosti voznikayut pri bystrom peremeshchenii podvizhnoj chasti aktivnoj zony reaktora cherez ego nepodvizhnuyu zonu. Podvizhnaya chast' aktivnoj zony zakreplena vo vrashchayushchemsya diske i dvizhetsya so skorost'yu-230 m/sek. Chastota impul'sov moshchnosti mozhet izmenyat'sya s pomoshch'yu vspomogatel'noj podvizhnoj zony v diapazone 2,3-88 im/sek. Srednyaya moshchnost' reaktora - 1 kvt. Polushirina impul'sa moshchnosti - 36 mksek. Reaktor snabzhen sistemoj upravleniya i zashchity, obespechivayushchej avtomaticheskoe podderzhanie srednej moshchnosti reaktora i ego bystruyu ostanovku v sluchae narusheniya rezhima. Reaktor snabzhen sistemoj vakuumirovanny kh nektronovodov, ispol'zuemykh v ehksperimentakh po vremeni proleta. Glavnyj nejtronovod imeet dlinu 1000 m. V protsesse puska i fizicheskikh issledovanij reaktora izuchalos' vliyanie peremeshcheniya organov regulirovaniya i podvizhnykh chastej aktivnoj zony na reaktivnost', izmeryalas' dlitel'nost' impul'sa pri razlichnykh rezhimakh raboty reaktora, izuchalis

  7. Solar activity variations cause climatic change. History of the climate and the dominant role of the sun; Wisselende zonne-activiteit veroorzaakt klimaatveranderingen. Klimaatgeschiedenis wijst op dominante rol van de zon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geel, B. [Instituut voor Biodiversiteit en Ecosysteem Dynamica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Bio-geological research shows that the climate is hypersensitive to small changes in the activities of the sun. Today and in the future the influence of the sun could very well be larger than the (possibly) increased greenhouse effect. If this turns out to be the case, it may constitute a major disaster for researchers, politicians and social organizations that have committed themselves exceedingly to the IPCC and the hypothesis of anthropogenic climate change. This disaster can be prevented if they are willing to take research of the climate archive in the ground seriously. [mk]. [Dutch] Biogeologisch onderzoek laat zien dat het klimaat hypergevoelig is voor kleine veranderingen in de activiteit van de zon. Ook heden ten dage en in de toekomst zou de invloed van de zon wel eens sterker kunnen zijn dan het (eventueel) versterkte broeikaseffect. Is dat inderdaad het geval dan betekent dat een enorm debacle voor onderzoekers, politici en maatschappelijke organisaties die zich verregaand hebben gecommitteerd aan het IPCC en de hypothese van antropogene klimaatverandering. Een debacle dat kan worden voorkomen als zij bereid zijn om onderzoek naar het klimaatarchief in de bodem serieus te nemen.

  8. La cassitérite zonée du gisement de Sokhret Allal (granite des Zaër ; Maroc central) : composition chimique et phases fluides associées

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Gaston

    1987-01-01

    La composition chimique d'une cassitérite zonée provenant du gisement de tungstène-étain de Sokhret Allal (Maroc central) a été analysée par microsonde électronique. La zonation optique du minéral correspond à des variations en éléments mineurs tels Fe et Ti. Les inclusions fluides contemporaines du dépôt de la cassitérite sont primaires et constituées de fluides typiquement aqueux appartenant au système H2O-NaCl. La contribution de ces nouvelles données dans la métallogenèse W-Sn du Maroc ce...

  9. Major accident analyses for experimental zero-power fast reactor assemblies; Analyse des accidents graves pouvant survenir dans les reacteurs experimentaux a neutrons rapides de puissance zero; Analiz krupnoj avarii dlya ehksperimental'ny kh reaktornykh ustanovok nulevoj moshchnosti na bystrykh nejtronakh; Analisis de los accidentes graves que pueden producirse en los reactores experimentales rapidos de potencia cero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G.; Barts, E. W.; Kapil, S.; Tomabechi, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    autores explican como han adaptado la clave AX-I para calculos neutronico-hidro-dinamicos al caso de un gas que se ajusta a la ecuacion de Van der Waals. Otra modificacion importante introducida en la ecuacion de estado utilizada en la clave, consiste en emplear una ecuacion del tipo de Mie-Gruneisen, derivada de la teoria del estado solido. Esta modificacion permite evaluar de manera mas satisfactoria del termino de presion para el caso de cuerpos de composicion variable. Dado que en un conjunto de potencia cero las placas de uranio fuertemente enriquecido en el isotopo-235, se calentaran con mas rapidez que las de uranio empobrecido, la posibilidad de que se produzca un efecto Doppler positivo neto es mucho mayor en un conjunto experimental que en el reactor de potencia reproductor equivalente. Se ha estudiado este peligro en el caso de diferentes conjuntos posibles. Los calculos indican que en un conjunto de potencia cero el coeficiente Doppler solo alcanza un valor peligroso en los sistemas que poseen un espectro de energias neutronicas muy blando, caracteristico de los grandes reactores de potencia reproductores, alimentados con oxido de uranio. (author) [Russian] Provedeno issledovanie vozmozhnosti, mekhanizma i posledstvij rasplavleniya, a takzhe drugikh krupnykh yadernykh intsidentov dlya ehksperimental'nog o reaktora nulevoj moshchnosti na bystrykh nejtronakh tipa ZPR-III dvukhpolovinchatog o tipa. V dopolnenie k ehtomu issledovaniyu provedena otsenka znacheniya ehffekta Dopplera dlya mnogikh yadernykh reaktornykh ustanovok takogo reaktora. V doklade budet pokazano, chto yavlenie rasplavleniya maloveroyatno vvidu ogranichennogo kolichestva yavlenij, kotorye nuzhno postulirovat'. Posle rassmotreniya mekhanizma razrusheniya budut dany rezul'taty raschetov, svyazannykh s nejtronnoj fizikoj i gidro-dinamikoj , dlya dvukh reaktornykh ustanovok nulevoj moshchnosti. Provedeno issledovanie aktivnoj zony emkost'yu 1200 litrov, kharakternoj dlya otnositel'no bol

  10. Design and construction of a fast critical facility; Etude et construction d'un ensemble critique a neutrons rapides; Proektirovanie i sooruzhenie kriticheskoj sborki na bystrykh nejtronakh; Proyecto u construccion de un conjunto critico de neutrones rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, W Y; Dates, L R [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    estudiar las propiedades fisicas de los grandes reactores, altamente diluidos, de com- bustible metalico o ceramico, desprovistos de moderador o parcialmente moderados, con cuerpos de hasta 1500 l de volumen. Los autores describen detalladamente el ZPR-VI y analizan los criterios seguidos en el diseno de sus diversos componentes desde el punto de vista de la fisica de reactores. Asimismo, formulan algunas observaciones acerca de los procedimientos de explotacion y manejo del reactor, los peligros que se pueden presentar durante su funcionamiento, las tecnicas experimentales que conviene emplear y los costos de construccion. (author) [Russian] V programme razrabotki ehnergeticheskikh reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh kriticheskaya sborka yavlyaetsya ves'ma poleznym sredstvom dlya kontrolirovani ya vychislitel'nykh metodov, proverki sbornikov sechenij nejtronov i polucheniya vsekh parametrov reaktornoj fiziki, neobkhodimykh dlya proektirovaniya yadernoj ehnergeticheskoj sistemy. 'Poskol'ku ona yavlyaetsya prezhde vsego fizicheskoj sistemoj, proektirovanie kriticheskoj sborki stavit samo po sebe ryad trudnykh problem, ne vstrechayushchikhsya pri proektirovanii ehnergeticheskogo reaktora. Krome obychnykh voprosov, svyazannykh s mestoraspolozheniem , obolochkoj reaktora, raschetom aktivnoj zony i kontrol'no-izmeritel'nym i priborami, voznikayut takie problemy, kak dostizhenie vysokoj stepeni gibkosti, sovmestimoj s bezopasnost'yu, opredelenie razmerov i tipa ustanovki, udovletvoryayushchi kh trebovaniyam ehksperimental'noj fiziki, opredelenie chisla i razmeshcheniya reguliruyushchikh i avarijnykh sterzhnej, svodyashchikh k minimumu posledstviya vozmushchenij, i spetsifikatsiya vosproizvodimost i reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej i drugikh podvizhnykh komponentov s tem, chtoby obespechit' toch- nost', neobkhodimuyu pri izmereniyakh reaktivnosti. EHto lish' nekotorye iz problem, kotorye obsuzhdayutsya v nastoyashchem doklade, osnovannom na poslednem ehksperimente v Argonnskoj natsional

  11. AgroSun. Outline of the prospect of solar PV as a structural chance for the agricultural sector [in the Netherlands]. Phase 1. Inventory, cost effectiveness and benchmark; AgroSun. Verkenning van de kansrijkheid van zon PV als structurele kans voor de agrarische sector. Fase 1. Inventarisatie, rentabiliteit en benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemmens, P. [Arvalis Projecten, Roermond (Netherlands); Buiter, W. [ZLTO Advies, Den Bosch (Netherlands); Veefkind, W. [Projecten LTO Noord, Zwolle (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    An overview is given of the opportunities of solar PV for the agricultural sector. Attention is paid to the technology, the market, technical indicators, economic aspects of solar panels, policy frameworks and subsidies, practical applications, future prospects, and alternative financing. Also conclusions and recommendations are given for the follow-up phase [Dutch] Dit rapport inventariseert de kansen die zon-pv biedt aan de agrarische sector. Achtereenvolgens: de technologie, de markt, technische kengetallen, economische aspecten van zonnepanelen, beleidsmatige kaders en subsidieregelingen, praktijktoepassingen, het toekomstperspectief en alternatieve financiering. Met conclusies en aanbevelingen voor een vervolgfase.

  12. Wat als de zon het licht uitdoet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Voor het leven op aarde speelt het aardmagnetisch veld een cruciale rol om ons tegen deze stroom geladen deeltjes te beschermen. In extreme situaties merken we de effecten van ruimteweer zelfs op aarde. Inzicht in het ruimteweer is daarom belangrijk om tijdig te kunnen beoordelen of zonneactiviteit

  13. Angular distributions of fast neutrons scattered by Al, Si, P, S and Zn; Distributions angulaires des neutrons rapides diffuses par Al, Si, P, S et Zn; Usloviya raspredeleniya bystrykh nejtronov, rasseyannykh alyuminiem, kremniem, fosforom i tsinkom; Distribuciones angulares de neutrones rapidos dispersados por Al, Si, P, S y Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tstjkaija, K; Tanaka, S; Maeuyama, M; Tomita, Y [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-Mtjea (Japan)

    1962-03-15

    Differential scattering cross-sections of Al, Si, P, S and Zn for fast neutrons have been measured in an energy range of 3.4 to 4.6 MeV by using the time-of-flight method. Angular distributions of the inelastically scattered neutrons are nearly isotropic in all cases. These results are discussed on the basis of the Hauser-Feshbach theory. (author) [French] Les sections efficaces differentielles de diffusion de Al, Si, P, S et Zn pour des neutrons rapides ont ete mesurees dans la gamme d'energies de 3,4 a 4,6 MeV, en employant la methode du temps de vol. Les distributions angulaires des neutrons diffuses inelastiquement sont presque isotropes dans tous les cas. Les auteurs analysent ces resultats en se fondant sur la theorie de Hauser-Feshbach. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han medido por el metodo del tiempo de vuelo las secciones eficaces diferenciales de dispersion del Al, Si, P, S y Zn para neutrones rapidos de energia comprendida entre 3,4 y 4,6 MeV. Las distribuciones angulares de los neutrones dispersados inelasticamente son casi isotropicas en todos los casos. Los autores analizan los resultados obtenidos basandose en la teoria de Hauser-Feshbach . (author) [Russian] Differentsial'no e sechenie rasseyaniya alyuminiya, kremniya, fosfora, sery i tsinka dlya bystrykh nejtronov izmereno v diapazone ehnergii ot 3,4 do 4,6 Megaehlektronvol't ispol'zovanie m metoda vremeni proleta. Uglovye raspredeleniya neuprugo rasseyannykh nejtronov yavlyayutsya pochti vo vsekh sluchayakh izotropnymi. Jeti rezul'taty obsuzhdayutsya na osnove teorii Hauzera-Feshbakha. (author)

  14. Group cross-sections for fast reactors; Sections efficaces de groupes pour les reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Gruppovye secheniya reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Secciones eficaces de grupos para reactores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweifel, P P [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ball, G L [Atomic Power Development Associates, Inc., Detroit, MI (United States)

    1962-03-15

    entre coeficientes de difusion de grupos, capacidad de moderacion y secciones eficaces de absorcion. Se demuestra que la definicion de las secciones eficaces de absorcion de grupos basada en integrales de resonancia eficaz que se emplea frecuentemente no es correcta, siendo preciso modificarla de acuerdo con el metodo de grupos multiples que se utilice. (author) [Russian] Daetsya obshchij obzor mnogogruppovykh diffuzionnykh uravnenij i rassmatrivaetsya pravil'naya forma gruppovykh poperechnykh sechenij. V chastnosti, pokazano, chto srednee poperechnoe sechenie perenosa mozhet do nekotoroj stepeni priblizitel'no byt' vyrazheno v vide srednej velichiny svobodnogo probega. Podschet takogo kolichestva zanimaet mnogo vremeni, tak kak on ne poddaetsya vyrazheniyu v vide ehlementarnogo usredneniya ; odnako podtverdilis' nekotorye neravnomernosti chto uproshchaet neobkhodimyj metod usredneniya. Rassmatrivayutsya tri sleduyushchikh voprosa gruppovykh poperechnykh sechenij, kotorye chasto ignoriruyutsya, no kotorye mogut imet' znachenie pri detal'nom izuchenii proekta : a) Ispol'zovanie odnoj i toj zhe serii usrednennykh po gruppam sechenij dlya vsekh reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh nichego ne daet, esli spektry razlichnykh reaktorov ne odinakovy i esli secheniya bystro izmenyayutsya v gruppe; takoe polozhenie chasto imeet mesto. Daetsya opisanie metoda povtoreniya, posredstvom kotorogo ustanavlivaetsya pravil'noe usrednenie, i ehtot metod ispol'zuetsya dlya opredeleniya vliyaniya spektral'nykh ehffektov na reaktornye raschety. b) Pri raschetakh perenosa, takikh, kak S{sub n} usredneniya dolzhny byt' vypolneny kak po uglu, tak i po ehnergii. Tak kak potok nel'zya razdelit' na 'uglovoj' i 'ehnergeticheskij', neobkhodimo ochen' tshchatel'no izbegat' oshibochnykh rezul'tatov. Uravnenie S{sub n} izuchaetsya v vide prostoj modeli, i poluchaetsya kriterij, kotoryj mozhet okazat'sya poleznym pri opredelenii znacheniya uglovoj nerazdelimosti v reaktornykh raschetakh. c) Na osnove

  15. A critical summary of microscopic fast-neutron interactions with reactor structural, fissile and fertile materials; Apercu critique des interactions microscopiques des neutrons rapides avec les materiaux de construction et les matieres fissiles et fertiles utilisees dans les reacteurs; Kriticheskij obzor mikroskopicheskog o vzaimodejstviya bystrykh nejtronov s konstruktsionnymi, rasshcheplyayushchimis ya i vosproizvodyashchim i reaktornymi materialami; Resumen critico de las interacciones microscopicas de los neutrones rapidos con los materiales estructurales fisionables y fertiles utilizados en los reactores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A B [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    reactions provoquees par des neutrons rapides, en insistant sur les conditions que doivent remplir, dans les reacteurs, les donnees nucleaires fondamentales. (author) [Spanish] El autor examina el estado actual de los conocimientos acerca de las reacciones inducidas por los neutrones rapidos que se utilizan en el proyecto de reactores nucleares. Estudia con particular atencion los metodos experimentales microscopicos, sus resultados y la precision de los mismos. Considera con detalle la dispersion de los neutrones rapidos, y da los resultados de mediciones experimentales de la dispersion en el caso del oxigeno, hierro, zirconio, niobio, wolframio, torio y uranio. Expone los resultados mas significativos de los estudios experimentales de la captura de neutrones rapidos y de la fision inducida por los mismos. Las mediciones estudiadas no solo conducen a resultados de gran utilidad practica, sino que sirven como ejemplos de la aplicacion de las tecnicas nucleares experimentales mas modernas. El autor indica los terrenos en que la informacion experimental es limitada, contradictoria o inexistente. Por ultimo, formula previsiones sobre el desarrollo de los conocimientos relativos a las reacciones de los neutrones rapidos, subrayando lo referente al cumplimiento de las condiciones necesarias para que el reactor proporcione datos nucleares basicos. (author) [Russian] V doklade rassmatrivaetsya primenenie shiroko rasprostranenny kh znanij o reaktsiyakh, vyzyvaemykh bystrymi nejtronami v yadernykh proektakh reaktornykh sistem. Osnovnoe znachenie pridaetsya mikroskopicheski m ehksperimental'ny m metodam, rezul'tatam i tochnosti. Podrobno rassmatrivaetsya rasseyanie bystrykh nejtronov, vklyuchaya rezul'taty ehksperimental'nogo opredeleniya rasseyaniya na kislorode, zheleze, tsirkonii, niobii, vol'frame, torii i urane. Privodyatsya dannye, poluchennye v rezul'tate ehksperimental'ny kh issledovanij zakhvata bystrykh nejtronov i deleniya, vyzvannogo nejtronami. Izmereniya, privedennye v

  16. The determination of sulphur in materials of high neutron absorption cross-section by fast-neutron activation analysis; Determination du soufre dans les matieres de forte section efficace d'absorption neutronique, au moyen d'une analyse par activation avec des neutrons rapides; Opredelenie sery v materialakh s bol'shim secheniem pogloshcheniya nejtronov metodom aktivatsionnogo analiza bystrykh nejtronov; Determinacion del azufre en sustancias de elevada seccion eficaz de absorcion neutronica mediante analisis por activacion con neutrones rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, D; Simpson, H [Wantage Research Laboratory (A.E.R.E.), Wantage, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    secciones eficaces de absorcion para los neutrones rapidos son mucho mas bajas que para los lentos lo cual reduce considerablemente los errores debidos al autoblindaje. La interferencia debida a la reaccion (n, {gamma}) causada por los neutrones lentos en el fosforo natural puede eliminarse gracias a una tecnica que consiste en efectuar irradiaciones dobles en regiones del reactor en que varien las razones del flujo de neutrones lentos a neutrones rapidos. El metodo se ha aplicado a la determinacion del azufre en cromo y arsenico. (author) [Russian] Proizvodstvo radiofosfora pri vzaimodejstvii bystrykh nejtronov (n, p) s seroj ispol'zuetsya dlya opredeleniya sery s pomoshch'yu aktivatsionnogo analiza. Ispol'zovanie dannogo metoda pozvolyaet opredelit' nalichie sery v materialakh s bol'shim secheniem pogloshcheniya teplovykh nejtronov, t.k. sechenie pogloshcheniya bystrykh nejtronov, kak pravilo, znachitel'no men'she, chem medlennykh nejtronov, chto pozvolyaet zametno snizit' veroyatnost' oshibok iz-za samozashchity. Pomekhi iz-za reaktsii (n, {gamma}) na medlennykh nejtronakh s estestvennym fosforom ustranyayutsya metodom dvojnogo oblucheniya v mestakh s razlichnym otnosheniem potokov bystrykh i medlennykh nejtronov. Dannyj metod primenyalsya dlya opredeleniya sery v khrome i mysh'yake. (author)

  17. Integral physics data for fast-reactor design; Donnees de physique integrale intervenant dans les etudes de reacteur a neutrons rapides; Integral'nye fizicheskie dannye dlya raschetov reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Datos fisicos integrales para el diseno de reactores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenstein, W B; Meneghetti, D [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    subcriticos, de las diversas magnitudes fisicas que presentan interes practico u/o teorico. Esas magnitudes fisicas caracterizan al sistema y permiten comprenderlo. Las mediciones mencionadas se refieren a la masa critica, el factor de forma del cuerpo, las razones de deteccion, los espectros neutronicos, los experimentos de sustitucion de materiales, la economia del reflector, la vida de los neutrones, el {alpha} de Rossi y otras magnitudes analogas. Los autores examinan estos datos y definen su campo de aplicacion. Demuestran que existen limites de validez para los resultados experimentales y analiticos en ciertos estudios espectrales y de criticidad. Proponen algunas investigaciones experimentales y analiticas que podrian constituir el objeto de futuros trabajos y que contribuirian a colmar la laguna entre la teoria y la experimentacion en los sistemas 'conocidos'. Al mismo tiempo, entre dichas investigaciones sugeridas se incluyen algunas tendientes a asentar sobre bases mas firmes la fisica de los modelos de reactores de potencia reproductores rapidos. (author) [Russian] Dlya sostavlennogo nedavno razdela o fizike reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh, kotoryj dolzhen vojti v vypuskaemoe vtoroe izdanie 'Postoyannye fiziki reaktorov', potrebovalos' sobrat' material po imeyushchimsya ehksperimental'ny m integral'nym dannym. Pri vklyuchenii v sostavlennyj razdel integral'nykh dannykh o fizike reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh, pomimo fakta ikh nalichiya, za osnovu byli vzyaty dva kriteriya: 1. ehti dannye polucheny iz otnositel'no prostykh sistem, kotorye pozvolyayut provodit' prostye teoreticheskie analizy; 2. slozhnye sistemy, kotorye yavlyayutsya prototipami ili modelyami, predstavlyayut osnovnoj interes dlya ehnergeticheskikh bystrykh reaktorov. Pervyj kriterij byl prinyat dlya togo, chtoby dat' perechen' integral'nykh dannykh takikh sistem, imeyushchikh ochen' obshchee primenenie dlya proverki parametrov secheniya i metodov raschetov. Vtoroj kriterij daet imeyushchiesya

  18. Effect of the plutonium isotopic composition on the performance of fast reactors; Effet de la composition isotopique du plutonium sur le rendement de reacteurs a neutrons rapides; Vliyanie izotopnogo sostava plutoniya na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh; Efectos de la composicion isotopica del plutonio sobre el funcionamiento de los reactores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiftah, S [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (Israel)

    1962-03-15

    fisionables por neutrones termicos ({sup 239}Pu y {sup 241}Pu), cuanto mas impuro sea el plutonio, tanto menor sera la masa critica y mayor la razon de reproduccion. Tomando como ejemplo el reactor de 1500 l, se comprobo ademas que al eliminar un 40 por ciento del sodio inicialmente presente en el cuerpo, la variacion de reactividad tiende a ser negativa a medida que aumenta la proporcion de isotopos superiores contenidos en el combustible de plutonio (en forma de metal, oxido o carburo). (author) [Russian] Izotopnyj sostav plutoniya, kotoryj dolzhen ispol'zovat'sya v kachestve goryuchego dlya reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh, budet zaviset' ot istochnika polucheniya plutoniya. V printsipe vozmozhny tri razlichnykh istochnika: a) proizvodyashchie reaktory; b) teplovye ehnergeticheskie reaktory (ispol'zuyushchie v kachestve topliva estestvennyj ili obogashchennyj uran); c) zony vosproizvodstv a reaktora na bystrykh nejtronakh. V osnovnom istochnik (a) i v nekotorom otnoshenii istochnik (s) budut davat' sravnitel'no 'chistyj' plutonij, t.e. glavnym obrazom plutonij-239, togda kak plutonij iz istochnika (b) budet 'gryaznym', t.e. plutoniem, bogatym izotopami plutoniya-240, plutoniya-241 i plutoniya-242. Stepen' 'zagryazneniya' budet zaviset' ot tipa reaktora, velichiny vygoraniya i voobshche ot istorii oblucheniya topliva. V takom sluchae voznikaet vopros, mozhno li ispol'zovat' v kachestve goryuchego dlya reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh lyubye vidy plutoniya. Dlya izucheniya vliyaniya razlichnogo izotopnogo sostava plutonievogo topliva v metallicheskom, oksidnom i karbidnom vide na rabotu reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh byli osushchestvleny ogranichennye serii podschetov po 16-gruppovoj diffuzionnoj teorii sfericheskoj geometrii s pomoshch'yu 16-gruppovogo komplekta poperechnykh sechenij, razrabotannogo nedavno Iftakhom, Okrentom i Mol'dauerom s ispol'zovaniem trekh razlichnykh vidov plutoniya, nachinaya s chistogo plutoniya-239 i povyshaya kolichestvo bolee vysokikh izotopov

  19. A review of calculation methods for fast and intermediate reactors; Expose des methodes pour le calcul de reacteurs a neutrons rapides et intermediaires; Obzor metodov rascheta reaktorov na promezhutochnykh i bystrykh nejtronakh; Estudio panoramico de los metodos de calculo de los reactores rapidos e intermedios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchuk, G I [Akademiya Nauk, Moskva, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    de ecuaciones fundamentales y conjugadas de la teoria de los multigrupos. Expone luego diversas aplicaciones de la teoria de la perturbacion a los problemas del calculo fisico del reactor. Examina los metodos numericos de resolucion de las ecuaciones fundamentales y conjugadas que expresan el funcionamiento del reactor sobre la base del metodo de los armonicos esfericos. Explica asimismo como se utiliza el metodo de las caracteristicas en la solucion de problemas relativos a la masa critica del reactor. Describe los metodos de calculo de los reactores con moderadores que contienen hidrogeno y, por fin, expone las bases de un modelo efectivo fundado en la teoria de un solo grupo, aplicable al reactor. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdaetsya razvitie metodov rascheta yadernykh reaktorov na promezhutochnykh i bystrykh nejtronakh. Rassmatrivayuts ya razlichnye postanovki zadach fizicheskogo rascheta. Obsuzhdaetsya uchet rezonansnykh ehffektov. Vvodyatsya v rassmotrenie mnogogruppovy e sistemy 'osnovnykh i sopryazhennykh uravnenij. Daetsya razlichnoe primenenie teorii vozmushchenij k zadacham fizicheskogo rascheta reaktora. Rassmatrivayuts ya chislennye metody resheniya osnovnykh i sopryazhennykh uravnenij reaktora v priblizhenii metoda sfericheskikh garmonik. Daetsya primenenie metoda kharakteristik k resheniyu zadach na kriticheskuyu massu reaktora. Izlagayutsya metody rascheta reaktorov s vodorodsoderzhashchim i zamedlitelyami . Izlagayutsya osnovy ehffektivnoj odnogruppovoj modeli reaktora. (author)

  20. Fission gas pressure build-up and fast-breeder economy; Accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission et economie des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides; Nakoplenie davleniya gazov produktov deleniya i ehkonomika reaktorov-razmnozhitelej na bystrykh nejtronakh; Aumento de la presion de los gases de fision y economia de los reactores reproductores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, P [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    materiales de alta resistencia, tales como el Inconel-X y el molibdeno pueden soportar la presion de los gases de fision a las temperaturas de funcionamiento corrientes. Desgraciadamente , la seccion eficaz de absorcion de estos materiales es superior a la del acero inoxidable. El autor presenta los resultados de calculos, realizados segun una teoria de varios grupos, que permite conocer el efecto de la utilizacion de estos materiales y de la disminucion de la densidad del combustible, sobre la masa critica y sobre la razon de reproduccion en los reactores reproductores de pequenas y medianas dimensiones. (author) [Russian] Na stoimost' toplivnogo tsikla i na vremya udvoeniya reaktorovbriderov na bystrykh nejtronakh sil'no vliyaet stepen' dostigaemogo vygoraniya topliva. Ispol'zovani e oksidnogo ili karbidnogo topliva daet vozmozhnost' dostignut' vygoraniya poryadka 100 000 mvt-n/t. V toplivnykh ehlementakh s pokrytiem ogranichivayushchi m faktorom yavlyaetsya rost gazov produktov deleniya. Pri rassmatrivaemo m vysokom vygoranii poddayushchayasya otsenke fraktsiya gazov, obrazuemykh pri delenii, popadaet v pory i tem samym uvelichivaet davlenie na obolochku. Iskhodya iz izvestnykh vykhodov produktov deleniya i tsepochek raspada bylo vychisleno kolichestvo obrazuyushchegosya gaza i sozdavaemoe im davlenie. Pri raschete davleniya, dejstvuyushchego na obolochku, byli ispol'zovany tri fizicheskikh modeli: i) gaz soderzhalsya v svyazanykh mezhdu soboj porakh, ii) v otdel'nykh porakh i iii) v tsentral'nom otverstii. Budet rassmotrena zavisimost' davleniya ot svobodnogo ob{sup e}ma (plotnost' topliva) i temperatury. Obolochki, izgotovlennye iz vysokoprochnykh materialov, naprimer, iz inkonelya-Kh i molibdena, mogli by vyderzhat' pri rabochikh temperaturakh davlenie gazov, vydelyayushchikhsya v rezul'tate deleniya. K sozhaleniyu, ehti materialy obladayut bolee vysokimi poperechnymi secheniyami pogloshcheniya, chem nerzhaveyushchaya stal'. Budut dany rezul'taty mnogogruppovog o

  1. Status of computational and experimental correlations for Los Alamos fast-neutron critical assemblies; Correlation entre les calculs et les experiences sur les ensembles critiques a neutrons rapides de Los Alamos; Sostoyanie vychislitel'nykh i ehksperimental'nykh korrelyatsij dlya Los-Alamosskoj kriticheskoj sistemy na bystrykh nejtronakh; Conjuntos criticos de neutrones rapidos de Los Alamos; correlacion entre resultados calculados y experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, G E [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-03-15

    conjuntos de {sup 233}U en geometria esferica sin reflector o con un reflector constituido por una espesa capa de uranio. El autor expondra correlaciones directas entre los datos experimentales, para indicar que existe a priori la posibilidad de alcanzar correlaciones satisfactorias con los datos calculados. Tambien presentara, para diversos conjuntos tipicos y a fin de establecer los detalles de calculo necesarios la sensitividad de los espestros calculados y de los tamanos criticos a los modelos de transporte nsutronico (aproximaciones de transporte e hipotesis de proporcionalidad) y a las aproximacione s aritmeticas (hipotesis de la segmentacion angular finita y representacione s de grupos multiples). Las comparaciones entre los resultados experimentales y las evaluasiones se refieren a los indices espectrales y a los tamanos criticos, asi como a los periodos de semidesintegracion y a las razones correspondientes a los neutrones retardados. (author) [Russian] Novye sistemy i uluchshennaya izmeritel'naya tekhnika predusmatrivayu t periodicheskij peresmotr sostoyaniya vychislenij v zavisimosti ot ehksperimenta. Sleduet podcherknut' vazhnost' nejtronno-spektral'nykh kharakteristik iz-za osobenno trudnorazreshimykh problem, svyazannykhs absolyutnym izmereniem spektral'nykh indeksov i neobkhodimost'yu proverok vychislenij sverkh prostogo kriticheskogo razmera. Postoyannoe uluchshenie izmereniya spektral'nykh indeksov vmeste s uvelicheniem tochnosti kak mikroskopicheskikh dannykh dlya detektora i materialov sborok, tak i vychislitel'noj tekhniki, privodit k postepennomu proyasneniyu kharakteristik gruppy kriticheskikh sistem na bystrykh nejtronakh. Ehta gruppa sejchas vklyuchaet aktivnye zony s U{sup 233} bez otrazhatelya i s tolstym uranovym otrazhatelem. Pryamaya korrelyatsiya sredi ehksperimental'ny kh dannykh budet predstavlena s tsel'yu ukazat' predshestvuyushchi e vozmozhnosti dlya uspeshnykh korrelyatsij s vychisleniem. Budet predstavlena chuvstvitel

  2. The effective lifetime and temperature coefficient in a coupled fast-thermal reactor; Temps de vie effectif et coefficient de temperature dans un reacteur a couplage neutrons rapides-neutrons thermiques; Ehffektivnyj srok zhizni i temperaturnyj koehffitsient nejtronov v dvoyakom reaktore na bystrykh i teplovykh nejtronakh; Vida efectiva y coeficiente de temperatura en un reactor con acoplamiento rapido-termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W. [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    . Teplovoj komponent dejstvuet kak svoego roda zamedlitel' vremeni zhizni nejtronov. Kak i v teorii zapazdyvayushchikh nejtronov, ehffekt zapazdyvaniya ischezaet, esli reaktivnost' dostatochno vysoka, chtoby bystryj komponent stal kritichnym sam po sebe. V issledovanii rassmatrivalsya sparennyj reaktor, v kotorom bystryj komponent podvergaetsya dejstviyu vnezapnogo stupenchatogo skachka reaktivnosti {alpha}{sub 0}. Izza vozrastayushchego urovnya ehnergii temperatura podnimaetsya i nachinayut rabotat' dva temperaturnykh koehffitsienta: temperaturnyj koehffitsient bystrogo komponenta i temperaturnyj koehffitsient teplovogo komponenta. Ehta problema rassmatrivaetsya s odnoj gruppoj zapazdyvayushchikh nejtronov (v obychnom znachenii). Privoditsya formalizm dlya vyrazheniya ehffektivnogo sroka zhizni i temperaturnogo koehffitsienta vo vremya razlichnykh stadij issledovaniya. Dany takie otkloneniya dlya razlichnykh znachenij {alpha}{sub 0}, pri kotorykh dostigaetsya predel kinetiki reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh. (author)

  3. Niets nieuws onder de zon en andere toevalligheden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.; Wetzels, R.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    'Strategie is niets meer of minder dan achteraf het genie erin naaien.' Het vernuft van de strategie zit in het 'toeval', een spontaan antwoord op een domme vraag van een slimme klant en krijgt achteraf de juiste betekenis door herkadering van de feiten. Strategiesessies zijn vaak niet meer dan

  4. Measurement of resonance parameters of cross-sections affecting fast-neutron propagation in various media; Mesure des parametres de resonance de sections efficaces lies a la propagation des neutrons dans differents milieux; Izmerenie parametrov rezonansnoj struktury sechenij, vliyayushchikh na rasprostranenie bystrykh nejtronov v sredakh; Medicion de los parametros de resonancia de las secciones eficaces que afectan a la propagacion de los neutrones rapidos en distintos medios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaev, M N; Filippov, V V; Bondarenko, I I [Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian Federation)

    1962-03-15

    propagacion de los neutrones en la materia abarca desde algunas decenas de kiloelectron-voltios , para los nucleos pesados, hasta unos cuantos mega-electron-voltios, para los nucleos intermedios. Para poder tener en cuenta los efectos de resonancia en el calculo de los parametros de los grupos, es indispensable conocer no solo las secciones eficaces medias correspondientes a las reacciones de los neutrones con la materia, sino tambien algunas magnitudes tales como (1/{Sigma}{sub t}), (1/{Sigma}{sub t}{sup 2}) etc. - los corchetes indican que se toman valores promedios de los grupos energeticos. La informacion de que se dispone actualement acerca de los parametros de resonancia en el terreno de los neutrones rapidos no permite calcular las magnitudes mencionadas con la exactitud necesaria. Por tal razon interesa medir directamente (1/{Sigma}{sub t}), (1/{Sigma}{sub t}{sup 2}) y otros valores analogos. Los autores presentan los resultados de las mediciones de una serie de parametros tales como ({Sigma}{sub t}), ({Sigma}{sub t}{sup 2}), (1/{Sigma}{sub t}), (1/{Sigma}{sub t}{sup 2}), (1/{Sigma}{sub t}{sup 3}), etc. que caracterizan la estructura de las secciones eficaces de una serie de nucleos intermedios para neutrones de energia comprendida entre 300 keV y 3 MeV. Dichos valores se dedujeron analizando las curvas de paso a traves de la materia, obtenidas con una geometria favorable, hasta un valor limite de 10{sup -2}, aproximadamente . Los datos obtenidos demuestran que los efectos de resonancia ejercen una notable influencia sobre las caracteristicas de la difusion en la materia. (author) [Russian] Pri sostavlenii sistem mnogogruppovykh konstant dlya rascheta reaktorov na bystrykh i promezhutochnykh nejtronakh vo mnogikh sluchayakh neobkhodimo uchityvat' ehffekty samoehkranirovki , svyazannye s rezonansnoj strukturoj sechenij. EHnergeticheskaya oblast', v kotoroj rezonansnaya struktura okazyvaet sushchestvennoe vliyanie na rasprostranenie nejtronov v veshchestve

  5. MASURCA, a Fast-Neutron Critical Mock-Up: Operation and Uses; MASURCA. Maquette Critique a Neutrons Rapides. Description Fonctionnelle et Obiectifs; ''MAZURKA'' - kriticheskaya model' na bystrykh nejtronakh. funktsional'noe opisanie i tseli; Descripcion Funcional y Objetivos de la Maqueta Critica de Neutrones Rapidos 'MASURCA '

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A. P.; Storrer, F.; Vendryes, G. [Association CEA-EURATOM, Cadarache (France); Tavernier, G.; Van Dievoet, J. [Societe Belgo-Nucleaire, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1964-02-15

    . (author) [Russian] V nastojashhee vremja v Centre jadernyh issledovanij Kadarash v ramkah Associacii Evratom -KAJe konstruiruetsja kriticheskij maket na bystryh nejtro- nah pod nazvaniem {sup M}azurka{sup .} Jeta ustanovka obladaet bol'shimi vozmozhnostjami dlja pro- vedenija jeksperimentov i prednaznachena glavnym obrazom dlja provedenija issledovanij na krupnyh plutonievyh kriticheskih sborkah bez zamedlitelej s otnositel'no podvizhnym nej- tronnym spektrom. Izlagajutsja celi issledovanij, dlja osushhestvlenija kotoryh podobnaja ustanovka dolzhna otvechat' opredelennym uslovijam. Prezhde vsego ona dolzhna imet' bol'shuju gibkost' v ispol'zovanii i obespechivat' pochti absoljutnuju bezopasnost' v rabote. Problema bezopasnosti byla reshena putem: 1 .Issledovanija prisushhej ustanovke bezopasnosti; jelementy, imitirujushhie toplivo, pozvolili poluchit': a) kojefficient otricatel'noj reaktivnosti v rezul'tate kumu- ljativnogo prodol'nogo rasshirenija jetih jelementov; b) otricatel'nyj kojefficient Dopplera. 2 .Ispol'zovanija puchka avarijnyh upravljajushhih sterzhnej i kompensirujushhih sterzhnej; jeti sterzhni mogut razmeshhat'sja na reshetke s kvadratom 30 sm. 3.Primenenija germeticheskoj kamery s argonom na sluchaj pozhara. 4 . Strogogo administrativnogo kontrolja. Vybor metallicheskogo splava uran -plutonij -zhelezo v kachestve osnovnogo jelementa imitirovanija topliva zastavljaet predusmatrivat' ohlazhdenie krupnyh kriticheskih sborok v ustanovke. Natrij v kachestve zhidkogo ohladitelja dlja modeliruemyh reaktorov predstavlen natrie- vymi palochkami v obolochke iz nerzhavejushhej stali. Jeta ustanovka predstavljaet soboj vertikal'no-monoblokovyj tip. Takoj vybor ob{sup -} jasnjaetsja stremleniem poluchit' maksimal'nyj ob{sup e}m aktivnyh zon, kotoryj bylo predusmot- reno modelirovat' (porjadka 5000 l). Imitirujushhie jelementy imejut formu prjamoj prizmy s kvadratnym osnovaniem (krome toplivnyh jelementov s krugovoj osnovoj) s vneshnej storonoj (ili diametrom) 12,7 mm

  6. The Control of Fast Reactors: Current Methods and Future Prospects; Controle des Reacteurs a Neutrons Rapides. Methodes Actuelles et Perspectives d'Avenir; Upravlenie reaktorami na bystrykh nejtronakh. sushchestvuyushchie metody i dal'nejshie perspektivy; Control de Reactores Rapidos: Metodos Actuales y Perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenstein, W. B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1964-06-15

    materialov aktivnoj zon'/. Primenjaetsja takzhe ogranichennyj kontrol' s pomoshh'ju poglotitelej. Odnako ni odin iz jetih metodov ne daet sushhestvennogo preimushhestva dlja togo, chtoby ego primenjat' k jenergeticheskim reaktoram- razmnozhiteljam krupnyh central'nyh atomnyh stancij, esli vnutrennij (v aktivnoj zone) kojefficient vosproizvodstva ne javljaetsja ochen' vysokim. Dolzhna byt' projavlena bol'shaja izobretatel'nost' dlja togo, cht.oby ispol'zovat' libo metod poglotitelja, libo metod regulirovki spektral'nogo smeshhenija, ne okazav ser'eznogo vlijanija na zhelaemuju i ..chasto trebuemuju jekonomiju nejtronov. Privodjatsja rezul'taty issledovanij, imejushhie-otnoshenie k usovershenstvovannym sistemam. Reaktivnost', neobhodimaja dlja upravlenija reaktorom, opredeljaetsja potrebnostjami ostanovki reaktora, toplivnym ciklom reaktora (izbytochnaja reaktivnost') i v gorazdo men'shej stepeni dominirujushhej obratnoj svjaz'ju. Trebovanija k izbytochnoj reaktivnosti, mogut byt' s uspehom opredeleny dannym toplivnym ciklom, odnako mogut znachitel'no var'irovat'sja dlja celogo rjada analogichnyh sistem, rabotajushhih na razlichnyh toplivnyh ciklah. Neobhodimuju ostatochnuju reaktivnost' mozhno ustanovit' pochti proizvol'no vyshe opredelennoj predel'noj velichiny. Odnako imeetsja celyj rjad filosofskih momentov, kotorye kasajutsja specifikacii jetogo parametra. Jeti soobrazhenija obsuzhdajutsja s tochki zrenija regulirovki reaktivnosti v sushhestvujushhih reaktorah na bystryh nejtronah, poskol'ku jeto svjazano s kolichestvom, kotoroe dejstvitel'no trebuetsja dlja jekspluatacii jenergeticheskih reaktorov-razmnozhitelej. Privodjatsja tipichnye parametry moshhnosti i parametry temperatury, zavisjashhej ot obratnoj svjazi dlja togo, chtoby opredelit' ih vlijanie na trebovanija po upravleniju reaktivnost'ju . Metody, ispol'zuemye dlja togo, chtoby predopredelit' reaktivnost' sootvetstvujushhih kontrol'nyh mehanizmov, polucheny na osnove grubyh podschetov, a takzhe s pomoshh

  7. O VLIYANII GEOAKTIVNYKH ZON PRIRODNOGO I ISKUSSTVENNOGO PROISKHOZHDENIYA NA TOCHNOST' MARKSHEYDERSKIKH IZMERENIY [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksenov Z.V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the formation of anomalous surveying errors in the geoactive zones of the earth have been studied. The article shows that as a result of the impact of an artificial geoactive zone as a model of a geoactive zone (natural, natural, space can deform (exhibit nonlinearity, which can lead to significant anomalous errors in mine surveying and geodetic work. A series of experiments has been set up and carried out with a device that allows creating artificial geoactive zones as natural models. During the experiments it was shown that the instrumental and instrumental way in the field at all stages of operation of the mining enterprise may identify and take into account the error in the result of the impact of geo-active zones during surveying and geodetic works. The article shows that it is possible to take into account the anomalous properties of geoactive zones of the earth during surveying and geodetic work at all stages of the mining enterprise, increasing the safety of organization and conducting mining operations. The article concludes that when further studying the effect of the geoactive zone, it is possible to develop a scientifically grounded methodology for identifying and numerically taking errors as a result of the non-electromagnetic nature of radiation, and also that knowledge of the non-electromagnetic nature of radiation is extremely important for organizing and performing surveyor and geodetic works

  8. Performance evaluation sun city (stad van de zon) Heerhugowaard, The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    de Keizer, A.C.; ter Horst, E.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The “Stad van de Zon” (Sun City) residential area in Heerhugowaard, the Netherlands, , has been designed to be a net zero CO2 emissions area. This would be achieved by installing 3.75 MWp of photovoltaic systems, 100 hectares of forest and three wind turbines of 2.3 MW each. This will be the largest PV-related project in the world. Together with PV-projects in Alkmaar and Langedijk the project will have a total installed peak power of 5 MWp. The residential area has been built since 2002. 1.0...

