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Sample records for zno related structures-a

  1. Defect study in ZnO related structures-A multi-spectroscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C.C.; Cheung, C.K.; Gu, Q.L.; Dai, X.M.; Xu, S.J.; Zhu, C.Y.; Luo, J.M.; Zhu, C.Y.; Tam, K.H.; Djurisic, A.B.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Lu, L.W.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Ong, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because of its potential applications for fabricating optoelectronic devices. Using a multi-spectroscopic approach including positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have studied the two observed phenomena from ZnO related structures. They namely included the H 2 O 2 pre-treatment induced ohmic to rectifying contact conversion on Au/n-ZnO contact and the p-type doping by nitrogen ion implantation. The aim of the studies was to offering comprehensive views as to how the defects influenced the structures electrical and optical properties of the structures. It was also shown that PAS measurement using the monoenergetic positron beam could offer valuable information of vacancy type defects in the vertical ZnO nanorod array structure

  2. Defect study in ZnO related structures-A multi-spectroscopic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, C.C. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: ccling@hku.hk; Cheung, C.K.; Gu, Q.L.; Dai, X.M.; Xu, S.J.; Zhu, C.Y.; Luo, J.M.; Zhu, C.Y.; Tam, K.H.; Djurisic, A.B.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Lu, L.W. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Ong, H.C. [Department of Physics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

    2008-10-31

    ZnO has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because of its potential applications for fabricating optoelectronic devices. Using a multi-spectroscopic approach including positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have studied the two observed phenomena from ZnO related structures. They namely included the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pre-treatment induced ohmic to rectifying contact conversion on Au/n-ZnO contact and the p-type doping by nitrogen ion implantation. The aim of the studies was to offering comprehensive views as to how the defects influenced the structures electrical and optical properties of the structures. It was also shown that PAS measurement using the monoenergetic positron beam could offer valuable information of vacancy type defects in the vertical ZnO nanorod array structure.

  3. Atomic structure and orientation relations of interfaces between Ag and ZnO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, W.P.; Hosson, de J.Th.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations of Ag-ZnO interfaces, produced by internal oxidation of an Ag-Zn alloy. ZnO precipitates with the wurtzite structure were found exhibiting mainly one orientation relation with the Ag matrix. However, closely related ORs were found, rotated by small

  4. Defect study in ZnO related structures—A multi-spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, C. C.; Cheung, C. K.; Gu, Q. L.; Dai, X. M.; Xu, S. J.; Zhu, C. Y.; Luo, J. M.; Zhu, C. Y.; Tam, K. H.; Djurišić, A. B.; Beling, C. D.; Fung, S.; Lu, L. W.; Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.; Ong, H. C.

    2008-10-01

    ZnO has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years because of its potential applications for fabricating optoelectronic devices. Using a multi-spectroscopic approach including positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS), deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we have studied the two observed phenomena from ZnO related structures. They namely included the H 2O 2 pre-treatment induced ohmic to rectifying contact conversion on Au/ n-ZnO contact and the p-type doping by nitrogen ion implantation. The aim of the studies was to offering comprehensive views as to how the defects influenced the structures electrical and optical properties of the structures. It was also shown that PAS measurement using the monoenergetic positron beam could offer valuable information of vacancy type defects in the vertical ZnO nanorod array structure.

  5. Quenching of the surface-state-related photoluminescence in Ni-coated ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Yang [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhao Dongxu, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhang Jiying; Shen Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2010-11-01

    Nickel-coated ZnO nanowires (NWs) were fabricated by electrodepositing Ni particles on ZnO NW arrays. The morphological, magnetic, and photoluminescent properties of the Ni-coated ZnO NWs were investigated. The Ni particles were deposited on the ZnO NWs' surface along its length to form a Ni/ZnO shell-core structure. The Ni-coated ZnO NWs exhibited more isotropic characteristic than the electrodeposited Ni films owing to the isotropic sphere structure of the Ni particles. A strong ultraviolet emission can be obtained from the Ni-coated ZnO NWs, while the green emission related to surface states was quenched by the passivated layer.

  6. Quenching of the surface-state-related photoluminescence in Ni-coated ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yang; Zhao Dongxu; Zhang Jiying; Shen Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    Nickel-coated ZnO nanowires (NWs) were fabricated by electrodepositing Ni particles on ZnO NW arrays. The morphological, magnetic, and photoluminescent properties of the Ni-coated ZnO NWs were investigated. The Ni particles were deposited on the ZnO NWs' surface along its length to form a Ni/ZnO shell-core structure. The Ni-coated ZnO NWs exhibited more isotropic characteristic than the electrodeposited Ni films owing to the isotropic sphere structure of the Ni particles. A strong ultraviolet emission can be obtained from the Ni-coated ZnO NWs, while the green emission related to surface states was quenched by the passivated layer.

  7. The surface defect-related electroluminescence from the ZnO microwire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Meng; Zhao Dongxu; Yao Bin; Li Binghui; Zhang Zhenzhong; Shan Chongxin; Shen Dezhen, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2011-02-23

    Surface defect-related electroluminescence (EL) was realized from a single ZnO microwire-based metal-semiconductor-metal structure on a glass substrate. ZnO microwires were successfully fabricated using a simple chemical vapour deposition approach. Schottky contacts were detected between Au electrodes and the ZnO microwire. The EL spectrum showed a broad emission band covering the visible range from 400 to 700 nm. The possible EL emission mechanism is discussed in detail in this paper.

  8. Controllable synthesis of periodic flower-like ZnO nanostructures on Si subwavelength grating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2011-01-01

    We report on the periodic well-defined flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (NSs) self-assembled through a simple hydrothermal method using silicon (Si) subwavelength grating (SWG) structures. The Si SWGs serve as building blocks for constructing a two-dimensional (2D) periodic architecture to integrate the one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NSs. Various controlled morphologies of ZnO NSs with high crystallinity are obtained by changing the growth conditions. For 1D ZnO NSs integrated on periodic hexagonal Si SWG structures, the reflection characteristics are investigated in comparison with the conventional ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays. For a three-dimensional (3D) flower-like ZnO NS on Si SWGs, a relatively low total reflectance of < 8% at wavelengths of 300-1050 nm is achieved compared to the ZnO NRs on Si substrate.

  9. Theoretical prediction of low-density hexagonal ZnO hollow structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuoc, Vu Ngoc, E-mail: tuoc.vungoc@hust.edu.vn [Institute of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huan, Tran Doan [Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3136 (United States); Thao, Nguyen Thi [Institute of Engineering Physics, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, 1 Dai Co Viet Road, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hong Duc University, 307 Le Lai, Thanh Hoa City (Viet Nam); Tuan, Le Manh [Hong Duc University, 307 Le Lai, Thanh Hoa City (Viet Nam)

    2016-10-14

    Along with wurtzite and zinc blende, zinc oxide (ZnO) has been found in a large number of polymorphs with substantially different properties and, hence, applications. Therefore, predicting and synthesizing new classes of ZnO polymorphs are of great significance and have been gaining considerable interest. Herein, we perform a density functional theory based tight-binding study, predicting several new series of ZnO hollow structures using the bottom-up approach. The geometry of the building blocks allows for obtaining a variety of hexagonal, low-density nanoporous, and flexible ZnO hollow structures. Their stability is discussed by means of the free energy computed within the lattice-dynamics approach. Our calculations also indicate that all the reported hollow structures are wide band gap semiconductors in the same fashion with bulk ZnO. The electronic band structures of the ZnO hollow structures are finally examined in detail.

  10. Optical and structural properties of individual Co-doped ZnO microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomys, O. F.; Strelchuk, V. V.; Rarata, S. V.; Hayn, R.; Savoyant, A.; Giovannelli, F.; Delorme, F.; Tkach, V.

    2018-06-01

    The Co-doped ZnO microwires (MWs) were grown using the optical furnace method. We used Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized micro-Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) and optical absorption spectroscopy to systematic investigation of the optical and structural properties of Co-doped ZnO MWs. The SEM analysis reveals that Co-doped ZnO MWs has hexagonal facets and cavity inside. The EDS results confirmed the presence and non-uniform distribution of Co impurities in the samples. Co doping of ZnO MWs leads to the decreased intensity, drastically broadening and high-energy shift of the NBE PL band. The red emission band at 1.85 eV originates from 2E(2G) → 4A2 (4F) intra-3d-transition of Co2+ in the ZnO lattice has been observed. The intense structured absorption bands within the near infrared ranges 3800-4800 and 5500-9000 cm-1 are caused by electronic spin-allowed transitions 4T2(F) ← 4A2(F) and 4T1(F) ← 4A2(F) of the tetrahedrally coordinated Co2+ (3 d7) ions substituting Zn2+ ions in Co-doped ZnO MWs. Micro-Raman studies of Co doped ZnO MWs show doping/disorder induced additional modes as compared to the undoped sample. The resonant enhancement of the additional local Co-related A1-symmetry Raman mode is observed in the parallel polarization geometry y(z , z) ybar . For the Co doped ZnO MWs, the enhancement of the additional Co-related local vibration mode with an increase in the excitation photon energy is also observed in the Raman spectra.

  11. Structure and photoluminescence properties of Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaozhu, E-mail: Lixiaozhu1019@21cn.com [Department of Physics, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan, Guangdong 512005 (China) and Department of Physics and Key Laboratory of Acoustic and Photonic Materials and Devices of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Wang Yongqian [Engineering Research Center of Nano-Geomaterials of Ministry of Education (China University of Geosciences), Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2011-05-12

    Highlights: > ZnO nano-needles were synthesized by thermal oxidation. > Their surfaces were coated with Ag by pulse electro-deposition technique. > The uncoated and coated ZnO nano-needles were characterized. > The results showed that the prepared ZnO nano-needles have been coated with Ag successfully. > The photoluminescence spectrums of ZnO nano-needles with Ag-coated and uncoated were analyzed, finding that the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles can increase the absorption of UV light. - Abstract: A large number of zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-needles were synthesized by thermal oxidation of pure zinc. The surfaces of ZnO nano-needles were coated with a layer of Ag by pulse electro-deposition technique. The uncoated and coated ZnO nano-needles were characterized by using the X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the uncoated samples were close-packed hexagonal structure, which showed needle-like morphology. Their average diameter is about 40 nm, lengths up to 5 {mu}m. At the same time we observed that the prepared ZnO nano-needles have been coated with Ag successfully. The photoluminescence spectrums of ZnO nano-needles with Ag-coated and uncoated were analyzed, finding that the uncoated ZnO nano-needles have two fluorescence peaks at 388 nm and 470.8 nm, respectively, the relative intensity of 143.4 and 93.61; and the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles showed a pair of strong peaks at 387.4 nm and 405.2 nm, the relative intensity of 1366 and 1305, respectively, indicating that the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles can increase the absorption of UV light.

  12. Hydrodynamic fabrication of structurally gradient ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Min; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2016-02-26

    We studied a new approach where structurally gradient nanostructures were fabricated by means of hydrodynamics. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized in a drag-driven rotational flow in a controlled manner. The structural characteristics of nanorods such as orientation and diameter were determined by momentum and mass transfer at the substrate surface. The nucleation of ZnO was induced by shear stress which plays a key role in determining the orientation of ZnO nanorods. The nucleation and growth of such nanostructures were modeled theoretically and analyzed numerically to understand the underlying physics of the fabrication of nanostructures controlled by hydrodynamics. The findings demonstrated that the precise control of momentum and mass transfer enabled the formation of ZnO nanorods with a structural gradient in diameter and orientation.

  13. Hybrid AC EL structures with thin protective ZnO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkova, E; Dikov, H; Kolentsov, K; Yourukova, L; Zhechev, D; Steflekova, V

    2008-01-01

    Alternating current hybrid electroluminescent Al/SnO 2 /ZnS: Cu/ZnO/Al structures with blue emission have been prepared. In these ZnO films are used as protective layers. The optical properties of different RF magnetron sputtered ZnO films have been studied. The voltage - brightness characteristics of AC EL structures with a ZnO protective film and conventional structures with a TiO 2 protective layer are compared. The investigation shows that the brightness of the structures with a ZnO protective film is higher. The improved characteristics of these new hybrid structures could be used in preparing various systems for representation of permanent or variable light information

  14. Structure and photoluminescence properties of Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaozhu; Wang Yongqian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → ZnO nano-needles were synthesized by thermal oxidation. → Their surfaces were coated with Ag by pulse electro-deposition technique. → The uncoated and coated ZnO nano-needles were characterized. → The results showed that the prepared ZnO nano-needles have been coated with Ag successfully. → The photoluminescence spectrums of ZnO nano-needles with Ag-coated and uncoated were analyzed, finding that the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles can increase the absorption of UV light. - Abstract: A large number of zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-needles were synthesized by thermal oxidation of pure zinc. The surfaces of ZnO nano-needles were coated with a layer of Ag by pulse electro-deposition technique. The uncoated and coated ZnO nano-needles were characterized by using the X-ray diffraction and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the uncoated samples were close-packed hexagonal structure, which showed needle-like morphology. Their average diameter is about 40 nm, lengths up to 5 μm. At the same time we observed that the prepared ZnO nano-needles have been coated with Ag successfully. The photoluminescence spectrums of ZnO nano-needles with Ag-coated and uncoated were analyzed, finding that the uncoated ZnO nano-needles have two fluorescence peaks at 388 nm and 470.8 nm, respectively, the relative intensity of 143.4 and 93.61; and the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles showed a pair of strong peaks at 387.4 nm and 405.2 nm, the relative intensity of 1366 and 1305, respectively, indicating that the Ag-coated ZnO nano-needles can increase the absorption of UV light.

  15. Hydrogen-related complexes in Li-diffused ZnO single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corolewski, Caleb D.; Parmar, Narendra S.; Lynn, Kelvin G.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2016-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor and a potential candidate for next generation white solid state lighting applications. In this work, hydrogen-related complexes in lithium diffused ZnO single crystals were studied. In addition to the well-known Li-OH complex, several other hydrogen defects were observed. When a mixture of Li2O and ZnO is used as the dopant source, zinc vacancies are suppressed and the bulk Li concentration is very high (>1019 cm-3). In that case, the predominant hydrogen complex has a vibrational frequency of 3677 cm-1, attributed to surface O-H species. When Li2CO3 is used, a structured blue luminescence band and O-H mode at 3327 cm-1 are observed at 10 K. These observations, along with positron annihilation measurements, suggest a zinc vacancy-hydrogen complex, with an acceptor level ˜0.3 eV above the valence-band maximum. This relatively shallow acceptor could be beneficial for p-type ZnO.

  16. Hydrogen-related complexes in Li-diffused ZnO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corolewski, Caleb D.; Parmar, Narendra S.; Lynn, Kelvin G.; McCluskey, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor and a potential candidate for next generation white solid state lighting applications. In this work, hydrogen-related complexes in lithium diffused ZnO single crystals were studied. In addition to the well-known Li-OH complex, several other hydrogen defects were observed. When a mixture of Li_2O and ZnO is used as the dopant source, zinc vacancies are suppressed and the bulk Li concentration is very high (>10"1"9" cm"−"3). In that case, the predominant hydrogen complex has a vibrational frequency of 3677 cm"−"1, attributed to surface O-H species. When Li_2CO_3 is used, a structured blue luminescence band and O-H mode at 3327 cm"−"1 are observed at 10 K. These observations, along with positron annihilation measurements, suggest a zinc vacancy–hydrogen complex, with an acceptor level ∼0.3 eV above the valence-band maximum. This relatively shallow acceptor could be beneficial for p-type ZnO.

  17. Transition metal implanted ZnO. A correlation between structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengqiang

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays ferromagnetism is often found in potential diluted magnetic semiconductor systems. However, many authors question the origin of this ferromagnetism, i.e. if the observed ferromagnetism stems from ferromagnetic precipitates rather than from carriermediated magnetic coupling of ionic impurities, as required for a diluted magnetic semiconductor. In this thesis, this question will be answered for transition-metal implanted ZnO single crystals. Magnetic secondary phases, namely metallic Fe, Co and Ni nanocrystals, are formed inside ZnO. They are - although difficult to detect by common approaches of structural analysis - responsible for the observed ferromagnetism. Particularly Co and Ni nanocrystals are crystallographically oriented with respect to the ZnO matrix. Their structure phase transformation and corresponding evolution of magnetic properties upon annealing have been established. Finally, an approach, pre-annealing ZnO crystals at high temperature before implantation, has been demonstrated to sufficiently suppress the formation of metallic secondary phases. (orig.)