  9. Performance evaluation sun city (stad van de zon) Heerhugowaard, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Keizer, A.C.; ter Horst, E.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The “Stad van de Zon” (Sun City) residential area in Heerhugowaard, the Netherlands, , has been designed to be a net zero CO2 emissions area. This would be achieved by installing 3.75 MWp of photovoltaic systems, 100 hectares of forest and three wind turbines of 2.3 MW each. This will be the largest

  10. Promõshlennõje zonõ ohvatil "mjortvõi sezon" / Ain Alvela

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvela, Ain, 1967-

    2008-01-01

    Arendajad on tehnoparkide rajamise ooterežiimile pannud - ostjaid jaguks, kuid võimalusi napib. Diagramm: Za pjat let stoimost zemli promõshlennogo naznatshenija võrosla v pjat raz; Tabel: Naiboleje dorogaja zemlja - v promparke Lasnamäe. Kommenteerivad Enn Tosso, Nikolai Pitshugov ja Urmas Ahven

  11. Evaluation of solar PV-projects of housing corporations; Evaluatie zon PV-projecten bij woningcorporaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurstjens, M.J.H. [W/E Adviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    A study has been carried out to determine the failure and success factors with regard to the use of solar panels in the housing sector. Lessons learned from this evaluation form the basis for targeted communication and development of a guide for corporations. In the spring of 2013, stakeholders in eight representative initiatives in the Netherlands were interviewed. The failure and success factors are translated into recommendations to further develop tools for corporations [Dutch] Er is gezocht naar de faal- en succesfactoren rondom de toepassing van zonnepanelen in de woningbouwsector. Leerpunten uit deze evaluatie vormen de basis voor gerichte communicatie en ontwikkeling van (een) handreiking(en) voor corporaties. In het voorjaar van 2013 zijn betrokkenen bij acht representatieve initiatieven in Nederland geinterviewd. De faal- en succesfactoren zijn omgezet in aanbevelingen voor nader uit te werken hulpmiddelen voor corporaties.

  12. Võbor tipa svobodnoi zonõ v Estonii = The choice of the free zone model in Estonia / Jana Tshernjavskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tshernjavskaja, Jana

    2004-01-01

    Tollivabatsooni mõistest ja ülesannetest vastavalt Euroopa Liidu tollikoodeksile. Eestis tegutsevate vabatsoonide (Muuga, Sillamäe, Valga) vastavusse viimisest EL-i vabakaubanduspiirkondade tüüpidega

  13. Corrosion in the wet-dry zone in a flue gas condenser; Korrosion i vaattorr zon i roekgaskondensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordling, Magnus; Roemhild, Stefanie; Bergman, Gunnar

    2008-06-15

    The corrosion resistance for a number of metallic and polymeric materials, in the environment of the inlet part of a flue gas condenser for a combustion plant, has been investigated. The combustion plants have been Igelstaverket and Bristaverket, for which the fuel has been mainly waste wood and biofuels, respectively. The materials were exposed in the dry and the wet zone, and also in the transfer zone in between. The metallic materials where stainless steels of the grades 17-10-2L, 2205, SAF2507 and 254SMO, all with a through weld joint, while the polymeric materials where fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) and glass-flake applied on carbon steel. The FRP materials had been formed partly by a traditional method and partly using new types of reinforcement materials, mainly based on carbon fibre, which where located in the surface layer. Also laminate with the special reinforcement of the type 3D-fabric was investigated. The investigation showed that all the metallic materials came off good under normal operating conditions when using biofuels, while 17-10-2L did not manage when using waste wood. The welds of 2205 showed a somewhat restricted corrosion resistance, otherwise being the best choice for waste wood plants when taking the material cost into consideration. FRP, as it seems, can be used successfully in the environments studied for combustion plants using biofuels. The results also indicate that the lifetime can be improved and the maintenance reduced by doing the correct choice of laminate structure and material compared to the laminates of the common type. The laminate structure, however, has to be adjusted to fulfil the demands given by the process environment. It should also further be pointed out that the good results for the flake coatings not necessarily would be the case for real use, where the walls are exposed to a temperature gradient. Finally, a conclusion, outside the initial purpose of the project, was that the addition of ammonium sulphate in Bristaverket in accordance with ChlorOut, contributed to the heavy coatings formed in the inlet part of a flue gas condenser of Bristaverket

  14. Solar vision Amsterdam. Citizens and businesses go for the sun; Zonvisie Amsterdam. Burgers en bedrijven gaan voor de zon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stam, T.; Diependaal, F.; Van ' t Hull, C.

    2013-06-15

    In the Solar Vision it is explained how the Amsterdam municipality plans to enable its citizens and businesses to realize their own solar energy project. The Solar Vision is prepared based on input from residents, businesses and institutions [Dutch] In de zonvisie staat hoe de gemeente Amsterdam haar burgers en bedrijven in staat wil stellen om hun eigen zonne-energieproject te realiseren. De zonvisie is mede opgesteld op basis van input van bewoners, bedrijven en instellingen.

  15. Evaluatie prenatale huisbezoeken JGZ ZonMw-project in het kader van programma ’Vernieuwing uitvoeringspraktijk jeugdgezondheidszorg’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, R.; Sleuwen, B. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.

    2013-01-01

    Deze rapportage geeft de resultaten weer van de evaluatie van het aanbod van prenatale huisbezoeken door de jeugdverpleegkundige (PHB-JGZ). In een aantal regio’s bestaat de mogelijkheid om al tijdens de zwangerschap,meestal op indicatie van de verloskundige zorgverlener, prenatale huisbezoeken bij

  16. Heat pumps and solar water heaters in the City of the Sun. Financing and cost effectiveness; Warmtepompen en zonneboilers in de Stad van de Zon. Financiering en rentabiliteit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; De Raad, A. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    The results of a study on the financing and cost effectiveness of the use of heat pumps and solar boilers in low-energy dwellings are presented. The investigation was carried out under the condition that costs for the occupants are not higher than the cost for the use of a gas-fired condensing boiler.

  17. Růst krystalů metodou visuté zonální tavby s optickým ohřevem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 116-119 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : crystal growth * floating zone technique * optical heating * iron base alloys Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  18. The French Hy-Bird flies on solar energy and hydrogen; De Franse Hy-Bird vliegt op zon en waterstof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zutphen, E. [Service pour la Science et la Technologie, Ambassade du Royaume des Pays-Bas, Paris (France)

    2009-05-15

    French airplane manufacturer LISA Airplanes is working on the development of a two-person airplane that flies on a combination of solar energy and a fuel cell: the Hy-Bird. In 2008, LISA entered into a collaboration agreement with the Chinese solar cell manufacturer TrinaSolar. This agreement was recently expanded. The large advantage of the Hy-Bird: flying noiselessly and without local CO2 emission. An existing recreational airplane of own design was used as a basis, which is known for its energy efficiency and streamlining: the Akoya. Next, the airplane was equipped with a fuel; cell made of composites and the wings were covered with solar cells. (mk) [Dutch] De Franse vliegtuigbouwer LISA Airplanes werkt aan de ontwikkeling van een tweepersoons vliegtuig dat vliegt op een combinatie van zonne-energie en een brandstofcel: de Hy-Bird. In 2008 ging LISA een samenwerkingsverband aan met de Chinese zonnecelproducent TrinaSolar. Deze overeenkomst is onlangs uitgebreid. Het grote voordeel van de Hy-Bird: geluidarm vliegen zonder lokale CO2-uitstoot. Als basis dient een bestaand recreatievliegtuig van eigen ontwerp, bekend om zijn energiezuinigheid en stroomlijning: de Akoya. Vervolgens is het vliegtuig uitgerust met een brandstofcel gemaakt van composieten toe, en zijn de vleugels bekleed met zonnecellen.

  19. Use of Synthetic Polymers in Nuclear Emulsions for Fast-Neutron Dosimetry; Primenenie sinteticheskikh polimerov v yadernykh ehmul'siyakh dlya dozimetrii bystrykh nejtronov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradna, F. [Laboratorija Radiologicheskoj Dozimetrii Instituta Jadernykh Issledovanij CHSAN Praga, CSSR (Czech Republic)

    1967-01-15

    The paper describes the results of tests on the properties of hydrogen-enriched nuclear-track emulsions for detecting fast neutrons, which were prepared in the Radiological Dosimetry Laboratory of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Institute. It also compares the dosimetric characteristics of these new emulsions with those of the gelatin emulsions used up to the present. The most promising of the series of polymers synthesized in the laboratory were: (1) Polyvinylacetal of 2,4-disulphonic acid benzaldehyde (polymer No. 1); (2) The co-polymer of a-acetylaminoacrylic acid and N-vinylpyrrolidone (polymer No. 2). The author also studied the possibility of using polyvinyl alcohol solutions with a higher hydrogen content than the above polymers for saturating polymer-gelatin emulsions and for preparing from them films for use as proton radiators. Polymers No. 1 and No. 2 were tested beforehand in an ammonia emulsion. It was established that polymer No. 1 has no marked effect on the photochemical properties of the emulsions, whereas the physical and mechanical.properties of the polymer-gelatin emulsions are considerably better than those of normal gelatin emulsions. The polymers have good protective properties, and polymer No. 2; can be used even during physical ageing, since it retards this process only to a small extent. The photochemical properties of the polymer-gelatin emulsions remain practically unchanged during natural ageing, and their mechanical strength is still further increased. After these preliminary tests, polymers No.-1 and No. 2 were used as fillers for a nuclear-track emulsion, in quantities ranging from 50 to 70% of the total amount of protective colloid, the silver content of the emulsion remaining unchanged. To increase their efficiency further, the polymer-gelatin emulsions were saturated with hydrogen, which was passed through the liquid emulsion for a short period of time. When prepared, the emulsions were poured on a tri-acetate substrate 190-{mu}m thick, which was an effective proton radiator. The emulsions were irradiated with fast neutrons of fluence 1.56 x 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} from an RaD-Be source. For increased efficiency of neutron detection, supplementary proton radiators such as polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), tri-acetate (T) and polyethylene (PE) of the optimum thickness were used during irradiation of the emulsion. Dosimetric analysis of the results gave the following: (1) The efficiency of detection was increased, in comparison with normal gelatin emulsions, by: (a) up to 25% when using polymers No. 1 and No. 2, depending on the degree of filling, and (b) 100% when polymer No. 1 was used in a hydrogen-saturated emulsion taken as a standard polymer-gelatin emulsion (SPGE), (2) When the optimum supplementary proton radiators (PVA, T, PE) were added to this SPGE, its detection efficiency was further increased to 330%. (author) [Russian] V dannoj rabote predlagajutsja rezul'taty ispytanij svojstv v Laboratorii radiologicheskoj dozimetrii IJaI ChSAN vodorodom obogashhennyh jadernyh jemul'sij, prednaznachennyh dlja registracii bystryh nejtronov i privoditsja sravnenie dozimetricheskih harakteristik jetih jemul'sij novogo tipa s harakteristikami do sih por ispol'zuemyh zhelatinovyh jemul'sij. Iz serii v laboratorii sintezirovannyh polimerov naibolee interesnymi okazalis': 1) olivinil'acetal' 2,4-disul'fokisloty benzaldegida (polimer N2 1); 2) sopolimer a-acetilaminoakrilovoj kisloty i N-vinilpirrolidona (polimer No 2). Otdel'no izuchalas' vozmozhnost' primenenija rastvorov polivinilovogo spirta s bolee vysokim soderzhaniem vodoroda po sravneniju s vysheukazannymi ispytannymi polimerami (No 1, No 2) dlja propityvanija polimero-zhelatinovyh jemul'sij i dlja prigotovlenija iz nego plenok v kachestve radiatora protonov. Polimery N21 i N9 2 primenjalis' predvaritel'no v ispytatel'noj ammiachnoj jemul'sii. Bylo ustanovleno, chto polimer No 1 ne okazyvaet zametnogo vlijanija na fotohimicheskie svojstva jemul'sij, odnako fiziko-mehanicheskie svojstva polimero-zhelatinovyh jemul'sij znachitel'no luchshe svojstv obychnyh zhelatinovyh jemul'sij. Polimery obladajut horoshimi zashhitnymi svojstvami i polimer No 2 prigoden dazhe v fizicheskom sozrevanii, poskol'ku on malo tormozit jetot process. V techenie estestvennogo starenija fotohimicheskie svojstva polimero-zhelatinovyh jemul'sij prakticheski ne izmenjalis' i eshhe dal'she znachitel'no povyshalas' ih mehanicheskaja prochnost'. V rezul'tate ukazannyh predvaritel'nyh opytov polimery No 1 i No 2 primenjalis' v kachestve napolnitelej jadernoj jemul'sii v kolichestve ot 50 do 70% po otnosheniju k obshhemu kolichestvu zashhitnogo kolloida, ne izmenjaja v dannoj jemul'sii soderzhanie serebra. Dlja dal'nejshego povyshenija jeffektivnosti jemul'sij polimero-zhelatinov'te jemul'sii nasyshhalis' vodorodom putem vremennogo propuskanija cherez ego zhidkuju jemul'siju. Gotovye jemul'sii nalivalis' na triacetatnuju podlozhku tolshhinoj 190 mikron, kotoraja javljaetsja v zhelaemom sluchae jeffektivnym radiatorom protonov. Jemul'sii obluchalis' bystrymi nejtronami plotnost'ju 1,56 * 108 nejtronov/sm{sup 2} ot istochnika (Ra - D - Be). S cel'ju uvelichenija jeffektivnosti registracii nejtronov, pri obluchenii jemul'sij ispol'zovalis' dobavochnye radiatory protonov tipa: polivinilovyj spirt (PVS), triacetat (T), polijetilen (PJe) optimal'noj tolshhiny. Obrabotka rezul'tatov s dozimetricheskoj tochki zrenija pokazala sledujushhie rezul'taty: 1. Po sravneniju s obychnymi zhelatinovymi jemul'sijami jeffektivnost' registracii povysilas': - do 25% v sluchae primenenija polimerov No 1 i No 2 v zavisimosti ot stepeni napolnenija; . - na 100% v sluchae primenenija polimera No 1 v vodorodom nasyshhennoj jemul'sii, prinjatoj v kachestve standarta polimero-zhelatinovoj jemul'sii (SPZhJe). 2. V sluchae primenenija optimal'nyh dobavochnyh radiatorov protonov (PVS, T, PJe) k ukazannoj jemul'sii SPZhJe, ee jeffektivnost' registrkcii povysilas' dal'she do 330%. (author)

  20. Analyser for fast single events; Analyseur d'evenements rapides simples; Analizator bystrykh odnokratnykh yavlenij; Analizador de sucesos rapidos no recurrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlmeyer, J W; Patten, R B; Fussell, L Jr [Edgerton, Germeshausen And Grier, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1962-04-15

    An electronic analyser has been designed and constructed for use with single non-recurring transient signals. The signal, during passage along a coaxial line, is sampled instantaneously at a number of tap-off points, by means of a single short-duration gate pulse. Multipoint time-dissection is accomplished using a gate-duration and a time-interval between samples, which are independently adjustable from about 4 ns. The time-intervals may be programmed in non-linear array, and jitter is less than 0.5 ns. The speed of response is at present limited by diode characteristics. Each sampled voltage is stretched in a circuit which retains the voltage amplitude. A time-stretch by a factor of 10{sup 8} has been realized, with good stability. These data points may be commutated and transmitted over open-wire to low-frequency recording systems ; they may be converted to digital form for rapid data-processing, using conventional equipment; and/or they may be presented visually. The analyser is advantageous, compared with high-speed oscilloscopy, when large numbers of single-transients require individual analysis; such requirements exist for investigations into fluctuations in the response of systems, or for production-testing of components. The analyser is advantageous when the data-analysis must be accomplished quickly after the signal event occurs; it is not necessary to develop films or to read them. The analyser is also advantageous when the analysis-computation centre is located remotely from the event. Applications of this technique in the nuclear field are many. Fluctuation studies of reactors and subcritical assemblies may be carried out rapidly by pulsed neutron techniques. The build-up and decay characteristics of detectors may be determined, together with analysis of statistics and fluctuations. The pulse shape of the radiation wave from nuclear accelerators may be measured. Neutron-spectrometry using the time-of-flight method may be facilitated. Isomeric studies involving half-lives in the range 10-1000 ns, together with scattering investigations, may be carried out quickly and precisely. This work was supported by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont concu et realise un analyseur electronique destine a l'etude de signaux transitoires simples non recurrents. Lors de son passage le long d'une ligne coaxiale, le signal fait l'objet de prelevements instantanes a un certain nombre de points de branchement, au moyen d'une impulsion unique de declenchement tres breve venant d'un circuit porte. On procede a une dissection suivant le temps en des points multiples, en employant une duree de declenchement et un intervalle entre les prelevements; cette duree et cet intervalle peuvent etre ajustes independamment a partir de 4 ns environ. Les intervalles peuvent etre programmes d'une facon non lineaire, et l'instabilite de la case de temps est inferieure a 0,5 ns. La vitesse de reponse est actuellement limitee par les caracteristiques de la diode. Chaque tension prelevee est allongee dans un circuit qui en conserve l'amplitude. On a pu multiplier la largeur de l'impulsion par 10{sup 8}, tout en maintenant une stabilite satisfaisante. Ces donnees de repere peuvent faire l'objet d'une permutation et d'une transmission par fil nu a des enregistreurs a basse frequence; on peut les convertir sous forme numerique aux fins de depouillement rapide, en utilisant des appareils classiques; on peut aussi, le cas echeant, leur donner une presentation visuelle. L'analyseur est plus avantageux que les oscillographes a grande vitesse, ou il est necessaire d'analyser individuellement un grand nombre de signaux transitoires isoles; on est d'ailleurs oblige de proceder de meme pour etudier les fluctuations de reponse des systemes, ou pour faire des essais de production sur les elements constitutifs. L'analyseur presente aussi des avantages lorsqu'il faut analyser les donnees aussitot apres que le signal s'est manifeste; il n'est pas non plus necessaire de developper ni d'interpreter des pellicules. L'analyseur est egalement utile lorsque le centre de calcul et d'analyse est eloigne du lieu ou se produit l'evenement. Cette technique l5eut avoir de nombreuses applications dans le domaine nucleaire. Les techniques de faisceaux puises de neutrons permettent de proceder rapidement a des etudes sur les fluctuations des caracteristiques des reacteurs et des ensembles sous-critiques. En meme temps qu'on analyse les donnees statistiques et les fluctuations, on peut determiner les caracteristiques d'accumulation et de temps de decroissance des detecteurs. Il est egalement possible de mesurer la forme d'impulsion de l'onde de rayonnement emise par les accelerateurs nucleaires. D'autre part, la spectrometrie des neutrons par la methode du temps de vol peut etre facilitee. Enfin, cette technique permet d'effectuer avec rapidite et precision des etudes sur les isomeres dont les periodes sont comprises entre 10 et 1000 ns, de meme que des recherches sur la diffusion. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han proyectado y construido un analizador electronico destinado a utilizarse con senales transitorias no recurrentes. La senal, al pasar a lo largo de una linea coaxial, es probada instantaneamente en una serie de puntos, por medio de un impulso de puerta de corta duracion. La diseccion multipuntual en el tiempo se ejecuta recurriendo a una duracion de puerta y un intervalo de tiempo entre las muestras tomadas, que pueden ajustarse independientemente a partir de unos 4 ns. Los intervalos de tiempo pueden programarse en una disposicion no lineal y la inestabilidad es inferior a 0,5 ns. La rapidez de respuesta queda limitada actualmente por las caracteristicas de los diodos. Cada tension tomada es alargada en un circuito que conserva la amplitud de la tension. Se ha alcanzado una extension en el tiempo de 10{sup 8} veces, con buena estabilidad. Estos datos pueden conmutarse y transmitirse a sistemas de registro de baja frecuencia; se puede darles forma digital para facilitar un rapido tratamiento de los datos con el empleo de los dispositivos corrientes; y pueden tambien presentarse visualmente. Comparado con los oscilografos rapidos, el analizador es mas ventajoso cuando se trata de analizar individualmente grandes cantidades de fenomenos transitorios distintos y no recurrentes; tal es el caso del estudio de las fluctuaciones en la respuesta de sistemas o el ensayo de componentes producidos en serie. Tambien es preferible el analizador cuando el analisis de los datos debe efectuarse en seguida de ocurrir el fenomeno ''senal'', puesto que no es preciso revelar peliculas ni interpretarlas. Asimismo presenta ventajas cuando el centro de computo del analisis esta situado lejos del lugar del suceso. Tiene multiples aplicaciones en el campo de la energia nuclear. Facilita el rapido estudio de las fluctuaciones en los reactores y conjuntos subcriticos mediante la tecnica de las fuentes pulsantes de neutrones. Permite determinar las caracteristicas de formacion y descenso del impulso en los detectores y hacer analisis de estadisticas y fluctuaciones. Es posible registrar con el la forma del impulso de la onda de radiacion de los aceleradores nucleares. Facilita la espectrometria neutronica por el metodo del tiempo de vuelo. Permite efectuar con rapidez y exactitud estudios isomericos en que intervienen periodos de semidesintegracion entre limites de 10 y 1000 ns, juntamente con investigaciones sobre dispersion. La Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos presto su apoyo a este estudio. (author) [Russian] Byl skonstruirovan i postroen ehlektronnyj analizator dlya ispol'zovaniya s odnokratnykh nepovtoryayushchikhsya perekhodyashchikh signalakh. Vo vremya prokhoda signala vdol' koaksial'noj linii mgnovenno v tselom ryade tochek proiskhodit otbor, chto delaetsya pri pomoshchi odnokratnogo korotkogo vremennogo selektornogo impul'sa. Razbivka vremeni na mnogochislennye otrezki dostigaetsya pri pomoshchi vremennogo selektornogo impul'sa i intervala vremeni mezhdu otborom obraztsov, prichem i tot i drugoj mogut regulirovat'sya nezavisimo drug ot druga, nachinaya priblizitel'no s 4 nanosekund. Intervaly vremeni mogut zadavat'sya v nelinejnom poryadke, a razbros mezhdu nimi ne prevyshaet 0,5 nanosekund. Do nastoyashchego vremeni skorost' otvetnoj reaktsii ogranichivaetsya kharakteristikami dioda. Kazhdoe otobrannoe napryazhenie rasshiryaetsya v konture, kotoryj sokhranyaet amplitudu ehtogo napryazheniya. Udalos' osushchestvit' rasshirenie po vremeni v 10{sup 8} raz s sokhraneniem khoroshej ustojchivosti. Tochki pokazanij mogut soobshchat'sya i peredavat'sya po otkrytomu provodu v nizkochastotnoe registriruyushchee ustrojstvo, oni mogut byt' prevrashcheny v tsifrovye dannye dlya bystroj ikh obrabotki s pomoshch'yu obychnogo oborudovaniya; krome togo, ili vmesto ehtogo, oni mogut byt' dany vizual'no. Analizator imeet preimushchestva po sravneniyu s vysokoskorostnoj ostsiloskopiej, kogda trebuetsya provodit' individual'nyj analiz bol'shogo chisla odnokratnykh perekhodyashchikh signalov; ehto trebuetsya pri izuchenii kolebanij otvetnykh reaktsij sistem ili pri proizvodstvennykh ispytaniyakh komponentov. Analizator imeet preimushchestva, kogda analiz dannykh dolzhen proizvodit'sya neposredstvenno za poyavleniem signala; otpadaet neobkhodimost' proyavlyat' plenki ili prochityvat' ikh. Analizator udoben takzhe v tekh sluchayakh, kogda schetno-analiziruyushchij tsentr raspolozhen daleko ot mesta poyavleniya signala. EHtot metod shiroko primenyaetsya v oblasti yadernoj ehnergii. Metod pul'siruyushchikh nejtronov mozhet byt' primenen dlya bystrogo izucheniya kolebanij rezhima reaktorov i podkriticheskikh sborok. Mogut byt' opredeleny parametry nakopleniya i raspada detektorov i odnovremenno provodit'sya analiz statisticheskikh dannykh i kolebanij. Mozhet izmeryat'sya forma impul'sov radiatsionnykh voln, proizvodimykh yadernymi uskoritelyami. S pomoshch'yu metoda izmereniya vremeni proleta mozhno provodit' nejtronnuyu spektrometriyu. Mozhno provodit' bystrye i tochnye izomericheskie issledovaniya v otnoshenii izomerov s poluperiodom raspada v intervale ot 10 do 1000 nanosekund, a takzhe bystro i tochno opredelyat' rasseyanie. EHta rabota vypolnyalas' pri sodejstvii Komissii po atomnoj ehnergii SSHA. (author)

  1. Nástroje korektivního a zonálního leštění pro přípravu asférických povrchů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavík, Jan; Lédl, Vít

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 9 (2011), s. 237-241 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Zonal polishing * polishing instruments * asferic surfaces Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing

  2. RBE of Monoenergetic Fast Neutrons: Cytogenetic Effects in Maize; EBR des Neutrons Rapides Monoenergeniques: Effets Cytogenetiques sur le Mais; Obeh monoehnergeticheskikh bystrykh nejtronov: tsitogeneticheskie izmeneniya u kukuruzy; EBR de los Neutrones Rapidos Monoenergeticos: Efectos Citogeneticos en el Maiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H. H.; Bateman, J. L.; Quastler, H.; Rossi, H. H. [Biology and Medical Departments, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1964-05-15

    The maize used in these experiments has the advantage for RBE studies of yielding a basically first-order dose-response curve with low as well as with high LET radiations. An exposure apparatus was used which produced essentially equal dose rates in five rings of seeds placed so as to intercept neutrons of 0.43, 0.65, 1.00, 1.50 and 1.80 MeV. The mutant sectors produced in leaves are believed to be due mostly to simple chromosome breakage and deletion. Experiments were performed at dosages that gave responses which were linear, below saturation levels, and overlapping in range for the monoenergetic fast neutrons and 250 kVp X-rays. RBE values, calculated from relative slopes of linear-regression lines for neutrons and X-rays ranged from 42 to 135 with an overall average of about 70. Fast neutrons of 0.43 MeV energy were the most efficient, of those used, in producing g{sub 2} mutant sectors. (author) [French] Pour les etudes sur l'EBR, le maft utilise au cours des experiences offre l'avantage de donner une courbe dose-reponse qui est essentiellement de premier ordre, que le TLE du rayonnement soit faible ou eleve. Les auteurs ont utilise un appareil d'irradiation assurant des debits de dose pratiquement egaux dans cinq couronnes de semences disposees de maniere a intercepter les neutrons de 0,43, 0,65, 1,00, 1,50 et 1,80 MeV. On pense que les secteurs mutants produits dans les feuilles sont dus essentiellement a une rupture et une disparition de chromosomes simples. Les auteurs ont fait des experiences a des doses qui ont donne des reponses lineaires, inferieures au niveau de saturation et se chevauchant dans le cas des neutrons rapides et des rayons X de 250 kV-crete. Les valeurs de l'EBR calculees d'apres la comparaison des pentes des courbes de regression lineaire pour les neutrons et les rayons X varient de 42 a 135, avec une valeur moyenne d'environ 70. Parmi les neutrons utilises, les neutrons rapides de 0,43 MeV ont ete les plus efficaces pour produire des secteurs mutants g{sub 2}. (author) [Spanish] La variedad de maiz utilizada en los experimentos descritos presenta la ventaja, desde el punto de vista del estudio de la EBR, de proporcionar una curva dosis-respuesta que es basicamente de primer grado, tanto para las radiaciones de TLE elevada como para las de TLE baja. Los autores emplearon un aparato de exposicion que produce intensidades de dosis esencialmente iguales en cinco anillos de semillas colocadas de modo que intercepten a los neutrones de 0,43, 0,65, 1,00 1,50 y 1,80 MeV. Se supone que los sectores mutantes producidos en las hojas se deben en su mayor parte a una simple ruptura y eliminacion de cromosomas. Se realizaron experimentos con dosis adecuadas para obtener respuestas lineales, inferiores al valor de saturacion, y tales que los intervalos correspondientes a los neutrones rapidos monoenergeticos y a los rayos X de 250 kVp se superpongan parcialmente. Los valores de la EBR calculados a base de las pendientes comparadas de las curvas de regresion de primer grado para los neutrones y los rayos X respectivamente, varian entre 42 y 135, con una media global del orden'de 70. De todos los neutrones rapidos utilizados en los experimentos, los mas eficaces para producir sectores mutantes g{sub 2} fueron los de 0,43 MeV. (author) [Russian] Kukuruza, ispol'zovannaja v jetih jeksperimentah, obladaet preimushhestvom dlja izuchenija OBJe pri poluchenii krivoj pervogo porjadka zavisimosti reakcii ot dozy dlja izuchenij s nizkim i vysokim LPJe. Primenjalas' ustanovka dlja obluchenija, kotoraja obespechivala po sushhestvu ravnye moshhnosti doz dlja raspolozhennyh v kol'cevom porjadke pjati rjadov semjan pri obluchenii nejtronami s jenergiej 0,43, 0,65, 1,00, 1,50 i 1,80 Mjev. Sektory mutantov, poluchaemye v list'jah, kak polagajut, dolzhny, glavnym obrazom, uproshhat' razryv i uterju hromosom. Byli provedeny jeksperimenty pri urovnjah doz, kotorye vyzyvali otvetnye reakcii s linejnoj zavisimost'ju nizhe urovnja nasyshhenija i perekryvalis' v predele dlja monojener- geticheskih bystryh nejtronov i dlja rentgenovskih luchej s naprjazheniem 250 kv. Velichiny OBJe, raschitannye v rezul'tate otnositel'nogo naklona linejnyh regressivnyh linij dlja nejtronov i rentgenovskih luchej, nahodilis' v predelah ot 42 do 135 so srednej velichinoj primerno 70. Bystrye nejtrony s jenergiej 0,43 Mjev byli naibolee jeffektivnymi sredi teh, kotorye ispol'zovalis' pri poluchenii mutantov sektorov g{sub 2}. (author)

  3. Operating Experience with the VERA Zero-Energy Fast Reactor; Fonctionnement du Reacteur VERA a Neutrons Rapides, de Puissance Zero; Opyt ehkspluatatsii reaktora VERA na bystrykh nejtronakh nulevoj moshchnosti; Experiencia Adquirida con el Reactor Rapido VERA de Potencia Nula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weale, J. W.; McTaggart, M. H.; Goodfellow, H.; Paterson, W. J. [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1964-02-15

    The design of a two-halves zero-energy fast reactor is briefly described, particular emphasis being placed on those features which determine the practicability and precision of reactor physics measurements. The advantages and disadvantages of the design are discussed with reference to the two years' operating experience of the reactor. The following topics are dealt with: the experimental convenience of the lay-out and of the two halves design; the size and precision of the fuel pieces and the accuracy of location of the fuel elements; the effects of edge irregularities and heterogeneity of structure on the accuracy with which the critical mass of an 'ideal' equivalent assembly is determined; reproducibility of the critical condition after dismantling the assembly, or separating the two halves; variation of reactivity with separation of the halves, including effects of asymmetric loading; sensitivity of various counters, neutron source strength, use of an accelerator neutron source; speed of response of safety circuits and consequent restrictions on rate of assembly of the two halves; additional precautions necessary in using plutonium fuel; and notes on the accuracy of measurement of reactivity and on the practical limitations affecting various other reactor physics measurements. (author) [French] Les auteurs decrivent brievement ce modele de reacteur a neutrons rapides et de puissance zero construit en deux moities, en insistant particulierment sur les caracteristiques qui determinent la possibilites de faire des mesures relatives a la physique des reacteurs et la precision de ces mesures. Ils exposent les avantages et les inconvenients de ce modele compte tenu de l'experience acquise au cours des deux annees de fonctionnement du reacteur. Ils traitent les sujets suivants: interet pratique, au point de vue experimental, du plan de ce reacteur et de sa constitution en deux moities; dimension et precision des pieces de combustible et exactitude de l'emplacement des elements combustibles; incidences des irregularites des faces et de l'heterogeneite de la structure sur l'exactitude avec laquelle on determine la masse critique d'un assemblage equivalent 'ideal'; possibilite de reproduire l'etat critique apres avoir demonte l'assemblage ou separe les deux moities; variation de la reactivite lors de la separation des deux moities, et effets d'un chargement asymetrique; sensibilite de divers compteurs, intensite de la source de neutrons, utilisation d'un accelerateur comme source de neutrons; vitesse de reponse des circuits de securite et restrictions qu'elle peut entrainer pour la vitesse d'assemblage des deux moities; precautions supplementaires qu'il faut prendre pour utiliser le plutonium comme combustible; notes sur l'exactitude des mesures de la reactivite et sur les limitations d'ordre pratique imposees a diverses autres mesures en physique des reacteurs. (author) [Spanish] Los autores describen brevemente las caracteristicas de un reactor rapido de potencia nula de dos mitades, en especial las que determinan la posibilidad de efectuar mediciones de precisidn en la esfera de la fisica de los reactores. Examinan las ventajas e inconvenientes de este tipo de reactor, basandose en la experiencia adquirida durante dos anos de funcionamiento. Exam in an los siguientes temas: ventajas, desde el punto de vista experimental, de la disposicion y de la construccidn en dos mitades; dimensiones y tolerancias de los elementos combustibles, y precisian con la que se puede determinar la posicion de dichos elementos; influencia de las irregularidades marginales y de heterogeneidad estructural sobre la exactitud con la que se determine la masa critica de un conjunto 'ideal' equivalente; posibilidad de reproducir las condiciones criticas despues de desmontar el conjunto o de separar las dos mitades; variaciones de la reactividad cuando se separan las dos mitades, en especial los efectos de una carga asimetrica; sensibilidad de varios contadores, intensidad de la fuente neutronica, empleo de un acelerador para producir neutrones; velocidad de respuesta de los circuitos de seguridad y restricciones subsiguientes en lo que atafle a la velocidad con que se pueden unir las dos mitados; precauciones adicionales necesarias al utilizar plutonio como combustible; notas sobre la precision de las mediciones de reactividad y sobre las limitaciones practicas que afectan a otras mediciones relacionadas con la fisica de los reactores. (author) [Russian] Daetsja kratkoe opisanie konstrukcii reaktora na bystryh nejtronah nule- voj moshhnosti, sostojashhego iz dvuh odinakovyh chastej. Pri jetom osoboe vnimanie udeljaetsja tem chertam, kotorye opredeljajut praktichnost' i obespechivajut tochnost' izmerenij po fizi- ke reaktorov. Obsuzhdajutsja preimushhestva i nedostatki konstrukcii s ssylkoj na dvuhlet- nij opyt jekspluatacii reaktora. Rassmatrivajutsja sledujushhie temy:prisposoblennost' proekta i konstrkcii iz dvuh odinakovyh chastej dlja provedenija jeksperimental'nyh issle- dovanij; razmer i kachestvo obrabotki toplivnyh blokov i tochnost' razmeshhenija toplivnyh jelementov; vlijanie granichnyh neravnomernostej i geterogennosti struktury na tochnost' opredelenija kriticheskoj massy ''ideal'noj'' jekvivalentnoj sborki; vosproizvodimost' kri- ticheskogo uslovija posle demontirovanija sborki ili razdelenija dvuh chastej; izmenenie reak- tivnosti s razdeleniem chastej, v tom chisle vlijanie nesimmetrichnoj zagruzki;chuvstvitel'- nost' razlichnyh schetchikov, moshhnost' istochnika nejtronov, ispol'zovanie istochnika uskorennyh nejtronov; bystrota otvetnoj reakcii konturov avarijnoj zashhity i posledujushhie ogranichenija skorosti sobiranija chastej; dopolnitel'nye predupreditel'nye mery, neobho- dimye pri ispol'zovanii plutonija; primechanija otnositel'no tochnosti izmerenija reaktiv- nosti i otnositel'no prakticheskih ogranichenij, vlijajushhih na razlichnye drugie izmerenija po fizike reaktorov. (author)

  4. Energetic Bottomup in the Low Countries. Energy transition from the bottom-up. On Happy energetic civilians, Solar and wind cooperatives, New utility companies; Energieke BottomUp in Lage Landen. De Energietransitie van Onderaf. Over Vrolijke energieke burgers, Zon- en windcooperaties, Nieuwe nuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwencke, A.M.

    2012-08-15

    This essay is an outline of the 'energy transition from the bottom-up'. Leading questions are: (1) what are the actual initiatives; (2) who is involved; (3) how does one work (organization, business models); (4) why are people active in this field; (5) what good is it; (6) what is the aim? The essay is based on public information sources (websites, blogs, publications) and interviews with people involved [Dutch] Dit essay is een verkenning van de 'energietransitie van onderaf'. Leidende vragen zijn: (1) om wat voor initiatieven gaat het nu eigenlijk?; (2) wie zijn daarbij betrokken?; (3) hoe gaat men te werk (organisatie, business modellen)?; (4) waarom is men er op die manier mee bezig?; (5) Zet het zoden aan de dijk?; (6) Waar beweegt het naar toe? Het essay baseert zich op openbare bronnen (websites, blogs, publicaties) en gesprekken met mensen uit het veld.

  5. Integraal inspelen, marktveranderingen en oplossingen in beeld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenberg, J.J.N.

    2003-01-01

    Er is behoorlijk wat aan de hand in de bouwmarkt. Nog nooit veranderde deze in zo'n hoog tempo als momenteel het geval is. Inspelen op die verandering is mogelijk door op gebouwniveau een integrale totaalvisie te ontwikkelen en van daaruit afgeleide producten te creëren. Slimbouwen is zo'n visie met

  6. Wat is coaching en werkt het?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeboom, T.; Beersma, B.; van Vianen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Coaching is in de afgelopen twee decennia explosief gegroeid als vakgebied. De International Coach Federation schat dat er jaarlijks zo'n twee miljard dollar omgaat in de wereldwijde coachingsindustrie (International Coach Federation, 2012). In Nederland zijn er zo'n 40.000 coaches werkzaam (Schats,

  7. Nieuwkomers in kasconcepten naar Bleiswijk: Zowakas: Verbeterde versie van energieproducerende kas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, Ellis; Bakker, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    De wedstrijd Kas als Energiebron, waarbij met nieuwe kasconcepten geprobeerd wordt de glastuinbouw minder afhankelijk te maken van aardgas, kent drie winnaars; ZonWaKas, ZoWaKas en ZonWindkas. Onhandig dat die namen zo op elkaar lijken. Des te beter is het dat deze ‘papieren’ ontwerpen zo snel

  8. The Biological Effect of Fast Neutrons and High-Energy Protons; Effets Biologiques des Neutrons Rapides et des Protons de Haute Energie; Biologicheskoe dejstvie bystrykh nejtronov i protonov vysokikh ehnergii; Efectos Biologicos de los Neutrones Rapidos y de los Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalev, Ju. I.; Petrovich, I. K.; Strel' cova, V. N.

    1964-03-15

    The paper gives the results of comparative experiments on the effects of fast neutrons and high-energy protons (500 MeV) on life expectancy, peripheral blood, incidence and rate of appearance of tumours in the rat as a function of administered dose and time of observation. The neutron experiment was performed on 573 and the proton experiment on 490 white rats. The animals irradiated with fast neutrons were given doses between 8.5 and 510 rad, and those irradiated with protons received doses between 28 and 1008 rad. The effective doses for the acute, sub-acute and chronic forms of sickness were established for fast neutrons and for protons. LD{sub 50/30} for neutrons was 408 and for protons 600 rad, and the corresponding LD{sub 50}/{sub 120} values were 380 and 600 rad. The conditions governing rat mortality were analysed both in the early and the later stages of the experiment. It is shown that the average life expectancy of rats irradiated with fast neutrons does not depend on sex. The shape of the dose-effect curve for the various peripheral-blood indexes is strongly dependent not only on the radiosensitivity of the blood cells in question but also on the time of observation. It may change greatly in time for one and the same index. A considerable time after irradiation with either fast neutrons or protons, benign and malignant tumours appear in different tissues of the rats, including the haemopoeitic tissues, mammary glands, pituitary, uterus, ovaries, prostate gland, testicles, liver, kidneys, lungs, gastro-intestinal tract, subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes, urinary bladder, etc. The over-all incidence of tumours and the number of cases of multi centred neoplasms in females are two to three times higher than in males. The minimum tumour dose for the mammary glands with neutron irradiation is apparently rather less than 42.5 rad. The maximum incidence of tumours of the pituitary is found after irradiation with a dose of 42.5 rad.- At this same dose leucosis and tumour of the thyroid gland also appear. With proton irradiation, the minimum tumour dose for haemopoietic tissue and the thyroid gland is in the neighbourhood of 250 rad, for the testicles 300 rad, for the prostate, the pancreas and the subcutaneous tissue 100 rad. After irradiation with fast neutrons the incidence of tumours of the testicles, the large intestine, the kidneys and the liver is increased at doses between 42.5 and 85 rad. The same is true for tumours of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue at a dose of 85 rad. With fast neutron irradiation tumours appeared at approximately three to five times lower radiation doses than with proton irradiation. (author) [French] Le memoire expose les resultats d'experiences visant a comparer l'e ffe t des neutrons rapides et celui des protons de haute energie (500 MeV) sur la duree de vie, le sang peripherique, la frequence et la rapidite d'apparition des tumeurs chez le rat, en tenant compte de la dose efficace et du delai d'observation. Les travaux ont porte sur 573 rats blancs pour les neutrons et sur 490 rats blancs pour les protons. Les animaux etaient exposes a des doses de neutrons rapides de 8,5 a 510 rad et a des doses de protons de 28 a 1008 rad. Pour les neutrons rapides et les protons, les auteurs ont determine les valeurs des doses effectives aiguees, sub-aiguees et chroniques. La DL{sup 30}{sub 50} est de 408 rad pour les neutrons et de 600 rad pour les protons; la DL{sup 120}{sub 50} s'eleve a 380 et 600 rad, respectivement. On a procede a une etude critique des lois qui regissent la mortalite des rats a breve echeance et apres des delais prolonges. D'apres les constatations, la survie moyenne des rats irradies par des neutrons rapides est independante de leur sexe. En ce qui concerne les differents indices du sang peripherique, la forme de la courbe dose/effet depend dans une forte mesure, non seulement de la radiosensibilite des cellules correspondantes du sang, mais aussi de la duree d'observation. Elle peut subir des variations sensibles en fonction du temps pour un seul et meme indice. Longtemps apres une irradiation par des neutrons rapides ou par des protons, on constate chez le rat l'apparition de tumeurs benignes et malignes dans divers tissus, notamment dans le tissu hematopoie tique, les glandes mammaires, l'hypophyse, l'uterus, les ovaires, la prostate, les testicules, la thyroide, la glande cervicale, le pancreas, les glandes surrenales, le foie, les reins, les poumons, le tractus gastro-intestinal, le tissu cellulaire sous-cutane, les ganglions lymphatiques, la vessie, etc. La frequence globale des tumeurs et le nombre des apparitions simultanees de neoplasmes en plusieurs endroits ont ete deux a trois fois plus eleves chez les femelles que chez les males. La dose minimum de neutrons necessaire pour provoquer une tumeur des glandes mammaires semble legerement inferieure a 42,5rad. La frequence des tumeurs de l'hypophyse est la plus elevee lorsque la dose est de 42,5 rad. A cette meme dose,. on constate l'apparition de leucoses et de tumeurs de la thyroide. Lors d'une irradiation par des protons, la dose minimum necessaire pour provoquer une tumeur est de l'ordre de 250 rad pour le tissu hematopoietique et la thyroide, de 300 rad pour les testicules et de 100 rad pour la prostate et le tissu cellulaire sous-cutane. Lors d'une irradiation par les neutrons rapides, les tumeurs des testicules, du gros intestin, des reins et du foie sont plus frequentes pour 42,5 a 85 rad et les tumeurs de la peau et du tissu cellulaire sous-cutane pour 85 rad. Dans le cas d'une irradiation par neutrons rapides, les tumeurs se produisent a des doses inferieures (d'environ 3 a 5 fois) aux doses de protons. (author) [Spanish] Los autores presentan los resultados de experimentos efectuados con miras a comparar el efecto de los neutrones rapidos y el de los protones de elevada energia (500 MeV) sobre la duracion de la vida, las caracteristicas de la sangre periferica, asi como la frecuencia y rapidez de formacion de tumores en la rata, en funcion de la dosis aplicada y del tiempo transcurrido a partir de' la irradiacion. En el experimento con neutrones utilizaron 573 ratas blancas y en el experimento con protones, 490. Expusieron los animales a dosis neutronicas de 8,5 a 510 rad, y dosis protonicas comprendidas entre 28 y 1008 rad. Tanto para los neutrones rapidos como para los protones, establecieron el valor de la dosis efectiva aguda, subaguda y cronica. La DL{sup 30}{sub 50} para los neutrones asciende a 408 rad y a 600 rad para los protones; las respectivas dosis DL{sup 120}{sub 50} son 380 rad y 600 rad. Los autores estudiaron las leyes que rigen la mortalidad de los sujetos en experimentos breves y prolongados. Demuestran que la sobrevivencia de los mismos, cuando se ios irradia con neutrones rapidos, es independiente del sexo. La forma de la curva dosis/efecto para los diversos Indices de la sangre periferica no solo depende de la radiosensibilidad de las celulas sanguineas correspondientes, sino tambien del perfodo de observacion. Puede sufrir modificaciones sensibles en funcion del tiempo para un mismo indice. Algun tiempo despues de la irradiacion, tanto con neutrones rapidos como con protones, se observan en las ratas tumores de caracter benigno o maligno en diversos tejidos, entre ellos en los de los arganos hematopoyeticos, las glandulas mamarias, la hipofisis, el utero, los ovarios, la prostata, los testiculos, la tiroides, el timo y el pancreas, las glandulas suprarrenales, el higado, los rinones, los pulmones, el tracto gastrointestinal, el tejido hipodermico, los ganglios linfaticos, la vejiga, etc. La frecuencia total de los tumores y el numero de casos de formacion multicentrica de neoplasias es de 2 a 3 veces mayor en las hembras que en los machos. La dosis tumorigena minima en las glandulas mamarias, en la irradiacion neutronica, parece ser algo inferior a 42,5 rad. La frecuencia maxima de los tumores de la hipofisis se observa despues de la irradiacion con una dosis de 42,5 rad. Con la misma dosis tambien se manifiestan leucosis y tumores de la tiroides. En la irradiacion protonica, la dosis tumorigena minima es del orden de 250 rad para lee tejidos hematopoyeticos y la tiroides, de 300 rad para los testiculos, y de unos 100 rad para la prostata, el pancreas y el tejido hipodermico. Despues de la irradiacion con neutrones rapidos, la frecuencia de la aparicion de tumores en los testiculos, el intestino grueso, los rinones y el higado, presenta un aumento para dosis entre 42,5 y 85 rad, y en la piel y el tejido hipodermico ocurre lo mismo para dosis de 85 rad. En el caso de la irradiacion con neutrones rapidos, los tumores aparecen con dosis de 3 a 5 veces inferiores a las dosis protonicas. (author) [Russian] Predstavljajutsja rezul'taty sravnitel'nyh jeksperimentov po izucheniju dejstvija bystryh nejtronov i protonov vysokih jenergij (500 Mjev) na prodolzhitel'nost' zhizni, perifericheskuju krov', cha sto tu i skorost' pojavlenija opuholej u krys v zavisimosti o t dozy vozdejstvija i sroka nabljudenija. Opyt s nejtronami postavlen na 573, s protonami na 490 belyh krysah. Bystrymi nejtronami zhivotnyh obluchali v dozah ot 8,5 do 510 rad, protonami ot 28 do 1008 rad. Dlja bystryh nejtronov i protonov ustanovleny velichiny ostro, podostro i hronicheski jeffektivnyh d o z . LD{sub 50/30} dlja nejtronov ravna 408, dlja protonov 600 rad, a LD{sub 50/120} so otvetstvenno 380 i 600 rad. Proanalizirovany zakonomernosti vymiranija krys v rannie i pozdnie sroki jeksperimenta. Pokazano, chto srednjaja prodolzhitel'nost' zhizni krys, obluchennyh bystrymi nejtronami, ne zavisit ot pola. Forma krivoj doza-jeffekt dlja otdel'nyh pokazatelej perifericheskoj krovi sushhestvenno zavisit ne tol'ko ot radiochuvstvitel'nosti sootvetstvujushhih kletok krovi, no i ot sroka nabljudenija. Ona mozhet sushhestvenno izmenjat'sja vo vremeni dlja odnogo i t o go zhe pokazatelja. V otdalennye sroki posle obluchenija kak bystrymi nejtronami, tak i protonami u krys voznikajut dobrokachestvennye i zlokachestvennye opuholi razlichnyh tkanej, v tom chisle krovotvornoj, molochnyh zhelez, gipofiza, matki, jaichnikov predstatel'noj zhelezy, semennikov, shhitovidnoj zhelezy, zobnoj i podzheludochnoj zhelez, nadpochechnikov, pecheni, pochek, l e g kih, zheludochno-kishechnogo trakta, podkozhnoj kletchatki, limfaticheskih u z lov, mochevogo puzyrja i drugih. Summarnaja chastota opuholej i chislo sluchaev mul'ticentricheskogo vozniknovenija novoobrazovanij u samok v 2 - 3 raza vyshe, chem u samcov. Minimal'naja opuholevaja doza dlja molochnyh zhelez pri obluchenii nejtronami, po-vidimomu, neskol'ko nizhe 42,5 rad. Maksimal'naja chastota opuholej gipofiza obnaruzhivaetsja posle obluchenija v doze 42,5 rad. Pri jetoj zhe doze voznikajut lejkozy i opuholi shhitovidnoj zhelezy. Pri obluchenii protonami minimal'naja opuholevaja doza dlja krovotvornoj tkani i shhitovidnoj zhelezy nahoditsja v predelah 250 rad, dlja semennikov - 300 rad, dlja predstatel'noj, podzheludochnoj zhelez , podkozhnoj kletchatki - 100 rad. Posle obluchenija bystrymi nejtronami chastota opuholej semennikov, tolsto go kishechnika, pochek, pecheni okazyvaetsja uvelichennoj pri dozah 42,5 - 85 rad, kozhi i podkozhnoj kletchatki pri doze - 85 rad. Po sravneniju s protonami pri obluchenii bystrymi nejtronami opuholi voznikajut ot men'shih (primerno v 3 - 5 raz) doz obluchenija. (author)

  9. The Pulsed Neutron Technique Applied to Fast Non-Multiplying Assemblies; Application de la Methode des Neutrons Pulses aux Assemblages Non Multiplicateurs a Neutrons Rapides; Primenenie metoda impul'snykh nejtronov pri izuchenii povedeniya bystrykh nejtronov v nerazmnozhayushchikh sborkakh; Aplicacion de la Tecnica de los Neutrones Pulsados a Conjuntos Rapidos de Materiales No Multiplicadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beghian, L. E.; Wilensky, S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    A nanosecond pulsed Van de Graaff accelerator has been used to study the behaviour of fast neutrons in non-multiplying metal assemblies. A pulsed neutron source technique has been utilized to measure fast non-elastic cross-sections for iron. The method employed is similar to that used to measure absorption cross-sections in thermal assemblies, with the exception that the fast decay times are of the order of nanoseconds rather than microseconds. Nanosecond bursts of monoenergetic neutrons are injected into various size iron assemblies. The neutron flux in these assemblies is observed to decay exponentially with a characteristic decay constant. The decay constant is composed of a sum of terms which represent neutron loss due to leakage and energy degradation. Energy degradation represents a neutron loss since a biased neutron detector is used. The removal term due to elastic and nonelastic scattering can be determined by measuring the decay constant as a function of assembly size. A theoretical development is presented for calculating the fraction that the elastic scattering contributes to the removal term, hence the non-elastic cross-section can be determined. The theoretical treatment for calculating the elastic contribution has been verified experimentally. The non-elastic cross-section for iron has been measured by this technique for primary neutron energies between 0.8 and 1.5 MeV. The pulsed source technique described above has been used to measure decay constants for lead slabs. The experiment approximates the assumptions which are generally made when solving the time-dependent Boltzmann transport equation (i.e. one-dimension, one-velocity). Decay constants have been measured for 28 in x 32 in lead slabs of 2, 4, 6 and 8-in thickness. The results, after being corrected for energy degradation and finite assembly, are compared with the approximate solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont utilise un accelerateur Van de Graaff a impulsions de l'ordre de la nanoseconde pour etudier le comportement de neutrons rapides dans des assemblages metalliques non multiplicateurs. Ils ont mesure les sections efficaces non elastiques du fer pour les neutrons rapides. La methode employee est semblable a celle qu'on utilise pour mesurer les sections efficaces d'absorption dans des assemblages a neutrons thermiques, avec cette difference que les temps de decroissance pour les neutrons rapides sont de l'ordre de la nanoseconde et non de la microseconde. Des bouffees de neutrons monoenergetiques d'une nanoseconde sont introduites dans des assemblages en fer de dimensions diverses. On remarque que dans ces assemblages le flux de neutrons decroit exponentiellement avec une constante de decroissance caracteristique. La constante de decroissance est composee d'une somme de termes qui representent la perte de neutrons due aux fuites et a la degradation en energie. La degradation en energie represente une perte de neutrons, car un detecteur de neutrons dont les donnees sont entachees d'une erreur systematique est utilise. On peut determiner le terme correspondant a la diffusion elastique et inelastique en mesurant la constante de decroissance consideree comme une fonction des dimensions de l'assemblage. Suit un developpement theorique pour le calcul de la fraction de ce terme qui est due a la diffusion elastique et, par consequent, pour la determination de la section efficace non elastique. Le procede theorique de calcul de cette fraction a fait l'objet de verifications experimentales. Les auteurs ont mesure la section efficace non elastique du fer par cette methode pour des energies de neutrons primaires comprises entre 0,8 et 1,5 MeV. La methode de la source puisee decrite ci-dessus a ete utilisee pour mesurer des constantes de decroissance pour des plaques de plomb. Les conditions de l'experience sont approximativement conformes aux hypotheses generalement admises lorsqu'on resout l'equation de transport de Boltzmann qui est fonction du temps (c'est-a-dire une dimension, une vitesse). Les constantes de decroissance ont ete mesurees pour des plaques de plomb de 70 cm x 80 cm et de 5, 10, 15 et 20 cm d'epaisseur. Apres correction pour tenir compte de la degradation en energie et des dimensions finies de l'assemblage, les resultats sont compares aux solutions approchees de l'equation de transport de Boltzmann. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han empleado un acelerador Van de Graafi, que emitia rafagas de neutrones pulsados del orden del nanosegundo, para estudiar el comportamiento de los neutrones rapidos en conjuntos de metales no multiplicadores. Emplearon esta tecnica de la fuente de neutrones pulsados a fin de medir las secciones eficaces de dispersion inelastica de los neutrones rapidos en el Fe. El metodo empleado es analogo al utilizado para medir las secciones eficaces de absorcion en conjuntos termicos, salvo el hecho de que los tiempos de decrecimiento de los neutrones rapidos son del orden del nanosegundo mas bien que del microsegundo. En estos experimentos, se inyectaron rafagas de neutrones monoenergeticos, del orden del nanosegundo, en conjuntos de Fe de diversas dimensiones. Se observo que, en esos conjuntos, el flujo neutronico decrece exponencialmente con una constante caracteristica. Esta constante de decrecimiento esta constituida por una suma de terminos que representan la perdida de neutrones debidos al escape y a la degradacion energetica. Esta ultima representa una perdida de neutrones toda vez que se emplea un detector neutronico polarizado. El termino de eliminacion correspondiente a la dispersion elastica e inelastica puede determinarse midiendo la constante de decrecimiento en funcion de las dimensiones del conjunto de que se trate. Los autores exponen un procedimiento teorico que permite calcular la medida en que la dispersion elastica contribuye al termino de eliminacion, con lo que puede calcularse subsiguientemente la seccion eficaz de dispersion inelastica. El procedimiento teorico se ha comprobado experimentalmente para calcular la contribucion de la dispersion elastica. Empleando esta tecnica, se ha medido la seccion eficaz de dispersion inelastica correspondiente al Fe, para energias de los neutrones primarios comprendidas entre 0,8-y 1,5 MeV. Esta tecnica de empleo de una fuente de neutrones pulsados se ha utilizado tambien para medir las constantes de decrecimiento en placas de Pb. Las condiciones de experimentacion se aproximan a los supuestos que suelen formularse cuando se resuelve la ecuacion de transporte de Boltzmann en funcion del tiempo (es decir, una sola dimension y una sola velocidad). Los autores han medido las constantes de decrecimiento en placas de plomo de 71 x 81 cm. con espesores de 5, 10, 15 y 20 cm, y comparan los resultados alcanzados, una vez corregidos para tener en cuenta la degradacion energetica y el conjunto finito,con las soluciones aproximadas de la ecuacion de transporte de Boltzmann. (author) [Russian] Uskoritel' Van-de-Graafa s nanosekundnymi impul'sami ispol'zovali dlja izuchenija povedenija bystryh nejtronov v nerazmnozhajushhih metallicheskih sborkah. Dlja izmerenija sechenij neuprugogo rassejanija zheleza na bystryh nejtronah primenili metod impul'snogo istochnika nejtronov, analogichnyj metodu, primenjaemomu dlja izmerenija sechenij pogloshhenija v teplovyh sborkah, za iskljucheniem togo, chto vremja bystrogo spada izmerjaetsja nano-, a ne mikrosekundami. Nanosekundnye impul'sy monojenergeticheskih nejtronov inzhektirujutsja v zheleznye sborki razlichnyh razmerov. Otmecheno, chto potok nejtronov v jetih sborkah spadaet jeksponencial'no s harakteristicheskoj postojannoj spada. Postojannaja spada sostoit iz summy chlenov, kotorye predstavljajut soboj poterju nejtronov vsledstvie utechki i poteri jenergii, poterja jenergii predstavljaet so''oj poterju nejtronov, poskol'ku ispol'zuetsja porogovyj nejtronnyj detektor. Chlen utechki za schet uprugogo i neuprugogo rassejanija mozhno opredelit' putem izmerenija postojannoj spada v zavisimosti ot razmera sborki. Predstavlen teoreticheskij vyvod dlja rascheta doli uprugogo rassejanija v chlene utechki i, sledovatel'no, mozhno opredelit' sechenie neuprugogo rassejanija. Teoreticheskaja traktovka dlja rascheta vklada uprugogo rassejanija proverena jeksperimental'nym putem. Sechenie neuprugogo rassejanija zheleza izmereno s pomoshh'ju jetogo metoda dlja pervichnoj jenergii nejtronov v diapazone 0,8 -1,5 Mjev. Vysheopisannyj metod impul'snogo istochnika nejtronov byl ispol'zovan dlja. izmere nija postojannoj spada v otnoshenii svincovyh plastin. Jeksperimental'nye dannye primerno soglasujutsja s predpolozhenijami, kotorye obychno delajut pri reshenii bol'cmanovskogo uravnenija perenosa s vremennoj zavisimost'ju (t.e. odnomernoe, odnoskorostnoe). Postojannye spada izmereny dlja svincovyh plastin razmerom 28x32 djujma i tolshhinoj 2; 4; b i 8 djujmov. Posle vnesenija popravki na poterju jenergii i konechnye razmery sborki rezul'taty sravnivajutsja s priblizitel'nymi reshenijami bol'cmanovskogo uravnenija perenosa. (author)

  10. Some physics aspects of cermet and ceramic fast systems; Quelques aspects de la physique des reacteurs a neutrons rapides utilisant des cermets et des ceramiques comme combustibles; Nekotorye fizicheskie aspekty kermetnykh i keramicheskikh sistem na bystrykh nejtronakh; Algunos aspectos fisicos de los sistemas rapidos a base de combustibles cermet y ceramicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codd, J; James, M F; Mann, J E [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Reactor Group (United Kingdom)

    1962-03-15

    The characteristics of a system using an iron-based oxide cermet as fuel material are discussed. A transport theory investigation to develop methods of predicting the effect of core heterogeneity on reactivity and flux distribution is described. Some preliminary calculations are also given of resonance self-shielding and Doppler temperature effects in a cermet system. (author) [French] Les auteurs etudient les caracteristique s d'un reacteur utilisant comme combustible un cermet d'oxydes a armature de fer. Ils exposent une application de la theorie du transport a la mise au point des methodes permettant de prevoir l'effet de l'heterogeneite du coeur sur la reactivite et sur la distribution du flux. Ils donnent egalement quelques calculs preliminaires d'effets d'autoprotection due a la resonance et d'effet Doppler du a la chaleur dans un reacteur utilisant un cermet. (author) [Spanish] La memoria discute las caracteristicas de un sistema que emplea como combustible un oxido tipo cermet a base de hierro. Describe una investigacion de la teoria de transporte con miras a desarrollar metodos para evaluar el efecto de la heterogeneidad del cuerpo sobre la reactividad y la distribucion de flujo. Tambien da algunos calculos preliminares de los efectos del autoblindaje por resonancia y de la temperatura de Doppler en un sistema de tipo cermet. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdayutsya kharakteristiki sistemy, ispol'zuyushchej v kachestve toplivnogo materiala oksidnye kermety, razrabotannye na osnove zheleza. Opisyvaetsya issledovanie teorii perenosa, chtoby razvit' metody predskazaniya vliyaniya geterogennosti aktivnoj zony na reaktivnost' i raspredelenie potoka. Dayutsya takzhe nekotorye predvaritel'nye raschety ehffektov rezonansnoj samozashchity i temperaturnogo ehffekta Dopplera v kermetnoj sisteme. (author)

  11. Sensor Fusion for Nuclear Proliferation Activity Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel Ghanem, Ph D

    2007-03-30

    The objective of Phase 1 of this STTR project is to demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) of the Geo-Rad system that integrates a location-aware SmartTag (made by ZonTrak) and a radiation detector (developed by LLNL). It also includes the ability to transmit the collected radiation data and location information to the ZonTrak server (ZonService). The collected data is further transmitted to a central server at LLNL (the Fusion Server) to be processed in conjunction with overhead imagery to generate location estimates of nuclear proliferation and radiation sources.

  12. Degradation of zearalenone and ochratoxin A in three Danish agricultural soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, G.K.; Strobel, B.W.; Hansen, H.C.B.

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of two mycotoxins: zearalenone (ZON) produced by species of Fusarium and ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by species of Penicillium were followed in pot experiments using agricultural topsoils from Danish experimental farms: a sandy soil, a sandy clay soil and a gyttja soil with a high...... content of silt. Experiments with unplanted soil and pots planted with barley were included. Soil samples were withdrawn during a period of 225 days and analysed for the content of OTA and ZON. The degradation of both toxins consisted of an initial fast degradation followed by a slower transformation step......, whereas the half-lives for OTA were about 0.2-1 day. The slowest degradation was measured in soil rich in clay. After 225 days, neither OTA nor ZON was detected in any of the soil types. Generally, the degradation of ZON and OTA was faster in planted soil than in unplanted soil, probably due to higher...

  13. Analysis of zearalenone and α-zearalenol in 100 foods and medicinal plants determined by HPLC-FLD and positive confirmation by LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jun; Shen, Hong-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Li; Qiu, Feng; Ou-yang, Zhen; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    Mycotoxins, which may contaminate many foods and medicinal plants, are poisonous to humans. A high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was successfully developed for analysing the contamination levels of zearalenone (ZON) and its metabolite α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) in 100 widely consumed foods and medicinal plants in China. Samples were extracted with methanol-water (80:20, v/v), and cleaned up by using an immunoaffinity column. The limits of detection of this developed method for ZON and α-ZOL were 4 µg kg(-1) and 2.5 µg kg(-1) , respectively. Recoveries for the samples spiked with three levels (30, 60 and 300 µg kg(-1) for ZON and α-ZOL) ranged from 85.8% to 96.1% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.6-7.1% for ZON, and from 89.9% to 98.7% with RSD of 1.9-9.2% for α-ZOL. Twelve (12%) of these tested samples were contaminated with ZON at levels ranging from 5.3 to 295.8 µg kg(-1). The most contaminated samples were Semen coicis, four of them in a concentration level exceeding 60 µg kg(-1) 'maximum level' (range 68.9-119.6 µg kg(-1)). Positive samples were further confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results suggest that it is necessary to control ZON contamination in medicinal plants, especially Semen coicis. This is a successful study on the analysis of ZON and α-ZOL in medicinal plants in China by HPLC-FLD. Immunoaffinity clean-up and HPLC-FLD proved to have broad applicability in the field of simultaneously detecting ZON and α-ZOL in foods and medicinal plants and other complicated matrices. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A novel time-to-pulse height converter for fast-neutron time-of-flight techniques; Nouveau convertisseur temps-amplitude d'impulsions pour les mesures du temps de vol des neutrons rapides; Novyj vremya-amplitudnyj preobrazovatel' impul'sov dlya izmereniya vremeni proleta bystrykh nejtronov; Nuevo convertidor tiempo-altura de impulsos para tecnicas de tiempo de vuelo de neutrones rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J [Physikalisches Staatsinstitut, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1962-04-15

    An electronic time-to-pulse height converter is described which uses a multiplicative method instead of the usual one of adding overlapping pulses. This is achieved by a coincidence of a linear sawtooth and a sharply clipped needle-pulse. The sawtooth is fed to the grid of a beam-deflecting tube (E80T) and the needle-pulse is applied to the deflecting plates and opens the tube only during a time-interval of about 5.10{sup -9} s. The plate gets a charge proportional to the time-difference between the start of the sawtooth and the needle pulse. The plate-pulse is stretched and amplified and its height represents a measurement of the time-difference. With this method we got a time resolution of 2{tau} = 7 x 10{sup -12}s with artificial pulses, 2{tau} = 3 x 10{sup -10}s with Co{sup 60} {gamma}-coincidences by using NE 102 plastic crystals and 2{tau} = 1.4 x 10{sup -9} s with 511-keV {gamma}-coincidences using NaI(Te) crystals. The method was also used with pulsed beam techniques. In this case we got from the pulsing RF an 8-Mc, sharply-peaked pulse-sequence, which was fed to the E80T plates. We had a time-resolution of 2{tau} = 1.1 x 10{sup -9} s with 4-MeV neutrons using plastic crystals 0.7 in long. Normally the region of linear response was 30 ns but it was possible to go up to 120 ns. (author) [French] L'auteur decrit un convertisseur electronique temps en amplitude d'impulsions fonctionnant d'apres une methode de multiplication au lieu de la methode habituelle qui consiste a ajouter des impulsions qui se chevauchent. On fait coincider une impulsion lineaire en dents de scie avec une impulsion en forme d'aiguille fortement ecretee. L'impulsion en dents de scie est envoyee sur la grille d'un tube a faisceaux electroniques diriges (E80T) ; et l'impulsion en forme d'aiguille est appliquee aux plaques de deflexion et n'ouvre le tube que pendant un intervalle de temps d'environ 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -9} s. La plaque recoit une charge proportionnelle a la difference de temps entre le demarrage de chacune des deux impulsions. L'impulsion de la plaque est etalee et amplifiee; son amplitude represente la mesure de la difference de temps. Avec cette methode l'auteur a obtenu un temps de resolution de 2{tau} = 7 {center_dot} 10{sup -12} s avec des impulsions artificielles de 2{tau} = 3 {center_dot} 10{sup -10} s, avec des coincidences gamma du {sup 60}Co, en utilisant des cristaux en plastique NE 102, et de 2{tau} = 1,4 {center_dot} 10{sup -9} s avec des coincidences gamma de 511 keV, en utilisant des cristaux de Nal (Te). Cette methode a ete egalement utilisee avec des faisceaux puises. Dans ce cas l'auteur a obtenu, a partir de la radiofrequence de pulsation, une suite d'impulsions de 8 Mc en pointes aigues, qui ont ete envoyees sur les plaques E80T. Le temps de resolution a ete de 2{tau} = 1,1 {center_dot} 10{sup -9} s avec des neutrons de 4 MeV, en utilisant des cristaux de plastique de 36 mm de long. Normalement la reponse lineaire se situe dans une region de 30 ns mais il est possible qu'elle atteigne 120 ns. (author) [Spanish] En la memoria se describe un convertidor electronico tiempo-altura de impulsos, en el que se aplica un metodo de multiplicacion, en vez del metodo habitual de suma de impulsos que se superponen. Esto se logra haciendo coincidir dos impulsos, uno lineal en diente de sierra y uno muy aguzado. El impulso en diente de sierra se transmite a la rejilla de una valvula de haz dirigido (E80T) y el impulso aguzado se aplica a las placas deflectoras, abriendo la valvula solo durante un intervalo de unos 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -9} s. La placa recibe una carga proporcional al periodo entre el comienzo del impulso en diente de sierra y el impulso aguzado. El impulso de la placa es alargado y amplificado y su altura representa una medicion de la diferencia de tiempos. Con este metodo se han obtenido tiempos de resolucion de 2{tau} = 7 {center_dot} 10{sup -12} s con impulsos artificiales, de 2{tau} = 3 {center_dot} 10{sup -10} s con coincidencias gamma obtenidas de una fuente de {sup 60}Co y utilizando cristales plasticos NE 102, y de 2{tau} = 1,4 {center_dot} 10{sup -9} con coincidencias gamma de 511 KeV y utilizando cristales de Nal (Te). El metodo se utilizo tambien aplicando tecnicas de haces pulsantes. En la experiencia realizada se obtuvo, a partir de una radiofrecuencia pulsadora, una sucesion de impulsos muy aguzados, con una frecuencia de 8 MHz, que se transmitio a las placas de la valvula E80T. Se obtuvo un tiempo de resolucion de 2{tau} = 1,1 {center_dot} 10{sup -9} s con neutrones de 4 MeV, utilizando cristales plasticos de 0,7 pulgadas de largo. Normalmente la region de respuesta lineal fue de 30 ns (30 {center_dot} 10{sup -9} s), pero se consiguio aumentarla hasta 120 ns. (author) [Russian] Opisyvaetsya ehlektronnyj vremya-amplitudnyj preobrazovatel' impul'sov s ispol'zovaniem metoda umnozheniya perekryvayushchikhsya impul'sov vmesto obychnogo metoda ikh slozheniya. EHto dostigaetsya polucheniem sovpadeniya linejnogo piloobraznogo impul'sa s rezko ogranichennym igol'chatym impul'som. Piloobraznyj impul's postupaet na reshetku otklonyayushchej puchok lampy (E80T), a igol'chatyj impul's napravlyaetsya na otklonyayushchie plastiny, gde on otkryvaet lampu tol'ko v techenie promezhutka vremeni priblizitel'no 5 x 10{sup -9} sekund. Plastina poluchaet zaryad, proportsional'nyj raznitse vo vremeni mezhdu nachalom piloobraznogo i nachalom igol'chatogo impul'sov. Posylaemyj plastinoj impul's rasshiryaetsya i usilivaetsya i amplituda ego sootvetstvuet velichine raznitsy vo vremeni. EHtim metodom udalos' poluchit' razreshayushchuyu sposobnost' po vremeni, ravnuyu {tau} = 7 x 10{sup -12} sekundam s iskusstvennymi impul'sami, {tau} = 3 x 10{sup -10} sekundam s sovpadeniyami dlya kobal'ta-60 pri ispol'zovanii plasticheskogo kristalla NE 102, i {tau} = 1,4 x 10{sup -9} sekundy pri sovpadeniyakh v 511 kehv pri ispol'zovanii kristallov Nal (Te). EHtot metod byl ispol'zovan takzhe v sochetanii s metodami pul'siruyushchego puchka. V ehtom sluchae iz pul'siruyushchej radiochastoty RF my poluchili potok impul'sov s ostrymi pikami v 8 Mc, kotoryj napravlyalsya na plastiny lampy E80T. My p o l u ch i li razreshayushchuyu sposobnost' po vremeni, ravnuyu {tau} = 1,1 x 10{sup -9} sekundy s nejtronami ehnergiej v 4 mehv pri ispol'zovanii plasticheskikh kristallov dlinoyu v 0,7 dyujma. Obychno zona linejnoj kharakteristiki poluchalas' na protyazhenii 30 nanosekund, no udavalos' dokhodit' i do 120 nanosekund. (author)

  15. Controllable Pulse Frequency and Width System for Pulsing and Modulating Fast-Neutron Core Assemblies; Systeme a Frequence et Largeur d'Impulsions Ajustables Permettant la Pulsation et la Modulation de Milieux Multipliants Sous-Critiques a Neutrons Rapides; Sistema reguliruemykh chastoty i shiriny impul'sa, dayushaya impul's i modulyatsiyu razmnozhayushchikh sred na bystrykh nejtronakh; Sistema de Frecuencia y Amplitud de Impulso Ajustables, para Pulsar y Modular

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duquesne, M.; Lyon, F.; Schmitt, A. [Association Euratom-CEA-SECNR (France); Nucleaires de Cadarache, Centre d' Etudes [France; Gerbier, R. [Laboratoire des Accelerateurs - CEN de Grenoble (France); Nucleaires de Cadarache, Centre d' Etudes [France

    1965-10-15

    The authors describe a system for producing neutron bursts of independently controllable width and frequency. The rise and quenching times of these bursts are of the order of a few nanoseconds. The system is applied to high-frequency pulsed and modulated experiments. Rapidly quenched neutron bursts are produced by deflection of a pure deuteron beam which has previously been accelerated and sorted. Ions other than atomic deuterons are removed after acceleration in a 10 Degree-Sign magnetic sorting field. Consideration is also being given to a pre-acceleration sorting system offering the advantage of reduced bulk. The deuteron beam passes through the space between two plates where there is normally an electrostatic field which deflects the beam onto the surfaces of a diaphragm. Application of a very high potential pulse to the first plate cancels the field and thus brings the beam rapidly onto the neutron-producing target (beginning of the burst). The second plate then receives a pulse of the same type which restores the field and removes the beam from the target (end of the burst). The pulse rise time is of the order of 10 ns; disappearance from the target is faster. The duration of the burst can be controlled as required within reasonable limits by suitably increasing the interval between the two pulses. In some cases ion transit time in the plates is not negligible in relation to the duration of the step applied to them. In such cases, one of the plates is replaced by a travelling wave line to which the two pulses are applied successively. The potential pulse thus accompanies the deuteron cluster producing the burst. The burst times can thus be reduced below 4 ns. The first stages of the voltage step generators are transistorized. The output tubes are sealed-disc valves providing a 1500-V step in a few nanoseconds. A 50-MHz double tetrode is employed for pulses for the delay line. A detection system comprises a scintillator-photomultiplier device incorporating a coincidence-anticoincidence unit, a time analyser and a digital data recorder. (author) [French] Les auteurs on mis au point un systeme permettant la production de bouffees de neutrons de largeur et de frequence de recurrence reglables independamment. Les temps de montee et de descente de ces bouffees sont de l'ordre de quelques nanosecondes. Ce systeme est applique aux experiences puisees et modulees a haute frequence. Pour la production de boufees de neutrons a extinction rapide, on procede par deflection d'un faisceau de deuterons purs prealablement acceleres et tries. Les ions autres que les deuterons atomiques sont elimines apres acceleration dans un aimant de tri a 10 Degree-Sign . Les auteurs etudient egalement un systeme de triage avant acceleration qui aurait l'avantage d'un encombrement reduit. Le faisceau de deuterons passe dans l'espace compris entre deux plaques ou regne normalement un champ electrostatique qui deflechit le faisceau sur les parois d'un diaphragme. On applique a la premiere plaque une tres large impulsion de tension qui annule le champ, ce qui a pour effet d'amener rapidement le faisceau sur la cible neutronigene (debut de la bouffee). La deuxieme plaque recoit ensuite une impulsion du meme type qui retablit le champ et fait disparaitre le faisceau de la cible (fin de la bouffee). Le front de montee des impulsions est de l'ordre de 10 ns; le temps de disparition sur la cible est inferieur a cette derniere valeur. La duree de la bouffee peut etre reglee a volonte dans les limites raisonnables par un retard convenable de la seconde impulsion par rapport a la premiere. Dans certains cas, le temps de transit des ions dans les plaques n'est pas negligeable par rapport a la duree de {Gamma} echelon qui leur est applique. On remplace alors l'une des plaques par une ligne a onde progressive a laquelle sont appliquees successivement les deux impulsions. L'impulsion de tension accompagne ainsi le paquet de deuterons qui produit la bouffee. Les fronts de bouffee peuvent ainsi etre ramenes au -dessous de 4 ns. Les generateurs a echelon de tension sont transistorises dans leurs premiers etages. Les tubes de sortie sont des lampes a disque scelle permettant d'obtenir un echelon de 1500 V en quelques nanosecondes. Les auteurs utilisent une double tetrode de 50 MHz pour les impulsions destinees a la ligne de retard. Le systeme de detection utilise un dispositif scintillateur-photomultiplicateur dont la chafne comprend un ensemble coiencidence - anticoincidence, un analyseur de temps et un enregistreur numerique des informations. (author) [Spanish] Los autores han ideado un sistema que permite regular independientemente la amplitud y la frecuencia de los impulsos neutronicos. El tiempo de subida y bajada de los impulsos es del orden de algunos nanosegundos. Este sistema se emplea en los experimentos con neutrones pulsados y modulados de alta frecuencia. Para producir impulsos neutronicos de extincion rapida, se desvfa un haz de deuterones puros previamente acelerados y seleccionados. Los iones distintos de los deuterones se eliminan despues de la aceleracion en un iman selector de 10 Degree-Sign . Los autores estudian igualmente un sistema para efectuar la seleccion antes de la aceleracion que presenta la ventaja de ser de pequenas dimensiones. El haz de deuterones atraviesa el espacio comprendido entre dos placas en las que hay normalmente un campo electroestatico qiie desvfa el haz hacia las paredes de un diafragma. Se aplica a la primera placa un tortisimo impulso de tension que anula el campo, con lo que se dirige rapidamente el haz hacia el blanco neutronfgeno (comienzo del impulso). La segunda placa recibe seguidamente un impulso del mismo tipo que restablece el campo y hace desaparecer el haz del blanco (final del impulso). El frente de subida de los impulsos es del orden de 10 ns y el tiempo de desaparicion en el blanco es inferior a este valor. La duracion del impulso puede ajustarse a voluntad dentro de limites razonables retardando adecuadamente el segundo impulso con relacion al primero. En ciertos casos el tiempo de transito de los iones en las placas no es despreciable con respecto al tiempo durante el cual se aplica el incremento de tension. En estas circunstancias, se sustituye una de las placas por una lfnea de onda progresiva a la que se aplican sucesivamente los dos impulsos. El impulso de tension acompana asi al paquete de deuterones que produce el impulso. Los frentes de impulsos pueden reducirse, de este modo, a menos de 4 ns. Los generadores de tension escalonada estan transistorizados en sus primeras etapas. Los tubos de salida estan constituidos por valvulas de disco sellado que permiten obtener un incremento de tension de 1500 V en algunos nanosegundos. Los autores han utilizado un doble tetrodo de 50 MHz para los impulsos destinados a la lfnea de retardo. El sistema de deteccion emplea un dispositivo de centelleo y un fotomulti piicador cuyo circuito comprende un conjunto coincidencias-anticoincidencias, un analizador de tiempos y un registrador numerico. (author) [Russian] Nami razrabotana sistema, kotoraja daet vozmozhnost' poluchat' nejtronnye impul'sy nezavisimo ot reguliruemoj shiriny i chastoty sledovanija. Vremja narastanija i zatuhanija jetih impul'sov so- stavljaetporjadkaneskol'kihnanosekund. Dannaja sistema ispol'zuetsja pri provedenii impul'snyh i moduliruemyh opytov vysokoj chastoty. Dlja poluchenija nejtronnyh impul'sov s bystrym zatuhaniem primenjaetsja otklonenie puchka chistyh dejtonov, kotorye predvaritel'no byli uskoreny i otobrany. Iony, kotorye ne javljajutsja Dejtonami, byli ustraneny posle uskorenija v sortirovochnom magnite pri 10 Degree-Sign . Nami izuchalas' takzhe sistema otbora pered uskoreniem, kotoraja imela by preimushhestvo v vide umen'shennyh gabaritnyh razmerov. Puchok dejtonov prohodit cherez prostranstvo, nahodjashheesja mezhdu dvumja plastinkami, gde obychno imeetsja jelektrostaticheskoe pole, otklonjajushhee puchok na stenki diafragmy. Na pervuju plastinku napravljaetsja ochen' shirokij impul's naprjazhenija, kotoryj snimaet pole, i jeto delaetsja dlja togo, chtoby bystro napravit' puchok na mishen', generirujushhuju nejtrony (nachalo impul'sa). Zatem vtoraja plastinka poluchaet impul's togo zhe tipa, kotoryj vosstanavlivaet pole i snimaet puchok s misheni (konej impul'sa). Front narastanija impul'sov porjadka 10 nanosekund; vremja ischeznovenija s misheni nizhe jetogo poslednego znachenija. Prodolzhitel'nost' impul'sa mozhet svobodno regulirovat'sja v razumnyh predelah sootvetstvujushhej zaderzhkoj vtorogo impul'sa po otnosheniju k pervomu. V opredelennyh sluchajah vremja proleta ionov v plastinkah imeet opredelennoe znachenie po otnosheniju k postepennoj prodolzhitel'nosti, kotoraja k jetomu vremeni primenjaetsja. Dalee odnu iz plastinok zamenjajut uvelichivajushhejsja liniej, k kotoroj posledovatel'no primenjajutsja dva impul'sa. 'Impul's naprjazhenija soprovozhdaet, takim obrazom, sgustok dejtonov, kotoryj daet impul's. Stupenchatye generatory naprjazhenija v pervyh stupenjah imejut tranzistory. Vyhodnymi lampami javljajutsja jelektronnye lampy s diskovymi vyvodami, kotorye dajut vozmozhnost' poluchat' seriju 1500 vol't v techenie neskol'kih nanosekund. My ispol'zuem dvojnye tetrody po 50 mgc dlja impul'sov, prednaznachennyh dlja linii zaderzhki. V sisteme obnaruzhenija primenjaetsja scintilljacionno-fotoumnozhajushhee ustrojstvo, cep' kotorogo sostoit iz shemy sovpadenij-antisovpadenij, vremennogo analizatora i cifrovogo samopisia informacii. (author)

  16. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Mochizuki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZON is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (a-zearalenol (a-ZOL, b-zearalenol (b-ZOL, a-zearalanol (a-ZAL, and b-zearalanol (b-ZAL. A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to b-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process.

  17. Metabolism of Zearalenone in the Course of Beer Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mizutani, Kohei; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZON) is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (a-zearalenol (a-ZOL), b-zearalenol (b-ZOL), a-zearalanol (a-ZAL), and b-zearalanol (b-ZAL)). A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metab...