  18. Hydrogen-related complexes in Li-diffused ZnO single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corolewski, Caleb D. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Parmar, Narendra S.; Lynn, Kelvin G. [Center for Materials Research, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); McCluskey, Matthew D., E-mail: mattmcc@wsu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor and a potential candidate for next generation white solid state lighting applications. In this work, hydrogen-related complexes in lithium diffused ZnO single crystals were studied. In addition to the well-known Li-OH complex, several other hydrogen defects were observed. When a mixture of Li{sub 2}O and ZnO is used as the dopant source, zinc vacancies are suppressed and the bulk Li concentration is very high (>10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}). In that case, the predominant hydrogen complex has a vibrational frequency of 3677 cm{sup −1}, attributed to surface O-H species. When Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is used, a structured blue luminescence band and O-H mode at 3327 cm{sup −1} are observed at 10 K. These observations, along with positron annihilation measurements, suggest a zinc vacancy–hydrogen complex, with an acceptor level ∼0.3 eV above the valence-band maximum. This relatively shallow acceptor could be beneficial for p-type ZnO.

  19. Structural and optical properties of ZnO rods hydrothermally formed on polyethersulfone substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Mi; Jang, Jin Tak; Kim, Chang Yong; Ryu, Hyuk Hyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Ji Ho [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Chang Sik [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hee Lack [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Various unique ZnO morphologies, such as cigar-like and belt-like structures and microrod and nanorod structures, were formed on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates by using a low temperature hydrothermal route. The structural properties of ZnO depended highly on the precursor concentration. The effect of a thin ZnO seed layer deposited the on PES substrate by using atomic layer deposition on the structural and the optical properties of ZnO hydrothermally grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates was studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were employed to analyze the characteristics of hydrothermally-grown ZnO. The diameter of the ZnO nanorods grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates increased with increasing precursor concentration from 0.025 to 0.125 M due to the Ostwald ripening process. ZnO hydrothermally-grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates at a low precursor concentration showed better structural properties than ZnO formed without a seed layer. Well-formed ZnO nanorods deposited on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates showed two PL peaks, one in the ultraviolet and the other in the visible region, whereas horizontally positioned ZnO formed on the PES substrate in the absence of a seed layer emitted only one broad PL peak in the violet region. The ZnO grown on PES substrates in this work can be used as high-quality transparent electrodes for solar cells fabricated on flexible substrates.

  20. Structural and optical properties of ZnO rods hydrothermally formed on polyethersulfone substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chang Mi; Jang, Jin Tak; Kim, Chang Yong; Ryu, Hyuk Hyun; Lee, Won Jae; Chang, Ji Ho; Son, Chang Sik; Choi, Hee Lack

    2012-01-01

    Various unique ZnO morphologies, such as cigar-like and belt-like structures and microrod and nanorod structures, were formed on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates by using a low temperature hydrothermal route. The structural properties of ZnO depended highly on the precursor concentration. The effect of a thin ZnO seed layer deposited the on PES substrate by using atomic layer deposition on the structural and the optical properties of ZnO hydrothermally grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates was studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were employed to analyze the characteristics of hydrothermally-grown ZnO. The diameter of the ZnO nanorods grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates increased with increasing precursor concentration from 0.025 to 0.125 M due to the Ostwald ripening process. ZnO hydrothermally-grown on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates at a low precursor concentration showed better structural properties than ZnO formed without a seed layer. Well-formed ZnO nanorods deposited on the ZnO seed layer/PES substrates showed two PL peaks, one in the ultraviolet and the other in the visible region, whereas horizontally positioned ZnO formed on the PES substrate in the absence of a seed layer emitted only one broad PL peak in the violet region. The ZnO grown on PES substrates in this work can be used as high-quality transparent electrodes for solar cells fabricated on flexible substrates.

  1. Photoelectron spectroscopic study on electronic structure of butterfly-templated ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Masao; Sugiyama, Harue; Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Guo, Qixin [Synchrotron Light Application Center, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Gu, Jiajun; Zhang, Wang; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Biological systems have complicated hierarchical architecture involving nano-structures inside, and are expected as another candidate for new nano-templates. The present work reports the photoelectron spectroscopic study on electronic structure of the butterfly-templated ZnO that were successfully produced from butterfly wings. Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectrum (UPS) of the butterfly-templated ZnO shows clearly the valence band and a Zn-3d peak, indicating that the butterfly-templated ZnO has the same electronic structure as bulk ZnO. However, the details show that the energy positions of the Zn-3d level and the valence-band structure are different between them. The present results indicate that the bonding interaction between Zn-4sp and O-2p orbitals is stronger in the butterfly-templated ZnO, probably due to the nano-structures inside. Important parameters such as band bending and electron affinity are also obtained. The larger band bending and the lower electron affinity are found in the butterfly-templated ZnO (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Structural, magnetic and electronic structure properties of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shalendra; Song, T.K.; Gautam, Sanjeev; Chae, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Jang, K.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • XRD and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • XMCD and dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Co L 3,2 NEXAFS spectra infer that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Co doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We reported structural, magnetic and electronic structure studies of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles. Doping of Co ions in ZnO host matrix has been studied and confirmed using various methods; such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersed X-ray (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, magnetic hysteresis loop measurements and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From the XRD and HR-TEM results, it is observed that Co doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite structure and exclude the possibility of secondary phase formation. FE-SEM and TEM micrographs show that pure and Co doped nanoparticles are nearly spherical in shape. O K edge NEXAFS spectra indicate that O vacancies increase with Co doping. The Co L 3,2 edge NEXAFS spectra revealed that Co ions are in 2+ valence state. DC magnetization hysteresis loops and XMCD results clearly showed the intrinsic origin of temperature ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

  3. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample

  4. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample.

  5. Electronic structure, magnetic and structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shalendra; Vats, Prashant; Gautam, S.; Gupta, V.P.; Verma, K.D.; Chae, K.H.; Hashim, Mohd; Choi, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • XRD, and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Ni L 3,2 edge NEXAFS spectra infer that Ni ions are in +2 valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Ni doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We report structural, magnetic and electronic structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by auto-combustion method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and dc magnetization measurements. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicate that Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite lattice and exclude the presence of secondary phase. NEXAFS measurements performed at Ni L 3,2 -edges indicates that Ni ions are in +2 valence state and exclude the presence of Ni metal clusters. O K-edge NEXAFS spectra indicate an increase in oxygen vacancies with Ni-doping, while Zn L 3,2 -edge show the absence of Zn-vacancies. The magnetization measurements performed at room temperature shows that pure and Ni doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetic behavior

  6. Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Muhammad, E-mail: saleem.malikape@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Fang, L. [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and Systems of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Shaukat, Saleem F.; Ahmad, M. Ashfaq [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Raza, Rizwan, E-mail: razahussaini786@gmail.com [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Aslam, Samia [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Abbas, Ghazanfar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchically ZnO nanostructures electrodes were grown using hot plate magnetic stirring at different growth reaction temperature. • We have investigated the effect of working temperature of 160°, 170°, 180°, and 190° on the growth mechanism of nanospheres and on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs. • ZnO nanospheres with perfect aggregation show superior power conversion efficiency of 1.24% which is about 83% higher than nanoparticles DSSC. • An obvious vogue is that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases as the degree of the spherical aggregation is gradually destroyed. - Abstract: Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures solar cell have been studied in relation to growth reaction temperature. It is found that the hierarchical ZnO nanostructures network to act not only as large surface area substrates but also as a transport medium for electrons injected from the dye molecules. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency is decreased by increasing the growth reaction temperature of ZnO electrodes. The best conversion efficiency of a 0.25 cm{sup 2} cell is measured to be 1.24% under 100 mW cm{sup −2} irradiation.

  7. Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Fang, L.; Shaukat, Saleem F.; Ahmad, M. Ashfaq; Raza, Rizwan; Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Aslam, Samia; Abbas, Ghazanfar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hierarchically ZnO nanostructures electrodes were grown using hot plate magnetic stirring at different growth reaction temperature. • We have investigated the effect of working temperature of 160°, 170°, 180°, and 190° on the growth mechanism of nanospheres and on the power conversion efficiency of DSSCs. • ZnO nanospheres with perfect aggregation show superior power conversion efficiency of 1.24% which is about 83% higher than nanoparticles DSSC. • An obvious vogue is that the overall power conversion efficiency decreases as the degree of the spherical aggregation is gradually destroyed. - Abstract: Structural and photovoltaic characteristics of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures solar cell have been studied in relation to growth reaction temperature. It is found that the hierarchical ZnO nanostructures network to act not only as large surface area substrates but also as a transport medium for electrons injected from the dye molecules. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency is decreased by increasing the growth reaction temperature of ZnO electrodes. The best conversion efficiency of a 0.25 cm 2 cell is measured to be 1.24% under 100 mW cm −2 irradiation

  8. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajaib; Schipmann, Susanne; Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan; Sengupta, Amartya; Klemradt, Uwe; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-08-01

    The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2-7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  9. Structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO nanocrystallites prepared by a one-step solution route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ping; Wang Sha; Li Jibiao; Wei Yu

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystallites with different Co-doping levels were successfully synthesized by a simple one-step solution route at low temperature (95 deg. C) in this study. The structure and morphology of the samples thus obtained were characterized by XRD, EDS, XPS and FESEM. Results show that cobalt ions, in the oxidation state of Co 2+ , replace Zn 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice without changing its wurtzite structure. The dopant content varies from 0.59% to 5.39%, based on Co-doping levels. The pure ZnO particles exhibit well-defined 3D flower-like morphology with an average size of 550 nm, while the particles obtained after Co-doping are mostly cauliflower-like nanoclusters with an average size of 120 nm. Both the flower-like pure ZnO and the cauliflower-like Co:ZnO nanoclusters are composed of densely arrayed nanorods. The optical properties of the ZnO nanocrystallites following Co-doping were also investigated by UV-Visible absorption and Photoluminescence spectra. Our results indicate that Co-doping can change the energy-band structure and effectively adjust the luminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystallites. - Highlights: → Co-doped ZnO nanocrystallites were synthesized via a simple one-step solution route. → Co 2+ ions incorporated into the ZnO lattice without changing its wurtzite structure. → Co-doping changed the energy band structure of ZnO. → Co-doping effectively adjusted the luminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystallites.

  10. Structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO nanocrystallites prepared by a one-step solution route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ping, E-mail: lipingchina@yahoo.com.cn [Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nanomaterials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, 113 Yuhua Road, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China); Wang Sha; Li Jibiao; Wei Yu [Provincial Key Laboratory of Inorganic Nanomaterials, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Hebei Normal University, 113 Yuhua Road, Shijiazhuang 050016, Hebei (China)

    2012-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystallites with different Co-doping levels were successfully synthesized by a simple one-step solution route at low temperature (95 deg. C) in this study. The structure and morphology of the samples thus obtained were characterized by XRD, EDS, XPS and FESEM. Results show that cobalt ions, in the oxidation state of Co{sup 2+}, replace Zn{sup 2+} ions in the ZnO lattice without changing its wurtzite structure. The dopant content varies from 0.59% to 5.39%, based on Co-doping levels. The pure ZnO particles exhibit well-defined 3D flower-like morphology with an average size of 550 nm, while the particles obtained after Co-doping are mostly cauliflower-like nanoclusters with an average size of 120 nm. Both the flower-like pure ZnO and the cauliflower-like Co:ZnO nanoclusters are composed of densely arrayed nanorods. The optical properties of the ZnO nanocrystallites following Co-doping were also investigated by UV-Visible absorption and Photoluminescence spectra. Our results indicate that Co-doping can change the energy-band structure and effectively adjust the luminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystallites. - Highlights: > Co-doped ZnO nanocrystallites were synthesized via a simple one-step solution route. > Co{sup 2+} ions incorporated into the ZnO lattice without changing its wurtzite structure. > Co-doping changed the energy band structure of ZnO. > Co-doping effectively adjusted the luminescence properties of ZnO nanocrystallites.

  11. Effect of reactant concentration on the structural properties of hydrothermally-grown ZnO rods on seed-layer ZnO / polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y. I.; Shin, C. M.; Heo, J. H.; Ryu, H. [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. J. [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Son, C. S. [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, H. [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    The morphology and the structural properties were studied for zinc-oxide (ZnO) rods hydrothermally grown on seed-layer ZnO/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates at various reactant concentrations. Dissolved solutions with de-ionized water, zinc nitrate hexahydrate (Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, ZNH) and hexamethylenetetramine (C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}, HMT) were employed as reactants for hydrothermal growth of ZnO. The transparency of the mixtures (ZNH+HMT) with increasing reactant concentration from 0.025 to 0.25 M changed from transparent to translucent to opaque (white colors) due to Zn(OH){sub 2} precipitates. When the concentration was increased, the density of the ZnO rods increased, and the morphology of the ZnO rods changed from a hexagonal flat-end shape to a sharp-end or flake-like structure. The sharp-end rods with increasing concentration from 0.1 to 0.15 M resulted from the etching process at a lower pH condition (less than pH 6) after the ZnO rod growth, and the flake-like structure was due to a high growth rate. The ZnO seed layer might have improved the alignment of ZnO rods and made a high density of ZnO rods. In addition, the structural properties were improved at lower concentrations by inserting a seed layer.

  12. Structural, morphological and electroluminescence studies of Zno:Co nanophosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    The nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with various concentrations of cobalt (Co) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effect of doping concentration on structural and morphological properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell volume, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density are also studied. Here, we also compared the interplaner spacing and relative peak intensities from their standard values with different angles. Crystallite sizes have been calculated by Debye-Scherrer's formula whose values are decreasing with increase in cobalt content up to 3 %. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods was (101). The XRD analysis also ensures that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The electroluminescence (EL) cells were prepared by placing pure and cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles between ITO-coated conducting glass plate and aluminium foil. Alternating voltage of various frequencies was applied, and EL brightness at different voltages was measured and corresponding current was also recorded. The voltage dependence of electroluminescence (EL) brightness of the ZnO:Co shows exponential increase. The linear voltage-current characteristic indicates ohmic nature. The EL brightness at a particular voltage is found to increase by increasing Co doping, but for higher percentage of Co the EL brightness is reduced. It is also seen that Co does not influence the threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  13. Superhydrophobic surface based on a coral-like hierarchical structure of ZnO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces has attracted much interest in the past decade. The fabrication methods that have been studied are chemical vapour deposition, the sol-gel method, etching technique, electrochemical deposition, the layer-by-layer deposition, and so on. Simple and inexpensive methods for manufacturing environmentally stable superhydrophobic surfaces have also been proposed lately. However, work referring to the influence of special structures on the wettability, such as hierarchical ZnO nanostructures, is rare.This study presents a simple and reproducible method to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface with micro-scale roughness based on zinc oxide (ZnO hierarchical structure, which is grown by the hydrothermal method with an alkaline aqueous solution. Coral-like structures of ZnO were fabricated on a glass substrate with a micro-scale roughness, while the antennas of the coral formed the nano-scale roughness. The fresh ZnO films exhibited excellent superhydrophilicity (the apparent contact angle for water droplet was about 0°, while the ability to be wet could be changed to superhydrophobicity after spin-coating Teflon (the apparent contact angle greater than 168°. The procedure reported here can be applied to substrates consisting of other materials and having various shapes.The new process is convenient and environmentally friendly compared to conventional methods. Furthermore, the hierarchical structure generates the extraordinary solid/gas/liquid three-phase contact interface, which is the essential characteristic for a superhydrophobic surface.