  18. Evaluation of Dose: Comparative Effect of Fast Neutrons and other Types of Radiation on the Survival of E. Coli and S. Cerevisiae; Evaluation de la Dose Delivree et Actions Comparees des Neutrons Rapides et d'Autres Radiations sur la Survie de E. Coli et S. Cerevisiae; Otsenka dozy i sravnitel'noe vliyanie bystrykh nejtronov i drugikh vidov izlucheniya na vyzhivaemost' E. Coli i S. Cerevisiae; Evaluacion de la Dosis Suministrada y Comparacion de la Accion de los Neutrones Rapidos sobre la Supervivencia del E. Coli y del S. Cerevisiae con la de Otras Radiaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, Y.; Bocquet, C. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1964-05-15

    The EL-3 reactor is equipped with auranium converter by means of which fast neutrons can be obtained. A bank of fission chambers measures the flux and spectral distribution of the fast neutrons. These miniature detectors are placed at various points in the target zone and make possible the experimental evaluation of the absorbed tissue-dose. This apparatus and dosimetric technique can be used to compare the effect of fast neutrons and other types of ionizing radiation (e.g. X-rays) on unicellular organisms. The authors study the percentage of survivals and the frequency of a mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The survival curve for Escherichia coli is also determined for X-rays and neutrons. It is found that the RBE's of these various types of radiation depend not only on the species and the biological criterion adopted, but also on the irradiation dose-level at which the comparison is made. These experiments show the RBE to be also a function of dose. The effects of fast neutrons and X-rays are often brought about by differing radiobiological processes. It is arbitrary to establish linear relationships between the doses for these various types of radiation. (author) [French] Nous disposons aupres du reacteur EL3 d'un convertisseur a uranium permettant d'obtenir des neutrons rapides. Une batterie de chambres a fission mesure le flux et la repartition spectrale des neutrons rapides. Ces detecteurs miniatures sont places en divers points du volume a irradier et permettent d'evaluer experimentalement la dose absorbee dans les tissus. Ce dispositif et cette dosimetrie nous servent a comparer l'action des neutrons rapides et d'autres radiations ionisantes (X, {gamma}) sur des organismes monocellulaires. Nous etudions ici le pourcentage de survie et la frequence d'une mutation morphologique chez Saccharomyces cerevisiae. La courbe de survie d'Escherichia coli est aussi etablie pour les rayons X et les neutrons. On observe que les effets biologiques relatifs de ces diverses radiations dependent de l'organisme vivant etudie, du critere biologique choisi, mais aussi de la dose d'irradiation avec laquelle on fait la comparaison. L'efficacite biologique relative apparait dans ces experiences comme etant egalement une fonction de la dose. L'action des neutrons rapides et des rayons X releve souvent de processus radiobiologique differents. Il est arbitraire de relier entre elles les doses de ces diverses radiations par des relations lineaires. (author) [Spanish] Junto al reactor EL3 se encuentra un convertidor de uranio que permite obtener neutrones rapidos. Con una bateria de camaras de fision se mide el flujo y la distribucion espectral de los neutrones rapidos. Estos micro- detectores estan colocados en diversos puntos del volumen que se ha de irradiar y permiten evaluar experimentalmente la dosis absorbida en los tejidos. Gracias a este dispositivo y a este sistema de dosimetria, los autores han podido comparar la accion de los neutrones rapidos con las de otras radiaciones ionizantes (rayos X, rayos y) sobre organismos unicelulares. En este trabajo, estudian el porcentaje de supervivencia y la frecuencia de una mutacion morfologica en el Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tambien han trazado la curva de supervivencia del Escherichia coli, expuesto a rayos X y a neutrones. La observacion de los resultados indica que los efectos biologicos relativos de estas diversas radiaciones dependen del organismo vivo estudiado, del criterio biologico elegido y, ademas, de la dosis de irradiacion con que se realiza la comparacion. Tambien se deduce de estos experimentos que la eficacia biologica relativa es funcion de la dosis. A menudo, la accion de los neutrones rapidos y de los rayos X depende de diferentes procesos radiobiologicos. Seria arbitrario establecer relaciones lineales entre las dosis de dichas radiaciones. (author) [Russian] Na reaktore EL-3 imeetsja uranovyj preobrazovatel, pozvoljajushhij poluchat' bystrye nejtrony. Batareja kamer delenija proizvodit izmerenie potoka i spektral'nogo raspredelenija bystryh nejtronov. Jeti miniatjurnye detektory razmeshhajutsja v razlichnyh tochkah obluchaemogo obrazca i pozvoljajut jeksperimental'no ocenivat' pogloshhaemuju tkanjami dozu. Takaja ustanovka i dozimetrija dali vozmozhnost' sravnit' vlijanie bystryh nejtronov i drugih vidov ionizirujushhego izluchenija (rentgenovy luchi) na odnokletochnye organizmy. Izuchalsja procent vyzhivaemosti i chastota morfologicheskih mutacij u Saccharo- myces cerevisiae. Ustanovlena takzhe krivaja vyzhivaemosti Escherichia coli v otnoshenii rentgenovyh luchej i nejtronov. Otmechaetsja, chto OBJe jetih razlichnyh vidov izluchenija zavisit ot issleduemogo zhivogo organizma, ot izbrannogo biologicheskogo kriterija, a takzhe ot dozy obluchenija, pri kotoroj proizvoditsja sravnenie. V jetih uslovijah OBJe javljaetsja funkciej dozy. Dejstvie bystryh nejtronov i rentgenovyh luchej chasto zavisit ot razlichnyh radiobiologicheskih processov. Bylo by proizvol'no svjazyvat' mezhdu soboj dozy jetih razlichnyh izluchenij linejnymi otnoshenijami. (author)

  19. Relative Biological Effectiveness of 14-MeV Fast Neutrons to Co{sup 60} Gamma-Rays in Einkorn Wheat; Efficacite Biologique Relative des Neutrons Rapides de 14 MeV par Rapport aux Rayons Gamma de {sup 60}Co sur l'Engrain; Otnositel'naya biologicheskaya ehffektivnost' bystrykh nejtronov s ehnergiej 14 MeV i gamma-luchej CO{sup 60} pri ikh dejstvii na pshenitsu odnozernyanku; EBR de los Neutrones Rapidos de 14 MeV y de los Rayos Gamma del {sup 60}Co en el Trigo Escanda Menor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, T. [National Institute of Genetics, Misima (Japan)

    1964-05-15

    The author investigated the RBE of 14 MeV neutrons to Co{sup 60} gamma-rays by using the specific locus method in Einkorn wheat. F{sub 1} seeds from the cross between the original strain and a chlorina mutant were used in this study (chlorina mutant was obtained as a single recessive mutant from X-irradiation; it was uniformly light green from seedling stage to maturity with relatively high survival rate and fertility). The F{sub 1} plants showed normal green colour and normal growth habit. Dormant F{sub 1} seeds were irradiated at 0.5 , 1.0 and 1.4 krad of fast neutrons ami 4.3 , 8.6 and 12.9 krad of gamma-rays. Mutations from dominant normal green to chlorina occurred by both irradiations and appeared in the leaves and stems of the heterozygotic Xi plants as longitudinal stripes. Around 80% of seeds germinated in the control lot and in the lowest dosage lots from both neutron and gamma-ray irradiations, and germination percentages were gradually decreased with increasing dosage of both kinds of radiation. Moreover, a similar tendency was observed at the early stage as to seedling growth which was gradually inhibited with increasing dosage. According to these results, neutron irradiation was about 13 times more effective than that of gamma-rays. Survival rate in the non-irradiated control was about 90% and about 60-80% of germinated seedlings survived in 0.5 and 1.0 krad lots from neutron irradiation and all lots irradiated by gamma-rays. On the other hand, only about 4% of germinated seedlings survived in the highest neutron lot. No mutation was observed in the control lot, and the number of plants which contained striped tillers increased with increasing dosage of both kinds of radiation. Mutated tillers were observed in about 15% of surviving plants obtained at the lowest dosage of neutron irradiation and a similar frequency was observed from the highest dosage of gamma-rays. RBE of 14 MeV neutrons to Co{sup 60} gamma-rays seemed to be at least 20 for the somatic mutation. (author) [French] L' auteur a etudie l'EBR des neutrons de 14 MeV par rapport aux rayons gamma de {sup 60}Co en appliquant a l'engrain la methode des loci specifiques. Il a utilise pour cette etude des semences Fi resultant du croisement entre l'espece originale et un mutant chlorina (le mutant chlorina e ta it le produit d'une mutation recessive induite par les rayons X ; depuis le stade de plantule jusqu'a sa maturite, le m utant a conserve une couleur vert c la ir uniforme ainsi qu'un taux de survie et une fe rtilite relativement eleves). Les plantes Fi avaient une couleur verte et une croissance normales. Des semences dormantes de F{sub 1} ont e te irradiees avec 0,5 , 1,0 et 1,4 krad de neutrons rapides et avec 4,3 , 8,6 et 12,9 krad de rayons gamma. Sous l'effet des deux types de rayonnements, il s'est produit des mutations de vert normal dominant en chlorina, sous forme de bandes longitudinales. Sur les feuilles et les tiges des heterozygotes X{sub 1}. Environ 80% des semences ont germe dans le lot temoin ainsi que dans les deux lots ayant recu la plus faible dose de neutrons et de rayons gamma; les taux de germination ont diminue a mesure qu'augmentaient les doses de neutrons et de rayons gamma. En outre, on a observe un phenomene analogue au debut de lacroissance de la plantule, qui etait progressivement inhibee a mesure qu'augmentait la dose de rayonnement. Les resultats obtenus montrent que l'irradiation par les neutrons est environ 13 fois plus efficace que celle par les rayons gamma. Le taux de survie des semences non irradiees du lo t temoin a e te de 90% environ; 60 a 80% des plantules ont survecu aux doses de 0,5 et 1,0 krad de neutrons; toutes les plantilles irradiees par les rayons gamma ont survecu. En revanche, 4% seulement des plantules ont survecu a 1,4 krad de neutrons. L'auteur n 'a pas observe de mutations chez les plantes du lo t temoin; le nombre des plantes a talles rayees a augmente en meme temps que les doses des deux types de rayonnements. E a observe des talles mutants dans pres de 15% des plantes qui ont survecu a la plus faible dose de neutrons et a constate que la frequence e ta it la meme pour les plantes qui avaient recu la dose la plus elevee des rayons gamma. L'EBR des neutrons de 14 MeV par rapport aux rayons gamma de {sup 60}Co semble etre d'au moins 20 pour la mutation somatique. (author) [Spanish] El autor estudio la EBR de los neutrones de 14 MeV con respecto a los rayos gamma del {sup 60}Co por el metodo del locus especifico en el trigo escanda menor. Empleo semillas Fi obtenidas por cruza entre la cepa original y el mutante chlorina (este ultimo se obtuvo como mutante recesivo unico por exposicion a los rayos X; conserva un color verde palido desde que germina hasta que alcanza la madurez, con indices de supervivencia y fertilidad relativamente elevados). Las plantas Fj presentan el color verde normal y tambien es normal la modalidad de desarrollo. El autor irradio las semillas de Fx latentes con neutrones rapidos (en dosis de 0,5 - 1,0 y 1,4 krad) y con rayos gamma (4 ,3 - 8,6 y 12,9 krad). Ambas radiaciones provocaron mutaciones del verde normal dominante al tono chlorina, que aparecio en las hojas y tallos de las plantas heterocigoticas en forma de rayas longitudinales. Alrededor del 80% de las semillas germino en el grupo testigo y en los grupos expuestos a los neutrones y rayos gamma en dosis bajas, pero el porcentaje de semillas germinadas fue decreciendo gradualmente a medida que aumentaba la dosis de ambos tipos de radiacion. Ademas, se observo una tendencia similar en la primera fase d el desarrollo de la plantula, que se inhibe paulatinamente al aumentar la dosis. De acuerdo con estos resultados, la irradiacion neutronica Inverted-Question-Mark s unas 13 veces mas eficaz que los rayos gamma. El in d ic e de supervivencia en el grupo testigo, no irradiado, fue del orden de 90%; en los grupos expuestos a los neutrones a razon de dosis de 0,5 y 1,0 krad, sobrevivio entre 60 y 80% de las plantulas y en los grupos tratados con rayos gamma, la supervivencia fue del 100%. En cambio, en el grupo sometido a la irradiacion neutronica con la dosis mas elevada, solo sobrevivio un 4% de las plantulas. No se observaron mutaciones en el grupo testigo y el numero de plantas que presentaba retonos rayados crecio al aumentar la dosis de ambos tipos de radiacion. Se observaron retoflos con mutaciones en un 15% de las plantas sobrevivientes tratadas con la dosis inferior de neutrones y la misma frecuencia se registro para la dceis mayor de rayos gamma. Al parecer, la EBR de los neutrones de 14 MeV con respecto a los rayos gamma de {sup 60}Co, para la mutacion somatica, es 20 como minimo. (author) [Russian] Avtor izuchal OBJe nejtronov s jenergiej 14 Mjev i gamma-luchej Sobo pri ih dejstvii na pshenicu odnozernjanku s pomoshh'ju special'nogo lokusnogo metoda. Dlja opyta ispol'zovalis' semena generacii F{sub 1} gibrida mezhdu ishodnym sortom i mutantom Chlorina (mutant Chlorina byl poluchen kak edinstvennyj recessivnyj rentgenomutant; ot stadii sejanca do nastuplenija spelosti on byl odnorodno svetlozelenym s otnositel'no vysokoj vyzhivaemost'ju i urozhajnost'ju). U rastenij F{sub 1} byla normal'naja zelenaja okraska i normal'nyj harakter rosta. Pokojashhiesja semena Ft obluchali bystrymi nejtronami v dozah 0,5, 1,0 i 1,4 krad i gamma-luchami v dozah 4,3 8,6 i 12,9 krad. Mutacii ot dominantnyh normal'nyh zelenyh do Chlorina nabljudalis' posle oboih vidov obluchenija i pojavljalis' v list'jah i stebljah geterozigotnyh rastenij X{sub 1} v vide prodol'nyh polos. Okolo 80% semjan vzoshlo na kontrol'nyh uchastkah i na uchastkah posle obluchenija ca- mymi nizkimi dozami nejtronov i gamma-luchej, procent vshozhesti postepenno snizhalsja s povysheniem dozy pri oboih vidah obluchenija. Krome togo, takaja zhe tendencija nabljudalas' i na rannih stadijah rosta sejancev, kotoryj postepenno tormozilsja s povysheniem dozy. Soglasno jetim dannym nejtronnoe obluchenie okazalos' pochti v 13 raz jeffektivnee gamma- luchej. Vyzhivaemost' neobluchennyh kontrol'nyh rastenij byla okolo 90%, a u prorosshih semjan na uchastkah posle obluchenija 0,5 i 1,0 krad nejtronov, i na vseh uchastkah posle gamma- obluchenija vyzhivaemost' sostavljala 60-80%. I, naprotiv, lish' okolo 4% prorosshih semjan vyzhili na uchastkah posle obluchenija samymi vysokimi dozami nejtronov. Na kontrol'nom uchastke mutacij ne obnaruzheno, a chislo rastenij s polosatymi pobegami vozrastalo s povysheniem dozy pri oboih bilah obluchenija. Mutantnye pobegi nabljudalis' primerno u 15% vyzhivshih rastenij, poluchivshih samye nizkie dozy nejtronnogo obluchenija, i u takogo zhe kolichestva rastenij, poluchivshih samye vysokie dozy gamma-obluchenija. OBJe nejtronov s jenergiej 14 Mjev po sravneniju s gamma-luchami Cot; v otnoshenii somaticheskih mutacij ravnjalos' po krajnej mere 20. (author)

  20. Improved Techniques for Low-Flux Measurement of Prompt Neutron Lifetime, Conversion Ratio and Fast Spectra; Methodes Perfectionnees de Mesure de la Duree de Vie des Neutrons Instantanes, du Rapport de Conversion et des Spectres de Neutrons Rapides, dans un Reacteur a Bas Flux; Usovershenstvovannye metody izmereniya vremeni zhizni mgnovennykh nejtronov, koehffitsienta konversii i spektra bystrykh nejtronov pri slabykh potokakh nejtronov; Tecnicas Perfeccionadas para la Determinacion del Periodo de los Neutrones Inmediatos, la Razon de Conversion y los Espectros de Neutrones Rapidos, con Flujos Reducidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armani, R. J.; Bennett, E. F.; Brenner, M. W.; Bretscher, M. M.; Cohn, C. E.; Huber, R. J.; Kaufmann, S. G.; Redman, W. C. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1964-02-15

    Various statistical methods for the measurement of the ratio of prompt neutron lifetime to delayed fraction have been used in the zero-power reactor programme. One method was originated here, i.e. analysis of reactor noise with a bandpass filter, and others such as the measurement of the frequency of delayed coincidences among counter pulses as a function of delay time and the measurement of the relative variance of time integrals of the neutron flux as a function of integrating time have been refined. The areas of most advantageous application of the various methods have been studied. Attention has also been given to the interpretation of the results of these measurements, and it has been shown that interpretation based on a simple kinetics model is applicable to a wide range of practical cases. Several improvements in our original activation method for the low flux determination of the ratio of production to destruction of fissile material are described. These include the application of very sensitive radiochemical techniques as a confirming procedure; correction for extraneous counts, utilizing foils of different enrichments for the contribution of fission of the fertile material to the fission- product activity and foils exposed to different spectra for fission-related counts in the capture determination; and the use of coincidence counting for the detection of Np{sup 239} decay. Obtaining a value for conversion ratio from the activation data requires a knowledge of the ratio of captures to fissions in the fuel, {alpha}. No accurate experimental method now exists for the measurement of this quantity in a low flux reactor, but several methods which might make feasible such a determination are being explored. Three of the more promising techniques are outlined. Efforts to develop a small fast neutron spectrometer of good stability, resolution and sensitivity for in-pile measurements of neutron spectra in the energy region of tens and hundreds of kilovolts have been concentrated on the use of pulse shape analysis to reject gamma-ray initiated events in hydrogen recoil proportional counters and the introduction of collimation in Li{sup 6}F solid-state detector ''sandwiches'' to improve the resolution obtained. A number of such instruments have been built and their response to mono-kinetic and reactor neutrons has been investigated. Use of the gamma-ray rejection technique was equivalent to a several hundred-fold effective reduction in gamma-ray sensitivity of the recoil counter and extends the usable range down to at least 30 keV. For the Li{sup 6} solid-state devices, resolutions as low as 70 keV full-width at half maximum (1.5%) have been observed for the sum pulse in thermal neutron irradiation. (author) [French] Dans le programme des reacteurs de puissance zero, on a utilise diverses methodes statistiques pour mesurer le rapport duree de vie des neutrons instantanes/duree de vie des neutrons differes. Les auteurs ont mis au point une methode nouvelle, qui consiste a analyser le bruit du reacteur a l'aide d'un filtre passe-bande, et ont perfectionne d'autres methodes telles que la mesure, a l'aide d'un compteur a impulsions, de la frequence des coincidences retardees en fonction du temps de retard et celle de la variance relative des flux de neutrons integres en fonction du temps d'integration. Ils ont etudie les domaines dans lesquels les differentes methodes peuvent etre utilisees avec le plus d'interet. II se sont aussi preoccupes de l'interpretation des resultats de ces mesures, et montrent que l'interpretation fondee sur un modele cinetique simple peut s'appliquer dans la pratique a une grande diversite de cas. Les auteurs decrivent plusieurs perfectionnements de leur methode d'activation pour la determination du rapport de conversion: application de techniques chimiques tres sensibles pour confirmer les resultats obtenus; correction pour les coups parasites en utilisant, dans la determination de la capture, des feuilles d'enrichissements differents pour etablir la contribution des fissions dans la matiere fertile a l'activite des produits de fission et des feuilles exposees a differents'spectres pour distinguer les coups dus a des fissions dans la determination des captures; emploi du comptage par coiencidence pour la detection de la decroissance de {sup 239}Np. Pour obtenir une valeur exprimant le rapport de conversion, a partir des donnees relatives a l'activation, il faut connaitre le rapport entre les captures et les fissions dans le combustible. Il n'existe pas a l'heure actuelle de methodes experimentales precises pour mesurer ce rapport dans un reacteur a bas flux; plusieurs methodes qui pourraient etre utilisees a cette fin sont en cours d'etude. Les auteurs decrivent trois des methodes qui offrent les perspectives les plus favorables. Pour construire un petit spectrometre a neutrons rapides, ayant une bonne stabilite, un bon pouvoir de resolution et une bonne sensibilite en vue de la mesure en pile des spectres neutroniques compris dans la gamme d'energies des dizaines et des centaines de kV, les auteurs ont concentre leurs efforts sur l'utilisation de l'analyse de la forme des impulsions - afin d'eliminer les evenements produits par les rayons gamma dans les compteurs proportionnels fondes sur des protons de recul de l'hydrogene - et sur l'introduction de la collimation dans les 'sandwiches' {sup 6}LiF-semi-conducteurs - afin d'augmenter le pouvoir de resolution. Ils ont construit un certain nombre de ces appareils et etudie leur reponse aux neutrons monocinetiques et aux neutrons produits dans un reacteur. En utilisant la technique d'elimination des rayons gamma, ils ont pu reduire de plusieurs centaines de fois la sensibilite du compteur de recul aux rayons gamma et de cette maniere abaisser la limite inferieure d'application de l'instrument a 30 keV. Pour les appareils {sup 6}Li-semi-conducteurs, ils ont observe des pouvoirs de resolution de 70 keV ( largeur entiere a mi- hauteur 1,5%), pour la somme des impulsions dans l'irradiation par les neutrons thermiques. (author) [Spanish] En el programa del reactor ZPR, se han aplicado varios metodos estadfsticos para determinar la razon perfodo de los neutrones inmediatos/perfodo de la fraccion de neutrones retardados. Los autores idearon uno de los metodos, consistente en el analisis del ruido del reactor con un filtro de paso de banda, y perfeccionaron otros, taies como la medicion de la frecuencia de coincidencias retardadas entre los impulsos del contador en funcion del retardo, y la determinacion de la variancia relativa de las integrales de tiempo del flu jo neutronico en funcion del tiempo de integracion. Han estudiado en que terrenos se aplican mas ventajosamente los distintos metodos. Tambien han procurado interpretar los resultados de las mediciones precitadas y han comprobado que la interpretacion basada en un modelo cinetico simple puede aplicarse a numerosos casos practicos. Los autores describen varios perfeccionamientos introducidos en su metodo original de activacion para la determinacion de la razon produccion/destruccion de material fisionable, con flujos reducidos. Entre ellos figuran la aplicacion de tecnicas radioqufmicas de alta sensibilidad como procedimiento de confirmacion; la correccion de impulsos parasitos, mediante laminas de diferente grado de enriquecimiento, para determinar la contribucion de la fision del material fertii a la actividad de los productos de fision, asi como Iaminas expuestas a los diferentes espectros para medir los impulsos relacionados con los sucesos de fision en la determinacion de la captura; y en el empleo del recuento por coincidencias para la deteccion de la desintegracion del {sup 239}Np. Para deducir la razon de conversion partiendo de los datos relativos a la activacion, es preciso conocer el coeficiente {alpha}, es decir, la razon capturas/fisiones en el combustible. Por ahora no existe ninguen metodo experimental que permita medir este valor en un reactor de flujo reducido, pero se estan estudiando algunos que pueden servir a ese fin. Los autores resefian tres de las tecnicas que ofrecen mejores perspectivas. Los estudios realizados con el proposito de construit un espectrometro pequeflo para neutrones rapidos con buenas caracteristicas de estabilidad, poder de resolucion y sensibilidad, destinado a la medicion de espectros neutronicos dentro del reactor, en el intervalo energetico de las decenas o centenares de kilovoltios, se han concentrado en el empleo del analisis de la forma de los impulsos (con el fin de rechazar los sucesos iniciados por los rayos gamma en los contadores proporcionales de retroceso de hidtogeno) y el empleo de la colimacion en los detectores tipo sandwich, a base de {sup 6}LiF en un material solido, a fin de aumentar el poder de resolucion. Se ha construido cierto ndmero de instrumentes de este tipo y se esta estudiando la forma en que se comportan frente a los neutrones monocineticos y los neutrones de un reactor. Recurriendo a la tecnica de rechazo de los rayos gamma, se ha podido reducir varios cientos de veces la sensibilidad del contador de retroceso frente a dichos rayos y de esta manera, el limite inferior de aplicacion del instrumente se ha extendido por lo menos hasta los 30 keV. En cuanto a los instrumentes de semiconductors a base de {sup 6}Li, se han observado poderes de resolucion de hasta 70 keV de amplitud total en correspondencia con la mitad del maximo (1,5%) para la suma de los impulsos, en la irradiaeion con neutrones termicos. (author) [Russian] Pri osushhestvlenii programmy issledovanija reak- tora nulevoj moshhnosti (ZPR) primenjalis' razlichnye statisticheskie metody izmerenija ot- noshenija vremeni zhizni mgnovennyh nejtronov k doze zapazdyvajushhih nejtronov. Odin metod, a imenno analiz ''shuma'' reaktora s pomoshh'ju polosovogo fil'tra byl razrabotan v laboratorii, a drugie, naprimer izmerenie chastoty zapazdyvajushhih sovpadenij impul'sov schet- chika kak funkcii vremeni zapazdyvanija i izmerenie otnositel'nogo otklonenija integralov vo vremeni potoka nejtronov kak funkcii integriruemogo vremeni, byli uluchsheny. Izu- cheny oblasti naibolee uspeshnogo primenenija razlichnyh metodov. Bylo udeleno takzhe vni- manie interpretacii rezul'tatov jetih izmenenij, i bylo pokazano, chto interpretacija na osnove prostoj kineticheskoj modeli primenima dlja shirokogo kruga konkretnyh sluchaev. Opisyvajutsja neskol'ko usovershenstvovanij nashego pervonachal'nogo aktivacionnogo metoda opredelenija otnoshenija obrazovanija k razrusheniju deljashhegosja veshhestva pri slabyh potokah nejtronov. Sjuda vhodit primenenie ochen' chuvstvitel'nyh radiohimicheskih metodov dlja proverki poluchennyh rezul'tatov; vnesenie popravok s cel'ju ucheta pomeh; primenenie fol'g razlichnoj stepeni obogashhenija dlja dobavlenija aktivnosti deljashhegosja materiala k aktivnosti produktov delenija; primenenie fol'g. obluchennyh nejtronami razlichnyh jenergij, dlja scheta delenij pri opredelenii zahvata; i ispol'zovanie scheta sovpadenij dlja obnaruzhenija raspada Np{sup 239}. Dlja poluchenija znachenija kojefficienta konversii po dannym aktivacii ne- obhodimo znat' otnoshenie kolichestva zahvatov k kolichestvu aktov delenija v toplive ({alpha}). V nastojashhee vremja ne sushhestvuet tochnogo jeksperimental'nogo metoda dlja izmerenija jetoj velichiny v reaktore so slabym potokom nejtronov; issledujutsja neskol'ko metodov, koto- rye, vozmozhno, pozvoljat opredelit' jetu velichinu. Opisyvajutsja dva ili tri perspektivnyh metoda. Usilija po sozdaniju nebol'shogo spektrometra bystryh nejtronov, imejushhego horoshuju stabil'nost', razreshajushhuju sposobnost' i chuvstvitel'nost' dlja izmerenija v reaktore spekt- ra nejtronov v oblasti jenegrii v desjatki i sotni kilovol't, byli sosredotocheny na prime- nenii analiza formy impul'sov dlja iskljuchenija vyzyvaemyh gamma-luchami javlenij v vodo- rodnyh proporcional'nyh schetchikah otdachi i na primenenii kollimirovanija v sloistyh konstrukcijah Li{sup 6}F-tverdyj detektor dlja povyshenija poluchennoj razreshajushhej sposobnosti. Rjad takih priborov byl postroen, i byla issledovana ih reakcija na monokineticheskie nej- trony i nejtrony, obrazujushhiesja v reaktore. Primenenie metoda iskljuchenija, vyzyvaemyh gamma-luchami javlenij, ravnosil'no jeffektivnomu snizheniju v neskol'ko sot raz chuvstvi- tel'nosti schetchika nejtronov otdachi k gamma-izlucheniju i rasshirjaet diapazon ego primenenija po krajnej mere do 30 kjev. Dlja ustrojstv Li{sup 6} -tverdyj detektor otmechena takaja niz- kaja razreshajushhaja sposobnost', kak 70 kjev ( polnaja shirina na polovine vysoty (1,5%) dlja summarnogo impul'sa pri obluchenii teplovymi nejtronami. (author)

  1. Modal logics for rational agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linder, B. van

    1996-01-01

    In een zin samengevat gaat dit proefschrift over formele technieken die gebruikt kunnen worden bij het modelleren van menselijk gedrag. Met behulp van zo'n modellering kan niet alleen precies gekeken worden waardoor bepaald gedrag veroorzaakt wordt, maar ook kan gewenst gedrag formeel beschreven

  2. Het herenbolwerk : politieke en sociale terreinverkenningen in Drenthe over de periode 1748-1888

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buning, Lammert

    1966-01-01

    NABESCHOUWING EN CONCLUSIES De verklaring van het feit dat zich in de achttiende eeuw in - Drenthe een oligarchie vormde van ridclerinatigen, voorname eigenerfden en ambtelijke specialisten, lijkt op het eerste gezicht niet moeilijk? Overal in de Verenigde Provinciën vormde zich immers zo'n

  3. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NSK/2) and one pit on the site that did not (NS/NSK) and described then before collecting soil samples from the genetic hori- zons of each pit for analysis of soil properties. Soil organic carbon (OC), microbial respiration, electri- cal conductivity ...

  4. Microcanon : wat je beslist moet weten over microbiologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.; Doorn, van J.; Oost, van der J.; Reijnders, W.; Willemsen, P.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Micro-organismen zijn onmisbaar voor het leven op aarde. De organismen zijn zo klein dat we ze niet zien, maar ze zijn des te belangrijk. Deze kleine organismen kunnen een positieve of negatieve invloed hebben. Soms klein, soms groot. De Microcanon geeft daarvan een goed beeld in zo'n zestig

  5. De neutrale waterstof in orion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerden, Hugo van

    1962-01-01

    Doel van dit onderzoek was, gedetailleerde gegevens te verkrijgen over de structuur en beweging van wolken van waterstofgas in de ruimte tussen de sterren, in een gebied dat - beschouwd in verhouding tot de grootte van het Melkwegstelsel - in de nabijheid van de zon ligt....... Zie: Samenvatting

  6. Toerisme verrijkt? : een discussie over de relatie tussen toerisme en armoedebestrijding, inleiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.

    2005-01-01

    Na ecotourism, duurzaam en verantwoord toerisme is er de laatste jaren een nieuwe loot aan de stam gegroeid: pro-poor tourism. Het wordt gedragen door organisaties als: World Tourism Organisation (tijdens de wereldtop in Johannesburg), de SNV (met zo'n 40 toeristische adviseurs over diverse landen

  7. 'Het is stoer de Grönnegers wakker te kriegen' : de lotgevallen van de Grönneger Bond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voerman, Gerrit; Boersma, J. W.; Huussen, A. H.; van den Broek, J.F.J.; van Keulen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Zo'n tien jaar na de totstandkoming van de Fryske Nasjonale Party (FNP) in Friesland kreeg Groningen ook een politiek-regionale groepering. In 1974 werd de Gronneger Bond (GB) opgericht, die zich zou beijveren voor een federale staatsstructuur en voor meer ruimte voor de Groninger cultuur. Voor deze

  8. Op een kaal plein valt niets te kiezen (Interview)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boo, de M.; Lenzholzer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Pleinen en straten worden geteisterd door gure windvlagen of je smelt juist weg als de zon flink schijnt. In haar proefschrift legt Sanda Lenzholzer uit dat ontwerpers meer rekening moeten houden met het microklimaat in de stad. Dat houdt ook de aso’s op afstand.

  9. Goed resultaat met Aquanox tegen meeldauw en botrytis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleegers, J.; Hofland-Zijlstra, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    De ontmanteling van de kas is in volle gang als we de foto maken. Een shovel rijdt voorbij als Ton en René Bekkers poseren. Zo'n 8,5 ha kas is sinds kort niet meer in gebruik. Toch verschijnt er een glimlach op de gezichten. "Een Bekkers lacht bijna altijd. Dat zit in onze genen." Beurtelings doen

  10. Hoornloze koeien in aantocht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hoornloosheid komt bij enkele koeienrassen voor. Om het in de huidige melkkoe in te fokken, zou een fokprogramma hulp kunnen bieden. De veehouderij vindt gebruik van zo'n programma prima, de gemiddelde burger is daar wat terughoudender in en ook meer verdeeld.

  11. Werknemer moet explosie niet óm de oren krijgen, maar ertussen : risicobeheersing begint op de werkvloer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P. van; Beek, C. van

    1999-01-01

    Nederland kent zo'n 4500 bedrijven die op grote schaal met gevaarlijke stoffen werken, de majeure-risicobedrijven. Een van de risicofactoren bij deze bedrijven is explosiegevaar. Het veiligheidsbeleid is in de eerste plaats gericht op bescherming van de eigen werknemers en apparatuur, op de

  12. Marx voor de 21e eeuw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, M.M.; van der Velden, S.

    2008-01-01

    Karl Marx werd 190 jaar geleden geboren en is 125 jaar dood. Zo'n man uit de voorvorige eeuw heeft die ons eigenlijk nog wel iets te zeggen? Zijn zijn denkbeelden niet totaal verouderd? Ik denk persoonlijk dat het antwoord krachtig NEE moet luiden. Marx is niet verouderd, integendeel.

  13. 'Mastspuit met sensoren brengt middel effectiever aan' (onderzoek praktijkproeven PRI en PPO)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, A.; PPO BBF Boomkwekerij,; PRI,; Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    In mei 2011 starten Plant Research International (PRI), PPO Boomkwekerij en Damcon de eerste praktijkproeven met sensoren op de mastspuit. Dit prototype spuit alleen als het bladeren detecteert. Projectleider Ard Nieuwenhuizen van PRI is ervan overtuigd dat kwekers met zo'n type spuit middelen

  14. Over de wiskunde die Google groot maakte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.

    2008-01-01

    Google vindt in een oogwenk de meest relevante web-bladzijden over een bepaald onderwerp. Omdat het web uit zo'n tien miljard bladzijden bestaat is dit een enorm indrukwekkende prestatie: het lijkt eenvoudiger om een naald in een hooiberg te vinden. De kracht van Google schuilt in de mathematische

  15. Mycorrhizaschimmels: een rol in gewasbescherming?; thema bodemweerbaarheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baar, J.

    2005-01-01

    In de grond kunnen bij planten specifieke bodemschimmels voorkomen. Dit zijn de zogeheten mycorrhizaschimmels. Kenmerkend voor mycorrhizaschimmels is dat deze schimmels met planten in een gebalanceerde symbiose leven. Van zo'n symbiose hebben zowel de planten als de schimmels profijt. In dit artikel

  16. Focus op Fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Wil Michels; Yara Michels

    2011-01-01

    Eigenlijk is het heel eenvoudig. De meeste mensen maken graag iets bijzonders mee. Ze zijn nieuwsgierig, willen alles weten en weinig missen. En delen dat weer graag met anderen. Gemiddeld heeft iedereen zo'n 150 online en offline contacten aan wie ze een bijzonder verhaal kunnen doorgeven. En

  17. Professionalisering van het FTO in Noord-Holland Noord: evaluatie van een pilot.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Dijk, L. van; Wagner, C.; Bakker, D. de

    2004-01-01

    Voor een succesvol Farmaco Therapie Overleg (FTO) zijn een goede voorbereiding, een strenge voorzitter, een duidelijk afgebakend onderwerp en heldere afspraken nodig. Daarmee is het mogelijk het functioneren van zo'n overleg naar een (nog) hoger niveau te tillen. Dit blijkt uit een

  18. Snelheidslimieten op het fabrieksterrein van DSM te Geleen : advies uitgebracht aan de Begeleidingscommissie Projekt Verkeersgedrag.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    De aan de SWOV gestelde vraag luidt: welke snelheidslimiet is voor de twee locaties van DSM in Geleen optimaal? De praktijk leert dat het uitsluitend instellen van een snelheidslimiet er niet toe leidt dat weggebruikers zich aan zo'n limiet zullen houden. Daarom dient te worden toegevoegd de vraag

  19. Risicoanalyse voor buisleidingen met brandbare vloeistoffen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet AAC; Laheij GMH; Wolting AG; CEV

    2006-01-01

    De minimale veiligheidsafstanden tussen buisleidingen met brandbare vloeistoffen en bebouwingen kunnen gelijk blijven of iets verkleind worden. Dit is de conclusie na een herberekening van de afstanden uit een circulaire uit 1991. In Nederland ligt zo'n 1850 kilometer aan ondergrondse buisleiding

  20. Visuele beperkingen bij ouderen in Nederland - risicogroepen en mogelijkheden tot interventie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limburg, J.J.H.; Keunen, J.E.E.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the number of elderly people with visual impairment in The Netherlands, now and in the future. Possibilities for intervention are discussed. Methods and materials: Estimates are based on a recent report on behalf of Foundation InZicht, ZonMw, in which prevalence data from

  1. Een traditie herneemt zich - Over het belang van Aldo van Eyck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colenbrander, B.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Zo'n zeven, acht jaar geleden veranderde Aldo van Eyck, overigens bij leven en welzijn, van een lijfelijk deelnemer aan de architectuurdiscussie in een historische figuur. Hij werd verguisd en gelauwerd. Met de Rekenkamer in Den Haag echter doet Van Eyck lang vergeten manifesten herleven. Gloort er

  2. Histone Code Modulation by Oncogenic PWWP-Domain Protein in Breast Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    the pathogenesis of a wide range of human cancers, including colon, lung, glioblastoma and mela - noma (Ostman et al., 2006; Solomon et al., 2008...Beroukhim R, Mermel CH, Loda M, Ait-Si-Ali S, Garraway LA, Young RA and Zon LI. The histone methyltrans- ferase SETDB1 is recurrently amplified in mela

  3. How place attachments influence recreation conflict and coping behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Ping Wang; Yin-Hsun. Chang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how place attachment influences recreation conflict and coping behaviors based on the Transactional Stress/Coping Model. The interference between bikers and walkers in Bali Zon-An Park in Taipei County, Taiwan was investigated in May and June of 2007. A total of 384 valid questionnaires were collected.

  4. Fate of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize flour and grits during extrusion cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudamore, Keith A; Guy, Robin C E; Kelleher, Brian; MacDonald, Susan J

    2008-11-01

    Extrusion technology is used widely in the manufacture of a range of breakfast cereals and snacks for human consumption and animal feeds. To minimise consumer exposure to mycotoxins, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in cereals/cereal products and fumonisins B(1) and B(2) (FB(1) and FB(2)) in maize are controlled by European Union legislation. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the loss of Fusarium mycotoxins during processing. The behaviour of FB(1), FB(2) and fumonisin B(3) (FB(3)), DON and ZON during extrusion of naturally contaminated maize flour and maize grits is examined using pilot-scale equipment. DON and ZON are relatively stable during extrusion cooking but the fumonisins are lost to varying degrees. There is some loss of ZON when present in low concentrations and extruded at higher moisture contents. The presence of additives, such as reducing sugars and sodium chloride, can also affect mycotoxin levels. Moisture content of the cereal feed during extrusion is important and has a greater effect than temperature, particularly on the loss of fumonisins at the lower moistures. The effects are complex and not easy to explain, although more energy input to the extruder is required for drier materials. However, on the basis of these studies, the relationship between the concentration of Fusarium toxins in the raw and finished product is toxin- and process-dependent.

  5. Contamination of cattle feed with molds and mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The total number of potentially toxigenic molds (fungi, total aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON, and deoxynivalenol (DON, as well as the joint appearance of ZON and DON have been investigated in 67 samples of cattle feed (concentrate (n=21, silage of whole maize plant (n=18, beet pulp (n=4, brewer's malt (n=2, alfalfa and grass (n=1, alfalfa hay (n=12, meadow hay (n=7, pea and oat hay (n=1, and red clover hay (n=1 originating from private farms from 10 districts of the Republic of Serbia. The total number of fungi per 1 g feed ranged from 0 (silage of brewer’s malt to 12 x 104 (concentrate. Eight fungi genus species have been identified: Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillum, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The presence of ZON (100% was established in all the examined cattle feed samples, while 98.5% samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins and 92.5% samples were DON positive. The joint appearance of ZON and DON was established in 92.5% samples. ZON was present in the highest average concentration in the sample of alfalfa and grass silage (2477.5 μg kg-1 and in the lowest in beet pulp silage samples (64.9 μg kg-1. Total aflatoxins were established in the highest average concentration in the pea and oat hay silage sample (7.9 μg kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in beet pulp silage samples (1.6 μg kg-1. DON was detected in the highest average concentration in concentrate samples (694.2 μg kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in the red clover hay sample (11.0 μg kg-1, while DON was not detected in brewer's malt silage samples (0.0 μg kg-1. In all the examined cattle feed samples, between moisture content (up to 20% and the concentration of examined mycotoxins, a negative correlation was established (r=-0.26 with total aflatoxins and a positive correlation with ZON (r=0,36 and DON (r=0,60. Furthermore, a positive correlation (r=0.22 was established between ZON and DON concentrations. [Projekat

  6. Participatie en empowerment in de gezondheidsbevordering: Professionals in de knel tussen ideaal en praktijk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaby Jacobs

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Deze bijdrage is gebaseerd op een onderzoek in opdracht van ZonMw (de Nederlandse organisatie voor gezondheidsonderzoek en ontwikkeling naar de state of the art van empowerment in de Nederlandse gezondheidsbevorderings- en preventiepraktijken. Daartoe is een literatuurstudie verricht en zijn acht van de in totaal 54 projecten binnen het programma ‘Gezond Leven’ van ZonMw geselecteerd vanwege hun gerichtheid op empowerment van de deelnemers, tot uitdrukking komend in zinsneden in de projectvoorstellen als ‘meer grip krijgen op het eigen leven’, 'bewust keuzen leren maken en daar zelf verantwoordelijkheid voor nemen’, ‘helpen hun kracht en kwaliteiten om met de bestaande situatie om te gaan te ontdekken of te versterken’ en ‘erkenning van de eigen ideeën en expertise van mensen’.

  7. [Targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F; Hendriks, Thom C C

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch government funds health research in several ways. One component of public funding consists of funding programmes issued by the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). The majority of ZonMw's programmes provide funding for research in specific health research areas. Such targeted funding plays an important role in addressing knowledge gaps and in generating products for which there is a need. Good governance of the allocation of targeted funding for health research requires three elements: a research agenda, an overview of the health research currently being conducted, and a transparent decision-making process regarding the distribution of funds. In this article, we describe how public funding for health research is organized in the Netherlands and how the allocation of targeted funds is governed. By describing the questions that the current model of governance raises, we take a first step towards a debate about the governance of targeted public funding for health research in the Netherlands.

  8. Horticulture Therapy for Persons with Dementia; Effects on Engagement and Affect

    OpenAIRE

    Gigliotti, Christina Marie

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate and synthesize the literature from the fields of Horticulture Therapy (HT) and therapeutic activities for persons with dementia using the theory of environmental press Utilizing horticulture as a treatment modality, the therapist can either modify the environment or the personâ s competence level or both to assist persons to reach the desired Adaptation Level (AL). The AL represents an appropriate person-environment fit, and attainment of this zon...

  9. Patiëntveiligheid in de geestelijke gezondheidszorg en verslavingszorg: een eerste verkenning naar zorggerelateerde onbedoelde schade.

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, M.; Langelaan, M.; Kok, I.; Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ook in GGZ en Verslavingszorg gaat het soms onbedoeld mis. Het Trimbos-instituut en het NIVEL hebben een eerste stap gezet naar patiëntveiligheidsonderzoek in deze sector. Veiligheidsonderzoek is al langer geaccepteerd en ingevoerd in de ziekenhuizen. In de geestelijke gezondheidszorg en verslavingszorg is dat nog niet het geval. Via het Landelijk Actieprogramma Kwaliteit in de GGZ/VZ van ZonMw werd subsidie gegeven voor een eerste verkennend onderzoek, analoog aan eerder onderzoek naar de om...

  10. Proceedings of the Navy Symposium on Aeroballistics (10th) Held at the Sheraton Motor Inn, Fredericksburg, Virginia on 15-16-17 July 1975. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-17

    crtcUtrm Cmai~d-IBody Combination in Supersonic Flow cr~C.Uor wix 4 cody crnimpu’-er progra~i waj appliod. the crciform ca1r-body cornhina~ion shown in -z...on Aeroballistics ft Vol.1I ’ i 1: PAPER NO. 6 I L WING PLATFORM STUDIES FOR A SPAN-CONSTRAINED MISSILE L. S. JERNELL W. C. SAWYER PAPER WITHDRAWN Li

  11. Client perspective assessment of women?s satisfaction towards labour and delivery care service in public health facilities at Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zone, south Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dewana, Zeritu; Fikadu, Teshale; G/ Mariam, Abebe; Abdulahi, Misra

    2016-01-01

    Background A woman?s satisfaction with labour and delivery care service has a good effect on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Thus knowledge about women?s satisfaction on labour and delivery care used to enhances the services utilization. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction of women?s towards labour and delivery care service and identify factors associated it at public health facilities in Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zon...

  12. Incidence of trichothecenes and zearalenone in poultry feed mixtures from Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, Roman; Parich, Alexandra; Berthiller, Franz; Tancinová, Dana

    2005-11-15

    A total of 50 samples of poultry feed mixtures of Slovakian origin were analyzed for eight toxicologically significant Fusarium mycotoxins, namely zearalenone (ZON), A-trichothecenes: diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), T-2 toxin (T-2) and HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and B-trichothecenes: deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV). The A-trichothecenes and the B-trichothecenes were detected by means of high pressure liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (HPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD), respectively. Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (RP-HPLC-FLD) was used for ZON detection. The most frequent mycotoxin detected was T-2, which was found in 45 samples (90%) in relatively low concentrations ranging from 1 to 130 microg kg(-1) (average 13 microg kg(-1)), followed by ZON that was found in 44 samples (88%) in concentrations ranging from 3 to 86 microg kg(-1) (average 21 microg kg(-1)). HT-2 and DON were detected in 38 (76%) and 28 (56%) samples, respectively, in concentrations of 2 to 173 (average 18 microg kg(-1)) for HT-2 and 64 to 1230 microg kg(-1) sample (average 303 microg kg(-1)) for DON. The acetyl-derivatives of DON were in just four samples, while NIV was not detected in any of the samples investigated. In as many as 22 samples (44%), a combination of four simultaneously co-occurring mycotoxins, i.e. T-2, HT-2, ZON and DON, was revealed. Despite the limited number of samples investigated during this study poultry feed mixtures may represent a risk from a toxicological point of view and should be regarded as a potential source of the Fusarium mycotoxins in Central Europe. This is the first reported study dealing with zearalenone and trichothecene contamination of poultry mixed feeds from Slovakia.

  13. AHP 45: Review: River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zon thar rgyal says that inspiration for River came with the arrival of his second child (a son, which made his daughter very uncomfortable. "At first, I just wanted to make a simple movie for children as a gift for my daughter,"6 he said during an interview in Lha sa. Later, however, the film became more elaborate with the addition of a grandfather, creating a story that embraces three generations.

  14. Earth, Wind and Fire. Natural air conditioning. Part 1. Research aims and methods; Earth, Wind and Fire. Natuurlijke airconditioning. Deel 1. Onderzoeksdoelen en -methoden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsema, B. [Afdeling Architectural Engineering en Technology, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    The Earth, Wind and Fire concept transforms a building into a 'climate machine' which is powered by the natural forces and energy of the sun, wind, the mass of the earth and gravity. This concept consists of a Climate Cascade, a solar chimney and a Ventec roof, which have been tested in physical mock-ups. Simulation models have been validated on the basis of real measurements. This work has resulted in the creation of reliable tools for design practice [Dutch] Het Earth, Wind en Fire-concept voor natuurlijke airconditioning biedt meer zekerheid voor het realiseren van energieneutrale kantoorgebouwen dan mogelijk zou zijn door verbetering van bestaande technieken. Het concept maakt gebruik van de omgevingsenergie van aardmassa, wind en zon. Enerzijds wordt deze energie passief gebruikt voor het realiseren van een natuurlijke airconditioning, waarbij de gewenste luchtstromingen tot stand komen onder invloed van thermisch gedreven drukverschillen. Anderzijds worden zon en wind benut voor actieve energieopwekking, waardoor een gebouw in principe energieneutraal kan worden. Een dergelijk gebouw kan worden beschouwd als 'klimaatmachine', geactiveerd door zwaartekracht, wind en zon.

  15. Deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium toxins in wheat and rye flours on the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani; Berg, T.

    2003-01-01

    Information on the contamination of Danish cereals and cereal products with Fusarium toxins is limited and the last survey is from 1984/1985. In the present study, the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin and zearalenone (ZON) was investigated in. our of common...... wheat, durum wheat and rye. The samples were collected from 1998 to 2001 from both mills and the retail market in Denmark. A total of 190. our samples were analysed for DON and NIV and about 60 samples for HT-2, T-2 toxin and ZON. DON was most frequently detected with an incidence rate of 78% over all......)). Contents of NIV, HT-2 toxin and ZON in samples of wheat and rye were generally low, and even in positive samples the contents were close to the detection limit of the methods. The T-2 toxin was detected in only a few of the wheat samples and in low amounts. However, the toxin was found in about 50...

  16. Effect of addition of a detoxifying agent to laying hen diets containing uncontaminated or Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize on performance of hens and on carryover of zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dänicke, S; Ueberschär, K H; Halle, I; Matthes, S; Valenta, H; Flachowsky, G

    2002-11-01

    16-wk experiment with laying hens was carried out to examine the effects of feeding of mycotoxin-contaminated maize (CM) on performance, nutrient digestibility, weight of organs, serum chemical parameters, and antibody titers to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in serum. Also tested were fimbrien antigen K88 in egg yolk and zearalenone (ZON) residues in eggs and tissues. The Fusarium-toxin-contaminated maize contained 17,630 microg deoxynivalenol and 1,580 microg ZON/kg. Moreover, Mycofix Plus (MP), a so-called detoxifying agent, was added to both the uncontaminated control (UCM) and to the CM diet (70% dietary maize inclusion). Each of the four resulting diets (UCM, UCM-MP, CM, CM-MP) was tested on 25 laying hybrids (Lohmann Brown). Feeding of the CM diets significantly depressed feed intake compared to the control groups by approximately 5%. This was mainly due to the effects observed at the beginning of the experiment. Daily egg mass production/hen was 56.6, 58.4, 53.9, and 55.2 g in groups UCM, UCM-MP, CM and CM-MP, respectively. Nutrient digestibility and metabolizability of gross energy were slightly depressed by feeding the CM diets and improved by MP addition. Feeding of the CM diets resulted in a significant decrease in serum titers to NDV and to an increase in yolk titers to antigen K88. No residues of ZON or of its metabolites were found in yolk, albumen, abdominal fat, breast meat, follicles greater than 1 cm in diameter, ovaries including follicles smaller than 1 cm in diameter, magnum, and serum. ZON and alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) were detected in livers of hens fed the CM diets at mean concentrations of 2.1 and 3.7 microg/kg, respectively. It was concluded that feeding maize which was highly contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins adversely influenced performance of hens and modulated immune response. At the given level of zearalenone and at the indicated detection limits, no residues of ZON and its metabolites were found in eggs. The effects of the

  17. Investigation of toxigenic potential of fungal species by the use of simple screening method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential for the biosynthesis of aflatoxin B1 (AFLB1, ochratoxin A (OTA, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, T-2 toxin (T2, and zearalenone (ZON was investigated in different fungal species belonging to the genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. The majority of investigated isolates originated from cereal grains, crushed oil soybean seed and fodder mixtures. The simple screening method developed by Filtenborg et al. (1983 was applied with few modifications concerning the type of the medium and cultivation temperature. In order to optimise the biosynthetic conditions for different mycotoxins, the following control cultures, known as mycotin producers were used: OTA - A. ochraceus CBS 108.08, DAS - F. semitectum (SL-B i SL-C, T2 - F. sporotrichioides (ITM-391, M-1-1, R-2301 and ZON - F. graminearum (GZ-LES. The fungi were cultivated on the standard medium (YESA - 2% yeast extract, 15% sucrose and 2% agar, pH 6.5, three modifications of the basic medium (YESAZn - the standard medium supplemented with 0.23 mg/l ZnSO4 x 5 H2O; PPSA - the medium in which yeast extract was replaced with peptone-1; PPSAZn - the medium in which yeast extract was replaced with peptone-1 and supplemented with 0.23 mg/l ZnSO4 x 5 H2O, and the potato-dextrose agar (PDA. The earlier biosynthesis of tested mycotoxins was recorded under the following cultivation conditions of fungal species: AFLB1 - after 14 days on PDA at 27±1°C, OTA - after 10 days on YESA and YESAZn at 27±1°C, DAS - after 10 days on PPSA and PPSAZn at 27±1°C, T2 - after 7 days on PPSAZn and PPSA at room temperature (20-24°C, and ZON - after 1 week on YESA and YESAZn at room temperature (21-24°C.

  18. Bibliography on Cold Regions Science and Technology. Volume 33, Part 1 and Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Maine. tRazvitie issledovanil merzlykh zon zentrnol kory na coal deposit In Yakutia. tEffektivnaia sistema raz- Aincrne, S.A., Geophysics, Dec. 1978, 43...sands in the Central OhW River Pe. Shear strength of frozen ground at surfaces of udfreezing toC alculating 4 roa up v et s fo ’rst r stance and dry...3016 Cloud chambers Studying toc formation on reagcots aod ice crystal Effect of formation of the west antarctic ice sheet Icin9s test facilities at the

  19. La globalización: tercera ola de expansión

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Luciano Hernán

    2006-01-01

    La globalización conforma la tercera ola de expansión de los países considerados centrales (poderosos) según cada momento histórico determinado. La primera ola tuvo lugar en el s. XV con el descubrimiento del nuevo mundo; se caracterizaba por la colonización, el asentamiento colonizador, la organización administrativa, etc. Sus actores centrales fueron Inglaterra, España y Portugal. La segunda ola se dio como consecuencia de la Revolución Industrial (fines de s. XVIII); se dirigió a zon...

  20. Preparation of surface modified zinc oxide nanoparticle with high capacity dye removal ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Najafi, Farhood

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ► Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ► Q 0 of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ► Q 0 of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ► AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

  1. Investigation of the role of gas hydrates in continental slope stability west of Fiordland, New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Crutchley, Gareth; Gorman, Andrew R.; Fohrmann, Miko

    2007-01-01

    Sediment weakening due to increased local pore fluid pressure is interpreted to be the cause of a submarine landslide that has been seismically imaged off the southwest coast of New Zealand. Data show a distinct and continuous bottom‐simulating reflection (BSR)—a seismic phenomena indicative of the presence of marine gas hydrate—below the continental shelf from water depths of c. 2400 m to c. 750 m, where it intersects the seafloor. Excess pore fluid pressure (EPP) generated in a free gas zon...

  2. Yeast cell based feed additives: Studies on aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Thirty commercially available yeast cell wall products and two reference bentonites were tested for their ability to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZON) in buffer solutions at pH 3 and pH 6.5 as well as in real gastric juice. For most products, the binding efficacy of AFB1 correlated with the ash content which was between 2.6 and 89% and constituted the inorganic non-volatile components, like mineral clays, of the samples. Samples with smectite as main ash compo...

  3. [Institutional psychotherapy, caring for patients and the place of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogoul, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Institutional psychotherapy was developed in the specific context of the "assassination" of the Spanish revolution. There are two distinct movements or two periods. The first, based around Georges Daumézon and Henri Ey gave birth to the sector. The second, around FrançoisTosquelles and Jean Oury emphasised the asylum as the place of care. The function of institutional psychotherapy is to care not only for the patients but also the place of treatment. To fulfil this function, it has a tool box: transfer, the fight against the overvaluation of hierarchy as well as the function of the therapeutic club.

  4. Personalidad, psicopatología y rendimiento neuropsicológico de los consumidores rituales de ayahuasca

    OpenAIRE

    Bouso Saiz, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 16 de gener de 2014 La ayahuasca es una decocción psicoactiva de origen amazónico elaborada con plantas que contienen el agonista de los receptores serotoninérgicos 5-HT2A N,N-dimetiltriptamina (DMT) y alcaloides inhibidores de la monoaminoxidasa (harmina, harmalina y tetrahidroharmina) que permiten que aquel sea activo por vía oral. La ingesta de ayahuasca es el elemento central de varias iglesias sincréticas brasileñas que han expandido sus prácticas rituales a zon...

  5. Marketing plan NOS: introducing pay per view

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Pedro Azeredo

    2016-01-01

    NOS, NOS Comunicações S.A., is a private telecommunications company of the portuguese market which is proud of being the “best communications and entertainment company in the market”. The company was born from a fusion between two of the biggest communications corporations in the country: on the fixed service (TV, fixed phone, fixed internet, etc.) from ZON; and on the mobile service (mobile phone, internet, etc.) from Optimus. It is a leader in all the sectors it operates. Bes...

  6. Seguimiento a patógenos presentes en biosólido empleado como enmienda para revegetalizar un talud

    OpenAIRE

    López Sánchez, Idalia Jacqueline; Acevedo Cifuentes, Diana Rocío; Ordóñez Ante, Carlos Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Con el fin de evaluar la factibilidad del uso del biosólido como enmienda orgánica para el establecimiento de vegetación y el control de procesos erosivos superficiales activos, se seleccionó un corte de carretera ubicado sobrela Variante a Caldas (Antioquia). Para darle amarre y cobertura al suelo, se sembraron dos especies vegetales tipo pasto Brachiaria Decumbens y Kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum), utilizando biosólido proveniente de la PTAR San Fernando, mezclado con suelo de la zon...

  7. Determination of Mycotoxins in Brown Rice Using QuEChERS Sample Preparation and UHPLC–MS-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon

    2016-01-01

    QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4–25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81–101% with relative standard deviations of 5–19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0–1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49–5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10–14.88 µg/kg of ZON. PMID:26796964

  8. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Czembor

    Full Text Available Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON, zearalenone (ZON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated. Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures.

  9. Effect of Environmental Factors on Fusarium Species and Associated Mycotoxins in Maize Grain Grown in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950–2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures. PMID:26225823

  10. 我国西南地区肉禽配合饲料中霉菌毒素的污染分布规律%Mycotoxin Distribution of Meat-type Poultry Feeds in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雅伶; 张克英; 王建萍; 李云; 丁雪梅; 白世平; 曾秋凤; 程传民; 高庆军; 柏凡

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to study on the mycotoxins contamination of meat-type poultry feeds in southwest area of China.A total of 100 feed samples from different area ( Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Guangxi and Yunnan ) of southwest were obtained to determine the contents of aflatoxin B1 ( AFB1 ) , zearalenone ( ZON) , deoxynivalenol ( DON) and fumonisin ( FB) .To determine the contents of mycotoxins, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) and high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC ) were used.The results showed as follows: the detection rates of AFB1 , DON, ZON and FB in meat-type poultry feeds were 89%, 96%, 85%and 94.74%, respectively.The over-limit ratios of AFB1 and ZON were 18%and 5%, while DON and FB were not observed to exceed the limits.The average contents of AFB1 , DON and ZON in feed of different area were different, Chongqing had the highest average content of AFB1 ( 11.76 μg/kg) , Sichuan had the highest average content of DON ( 1.23 mg/kg) , and Yunnan had the high-est average content of ZON ( 0.26 mg/kg) .The highest average content of AFB1 was found in duckling starter feed, followed by broiler starter feed and broiler grower feed.The broiler starter feed had the highest average content of DON and FB.The average contents of these four mycotoxins had no difference in different feed type ( P>0.05) .The small-scale feed company ( between 20 000 t and 50 000 t per year) had higher average con-tent of AFB1 , DON and ZON than the big-scale feed company ( more than 100 000 t per year) , but there were no significant difference ( P>0.05) .In conclusion, the mycotoxin ( AFB1 , DON, ZON and FB) contamina-tion problem is common in southwest of China, with the AFB1 has the highest over-limit ratio.The contents of these four mycotoxins detected in the layers feed are influenced by different location, feed types and scales of the feed mills.%本研究旨在了解我国西南地区肉禽配合饲料中霉菌毒素的污染分布规律。从西

  11. Exploiting stock data: a survey of state of the art computational techniques aimed at producing beliefs regarding investment portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Linares Vásquez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting an investment portfolio has inspired several models aimed at optimising the set of securities which an in-vesttor may select according to a number of specific decision criteria such as risk, expected return and planning hori-zon. The classical approach has been developed for supporting the two stages of portfolio selection and is supported by disciplines such as econometrics, technical analysis and corporative finance. However, with the emerging field of computational finance, new and interesting techniques have arisen in line with the need for the automatic processing of vast volumes of information. This paper surveys such new techniques which belong to the body of knowledge con-cerning computing and systems engineering, focusing on techniques particularly aimed at producing beliefs regar-ding investment portfolios.

  12. Estat de conservació de la població d'abellerol Merops apiaster a Mallorca

    OpenAIRE

    Adrover, Jaume

    2010-01-01

    Estat de conservació de la població d’abellerol Merops apiaster a Mallorca. Un recompte efectuat el 2010 va localitzar 24 parelles d’abellerol a Mallorca. L’espècie hauria patit un sever retrocés de, com a mínim, un 53 % només en una dècada. El retrocés s’ha vist acompanyat d’una forta reducció areal. El gruix de la població es va localitzar a Son Bosc (Muro) amb un total de 15 de les 24 parelles. S’ha trobat una relació significativa entre el nombre de colònies i la distància respecte de zon...

  13. Earth, Wind and Fire. Natural air conditioning. Part 2. Research results; Earth, Wind and Fire. Natuurlijke airconditioning. Deel 2. Onderzoeksresultaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsema, B. [Afdeling Architectural Engineering en Technology, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    The Earth, Wind and Fire concept transforms a building into a 'climate machine' which is powered by the natural forces and energy of the sun, wind, the mass of the earth and gravity. This second part provides a brief overview of the research. The full results are included in the thesis of the author [Dutch] Het Earth, Wind en Fire-concept voor natuurlijke airconditioning biedt meer zekerheid voor het realiseren van energieneutrale kantoorgebouwen dan mogelijk zou zijn door verbetering van bestaande technieken. Het concept maakt gebruik van de omgevingsenergie van aardmassa, wind en zon. In deel 1 worden de onderzoeksdoelen en -methoden van dit concept besproken. Dit deel 2 geeft een kort overzicht van de onderzoeksresultaten. De volledige resultaten van de basale en gedetailleerde modellen, de simulaties, de metingen in de fysieke modellen en het validatieproces zijn opgenomen in het proefschrift van de auteur.

  14. Dedicated software for diffractive optics design and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firsov, A; Brzhezinskaya, M; Erko, A; Firsov, A; Svintsov, A

    2013-01-01

    An efficient software package for the structure design and simulation of imaging properties of diffraction optical elements has been developed. It operates with point source and consists of: the ZON software, to calculate the structure of an optical element in transmission and reflection; the KRGF software, to simulate the diffraction properties of an ideal optical element with point source; the DS software, to calculate the diffraction properties by taking into consideration material and shadowing effects. Optional software allows simulation with a real non-point source. Zone plate thickness profile, source shape as well as substrate curvature are considered in this calculation. This is especially important for the diffractive focusing elements and gratings at a total external reflection, given that the lateral size of the structure can be up to 1 m. The program package can be used in combination with the Nanomaker software to prepare data for ion and e-beam surface modifications and corrections.

  15. The influence of the Al stabilizer layer thickness on the normal zone propagation velocity in high current superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shilon, I.; Langeslag, S.A.E.; Martins, L.P.; ten Kate, H.H.J.

    2015-06-19

    The stability of high-current superconductors is challenging in the design of superconducting magnets. When the stability requirements are fulfilled, the protection against a quench must still be considered. A main factor in the design of quench protection systems is the resistance growth rate in the magnet following a quench. The usual method for determining the resistance growth in impregnated coils is to calculate the longitudinal velocity with which the normal zone propagates in the conductor along the coil windings. Here, we present a 2D numerical model for predicting the normal zone propagation velocity in Al stabilized Rutherford NbTi cables with large cross section. By solving two coupled differential equations under adiabatic conditions, the model takes into account the thermal diffusion and the current redistribution process following a quench. Both the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the superconductor and the metal cladding materials properties are included. Unlike common normal zon...

  16. Solar-driven refrigeration technologies; Koeltechnologieen op zonne-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cillis, S.; Infante Ferreira, C.A. [Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Krieg, J. [Unilever Foods and Health Research Institute, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    A review is presented of solar driven refrigeration technologies. A subdivision is made between electric driven and thermal driven systems. Their potential and stage of development are discussed. The electric driven systems include Stirling, thermo-acoustic, thermoelectric, electrochemical and membrane assisted absorption systems. The thermal driven systems include absorption and adsorption systems. A model is used to compare the performance of the different solutions. [Dutch] Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van zon-aangedreven koeltechnologieen. Er wordt onderscheid gemaakt tussen elektrisch en thermisch aangedreven systemen. Hun potentieel en niveau van ontwikkeling worden besproken. De elektrisch aangedreven systemen omvatten Stirling, thermo-akoestisch, thermo-elektrisch, elektrochemisch en membraanondersteund absorptiesystemen.De warmte-aangedreven systemen omvatten absorptie en adsorptie. Er wordt gebruik gemaakt van een model om de prestaties van de verschillende alternatieven onderling te vergelijken.

  17. Accuracies of fecal calprotectin, lactoferrin, M2-pyruvate kinase, neopterin and zonulin to predict the response to infliximab in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frin, Anne-Claire; Filippi, Jérôme; Boschetti, Gilles; Flourie, Bernard; Drai, Jocelyne; Ferrari, Patricia; Hebuterne, Xavier; Nancey, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Fecal markers might predict the response to anti-TNFα in ulcerative colitis (UC). To compare the performance of fecal calprotectin (fCal), lactoferrin (fLact), M2-PK (fM2-PK), neopterin (fNeo), and zonulin (fZon) to predict the response to therapy in active UC patients. Disease activity from 31 consecutive patients with an active UC, treated with infliximab (IFX) was assessed by the Mayo score at baseline and at week 14 and by the partial Mayo score at W52 and stool samples collected for fecal marker measurements at W0, W2, and W14. At W14, 19 patients (61%) were responders to IFX induction. The median levels of fCal, fLact and fM2-PK drop dramatically from baseline to W14 in clinical responders. At W2, fM2-PK, fLact and fCal levels predicted accurately the response to IFX induction. At W14, fLact, fCal, and fM2-PK were individually reliable markers to predict sustained response at W52. The performances of fNeo and fZon were weaker in this setting. The performance of fM2-PK at W2 to predict response to induction therapy with IFX was superior to that of fLact and fCal, whereas monitoring fLact was the best tool to predict adequately the course of the disease at one year under maintenance IFX in UC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Operating Experience with the BR-5 Reactor; Experience acquise aupres du reacteur BR-5; Opyt ehkspluatatsii reaktora BR-5; Experiencia practica con el reactor BR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejpunskij, A. I.; Kazachkovskij, O. D.; Pinkhasik, M. S.; Aristarkhov, N. N.; Karpov, A. V.; Larin, E. P.; Efimov, I. A.

    1963-10-15

    remontnykh rabot na radioaktivnom zhidkometallicheskom konture reaktora na bystrykh nejtronakh BR-5. Osveshchayutsya voprosy ehkspluatatsii reaktora posle dostizheniya proektnogo 2%-nogo vygoraniya topliva pri nalichii nekotorogo narusheniya plotnosti otdel'nykh teplovydelyaptsikh ehlementov. Provoditsya opyt po razgruzke aktivnoj zony, issledovaniyu sostoyaniya i germetichnosti teplovydelyaptsikh ehlementov, dezaktivatsii oborudovaniya i truboprovodov I radioaktivnogo kontura posle dostizheniya 5% vygoraniya topliva. (author)

  19. On the effects of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) administered per os or intraperitoneal infusion to sows during days 63 to 70 of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyarts, Tanja; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Valenta, Hana; Tiemann, Ute; Jäger, Kathrin; Dänicke, Sven

    2010-05-01

    Six pregnant sows of 180.6 ± 5.6 kg were fed either a Fusarium-contaminated (4.42 mg DON and 48.3 µg ZON per kg, DON per os, n = 3) or a control diet (0.15 mg DON and 5 µg ZON/kg) in the period of days 63 and 70 of gestation. On day 63 of gestation, sows fed the control diet were implanted with an intraperitoneal osmotic minipump (delivery rate of 10 µL/h, for 7 days) containing 50 mg pure (98%) DON in 2 ml 50% DMSO (DON ip, n = 3). Frequent plasma samples were taken to estimate the kinetics after oral and ip DON exposure. The intended continuous delivery of DON by the intraperitoneal minipump could not be shown, as there was a plasma peak (Cmax) of 4.2-6.4 ng DON/mL either immediately (sow IP-2+3) or 2.5 h (sow IP-1) after implantation of the pump followed by a one-exponential decline with a mean half-time (t1/2) of 1.75-4.0 h and only negligible DON plasma concentrations after 12 h. Therefore, the DON ip exposure has to be regarded as one single dose 1 week before termination of experiment. The DON per os sows showed a mean basis level (after achieving a steady state) of DON plasma concentration of about 6-8 ng/mL, as also indicated by the plasma DON concentration at the termination of the experiment. On day 70, caesarean section was carried out, the fetuses were killed immediately after birth, and samples of plasma, urine, and bile were taken to analyze the concentration of DON and its metabolite de-epoxy-DON. At necropsy there were no macroscopic lesions observed in any organ of either sows or piglets. Histopathological evaluation of sows liver and spleen revealed no alterations. The proliferation rate of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with or without stimulation was not affected by the kind of DON treatment. The exposure of pregnant sows at mid-gestation (days 63-70, period of organogenesis) to a Fusarium toxin-contaminated diet (4.42 mg DON and 0.048 mg ZON per kg) or pure DON via intraperitoneal osmotic minipump

  20. Bioanalytics of mycotoxins and development of dedicated analyte-selective molecularly imprinted materials for solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodlbauer, H.J.

    2001-09-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungal species, growing on agricultural products during cultivation, harvest, transport or storage. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin of great natural abundance and can be found in various plant products. Due to its frequent occurrence and toxic properties many countries have set up tolerance levels for OTA. Thus, the need for sensitive analytical and in particular selective sample preparation methods for analyte enrichment and removal of interfering matrix compounds is obvious. Molecular imprinting generates polymeric matrices that can selectively recognize and bind target molecules. It was previously demonstrated that molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can be employed in sample preparation. MIPs capable of recognizing OTA have been prepared using an analyte mimic approach. Crucial to the success was the introduction of a novel class of quinuclidine-derived functional monomers which utilize ionic binding increments and hydrophobic interactions for selective recognition of the target analyte and its mimics. Since optimization of SPE procedures demonstrated the convenient use of several solvent systems, the developed MIPs represents an enrichment for the field of mycotoxin analysis. Zeranol has been widely adopted as a growth stimulant for cattle and other animals due to its anabolic and estrogenic properties. Application of zeranol has been banned in the European Union since 1985. Researchers, however, found that the illegal administration of this anabolic agent may not be the only source of zeranol residues in biologically relevant matrices. Previously, it was demonstrated that zeranol was also formed in vivo from the mycotoxins zearalenone (ZON) and α-zearalenol that are carried over from mycotoxin contaminated feed into the animal body. A fast, robust and sensitive LC-MS method for the determination for these compounds in urine and tissue samples has been developed. Crucial for the achievement of low

  1. Mycobiota and mycotoxins in bee pollen collected from different areas of Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Juráček, Miroslav; Chlebo, Róbert; Kňazovická, Vladimíra; Kadasi-Horáková, Miriam; Kunová, Simona; Lejková, Jadža; Haščík, Peter; Mareček, Ján; Simko, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Contamination by microscopic fungi and mycotoxins in different bee pollen samples, which were stored under three different ways of storing as freezing, drying and UV radiation, was investigated. During spring 2009, 45 samples of bee-collected pollen were gathered from beekeepers who placed their bee colonies on monocultures of sunflower, rape and poppy fields within their flying distance. Bee pollen was collected from bees' legs by special devices placed at the entrance to hives. Samples were examined for the concentration and identification of microscopic fungi able to grow on Malt and Czapek-Dox agar and mycotoxins content [deoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), zearalenone (ZON) and total aflatoxins (AFL), fumonisins (FUM), ochratoxins (OTA)] by direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The total number of microscopic fungi in this study ranged from 2.98 ± 0.02 in frozen sunflower bee pollen to 4.06 ± 0.10 log cfu.g(-1) in sunflower bee pollen after UV radiation. In this study, 449 isolates belonging to 21 fungal species representing 9 genera were found in 45 samples of bee pollen. The total isolates were detected in frozen poppy pollen 29, rape pollen 40, sunflower pollen 80, in dried poppy pollen 12, rape pollen 36, sunflower 78, in poppy pollen after UV radiation treatment 54, rape 59 and sunflower 58. The most frequent isolates of microscopic fungi found in bee pollen samples of all prevalent species were Mucor mucedo (49 isolates), Alternaria alternata (40 isolates), Mucor hiemalis (40 isolates), Aspergillus fumigatus (33 isolates) and Cladosporium cladosporioides (31 isolates). The most frequently found isolates were detected in sunflower bee pollen frozen (80 isolates) and the lowest number of isolates was observed in poppy bee pollen dried (12 isolates). The most prevalent mycotoxin of poppy bee pollen was ZON (361.55 ± 0.26 μg.kg(-1)), in rape bee pollen T-2 toxin (265.40 ± 0.18 μg.kg(-1)) and in sunflower bee pollen T-2 toxin

  2. Overtreatment in couples with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, F A M; Hermens, R P G M; Braat, D D M; Hoek, A; Mol, B W J; Goddijn, M; Nelen, W L D M

    2015-01-01

    response rate was low compared with other fertility studies. Evaluation of possible selection bias showed that responders had a higher socio-economic status than non-responders. Our findings show that developing and publishing guideline recommendations on tailored expectant management (TEM) is not enough and that overtreatment still occurs frequently. Future research should focus on tailored efforts to implement guideline recommendations on TEM. Supported by Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMW). ZonMW had no role in designing the study, data collection, analysis and interpretation of data or writing of the report. Competing interests: none. www.trialregister.nl NTR3405. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. High throughput proteomic analysis of the secretome in an explant model of articular cartilage inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clutterbuck, Abigail L.; Smith, Julia R.; Allaway, David; Harris, Pat; Liddell, Susan; Mobasheri, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study employed a targeted high-throughput proteomic approach to identify the major proteins present in the secretome of articular cartilage. Explants from equine metacarpophalangeal joints were incubated alone or with interleukin-1beta (IL-1β, 10 ng/ml), with or without carprofen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, for six days. After tryptic digestion of culture medium supernatants, resulting peptides were separated by HPLC and detected in a Bruker amaZon ion trap instrument. The five most abundant peptides in each MS scan were fragmented and the fragmentation patterns compared to mammalian entries in the Swiss-Prot database, using the Mascot search engine. Tryptic peptides originating from aggrecan core protein, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), fibronectin, fibromodulin, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), clusterin (CLU), cartilage intermediate layer protein-1 (CILP-1), chondroadherin (CHAD) and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-3 were detected. Quantitative western blotting confirmed the presence of CILP-1, CLU, MMP-1, MMP-3 and TSP-1. Treatment with IL-1β increased MMP-1, MMP-3 and TSP-1 and decreased the CLU precursor but did not affect CILP-1 and CLU levels. Many of the proteins identified have well-established extracellular matrix functions and are involved in early repair/stress responses in cartilage. This high throughput approach may be used to study the changes that occur in the early stages of osteoarthritis. PMID:21354348

  4. Gaussian approximation to single particle correlations at and below the picosecond scale for Lennard-Jones and nanoparticle fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zon, Ramses; Ashwin, S S; Cohen, E G D

    2008-01-01

    To describe short time (picosecond) and small scale (nanometre) transport in fluids, a Green's function approach was recently developed. This approach relies on an expansion of the distribution of single particle displacements around a Gaussian function, yielding an infinite series of correction terms. Applying a recent theorem (van Zon and Cohen 2006 J. Stat. Phys. 123 1–37) shows that for sufficiently small times the terms in this series become successively smaller, so that truncating the series near or at the Gaussian level might provide a good approximation. In this paper, we derive a theoretical estimate for the time scale at which truncating the series at or near the Gaussian level could be supposed to be accurate for equilibrium nanoscale systems. In order to numerically estimate this time scale, the coefficients for the first few terms in the series are determined in computer simulations for a Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid, an isotopic LJ mixture and a suspension of a LJ-based model of nanoparticles in a LJ fluid. The results suggest that for LJ fluids an expansion around a Gaussian is accurate at time scales up to a picosecond, while for nanoparticles in suspension (a nanofluid), the characteristic time scale up to which the Gaussian is accurate becomes of the order of 5–10 ps. (invited article)

  5. Gas. Innovators talking; Gas. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on gas [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar gas.

  6. Offshore wind energy. Innovators talking; Wind op zee. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on offshore wind energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar wind op zee.

  7. Energy conservation in the built environment. Innovators talking; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on energy conservation in the built environment [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving.

  8. Energy conservation in the industry. Innovators talking; Energiebesparing in de industrie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on energy conservation in the industry [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar energiebesparing in de industrie.

  9. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  10. Smart Grids. Innovators talking; Smart Grids. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on Smart Grids [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar Smart Grids.

  11. Ecological and Geographical Selection of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Уразалієв

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the lead long-term selection works wint involving a World' s collection and intertype and intertype hybridization with purposeful selection on economic-biological attributes highly productive • grades of a winter wheat, with stability to various kinds of illnesses and high technological qualities of grain have been allocated. The adapted grades of a winter wheat for a various environment of various zones of the countries of the Central Asia that allows to realize potential opportunities of grades in different environments of cultivation and by that to prevent losses of a crop from biotic and abiotic stresses that allows to stabilize productivity and adaptability of culture in a zon winter husbandry are created. The long-term field experiences lead by us and laboratory analyses on a level of productivity, qualities of grain and stability to stresses allows to conclude, that alongside with a genotype, stabilityenvironmental conditions render strong and significant influence on all complex of selection attributes.

  12. Astures y cántabros bajo la administración romana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. BLÁZQUEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Los cántabros y los astures fueron los últimos pueblos hispanos sometidos por Roma. La guerra de conquista terminó en el año 19. a.C. y fue llevada con gran ferocidad por ambas partes. Concretamente los territorios que se incorporaron al Imperio Romano fueron los de los cántabros y de los astures, algo más extensos que las actuales provincias de Astuturias y Santander. El ángulo NO., Galicia, había sido ya conquistado por la acción de César en el 61. a.C. (Dio Cass. 37, 52-53. Plut. Caes. 12, Zon. 10, 6. Gran parte del territorio vascón lo había sido ya antes durante la guerra sertoriana y de él hizo Pompeyo la base de sus operaciones (Plut. Sert. 21, fundando la ciudad de Pamplona, a la que el general romano dio su nombre.

  13. Zinc sorption in two vertisol and one aridisol series as affected by electrolyte concentration and sodium adsorption ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A. A.; Elamin, E. A.; El Mahi, Y. E.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of electrolyte concentration (C) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) on zinc sorption was studied. Top soil samples (0-30 cm) were taken from soils representing three arid-zon smectitc sites in the Gezira Scheme (Sudan). The orders of these soils are vertisol (El-Hosh (now Wad El Ataya) and El-Suleimi) and aridisol (El-Laota). These soils had no previous history of zinc application, and were previously equilibrated with mixed NaCl-CaCl 2 solutions to render different levels of SAR and salt concentration. Zinc retention decreased as electrolyte concentration increased, where maximum sorption occurred at low electrolyte concentration soils having high pH and high negative charge. Sodium adsorption ratio had little effect on Zn sorption as precipitation prevailed at high pH. It was also found that the sorption capacity of three soils were similar despite the variation in CaCO 3 and clay contents, hence cation exchange capacity and surface area. The results indicated that Zn was more soluble in the saline phases of Gezira soils, whereas sodicity had little effect.(Author)

  14. Selection of the optimal interpolation method for groundwater observations in lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.; Ali, S.R.; Haider, A.; Tehseen, T.; Kanwal, S.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to find an optimum method of interpolation for the depth values of groundwater in Lahore metropolitan, Pakistan. The methods of interpolation considered in the study were inverse distance weight (IDW), spline, simple Kriging, ordinary Kriging and universal Kriging. Initial analysis of the data suggests that the data was negatively skewed with value of skewness -1.028. The condition of normality was approximated by transforming the data using a box-cox transformation with lambda value of 3.892; the skewness value reduced to -0.00079. The results indicate that simple Kriging method is optimum for interpolation of groundwater observations for the used dataset with lowest bias of 0.00997, highest correlation coefficient with value 0.9434, mean absolute error 1.95 and root mean square error 3.19 m. Smooth and uniform contours with well described central depression zon in the city, as suggested by this studies, also supports the optimised interpolation method. (author)

  15. Sustainable Energy for All. Inaugural speech; Een duurzame energievoorziening voor iedereen. Intreerede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2011-12-07

    According to the author, there is no energy crisis; nor is there an energy shortage. Three observations illustrate this proposition: (1) We are wasting about 98% of our energy; (2) In one hour, the earth receives more energy from the sun than we consume worldwide in one year; and (3) sustainable energy is all around us. Next, the observations are elaborated and a plan is launched to set up a Green Campus: a living lab, an inspiring place where businesses and university can meet and a place where everyone can get an impression of the energy systems of the future. This way the author is hoping to take a next, important step in the realization of his dream, which is a sustainable energy system for all [Dutch] De auteur stelt dat er geen energiecrisis, geen energietekort is. Drie observaties illustreren deze stelling: (1) We verspillen ruwweg 98% van onze energie; (2) In een uur ontvangt de aarde meer energie van de zon, dan we wereldwijd in een jaar verbruiken; en (3) Duurzame energie is overal rond om ons heen. Vervolgens worden de observaties toegelicht en een plan gelanceerd om een Green Campus op te zetten: een living lab, een inspirerende plek waar bedrijven en universiteit elkaar ontmoeten en een plek waar een ieder een beeld kan krijgen op de energiesystemen van de toekomst. Daarmee hoopt de auteur een volgende en belangrijke stap te zetten in de realisatie van zijn droom, een duurzame energievoorziening voor iedereen.

  16. Flexible single molecule simulation of reaction-diffusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellander, Stefan; Loetstedt, Per

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm is developed for simulation of the motion and reactions of single molecules at a microscopic level. The molecules diffuse in a solvent and react with each other or a polymer and molecules can dissociate. Such simulations are of interest e.g. in molecular biology. The algorithm is similar to the Green's function reaction dynamics (GFRD) algorithm by van Zon and ten Wolde where longer time steps can be taken by computing the probability density functions (PDFs) and then sample from the distribution functions. Our computation of the PDFs is much less complicated than GFRD and more flexible. The solution of the partial differential equation for the PDF is split into two steps to simplify the calculations. The sampling is without splitting error in two of the coordinate directions for a pair of molecules and a molecule-polymer interaction and is approximate in the third direction. The PDF is obtained either from an analytical solution or a numerical discretization. The errors due to the operator splitting, the partitioning of the system, and the numerical approximations are analyzed. The method is applied to three different systems involving up to four reactions. Comparisons with other mesoscopic and macroscopic models show excellent agreement.

  17. Concentrated Solar Power as part of the European energy supply. The realization of large-scale solar power plants. Options, constraints and recommendations; Concentrated Solar Power als onderdeel van de Europese energievoorziening. De realisatie van grootschalige zonnecentrales. Mogelijkheden, obstakels en advies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouwmans, I.; Carton, L.J.; Dijkema, G.P.J.; Stikkelman, R.M.; De Vries, L.J. [Energy and Industry Group, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Next to solar cells and solar collectors for decentralized power generation Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology is available and proven for large-scale application of solar energy. However, after 20 years of demonstration projects and semi-commercial installations, CSP is still not widely used. In this quick-scan an overview is given of strong and weak points of CSP, as well as its' options and constraints with regard to a sustainable energy supply, focusing on technical, economical and administrative constraints and chances in Europe and European Union member states. [Dutch] Naast zonnecellen en zonnecollectoren voor decentrale opwekking is er een technologie die geschikt is voor grootschalige ontsluiting van de zon: Concentrated Solar Power, kortweg CSP. Bewezen in een aantal demonstratie- en pre-commerciele installaties blijft toepassing van deze technologie ook na 20 jaar beperkt. Daarom staat in deze notitie, die het resultaat is van een quickscan, de volgende vraag centraal: Wat zijn de sterktes, zwaktes, mogelijkheden en barrieres van CSP-technologie als onderdeel van een duurzame energievoorziening en welke technisch-economische en bestuurlijke barrieres en kansen zijn er voor Europa en de lidstaten van de EU?.

  18. Smart Grids. Innovators talking; Smart Grids. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on Smart Grids [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar Smart Grids.

  19. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  20. Offshore wind energy. Innovators talking; Wind op zee. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on offshore wind energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar wind op zee.

  1. Energy conservation in the built environment. Innovators talking; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on energy conservation in the built environment [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving.

  2. Energy conservation in the industry. Innovators talking; Energiebesparing in de industrie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on energy conservation in the industry [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar energiebesparing in de industrie.

  3. Gas. Innovators talking; Gas. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on gas [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar gas.

  4. Fusiones horizontales que reducen los precios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Coloma

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo elabora un modelo de equilibrio de un mercado con diferenciación ho ri zon tal de pro duc tos en el cual las em pre sas fi jan los pre cios de lasvariedades que proporcionan y, en ciertos casos, alguna de ellas actúa comolíder de precios. Dados esos elementos, el trabajo explora qué condicionesdeben darse para que una fusión o adquisición horizontal que aumenta laconcentración del mercado lleve a un equilibrio con menores precios de losque se da ban an tes de di cha fu sión o ad qui si ción. La cla ve para que estoacon tez ca es que el cam bio de es truc tu ra sir va para rom per una si tua ción deliderazgo previamente vigente, y que el nuevo grupo que se consolida no in -cremente de manera considera ble su poder de mercado.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of 'immediate IVF' versus 'delayed IVF': a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijkemans, M J C; Kersten, F A M; Lintsen, A M E; Hunault, C C; Bouwmans, C A M; Roijen, L Hakkaart-van; Habbema, J D F; Braat, D D M

    2017-05-01

    category or duration of infertility. By contrast, the corresponding increase in costs primarily depended on diagnostic category and duration of infertility. The lowest CE ratio was just below €10 000 per live birth for endometriosis from age 34 onwards at 1 year duration. The highest CE ratio reached €56 000 per live birth for unexplained infertility at age 30 and 3 years duration, dropping to values below € 30 000 per live birth from age 32 onwards. It reached values below €20 000 per live birth with 3 years duration at age 34 and older. The CE ratio was in between for the three other diagnostic categories (i.e. Male infertility, Hormonal and Immunological/Cervical). We applied estimates of chances with IVF, excluding frozen embryos, for which we had no data. Therefore, we do not know the effect of frozen embryo transfers on the CE. The duration of infertility at which IVF becomes cost-effective depends, firstly, on the level of society's willingness to pay for one extra live birth, and secondly, given a certain level of willingness to pay, on the woman's age and the diagnostic category. In current guidelines, the chances of a natural conception should always be taken into account before deciding whether to start IVF treatment and at which time. Supported by Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMW, grant 945-12-013). ZonMW had no role in designing the study, data collection, analysis and interpretation of data or writing of the report. Competing interests: none. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Comparison of Post Operative Early Active and Passive Mobillization of Flexor Tendon in Zone 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoun Layeghi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite numerous advances in our understanding of the anatomy, Biomechanics, nutrition and Healing, the result Following Fiewor Tendon repair Shiow relatively high rate of failure the purpost of this study was to compare the result of 50 digits treated by either ‘‘Early active mobilization’’ or ‘‘controlled passive mobilization’’ re gimen in Ivan hand rehabilitation center. Materials & Mathods: Pationt being matched for gende, age, injuries hand, technique of srgery (all with eqitenon first, four strand in two groups. They were assessed 8 week postoperatibg in respect of total active motion, flexion gap and extension lags. Outcome were defined using ‘‘Strickland’’ and ‘’ Buck – Gramko’’ criteria. Results: The result were 80% excellent and good, 20% fair and no poor in early active motion group and in second group 40% excellent and good, 44% fair and 16% poor due to Strickland criteria. In buck-grancko criteria 52% extension and good, 32% fair and 16% were poor. Mean of total active motion was significantly greater in early active motion group (in E.A.M.150/2, in passive group: 116/41. Conclusion: Actively mobilized tendon underwent intrinsic healing without large gap formation. Active motion generated bith tension and motion and offer several advantage over passive motion: improved tendon nutrition, less adhission, higher rate of healing, increased ultimate rang of motion. So early active motion is the best protocle for treating tendons in zons 2 our result is comparable with theory.

  7. Convection Heat Transfer Modeling of Ag Nanofluid Using Different Viscosity Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bakhsh Kasaeian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this paper, the effects of adding nanoparticles (including Ag to a fluid media for improving free convection heat transfer were analysed. The free convective heat transfer was assumed to be in laminar flow regime, and the corresponding calculations and solutions were all done by the integral method. Water, as a Newtonian fluid, was considered as the base and all relevant thermo physical properties of the nanofluids were considered to be unvarying. The calculations performed and the graphs generated showed that, in general, the addition of nanoparticles to the fluid media resulted in an increment or improvement of its heat transfer coefficient. With increase in the concentration of the nanoparticles, the heat transfer rate of the fluid also increased. The increment in heat transfer is also dependent on the nanoparticles’ thermal conductivity and the viscosity theory which was utilized in the calculations. In this study, four different theories were used to calculate the viscosities of the nanofluids. The effects of viscosity on the nanofluids’ thermal conductivity were apparent from the calculations which were performed for nanoparticle concentrations of 4% or less. ABSTRAK: Kajian ini menganalisis kesan penambahan nanopartikel Ag ke dalam media bendalir bagi tujuan pembaikkan pemindahan haba perolakan bebas. Perolakan bebas diandaikan berada di zon aliran laminar, di mana penyelesaian dan pengiraan telah dilakukan mengunakan kaedah kamilan. Air yang merupakan cecair Newtonian, dianggap sebagai asas dan sifat terma fizikal nanocecair dianggapkan tidak berubah. Mengikut pengiraan yang dilakukan dan graf yang diplotkan, umumnya penambahan nanopartikel kepada media bendalir menyebabkan peningkatan dan pengembangan pekali pemindahan haba. Kadar pemindahan haba meningkat dengan nanopartikel. Peningkatan pemindahan haba juga bergantung kepada pengalir haba nanopartikel dan teori kelikatan yang digunakan. Di dalam kajian ini, empat

  8. Research Costs Investigated: A Study Into the Budgets of Dutch Publicly Funded Drug-Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha

    2018-01-01

    The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.

  9. Earth, Wind and Fire. Natural air conditioning; Earth, Wind and Fire. Natuurlijke airconditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsema, B.

    2013-06-07

    Starting point for the Earth, Wind and Fire research, of which the sub-concepts of Ventec roof, Climate Cascade and Solar Chimney are an integral part of the (Architectural) building design, are the following hypotheses: (1) An integrated approach of Architecture / Constructions and Climate Design is capable of using the available ambient energy in the form of earth mass, wind, and sun, to condition the air mainly naturally in a building; (2) The sub-concepts can be modeled and validated, in order to be able to reliably support the design process in practice; and (3) The sub-concepts can individually or in combination contribute to the realization of zero energy buildings [Dutch] Airconditioning van gebouwen kan volledig met natuurlijke middelen, zonder mechanische ventilatie. Dat stelt de auteur in zijn proefschrift. Hij wil met vallend water, zon en wind een energiepositief kantoor realiseren. Bronsema is nu op zoek naar een gebouw voor een grootschalige praktijkproef met zijn Earth, Wind and Fire-concept. Het systeem bestaat uit drie hoofdonderdelen: het Ventecdak, de Klimaatcascade en de Zonneschoorsteen. Het Ventecdak zorgt voor aanvoer van verse en afvoer van vuile lucht door gebruikmaking van over- en onderdrukken. Die lucht wordt via de klimaatcascade toegevoerd en via een Zonneschoorsteen afgevoerd. Een mock-up van de Zonneschoorsteen is gerealiseerd als een elf meter hoge toren, die met opgevangen warmte van invallend zonlicht ventilatielucht verwarmt. Het op gang brengen van de luchtstroom gebeurt in de Klimaatcascade. Dit is een bouwkundige schacht waarin van bovenaf waterdruppels worden gesproeid waarmee de lucht kan worden gekoeld of verwarmd.