  14. Structure and morphology of magnetron sputter deposited ultrathin ZnO films on confined polymeric template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ajaib [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Schipmann, Susanne [II. Insatitute of Physics and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Mathur, Aakash; Pal, Dipayan [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Sengupta, Amartya [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Klemradt, Uwe [II. Insatitute of Physics and JARA-FIT, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna, E-mail: sudeshna@iiti.ac.in [Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India); Centre for Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore 453552 (India)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ultra-thin ZnO films grown on confined polymeric (polystyrene, PS) template. • XRR and GISAXS explore the surface/interfaces structure and morphology of ZnO/PS. • Insights into the growth mechanism of magnetron sputtered ZnO thin film on PS template. • Nucleated disk-like cylindrical particles are the basis of the formation of ZnO layers. • Effect of ZnO film thickness on room temperature PL spectra in ZnO/PS systems. - Abstract: The structure and morphology of ultra-thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films with different film thicknesses on confined polymer template were studied through X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). Using magnetron sputter deposition technique ZnO thin films with different film thicknesses (<10 nm) were grown on confined polystyrene with ∼2R{sub g} film thickness, where R{sub g} ∼ 20 nm (R{sub g} is the unperturbed radius of gyration of polystyrene, defined by R{sub g} = 0.272 √M{sub 0}, and M{sub 0} is the molecular weight of polystyrene). The detailed internal structure, along the surface/interfaces and the growth direction of the system were explored in this study, which provides insight into the growth procedure of ZnO on confined polymer and reveals that a thin layer of ZnO, with very low surface and interface roughness, can be grown by DC magnetron sputtering technique, with approximately full coverage (with bulk like electron density) even in nm order of thickness, in 2–7 nm range on confined polymer template, without disturbing the structure of the underneath template. The resulting ZnO-polystyrene hybrid systems show strong ZnO near band edge (NBE) and deep-level (DLE) emissions in their room temperature photoluminescence spectra, where the contribution of DLE gets relatively stronger with decreasing ZnO film thickness, indicating a significant enhancement of surface defects because of the greater surface to volume ratio in thinner films.

  15. Effects of the annealing duration of the ZnO buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, C.M.; Lee, J.Y.; Heo, J.H.; Park, J.H.; Kim, C.R. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, S.T. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Zhao, J.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-07-30

    In this study, the effects of the annealing duration of a zinc oxide (ZnO) buffer layer on structural and optical properties of ZnO rods grown by a hydrothermal process are discussed. A ZnO buffer layer was deposited on p-type Si (1 1 1) substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. After that, ZnO rods were grown on the ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) substrate by a hydrothermal process. In order to determine the optimum annealing duration of the buffer layer for the growth of ZnO rods, durations ranging from 0.5 to 30 min were tried. The morphology and crystal structure of the ZnO/ZnO-buffer/Si (1 1 1) were measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurement.

  16. Preparation, structural and optical characterization of ZnO, ZnO: Al nanopowder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, R. Raj [Department of ECE, Gojan School of Business and Technology, Chennai (India); Rajendran, K. [Department of Electronics, Government Arts College for Women, Ramanathapuram, TN (India); Sambath, K. [Department of ECS, Sri Krishna Arts and Science College, Coimbatore, TN (India)

    2014-01-28

    In this paper, ZnO and ZnO:Al nanopowders have been synthesized by low cost hydrothermal method. Zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) and aluminium nitrate are used as precursors for ZnO and AZO with different molar ratios. The structural and optical characterization of doped and un-doped ZnO powders have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra violet visible (UV-Vis) absorption studies. The SEM results show that the hydrothermal synthesis can be used to obtain nanoparticles with different morphology. It is observed that the grain size of the AZO nanoparticles increased with increasing of Al concentration. The PL measurement of AZO shows that broad range of green emission around 550nm with high intensity. The green emission resulted mainly because of intrinsic defects.

  17. Propeller-Shaped ZnO Nano structures Obtained by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Photoluminescence and Photo catalytic Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.L.; Zhu, H.W.; Li, P.G.; Tang, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Propeller-shaped and flower-shaped ZnO nano structures on Si substrates were prepared by a one-step chemical vapor deposition technique. The propeller-shaped ZnO nano structure consists of a set of axial nano rod (50 nm in tip, 80 nm in root and 1μm in length), surrounded by radial-oriented nano ribbons (20-30 nm in thickness and 1.5μm in length). The morphology of flower-shaped ZnO nano structure is similar to that of propeller-shaped ZnO, except the shape of leaves. These nano rods leaves (30?nm in diameter and 1-1.5μm in length) are aligned in a radial way and pointed toward a common center. The flower-shaped ZnO nano structures show sharper and stronger UV emission at 378 nm than the propeller-shaped ZnO, indicating a better crystal quality and fewer structural defects in flower-shaped ZnO. In comparison with flower-shaped ZnO nano structures, the propeller-shaped ZnO nano structures exhibited a higher photo catalytic property for the photo catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B under UV-light illumination.

  18. SnO2/ZnO composite structure for the lithium-ion battery electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mashkoor; Yingying, Shi; Sun, Hongyu; Shen, Wanci; Zhu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    In this article, SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures have been synthesized by two steps hydrothermal method and investigated their lithium storage capacity as compared with pure ZnO. It has been found that these composite structures combining the large specific surface area, stability and catalytic activity of SnO 2 micro-crystals, demonstrate the higher initial discharge capacity of 1540 mA h g −1 with a Coulombic efficiency of 68% at a rate of 120 mA h g −1 between 0.02 and 2 V and found much better than that of any previously reported ZnO based composite anodes. In addition, a significantly enhanced cycling performance, i.e., a reversible capacity of 497 mA h g −1 is retained after 40 cycles. The improved lithium storage capacity and cycle life is attributed to the addition of SnO 2 structure, which act as good electronic conductors and better accommodation of the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process. - Graphical abstract: SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures demonstrate the improved lithium storage capacity and cycle life as compared with pure ZnO nanostructure. Highlights: ► Synthesis of SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures by two steps hydrothermal approach. ► Investigation of lithium storage capacity. ► Excellent lithium storage capacity and cycle life of SnO 2 /ZnO composite structures.

  19. Nanoparticles of ZnO doped with Mn: structural and morphological characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, Maria Aparecida Ribeiro; Lira, Helio de Lucena; Gama, Lucianna, E-mail: m_aparecidaribeiro@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Neiva, Laedna Souto [Universidade Federal do Cariri (UFCA), Juazeiro do Norte, CE (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Materiais; Kiminami, Ruth H. G. A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (USCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2017-07-15

    In this study, the effects of dopant concentrations on the structural and morphological characteristics of Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x} O powders (x= 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, and 0.1 mole) synthesized by the Pechini method has been investigated. The powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) specific surface, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR). An XRD analysis of the powder showed the formation of ZnO phase with a typical single phase wurtzite structure. The EDX analysis revealed Mn incorporated in the ZnO structure. The particle size calculated by BET ranged from 24 to 63 nm, confirming the nanometric size of the powder particles. The SEM analysis revealed irregular shaped particle agglomerates and the presence of nanosheets. From FTIR it was confirmed the wurtzite structure in ZnO and ZnO nanoparticles doped with Mn. (author)

  20. Structure of Ga2O3(ZnO)6: a member of the homologous series Ga2O3(ZnO)m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michiue, Yuichi; Kanke, Yasushi; Kimizuka, Noboru

    2008-01-01

    The structure of Ga 2 O 3 (ZnO) 6 was determined using singlecrystal X-ray diffraction techniques in the space group Cmcm. The metal ion sublattice resembles some of the Zn ions in the wurtzite ZnO structure. The oxygen ion sublattice in Ga 2 O 3 (ZnO) 6 also resembles some of the O ions in ZnO. Structural relationships between Ga 2 O 3 (ZnO) 6 and ZnO are discussed, illustrating the process for obtaining the centrosymmetric Ga 2 O 3 (ZnO) 6 structure from the noncentrosymmetric ZnO. Structures of phases in the homologous series Ga 2 O 3 (ZnO) m are predicted on the basis of the structural data for Ga 2 O 3 (ZnO) 6 . The structures of even m are constructed by simply extending the structure units seen in Ga 2 O 3 (ZnO) 6 , while those of odd m consist of structure units which are of different types from those used for even m. (orig.)

  1. Structural, optical, and LED characteristics of ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, K. M.; Bhat, Shreesha; Dharmaprakash, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    ZnO (pristine) and Al doped ZnO (AZO) films were prepared using sol-gel spin coating method. The XRD analysis showed the enhanced compressive stress in AZO film. The presence of extended states below the conduction band edge in AZO accounts for the redshift in optical bandgap. The PL spectra of AZO showed significant blue emission due to the carrier recombination from defect states. The TRPL curves showed the dominant DAP recombination in ZnO film, whereas defect related recombination in Al doped ZnO film. Color parameters viz: the dominant wavelength, color coordinates (x,y), color purity, luminous efficiency and correlated color temperature (CCT) of ZnO and AZO films are calculated using 1931 (CIE) diagram. Further, a strong blue emission with color purity more than 96% is observed in both the films. The enhanced blue emission in AZO significantly increased the luminous efficiency (22.8%) compared to ZnO film (10.8%). The prepared films may be used as blue phosphors in white light generation.

  2. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures prepared by a facile wet chemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sini Kuriakose

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of these nanostructures have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, photoluminescence (PL and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. SEM and TEM studies revealed flower-like structures consisting of nanosheets, formed due to oriented attachment of ZnO nanoparticles. Flower-like ZnO structures showed enhanced photocatalytic activity towards sun-light driven photodegradation of methylene blue dye (MB as compared to ZnO nanoparticles. XRD, UV–vis absorption, PL, FTIR and TEM studies revealed the formation of Zn(OH2 surface layer on ZnO nanostructures upon ageing. We demonstrate that the formation of a passivating Zn(OH2 surface layer on the ZnO nanostructures upon ageing deteriorates their efficiency to photocatalytically degrade of MB.

  3. Determination of reactive oxygen species from ZnO micro-nano structures with shape-dependent photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongxiao; Jia, Huimin [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China); Yin, Jun-Jie [Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Zheng, Zhi, E-mail: zhengzhi99999@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Henan 461000 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with shape dependent photocatalytic activity were prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were identified precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Highlights: • ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies were prepared by solvothermal reaction. • Multi-pod like ZnO structures exhibited superior photocatalytic activity. • The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were characterized precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. • The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies have been prepared by the changing solvents used during their synthesis by solvothermal reaction. Three typical shapes of ZnO structures including hexagonal, bell bottom like and multi-pod formed and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Multi pod like ZnO structures exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methyl orange. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled with spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate an effective way to identify precisely the generation of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and singlet oxygen from the irradiated ZnO multi pod structures. The type of reactive oxygen species formed was predictable from the band gap structure of ZnO. These results indicate that the shape of micro-nano structures significantly affects the photocatalytic activity of ZnO, and demonstrate the value of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for characterizing the type of reactive oxygen species formed during photoexcitation of semiconductors.

  4. Determination of reactive oxygen species from ZnO micro-nano structures with shape-dependent photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Weiwei; Zhao, Hongxiao; Jia, Huimin; Yin, Jun-Jie; Zheng, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with shape dependent photocatalytic activity were prepared by hydrothermal reaction. The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were identified precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Highlights: • ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies were prepared by solvothermal reaction. • Multi-pod like ZnO structures exhibited superior photocatalytic activity. • The generations of hydroxyl radical, superoxide and singlet oxygen from irradiated ZnO were characterized precisely by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. • The type of reactive oxygen species was determined by band gap structure of ZnO. - Abstract: ZnO micro/nano structures with different morphologies have been prepared by the changing solvents used during their synthesis by solvothermal reaction. Three typical shapes of ZnO structures including hexagonal, bell bottom like and multi-pod formed and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Multi pod like ZnO structures exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methyl orange. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy coupled with spin trapping techniques, we demonstrate an effective way to identify precisely the generation of hydroxyl radicals, superoxide and singlet oxygen from the irradiated ZnO multi pod structures. The type of reactive oxygen species formed was predictable from the band gap structure of ZnO. These results indicate that the shape of micro-nano structures significantly affects the photocatalytic activity of ZnO, and demonstrate the value of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for characterizing the type of reactive oxygen species formed during photoexcitation of semiconductors

  5. Structural, optical and magnetic characterization of Ru doped ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Kaur, Palvinder; Chen, C.L.; Thangavel, R.; Dong, C.L.; Ho, Y.K.; Lee, J.F.; Chan, T.S.; Chen, T.K.; Mok, B.H.; Rao, S.M.; Wu, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ruthenium (Ru = 0%, 1% and 2%) doped nano-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized by using well-known sol–gel technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that Ru (0%, 1% and 2%) doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in the wurtzite structure having space group C 3v (P6 3 mc). Williamson and Hall plot reveal that in the nanoscale dimensions, incorporation of Ru induced the tensile strain in ZnO host matrix. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies of Ru doped ZnO nanorods show the formation of singly ionized oxygen vacancies which may account for the observed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in 2% Ru doped ZnO. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveals that Ru replace the Zn atoms in the host lattice and maintain the crystal symmetry with slightly lattice distortion. Highlights: • Ru doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in the wurtzite structure having space group C 3v (P6 3 mc). • PL and Raman studies show the formation of singly ionized oxygen vacancies in 2% Ru doped ZnO. • XAS reveals that Ru replace the Zn atoms in the host lattice with slightly lattice distortion. • Doping of Ru in ZnO nanostructures gives rise to RTFM ordering. -- Abstract: Ruthenium (Ru = 0%, 1% and 2%) doped nano-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were synthesized by using well-known sol–gel technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that Ru (0%, 1% and 2%) doped ZnO nanorods crystallized in the wurtzite structure having space group C 3v (P6 3 mc). Williamson and Hall plot reveal that in the nanoscale dimensions, incorporation of Ru induced the tensile strain in ZnO host matrix. Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman studies of Ru doped ZnO nanorods show the formation of singly ionized oxygen vacancies which may account for the observed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) in 2% Ru doped ZnO. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) reveals that Ru replace the Zn atoms in the host lattice and maintain the crystal symmetry with slightly lattice

  6. Characterization of structural and electrical properties of ZnO tetrapods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu-Dong; Mai, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    ZnO tetrapods were synthesized by a typical thermal vapor-solid deposition method in a horizontal tube furnace. Structural characterization was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and select-area electron diffraction (SAED), which shows the presence of zinc blende nucleus in the center of tetrapods while the four branches taking hexagonal wurtzite structure. The electrical transport property of ZnO tetrapods was investigated through an in-situ nanoprobe system. The three branches of a tetrapod serve as source, drain, and "gate", respectively; while the fourth branch pointing upward works as the force trigger by vertically applying external force downward. The conductivity of each branch of ZnO-tetrapods increases 3-4 times under pressure. In such situation, the electrical current through the branches of ZnO tetrapods can be tuned by external force, and therefore a simple force sensor based on ZnO tetrapods has been demonstrated for the first time.

  7. Effect of ALD surface treatment on structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jin-Tak [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyukhyun, E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we report on the improvement of the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods using atomic layer deposition (ALD) on seed ZnO nanorods. After the initial growth of ZnO seed nanorods by hydrothermal synthesis for 1 h, a ZnO layer with a thickness of 10 nm was deposited on the initial ZnO seed nanorods using ALD. Then ZnO was further grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 4 h. The samples were characterized using room temperature photoluminescence (PL), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). From this experiment, it was found that the ZnO nanorods with the ALD surface treatment show improved optical and structural properties when compared with the ZnO nanorods grown only by hydrothermal synthesis. The ZnO nanorods with the ALD surface treatment show about 2.7 times higher XRD (0 0 2) peak intensity, about 2.64 times higher PL NBE peak intensity, and about 3.1 times better NBE/DLE ratio than the ZnO nanorods without an ALD surface treatment.

  8. Mg doping induced high structural quality of sol–gel ZnO nanocrystals: Application in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abed, Chayma; Bouzidi, Chaker [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Elhouichet, Habib, E-mail: Habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université Tunis El Manar, Tunis 2092 (Tunisia); Gelloz, Bernard [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, 2-24-16 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Ferid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nancrystals doped with Mg were prepared from sol–gel method. • Structural and optical properties of ZnO:Mg nanocrystals were investigated. • Good crystalline quality of ZnO nanocrystals was reported after Mg doping. • Good photocatalytic activity of Mg doped ZnO nanocrystals was demonstrated under sun light illumination. - Abstract: Undoped and Mg doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) ZnO:x%Mg (x = 1, 2, 3, and 5) were synthesized using sol–gel method. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectivity, and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis demonstrates that all prepared samples present pure hexagonal wurtzite structure without any Mg related phases. The NCs size varies from 26.82 nm to 42.96 nm with Mg concentrations; it presents an optimal value for 2% of Mg. The Raman spectra are dominated by the E{sub 2high} mode. For highly Mg doping (5%), the occurrence of silent B{sub 1(low)} mode suggested that the Mg ions do substitute at Zn sites in the ZnO lattice The band gap energy was estimated from both Tauc and Urbach methods and found to be 3.39 eV for ZnO:2%Mg. The PL spectra exhibit two emission bands in the UV and visible range. Their evolution with Mg doping reveals the reduction of defect density in ZnO at low Mg doping by filling Zn vacancies. In addition, it was found that further Mg doping, above 2%, improves the photocatalytic activity of ZnO NCs for photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under sunlight irradiation. The efficient electron–hole separation is the main factor responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of Mg doped ZnO NCs. Through this work, we show that by varying the Mg contents in ZnO, this material can be a potential candidate for both optoelectronic and photocatalytic applications.