  10. Sustainable towards a second gas revolution. The Groningen Way; Duurzaam op weg naar een tweede gasrevolutie. De Groningen Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euverink, G.J.; Van Gemert, W.J.T.; Groeneveld, M.J.W.; Stokman, F.N.; Visser, C.

    2013-10-15

    The authors suggest to give the Dutch province Groningen a pioneering role in the energy transition, in which aboveground biogas production must be stimulated, and thus natural gas reserves can be left untouched. For that, the produced gas must be transferred to 'green' gas to be able to mix it into the natural gas distribution system. The applied techniques which the authors propose are based on power-to-gas, for which a surplus of sustainably produced energy (e.g. solar and wind energy) is used to generate hydrogen from the electrolysis of water. From hydrogen and CO2 'green' gas can be produced. In addition, the authors suggest to improve green gas installations which produce gas from sewage sludge and organic waste. This can be done using biological enzymes [Dutch] De auteurs stellen voor om de provincie Groningen een voortrekkersrol te geven in de energietransitie, waarbij bovengrondse biogasproductie gestimuleerd moet worden, zodat het huidige aardgas gewoon in de bodem kan blijven zitten. Daarbij moet het gas wel worden opgewerkt tot groen gas, zodat het rechtstreeks aan het aardgasnet geleverd kan worden. De technieken die de wetenschappers daarbij voorstellen is de gebruikmaking van Power-to-gas, waarbij overtollig duurzaam geproduceerde energie, uit bijvoorbeeld zon en wind, wordt gebruikt om uit water waterstof te maken. Door die waterstof vervolgens met CO2 te verbinden, kan er er groen gas van worden gemaakt. Daarnaast stelt de denktank verbeterde groengasinstallaties voor die gas halen uit rioolslib en biologisch afval. Dit kan met behulp van biologische enzymen die zelf hoge druk opbouwen.

  11. Strategia integrării economiei românești în Uniunea Europeană

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela LUȚAȘ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Confruntată cu existenţa unor dezechilibre macroeconomice majore, cu existenţa unor capacităţi de producţie învechite şi necompetitive, cu lipsa unei infrastructuri moderne, cu un grad scăzut de dezvoltare a pieţei factorilor de producţie, cu fragilitatea structurilor instituţional-legislative, cu o productivitate a muncii mult scăzută comparativ cu celelalte state din zonă dar şi cu deteriorarea factorilor naturali prin aplicarea de-a lungul timpului de măsuri antiecologice, cu lipsa unui sector bancar şi de asigurări extins, cu inexistenţa unui model clar structurat al economiei de piaţă spre care ne îndreptăm precum şi cu perceperea complet greşită a pluralismului politic şi a democraţiei, economia românească a fost obligată să facă faţă, în ultimii nouă ani, unui set de provocări paralele: de natură politică, dictată de trecerea spre democraţie, pluralism politic, existenţa şi funcţionarea statului de drept: de natură strategico-militară, dictată de nevoia de securitate în interior şi în relaţiile cu partenerii şi de natură economică, dictată de înlocuirea economiei de comandă cu un tip nou de organizare economică.

  12. Фінансові механізми офшору

    OpenAIRE

    Лакіза, В. В.; Ілечко, А. П.

    2011-01-01

    Викладено основні схеми використання офшорів у світовій практиці податкового планування. Надано перелік основних офшорних зон. Результати досліджень дало змогу зробити висновки щодо правильного вибору офшорної зони та завдань, які завдяки їй прагне вирішити компанія. The article presents the key scheme of exploitation offshore in international practice tax planning. The list of major offshore zone is given. The conduced research permitted to make conclusions about right choice of offshore zon...

  13. The HysNiche trial: hysteroscopic resection of uterine caesarean scar defect (niche) in patients with abnormal bleeding, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, A J M W; Van der Voet, L F; Witmer, M; Thurkow, A L; Radder, C M; van Kesteren, P J M; Quartero, H W P; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Bongers, M Y; Geomini, P M A J; de Vleeschouwer, L H M; van Hooff, M H A; van Vliet, H A A M; Veersema, S; Renes, W B; van Meurs, H S; Bosmans, J; Oude Rengerink, K; Brölmann, H A M; Mol, B W J; Huirne, J A F

    2015-11-12

    A caesarean section (CS) can cause a defect or disruption of the myometrium at the site of the uterine scar, called a niche. In recent years, an association between a niche and postmenstrual spotting after a CS has been demonstrated. Hysteroscopic resection of these niches is thought to reduce spotting and menstrual pain. However, there are no randomised trials assessing the effectiveness of a hysteroscopic niche resection. We planned a multicentre randomised trial comparing hysteroscopic niche resection to no intervention. We study women with postmenstrual spotting after a CS and a niche with a residual myometrium of at least 3 mm during sonohysterography. After informed consent is obtained, eligible women will be randomly allocated to hysteroscopic resection of the niche or expectant management for 6 months. The primary outcome is the number of days with postmenstrual spotting during one menstrual cycle 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are menstrual characteristics, menstruation related pain and experienced discomfort due to spotting or menstrual pain, quality of life, patient satisfaction, sexual function, urological symptoms, medical consultations, medication use, complications, lost productivity and medical costs. Measurements will be performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after randomisation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal perspective at 6 months after randomisation. This trial will provide insight in the (cost)effectiveness of hysteroscopic resection of a niche versus expectant management in women who have postmenstrual spotting and a niche with sufficient residual myometrium to perform a hysteroscopic niche resection. Dutch Trial Register NTR3269 . Registered 1 February 2012. ZonMw Grant number 80-82305-97-12030.

  14. Induction of labour versus expectant monitoring for gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia after 36 weeks' gestation (HYPITAT): a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Corine M; Bijlenga, Denise; Groen, Henk; Vijgen, Sylvia M C; Aarnoudse, Jan G; Bekedam, Dick J; van den Berg, Paul P; de Boer, Karin; Burggraaff, Jan M; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Drogtrop, Addy P; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J M; Huisjes, Anjoke J M; Kwee, Anneke; van Loon, Aren J; Lub, Annemiek; Papatsonis, Dimitri N M; van der Post, Joris A M; Roumen, Frans J M E; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Willekes, Christine; Mol, Ben W J; van Pampus, Maria G

    2009-09-19

    Robust evidence to direct management of pregnant women with mild hypertensive disease at term is scarce. We investigated whether induction of labour in women with a singleton pregnancy complicated by gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia reduces severe maternal morbidity. We undertook a multicentre, parallel, open-label randomised controlled trial in six academic and 32 non-academic hospitals in the Netherlands between October, 2005, and March, 2008. We enrolled patients with a singleton pregnancy at 36-41 weeks' gestation, and who had gestational hypertension or mild pre-eclampsia. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio by block randomisation with a web-based application system to receive either induction of labour or expectant monitoring. Masking of intervention allocation was not possible. The primary outcome was a composite measure of poor maternal outcome--maternal mortality, maternal morbidity (eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, pulmonary oedema, thromboembolic disease, and placental abruption), progression to severe hypertension or proteinuria, and major post-partum haemorrhage (>1000 mL blood loss). Analysis was by intention to treat and treatment effect is presented as relative risk. This study is registered, number ISRCTN08132825. 756 patients were allocated to receive induction of labour (n=377 patients) or expectant monitoring (n=379). 397 patients refused randomisation but authorised use of their medical records. Of women who were randomised, 117 (31%) allocated to induction of labour developed poor maternal outcome compared with 166 (44%) allocated to expectant monitoring (relative risk 0.71, 95% CI 0.59-0.86, phypertensive disease beyond 37 weeks' gestation. ZonMw.

  15. [Elderly people with visual impairment in The Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limburg, J J; Keunen, J E E; van Rens, G H M B

    2009-09-01

    To estimate the number of elderly people with visual impairment in The Netherlands, now and in the future. Possibilities for intervention are discussed. Estimates are based on a recent report on behalf of Foundation InZicht, ZonMw, in which prevalence data from population-based studies on blindness and low vision and its causes in The Netherlands, western Europe, The United States and Australia are related to the latest demographic data for The Netherlands. Of the 16.4 million Dutch in 2008 2.4 million (14.7%) are 65 years of age and older. Of this last group 155,000 persons are living in nursing homes or residential homes, the others are living in their own homes. In 2008 an estimated 77,000 persons are blind and 234,000 have low vision. Of them 79% is 65 years of age or older. Of the older people in care institutions 20% is blind (32,000) and 22% has low vision (34,000). In 62% of them the visual impairment is treatable or could have been prevented ('avoidable'). Of the older people living independently 1.2% is blind (27,000) and 6.8% has low vision (154,000). In 57% of them the affliction is avoidable. In 2008 247,000 elderly suffer from a visual impairment that could have been treated or prevented in 143,000 (58%) of them. Screening and treatment of elderly in care institutions seems indicated, as is health education to and goal-oriented screening of elderly who live independently.

  16. Recovery of motor deficit accompanying sciatica--subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdevest, Gijsbert M; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2014-09-01

    In patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation, it is generally recommended to reserve surgical treatment for those who suffer from intolerable pain or those who demonstrate persistent symptoms after conservative management. Controversy exists about the necessity of early surgical intervention for those patients that have an additional motor deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the recovery of motor deficit among patients receiving early surgery to those receiving prolonged conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. This subgroup analysis focuses on 150 (53%) of 283 patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms at baseline (before randomization) were accompanied by a motor deficit. Motor deficit was assessed through manual muscle testing and graded according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. In total, 150 patients with 6 to 12 weeks of sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms were accompanied by a moderate (MRC Grade 4) or severe (MRC Grade 3) motor deficit were randomly allocated to early surgery or prolonged conservative treatment. Repeated standardized neurologic examinations were performed at baseline and at 8, 26, and 52 weeks after randomization. This study was supported by a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) and the Hoelen Foundation The Hague. Sciatica recovered among seven (10%) of the 70 patients assigned to early surgery before surgery could be performed, and of the 80 patients assigned to conservative treatment, 32 patients (40%) were treated surgically because of intolerable pain. Baseline severity of motor deficit was graded moderate in 84% of patients and severe in 16% of patients. Motor deficit recovered significantly faster among patients allocated to early surgery (p=.01), but the difference was no longer significant at 26 (p=.21) or 52 weeks (p=.92). At 1 year, complete recovery of motor

  17. Immediate total-body CT scanning versus conventional imaging and selective CT scanning in patients with severe trauma (REACT-2): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierink, Joanne C; Treskes, Kaij; Edwards, Michael J R; Beuker, Benn J A; den Hartog, Dennis; Hohmann, Joachim; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Luitse, Jan S K; Beenen, Ludo F M; Hollmann, Markus W; Goslings, J Carel

    2016-08-13

    one in a patient who was excluded after random allocation. All five patients died. Diagnosing patients with an immediate total-body CT scan does not reduce in-hospital mortality compared with the standard radiological work-up. Because of the increased radiation dose, future research should focus on the selection of patients who will benefit from immediate total-body CT. ZonMw, the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dropout is a problem in lifestyle intervention programs for overweight and obese infertile women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsaerts, M A Q; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Mol, B W; Land, J A; Hoek, A

    2013-04-01

    increasing adherence rates, weight loss and pregnancy chances. M.A.Q.M. was supported by a research grant from the Dutch Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). The department of obstetrics and gynaecology received research grants from Merck Sharpe and Dohme BV, feering pharmaceuticals, Merck Serono, the Netherlands.

  19. Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in clinically depressed adolescents: individual CBT versus treatment as usual (TAU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise Hm; Deković, Maja; van Baar, Anneloes L

    2013-11-21

    NTR2676. The study was financially supported by a grant from ZonMw, the Netherlands organization for health research and development, grant number 157004005.

  20. K/Ar age dating of Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalamghash, J.; Vosoughi Abedini, M.; Bellon, H.; Emami, M.H.; Pourmafi, M.; Rashid, H.

    2003-01-01

    Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex, the western member of Urumiyeh-Golpayehgan intrusive plutons is located in northern part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zon. Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex, exposing in an area of about 700 km 2 , comprises 10 plutons that can be divided into three suites, i.e.,diorite,granite,and alkali syenite-alkali granite. Dioritic bodies are the oldest intrusive rocks of the region, which on the basis of the field study, their relative age of emplacement is estimated to be post-Jurassic and pre-miocene. However, with respect to the age of other similar intrusive bodies in Naghadeh area, they are most likely of post early cretaceous-pre miocene age. Hybrid intrusive rocks, occurring at the contact of dioritic and granitic rocks may suggest a simultaneous emplacement of both magmas. Syntetic pluton from alkali syenite-alkali granite has intruded dioritic and granitic rocks, in contrast, flourine bearing alkali granite pluton from this suite shows no contact with other igneous rocks in the area. K-Ar age determinations obtained on amphibole specimens from diorite suite are 91.9±2.3, 94.1±2.3 and 100±2.4 Ma, and on biotite specimens from granite suite are 100±1.5 to 98.9±1.5 Ma. Chronology study using same method on arfvedsonite specimens from syenite pluton shows 78.9±3.1, 79.6±1.9 and 81.7±2.0 Ma and on K-fled par samples of flourine bearing alkali granite pluton from the alkali syenite-alkali granite suite presents 76±3.4 and 77.1±1.8. Therefore, based on field evidence and K/Ar age dating, Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex presumably formed during two episodes: granite and diorite suites formed simultaneously at about 100 Ma, then plutons of alkali syenite-alkali granite suite emplaced at about 80 Ma

  1. Diabetes and onset of natural menopause: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J S; Onland-Moret, N C; Eijkemans, M J C; Tjønneland, A; Roswall, N; Overvad, K; Fagherazzi, G; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Dossus, L; Lukanova, A; Grote, V; Bergmann, M M; Boeing, H; Trichopoulou, A; Tzivoglou, M; Trichopoulos, D; Grioni, S; Mattiello, A; Masala, G; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Weiderpass, E; Redondo, M L; Sánchez, M J; Castaño, J M Huerta; Arriola, L; Ardanaz, E; Duell, E J; Rolandsson, O; Franks, P W; Butt, S; Nilsson, P; Khaw, K T; Wareham, N; Travis, R; Romieu, I; Gunter, M J; Riboli, E; van der Schouw, Y T

    2015-06-01

    Do women who have diabetes before menopause have their menopause at an earlier age compared with women without diabetes? Although there was no overall association between diabetes and age at menopause, our study suggests that early-onset diabetes may accelerate menopause. Today, more women of childbearing age are being diagnosed with diabetes, but little is known about the impact of diabetes on reproductive health. We investigated the impact of diabetes on age at natural menopause (ANM) in 258 898 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), enrolled between 1992 and 2000. Determinant and outcome information was obtained through questionnaires. Time-dependent Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of diabetes and age at diabetes diagnosis with ANM, stratified by center and adjusted for age, smoking, reproductive and diabetes risk factors and with age from birth to menopause or censoring as the underlying time scale. Overall, no association between diabetes and ANM was found (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.01). However, women with diabetes before the age of 20 years had an earlier menopause (10-20 years: HR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.02-2.01, France); German Cancer Aid, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMMF) (Germany); Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity, Stavros Niarchos Foundation and Hellenic Health Foundation (Greece); Italian Association for Research on Cancer (AIRC) and National Research Council (Italy); Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (VWS), Netherlands Cancer Registry (NKR), LK Research Funds, Dutch Prevention Funds, Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland), World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), Statistics Netherlands (The Netherlands); ERC-2009-AdG 232997 and Nordforsk, Nordic Centre of Excellence programme on Food, Nutrition and Health (Norway); Health Research Fund (FIS), Regional Governments of Andaluc

  2. Chaotic expression dynamics implies pluripotency: when theory and experiment meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furusawa Chikara

    2009-05-01

    examine whether the loss of pluripotency is accompanied by a loss of oscillation. Implications of the hypothesis Recovery of pluripotency from determined cells is a long-standing aspiration, from both scientific and clinical perspectives. Our hypothesis suggests a feasible route to recover the potential to differentiate, i.e., by increasing the variety of expressed genes to restore chaotic expression dynamics, as is consistent with the recent generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. Reviewers This article was reviewed by David Krakauer, Jeroen van Zon (nominated by Rob de Boer, and Williams S. Hlavacek.

  3. Aspectos morfológicos da placenta da preguiça, Bradypus variegatus Shinz, 1825

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleyne José Afonso Accyoli Lins Amorin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os aspectos morfológicos da placenta e das membranas fetais de 03 placentas de bichos-preguiça (Bradypus variegatus, adultas e prenhes, originárias da Zona da Mata do Estado de Pernambuco. Essas estruturas foram obtidas de 03 fêmeas doadas pela Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, das quais duas encontravam-se congeladas e a terceira foi colhida mediante realização de cirurgia cesariana, onde mãe e feto foram preservados. Depois de descongeladas, as placentas foram fixadas em solução aquosa de formol 10,00%. Da placenta obtida da cesariana colheram-se pequenos fragmentos da região placentária e do funículo umbilical, os quais foram fixados em paraformoldeido 4,00%, tampão fosfato pH 7,4. Os fragmentos passaram pela rotina histológica, onde foram coradas em Hematoxilina e Eosina e Tricrômio de Masson. A placenta da preguiça é corioamniótica, com o cório viloso constituindo os lobos placentários, que se localizam na região fúndica do útero, e o cório liso relacionando-se com a face interna do útero. Nas placentas de final de prenhez os lobos aglomeram-se e fundem-se aumentando de tamanho, formando uma massa principal discóide, caracterizando uma placenta zonária discoidal, que se une ao feto pelo funículo umbilical, constituído por duas artérias e uma veia umbilical. Os resultados histológicos demonstraram que a placenta desses animais é labiríntica e endoteliocorial. Assim, a placenta da preguiça pode ser classificada como labiríntica, endoteliocorial, múltipla, discóide (a termo e corioamniótica.

  4. Surgery versus physiotherapy for stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Julien; Berghmans, Bary L C M; Fischer, Kathelijn; Milani, Alfredo L; van der Wijk, Ileana; Smalbraak, Dina J C; Vollebregt, Astrid; Schellart, René P; Graziosi, Giuseppe C M; van der Ploeg, J Marinus; Brouns, Joseph F G M; Tiersma, E Stella M; Groenendijk, Annette G; Scholten, Piet; Mol, Ben Willem; Blokhuis, Elisabeth E; Adriaanse, Albert H; Schram, Aaltje; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; van der Vaart, Carl H

    2013-09-19

    Physiotherapy involving pelvic-floor muscle training is advocated as first-line treatment for stress urinary incontinence; midurethral-sling surgery is generally recommended when physiotherapy is unsuccessful. Data are lacking from randomized trials comparing these two options as initial therapy. We performed a multicenter, randomized trial to compare physiotherapy and midurethral-sling surgery in women with stress urinary incontinence. Crossover between groups was allowed. The primary outcome was subjective improvement, measured by means of the Patient Global Impression of Improvement at 12 months. We randomly assigned 230 women to the surgery group and 230 women to the physiotherapy group. A total of 49.0% of women in the physiotherapy group and 11.2% of women in the surgery group crossed over to the alternative treatment. In an intention-to-treat analysis, subjective improvement was reported by 90.8% of women in the surgery group and 64.4% of women in the physiotherapy group (absolute difference, 26.4 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.1 to 34.5). The rates of subjective cure were 85.2% in the surgery group and 53.4% in the physiotherapy group (absolute difference, 31.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 22.6 to 40.3); rates of objective cure were 76.5% and 58.8%, respectively (absolute difference, 17.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 7.9 to 27.3). A post hoc per-protocol analysis showed that women who crossed over to the surgery group had outcomes similar to those of women initially assigned to surgery and that both these groups had outcomes superior to those of women who did not cross over to surgery. For women with stress urinary incontinence, initial midurethral-sling surgery, as compared with initial physiotherapy, results in higher rates of subjective improvement and subjective and objective cure at 1 year. (Funded by ZonMw, the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; Dutch Trial Register number, NTR1248.).

  5. Efficacy of community-based physiotherapy networks for patients with Parkinson's disease: a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munneke, Marten; Nijkrake, Maarten J; Keus, Samyra Hj; Kwakkel, Gert; Berendse, Henk W; Roos, Raymund Ac; Borm, George F; Adang, Eddy M; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2010-01-01

    Many patients with Parkinson's disease are treated with physiotherapy. We have developed a community-based professional network (ParkinsonNet) that involves training of a selected number of expert physiotherapists to work according to evidence-based recommendations, and structured referrals to these trained physiotherapists to increase the numbers of patients they treat. We aimed to assess the efficacy of this approach for improving health-care outcomes. Between February, 2005, and August, 2007, we did a cluster-randomised trial with 16 clusters (defined as community hospitals and their catchment area). Clusters were randomly allocated by use of a variance minimisation algorithm to ParkinsonNet care (n=8) or usual care (n=8). Patients were assessed at baseline and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks of follow-up. The primary outcome was a patient preference disability score, the patient-specific index score, at 16 weeks. Health secondary outcomes were functional mobility, mobility-related quality of life, and total societal costs over 24 weeks. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered, number NCT00330694. We included 699 patients. Baseline characteristics of the patients were comparable between the ParkinsonNet clusters (n=358) and usual-care clusters (n=341). The primary endpoint was similar for patients within the ParkinsonNet clusters (mean 47.7, SD 21.9) and control clusters (48.3, 22.4). Health secondary endpoints were also similar for patients in both study groups. Total costs over 24 weeks were lower in ParkinsonNet clusters compared with usual-care clusters (difference euro727; 95% CI 56-1399). Implementation of ParkinsonNet networks did not change health outcomes for patients living in ParkinsonNet clusters. However, health-care costs were reduced in ParkinsonNet clusters compared with usual-care clusters. ZonMw; Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research; Dutch Parkinson's Disease Society; National Parkinson Foundation; Stichting Robuust

  6. A descriptive analysis of drug treatment patterns and burden of illness for pediatric patients diagnosed with partial-onset seizures in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angalakuditi M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mallik Angalakuditi1, Nupur Angalakuditi21Georgia State University, Robinson School of Business, Atlanta, GA, 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USAPurpose: The objective of this retrospective claims study was to describe antiepileptic drug (AED treatment patterns and burden of illness in children with epilepsy.Methods: Data were administrative claims from a US commercial health plan. Patients were between 2 and 17 years of age and had one or more pharmacy claims for an oral AED from July 1, 2005, to November 30, 2009. The index date was defined as the first AED claim. Patients had one or more medical claims for epilepsy (ICD-9-CM 345.xx during the 6-month pre-index period and were continuously enrolled for 12 months post index. Of the 17 AED medications used to identify patients, eleven medication cohorts had more than 100 patients: (1 carbamazepine (CAR; (2 clonazepam; (3 gabapentin (GAB; (4 lamotrigine (LAM; (5 levetiracetam (LEV; (6 oxcarbazepine (OXC; (7 phenobarbital; (8 phenytoin (PHY; (9 topiramate (TOP; (10 valproate (VAL; and (11 zonisamide (ZON.Results: There were 3889 children who met the inclusion criteria. There were some differences in patients across the eleven AED treatment cohorts based on index therapy in age, gender, geographic location, Charlson comorbidity score, AHRQ comorbid conditions, as well as epilepsy-related risk factors and comorbidities. Of the 17 AEDs examined, the most frequently prescribed were OXC (21% and LEV (19%; the least prescribed AED was GAB (1%. Their respective mean post-index pharmacy and total costs were as follows: OXC, US$2095 and US$5556; LEV, US$3025 and US$9121; and GAB, US$917 and US$1597. The overall post-index mean pharmacy costs were US$2637, and mean total costs were US$6813.Conclusion: Study results demonstrate differences in patient demographic and clinical characteristics across AED medication cohorts. Some cohorts have greater odds of a switch, or augmentation than the reference

  7. Simulations of Wind Field Effect on Two-Stream Waves in the Equatorial Electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Lon Fern

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The wind field effect on the phase veloc i ties of 3- to 10-me ter Farley-Buneman two-stream waves in the equato rial E region ion o sphere at al titudes in the range of 95 - 110 km is stud ied by nu mer i cal simu la tion. The behav ior of this two-stream wave in the uni form wind field Un in a plane per pen dic u lar to the Earth’s mag netic field is simu lated with a two-di men sional two-fluid code in which elec tron in er tia is ne glected while ion in er tia is re tained. It is con firmed that, the thresh old con di tion for the ap pear ance of two-stream waves is VD C U th » + s + n (1 / cos Y0 q ; and the phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave at the thresh old con di tion is Vp » Cs + Un cos q, where q is the ele va tion an gle of the wave prop a ga tion in a limited range and Y0 = ninnen / WiWe. The first formula in di cates that the wind field paral lel (anti-par al lel to the elec tron drift ve loc ity will raise (lower the thresh old drift ve loc ity by the amount of the wind speed. This means that par al lel wind is a sta ble fac tor, while anti-paral lel wind is an un sta ble fac tor of two-stream waves. This may ex plain why high speed (larger than acous tic speed two-stream waves were rarely ob served, since larger thresh old drift veloc ity de mands larger po larization elec tric field. The result of the simu la tions at the sat u ra tion stage show that when VD was only slightly larger than VD th , the hor i zon tal phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave would grad u ally down-shift to the thresh old phase ve loc ity Cs + Un. The physical implications of which are discussed

  8. Activation of transglutaminase 2 by nerve growth factor in differentiating neuroblastoma cells: A role in cell survival and neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, Alanood S; Hargreaves, Alan J; Dickenson, John M

    2018-02-05

    NGF (nerve growth factor) and tissue transglutaminase (TG2) play important roles in neurite outgrowth and modulation of neuronal cell survival. In this study, we investigated the regulation of TG2 transamidase activity by NGF in retinoic acid-induced differentiating mouse N2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. TG2 transamidase activity was determined using an amine incorporation and a peptide cross linking assay. In situ TG2 activity was assessed by visualising the incorporation of biotin-X-cadaverine using confocal microscopy. The role of TG2 in NGF-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth was investigated by monitoring hypoxia-induced cell death and appearance of axonal-like processes, respectively. The amine incorporation and protein crosslinking activity of TG2 increased in a time and concentration-dependent manner following stimulation with NGF in N2a and SH-SY5Y cells. NGF mediated increases in TG2 activity were abolished by the TG2 inhibitors Z-DON (Z-ZON-Val-Pro-Leu-OMe; Benzyloxycarbonyl-(6-Diazo-5-oxonorleucinyl)-l-valinyl-l-prolinyl-l-leucinmethylester) and R283 (1,3,dimethyl-2[2-oxo-propyl]thio)imidazole chloride) and by pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), protein kinase B (PKB) and protein kinase C (PKC), and removal of extracellular Ca 2+ . Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated NGF induced in situ TG2 activity. TG2 inhibition blocked NGF-induced attenuation of hypoxia-induced cell death and neurite outgrowth in both cell lines. Together, these results demonstrate that NGF stimulates TG2 transamidase activity via a ERK1/2, PKB and PKC-dependent pathway in differentiating mouse N2a and human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, NGF-induced cytoprotection and neurite outgrowth are dependent upon TG2. These results suggest a novel and important role of TG2 in the cellular functions of NGF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as a multistep process: a population-based modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Calvo, Andrea; Chio, Adriano; Colville, Shuna; Ellis, Cathy M; Hardiman, Orla; Heverin, Mark; Howard, Robin S; Huisman, Mark H B; Keren, Noa; Leigh, P Nigel; Mazzini, Letizia; Mora, Gabriele; Orrell, Richard W; Rooney, James; Scott, Kirsten M; Scotton, William J; Seelen, Meinie; Shaw, Christopher E; Sidle, Katie S; Swingler, Robert; Tsuda, Miho; Veldink, Jan H; Visser, Anne E; van den Berg, Leonard H; Pearce, Neil

    2014-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis shares characteristics with some cancers, such as onset being more common in later life, progression usually being rapid, the disease affecting a particular cell type, and showing complex inheritance. We used a model originally applied to cancer epidemiology to investigate the hypothesis that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a multistep process. We generated incidence data by age and sex from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis population registers in Ireland (registration dates 1995-2012), the Netherlands (2006-12), Italy (1995-2004), Scotland (1989-98), and England (2002-09), and calculated age and sex-adjusted incidences for each register. We regressed the log of age-specific incidence against the log of age with least squares regression. We did the analyses within each register, and also did a combined analysis, adjusting for register. We identified 6274 cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from a catchment population of about 34 million people. We noted a linear relationship between log incidence and log age in all five registers: England r(2)=0·95, Ireland r(2)=0·99, Italy r(2)=0·95, the Netherlands r(2)=0·99, and Scotland r(2)=0·97; overall r(2)=0·99. All five registers gave similar estimates of the linear slope ranging from 4·5 to 5·1, with overlapping confidence intervals. The combination of all five registers gave an overall slope of 4·8 (95% CI 4·5-5·0), with similar estimates for men (4·6, 4·3-4·9) and women (5·0, 4·5-5·5). A linear relationship between the log incidence and log age of onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is consistent with a multistage model of disease. The slope estimate suggests that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a six-step process. Identification of these steps could lead to preventive and therapeutic avenues. UK Medical Research Council; UK Economic and Social Research Council; Ireland Health Research Board; The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw); the

  10. Application of liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry for the evaluation of global nucleic acids: methylation in garden cress under exposure to CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcazar Magana, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2016-01-15

    A full understanding of the biological impact of nanomaterials demands analytical procedures suitable for the detection/quantification of epigenetic changes that occur in the exposed organisms. Here, the effect of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) on global methylation of nucleic acids in Lepidium sativum was evaluated by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Enhanced selectivity toward cytosine-containing nucleosides was achieved by using their proton-bound dimers formed in positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) as precursor ions for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantification based on one or two ion transitions. Plants were exposed to CuO NPs (0-1000 mg L(-1)); nucleic acid extracts were washed with bathocuproine disulfate; nucleosides were separated on a Luna C18 column coupled via ESI(+) to an AmaZon SL mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics). Cytidine, 2´-deoxycytidine, 5-methylcytidine, 5-methyl-2´-deoxycytidine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2´-deoxycytidine were quantified by MRM based on MS(3) ([2M+H](+)/[M+H](+)/[M+H-132](+) or [M+H-116](+)) and MS(2) ([2M+H](+)/[M+H](+) ). Bathocuproine disulfate, added as Cu(I) complexing agent, allowed for elimination of [2M+Cu](+) adducts from the mass spectra. Poorer instrumental detection limits were obtained for MS(3) (20-120 fmol) as compared to MS(2) (9.0-41 fmol); however, two ion transitions helped to eliminate matrix effects in plant extracts. The procedure was tested by analyzing salmon sperm DNA (Sigma) and applied for the evaluation of DNA and RNA methylation in plants; in the absence of NPs, 13.03% and 0.92% methylated cytosines were found in DNA and RNA, respectively; for NPs concentration >50 mg L(-1), DNA hypomethylation was observed with respect to unexposed plants. RNA methylation did not present significant changes upon plant exposure; 5-hydroxymethyl-2´-deoxycytidine was not detected in any sample. The MRM quantification proposed here of cytosine-containing nucleosides using their proton-bound homo

  11. SU-E-J-219: A Dixon Based Pseudo-CT Generation Method for MR-Only Radiotherapy Treatment Planning of the Pelvis and Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maspero, M.; Meijer, G.J.; Lagendijk, J.J.W.; Berg, C.A.T. van den [Department of Radiotherapy, UMC Utrecht (Netherlands); Seevinck, P.R.; Viergever, M.A. [Image Science Institute, UMC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop an image processing method for MRI-based generation of electron density maps, known as pseudo-CT (pCT), without usage of model- or atlas-based segmentation, and to evaluate the method in the pelvic and head-neck region against CT. Methods: CT and MRI scans were obtained from the pelvic region of four patients in supine position using a flat table top only for CT. Stratified CT maps were generated by classifying each voxel based on HU ranges into one of four classes: air, adipose tissue, soft tissue or bone.A hierarchical region-selective algorithm, based on automatic thresholding and clustering, was used to classify tissues from MR Dixon reconstructed fat, In-Phase (IP) and Opposed-Phase (OP) images. First, a body mask was obtained by thresholding the IP image. Subsequently, an automatic threshold on the Dixon fat image differentiated soft and adipose tissue. K-means clustering on IP and OP images resulted in a mask that, via a connected neighborhood analysis, allowing the user to select the components corresponding to bone structures.The pCT was estimated through assignment of bulk HU to the tissue classes. Bone-only Digital Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR) were generated as well. The pCT images were rigidly registered to the stratified CT to allow a volumetric and voxelwise comparison. Moreover, pCTs were also calculated within the head-neck region in two volunteers using the same pipeline. Results: The volumetric comparison resulted in differences <1% for each tissue class. A voxelwise comparison showed a good classification, ranging from 64% to 98%. The primary misclassified classes were adipose/soft tissue and bone/soft tissue. As the patients have been imaged on different table tops, part of the misclassification error can be explained by misregistration. Conclusion: The proposed approach does not rely on an anatomy model providing the flexibility to successfully generate the pCT in two different body sites. This research is founded by Zon

  12. J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after gastrectomy: functional assessment and quality of life (randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonca P

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavel Zonča,1,2 Tomáš Malý,3 Peter Ihnát,1,2 Matus Peteja,1,2 Otakar Kraft,4 Kamil Kuca2,5 1Department of Surgery, University Hospital Ostrava, 2Department of Surgical Studies, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, 3Department of Surgery, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Ostrava, Ostrava, 5Biomedical Research Center, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life and functional emptying of J-pouch versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after total gastrectomy for malignancy. Methods: This study was designed as a prospective, nonblinded, randomized, parallel clinical trial (Trial Number: MN Ostrava, 200604. With informed consent, patients undergoing gastrectomy for malignancy were randomized to J-pouch or Roux-en-Y reconstruction. The time taken for a test semisolid meal labeled with 99mTc-sulfur colloid to exit the reconstructed parts was measured by dynamic scintigraphy 1 year after resection. Quality of life was measured using the Eypasch questionnaire at the same time as functional emptying assessment. This trial was investigator-initiated. Results: In all, 72 patients were included into the study. The time taken for the test meal to exit the postgastrectomy reconstruction was 16.5±10.0 minutes (mean ± standard deviation in the Roux-en-Y group and 89.4±37.8 minutes in the “J-pouch” group; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.001. Emptying of the J-pouch appeared to be a linear decreasing function compared to the exponential pattern seen in the Roux-en-Y group. The quality of life measurement showed scores of 106±18.8 points (mean ± standard deviation in the Roux-en-Y group compared to 122±22.5 points in the J-pouch group; the difference was statistically significant (P=0.0016. There were no important adverse events. Conclusion: After total gastrectomy, a J

  13. New Evaluation of Seismic Hazard in Cental America and la Hispaniola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, B.; Camacho, E. I.; Rojas, W.; Climent, A.; Alvarado-Induni, G.; Marroquin, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Belizaire, D.; Pierristal, G.; Torres, Y.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; García, R.; Zevallos, F.

    2013-05-01

    The results from seismic hazard studies carried out in two seismic scenarios, Central America Region (CA) and La Hispaniola Island, are presented here. Both cases follow the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology and they are developed in terms of PGA, and SA (T), for T of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2s. In both anaysis, hybrid zonation models are considered, integrated by seismogenic zones and faults where data of slip rate and recurrence time are available. First, we present a new evaluation of seismic hazard in CA, starting with the results of a previous study by Benito et al (2011). Some improvements are now included, such as: updated catalogue till 2011, corrections in the zonning model in particular for subduction regime taken into account the variation of the dip in Costa Rica and Panama, and modelization of some faults as independent units for the hazard estimation. The results allow us to carry out a sensitivity analysis comparing the ones obtained with and without faults. In a second part we present the results of the PSHA in La Hispaniola, carried out as part of the cooperative project SISMO-HAITI supported by UPM and developed in cooperation with ONEV. It started a few months after the 2010 event, as an answer to a required help from the Haitian government to UPM. The study was aimed at obtaining results suitable for seismic design purposes and started with the elaboration of a seismic catalogue for the Hispaniola, requiring an exhaustive revision of data reported by around 30 seismic agencies, apart from these from Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic Seismic Networks. Seismotectonic models for the region were reviewed and a new regional zonation was proposed, taking into account different geophysical data. Attenuation models for subduction and crustal zones were also reviewed and the more suitable were calibrated with data recorded inside the Caribbean plate. As a result of the PSHA, different maps were generated for the quoted parameters

  14. Revolutionizing Bantu Lexicography — A Zulu Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles-Maurice de Schryver

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Zulu uses a conjunctive writing system, that is, a system whereby relatively short linguistic words are joined together to form long orthographic words with complex morphological structures. This has led to the so-called 'stem tradition' in dictionary making — for Zulu, as well as for most other Bantu languages. Given this lemmatization approach has been found to be inadequate for young learners (who fail to isolate stems, the development of a new approach was imperative for them, but until recently deemed impossible to implement. In this paper it is argued that it is now perfectly possible to reverse the unproductive trend, and to opt for the lemmatization of full words for all but one of the word classes in Bantu. This revolution is made possible thanks to the recent availability of relatively large corpora, with which the really frequent citation options may be pinpointed. Rather than a mission statement, this paper offers the result for all word classes. To do so, an actual guide to the use of a Zulu dictionary is re-represented and annotated.