  9. Hierarchical structures of ZnO spherical particles synthesized solvothermally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Noriko; Haneda, Hajime

    2011-12-01

    We review the solvothermal synthesis, using a mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water as the solvent, of zinc oxide (ZnO) particles having spherical and flower-like shapes and hierarchical nanostructures. The preparation conditions of the ZnO particles and the microscopic characterization of the morphology are summarized. We found the following three effects of the ratio of EG to water on the formation of hierarchical structures: (i) EG restricts the growth of ZnO microcrystals, (ii) EG promotes the self-assembly of small crystallites into spheroidal particles and (iii) the high water content of EG results in hollow spheres.

  10. ZnO nanoparticles obtained by ball milling technique: Structural, micro-structure, optical and photo-catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balamurugan, S., E-mail: scandium.chemistry@gmail.com; Joy, Josny; Godwin, M. Anto; Selvamani, S.; Raja, T. S. Gokul [Advanced Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Nanotechnology, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Thuckalay, Kumaracoil - 629 180 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by ball milling of commercial grade ZnO powder at 250 rpm for 20 h and studied their structural, micro-structure, optical and photo-catalytic properties. Due to ball milling significant decrease in lattice parameters and average crystalline size is noticed for the as-milled ZnO nano powder. The HRSEM images of the as-milled powder consist of agglomerated fine spherical nanoparticles in the range of ~10-20 nm. The room temperature PL spectrum of as-milled ZnO nano powder excited under 320 nm reveals two emission bands at ~406 nm (violet emission) and ~639 nm (green emission). Interestingly about 98 % of photo degradation of methylene (MB) by the ZnO catalyst is achieved at 100 minutes of solar light irradiation.

  11. Spatially Correlated, Single Nanomaterial-Level Structural and Optical Profiling of Cu-Doped ZnO Nanorods Synthesized via Multifunctional Silicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Truong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a straightforward and effective method to synthesize vertically oriented, Cu-doped ZnO nanorods (NRs using a novel multipurpose platform of copper silicide nanoblocks (Cu3Si NBs preformed laterally in well-defined directions on Si. The use of the surface-organized Cu3Si NBs for ZnO NR growth successfully results in densely assembled Cu-doped ZnO NRs on each NB platform, whose overall structures resemble thick bristles on a brush head. We show that Cu3Si NBs can uniquely serve as a catalyst for ZnO NRs, a local dopant source of Cu, and a prepatterned guide to aid the local assembly of the NRs on the growth substrate. We also ascertain the crystalline structures, optical properties, and spectroscopic signatures of the Cu-doped ZnO NRs produced on the NBs, both at each module of NRs/NB and at their ensemble level. Subsequently, we determine their augmented properties relative to the pristine form of undoped ZnO NRs and the source material of Cu3Si NBs. We provide spatially correlated structural and optical data for individual modules of Cu-doped ZnO NRs assembled on a Cu3Si NB by resolving them along the different positions on the NB. Ensemble-averaged versus individual behaviors of Cu-doped ZnO NRs on Cu3Si NBs are then compared. We further discuss the potential impact of such ZnO-derived NRs on their relatively unexplored biological and biomedical applications. Our efforts will be particularly useful when exploiting each integrated module of self-aligned, Cu-doped ZnO NRs on a NB as a discretely addressable, active element in solid-state sensors and miniaturized luminescent bioprobes.

  12. Studies on intrinsic defects related to Zn vacancy in ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.; Das, D.; Rath, Chandana

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Williamson–Hall analysis of ZnO indicates strain in the lattice and size is of 20 nm. ► PL shows a broad emission peak in visible range due to native defects. ► Raman active modes corresponding to P6 3 mc and a few additional modes are observed. ► FTIR detects few local vibrational modes of hydrogen attached to zinc vacancies. ► V Zn -H and Zn + O divacancies are confirmed by PAS. -- Abstract: ZnO being a well known optoelectronic semiconductor, investigations related to the defects are very promising. In this report, we have attempted to detect the defects in ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the conventional coprecipitation route using various spectroscopic techniques. The broad emission peak observed in photoluminescence spectrum and the non zero slope in Williamson–Hall analysis indicate the defects induced strain in the ZnO lattice. A few additional modes observed in Raman spectrum could be due to the breakdown of the translation symmetry of the lattice caused by defects and/or impurities. The presence of impurities can be ruled out as XRD pattern shows pure wurtzite structure. The presence of the vibrational band related to the Zn vacancies (V Zn ), unintentional hydrogen dopants and their complex defects confirm the defects in ZnO lattice. Positron life time components τ 1 and τ 2 additionally support V Zn attached to hydrogen and to a cluster of Zn and O di-vacancies respectively.

  13. SnO{sub 2}/ZnO composite structure for the lithium-ion battery electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Mashkoor, E-mail: mashkoorahmad2003@yahoo.com [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Material, China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Nanomaterial Research Group, Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Yingying, Shi [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Sun, Hongyu [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Material, China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shen, Wanci [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhu, Jing, E-mail: jzhu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Material, China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-12-15

    In this article, SnO{sub 2}/ZnO composite structures have been synthesized by two steps hydrothermal method and investigated their lithium storage capacity as compared with pure ZnO. It has been found that these composite structures combining the large specific surface area, stability and catalytic activity of SnO{sub 2} micro-crystals, demonstrate the higher initial discharge capacity of 1540 mA h g{sup -1} with a Coulombic efficiency of 68% at a rate of 120 mA h g{sup -1} between 0.02 and 2 V and found much better than that of any previously reported ZnO based composite anodes. In addition, a significantly enhanced cycling performance, i.e., a reversible capacity of 497 mA h g{sup -1} is retained after 40 cycles. The improved lithium storage capacity and cycle life is attributed to the addition of SnO{sub 2} structure, which act as good electronic conductors and better accommodation of the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process. - Graphical abstract: SnO{sub 2}/ZnO composite structures demonstrate the improved lithium storage capacity and cycle life as compared with pure ZnO nanostructure. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of SnO{sub 2}/ZnO composite structures by two steps hydrothermal approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of lithium storage capacity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excellent lithium storage capacity and cycle life of SnO{sub 2}/ZnO composite structures.

  14. High-dose V+ implantation in ZnO thin film structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyatkin, A.F.; Zinenko, V.I.; Agaphonov, Yu.A.; Pustovit, A.N.; Roshchupkin, D.V.; Reuss, F.; Kirchner, C.; Kling, R.; Waag, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the last two decades, diluted magnetic semiconductors have attracted great attention as promising materials for spintronics applications. [K. Sato, H. Katyama-Yoshida, Jpn. J. Phys., Part 2 39 (2000) L555] theoretically predicted that ZnO doped with V, Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni can be ferromagnetic. This has been recently confirmed experimentally for vanadium doped ZnO films which were grown on sapphire substrates, using laser deposition technique [H. Saeki, H.N. Tabata, T. Kawai, Solid State Commun. 120 (2001) 439]. In the present work, high-dose vanadium implantation was used to produce Zn 1-x V x O (x ∼ 0.10) thin film structures (250 nm thick) that had been epitaxially grown on sapphire substrates. Implantation with the dose 2 x 10 16 cm -2 was performed to reach a maximum vanadium concentration of 10 at%. To avoid ZnO film amorphization due to radiation damage accumulation [S.O. Kucheyev, J.S. Williams, C. Jagadish, J. Zou, C. Evans, A.J. Nelson, A.V. Hamza, Phys. Rev. B 67 (2003) 094115], all implants were done at elevated temperatures 300 and 400 deg. C and ion current density 10 μA/cm 2 . X-ray diffraction, SIMS and photoluminescence techniques were exploited to study the implanted samples. No luminescence was observed in the implanted samples after implantation procedures. However, annealing at 800 deg. C for 30 min gave rise to ZnO crystal structure improvement. This implies that healing of implantation induced defects is possible even after heavy-ion bombardment. As a result, the photoluminescence peak at 3.359 eV related to the donorbound exiton was detected

  15. Preparation and Photoluminescence of ZnO Comb-Like Structure and Nanorod Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Song; Chen, Yi-qing; Su, Yong; Zhou, Qing-tao

    2007-06-01

    A large quantity of Zinc oxide (ZnO) comb-like structure and high-density well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared on silicon substrate via thermal evaporation process without any catalyst. The morphology, growth mechanism, and optical properties of the both structures were investigated using XRD, SEM, TEM and PL. The resulting comb-teeth, with a diameter about 20 nm, growing along the [0001] direction have a well-defined epitaxial relationship with the comb ribbon. The ZnO nanorod arrays have a diameter about 200 nm and length up to several micrometers growing approximately vertical to the Si substrate. A ZnO film was obtained before the nanorods growth. A growth model is proposed for interpreting the growth mechanism of comb-like zigzag-notch nanostructure. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements under excitation wavelength of 325 nm showed that the ZnO comb-like nanostructure has a weak UV emission at around 384 nm and a strong green emission around 491 nm, which correspond to a near band-edge transition and the singly ionized oxygen vacancy, respectively. In contrast, a strong and sharp UV peak and a weak green peak was obtained from the ZnO nanorod arrays.

  16. Magnetically addressable fluorescent Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposites: Structural, optical and magnetization studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychowdhury, A.; Pati, S. P.; Mishra, A. K.; Kumar, S.; Das, D.

    2013-06-01

    Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposites (NCs) are prepared by a wet chemical route. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies confirm the coexistence of Fe3O4 and ZnO phases in the NCs. The UV-vis absorption spectra show a red shift of the absorption peak with increase in Fe3O4 content indicating a modification of the band structure of ZnO in the NCs. Photoluminescence emission spectra of the NCs display strong excitonic emission in the UV region along with weak emission bands in the visible range caused by electronic transitions involving defect-related energy levels in the band gap of ZnO. Positron annihilation lifetimes indicate that cation vacancies in the ZnO structure are the strong traps for positrons and the overall defect concentration in the NCs decreases with increase in Fe3O4 content. Dc magnetization measurements reveal an anomalous temperature dependence of the coercivity of the NCs that is argued to be due to the anomalous variation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy at lower temperature. The irreversibility observed in the temperature dependent ZFC-FC magnetization points to the presence of a spin-glass phase in the NCs.

  17. Structure of (Ga2O3)2(ZnO)13 and a unified description of the homologous series (Ga2O3)2(ZnO)(2n + 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiue, Yuichi; Kimizuka, Noboru; Kanke, Yasushi; Mori, Takao

    2012-06-01

    The structure of (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(13) has been determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. In the monoclinic structure of the space group C2/m with cell parameters a = 19.66 (4), b = 3.2487 (5), c = 27.31 (2) Å, and β = 105.9 (1)°, a unit cell is constructed by combining the halves of the unit cell of Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(6) and Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(7) in the homologous series Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(m). The homologous series (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(2n + 1) is derived and a unified description for structures in the series is presented using the (3+1)-dimensional superspace formalism. The phases are treated as compositely modulated structures consisting of two subsystems. One is constructed by metal ions and another is by O ions. In the (3 + 1)-dimensional model, displacive modulations of ions are described by the asymmetric zigzag function with large amplitudes, which was replaced by a combination of the sawtooth function in refinements. Similarities and differences between the two homologous series (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(2n + 1) and Ga(2)O(3)(ZnO)(m) are clarified in (3 + 1)-dimensional superspace. The validity of the (3 + 1)-dimensional model is confirmed by the refinements of (Ga(2)O(3))(2)(ZnO)(13), while a few complex phenomena in the real structure are taken into account by modifying the model.

  18. ZnO: Hydroquinone superlattice structures fabricated by atomic/molecular layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynell, Tommi; Karppinen, Maarit

    2014-01-01

    Here we employ atomic layer deposition in combination with molecular layer deposition to deposit crystalline thin films of ZnO interspersed with single layers of hydroquinone in an effort to create hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures. The ratio of the ZnO and hydroquinone deposition cycles is varied between 199:1 and 1:1, and the structure of the resultant thin films is verified with X-ray diffraction and reflectivity techniques. Clear evidence of the formation of a superlattice-type structure is observed in the X-ray reflectivity patterns and the presence of organic bonds in the films corresponding to the structure of hydroquinone is confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. We anticipate that hybrid superlattice structures such as the ones described in this work have the potential to be of great importance for future applications where the precise control of different inorganic and organic layers in hybrid superlattice materials is required. - Highlights: • Inorganic–organic superlattices can be made by atomic/molecular layer deposition. • This is demonstrated here for ZnO and hydroquinone (HQ). • The ratio of the ZnO and HQ layers is varied between 199:1 and 14:1. • The resultant thin films are crystalline

  19. ZnO: Hydroquinone superlattice structures fabricated by atomic/molecular layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynell, Tommi; Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi

    2014-01-31

    Here we employ atomic layer deposition in combination with molecular layer deposition to deposit crystalline thin films of ZnO interspersed with single layers of hydroquinone in an effort to create hybrid inorganic–organic superlattice structures. The ratio of the ZnO and hydroquinone deposition cycles is varied between 199:1 and 1:1, and the structure of the resultant thin films is verified with X-ray diffraction and reflectivity techniques. Clear evidence of the formation of a superlattice-type structure is observed in the X-ray reflectivity patterns and the presence of organic bonds in the films corresponding to the structure of hydroquinone is confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. We anticipate that hybrid superlattice structures such as the ones described in this work have the potential to be of great importance for future applications where the precise control of different inorganic and organic layers in hybrid superlattice materials is required. - Highlights: • Inorganic–organic superlattices can be made by atomic/molecular layer deposition. • This is demonstrated here for ZnO and hydroquinone (HQ). • The ratio of the ZnO and HQ layers is varied between 199:1 and 14:1. • The resultant thin films are crystalline.

  20. Structure and Properties of Al and Ga- Doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizer, Namik Kemal

    Recently there is tremendous interest in Transparent conducting oxide (TCO) research due to the unlimited and exciting application areas. Current research is mostly focused on finding alternative low cost and sustainable materials in order to replace indium tin oxide (ITO), which caused serious concern due to the increasing cost of indium and chemical stability issues of ITO. The primary aim of this research is to develop alternative TCO materials with superior properties in order to increase the efficiency in optoelectronic applications, as well as to study the properties of these materials to fully characterize them. We have grown Al and Ga-doped ZnO films with an optimized composition under different deposition conditions in order to understand the effect of processing parameters on the film properties. We report a detailed investigation on the structure-property correlations in Ga and Al codoped ZnO films on c-sapphire substrates where the thin film microstructure varies from nanocrystalline to single crystal. We have achieved highly epitaxial films with very high optical transmittance (close to 90%) and low resistivity (˜110muO-cm) values. The films grown in an ambient oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) of 50 mTorr and at growth temperatures from room temperature to 600°C showed semiconducting behavior, whereas samples grown at a Po2 of 1 mTorr showed metallic nature. The most striking feature is the occurrence of resistivity minima at relatively high temperatures around 110 K in films deposited at high temperatures. The structure-property correlations reveal that point defects play an important role in modifying the structural, optical, electrical and magnetic properties and such changes in physical properties are controlled predominantly by the defect content. To gain a better understanding of the conduction processes in doped ZnO thin films, we have studied the temperature variation of resistivity of some selected samples that showed some interesting behavior

  1. Influence Al doped ZnO nanostructure on structural and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramelan, Ari Handono; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti; Chasanah, Uswatul; Munawaroh, Hanik

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films prepared by the spin-coating method was reported. Preparation of AZO was conducted by annealing treatment at a temperature of 700°C. While the spin-coating process of AZO thin films were done at 2000 and 3000 rpm respectively. The structural properties of ZnO were determined by X- ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. ZnOnanostructure was formed after annealed at atemperature of 400°C.The morphology of ZnO was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed the irregular morphology about 30-50µm in size. Al doped on ZnO influenced the optical properties of those material. Increasing Al contain on ZnO cause of shifting to the lower wavelength. The optical properties of the ZnO as well as AZO films showed that higher reflectance on the ultraviolet region so those materials were used as anti-reflecting agent.Al addition significantly enhance the optical transparency and induce the blue-shift in optical bandgap of ZnO films.

  2. Photoelectrochemical properties of the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure prepared by hydrothermal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao SUN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the transport channels of the photogenerated electrons and enhance the photosensitizer loading ability of the electrode, a new TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is prepared through two-step hydrothermal process. First, TiO2 nanorod array is grown on the FTO conductive glass substrate by hydrothermal proess. Then, ZnO sol is coated onto the TiO2 nanorods through dip-coating method and inverted to ZnO seed layer by sintering. Finally, the secondary ZnO nanorods are grown onto the TiO2 nanorods by the sencond hydrothermal method to form the designed TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure. A spin-coating assisted successive ionic layer reaction method (SC-SILR is used to deposit the CdS nanocrystals into the TiO2 nanorod array and the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is used to form the CdS/TiO2 and CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite films. Different methods, such as SEM, TEM, XRD, UV-Vis and transient photocurrent, are employed to characterize and measure the morphologies, structures, light absorption and photoelectric conversion performance of all the samples, respectively. The results indicate that, compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod array, the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure can load more CdS photosensitizer. The light absorption properties and transient photocurrent performance of the CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure composite film are evidently superior to that of the CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films. The excellent photoelctrochemical performance of theTiO2-ZnO hierarchical structure reveales its application prospect in photoanode material of the solar cells.

  3. The structural properties of flower-like ZnO nanostructures on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswar, Kevin Alvin; Suhaimi, Mohd Husairi Fadzillah; Guliling, Muliyadi; Mohamad, Maryam; Khusaimi, Zuraida; Rusop, M.; Abdullah, Saifollah

    2018-05-01

    The flower-like zinc oxide (ZnO) were successfully synthesized on porous silicon (PSi) via hydrothermal method. The characteristic of ZnO nanostructures was investigated using field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction (X-Ray). The FESEM images show the flower-like ZnO nanostructures composed ZnO nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction shows that strong intensity of (100), (002) and (101) peaks. The structural analysis revealed that the peaks angles were shifted due to the stress or imperfection of the crystalline of ZnO nanostructures. The crystalline sizes in range of 42.60 to 54.09 nm were produced.

  4. Structural and optical properties of Na doped ZnO nanocrystals: Application to solar photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabib, Asma; Bouslama, Wiem [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Sieber, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed [UMET, UMR, CNRS 8207, Université Lille 1, 59665 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cédex (France); Elhouichet, Habib, E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, University of Tunis, ElManar 2092 (Tunisia); Férid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut d’Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR, CNRS, 8520 Avenue Pointcarré, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Na doped ZnO nanocrystals were prepared via sol–gel method. • A substitution of Zn{sup 2+} by Na{sup +} was demonstrated. • Low Na concentration induces higher photocatalytic activity under solar irradiation. • Oxygen vacancies guided the processes of charge separation. - Abstract: Na doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were successfully produced by sol–gel process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), Raman scattering, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis indicated that all the prepared samples present pure hexagonal wurtzite structure without any Na related phases. The lattice distortion, calculated using Williamson hall equation, induces stress and a reduction of NCs size from 71.4 to 24.5 nm. TEM images showed NCs with hexagonal shape and a rather uniform size distribution. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns confirmed the high crystal quality along the 〈101〉 direction and is consistent with the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. The Raman spectra are dominated by E{sub 2}{sup high} mode of ZnO. High Na doping shows the occurrence of anomalous local vibrational Raman modes close to 270 and 513 cm{sup −1} that are related to intrinsic host lattice defects and distortion, respectively. Optical band gap was found to vary with Na content. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate the presence of a high density of defects in ZnO NCs which are mainly oxygen vacancies. Finally, the obtained NCs were used as a photocatalyst to degrade Rhodamine B (RhB) in solution, under solar irradiation. Na doping enhances the photocatalytic activity of ZnO NCs till an optimum concentration of 0.5% where a full degradation was observed after 120 min of sun light irradiation. Furthermore, this sample presents a good cycling stability and reusability. Based on scavangers test, it was found that both superoxide and

  5. Structural and magnetic Properties of Mn, Co, Ni doped ZnO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is abundant, cost effective, non-toxic and also it is used in many bio-medical applications. ... The XRD of Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals shows hexagonal structure. ... The TM doped ZnO nanocrystals shows weak ferromagnetic properties at ...

  6. Novel bilayer structure ZnO based photoanode for enhancing conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jin [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an, Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Que Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an, Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Jia Qiaoying; Zhong Peng; Liao Yulong [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi' an, Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Ye Xiangdong; Ding Yucheng [State Key Laboratory of Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi' an, Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2011-07-07

    Highlights: > The ZnO nanocrystallite aggregates on the ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO-(NCAs/NWs)) photoanode are successfully fabricated. > Results indicate that such a configuration of the ZnO-(NCAs/NWs) photoanode can significantly improve the efficiency of the DSSC. > The electron transport properties of the DSSC based on the ZnO-(NCAs/NWs) photoanode is discussed deeply. - Abstract: ZnO film with a novel bilayer structure, which consists of ZnO nanowire (ZnO NW) arrays as underlayer and polydisperse ZnO nanocrystallite aggregates (ZnO NCAs) as overlayer, is fabricated and studied as dye-sensitized solar-cell (DSSC) photoanode. Results indicate that such a configuration of the ZnO nanocrystallite aggregates on the ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO-(NCAs/NWs)) can significantly improve the efficiency of the DSSC due to its fast electron transport, relatively high surface area and enhanced light-scattering capability. The short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) and the energy-conversion efficiency ({eta}) of the DSSC based on the ZnO-(NCAs/NWs) photoanode are estimated and the values are 9.19 mA cm{sup -2} and 3.02%, respectively, which are much better than those of the cells formed only by the ZnO NWs (J{sub sc} = 4.02 mA cm{sup -2}, {eta} = 1.04%) or the ZnO NCAs (J{sub sc} = 7.14 mA cm{sup -2}, {eta} = 2.56%) photoanode. Moreover, the electron transport properties of the DSSC based on the ZnO-(NCAs/NWs) photoanode are also discussed.

  7. Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by sonochemical method: Structural, photoluminescence, and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A.A., E-mail: aaelho@yahoo.com [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Osman, M.A. [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Ibrahim, E.M.M. [Sohag University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Ali, Manar A.; Abd-Elrahim, A.G. [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by the sonochemical method. • Structural, morphological, optical, photoluminescence and magnetic properties were investigated. • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures reveal a blue shift of the optical band gap. • Photoluminescence spectra of Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures show quenching in the emission intensity. • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. - Abstract: This work reports the synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures using ice-bath assisted sonochemical technique. The impact of Mn-doping on structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of ZnO nanostructures is studied. The morphological study shows that the lower doped samples possess mixtures of nanosheets and nanorods while the increase in Mn content leads to improvement of an anisotropic growth in a preferable orientation to form well-defined edge rods at Mn content of 0.04. UV–vis absorption spectra show that the exciton peak in the UV region is blue shifted due to Mn incorporation into the ZnO lattice. Doping ZnO with Mn ions leads to a reduction in the PL intensity due to a creation of more non-radiative recombination centers. The magnetic measurements show that the Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature, as well as variation of the Mn content can significantly affect the ferromagnetic behavior of the samples.

  8. Structural and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcan, D.; Gungor, A.; Arda, L.

    2018-06-01

    Zn1-xNaxO (x = 0.0-0.05) solutions have been synthesized by the sol-gel technique using Zinc acetate dihydrate and Sodium acetate which were dissolved into solvent and chelating agent. Na-doped ZnO nanoparticles were obtained from solutions to find phase and crystal structure. Na-doped ZnO films have been deposited onto glass substrate by using sol-gel dip coating system. The effects of dopant concentration on the structure, morphology, and optical properties of Na-doped ZnO thin films deposited on glass substrate are investigated. Characterization of Zn1-xNaxO nanoparticles and thin films are examined using differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-Ray diffractometer (XRD). Optical properties of Zn1-xNaxO thin films were obtained by using PG Instruments UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer in 190-1100 nm range. The structure, morphology, and optical properties of thin films are presented.

  9. Morphological and Relative Humidity Sensing Properties of Pure ZnO Nanomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Pandey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the resistive type humidity sensing properties of pure ZnO nanomaterial prepared by solid-state reaction method. Pellets of pure ZnO nanocrystalline powder have been made with 10 weight % of glass powder at pressure of 260 MPa by hydraulic press machine for 3 hours. These pellets have been sintered at temperatures 200 °C - 500 °C in an electric muffle furnace for 3 hours at heating rate of 5°C/min. After sintering, these pellets have been exposed to humidity in a specially designed humidity chamber at room temperature. It has been observed that as relative humidity increases, resistance of the pellets decreases for entire range of humidity i.e. 10 % to 90 %. The sensing element of ZnO shows best results with sensitivity of 11.13 MΩ/%RH for the annealing temperature of 400 °C. This sensing element manifests lower hysteresis, less effect of aging and high reproducibility for annealing temperature 400 °C. SEM micrographs show that the sensing elements manifest porous structure with a network of pores that are expected to provide sites for humidity adsorption. The average grain size calculated from SEM micrograph is 236 nm. XRD pattern shows peaks of hexagonal zincite. As calculated from Scherer’s formula, the average crystalline size for this sensing element is 59.4 nm. For this sensing element, the values of activation energy from the Arrhenius plot is 0.041 eV for temperature range 200 °C - 400 °C and 0.393 eV for temperature range 400 °C - 500 °C. The adsorption of water molecules on the surface takes place via a dissociative chemisorption process leading to release of electrons. ZnO has electron vacancy. Hence, because of this reaction, the electrons are accumulated at the ZnO surface and consequently, the resistance of the sensing element decreases with increase in relative humidity.

  10. Synthesis of assembled ZnO structures by precipitation method in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S.; Reeja-Jayan, B.; Rosa, E. de la; Torres-Castro, A.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, V.; Jose-Yacaman, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, arrays of submicron ZnO structures were successfully synthesized using a one-step aqueous precipitation method. Snowflake-like and flower-like morphologies were obtained by changing the reaction temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the ZnO arrays have a wurtzite crystal structure. A possible growth mechanism based on the analysis done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) is proposed. Our findings suggest that the growth mechanism of the ZnO arrays is by self-aggregation, and that such an oriented aggregation is enhanced by increasing the reaction temperature. The results also revealed that the aggregation process introduces several structural defects such as differences in mass distribution and crystalline structure. In order to study the surface chemical composition the samples were also characterized by XPS. The results showed the presence of Zn(OH) 2 and absorbed carbon species on the ZnO surface. In addition, the photoluminescence characterization showed that on UV excitation (λ = 360 nm) all samples present the characteristic UV emission centered at 390 nm, and for the sample synthesized at 60 deg. C, a visible emission was also observed

  11. Synthesis of assembled ZnO structures by precipitation method in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Guzman, S. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, UANL Km. 10 de la nueva carretera al Aeropuerto Internacional de Monterrey, PIIT Monterrey, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica de la UANL, Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon C.P. 66451 (Mexico)], E-mail: ssepulveda@mail.uanl.mx; Reeja-Jayan, B. [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C0803 (United States); Rosa, E. de la [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C. Loma del Bosque 115 Col. Lomas del Campestre, Leon Gto. C.P. 37150 (Mexico); Torres-Castro, A.; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, V. [Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, UANL Km. 10 de la nueva carretera al Aeropuerto Internacional de Monterrey, PIIT Monterrey, Apodaca NL (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica de la UANL, Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Jose-Yacaman, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Texas at San Antonio, 1604 Campus San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In this work, arrays of submicron ZnO structures were successfully synthesized using a one-step aqueous precipitation method. Snowflake-like and flower-like morphologies were obtained by changing the reaction temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated that the ZnO arrays have a wurtzite crystal structure. A possible growth mechanism based on the analysis done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) is proposed. Our findings suggest that the growth mechanism of the ZnO arrays is by self-aggregation, and that such an oriented aggregation is enhanced by increasing the reaction temperature. The results also revealed that the aggregation process introduces several structural defects such as differences in mass distribution and crystalline structure. In order to study the surface chemical composition the samples were also characterized by XPS. The results showed the presence of Zn(OH){sub 2} and absorbed carbon species on the ZnO surface. In addition, the photoluminescence characterization showed that on UV excitation ({lambda} = 360 nm) all samples present the characteristic UV emission centered at 390 nm, and for the sample synthesized at 60 deg. C, a visible emission was also observed.

  12. Structural interpretation of chemically synthesized ZnO nanorod and its application in lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, Samapti; Sain, Sumanta; Yoshio, Masaki; Kar, Tanusree; Gunawardhana, Nanda; Pradhan, Swapan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route. • Growth direction of ZnO nanorods has been determined along 〈0 0 2〉. • ZnO nanorods constructed anode shows a high discharge capacity in first cycle. • It retains good reversible capacity compared to other ZnO morphologies. - Abstract: ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route without using any template or capping agent and its importance is evaluated as a suitable candidate for anode material in lithium ion battery. Structural and microstructure characterizations of these nanorods are made by analyzing the X-ray diffraction data employing the Rietveld method of powder structure refinement. It reveals that the ZnO nanorods are grown up with a preferred orientation and elongated along 〈0 0 2〉. FESEM images reveal that these uniform cylindrical shaped nanorods are of different lengths and diameters. These synthesized ZnO nanorods are tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The nano grain size of the ZnO rods results in less volume expansion and/or contraction during the alloying/de-alloying process and causes in good cyclability. In addition, synthesized ZnO nanorods deliver high charge/discharge capacities compared to other reported ZnO materials

  13. Structural interpretation of chemically synthesized ZnO nanorod and its application in lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Samapti; Sain, Sumanta [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India); Yoshio, Masaki [Advanced Research and Education Centre, Saga University, 1341 Yoga-machi, Saga 840-0047 (Japan); Kar, Tanusree [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Gunawardhana, Nanda, E-mail: nandagunawardhana@pdn.ac.lk [International Research Centre, Senate Building, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Pradhan, Swapan Kumar, E-mail: skpradhan@phys.buruniv.ac.in [Materials Science Division, Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route. • Growth direction of ZnO nanorods has been determined along 〈0 0 2〉. • ZnO nanorods constructed anode shows a high discharge capacity in first cycle. • It retains good reversible capacity compared to other ZnO morphologies. - Abstract: ZnO nanorods are synthesized at room temperature via a simple chemical route without using any template or capping agent and its importance is evaluated as a suitable candidate for anode material in lithium ion battery. Structural and microstructure characterizations of these nanorods are made by analyzing the X-ray diffraction data employing the Rietveld method of powder structure refinement. It reveals that the ZnO nanorods are grown up with a preferred orientation and elongated along 〈0 0 2〉. FESEM images reveal that these uniform cylindrical shaped nanorods are of different lengths and diameters. These synthesized ZnO nanorods are tested as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The nano grain size of the ZnO rods results in less volume expansion and/or contraction during the alloying/de-alloying process and causes in good cyclability. In addition, synthesized ZnO nanorods deliver high charge/discharge capacities compared to other reported ZnO materials.