    SAMENVATTING: Bantoe lexicografie radicaal omgooien — een gevalsanalyse voor Zoeloe. Zoeloe maakt gebruik van een conjunctief schrijfsysteem, d.w.z. een systeem waarbij relatief korte linguïstische woorden vast aan elkaar geschreven worden met lange orthografische woorden tot gevolg, die ook nog complexe morfologische structuren vertonen. Dit heeft geleid tot wat men de 'stam traditie' in de lexicografie is gaan noemen — voor Zoeloe, alsook voor de meeste andere Bantoetalen. Aangezien deze lemmatisatieaanpak ongeschikt is gebleken voor jonge gebruikers (die woordstammen maar niet kunnen isoleren, moest voor hen een nieuwe aanpak ontwikkeld worden. Tot voor kort werd zo'n aanpak echter als niet-implementeerbaar beschouwd. In dit artikel wordt geargumenteerd dat het vandaag de dag perfect mogelijk is om de onproductieve trend om te keren, en om te kiezen voor het lemmatiseren

  15. Reactivity coefficients by perturbation theory; Calcul des coefficients de re activite par la theorie des perturbations; Koehffitsienty reaktivnosti, opredelennye pri pomoshchi teorii vozmushchenij; Determinacion, de coeficientes de reactividad con ayuda de la teoria de las perturbaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, J W [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1962-03-15

    (MCBR). Al calcular la reactividad, se comprueba que el coeficiente correspondiente a la densidad neta del mercurio en el primer proyecto del MCBR es negativo en algunas regiones, y positivo en otras. Es negativo en las regiones de peso estadistico maximo y en las que los cambios de densidad serian mayores al variar la potencia. Por lo tanto, el coeficiente global de densidad del mercurio es negativo, esto es, el coeficiente de vacios es positivo, lo que constituye una condicion que implica peligro. En la formulacion de dos grupos, se aprecia facilmente que modificaciones es preciso introducir en el diseno para que el coeficiente de cavidad sea negativo. Nuevas investigaciones demostraron que era posible introducir dichas modificaciones, lograndose establecer para el MCBR un diseno cuyo coeficiente de vacios es negativo. (author) [Russian] Razvitie formuly teorii vozmushchenij daet khoroshuyu vozmozhnost' ispol'zovat' odin iz glavnykh metodov matematicheskogo issledovaniya, t.e. proizvesti dejstvie po analogii ot prostogo k bolee slozhnomu. V ehtom doklade: a) Rassmatrivaets ya formulirovka teorii vozmushchenij v kachestve metoda rascheta koehffitsientov reaktivnosti. On sostoit, glavnym obrazom, iz razvitiya differentsial'nog o uravneniya dlya sopryazhennogo potoka kak postoyannoj funktsii polozheniya i letargii, vyvodimoe po analogii ot odnoj gruppy differentsial'nog o uravneniya dlya sopryazhennogo potoka. b) Daetsya primenenie dvukhgruppovoj formy teorii vozmushchenij dlya kipyashchego reaktorarazmnozhitelya na bystrykh nejtronakh s rtutnym teplonositelem (MCBR). Vidno, chto koehffitsient reaktivnosti rtuti nizshej plotnosti v khode pervogo ispytaniya proekta MCBR yavlyaetsya otritsatel'nym dlya nekotorykh oblastej i polozhitel'nym dlya drugikh. Odnako on yavlyaetsya otritsatel'nym dlya oblastej naivysshego statisticheskogo vesa i tam, gde izmenenie plotnosti s izmeneniem ehnergii okazyvaetsya naibol'shim. Obshchij koehffitsient plotnosti rtuti yavlyaetsya, takim

  16. Critical experiments and nuclear calculations - LAMPRE-I; Experiences critiques et calculs nucleaires concernant le LAMPRE-I; Kriticheskie opyty i yadernye raschety - LAMPRE-I; Experimentos criticos u calculos nucleares relativos al LAMPRE-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battat, M E [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1962-03-15

    utilise la methode S{sub n} pour resoudre le probleme du transport neutronique. La comparaison entre les valeurs calculees et les valeurs mesurees des parametres, tels que le coefficient thermique, l'efficacite des barres de controle et la masse critique, presente aussi de l'interet pour evaluer le degre de confiance que l'on peut accorder aux calculs des bureaux d'etudes. (author) [Spanish] Como parte de un programa de ensayos de combustibles de plutonio para reactores reproductores de neutrones rapidos, se ha construido y puesto en marcha en el Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory un reactor experimental de 1 MW refrigerado por sodio, cuyo cuerpo contiene una aleacion fundida de plutonio y hierro (90 atomos por ciento de Pu y 10 atomos por ciento de Fe; punto de fusion: 410 deg. C). La reactividad se regula por medio de un reflector de acero inoxidable y de cuatro barras de control de niquel situadas fuera del nucleo. Se han llevado a cabo experimentos a temperaturas (isotermicas) de 80, 160 y 480 deg. C en el cuerpo, a fin de determinar la masa critica y la eficacia del reflector a cada una de esas temperaturas. Tambien se midio la eficacia de las barras de control, por registro de los periodos y del coeficiente termico de la reactividad. Aplicando el metodo S{sub n} de resolucion del problema del transporte neutronico, se efectuaron calculos para determinar los parametros nucleares basicos del reactor. La comparacion entre los valores calculados y los valores medidos de parametros tales como el coeficiente termico, la eficacia de las barras de control y la masa critica, presenta tambien interes en lo que se refiere a la evaluacion del grado de confianza que puede atribuirse a los calculos del proyectista. (author) [Russian] V kachestve chasti programmy po razvitiyu plutonievogo topliva dlya reaktorov-razmnozhitele j na bystrykh nejtronakh Los-Alamosskaya nauchnaya laboratoriya skonstruirovala i ehkspluatiruet ispytatel'nyj reaktor s natrievym okhlazhdeniem moshchnost'yu v

  17. A punched-card library of neutron cross-sections and its use in the mechanized preparation of group cross-sections for use in Monte Carlo, Carlson S{sub n} and other multi-group neutronics calculations on high-speed computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, K [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1962-03-15

    vklyuchayut mnogogruppovoe transportnoe priblizhenie i polnuyu obrabotku anizotropnogo rasseyaniya, ispol'zuya momenty mnogochlena Lezhandra matritsy peredachi rasseyaniya. Printsipy obrazovaniya gruppovoj postoyannoj obsuzhdayutsya i illyustriruyutsya pri pomoshchi opisaniya sistem gruppovykh postoyannykh, podkhodyashchikh dlya raschetov reaktorov na bystrykh nejtronakh. Obsuzhdayutsya takie prakticheskie problemy, kak ehmpiricheskoe sogla- sovanie gruppovykh postoyannykh dlya vosproizvodstva integral'nykh rezul'tatov i prive-denie mnogogruppovoj sistemy postoyannykh k malogruppovoj sisteme. (author)

  18. Neutron Tests at the Start-Up of EDF1; Les essais neutroniques au demarrage du reacteur EDF1; Nejtronnye izmereniya pri puske reaktora EDF1; Ensayos neutronicos efectuados durante la puesta en marcha del reactor EDF1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teste du Bailler, A. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France); Janin, R. [Electricite de France, Paris (France)

    1963-10-15

    ehksperimental'nykh metodov, razrabotannykh na reaktorakh v Markule, byla provedena vo vremya puska reaktora EDF.1. Izmereniya kasalis' glavnym obrazom ehffektivnosti upravlyayushchikh sterzhnej pri razlichnykh p ogruzh eniyakh. Opredelyaetsya skhema pod''ema s terzhnej, kotoraya pozvolyaet poluchat' polnuyu moshchnost' prk soblyudenii opredelennykh ogranichenij v temperature obolochek i gaza. Parallel'no byli provedeny izmereniya potoka pri razlichnykh polozheniyakh kompensiruyushchikh sterzhnej i pri razlichnykh zagruzkakh poglotitelej v opredelennykh kanalakh, v zavisimosti ot predvaritel'nykh raschetov v dvukhraehmernom izmerenii. Ehti izmereniya byli polucheny putem aktivatsii tochechnykh detektorov s primeneniem obychnogo metoda otravleniya vozdukha. Pri nekotorykh urovnyakh temperatury (do 140{sup o}C) byli provedeny izmereniya koehffitsientov reaktivnosti i ehffektivnosti reguliruyushchikh sterzhnej. V to zhe vremya putem aktivatsii sootvetstvuyushchikh detektorov (uran, plutonij, lyutetsij, marganets, indij, zoloto) byli provedeny izmereniya koehffitsientov spektra. Dlya izmereniya ehffektivnosti nekotorykh kompensiruyushchikh sterzhnej byl ispol'zovan ostsillyatsionnyj metod. Nakonets, s tselyakh izucheniya zashchity i povrezhdeniya grafita byli provedeny izmereniya potoka bystrykh nejtronov. (author)

  19. Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 2017; Session "Neonatal Hematology and Bilirubin"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    --- Various Authors

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Selected Abstracts of the 2nd Congress of joint European Neonatal Societies (jENS 2017; Venice (Italy; October 31-November 4, 201758th ESPR Annual Meeting, 7th International Congress of UENPS, 3rd International Congress of EFCNIORGANIZING INSTITUTIONSEuropean Society for Paediatric Research (ESPR, European Society for Neonatology (ESN, Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies (UENPS, European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants (EFCNIORGANIZING COMMITTEELuc Zimmermann (President of ESPR, Morten Breindahl (President of ESN, Manuel Sánchez Luna (President of UENPS, Silke Mader (Chairwoman of the Executive Board and Co-Founder of EFCNISCIENTIFIC COMMITTEEVirgilio P. Carnielli (Congress President Chair, Pierre Gressens (Past Scientific President, Umberto Simeoni, Manon Benders, Neil Marlow, Ola D. Saugstad, Petra Hüppi, Agnes van den HoogenSession "Neonatal Hematology and Bilirubin"ABS 1. PROLONGED JAUNDICE SCREENING: FULL BLOOD COUNT (FBC OR NO FBC! • N. Storring, R. Doherty, V. PonnusamyABS 2. EFFECT OF PROBIOTIC SUPPLEMENTATION ON BREAST MILK JAUNDICE • N. Koksal, O. Bagcı, H. Ozkan, I. Varal, P. DoganABS 3. LABORATORY FINDINGS, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF THE NEWBORN ADMITTED DUE TO HEMATEMESIS OR BLOODY STOOL IN 11 YEARS • I. Hokuto, Y. Ito, T. Mori, S. KomachiABS 4. AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF CYANOSIS: SEVERE METHEMOGLOBINEMIA IN A PRETERM INFANT WITH SEPSIS • F. Bakar, M. BerberABS 5. THE INFLUENCE OF INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION ON THE OUTCOMES OF NEWBORNS WITH SEVERE HEMOLYTIC DISEASE • E. Balashova, O. Bystrykh, T. Fedorova, O. Ionov, A. Kirtbaya, D. Sharafutdinova, V. Zubkov, D. Degtyarev, O. Horoshkeeva, N. Fedorova, N. Tetruashvili, K. Kostukov, N. KaretnikovaABS 6. PATCHED SKIN BILIRUBIN ASSAY TO MONITOR EXTREMELY PRETERM NEONATES UNDERGOING PHOTOTHERAPY • D. De Luca, V. Dell’OrtoABS 7. A PRETERM MODEL OF HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA-INDUCED CEREBELLAR DYSFUNCTION • C.F. Bearer, M. He, J.F. Watchko, J.M. Simard, N. Tang

  20. Amplitude-measuring devices for electric pulses in the nanosecond region; Dispositifs de mesure d'amplitude d'impulsions electriques dans le domaine de la nanoseconde; Pribory dlya izmereniya amplitudy ehlektricheskikh impul'sov v sfere nanosekundy; Dispositivos para medir la amplitud de los impulsos electricos en la region del nanosegundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samueli, J J; Sarazin, A [Institut d' Etudes Nucleaires d' Alger (France)

    1962-04-15

    amplitud maxima de impulsos rapidos. En general, estos circuitos deben poder dar una indicacion independiente, de ser posible, de la duracion y de la forma de la senal estudiada. El primer circuito es un alargador de impulsos, es decir un aparato que transforma las senales rapidas en impulsos de duracion constante y de amplitud proporcional a la amplitud inicial, y que, por tanto, permite estudiar las senales rapidas con un selector de amplitudes convencional. El circuito admite senales de duracion superior a 2 ns y de amplitud comprendida entre 1 y 15 V. Emite dos senales de duracion constante de 100 ns y de 1 {mu}s. El segundo circuito es un discriminador de amplitudes rapido, de umbral graduable entre 1 y 30 V y cuya desviacion de lectura para impulsos de 100 y de 2 ns de duracion es del orden de 18%. La senal de salida tiene una amplitud de 1,5 V y una duracion standard de 0,2 {mu}s. (author) [Russian] Daetsya opisanie dvukh ehlektronnykh priborov, dayushchikh vozmozhnost' proizvodit' izmerenie maksimal'noj amplitudy bystrykh impul'sov. V obshchem ot ehtikh priborov trebuyut predostavleniya, po vozmozhnosti, nezavisimoj indikatsii dlitel'nosti i formy izuchaemogo signala. Pervyj pribor predstavlyaet soboj rasshiritel' impul'sov, t.e ustanovku, kotoraya preobrazuet bystrye signaly v impul'sy postoyannoj shiriny i proportsional'noj amplitudy po sravneniyu s nuzhnoj amplitudoj i kotoraya poehtomu pozvolit izuchit' bystrye signaly pri pomoshchi obychnogo amplitudnogo selektora. Pribor prinimaet signaly shirinoj svyshe dvukh nanosekund, a amplituda kolebletsya mezhdu odnoj i 15 vol'tami. On daet dva signala postoyannoj shiriny v 100 nanosekund i v 1 {mu}s. Vtoroj pribor predstavlyaet iz sebya bystryj amplitudnyj diskriminator s reguliruyushchim porogom ot 1 do 30 vol't, i otschetnoe otklonenie kotorogo dlya impul'sov shirinoj v 100 i dve nanosekundy sostavlyaet 18%. Vykhodnoj signal imeet amplitudu v poltora vol'ta i standartnuyu shirinu v 0,2 {mu}s. (author)

  1. The epithermal critical experiments; Experiences critiques avec des neutrons epitliermiques; Nadteplovye kriticheskie ehksperimenty; Experimentos criticos con neutrones epitermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morewitz, H A; Carpenter, S O [Atomics International, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1962-03-15

    provistos de detectores calibrados, de umbrales diferentes, y con un espectrometro en 'emparedado' de contador de {sup 6}Li solido. Se utilizara una calculador a numerica corriente para agrupar todas las mediciones en un registro sistematico de secciones eficaces promediadas respecto del espectro. (author) [Russian] Sovremennaya faza programmy issledovanij usovershenstvovannog o nadteplovogo torievogo reaktora sostoit iz polnykh ehksperimen- tov po reaktornoj fizike, provodimykh s tsel'yu obespecheniya informatsiej po nejtronnym secheniyam v diapazone ot 10 Mehv do 1 kehv. Izuchaetsya gruppa devyati mnogozonal'nykh , medlenno-bystrykh , psevdosfericheski kh kriticheskikh sborok 'KHanikouma' s dvumya podvizhnymi polovinami aktivnoj zony. K nastoyashchemu vremeni ispytany tri sborki. Vneshnyaya peremeshchayushchayas ya zona dvigaetsya po otnosheniyu k vnutrennej sfericheskoj ehksperimental'noj aktivnoj zone na urane-233 - torii, spektor nejtronnogo potoka kotoroj uspeshno smyagchaetsya uvelicheniem otnosheniya grafitovogo zamedlitelya k toplivu. EHksperiment s generatorom pryamougol'nykh impul'sov opredelit tsentral'nuyu reaktivnuyu sposobnost' soroka malykh obraztsov razlichnykh materialov do 10{sup -8} {Delta}k dlya kazhdoj sborki. Krome togo, vzaimno kalibrovannye iskusstvennye istochniki nejtronov ostsilliruyutsya v tselyakh opredeleniya razlichnykh funktsij tsentral'nogo nejtronnogo znacheniya. Spektry poluchayut putem izmerenij schetchikom deleniya s pomoshch'yu kalibrovannoj fol'gi razlichnykh porogov, a takzhe putem ispol'zovaniya schetnogo sloistogo spektrometra s L{sup 6} v tverdom sostoyanii. Dlya sbora vsekh izmerenij v samosoglasovannu yu biblioteku spektral'nykh srednikh poperechnykh sechenij budut pol'zovat'sya odnoznachnym vychislitel'nym rezhimom. (author)

  2. Reactor Physics Development for Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactors; Recherches en Physique des Reacteurs, pour des Reacteurs Perfectionnes Refroidis par un Gaz; Razrabotka metodov v oblasti reaktornoj fiziki dlya usovershenstvovannogo reaktora s gazovym okhlazhdeniem; Progresos de la Fisica de los Reactores de Tipo Avanzado Refrigerados por Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J. [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (United Kingdom)

    1964-04-15

    reshetki dlja reaktora AGR i proverki teoreticheskih metodov, razrabotannyh dlja geterogennyh aktivnyh zon reaktorov, ispol'zovalis' kriticheskaja ustanovka APEX i reaktor nulevoj moshhnosti HERO s obychnymi raspolozhenijami reshetok , i kombinacijami izmenjajushhih rabotu reaktora jelementov, naprimer regulirujushhih sterzhnej. Teoreticheskie metody, razrabotannye i primenjavshiesja do nastojashhego vremeni, izvestny kak ''getrekontrol'' i FTD2. Jeksperimenty imeli cel'ju podrobno proverit' osobennosti jetih metodov, i dlja opredelenija soglasovannogo mezhdu soboj rjada konstant reshetki, sootvetstvujushhih rezul'tatam jeksperimentov, byli proanalizirovany rezul'taty izmerenij, vypolnennyh na rjade ''reaktornyh'' aktivnyh zon razlichnogo razmera v ustanovkah APEX i HERO. Jeti chisto jempiricheskie konstanty byli zatem ispol'zovany v metodah getrekontrol' i FTD2 dlja uspeshnogo planirovanija vvoda v jekspluataciju i vybora vida nagruzki dlja Uindskejlskogo AGR. Daetsja ssylka na jeksperimental'nye metody, kotorye byli provereny ilj special'no razrabotany dlja reshenija vstretivshihsja problem. Osobyj interes predstavljajut metody, ispol'zovavshiesja dlja izmerenija jeffektov reaktivnosti v reaktorah APEX, HERO i AGR i dlja opredelenija dannyh tonkoj struktury i raspredelenija jenergij v slozhnyh toplivnyh sborkah. Osushhestvljaemye v nastojashhee vremja teoreticheskie raboty skoncentrirovany, glavnym obrazom, na razrabotke al'ternativnogo metoda v otnoshenii ''getrekontrolja'' i FTD2 dlja rascheta aktivnyh zon reaktora posle znachitel'nogo vygoranija topliva. Na jetom zhe budut skoncentrirovany raboty i v budushhem. Zadachej programmy jeksperimentov na ustanovke HERO javljaetsja ispytanie jetih metodov na slozhnyh aktivnyh zonah, vkljuchaja aktivnye zony s toplivom, proizvodjashhim plutonij. Dopolnitel'nye dannye o vlijanii plutonija bydut polucheny blagodarja jekspluatacii reaktora AGR i fizicheskim izmerenijam obluchennogo topliva. (author)

  3. Effect of specialty care on the low-level laser therapy for the patients with temporomandibular joint pain%低强度激光治疗颞下颌关节疼痛的临床专科护理∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶莺; 张燕平; 刘然; 张静露

    2015-01-01

    ) , but no significant differences ( P=0. 083) on hori-zon mandibular movement. Simple specialty care can improve the mandibular movement and relief pain intensity ( P<0. 001) . Conclusion Specialty care on TMJ is worthy for promoting in clinical application as itshows a significant im-provement in clinical signs and symptoms of TMJ pain.

  4. Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, C.; Benedek, G.; Rapisarda, A.; Tsallis, C.

    Work and heat fluctuations in systems with deterministic and stochastic forces / E. G. D. Cohen and R. Van Zon -- Is the entropy S[symbol] extensive or nonextensive? / C. Tsallis -- Superstatistics: recent developments and applications / C. Beck -- Two stories outside Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics: Mori's Q-phase transitions and glassy dynamics at the onset of chaos / A. Robledo, F. Baldovin and E. Mayoral -- Time-averages and the heat theorem / A. Carati -- Fundamental formulae and numerical evidences for the central limit theorem in Tsallis statistics / H. Suyari -- Generalizing the Planck distribution / A. M. C. Soma and C. Tsallis -- The physical roots of complexity: renewal or modulation? / P. Grigolini -- Nonequivalent ensembles and metastability / H. Touchette and R. S. Ellis -- Statistical physics for cosmic structures / L. Pietronero and F. Sylos Labini -- Metastability and anomalous behavior in the HMF model: connections to nonextensive thermodynamics and glassy dynamics / A. Pluchino, A. Rapisarda and V. Latora -- Vlasov analysis of relaxation and meta-equilibrium / C. Anteneodo and R. O. Vallejos -- Weak chaos in large conservative systems - infinite-range coupled standard maps / L. G. Moyano, A. P. Majtey and C. Tsallis -- Deterministc aging / E. Barkai -- Edge of chaos of the classical kicked top map: sensitivity to initial conditions / S. M. Duarte Queirós and C. Tsallis -- What entropy at the edge of chaos? / M. Lissia, M. Coraddu and R. Tonelli -- Fractal growth of carbon schwarzites / G. Benedek ... [et al.] -- Clustering and interface propagation in interacting particle dynamics / A. Provata and V. K. Noussiou -- Resonant activation and noise enhanced stability in Josephson junctions / A. L. Pankratov and B. Spagnolo -- Symmetry breaking induced directed motions / C.-H. Chang and T. Y. Tsong -- General theory of Galilean-invariant entropic lattic Boltzmann models / B. M. Boghosian -- Unifying approach to the jamming transition in granular media and

  5. Maternal and neonatal consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a prospective cohort study with an embedded randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemier, Brenda M; Koningstein, Fiona N; Schneeberger, Caroline; Ott, Alewijn; Bossuyt, Patrick M; de Miranda, Esteriek; Vogelvang, Tatjana E; Verhoeven, Corine J M; Langenveld, Josje; Woiski, Mallory; Oudijk, Martijn A; van der Ven, Jeanine E M; Vlegels, Manita T W; Kuiper, Petra N; Feiertag, Nicolette; Pajkrt, Eva; de Groot, Christianne J M; Mol, Ben W J; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2015-11-01

    composite of pyelonephritis with or without preterm birth at less than 34 weeks, analysed by intention to treat at 6 weeks post-partum. This trial is registered with the Dutch Trial Registry, number NTR3068. Between Oct 11, 2011, and June 10, 2013, we enrolled 5621 women into our screening cohort, of whom 5132 were eligible for screening. After exclusions for contaminated dipslides and patients lost to follow-up, in our final cohort of 4283 women, 248 were asymptomatic bacteriuria positive, of whom 40 were randomly assigned to nitrofurantoin and 45 to placebo for the randomised controlled trial, whereas the other 163 asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women were followed without treatment. The proportion of women with pyelonephritis, preterm birth, or both did not differ between untreated or placebo-treated asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women and asymptomatic bacteriuria-negative women (6 [2·9%] of 208 vs 77 [1·9%] of 4035; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·5, 95% CI 0·6-3·5) nor between asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women treated with nitrofurantoin versus those who were untreated or received placebo (1 [2·5%] of 40 vs 6 [2·9%] of 208; risk difference -0·4, 95% CI -3·6 to 9·4). Untreated or placebo-treated asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women developed pyelonephritis in five [2·4%] of 208 cases, compared with 24 [0·6%] of 4035 asymptomatic bacteriuria-negative women (adjusted OR 3·9, 95% CI 1·4-11·4). In women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy, asymptomatic bacteriuria is not associated with preterm birth. Asymptomatic bacteriuria showed a significant association with pyelonephritis, but the absolute risk of pyelonephritis in untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria is low. These findings question a routine screen-treat-policy for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. ZonMw (the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 1: The predicted poor responder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Torrance, Helen L; Oudshoorn, Simone C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Koks, Carolien A M; Verhoeve, Harold R; Nap, Annemiek W; Scheffer, Gabrielle J; Manger, A Petra; Schoot, Benedictus C; Sluijmer, Alexander V; Verhoeff, Arie; Groen, Henk; Laven, Joop S E; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M

    2017-12-01

    study was funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMW number 171102020). T.C.T., H.L.T. and S.C.O. received an unrestricted personal grant from Merck BV. H.R.V. receives monetary compensation as a member on an external advisory board for Ferring pharmaceutical BV. B.W.J.M. is supported by a NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship (GNT1082548) and reports consultancy for OvsEva, Merck and Guerbet. F.J.M.B. receives monetary compensation as a member of the external advisory board for Ferring pharmaceutics BV (the Netherlands) and Merck Serono (the Netherlands) for consultancy work for Gedeon Richter (Belgium) and Roche Diagnostics on automated AMH assay development (Switzerland) and for a research cooperation with Ansh Labs (USA). All other authors have nothing to declare. Registered at the ICMJE-recognized Dutch Trial Registry (www.trialregister.nl). Registration number NTR2657. 20 December 2010. 12 May 2011. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Is IVF-served two different ways-more cost-effective than IUI with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Bensdorp, A J; Bossuyt, P M M; Koks, C; Oosterhuis, G J E; Hoek, A; Hompes, P; Broekmans, F J; Verhoeve, H R; de Bruin, J P; van Golde, R; Repping, S; Cohlen, B J; Lambers, M D A; van Bommel, P F; Slappendel, E; Perquin, D; Smeenk, J; Pelinck, M J; Gianotten, J; Hoozemans, D A; Maas, J W M; Groen, H; Eijkemans, M J C; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W J; van Wely, M

    2015-10-01

    for IVF-MNC compared with IUI-COH. Nonparametric bootstrap resampling was used to investigate the effect of uncertainty in our estimates. There were 104 healthy children (52%) born in the IVF-SET group, 83 (43%) the IVF-MNC group and 97 (47%) in the IUI-COH group. The mean costs per couple were €7187 for IVF-SET, €8206 for IVF-MNC and €5070 for IUI-COH. Compared with IUI-COH, the costs for IVF-SET and IVF-MNC were significantly higher (mean differences €2117; 95% CI: €1544-€2657 and €3136, 95% CI: €2519-€3754, respectively).The ICER for IVF-SET compared with IUI-COH was €43 375 for the birth of an additional healthy child. In the comparison of IVF-MNC to IUI-COH, the latter was the dominant strategy, i.e. more effective at lower costs. We only report on direct health care costs. The present analysis is limited to 12 months. Since we found no evidence in support of offering IVF as a first-line strategy in couples with unexplained and mild subfertility, IUI-COH should remain the treatment of first choice. The study was supported by a grant from ZonMw, the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, (120620027) and a grant from Zorgverzekeraars Nederland, the Netherlands' association of health care insurers (09-003). Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52843371; Nederlands Trial Register NTR939. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Karakterisering van het Etimologiewoordeboek van Afrikaans (EWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fons Moerdijk

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Samenvatting: Zesendertig jaar na Afrikaanse etimologieë van Boshoff en Nienaber verscheener in 2003 een nieuw etymologisch woordenboek van het Afrikaans: het Etimologiewoordeboek vanAfrikaans (EWA. Tussen die twee woordenboeken bestaat een wezenlijk verschil. Het werk vanBoshoff en Nienaber is vrijwel alleen toegankelijk voor specialisten en niet specifiek bedoeld vooreen breed publiek. EWA is juist allereerst bestemd voor de leek die zich interesseert voor de oorsprongen de geschiedenis van de eigen taal. Daarnaast biedt het ook de etymoloog en historischtaalkundige een hoop gegevens en inspiratie voor nader onderzoek. Als etymologisch woordenboekbezit EWA een aantal bijzondere, eigen kenmerken. De selectie van de woorden is bepaalddoor het beoogde gebruikerspubliek. Als gevolg daarvan bevat EWA verscheidene typen woordendie in traditionele etymologische woordenboeken doorgaans veronachtzaamd worden, zoals afleidingen,samenstellingen, neologismen en gemeenzame spreektaalwoorden. De artikelstructuurwordt gekenmerkt door een hoge graad van uniformiteit en consistentie. Het accent ligt op dezogenaamde etymologia proxima, de etymologie waarbij men één stap teruggaat en de meestdirecte herkomst van het woord biedt. Voorts is speciale aandacht besteed aan polysemie: nietalleen de herkomst van de dominante betekenis van een woord wordt gegeven, maar ook die vanzijn eventuele andere betekenis(sen. Benoemingsmotieven komen ook veelvuldig aan bod. In eeneventuele tweede druk zouden opvallende verschillen in vorm of betekenis altijd verklaard of inieder geval besproken moeten worden. Dat blijft nu nogal eens achterwege. Ook zou voorafgaandaan zo'n volgende editie meer onderzoek naar woordhistorisch materiaal uit primaire bronnenvoor met name de 17de–19de eeuw verricht moeten worden. Het zou mooi zijn als deze eersteuitgave van EWA de aanleiding tot een dergelijk onderzoek zou vormen.

    Sleutelwoorden: BENOEMINGSMOTIEF, ETYMOLOGIA PROXIMA

  9. Physical Trauma Patients with Symptoms of an Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Protocol for an Observational Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Eva; Gosens, Taco; Den Oudsten, Brenda; De Vries, Jolanda

    2018-03-29

    Injury, medical treatment, and rehabilitation can have major impacts on patients' wellbeing. About 25-33% of the patients experience an acute stress disorder (ASD) or a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after injury. ASD is a relatively new diagnosis. Therefore, knowledge about patients' experiences, the course of ASD and PTSD, and who is at risk for developing ASD or PTSD is lacking. The aims of this multi-method study are to explore patients' experiences with injury (and their care) using a focus group study. Then, in the observational study, different courses of ASD, PTSD, and quality of life will be examined. In addition, this study will examine if these courses could be characterized by socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological variables. Consequently, a risk profile will be developed to determine which patients are at risk for developing ASD or PTSD during the 12 months after injury. Trauma patients treated in the shock room (in 2015) of the Elisabeth-TweeSteden Hospital will share their experiences with injury in the focus group study. Open, axial, and selective coding will be used to analyze the data. Concerning the observational study, patients treated in the shock room (during 2016 and 2017, Elisabeth-TweeSteden Hospital and Erasmus Medical Centre) will be asked to participate. The inclusion period is 12 months. Participants will complete the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, MINI-plus, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF after inclusion and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after injury. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait are completed after inclusion only. Repeated measures of latent class analysis and linear mixed models will be used to examine the research aims. This project was funded in August 2015 by ZonMw. The results of the focus group study are expected in the first trimester of 2018. With regard to the observational study, recruitment is currently

  10. Cost-effectiveness analysis of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, A M; Mutsaerts, M A Q; Burggraaff, J M; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Perquin, D A M; Koks, C A M; van Golde, R; Kaaijk, E M; Schierbeek, J M; Klijn, N F; van Kasteren, Y M; Land, J A; Mol, B W J; Hoek, A; Groen, H

    2017-07-01

    control group. Exploratory scenario analyses showed that after changing the effectiveness outcome to all live births conceived within 24 months, irrespective of delivery within or after 24 months, cost-effectiveness of the lifestyle intervention improved. Using this effectiveness outcome, the probability that lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment was cost-effective in anovulatory women was 40%, in completers of the lifestyle intervention 39%, and in women ≥36 years 29%. In contrast to the study protocol, we were not able to perform the analysis from a societal perspective. Besides the primary outcome of the LIFEstyle study, we performed exploratory analyses using outcomes observed at longer follow-up times and we evaluated subgroups of women; the trial was not powered on these additional outcomes or subgroup analyses. Cost-effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention is more likely for longer follow-up times, and with live births conceived within 24 months as the effectiveness outcome. This effect was most profound in anovulatory women, in completers of the lifestyle intervention and in women ≥36 years old. This result indicates that the follow-up period of lifestyle interventions in obese infertile women is important. The scenario analyses performed in this study suggest that offering and reimbursing lifestyle intervention programmes in certain patient categories may be cost-effective and it provides directions for future research in this field. The study was supported by a grant from ZonMw, the Dutch Organization for Health Research and Development (50-50110-96-518). The department of obstetrics and gynaecology of the UMCG received an unrestricted educational grant from Ferring pharmaceuticals BV, The Netherlands. B.W.J.M. is a consultant for ObsEva, Geneva. The LIFEstyle RCT was registered at the Dutch trial registry (NTR 1530). http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC = 1530. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press

  11. Association of maternal thyroid function during early pregnancy with offspring IQ and brain morphology in childhood: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Muetzel, Ryan; Medici, Marco; Chaker, Layal; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Theo J; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Peeters, Robin P

    2016-01-01

    similar after the exclusion of women with overt hypothyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism, and after adjustment for concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin, child thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine or thyroid peroxidase antibodies (continuous or positivity). Both low and high maternal free thyroxine concentrations during pregnancy were associated with lower child IQ and lower grey matter and cortex volume. The association between high maternal free thyroxine and low child IQ suggests that levothyroxine therapy during pregnancy, which is often initiated in women with subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy, might carry the potential risk of adverse child neurodevelopment outcomes when the aim of treatment is to achieve high-normal thyroid function test results. The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) and the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hospital costs during the first 5 years of life for multiples compared with singletons born after IVF or ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heesch, M M J; Evers, J L H; van der Hoeven, M A H B M; Dumoulin, J C M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Bonsel, G J; Dykgraaf, R H M; van Goudoever, J B; Koopman-Esseboom, C; Nelen, W L D M; Steiner, K; Tamminga, P; Tonch, N; Torrance, H L; Dirksen, C D

    2015-06-01

    , particularly in the birth admission period. These savings need to be compared with the extra costs of additional embryo transfers needed to achieve a successful pregnancy. Besides costs, health outcomes of children born after single-embryo transfer should be compared with those born after double-embryo transfer. This study was supported by a research grant (grant number 80-82310-98-09094) from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). There are no conflicts of interest in connection with this article. Not applicable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant; La centrais nucleaire Enrico Fermi; Atomnaya ehlektrostantsiya im Ehnriko Fermi.; La central nucleoelectrica Enrico Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, R. W. [Power Reactor Development Company, Detroit, MI (United States)

    1963-10-15

    rodean al reactor se habia deteriorado. Esos bloques para altas temperaturas estaban impregnados con boro; se habian dilatado y perdido resistencia. Un analisis detenido puso de manifiesto que el agente aglomerante del grafito habia cedido. Se decidio sustituir todo el grafito, utilizar carburo de boroen vez de boro, sujetar los bloques con dispositivos mecanicos y reducir al minimo la humedad. Modificaciones en el interior del recipiente del reactor. Se realizaron reparaciones y se introdujeron modificaciones en el diseflo a tin de evitar la adherencia de los subconjuntos y el dallo resultante, asi como para prevenir otras fallas del mecanismo de manejo de los elementos combustibles. Para ello, se desmonto el mencionado mecanismo y se extrajo el sodio del recipiente del reactor. Personal especializado que vestia trajes protectores especiales penetro en el interior del recipiente a traves de una esclusa neumatica especial, ya que en el interior del recipiente se mantenia una atmosfera de argon. Modificaciones en los generadores de vapor. Cuando se realizaron loe ensayos hidrostaticos del generador de vapor No. 2, se descubrieron fugas en varias tuberias. Las investigaciones subsiguientes pusieron de manifiesto que esa falla de las tuberias obedecia a un agrietamiento debido a la corrosion bajo tension. Se cambiaron las tuberias del generador No. 2, se eliminaron las tensiones de todas las unidades y se instalo un dispositivo detector de hidrogeno. En diciembre de 1962 el sodio reacciono con el agua en el generador de vapor No. 1. El disco de seguridad instalado en prevision de tal contingencia funciono correctamente. En la actualidad se estan investigando las causas y efectos de esa falla. Terminacion de los ensayos preliminares. A la espera de un permiso de explotacion a baja potencia, se esta terminando el montaje y el programa de ensayos (marzo de 1963). (author) [Russian] Stroitel'stvo atomnoj ehlektrostantsii im. Ehnriko Fermi s reaktorom-razmnozhitelem na bystrykh

  14. The Role of Non-Destructive Testing in Test-Reactor Operation at the National Reactor Testing Station; Role des Essais Non Destructifs dans l'Exploitation des Reacteurs d'Essai au Centre National d'Essais de Reacteurs; Rol' nedestruktivnykh ispytanij pri ehkspluatatsii ispytatel'nykh reaktorov na natsional'noj stantsii po ispytaniyam reaktorov; Papel de los Metodos No Destructivos en la Explotacion de los Reactores de la National Reactor Testing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, W. C.; Brown, E. S.; Burdick, E. E.; Gibson, G. W.; Tingey, F. H. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Atomic Energy Division, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1965-10-15

    corrientes de Foucault. Otras tecnicas que han demostrado su utilidad son la inspeccion por penetracion de liquidos, los ensayos con nitrogeno liquido para detector grietas superficiales, los ensayos de recocido termico para determinar ampollas, y la exploracion gamma de placas irradiadas. Muestras de elementos combustibles tomadas estadisticamente se ensayan por metodos hidraulicos para confirmar su integridad estructural, especialmente la estabilidad de la union entre la placa combustible y la placa lateraL Constantemente se intenta mejorar las tecnicas actuales y perfeccionar nuevos procedimientos de inspeccion de caracter no destructivo. (author) [Russian] Bol'shie kapitalovlozhenija (bolee 100 mln. doll. ) v jadernye opytnye reaktory pri Nacional'noj labo- ratorii po ispytaniju reaktorov i neobhodimost' jekspluatirovat' ih bezopasno trebujut vyso- kokachestvennogo kontrolja za reaktorami i opytnymi komponentami v osobennosti za topli- vom i upravljajushhimi sterzhnjami. Pojetomu nedestruktivnye ispytanija igrajut ochen' vazhnuju rol' v opredelenii kachestva jetih komponentov do togo , kak oni ispol'zujutsja na opytnyh reaktorah. Hotja mnogie iz jetih opytov provodjatsja po horosho otrabotannym programmam, tem ne menee bylo razrabotano mnogo unikal'nyh sposobov i shiroko ispol'zuetsja obychnoe oborudovanie. Dolgoe vremja ispol'zovalis' ul'trazvukovye metody v celjah obnaruzhenija rakovin, nediffuzioznosti teplovydeljajushhih jelementov i vnutrennih treshhin. V poslednee vremja jeta rabota byla rasprostranena na avtomaticheskoe skennirovanie krivyh plastin i dlja o b - sledovanija obluchennyh toplivnyh plastin v kanalah dlja hranenija. Ves'ma interesnaja rabota byla provedena v dele primenenija ul'trazvuka dlja obnaruzhenija razryva hrupkih aktivnyh zon, kotoryj mozhet vozniknut' v prcesse izgotovlenija. Metod gamma-skennirovanija dlja opredelenija soderzhanija urana-235 v toplivnyh jele- mentah okazalsja nastol'ko nadezhnym, chto on javljaetsja osnovoj dlja podscheta

  15. Individualized versus standard FSH dosing in women starting IVF/ICSI: an RCT. Part 2: The predicted hyper responder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Simone C; van Tilborg, Theodora C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Oosterhuis, G Jur E; Friederich, Jaap; van Hooff, Marcel H A; van Santbrink, Evert J P; Brinkhuis, Egbert A; Smeenk, Jesper M J; Kwee, Janet; de Koning, Corry H; Groen, Henk; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M; Torrance, Helen L

    2017-12-01

    cumulative live birth rate was 66.3% (169/255) in the reduced versus 69.5% (185/266) in the standard group (relative risk (RR) 0.95 [95%CI, 0.85-1.07], P = 0.423). The occurrence of any grade of OHSS was lower after a lower FSH dose (5.2% versus 11.8%, RR 0.44 [95%CI, 0.28-0.71], P = 0.001), but the occurrence of severe OHSS did not differ (1.3% versus 1.1%, RR 1.25 [95%CI, 0.38-4.07], P = 0.728). As dose reduction was not less expensive (€4.622 versus €4.714, delta costs/woman €92 [95%CI, -479-325]), there was no dominant strategy in the economic analysis. Despite our training programme, the AFC might have suffered from inter-observer variation. Although strict cancellation criteria were provided, selective cancelling in the reduced dose group (for poor response in particular) cannot be excluded as observers were not blinded for the FSH dose and small dose adjustments were allowed in subsequent cycles. However, as first cycle live birth rates did not differ from the cumulative results, the open design probably did not mask a potential benefit for the reduced dosing group. As this RCT was embedded in a larger cohort study, the power in this study was unavoidably lower than it should be. Participants had a relatively low BMI from an international perspective, which may limit generalization of the findings. In women with a predicted hyper response scheduled for IVF/ICSI, a reduced FSH dose does not affect live birth rates. A lower FSH dose did reduce the incidence of mild and moderate OHSS, but had no impact on severe OHSS. Future research into ORT-based dosing in women with a predicted hyper response should compare various safety management strategies and should be powered on a clinically relevant safety outcome while assessing non-inferiority towards live birth rates. This trial was funded by The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW, Project Number 171102020). SCO, TCvT and HLT received an unrestricted research grant from Merck Serono

  16. Cost-effectiveness of embryo transfer strategies: a decision analytic model using long-term costs and consequences of singletons and multiples born as a consequence of IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heesch, M M J; van Asselt, A D I; Evers, J L H; van der Hoeven, M A H B M; Dumoulin, J C M; van Beijsterveldt, C E M; Bonsel, G J; Dykgraaf, R H M; van Goudoever, J B; Koopman-Esseboom, C; Nelen, W L D M; Steiner, K; Tamminga, P; Tonch, N; Torrance, H L; Dirksen, C D

    2016-11-01

    horizon of 1 year, eSETx3 was the most cost-effective embryo transfer strategy with a probability of being cost-effective of 99.9%. With a time horizon of 5 or 18 years, DETx3 was most cost-effective, with probabilities of being cost-effective of 77.3 and 93.2%, respectively. This is the first study to use QALYs generated by the children in the economic evaluation of embryo transfer strategies. There remains some disagreement on whether QALYs generated by new life should be used in economic evaluations of fertility treatment. A further limitation is that treatment ends when it results in live birth and that only child QALYs were considered as measure of effectiveness. The results for the time horizon of 18 years might be less solid, as the data beyond the age of 8 years are based on extrapolation. The current Markov model indicates that when child QALYs are used as measure of outcome it is not cost-effective on the long term to replace DET with single embryo transfer strategies. However, for a balanced approach, a family-planning perspective would be preferable, including additional treatment cycles for couples who wish to have another child. Furthermore, the analysis should be extended to include QALYs of family members. This study was supported by a research grant (grant number 80-82310-98-09094) from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw). There are no conflicts of interest in connection with this article. Not applicable. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Conceptual Model of the Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research Platform of Engure Ecoregion, Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melecis Viesturs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rakstā apskatīti nacionālā pētījumu projekta rezultāti, kuru mērķis - izstrādāt Latvijas LT(SER (Ilgtermiņa socioekoloģisko pētījumu platformas - Engures ekoreģiona integrēto konceptuālo modeli. Engures ekoreģionu veido piekrastes ezera sateces baseins (644 km2 ar Rīgas līča krasta un jūras piekrastes zonu. Ekoreģiona centrālo daļu veido Engures ezera dabas parks (EEDP - Ramsāres vieta. Konceptuālā modeļa pamatā ir DPSIR (virzošie spēki-slodzes-stāvokļi-ietekmes-rīcības koncepcija. Socioekoloģiskā sistēma tika telpiski strukturēta un virzošie spēki iedalīti divās grupās - ārējos un lokālos. Engures ekoreģions sadalīts septiņās zonās vai apakšreģionos ar izteiktām ģeoloģiskām un ģeogrāfiskām robežām. Katrai zonai raksturīgi specifiski virzošie spēki un slodzes kā arī specifiska ekosistēmu struktūra un biodaudzveidības elementi. Analizēti katra apakšreģiona galvenie virzošie spēki un slodzes trijos laika periodos: 19. gs. - 20 gs. sākums, padomju okupācijas periods (1940.-1991. g., periods pēc Latvijas neatkarības atgūšanas. Sniegti ekosistēmu stāvokļa un biodaudzveidības raksturojumi. Socioekonomiskās sistēmas aktīvā komponenta - cilvēka rīcības veido galvenokārt ekoreģionam ārējie faktori, tai skaitā vides likumdošana un finansu plūsmas zinātniskajiem pētījumiem un ekosistēmu apsaimniekošanai. Apskatīti divi alternatīvi Engures ekoreģiona attīstības scenāriji: 1 iedzīvotāju skaita samazināšanās un lauksaimniecības zemju aizaugšana; 2 lauksaimniecības, vietējās ražošanas uzņēmumu un būvniecības intensifikācija. Abos gadījumos ekosistēmu pašreizējais stāvoklis un sugu daudzveidības struktūra tiktu būtiski izmainīti. Reģiona ilgtspējīgu attīstību, saglabājot cilvēkam vēlamo ekosistēmu struktūru, iespējams nodrošināt, vienīgi ieviešot ekosistēmu apsaimniekošanas pasākumus, kas bāzēti uz

  18. The Hydrographical Features of the Baltic Sea and the Disposal of Radioactive Wastes; L'Hydrographie de la Mer Baltique et l'Evacuation des Dechets Radioactifs; 0413 0418 0414 0420 041e 0413 0420 0414 ; Caracteristicas Hidrograficas del Mar Baltico en Relacion con la Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hela, Ilmo [Institute of Marine Research Helsinki (Finland)

    1960-07-01

    de escasa velocidad. En la memoria se examinan todos estos factores que reducen la difusion turbulenta, tanto vertical como horizontal. Para evaluar la conveccion yla difusion turbulenta, tanto en las capas superficiales como en las profundas, es preciso efectuar observaciones sinopticas de la velocidad de las corrientes y de la salinidad de las aguas en numerosos puntos de distintas zonas del Baltico y en diferentes condiciones meteorologicas. (author) [Russian] Cel' dannogo dokumenta ukazat' neskol'ko gidrograficheskih osobennostej Baltijskogo morja, kotorye otlichajut jeto more v tom, chto kasaetsja udalenija radioaktivnyh othodov, ot ljubogo okeanicheskogo rajona. S tochki zrenija prakticheskoj problemy udalenija radioaktivnyh izotopov, morja mozhno razdelit' na sledujushhie zony: 1) gavani, 2) farvatery, vedushhie k gavanjam, 3) vnekontinental'nyj shel'f, 4) otkrytoe more. V svete vysheizlozhennogo, Baltijskoe more ne javljaetsja otkrytym morem. Krome togo, neobhodimo tshhatel'no proverit' s pomoshh'ju dal'nejshih gidrograficheskih issledovanij obosnovannost' pravil, kotorye rekomendovany dlja vysheupomjanutyh zon, tak kak 1) vse Baltijskoe more javljaetsja v nekotorom smysle ust'em, glubina kotorogo do poroga sostavljaet tol'ko 18 metrov v Datskih prolivah, 2) obrazovanie smesi v Baltijskom more bolee ogranichenno, chem v okeanah, tak kak Baltijskoe more bogato ostrovami, solonovatoe, s bol'shimi nasloenijami, fakticheski ne imeet prilivov i otlivov, zimoj chastichno pokryto l'dom i imeet neznachitel'nye vetry, imeet tol'ko medlennoe postojannoe techenie. V dannom dokumente ukazyvajutsja vse jeti faktory, kotorye snizhajut kak vertikal'nuju, tak i gorizontal'nuju turbulentnuju diffuziju. Dlja opredelenija advekcii i turbulentnoj (vihrevoj) diffuzii kak v verhnih vodnyh slojah, tak i na dne, neobhodimo imet' sinopticheskie dannye o skorosti techenija i o solenosti v rjade punktov v neskol'kih rajonah Baltijskogo morja i pri razlichnoj pogode. (author)

  19. Estudio de la aplicación de SPCH como fertilizante y en­mienda orgánica en un suelo vitícola Study of the application of SMC as fertilizer and as organic amendment on a vineyard soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Larrieta

    2010-01-01

    ­room Substrate (SMC are yearly produced at La Rioja. These SMC have been accumu­lated at opencast dumping sites, which are a serious contamination source. Nowadays, in the agriculture, different SMC are widely used to replace the soil organic matter losses, to enhance the exchangeable phos­phorus and potassium, and to improve the soil porosity and its water retention. In this work, the annual application of SMC is evaluated as fertilizer and as or­ganic amendment for vineyard soil. A ex­perimental assay is performed with three blocks and five treatments on a Typic Hap­loxerepts. Two SMC: Recomposted SMC, and “Fresh” SMC (No recomposted SMC were evaluated for three SMC total amounts: 0, 8.000 and 25.000 kg·ha-1 (d.m.. The Organic matter, N (N-org+N-NH4+, pH, electrical conductivity, extractable P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, SO4(2-, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B, among other elements, were evalu­ated in the soil profile. Nutrient content was not increased after two annual SMC applications on the soil for the most of nutrients. Only the higher amounts of SMC increased the available K+ and extractable sulphate in the upper hori­zon (0-30 cm. CE was also increased, al­though its values don’t represent a risk for the crop. However, considering the SMC amounts applied, it is neccessary the moni­toring of the CE and nutrient content in the soil to evaluate the SMC potential as a fertil­izer; velocity of the nutrient liberation; and the possible loss of nutrients. The SMC be­haviour could be simmilar to the behaviour of a low-liberation fertilizer. Therefore, con­tinuous applications could produce an ex­cessive amount of nitrogen and other nutri­ents in the soil, which will affect the crop yield and must quality. In addition, an ex­cessive liberation could agravate the nutrient lixiviation in vulnerable areas.