  14. Detection of Defect-Induced Magnetism in Low-Dimensional ZnO Structures by Magnetophotocurrent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorite, Israel; Kumar, Yogesh; Esquinazi, Pablo; Zandalazini, Carlos; de Heluani, Silvia Perez

    2015-09-09

    The detection of defect-induced magnetic order in single low-dimensional oxide structures is in general difficult because of the relatively small yield of magnetically ordered regions. In this work, the effect of an external magnetic field on the transient photocurrent measured after light irradiation on different ZnO samples at room temperature is studied. It has been found that a magnetic field produces a change in the relaxation rate of the transient photocurrent only in magnetically ordered ZnO samples. This rate can decrease or increase with field, depending on whether the magnetically ordered region is in the bulk or only at the surface of the ZnO sample. The phenomenon reported here is of importance for the development of magneto-optical low-dimensional oxides devices and provides a new guideline for the detection of magnetic order in low-dimensional magnetic semiconductors. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Structural characterization of ZnO thin films grown on various substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotný, M; Bulíř, J; Lančok, J; Čížek, J; Kužel, R; Connolly, J; McCarthy, E; Krishnamurthy, S; Mosnier, J-P; Anwand, W; Brauer, G

    2012-01-01

    ZnO thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on three different substrates: sapphire (0 0 0 1), MgO (1 0 0) and fused silica (FS). The structure and morphology of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy and defect studies were carried out using slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). Films deposited on all substrates studied in this work exhibit the wurtzite ZnO structure and are characterized by an average crystallite size of 20-100 nm. However, strong differences in the microstructure of films deposited on various substrates were found. The ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit local epitaxy, i.e. a well-defined relation between film crystallites and the substrate. Domains with different orientation relationships with the substrate were found in both films. On the other hand, the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits fibre texture with random lateral orientation of crystallites. Extremely high compressive in-plane stress of σ ∼ 14 GPa was determined in the film deposited on the MgO substrate, while the film deposited on sapphire is virtually stress-free, and the film deposited on the FS substrate exhibits a tensile in-plane stress of σ ∼ 0.9 GPa. SPIS investigations revealed that the concentration of open-volume defects in the ZnO films is substantially higher than that in a bulk ZnO single crystal. Moreover, the ZnO films deposited on MgO and sapphire single-crystalline substrates exhibit a significantly higher density of defects than the film deposited on the amorphous FS substrate. (paper)

  16. Synthesis and self-assembly of dumbbell shaped ZnO sub-micron structures using low temperature chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borade, P. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Joshi, K.U. [Anton-Paar India Pvt. Ltd., Thane (W), 400607 (India); Gokarna, A.; Lerondel, G. [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et D' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS UMR 6281, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 Rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes (France); Walke, P. [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Late, D. [National Chemical Laboratory (NCL), Pune 400027 (India); Jejurikar, S.M., E-mail: jejusuhas@gmail.com [National Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Mumbai, Kalina Campus, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2016-02-01

    We report well dispersed horizontal growth of ZnO sub-micron structures using simplest technique ever known i.e. chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples were prepared under two different cases A) dumbbell shaped ZnO grown in CBD bath and B) tubular ZnO structures evolved from dumbbell shaped structures by dissolution mechanism. Single phase wurtzite ZnO formation is confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique in both cases. From the morphological investigations performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), sample prepared under case A indicate formation of hex bit tool (HBT) shaped ZnO crystals, which observed to self-organize to form dumbbell structures. Further these microstructures are then converted into tubular structures as a fragment of post CBD process. The possible mechanism responsible for the self-assembly of HBT units to form dumbbell structures is discussed. Observed free excitonic peak located at 370 nm in photoluminescence (PL) spectra recorded at 18 K indicate that the micro/nanostructures synthesized using CBD are of high optical quality. - Highlights: • Controlled growth of Dumbbell shaped ZnO using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD). • Growth mechanism of dumbbell shaped ZnO by self-assembling was discussed. • Quick Transformation of ZnO dumbbell structures in to tubular structures by dissolution. • Sharp UV Emission at 370 nm from both dumbbell and tubular structures.

  17. Effects of ZnO Seed Layers Prepared with Various Precursor Concentrations on Structural and Defect Emission Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown by Hydrothermal Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Leem, Jae-Young; Kim, Yangsoo [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ghun Sik; Yoon, Sung Pil [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    ZnO nanorods were grown by a hydrothermal method on ZnO seed layers that had previously been prepared from solutions containing various precursor concentrations. The effects of the ZnO seed layers prepared with various precursor concentrations on the structural and defect emissions of the ZnO nanorods were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The surface morphology of the ZnO seed layers changed with an increasing precursor concentration, and the diameters and densities of the ZnO nanorods depended on the morphologies of the ZnO seed layers. The ZnO seed layers prepared with various precursor concentrations affected the residual stress in the nanorods grown on the seed layers, the intensity and full widths at half maximum of the 2-theta angle in the XRD spectra for the nanorods, and the intensity and position of the defect emission peak in deep-level emission (DLE) PL spectra for the ZnO nanorods.

  18. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khun, Kimleang; Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; AlSalhi, Mohamad S; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees A; Willander, Magnus

    2013-09-30

    In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

  19. Fabrication of Well-Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Composite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles and Chitosan Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees A. Ansari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, by taking the advantage of both inorganic ZnO nanoparticles and the organic material chitosan as a composite seed layer, we have fabricated well-aligned ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate using the hydrothermal growth method. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by the Raman spectroscopic techniques, which showed the nanocrystalline phase of the ZnO nanoparticles. Different composites of ZnO nanoparticles and chitosan were prepared and used as a seed layer for the fabrication of well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopic techniques were utilized for the structural characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods on a gold-coated glass substrate. This study has shown that the ZnO nanorods are well-aligned, uniform, and dense, exhibit the wurtzite hexagonal structure, and are perpendicularly oriented to the substrate. Moreover, the ZnO nanorods are only composed of Zn and O atoms. An optical study was also carried out for the ZnO nanoparticles/chitosan seed layer-coated ZnO nanorods, and the obtained results have shown that the fabricated ZnO nanorods exhibit good crystal quality. This study has provided a cheap fabrication method for the controlled morphology and good alignment of ZnO nanorods, which is of high demand for enhancing the working performance of optoelectronic devices.

  20. Fabrication of ZnO Nanowire Based Piezoelectric Generators and Related Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku, Charles; Dahiya, Abhishek Singh; Oshman, Christopher; Cayrel, Frederic; Poulin-Vittrant, Guylaine; Alquier, Daniel; Camara, Nicolas

    Using vertically grown hydrothermal ZnO nanowires, we demonstrate the assembly of fully functional piezoelectric energy harvesters on plastics substrates. A seedless hydrothermal process is employed for the growth of single crystalline vertically orientated ZnO NWs at around 100oC. Flexible NG are assembled using ∼7 μm thick PDMS polymer matrix on a 3x3cm substrate. A representative device with an active area of 4cm2 is characterised revealing average output voltage generation of ∼22mV (±1.2) and -32mV (±0.16) in the positive and negative cycles after 3-4mm periodic deflection at 20Hz. A power density of ∼288nW/cm3 is estimated for the device. It is envisaged that such energy scavengers may find potential applications targeting self-powered systems, sensors and on-body charging of electronics.

  1. Structural and photoluminescence characterization of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated with ZnO by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouldhamadouche, N. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere BP 32229 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El Alla. 16111, Bab Ezzouaur (Algeria); Achour, A., E-mail: a_aminph@yahoo.fr [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere BP 32229 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Musa, I.; Ait Aissa, K.; Massuyeau, F.; Jouan, P.Y. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere BP 32229 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Kechouane, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, BP 32 El Alla. 16111, Bab Ezzouaur (Algeria); Le Brizoual, L.; Faulques, E.; Barreau, N.; Djouadi, M.A. [Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, Universite de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssiniere BP 32229 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France)

    2012-05-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures are very attractive in various optoelectronic applications such as light emitting devices. A fabrication process of these ZnO nanostructures which gives a good crystalline quality and being compatible with that of micro-fabrication has significant importance for practical application. In this work ZnO films with different thicknesses were deposited by RF-sputtering on vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) template in order to obtain ZnO nanorods. The obtained hybrid structures (ZnO/MWCNTs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). Results show that the ZnO/MWCNTs have a nanorod structure like morphology with a good crystalline quality of the deposited ZnO on the MWCNTs. PL measurements reveal an enhancement of the band edge signal of ZnO/MWCNTs which is three times of magnitude higher compared to the ZnO film deposited on silicon. Moreover, the intensity enhancement varies as function of the ZnO thickness. Such hybrid structures are promising for optoelectronic application, such as blue-violet sources.

  2. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Co doped ZnO DMS nanoparticles by microwave irradiation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvammal, D.; Selvaraj, S.; Meenakshi Sundar, S.

    2018-04-01

    Microwave irradiation method is employed to synthesis of Zn1-xCoxO (x = 0.001-0.004) nanoparticles and investigate their structural, optical and magnetic properties using various characterization techniques. Structural studies reveal single phase hexagonal structure with average crystallite size 18-28 nm. FTIR study identifies the functional group present in the samples. The incorporation of Co2+ ions into the ZnO lattice is confirmed through XRD and UV-Vis studies. PL spectra exhibit a strong emission peak in UV region and a defect related visible emission peak in orange red region. These peaks are attributed to near band edge emission and the presence of oxygen related defects in the samples respectively. The blue shift observed in the UV emission peak shows an increase in the carrier concentration caused by the interstitial incorporation of ions into the ZnO lattice. The oxygen related defect is also confirmed through a peak obtained around g factor 1.9933 in ESR studies. Further, the number of spin contributing the ESR signal demonstrates the dependence of the strength of ferromagnetism on the concentration of oxygen ion vacancies. The VSM, ESR and PL measurements confirm the origin of RTFM of Co doped ZnO nanoparticles from the exchange interaction between the localized spin moments resulting from oxygen vacancies. The reason for the obtained super paramagnetic nature for x = 0.002 and x = 0.003 may be either due to some of nanoparticles or due to the weakly coupled Co ions in the Zn2+ site in the ZnO lattice. Further, the ferromagnetic behavior arises again for x = 0.004 due to the incorporation of Co2+ ions in the interstitial positions.

  3. ZnO - Wide Bandgap Semiconductor and Possibilities of Its Application in Optical Waveguide Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struk Przemysław

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the application of zinc oxide - a wideband gap semiconductor in optical planar waveguide structures. ZnO is a promising semiconducting material thanks to its attractive optical properties. The investigations were focused on the determination of the technology of depositions and the annealing of ZnO layers concerning their optical properties. Special attention was paid to the determination of characteristics of the refractive index of ZnO layers and their coefficients of spectral transmission within the UV-VIS-NIR range. Besides that, also the mode characteristics and the attenuation coefficients of light in the obtained waveguide structures have been investigated. In the case of planar waveguides, in which the ZnO layers have not been annealed after their deposition, the values of the attenuation coefficient of light modes amount to a~ 30 dB/cm. The ZnO layers deposited on the heated substrate and annealed by rapid thermal annealing in an N2 and O2 atmosphere, are characterized by much lower values of the attenuation coefficients: a~ 3 dB/cm (TE0 and TM0 modes. The ZnO optical waveguides obtained according to our technology are characterized by the lowest values of the attenuation coefficients a encountered in world literature concerning the problem of optical waveguides based on ZnO. Studies have shown that ZnO layers elaborated by us can be used in integrated optic systems, waveguides, optical modulators and light sources.

  4. Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Film Prepared by Oxidation of Zn Metal Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.K.; Hashim, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    High quality ZnO nano structures have been fabricated at room temperature by a simple vacuum thermal evaporator from metallic Zn powders (99.999 % purity) on a silicon (100) substrate. The Zn thin films were then transferred into a thermal tube furnace for oxidation at 700 degree Celsius for different time durations. Time was found to be a critical factor in the synthesis. This was followed by characterization of their morphological, structural and optical properties. The morphology of the grown ZnO nano structures exhibited several large grains, which increased gradually with increasing oxidation time. The crystallinity of the grown nano structures was investigated using X-ray diffraction, revealing that the synthesized ZnO was in hexagonal wurtzite phase. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the fabricated ZnO nano structures showed high intensity peak in the UV region due to near-band-edge (NBE) emission in which the structures oxidized for 30 min showing highest intensity. (author)

  5. The structural, electrical and optical properties of Mg-doped ZnO with different interstitial Mg concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yonghong, E-mail: hchyh@njust.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Technology and Chemistry & Biology, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning 437100 (China); Institute of Optoelectronics & Nanomaterials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zeng, Haibo [Institute of Optoelectronics & Nanomaterials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Du, Jifu [School of Nuclear Technology and Chemistry & Biology, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning 437100 (China); Hu, Ziyu [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Shengli [Institute of Optoelectronics & Nanomaterials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2016-10-01

    Through first principle calculations, we studied the structural, electronic and optical properties of ZnO doped by interstitial Mg. With the increase of Mg content (x), the derivations of lattice parameters from the wurtzite ZnO become more and more significant. The Mg-doped ZnO with x below 15.79% is found to be n-type semiconductor. The minimum of energy band gap and light transmittance in high energy region (7.5–25 eV) decrease while the conductivity and refractive index increase with increasing x. Further increasing x up to 20%, the Mg-doped ZnO is found to be direct-band-gap semiconductor with great structural derivation from wurtzite phase. The light transmittance increases while the refractive index decreases with the increase of x due to the change of geometry and electronic structure. So, it’s concluded that the electronic and optical properties of ZnO doped by interstitial Mg may be greatly influenced by Mg content. - Graphical abstract: The minimum of energy gap decreases while the corresponding relative number of electrons into the conduction bands increases when the interstitial Mg content x in Mg-doped ZnO increases (0 ≤ x ≤ 15.79%). - Highlights: • The energy band gap decreases with the increase of interstitial Mg content from 5.88% to 15.79%. • The conductivity increases with the increase of interstitial Mg content from 5.88% to 15.79%. • The Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1-x}O (interstitial Mg content x= 20%) is found to be a direct-band-gap semiconductor. • The light transmittance decreases with the increase of interstitial Mg content from 5.88% to 15.79%. • The refractive index increases with the increase of interstitial Mg content from 5.88% to 15.79%.

  6. Size dependent emission stimulation in ZnO nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchynska, T.V.; El Filali, B.

    2014-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL), X ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering have been studied in crystalline ZnO nanosheets (NSs) of different sizes, estimated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). ZnO NSs with the size from the range of 60–600 nm were created by the electrochemical (anodization) method and followed thermal annealing at 400 °C for 2 h in ambient air. XRD study confirms the wurtzite structure of ZnO NSs and has revealed that the lattice parameters increase monotonically with decreasing NS sizes. Simultaneously the intensity of a set of Raman peaks increases and Raman peaks shift into the low energy range. The surface phonon has been detected in smallest size ZnO NSs. Two types of PL bands deal with a set of phonon replicas of free excitons and the defect related emission have been detected in ZnO NSs. The intensity enhancement of exciton- and defect-related PL bands with decreasing ZnO NS sizes has been detected. The intensity stimulation of exciton-related PL bands is attributed to the realization of the week confinement and the exciton-light coupling with the formation of polariton in small size ZnO NSs of 67–170 nm. The intensity rising of defect-related PL bands is attributed to the concentration enlargement of surface defects when the surface to volume ration increases at decreasing ZnO NS sizes. Numerical simulations of radiative lifetimes and exciton radiative recombination rates in ZnO NSs for different emission wavelengths have been done using the exciton-light coupling model. Then the experimental and numerically simulated PL results have been compared and discussed. - Highlights: • Optical and structural investigations of the ZnO nanosheets with the sizes 60–600 nm. • The enlargement of interplanar distances in the wurtzite ZnO crystal lattice is detected. • The change of optic phonon energy and surface phonon appearing are reveled. • ZnO emission stimulation at the week confinement and electron-light coupling with the

  7. The structural, electronic and optical properties of Nd doped ZnO using first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Jian-Min; Chen, Guo-Xiang; Wu, Hua; Yang, Xu

    2018-04-01

    The density functional theory calculations using general gradient approximation (GGA) applying Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) as correlation functional have been systematically performed to research the formation energy, the electronic structures, band structures, total and partial DOS, and optical properties of Nd doping ZnO with the content from 6.25% to 12.5%. The formation energies are negative for both models, which show that two structures are energetically stable. Nd doping ZnO crystal is found to be a direct band gap semiconductor and Fermi level shifts upward into conduction band, which show the properties of n-type semiconductor. Band structures are more compact after Nd doping ZnO, implying that Nd doping induces the strong interaction between different atoms. Nd doping ZnO crystal presents occupied states at near Fermi level, which mainly comes from the Nd 4f orbital. The calculated optical properties imply that Nd doping causes a red-shift of absorption peaks, and enhances the absorption of the visible light.

  8. Structural and Optical Properties of Eu Doped ZnO Nanorods prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Alarawi, Abeer

    2014-06-23

    Nano structured wide band gap semiconductors have attracted attention of many researchers due to their potential electronic and optoelectronic applications. In this thesis, we report successful synthesis of well aligned Eu doped ZnO nano-rods prepared, for the first time to our knowledge, by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) without any catalyst. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns shows that these Eu doped ZnO nanorods are grown along the c-axis of ZnO wurtzite structure. We have studied the effect of the PLD growth conditions on forming vertically aligned Eu doped ZnO nanorods. The structural properties of the material are investigated using a -scanning electron microscope (SEM). The PLD parameters must be carefully controlled in order to obtain c-axis oriented ZnO nanorods on sapphire substrates, without the use of any catalyst. The experiments conducted in order to identify the optimal growth conditions confirmed that, by adjusting the target-substrate distance, substrate temperature, laser energy and deposition duration, the nanorod size could be successfully controlled. Most importantly, the results indicated that the photoluminescence (PL) properties reflect the quality of the ZnO nanorods. These parameters can change the material’s structure from one-dimensional to two-dimensional however the laser energy and frequency affect the size and the height of the nanorods; the xygen pressure changes the density of the nanorods.

  9. Electronic structure of gadolinium complexes in ZnO in the GW approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, A. L.; Frauenheim, Th.

    2018-04-01

    The role of intrinsic defects has been investigated to determine binding energies and the electronic structure of Gd complexes in ZnO. We use density-functional theory and the GW method to show that the presence of vacancies and interstitials affect the electronic structure of Gd doped ZnO. However, the strong localization of the Gd-f and d states suggest that carrier mediated ferromagnetism in this material may be difficult to achieve.

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a tri-layer ZnO photo-electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Bai, Jiafan; Feng, Bo; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie; Jiang, Chongxi; Wang, Jianxin, E-mail: j.wang63@gmail.com

    2013-11-25

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram for the energy-level, the paths of charge transfer, the model of light scattering in the top layer and the assembly of the DSSC. Highlights: •We successfully fabricated ZnO photo-anodes with a tri-layer ZnO structure. •The ZnO seed layer decreased the transfer resistance at the ZnO/FTO interface. •The ZnO light scattering layer could increase the number of photoelectrons. •J{sub sc} and V{sub oc} were greatly enhanced via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. •The efficiency of the DSSCs for a tri-layer ZnO structure was the highest. -- Abstract: In this paper, a tri-layer ZnO structure was designed to fabricate the photo-anodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The results showed that an overall energy-conversion efficiency of 1.18% was achieved for DSSC with the tri-layer photo-anode, which was 14% higher than that obtained from a bilayer ZnO photo-anode (with an efficiency of 1.04%) and 76% higher than that fabricated with a single layer photo-anode (with an efficiency of 0.67%). The photo-current density and the open circuit voltage have greatly increased via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. Thus, the tri-layer ZnO structure might provide a new route for the improvement of the overall energy-conversion efficiency for the DSSC of ZnO.

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a tri-layer ZnO photo-electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Bai, Jiafan; Feng, Bo; Lu, Xiong; Weng, Jie; Jiang, Chongxi; Wang, Jianxin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram for the energy-level, the paths of charge transfer, the model of light scattering in the top layer and the assembly of the DSSC. Highlights: •We successfully fabricated ZnO photo-anodes with a tri-layer ZnO structure. •The ZnO seed layer decreased the transfer resistance at the ZnO/FTO interface. •The ZnO light scattering layer could increase the number of photoelectrons. •J sc and V oc were greatly enhanced via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. •The efficiency of the DSSCs for a tri-layer ZnO structure was the highest. -- Abstract: In this paper, a tri-layer ZnO structure was designed to fabricate the photo-anodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The results showed that an overall energy-conversion efficiency of 1.18% was achieved for DSSC with the tri-layer photo-anode, which was 14% higher than that obtained from a bilayer ZnO photo-anode (with an efficiency of 1.04%) and 76% higher than that fabricated with a single layer photo-anode (with an efficiency of 0.67%). The photo-current density and the open circuit voltage have greatly increased via the use of the tri-layer ZnO structure. Thus, the tri-layer ZnO structure might provide a new route for the improvement of the overall energy-conversion efficiency for the DSSC of ZnO

  12. Electrodeposition of ZnO nano-wires lattices with a controlled morphology; Electrodepot de reseaux de nanofils de ZnO a morphologie controlee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, J.; Tena-Zaera, R.; Katty, A.; Levy-Clement, C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Lab. de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, UPR 209, 94 - Thiais (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this work, it is shown that the electrodeposition is a changeable low cost method which allows, according to the synthesis conditions, to obtain not only plane thin layers of ZnO but different nano-structures too. In a first part, are presented the formation conditions of a compact thin layer of nanocrystalline ZnO electrodeposited on a conducing glass substrate. This layer plays a buffer layer role for the deposition of a lattice of ZnO nano-wires. The step of nano-wires nucleation is not only determined by the electrochemical parameters but by the properties of the buffer layer too as the grain sizes and its thickness. In this context, the use of an electrodeposition method in two steps allows to control the nano-wires length and diameter and their density. The morphology and the structural and optical properties of these nano-structures have been analyzed by different techniques as the scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the X-ray diffraction and the optical spectroscopy. These studies show that ZnO nano-structures are formed of monocrystalline ZnO nano-wires, presenting a great developed surface and a great optical transparency in the visible. These properties make ZnO a good material for the development of nano-structured photovoltaic cells as the extremely thin absorber cells (PV ETA) or those with dye (DSSC) which are generally prepared with porous polycrystalline TiO{sub 2}. Its replacement by a lattice of monocrystalline ZnO nano-wires allows to reduce considerably the number of grain boundaries and in consequence to improve the transport of the electrons. The results are then promising for the PV ETA cells with ZnO nano-wires. (O.M.)

  13. Structural and plasmonic properties of noble metal doped ZnO nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Trilok K.; Swart, H. C.; Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Noble metal doped ZnO has been synthesized by the combustion method and the effect of different metals (Ag, Au, Pd) on the structural, morphological, optical, photoluminescence and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the ZnO had a hexagonal wurtzite structure and the crystallite sizes were affected by the doping. The formation of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated using transmission electron microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectra. The LSPR of the metallic NPs was predicted using Mie theory calculations. The absorption spectra were calculated using the Kubelka-Munk function and the optical bandgap varied from 3.06 to 3.18 eV for the different doping materials. The experimental results suggest that the origin of enhanced emission was due to direct interaction between the laser photons and the noble material NPs which in turn leads to photoemission transfer of electrons from the noble metals NPs to the conduction band of ZnO.

  14. Role of Fe doping on structural and vibrational properties of ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyarajan, T.; Udayabhaskar, R.; Karthikeyan, B. [National Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Tiruchirappalli (India)

    2012-05-15

    In this report, Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) measurements were carried out to study the phonon modes of pure and Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel technique at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the nanoparticles are in hexagonal wurtzite structure and doping makes the shrinkage of the lattice parameters, whereas there is no alteration in the unit cell. Raman measurements show both E{sub 2}{sup low} and E{sub 2}{sup High} optical phonon mode is shifted towards lower wave number with Fe incorporation and explained on the basis of force constant variation, stress measurements, respectively. In addition, Fe related local vibrational modes (LVM) were observed for higher concentration of Fe doping. FTIR spectra reveal a band at 444 cm{sup -1} which is specific to E{sub 1} (TO) mode; a red-shift of this mode in Fe doped samples and some surface phonon modes were observed. Furthermore, the observation of additional IR modes, which is considered to have an origin related to Fe dopant in the ZnO nanostructures, is also reported. These additional mode features can be regarded as an indicator for the incorporation of Fe ions into the lattice position of the ZnO nanostructures. (orig.)

  15. Evolution of microstructure and related optical properties of ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adib Abou Chaaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A study of transmittance and photoluminescence spectra on the growth of oxygen-rich ultra-thin ZnO films prepared by atomic layer deposition is reported. The structural transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline state is observed upon increasing the thickness. The unusual behavior of the energy gap with thickness reflected by optical properties is attributed to the improvement of the crystalline structure resulting from a decreasing concentration of point defects at the growth of grains. The spectra of UV and visible photoluminescence emissions correspond to transitions near the band-edge and defect-related transitions. Additional emissions were observed from band-tail states near the edge. A high oxygen ratio and variable optical properties could be attractive for an application of atomic layer deposition (ALD deposited ultrathin ZnO films in optical sensors and biosensors.

  16. Hierarchical ZnO microspheres built by sheet-like network: Large-scale synthesis and structurally enhanced catalytic performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guoxing; Liu Yuanjun; Ji Zhenyuan; Bai Song; Shen Xiaoping; Xu Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hierarchical ZnO microspheres were prepared through a facile precursor procedure in the absence of self-assembled templates, organic additives, or matrices. ► The building blocks of microspheres, sheet-like ZnO networks, are porous mesocrystal terminated with (0 1 −1 0) crystal planes. ► The hierarchical ZnO microsphere catalyst exhibits structure-induced enhancement of catalytic performance and a strong durability. - Abstract: Large-scale novel hierarchical ZnO microspheres were fabricated by a facile precursor procedure in the absence of self-assembled templates, organic additives, or matrices. A field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) image reveals that the ZnO microspheres with diameter of 5–18 μm are built by sheet-like ZnO networks with average thickness of 40 nm and length of several microns. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image indicates that the building blocks, sheet-like ZnO networks, are porous mesocrystal terminated with {0 1 −1 0} crystal planes. A potential application of the ZnO microspheres as a catalyst in the synthesis of 5-substituted 1H-tetrazoles was investigated. It was found that the hierarchical ZnO microsphere catalyst exhibits structure-induced enhancement of catalytic performance and a strong durability.

  17. Nano-structural properties of ZnO films for Si based heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, T.H. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: t.h.breivik@fys.uio.no; Diplas, S. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Center for Material Science and Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 1126, Blindern, NO-0318 Oslo (Norway); Ulyashin, A.G. [Section for Renewable Energy, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Gunnaes, A.E. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo (Norway); Olaisen, B.R.; Wright, D.N.; Holt, A. [Section for Renewable Energy, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Olsen, A. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 1048, Blindern, NO-0316, Oslo (Norway)

    2007-10-15

    Properties and structure of ZnO and ZnO:Al films deposited on c-Si, a-Si:H/Si and glass substrates are studied by various methods. The transmittance of the ZnO:Al was found to be higher when compared to ZnO, and the refractive index lower. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the screening efficiency in the presence of core holes is enhanced in the Al doped ZnO. The roughness of the ZnO:Al surfaces is strongly substrate dependent. With transmission electron microscopy (TEM) a 2-3 nm thick amorphous interfacial layer was observed independently of substrate and doping. Deposition of ZnO on a-Si:H substrate results in crystallization of the a-Si:H layer independently of Al doping.

  18. Nano-structural properties of ZnO films for Si based heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, T.H.; Diplas, S.; Ulyashin, A.G.; Gunnaes, A.E.; Olaisen, B.R.; Wright, D.N.; Holt, A.; Olsen, A.

    2007-01-01

    Properties and structure of ZnO and ZnO:Al films deposited on c-Si, a-Si:H/Si and glass substrates are studied by various methods. The transmittance of the ZnO:Al was found to be higher when compared to ZnO, and the refractive index lower. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the screening efficiency in the presence of core holes is enhanced in the Al doped ZnO. The roughness of the ZnO:Al surfaces is strongly substrate dependent. With transmission electron microscopy (TEM) a 2-3 nm thick amorphous interfacial layer was observed independently of substrate and doping. Deposition of ZnO on a-Si:H substrate results in crystallization of the a-Si:H layer independently of Al doping

  19. Effect of Er3+ doping on structural, morphological and photocatalytical properties of ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhouche, S.; Bensouici, F.; Toubane, M.; Azizi, A.; Otmani, A.; Chebout, K.; Kezzoula, F.; Tala-Ighil, R.; Bououdina, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this research work, structure, microstructure, optical and photocatalytic properties of undoped and Erbium doped nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicates that the deposited films crystallize within the hexagonal wurtzite-type structure with a preferential growth orientation along (002) plane. Morphological observations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal important influence of Er concentration; displaying homogeneous and dense aspect for undoped to 0.3% then grid-like morphology for 0.4 and 0.5%. UV/vis/NIR transmittance spectroscopy spectra display a transmittance over 70%, and small variation in the energy gap energy 3.263–3.278 eV. Wettability test of ZnO thin films surface ranges from hydrophilic aspect for pure ZnO to hydrophobic one for Er doped ZnO, and the contact angle is found to increase from 58.7° for pure ZnO up to 98.4° for 0.4% Er doped ZnO. The photocatalytic activity measurements evaluated using the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light irradiation demonstrate that undoped ZnO film shows higher photocatalytic activity compared to Er doped ZnO films, which may be attributed to the deterioration of films’crystallinity resulting in lower transmittance.

  20. Branched ZnO wire structures for water collection inspired by cacti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Xin; Xiang, Mingming; Lu, Zhihui; Luo, Cheng

    2014-06-11

    In this work, motivated by an approach used in a cactus to collect fog, we have developed an artificial water-collection structure. This structure includes a large ZnO wire and an array of small ZnO wires that are branched on the large wire. All these wires have conical shapes, whose diameters gradually increase from the tip to the root of a wire. Accordingly, a water drop that is condensed on the tip of each wire is driven to the root by a capillary force induced by this diameter gradient. The lengths of stem and branched wires in the synthesized structures are in the orders of 1 mm and 100 μm, respectively. These dimensions are, respectively, comparable to and larger than their counterparts in the case of a cactus. Two groups of tests were conducted at relative humidity of 100% to compare the amounts of water collected by artificial and cactus structures within specific time durations of 2 and 35 s, respectively. The amount of water collected by either type of structures was in the order of 0.01 μL. However, on average, what has been collected by the artificial structures was 1.4-5.0 times more than that harvested by the cactus ones. We further examined the mechanism that a cactus used to absorb a collected water drop into its stem. On the basis of the gained understanding, we developed a setup to successfully collect about 6 μL of water within 30 min.

  1. Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Co and Fe doped ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First-principle ultrasoft pseudo potential approach of the plane wave based on density functional theory has been used for studying the electronic characterization and optical properties of ZnO and Fe, Co doped ZnO. The results show that the doping impurities change the lattice parameters a little, but bring more changes in the electronic structures. The band gaps are broadened by doping. And the Fermi level accesses to the conduction band which will lead the system to show the character of metallic properties. The dielectric function and absorption peaks are identified and the changes compared to pure ZnO are analyzed in detail.

  2. Electrical and structural properties of ZnO synthesized via infiltration of lithographically defined polymer templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Chang-Yong; Stein, Aaron; Kisslinger, Kim; Black, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the electrical and structural properties of infiltration-synthesized ZnO. In-plane ZnO nanowire arrays with prescribed positional registrations are generated by infiltrating diethlyzinc and water vapor into lithographically defined SU-8 polymer templates and removing organic matrix by oxygen plasma ashing. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that homogeneously amorphous as-infiltrated polymer templates transform into highly nanocrystalline ZnO upon removal of organic matrix. Field-effect transistor device measurements show that the synthesized ZnO after thermal annealing displays a typical n-type behavior, ∼10 19  cm −3 carrier density, and ∼0.1 cm 2 V −1 s −1 electron mobility, reflecting highly nanocrystalline internal structure. The results demonstrate the potential application of infiltration synthesis in fabricating metal oxide electronic devices

  3. Hydrothermal temperature effect on crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity of ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhafina, Wan Almaz; Salleh, Hasiah; Daud, Mohd Zalani; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd; Ghazali, Salmah Mohd

    2017-09-01

    ZnO is an wide direct band gap semiconductor and possess rich family of nanostructures which turned to be a key role in the nanotechnology field of applications. Hydrothermal method was proven to be simple, robust and low cost among the reported methods to synthesize ZnO nanostructures. In this work, the properties of ZnO nanostructures were altered by varying temperatures of hydrothermal process. The changes in term of morphological, crystal structures, optical properties and electrical conductivity were investigated. A drastic change of ZnO nanostructures morphology and decreases of 002 diffraction peak were observed as the hydrothermal temperature increased. The band gap of samples decreased as the size of ZnO nanostructure increased, whereas the electrical conductivity had no influence on the band gap value but more on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures instead.

  4. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by Aspalathus linearis: Structural & optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, A.; Ngom, B.D.; Park, E.; Maaza, M.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution reports for the 1st time on the synthesis and the main physical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an entirely green physical-chemistral process using Aspalathus linearis's natural extract as an efficient reduction/oxidizing agent. Their structural and optical properties by electron microscopy, X-rays diffraction, Raman and X-rays photoemission spectroscopies as well as room temperature photoluminescence are reported. - Highlights: • 1st time report on synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by a green process via Aspalathus linearis extract. • A. linearis's natural extract was used as an effective reduction/oxidizing agent. • Wurtzite nature of ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed via XRD, Raman, XPS and PL

  5. Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by Aspalathus linearis: Structural & optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, A.; Ngom, B.D. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Park, E. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa); Nelson Mandela African Institute for Science & Technology, Arusha (Tanzania, United Republic of); Maaza, M., E-mail: Maaza@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences-Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), iThemba LABS-National Research Foundation, 1 Old Faure road, Somerset West 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape (South Africa)

    2015-10-15

    This contribution reports for the 1st time on the synthesis and the main physical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an entirely green physical-chemistral process using Aspalathus linearis's natural extract as an efficient reduction/oxidizing agent. Their structural and optical properties by electron microscopy, X-rays diffraction, Raman and X-rays photoemission spectroscopies as well as room temperature photoluminescence are reported. - Highlights: • 1st time report on synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by a green process via Aspalathus linearis extract. • A. linearis's natural extract was used as an effective reduction/oxidizing agent. • Wurtzite nature of ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed via XRD, Raman, XPS and PL.