  20. Individualized FSH dosing based on ovarian reserve testing in women starting IVF/ICSI: a multicentre trial and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Theodora C; Oudshoorn, Simone C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Mochtar, Monique H; van Golde, Ron J T; Hoek, Annemieke; Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Fleischer, Kathrin; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Groen, Henk; van Wely, Madelon; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Laven, Joop S E; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M; Torrance, Helen L

    2017-12-01

    hyper responders is open for further research. This study was funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMW number 171102020). AMH measurements were performed free of charge by Roche Diagnostics. TCT, HLT and SCO received an unrestricted personal grant from Merck BV. AH declares that the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Centre Groningen receives an unrestricted research grant from Ferring pharmaceutics BV, The Netherlands. CBL receives grants from Merck, Ferring and Guerbet. BWJM is supported by a NHMRC Practitioner Fellowship (GNT1082548) and reports consultancy for OvsEva, Merck and Guerbet. FJMB receives monetary compensation as a member of the external advisory board for Ferring pharmaceutics BV (the Netherlands) and Merck Serono (the Netherlands) for consultancy work for Gedeon Richter (Belgium) and Roche Diagnostics on automated AMH assay development (Switzerland) and for a research cooperation with Ansh Labs (USA). All other autors have nothing to declare. Registered at the ICMJE-recognized Dutch Trial Registry (www.trialregister.nl). Registration number: NTR2657. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Study on the Localization of Iodine in the Stomach; Etude de la Localisation de l'Iode dans l'Estomac; Izuchenie lokalizatsii joda v zheludke; Estudio de la Localizacion del Yodo en el Estomago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clode, W. H.; Perez Fernandez, M. A.; Baptista, A. M. [Comissao de Estudos de Energia Nuclear do Instituto de Alta Cultura, Lisbon (Portugal); Simao Rodrigues, M.; Murteira, M. A. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia, Lisbon (Portugal)

    1964-10-15

    estudios los autores han llegado a la conclusion de que ciertas regiones del estomago normal desempefian un papel importante en el metabolismo del yodo. La localizacion de las zonas en que la concentracion de radiactividad es mas elevada indica que la excrecion de yodo puede ser regida por varios mecanismos. Estas observaciones corroboran los resultados obtenidos por otros investigadores con metodos diferentes. La exploracion efectuada 24 h despues de administrar {sup 131}I permitio detectar el cancer del estomago en la mayorla de los pacientes afectados por esa enfermedad. Estos resultados se explican no solo por el hecho de que el yodo se concentra en las celulas tumorales sino tambien porque las paredes del estomago retienen cierta cantidad de este elemento. En la mayor parte de los casos, la concentracion de yodo radiactivo en el tumor no fue superior a la observada en aquellas regiones de la mucosa gastrica en que se produce una absorcion incrementada de este elemento. (author) [Russian] Avtory izuchali lokalizaciju joda v zheludke posle vnutrivennoj in{sup e}kcii iodida, mechennogo jodom-131, ispol'zuja dlja jetogo vysokokontrastnuju sistemu fotoskennirovanija. Issledovanie provodilos' cherez razlichnye promezhutki vremeni posle in{sup e}kcii (obychno cherez 2, 24 i 48 chasov) u bol'nyh, ne stradajushhih nikakimi zheludochnymi zabolevanijami, bol'nyh s rakom zheludka i bol'nyh s pepticheskoj jazvoj. Izuchalos' takzhe raspredelenie radioaktivnogo joda v zheludkah sobaki i cheloveka, udalennyh hirurgicheskim putem v razlichnoe vremja posle in{sup e}kcii radioaktivnogo joda. V udalennyh hirurgicheskim putem zheludkah dlja ob{sup j}asnenija poluchennyh dannyh opredeljalas' udel'naja aktivnost' tkanej, otnosjashhihsja k predstavljajushhim interes oblastjam, obnaruzhen** nym skennirovaniem. Na osnovanii poluchennyh dannyh avtory delajut vyvod, chto v normal'nom zheludke sushhestvujut oblasti, kotorye igrajut osobuju rol' v metabolizme joda. Lokalizacija zon samoj vysokoj

  2. Digital Base Band Converter As Radar Vlbi Backend / Dbbc Kā Ciparošanas Sistēma Radara Vlbi Novērojumiem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.

    2012-12-01

    , tādējādi realizējot vienas antenas vai interferometrisku signāla detektēšanu. DBBC sistēma ar radara VLBI programmatūruspēj realizēt augstas izšķirtspējas spektra analīzi, saglabājot atbalss signālu arsagaidāmo frekvenci centrālajā zonā un ieskaitot nepieciešamās Doplera frekvencesnobīdes korekcijas. Tālāk, izmantojot dažādus ievadparametrus, iespējamspielietot ļoti ilgu integrācijas laiku ārkārtīgi vāju signālu detektēšanai. Izmantojotreālā laika informāciju, turpmāk ir iespējams viegli analizēt nepieciešamo apgabaluun detektēt nezināmus objektus vai objektus ar neprecīzi zināmiem orbītu parametriem.Rakstā izklāstītas paredzamās minētās programmatūras funkcijas un tāsizmantošanas plāni pirmajos novērojumos.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of a local and afterwards generalized plutonium contamination; Diagnostic et traitement d'un cas d'intoxication par le plutonium local d'abord et generalise ensuite; Diagnoz i lechenie mestnogo i posledukshego generalizirovannogo porazheniya plutoniem; Diagnostico y tratamiento de una contaminacion local y luego general por plutonio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuma, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1963-02-15

    a intervenir reduciendo la contaminacion interna de la mano hasta 2 {mu}c. Si bien esta actividad no se pudo localizar, se somete a vigilancia periodica. Simultaneamente con la descontaminacion quirurgica, se procedio a una descontaminacion interna con DTPA. Inmediatamente despues del accidente, se tomaron muestras de sangre, orina y heces y se midieron sus actividades. Despues se recogieron diariamente muestras de orina; durante cada periodo de tratamiento, se tomaron asimismo muestras de sangre y de heces. Todas las mediciones indican que el DTPA es sumamente eficaz en-el caso de contaminacion interna por {sup 239}Pu. Tambien parece que el porcentaje de plutonio de la sangre que se elimina por el riflon varia con el tiempo. Este porcentaje aumenta, lo que indica que el plutonio es transportado por la sangre en diversas formas ionicas o coloidales que los rinones filtran en grado variable. Existen, pues, razones para suponer que la actividad de la orina no refleje fielmente el grado de contaminacion interna. (author) [Russian] Vo vremya avarii obe ruki tekhnika okazalis' porazheny shestivalentn'sh azotnokislym plutoniem-239. Zagryaznenie odnoj tol'ko levoj ruki, izmerennoe s pomoshch'yu rentgenometra, sostavilo okolo 60 mkkyuri. Pervoe provedennoe pod mestnoj anesteziej obbezzarakhivanie pozvolilo svesti zagryaznenie do 15 mkkyuri. Skanirovanie privelo v lokalizatsii neskol'kikh zon aktivnosti. Khirurgicheskoe vmeshatel'stvo, proizvedennoe pod povyazkoj EHsmakha i pod kontrolem rentgenometra i alfa-schetchika, svelo zagryaznenie c 15 do 5 mkkyuri pri sokhranenii polnoty funktsii ruk. Povtornoe skanirovanie pozvolilo lokalizovat' novuyu zonu aktivnosti, a povtornoe vmeshatel'stvo umen'shilo vnutrennee zarazhenie ruki do 2 mkkyuri. Lokalizovat' dannuyu aktivnost', za razvitiem kotoroj osushchestvlyalsya regulyarnyj kontrol', ne predstavilos' vozmozhnym. Parallel'no s ehtim khirurgicheskim obezzarazhivaniem bylo predprinyato vnutrennee obezzarazhivanie s pomoshch

  4. The Hanford Emergency Dosimetry System; Le Systeme de Dosimetrie pour les Cas d'Urgence a Hanford; 0421 0418 0421 0422 0414 ; El Sistema Dosimetrico de Hanford para Casos de Urgencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, H. V.; Keene, A. R. [Radiation Protection Operation, Hanford Laboratories, General Electric Company, Hanford Atomic Products Operation, Richland, WA (United States)

    1965-06-15

    dosimetros contienen laminas de los mismos elementos que el dosimetro de pelicula y constituyen un medio mas para calcular la dosis individual. (author) [Russian] Proekt v Hjenforde predstavljaet soboj bol'shoj atomnyj promyshlennyj kompleks, v kotoryj vhodjat jadernye reaktory, zavody po proizvodstvu teplovydeljajushhih jelementov, ustanovki dlja himicheskogo razdelenija i issledovatel'skie laboratorii. V dopolnenie k programme nabljudenija i kontrolirovanija radiacionnogo obluchenija personala razrabotana sistema avarijnogo dozimetricheskogo kontrolja s cel'ju obespechenija bystroj ocenki bol'shih doz, provedenija otbora sluzhashhih i kontrolja nad nimi, preduprezhdenija personala i sozdanija centrov avarijnogo kontrolja personala, ocenki vneshnih doz obluchenija, ocenki soderzhanija radioaktivnyh materialov v organizme, obnaruzhenija i regulirovanija zagrjaznenija okruzhajushhej sredy i bystrogo sostavlenija dannyh ob obluchenii v kachestve rukovodstva dlja personala skoroj pomoshhi i vrachej. Osnovnoj upor delaetsja na hjenfordskij plenochnyj dozimetr, kotoryj imeet pri sebe vse lica v predelah kontroliruemyh zon. Dozimetr obespechivaet pravil'noe vyjavlenie lichnosti vladel'ca, a ocenka plenki mozhet byt' provedena v techenie 90 minut. Razdel'no, i vmeste s tem odnovremenno, mozhno provesti obrabotku ostal'nyh sostavnyh chastej dozimetra s cel'ju opredelenija spektra nejtronov i velichiny dozy v pjati gruppah jenergii, a takzhe dat' bystruju ocenku nejtronnoj dozy pri odnokratnom stolknovenii, ot neskol'kih do tysjach rad. Gamma-luchi obnaruzhivajutsja v diapazone ot 20 millirentgen do 1500 rentgen (pri obrabotke komponentov plenki) i ot 10 do 10 000 rentgen (pri obrabotke jekranirovannyh tantalom ftoristyh sterzhnej). V avarijnuju sistemu vkljuchajutsja programmy, obespechivajushhie ponimanie sotrudnikami sistemy, podgotovku v oblasti dozimetrii i sotrudnichestvo s rukovodstvom v dele bystrogo vyjavlenija, kontrolirovanija i izolirovanija porazhennyh izlucheniem

  5. Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Doped Germanium and Silicon; Diffusion Inelastique des Neutrons dans du Germanium et du Silicium Contenant une 'Impurete'; Neuprugoe rasseyanie nejtronov na germanii i kremnii s prisadkoj; Dispersion Inelastica de Neutrones en Germanio y Silicio Deliberadamente Impurificados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolling, G. [Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1965-04-15

    experimental. En los casos mas favorables, esta exactitud (relativa) alcanza al 0,5% del valor de la frecuencia, y llega hasta 2,0 Degree-Sign Inverted-Exclamation-Mark o tratandose de algunos modos opticos longitudinales en el silicio. (author) [Russian] Normal'nye formy kolebanija chistyh poluprovodnikov germanija i kremnija shiroko izuchalis' s pomoshh'ju kogerentnogo odnofononnogo rassejanija medlenny nejtronov na mono-kristallicheskih obrazcah. V dannom doklade opisyvajutsja analogichnye jeksperimenty, vypolnennye 1) s germaniem s bol'shoj prisadkoj ( Tilde-Operator 0,1%) a) mysh'jaka i '') galija, a takzhe 2) s kremniem s fosfornoj prisadkoj. V kazhdom sluchae kontrol'nye jeksperimenty provodilis' na kristallah vysokoj chistoty. Vse izmerenija vypolnjalis' na trehosnom kristallicheskom spektrometre v laboratorijah v Chok- River. Kak izvestno, postojannaja uprugosti C{sub 44} dlja germanija v znachitel'noj stepeni zavisit ot koncentracii prisadki, i pojetomu nekotorye poperechnye akusticheskie koljobanija (TA) s bol'shoj dlinoj volny izuchalis' s cel'ju vyjasnenija nalichija takih jeffektov v dispergirujushhej oblasti. Drugie TA kolebanija, chastoty kotoryh mozhno izmerjat' s vysokoj stepen'ju tochnosti, takzhe izuchalis' v oboih materialah s cel'ju vozmozhno bolee tochnoj proverki nebol'shih jeffektov, kotorye mozhno bylo by pripisat' nalichiju izbytka jelektronov ili dyrok. Osobenno tshhatel'no izuchalis' kolebanija so sledujushhimi volnovymi vektorami (aq/2{pi}, gde a -storona kubicheskoj jelementarnoj jachejki): 1) v germanii (1; 0; 0); 2) v kremnii (0.85; 0.85; 0) i (0.3; 0;0). Mozhno bylo by predpolozhit', chto takie normal'nye kolebanija projavjat neobychnye cherty v kristallah n-nogo tipa, poskol'ku dlja rassejanija jelektronov mezhdu sosednimi minimumami zon provodimosti potrebovalos' by vzaimodejstvie dlja sohranenija {sup i}mpul'sa kristalla{sup .} Rezul'taty vo vseh sluchajah byli otricatel'nymi, t.e. v predelah tochnosti jeksperimentov ne nabljudalos' nikakih

  6. Scatterometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffelen, Adrianus Cornelis Maria

    1996-10-01

    dubbelzinnigheid in de windrichting kan in de praktijk worden opgelost door die oplossing te kiezen die het dichtst bij een korte termijn weervoorspelling ligt. Daarna kunnen eisen worden gesteld aan de ruimtelijke consistentie van het gevonden windvector veld. Zoals beschreven in hoofdstuk V levert zo'n methode de goede oplossing in meer dan 99 % van de gevallen. Zo kan een in het algemeen kwalitatief goed windproduct worden afgeleid uit de ERS scatterometermetingen. In het tweede gedeelte van hoofdstuk V wordt ingegaan op de assimilatie van scatterometergegevens in weermodellen. Voor variationele gegevensassimilatie wordt een methode voorgesteld, waarbij de dubbelzinnige scatterometerwinden worden geassimileerd, en niet direct de terugstrooiingsmetingen. Dit vanwege het feit dat de onzekerheid in de interpretatie van de scatterometer, het best is uit te drukken als een fout in de wind. De projectie van deze fout op de microgolfmetingen is niet-lineair, en daarmee tamelijk moeilijk te verwerken binnen de context van meteorologische variationele gegevensassimilatie. Assimilatie van de dubbelzinnige wind daarentegen is tamelijk recht toe recht aan. De scatterometermetingen leiden tot een duidelijk betere analyse en korte-termijn voorspelling van het windveld boven zee. De bedekking is echter zodanig dat andere windwaarnemingen nog lang een zeer welkome aanvulling zullen zijn. Nieuwe Amerikaanse scatterometers met een grotere bedekking zijn in ontwikkeling (met name QuikSCAT en SeaWinds). Vanwege hun andere geometrie en golflengte is echter eerst ontwikkelwerk nodig om tot een gedegen interpretatie te komen. De in dit proefschrift beschreven methodologie kan een belangrijke rol spelen in de interpretatie van de gegevens van deze scatterometers. De volgende generatie Europese scatterometers (ASCAT genoemd) heeft een?SAMENVATTING xi grote bedekking en de microgolflengte en meetgeometrie van de ERS scatterometers. Hiermee zijn we op termijn verzekerd van een goed scatterometer wind

  7. Electronic Modification of the Scintigram and its Limitations; Modification Electronique des Scintigrammes: Limitations; Ehlektronnoe usovershenstvovanie stsintigrammy i ego ogranicheniya; Modificacion Electronica de los Centelleogramas: Sus Limitaciones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, B.; Horst, W. [University Clinic for Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Cantonal Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1964-10-15

    sobljudat' nekotorye o s novnye zakonomernosti dlja togo, chtoby poluchit' maksimum informacii. Jeti zak on om ernosti razrabotany pri ispol'zovanii sledujushhih parametrov i funkcij, kotorye v celom harakterizujut transformirujushhie sistemy vseh vidov: 1. Jelementarnaja jachejka pervichnoj informacii, opredelja em aja intervalami vremeni ili predvaritel'no otobrannym chislom o tschetov, it.d. 2. Funkcija preobrazovanija informacii, v sootvetstvii s kotoroj jelementarnaja jachejka . predstavljaetsja na scintigramme (naprimer, stepen'ju potemnenija fotopjatna). Chasto jet a funkcija r a ssmatri v aet sja kak okonchatel'naja harakteristika transformirujushhej sistemy; odnako jet o spravedlivo tol'ko pri neznachitel'nyh statisticheskih kolebanijah. 4 Povedenie transformirujushhej si st emy , vkljuchaja st atisticheskie kolebanija, opisyvaetsja sledujushhimi funkcijami, kotorye pokazyvajut kachestvo scintigrammy s kolichestvennoj tochki zrenija. 3. Funkcija generacii snimka, v sootvetstvii s kotoroj srednjaja velichina skorosti scheta v zon e transformiruetsja v sredne e potemnenie sootvetstvujushhej zony na scintig ramme. Jeta funkcija da et kontrastnoe usi lenie. 4. Funkcija dostovernosti, kotoraja opisyvaet poterju informacii, prichinennuju transformaciej. Jeta funkcija da et stepen' pravil'nosti vosproizvedenija izobrazhenija. Na osnove vysheukazannyh opredelenij v doklade rassmatrivajutsja sledujushhie problemy: optimal'nyj ''razmer'' jachejki pervichnoj informacii v zavisimosti ot razreshajushhej sposobnosti detektora; optimal'naja forma transformirujushhej funkcii dlja razlichnyh celej; nekotorye jelektronnye kontury dlja realizacii takih funkcij. V chastnosti budet podrobno opisan pribor, kotoryj daet optimal'noe znachenie linejn ogo predstavlenija pri ispol'zovanii sootvetstvujushhim obra zom podobrannoj nelinejnoj transformirujushhej funkcii. Takim obrazom, interval chistoj skorosti scheta v promezhutke mezhdu fonovoj i maksimal'noj skorost'ju scheta proeciruetsja

  8. Techniques Which Aid in Quantitative Interpretation of Scan Data; Methodes Facilitant l'Interpretation Quantitative des Scintigrammes; Metody, oblegchayushchie kolichestvennuyu interpretatsiyu dannykh skennirovaniya; Tecnicas Que Facilitan la Interpretacion Cuantitativa de los Datos Centelleograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charleston, D. B.; Beck, R. N.; Eidelberg, P.; Schuh, M. W. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    jelektronnyh pereschetnyh us troj stv . Neposredstvennyj i chrezvychajno poleznyj metod ispol'zovanija generatora besporjadochnyh impul'sov sluzhit dlja nanesenija kalibrovannyh ustupchato-klinoobraznyh otmetok, kotorye proektirujutsja na plenku t em zhe samym istochnikom sveta, kotoryj ispol'zuetsja vo vremja skennirovanija; jeto daet vozmozhnost' prosmotrovoj golovke sravnivat' plotnost' obluchenija izuchaemyh zon skennirovanija s analogichnymi zonami na klinoobraznyh otmetkah, kotorye kalibrovany neposredstvenno v edinicah skorosti scheta. Vspomogatel'noe oborudovanie, kak naprimer mnogokanal'nyj analizator, ispol'zuemyh pri sposobe mnozhestvennyh schetov, pozvoljaet nakopljat' cifrovuju informaciju dlja poluchenija 'obshhego chisla schetov na strochku skennirovanija'' dlja kazhdogo shaga pokazatelja. Bylo provedeno skennirovanie melkih zhivotnyh, kotoroe pozvolja et nakopljat' dannye i davat' ''chislo schetov na strochku skennirovanija'' dlja kazhdogo shaga pokazatelja. Jeto da et tochnoe kolichestvennoe izmerenie raspredelenija aktivnosti v tele zhivotnogo, a takzhe izobrazhaet profil' aktivnosti, analogichnyj tomu, kotoryj poluchaetsja pri shhelevom linejnom skennirovanii. Tot zhe samyj metod mnozhestvennyh schetov primenja etsja idale e putem nakoplenija chislennoj informacii dlja poluchenija {sup c}hisla schetov na edinicu ploshhadi{sup .} Dlja kazhdoj strochki skennirovanija kazhdogo shaga pokazatelja poluchaetsja otdel'naja krivaja profilja. Jeto daet vozmozhnost' opredeljat' skorost' scheta ili stroit' sootvetstvujushhij profil' dlja kazhdoj ploshhadi. Pokazanija skennirovanija s usileniem kontrasta ili beznego, a takzhe s ''otstavaniem'' ili bezne go v integrirujushhem konture diagrammy skennirovanija s razlichnymi razmerami i formami pjaten byli polucheny v identichnyh statisticheskih uslovijah pri pomoshhi m no go kratnogo skennirovanija fantoma odnim detektorom . Neposredstvennoe sravnenie jetih pokazanij sovmestno s metodom sostavlenija grafikov {sup c

  9. A Scintillation Camera for Kinetic Studies of the Distribution of Radioactive Nuclides in the Brain; Chambre a Scintillation pour des Etudes sur la Cinetique de la Repartition des Radionucleides dans le Cerveau; Stsintillyatsionnaya kamera dlya kineticheskogo issledovaniya raspredeleniya radioaktivnykh izotopov v tkani mozga; Camara de Centelleo para Estudiar la Cinetica de la Distribucion de Radionuclidos en el Cerebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, W. [Radiological Research Laboratory, Department Of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Schlesinger, E. B.; De Boves, S. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    1964-10-15

    corresponder a la situacion espacial de los contadores de centelleo. La modulacion de la intensidad del haz del osciloscopio y la supresion de la actividad de fondo facilitan la visualizacion de la distribucion de actividad. (author) [Russian] Razrabotana scintil- ljacionnaja kamera, special'no prednaznachennaja dlja izuchenija kinetiki raspredelenija radioaktivnyh izotopov v tkani mozga. Jetot pribor sostoit iz dvuh grupp, aktivirovannyh talliem kristallov NaJ razmerom 1,8 X 2,5 sm , prichem 63 kristalla kazhdoj gruppy soboany v porjadok 7 x 9 na 2 ,5 -sm centrah. Jeti gruppy m ogut byt' raspolozheny takim o'razom, chtoby odnovremenno poluchat' ob e bokovye proekcii ili odnu bokovuju i odnu za dne-perednjuju ili peredne-zadnjuju proekciju. Pole zrenija kazhdogo kristalla ogranicheno kollimatorom, so stojashhim iz 19 suzhivajushhihsja kanalov s parallel'nymi osjam i. Jeta konstrukcija imeet chuvstvitel'nost' pochti ravnuju polnoj shirote na polovine rasstojanija douslovnogo istochnika opuholi po vsem rasstojanijam do 10 cm ot perednej chasti kollimatora. Jeta chuvstvitel'nost' dostatochno shiroka, chtoby izbezhat' neradioaktivnyh zon , i v to zhe vremja dostatochno uzka , chtoby pozvolit' tochnoe nabljudenie raspredelenija aktivnosti v techenie neskol'kih minut, pri ispol'zovanii normal'nyh indikatornyh doz j o d a -131. Kazhdyj kristall opticheski s o edinen so svoim fotoumnozhitelem v obshhej upakovke. Vyhodnye impul'sy fotoumnozhitelej analizirujutsja s pomoshh'ju diskriminatorov i informacija hranitsja v cifrovoj forme v chetverti zapominajushhego ustrojstva 512-kanal'nogo analizatora vysokih impul'sov. Sovpadajushhie po vremeni impul'sy iz razlichnyh d e tektorov mogut prinimat'sja v jetoj ust anovke s neznachitel'nymi p ot er jam i . Schityvanie dannyh vozmozhno v neskol'kih formah. Mozhno poluchit' dannye v cifrovoj forme, v mashinopisnoj forme ili v vide perfokart. Poslednie mozhno vvesti obratno v pribor dlja povtornogo izuchenija. Analogichnoe schityvanie

  10. High-Volume Non-Destructive Test Applications at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation; Applications Industrielles des Essais Non Destructifs a l'Etablissement Nucleaire de Hanford; Provedenie bol'shogo chisla nedestruktivnykh ispytanii v ''khenford atomik prodakts opereishen''; Ensayos No Destructivos en Gran Escala Aplicados en Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worlton, D. C. [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, Richland, WA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    resultados obtenidos con este metodo de ensayo, que se ha aplicado en condiciones dificiles a 250 000 m de tuberia instalada. (author) [Russian] Bezopasnost' i jeffektivnost' kriticheskih processov Henforda garantiruetsja bystrym, nadezhnym i avtomaticheskim sposobom ispytanija obrazcov bez razrushenija obolochki. Vysokochuvstvitel'nye toki Fuko i ul'trazvuk nahodjat svoe obychnoe primenenie v jetoj oblasti i v processah izgotovlenija izdelij dlja togo, chtoby obespechit' maksimal'nuju garantiju kachestva bol'shih kolichestv materiala za mini- mal'nyj period vremeni. Opisyvajutsja sistemy, ispol'zuemye dlja togo, chtoby obespechit' kachestvennost' processov Henforda po izgotovleniju izdelij jadernogo topliva. Dejstvujushhie kak obychnoe oborudovanie jeti sistemy ispol'zujut izmerenija ul'trazvukovogo zatuhanija dlja togo, chtoby prokontrolirovat' strukturu zerna aktivnyh zon nejekranirovannogo uranovogo topliva, a ul'trazvukovoj metod i metod tokov Fuko dlja togo, chtoby obespechit' sootvetstvujushhuju po- losnost' i tolshhinu 0,040 djujma aljuminievogo pokrytija jelementov ' kassetah, i novyj shirokopolosnyj metod s vysokorazreshajushhej sposobnost'ju ul'trazvukovogo obsledovanija dlja obnaruzhenija defektov v svarnyh shvah na stykah obolochki. Ob{sup e}dinenie ispytanij s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka i tokov Fuko primenjaetsja odnovremenno dlja togo, chtoby provesti polnoe obsledovanie toplivnogo jelementa v devjatisekundnom cikle. Jelementy s defektom avtomaticheski udaljajutsja s potochnoj linii proizvodstva. Osobyj upor delaetsja na usovershenstvovannye metody ispytanij s pomoshh'ju ul'trazvuka po obsledovaniju tonkostennyh obolochnyh trub dlja toplivnyh jelementov. Ispol'zujutsja special'nye preryvateli s vysokoj fokusirovkoj vmeste s shirokopolosnoj shemoj dlja togo, chtoby poluchit' chistyj srez volny v trubah tolshhinoj 0,015 djujma. Prostejshie i bolee slozhnye volnovye dvizhenija iskljuchajutsja, poskol'ku rezul'taty ispytanij legko istolkovyvajutsja i vosproizvodjatsja

  11. Pulsed and Static Neutron Measurements in Light-Water and Heavy-Water Exponentials; Mesures par les Methodes Pulsee et Statique dans les Ensembles Exponentiels a Eau Legere et a Eau Lourde; Izmerenie impul'snykh i staticheskikh nejtronov v ehksponentsial'nykh ustanovkakh s obychnoj i tyazheloj vodoj; Mediciones por los Metodos Pulsados y Estaticos en Conjuntos Exponenciales de Agua Ligera y Agua Pesada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, T. F.; Perez, R. B.; Fry, D. N.; Hartley, R. H.; Smith, S. P.D.; Diaz, N. J. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1964-04-15

    kotorogo mozhno vyvesti k' , primenjalsja metod impul'snyh nejtronov. Odnako dlja ustanovlenija pravomernosti impul'snogo metoda neobhodimo proizvesti sravnenie mezhdu impul'snym i staticheskim metodami. My vypolnili takie izmerenija s zamedliteljami iz H{sub 2}O i D{sub 2}O v sistemah s otrazhatelem i bez takovogo. Dlja jeksperimentov ispol'zovalsja bak diametrom 1 m. Dlja korreljacii izmerennyh postojannyh raspada s sootvetstvujushhimi-parametrami sistemy, ispol'zovalas' modificirovannaja odnogruppovaja teoreticheskaja model' (imenuemaja v dal'nejshem model'ju A). Tak, {lambda} vyrazhaetsja prostym otnosheniem {lambda}{sub 0}, k{sub {infinity}} {tau}, L{sup 2} i B{sup 2}, gde B{sup 2} udovletvorjaet kriticheskomu ravneniju dvuh zon. Vychislitel'naja shema vkljuchaet opredelenie snachala znachenija postojannoj raspada {lambda} s posledujushhej interaciej do teh por, poka ne budet najdeno znachenie V', sootvetstvujushhee kriticheskomu uravneniju i granichnym uslovijam . Byli oprobovany takzhe dve drugie modeli: Model' V-dvuhzonnaja odnogruppovaja sistema, v kotoroj B{sup 2}{sub g} v funkcii vlijanija Fermi prinimaetsja kak geometricheskij laplasian jekvivalentnoj sistemy bez otrazhatelja s otrazhatel'noj dobavkoj. Model' C -dvuhgruppovaja sistema bez otrazhatelja s otrazhatel'noj dobavkoj. Sravnenie raschetnyh i jeksperimental'nyh postojannyh raspada pokazyvaet, chto tol'ko model' A daet udovletvoritel'noe sovpadenie. Mozhno sdelat' sledujushhie vyvody: 1. Prisutstvie otrazhatelja sil'no vlijaet na fiziku impul'snoj sistemy Metod predpolozhenija otrazhatel'noj dobavki ne vsegda cenen. 2. Znachenie postojannoj raspada {lambda} ochen' chuvstvitel'no k predpolagaemomu znacheniju verojatnosti izoezhanija utechki oystryh nejtronov. Jeksperimenty pokazali, chto dlja nebol'shih geterogennyh sborok k mozhno opredelit' metodom impul'snyh nejtronov. V nastojashhee vremja provodjatsja raboty po pustotelym uranovym sterzhnjam, kotorye pozvoljajut imitirovat' organicheskie

  12. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen with of northern and southern vergent structures, complicated by strike-slip deformations [7, 8]. Within Anyui-Chukotka fold system several rises, where most ancient deposits (crystalline basement and Paleozoic cover of Chukotka microcontinent) are exposed, were distinguished [2, 9-11]. Later they were considered as granite-metamorphic domes [12-14]. Alarmaut dome is located at West Chukotka to the north from Bilibino city and is traced from south to north in more than 120 km. General direction of structure is discordant to prevailing NW extensions of tectonic elements of the region. Paleozoic-Triassic deposits are exposed within the Alarmaut dome: 1) D3-C1 - crystalline schists, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, marbles (700 m) [11]; 2) C1 - marblized limestones, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, amphibole-pyroxene crystalline schists. Limestones contain corals, indicating Visean age of deposits [11]. Metamorphism reaches amphibolite facies, maximum P-T conditions are 660°С and 5 kbar. Migmatites, indicating in situ partial melting, are observed. Intensity of deformations of Paleozoic rocks increases at the boundary with Triassic deposits [11]; in the western part of dome slices of Pz rocks are separated by blastomylonite horizons [14]. Within Alramaut dome granitoids of Lupveem batholith (central part of dome), Bystrinsky pluton (southeastern part), and small Koyvel' and Kelil'vun plutons were studied. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate Early Cretaceous (117-112 m.a.) age of granitoids [15

  13. Contributions of Geology to the Problem of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Contributions de la Geologie au Probleme de l'Elimination des Dechets Radioactifs; 0412 041a 041b 0410 0414 0413 0415 041e 0414 ; Contribucion de la Geologia a la Resolucion de los Problemas que Plantea la Evacuacion de Desechos Radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nace, R. L. [Water Resources Division, Geological Survey, Washington 25, DC (United States)

    1960-07-01

    , geohimicheskih i sejsmicheskih faktorov. Krome togo, byl proveden regional'nyj analiz osnovnyh harakteristik glavnyh fizicheskih zon Soedinennyh Shtatov i svjazi jetih harakteristik s udaleniem i zahoroneniem othodov. Osobye problemy vkljuchajut izuchenie nastojashhego i potencial'nogo povedenija obychnyh othodov v konkretnyh geologicheskih strukturah. Drugie issledovanija kasajutsja vozmozhnogo ispol'zovanija strukturnyh sinklinalij, stratigraficheskih skladok, soljanyh plastov i soljanyh kupolov dlja zahoronenija i sohranenija vysokoaktivnyh othodov. Bylo provedeno mnogo obshhih i neskol'ko detal'nyh izuchenij izmerenija fonovoj radiacii. Voda javljaetsja reshajushhim faktorom v probleme udalenija othodov; v svjazi s jetim byli izucheny nekotorye prirodnye processy, pri kotoryh voda mozhet ochishhat'sja ili izmenjat' svoj himicheskij sostav. Byli dostignuty znachitel'nye rezul'taty v izuchenii processov dispersii i diffuzii v podzemnyh i poverhnostnyh vodah, skorosti rasprostranenija zagrjaznjajushhih veshhestv v potokah, mehaniki podzemnyh vodnyh potokov v zernistyh porodah, podvodnyh potokov v treshhinovatyh skal'nyh porodah i povedenija vody i himicheskih rastvorov v zone ajeracii. Byli takzhe izucheny problemy teplovogo i himicheskogo ravnovesija, kotorye mogli by vozniknut', esli by vysokoaktivnye othody byli vvedeny v geologicheskie formacii. Byli provedeny geologicheskie, petrografichjoskie i geofizicheskie issledovanija konkretnyh rajonov, a issledovanija po mineralogii glin, ionoobmena i geohimii byli neposredstvenno uvjazany s problemoj udalenija othodov. (author)

  14. Coincidence scanning with positron-emitting arsenic or copper in the diagnosis of focal intracranial disease; Exploration par coincidences avec l'Arsenic ou le Cuivre Emetteurs de Positrons dans le Diagnostic des Maladies intracraniennes localisees; Raspoznavanie ochagovykh vnutricherepnykh zabolevanij putem podscheta (skanirovaniya) sovpralenij s primeneniem mysh'yaka ili medi, vydelyayushchikh pozitrony; Exploracion por coincidencia con arsenico o cobre emisores de positrones en el diagnostico de enfermedades intracraneanas localizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, William H; Mealey, John Jr; Brownell, Gordon L; Aronow, Saul [Departments of Surgery and Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Neurosurgical Service and Physics Research Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1959-07-01

    suficiente para proceder a la reseccion quirurgica, quizas sea esta la contribucion mas importante del metodo hasta la fecha. En cambio, los resultados con tumores subtentoriales fueron menos satisfactorios, pues se fracaso en 23 de 39 casos, es decir en el 59 por ciento. En el grupo de enfermedades benignas, el arsenico permitid localizar 7 de 8 hematomas subdurales, mientras que la exploracion mediante cobre no dio ningun resultado positivo en tres casos. En cuatro casos sobre cinco el empleo del arsenico permitio localizar coagulos intracerebrales diagnosticados. La totalidad de los 10 abscesos estudiados fue diagnosticada mediante el arsenico, y 3 de cada 4 mediante el cobre. En los tres pacientes que sufrian de leucoencefalopatia, la exploracion mediante arsenico indico las zonas principales de desmielinizacion. De 10 pacientes que hablan sido sometidos a un total de 16 exploraciones, y a los que posteriormente se efectuo una craneotomia exploratoria con resultado negative, no hubo mas que dos en los cuales la exploracion (mediante arsenico y cobre respectivamente) habia permitido diagnosticar una anormalidad localizada y bien definida. (author) [Russian] Nastoyashchij doklad posvyashchen podschetu metodom sovpadenij v chelovecheskom organizme parnykh annigilyatsonny kh gamma-luchej, vydelyaemykh pri pozitroniem raspade izotopov medi i mysh'yaka. V nem rassmatrivaets ya biologicheskoe pove denie neorganicheskoj soli mysh'yakovoj i mysh'yakovistoj kisloty ili mednogo versenata, a takzhe rezul'taty ispol'zovaniya veshchestv pri provedenii issledovanij s pomoshch'yu avtomaticheski rabotayushchej apparatury v tselyakh lokalizatsii vnutricherepnykh mass. Radioaktivnost' glavnykh normal'nykh golovnykh tkanej, a takzhe razlichnykh novoobrazovanij , krovyanykh opukholej (gematom), gnojnikov (abstsessov) i zon razrusheniya mielina byla analizirovana metodom biopsii. Pri primenenii mysh'yaka koehffitsient sootnosheniya mezhdu zakhvatom izotopa v mozgovoj opukholi i ego

  15. Nuclear geophysics in prospecting for ore and coal deposits; Geophysique nucleaire et prospection des gisements de charbon et autres mineraux; Yadernaya geofizika pri razvedke rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdenij; Geofisica nuclear u prospeccion de yacimientos de carbon y otros minerales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulashevich, Yu P; Voskobojnikov, G M; Muzyukin, L V

    1962-01-15

    captura de neutrones termicos del boro hace posible determinar estratos boriferos en la zona del sondeo empleando los metodos E.G.N. y E.N.N. La influencia del agua se elimina mediante sondeos inversos. Este metodo, asi como otros sistemas de exploracion por activacion neutronica, han sido aplicados tambien en diversos yacimientos de cobre, manganeso, aluminio y otros minerales. La exploracion por activacion continua esta indicada cuando el periodo de semi [Russian] Na rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdeniyakh metody yadernoj geofiziki primenyayutsya glavnym obrazom pri karotazhe razvedochnykh skvazhin. Na rudnykh i ugol'nykh mestorozhdeniyakh Sovetskogo Soyuza nakhodyat shirokoe proizvodstvennoe primenenie sleduyushchie vidy radioaktivnogo ili yadernogo karotazha (RK): plotnostnoj ili gamma-gamma karotazh (GGK) s istochnikom izlucheniya Co{sup 60}, selektivnyj gamma-gamma karotazh (SGGK) s istochnikom myagkogo izlucheniya tipa S75, nejtron-nejtronnyj karotazh (NNK) i nejtronnyj gamma karotazh s Ro-Ve istochnikom nejtronov, akti- vatsionnyj, v chastnosti nepreryvnyj, karotazh s tem zhe istochnikom, a takzhe foto-nej- tronnyj karotazh s gamma-izluchatelem Sb{sup 124}. Osnovnaya zadacha RK na rudnykh mestorozhdeniyakh - vydelenie rudnykh zon v razreze skvazhin, chto sokrashchaet intervaly oprobovaniya, i orientirovochnaya otsenka soderzhaniya poleznogo komponenta in situ. Na ugol'nykh mestorozhdeniyakh RK reshaet zadachu opredeleniya glubiny zaleganiya, moshchnosti i stroeniya ugol'nykh plastov. ' Metody GGK i SGGK osnovany na registratsii rasseyannogo gamma-izlucheniya istochnika. Pri dostatochnoj zhestkosti izlucheniya istochnika i slaboj chuvstvitel'nosti indikatora intensivnost' rasseyannogo izlucheniya zavisit tol'ko ot plotnosti porody i rasstoyaniya mezhdu istochnikom i indikatorom. EHto sluchaj GGK, kotorym ugol'nye plasty vydelyayutsya po maksimumam rasseyannogo izlucheniya. V SGGK sushchestvenna registratsiya myagkoj chasti spektra rasseyannogo izlucheniya

  16. Application of Sodium-24 to Flow-Rate Measurements and Leak Detection; Applications du Sodium-24 a des Mesures de Debits et de Recherches de Fuites; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ НАТРИЯ-24 ПРИ ИЗМЕРЕНИЯХ ПОТОКОВ И ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯХ УТЕЧКИ; Aplicaciones del Sodio-24 a la Medicion de Caudales y Deteccion de Escapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizerix, J.; Cornuet, R. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Grenoble (France)

    1963-03-15

    de transito de la onda de actividad entre dos detectores de centelleo colimados permitio determinar el caudal con una precision relativa del 2%, aproximadamente. (author) [Russian] Avtory opisyvajut nekotorye opyty, v kotoryh v kachestve indikatora ispol'zovalsja natrij-24 s cel'ju iskljuchenija problemy dezaktivacii i povtornogo vvedenija indikatorov. Obluchenie natrija bylo proizvedeno v bassejnovom reaktore 'Meljuzin' v Issledovatel'skom jadernom centre v Grenoble (Frakcija). S cel'ju issledovanija utechki v sisteme central'nogo otoplenija vodjanaja sistema metilas' karbonatom natrija-24. Posle ochishhenija i promyvki sistemy byla sostavlena tshhatel'naja shema issleduemogo uchast-. ka, ogranichivajushhaja zonu issledovanija. S pomoshh'ju kollimirovannyh priborov issledovalas' pochva, tochnye krivye ijeoaktivnosti issledovalis' dlja poluchenija razlichnyh dannyh. Obuslovlennoe utechkoj prevrashhenie v zavisimosti ot vremeni issleduemoj zony radioaktivnosti pozvolilo vydelit' ego na foke issleduemyh zon v rajone nepodvizhnyh trub ili v mestah sil'nogo pogloshhenija indikatora. Issledovalas' utechka na germeticheski zakrytom svincovom bake. Jetot bak pomeshhalsja mezhdu dvumja jarusami, pod nastilom rezervuara s vodoj, i byl prednaznachen dlja sbora vody, kotoraja mogla pojavit'sja v rezul'tate vozmozhnoj utechki v gidravlicheskih ustanovkah, raspolozhennyh v verhnem jaruse. V bak vvodilas' voda, mechennaja izotopom natrija-24. Nalozhenie radioaktivnyh pjaten v nizhnej i verhnej chastjah utechki, a takzhe slabyj vyhod potoka, ocenivaemogo v 1 sm{sup 3}/min, vyzvali izvestnuju trudnost' v issledovanii, i tol'ko chetkoe mestopolozhenie i rost radioaktivnogo pjatna pozvolili pri pomoshhi krivyh ijeoaktivnosti za 15 chasov opredelit' polozhenie utechki. V celjah opredelenija vozmozhnoj utechki porjadka 1 l/chas, kotoraja imeet mesto mezhdu sistemoj vodjanogo ohlazhdenija i sistemoj acetata celljulozy, potoki kotoryh izvestny i sostavljajut primerno 5 m3/chas

  17. Petrographical and Geochemical Study of a Kimmeridgian Organic Sequence (Yorkshire Area, Uk Étude pétrographique et géochimique d'une séquence organique du Kimmeridgien (région du Yorkshire, Angleterre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belin S.

    2006-11-01

    interactions eau/minéraux. On observe partout des corrosions de quartz (pl. 2A et D. Les silicifications se présentent sous deux formes : quartz et calcédonite. La cristallisation de la calcédonite, beaucoup plus rapide que celle du quartz, indique une concentration de silice dans le milieu plus importante que celle nécessaire à la formation du quartz ainsi qu'un environnement non sulfaté (Arbey, 1980. L'existence d'un tel milieu résulte de l'utilisation de la totalité des sulfates par les bactéries sulfato-réductrices. La matière organique sous forme de petits grains constitue parfois des nuclei autour desquels la calcédonite croît de manière zonée. Il est important de souligner combien, dans le détail, la diagenèse minérale peut prendre un caractère local, à l'échelle du micron, et spécifique, sans doute sous le double effet de la grande diversité initiale des constituants et de la mauvaise qualité des circulations intersticielles. Ceci est illustré, outre les exemples de la pyrite et de la glauconite, par la transformation des algues carbonatées (pl. 2F. La diagenèse influence de manière notable la teneur en carbone organique, puisque la matière organique est détruite par les bactéries sulfato-réductrices. Deux hypothèses peuvent être envisagées, selon que le taux de sédimentation est constant ou non. Si le taux de sédimentation est constant, la diminution de carbone organique observée dans la deuxième partie du cycle est d'origine et reflète alors une diminution de la productivité. La capacité de la matière organique à être métabolisée par les bactéries sulfato-réductrices est corrélée positivement au taux de sédimentation (Berner, 1980 ; si le taux de sédimentation est constant, la quantité initiale de matière organique a diminué dans les mêmes proportions tout au long du cycle. Si le taux de sédimentation diminue dans la deuxième moitié du cycle, la sulfato-réduction renforce la baisse de la teneur en carbone