  6. Vapour transport growth of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofor, A.C.; Bakin, A.S.; Elshaer, A.; Waag, A. [Technical University Braunschweig, Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Fuhrmann, D.; Hangleiter, A. [Technical University Braunschweig, Institute of Applied Physics, Braunschweig (Germany); Bertram, F.; Christen, J. [University of Magdeburg, Department of Solid State Physics, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The fabrication of low-dimensional ZnO structures has attracted enormous attention as such nanostructures are expected to pave the way for many interesting applications in optoelectronics, spin electronics gas sensor technology and biomedicine. Many reported fabrication methods, especially for ZnO nanorods are mostly based on catalyst-assisted growth techniques that employ metal-organic sources and other contaminating agents like graphite to grow ZnO nanorods at relatively high temperatures. We report on catalyst-free vapour-phase epitaxy growth of ZnO nanorods on 6H-SiC and (11-20)Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using purely elemental sources at relatively low temperatures and growth pressure. ZnO nanorods with widths of 80-900 nm and lengths of up to 12 {mu}m were obtained. Nanorod density on the order of 10{sup 9} cm{sup -2} with homogenous luminescence and high purity was also noted. (orig.)

  7. Effects of buffer layer annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of hydrothermal grown ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.Q.; Kim, C.R.; Lee, J.Y.; Heo, J.H.; Shin, C.M. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.C. [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Korea Maritime University, 1 Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-Ku, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Gwaebeop-dong, Sasang-gu, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, W.G. [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kookmin University, 861-1 Jeongneung-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tan, S.T. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); Zhao, J.L. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, X.W. [Institute of Microelectronics, 11 Science Park Road, Science Park II, Singapore 117685 (Singapore); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2009-02-01

    ZnO was deposited on bare Si(1 0 0), as-deposited, and annealed ZnO/Si(1 0 0) substrates by hydrothermal synthesis. The effects of a ZnO buffer layer and its thermal annealing on the properties of the ZnO deposited by hydrothermal synthesis were studied. The grain size and root mean square (RMS) roughness values of the ZnO buffer layer increased after thermal annealing of the buffer layer. The effect of buffer layer annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties was investigated by photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Hydrothermal grown ZnO deposited on ZnO/Si(1 0 0) annealed at 750 deg. C with the concentration of 0.3 M exhibits the best structural and optical properties.

  8. Influence of Sc doping concentration on electronic structure and optical properties of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuxi; Zhang Hao; Han Long; Qu Licheng; Gu Shulin; Li Teng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we adopt the density functional theory (DFT) plane wave pseudopotential method to study the crystal structure, electronic structure and optical property for the different concentrations of Sc doped ZnO system. We optimize the structure of Sc and get the basis of numerical simulation. The results show that with the adoption of Sc, the lattice constants of the system increase gradually, the energy of the system becomes larger, the Fermi level enters into the conduction band, the system shows Metallic gradually and the band gap becomes wider. On the other hand, certain changes of the optical properties of doped ZnO have taken place, i. e., a new absorption peak happens in ZnO absorption spectrum and the blue shift of absorption edge with the new peak occurs in the imagery part of dielectric function. (authors)

  9. Morphology evolution of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures on gallium doping and their defect structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Hernandez, G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Escobedo-Morales, A., E-mail: alejandroescobedo@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Pal, U. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Postal J-48, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Chigo-Anota, E. [Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2012-08-15

    In the present article, the effect of gallium doping on the morphology, structural, and vibrational properties of hydrothermally grown ZnO nanostructures has been studied. It has been observed that incorporated gallium plays an important role on the growth kinetics and hence on the morphology evolution of the ZnO crystals. Ga doping in high concentration results in the contraction of ZnO unit cell, mainly along c-axis. Although Ga has high solubility in ZnO, heavy doping promotes the segregation of Ga atoms as a secondary phase. Incorporated Ga atoms strongly affect the vibrational characteristics of ZnO lattice and induce anomalous Raman modes. Possible mechanisms of morphology evolution and origin of anomalous Raman modes in Ga doped ZnO nanostructures are discussed. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully grown by hydrothermal chemical route. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga doping has strong effect on the resulting morphology of ZnO nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anomalous vibrational modes in wurtzite ZnO lattice are induced by Ga doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporated Ga atoms accommodate at preferential lattice sites.

  10. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn doped ZnO Thin Film Deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Baras, Abdulaziz

    2011-07-01

    Diluted magnetic oxide (DMO) research is a growing field of interdisciplinary study like spintronic devices and medical imaging. A definite agreement among researchers concerning the origin of ferromagnetism in DMO has yet to be reached. This thesis presents a study on the structural and magnetic properties of DMO thin films. It attempts to contribute to the understanding of ferromagnetism (FM) origin in DMO. Pure ZnO and Mn doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using different deposition conditions. This was conducted in order to correlate the change between structural and magnetic properties. Structural properties of the films were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) was used to investigate the magnetic properties of these films. The structural characterizations showed that the quality of pure ZnO and Mn doped ZnO films increased as oxygen pressure (PO) increased during deposition. All samples were insulators. In Mn doped films, Mn concentration decreased as PO increased. The Mn doped ZnO samples were deposited at 600˚C and oxygen pressure from 50-500mTorr. All Mn doped films displayed room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM). However, at 5 K a superparamagnetic (SPM) behavior was observed in these samples. This result was accounted for by the supposition that there were secondary phase(s) causing the superparamagnetic behavior. Our findings hope to strengthen existing research on DMO origins and suggest that secondary phases are the core components that suppress the ferromagnetism. Although RTFM and SPM at low temperature has been observed in other systems (e.g., Co doped ZnO), we are the first to report this behavior in Mn doped ZnO. Future research might extend the characterization and exploration of ferromagnetism in this system.

  11. A Comparative Study on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Micro-Nanorod Arrays Grown on Seed Layers Using Chemical Bath Deposition and Spin Coating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel MORKOÇ KARADENİZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO seed layers were prepared on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO substrates by using Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD method and Sol-gel Spin Coating (SC method. ZnO micro-nanorod arrays were grown on ZnO seed layers by using Hydrothermal Synthesis method. Seed layer effects of structural and optical properties of ZnO arrays were characterized. X-ray diffractometer (XRD, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Ultraviolet Visible (UV-Vis Spectrometer were used for analyses. ZnO micro-nanorod arrays consisted of a single crystalline wurtzite ZnO structure for each seed layer. Besides, ZnO rod arrays were grown smoothly and vertically on SC seed layer, while ZnO rod arrays were grown randomly and flower like structures on CBD seed layer. The optical absorbance peaks found at 422 nm wavelength in the visible region for both ZnO arrays. Optical bandgap values were determined by using UV-Vis measurements at 3.12 and 3.15 eV for ZnO micro-nanorod arrays on CBD seed layer and for ZnO micro-nanorod arrays on SC-seed layer respectively.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.4.13443

  12. Structural, electrical, and dielectric properties of Cr doped ZnO thin films: Role of Cr concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürbüz, Osman, E-mail: osgurbuz@yildiz.edu.tr; Okutan, Mustafa

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Magnetic material of Cr and semiconductor material of ZnO were grown by the magnetron sputtering co-sputter technique. • Perfect single crystalline structures were grown. • DC and AC conductivity with dielectric properties as a function of frequency (f = 5Hz–13 MHz) at room temperature were measured and compared. • Cr doped ZnO can be used in microwave, sensor and optoelectronic devices as the electrical conductivity increases while dielectric constant decreases with the Cr content. - Abstract: An undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) and different concentrations of chromium (Cr) doped ZnO Cr{sub x}ZnO{sub 1−x} (x = 3.74, 5.67, 8.10, 11.88, and 15.96) thin films were prepared using a magnetron sputtering technique at room temperature. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution scanning electron microscope (HR-SEM), and Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). XRD patterns of all the films showed that the films possess crystalline structure with preferred orientation along the (100) crystal plane. The average crystallite size obtained was found to be between 95 and 83 nm which was beneficial in high intensity recording peak. Both crystal quality and crystallite sizes decrease with increasing Cr concentration. The crystal and grain sizes of the all film were investigated using SEM analysis. The surface morphology that is grain size changes with increase Cr concentration and small grains coalesce together to form larger grains for the Cr{sub 11.88}ZnO and Cr{sub 15.96}ZnO samples. Impedance spectroscopy studies were carried out in the frequencies ranging from 5 Hz to 13 MHz at room temperature. The undoped ZnO film had the highest dielectric value, while dielectric values of other films decreased as doping concentrations increased. Besides, the dielectric constants decreased whereas the loss tangents increased with increasing Cr content. This was considered to be related to the reduction of grain size as Cr content in ZnO

  13. Structural, Optical, and Vibrational Properties of ZnO Microrods Deposited on Silicon Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlouh, Bashar I.; Ikhmayies, Shadia J.; Juwhari, Hassan K.

    2018-03-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) microrod films deposited by spray pyrolysis on silicon substrate at 350 ± 5°C have been studied and evaluated, and compared with thin films deposited by electron beam to confirm the identity of the studied samples. The films were characterized using different techniques. The microrod structure was studied and confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis confirmed successful deposition of ZnO thin films with the expected wurtzite structure. Reflectance data showed a substantial drop across the whole studied wavelength range. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the studied samples showed a peak at ˜ 360 nm, representing a signature of ZnO. The shift in the PL peak position is due to defects and other species present in the films, as confirmed by FTIR and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results.

  14. Au functionalized ZnO rose-like hierarchical structures and their enhanced NO2 sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingange, K.; Swart, H. C.; Mhlongo, G. H.

    2018-04-01

    Herein, we present ZnO rose-like hierarchical nanostructures employed as support to Au nanoparticles to produce Au functionalized three dimensional (3D) ZnO hierarchical nanostructures (Au/ZnO) for NO2 detection using a microwave-assisted method. Comparative analysis of NO2 sensing performance between the pristine ZnO and Au/ZnO rose-like structures at 300 °C revealed improved NO2 response and rapid response-recovery times with Au incorporation owing to a combination of high surface accessibility induced by hierarchical nanostructure design and catalytic activity of the small Au nanoparticles. Structural and optical analyses acquired from X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and photoluminescence spectroscopy were also performed.

  15. Electrodeposition of nanoporous ZnO on Al-doped ZnO leading to a highly organized structure for integration in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renou G.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we propose an improvement of the anode configuration in Zinc Oxide based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC. Instead of the classical configuration, which is composed by two different metal oxides: one transparent conducting oxide (TCO for the substrate and one nanostructured metal oxide for supporting the dye, the new approach is to use ZnO as unique material. Thus, nanoporous zinc oxide films have been electrodeposited on a sputtered Al doped ZnO layers with varying thicknesses up to 6 μm. The evolution of the porosity of the structure has been studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and compared with standard nanoporous ZnO grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO2:F noted FTO. This results firstly in the modification of the nanoporous structure morphology and secondly a better adhesion between the nanoporous layer and the substrate. Organization in the nanoporous material is enhanced with regular pores arrays and perpendicular to the substrate. Dye sensitized solar cells based on this simplified architecture present efficiencies up to 4.2% and 4.5% with N719 and D149 respectively as sensitizers. Higher fill factor and Voc are found in comparison with the one obtained for deposition on the classical transparent conducting oxide (FTO, which denote improved electrical transfer properties.

  16. Single-Crystal Mesoporous ZnO Thin Films Composed of Nanowalls

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xudong

    2009-02-05

    This paper presents a controlled, large scale fabrication of mesoporous ZnO thin films. The entire ZnO mesoporous film is one piece of a single crystal, while high porosity made of nanowalls is present. The growth mechanism was proposed in comparison with the growth of ZnO nanowires. The ZnO mesoporous film was successfully applied as a gas sensor. The fabrication and growth analysis of the mesoporous ZnO thin film gi ve general guidance for the controlled growth of nanostructures. It also pro vides a unique structure with a superhigh surface-to-volume ratio for surface-related applications. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jun [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho Seok [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jin-Seo, E-mail: jinseonoh@gachon.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Physics, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-31

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  18. Transient behaviors of ZnO thin films on a transparent, flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Jun; Lee, Ho Seok; Noh, Jin-Seo

    2016-01-01

    Thickness-dependent electrical, structural, and optical properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates have been investigated in the very thin thickness range of 20 to 120 nm. In this thickness range, the electrical resistance of ZnO film increased with an increase in film thickness. This unusual transition behavior was explained in terms of structural evolution from Zn-phase-incorporating non-crystalline ZnO to hexagonal-structured ZnO. A critical thickness for the full development of hexagonal ZnO crystal was estimated at approximately 80 nm in this study. ZnO thin films on PET substrates exhibit a high optical transmittance of > 70% and good endurance to bending cycles over the measured thickness range. The results of this study indicate that a trade-off should be sought between structural, electrical, optical, and mechanical properties for practical applications of very thin ZnO films on organic substrates. - Highlights: • Very thin ZnO films were sputter-deposited on the PET substrate. • The ZnO film resistance increases with an increase in film thickness until saturation. • Hexagonal crystal structures gradually develop with increasing film thickness. • A Zn phase appears in a 20-nm-thick ZnO film. • ZnO films show high optical transmittance of > 80% and good endurance to bending.

  19. Effect of strain on the structural and optical properties of Cu-N co-doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yue; Zhou Mintao; Li Zhao; Lv Zhiyong; Liang Xiaoyan; Min Jiahua; Wang Linjun; Shi Weimin

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline ZnO thin films co-doped with Cu and N have been obtained by chemical bath deposition. Introduction of Cu and N causes the change of strained stress in ZnO films, which subsequently affects the structural and optical properties. The dependence of structural and optical properties of the ZnO films on lattice strained stress is investigated by XRD measurement, SEM, PL spectrum, optical reflection and Raman spectrum. The result of photoluminescence of Cu-N co-doped ZnO films indicates that the UV emission peaks shift slightly towards higher energy side with decrease in tensile strain and vise versa. The blue-shift of the absorption edge and up-shift of E2 (high) mode of the films can be observed in the optical reflection and Raman spectra. - Highlights: →Cu-N co-doped ZnO is first prepared by the wet chemical method. → Stress is produced by the introduction of Cu and N atoms. → Effect of stress on the structural and optical properties of ZnO film is investigated. → Cu concentration will be used to control the structural and optical properties.

  20. Crystal and electronic structure study of Mn doped wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Ozkendir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The change in the crystal and electronic structure properties of wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles was studied according to Mn doping in the powder samples. The investigations were conducted by X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (XAFS technique for the samples prepared with different heating and doping processes. Electronic analysis was carried out by the collected data from the X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy (XANES measurements. Additional crystal structure properties were studied by Extended-XAFS (EXAFS analysis. Longer heating periods for the undoped wurtzite ZnO samples were determined to own stable crystal geometries. However, for some doped samples, the distortions in the crystal were observed as a result of the low doping amounts of Mn which was treated as an impurity. Besides, the changes in oxygen locations were determined to create defects and distortions in the samples.

  1. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-08-19

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c -axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  2. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Hussain Ibupoto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002 peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  3. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy on Co doped ZnO: structural distortions and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalik, I A; Guziewicz, E; Godlewski, M; Arvanitis, D

    2016-01-01

    We present soft x-ray absorption spectra from a series of Co doped ZnO films. We discuss systematic variations of the Co L-edge white line intensity and multiplet features for this series of samples. We document sizeable differences in the electronic state of the Co ionic cores, as well as in the local environment of the host lattice atoms, characterised by means of x-ray absorption spectra at the O K-edge and Zn L-edges. Model calculations allow to correlate the observed effects to small structural distortions of the ZnO lattice. (paper)

  4. Preparation and Study the Electrical, Structural and Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO Thick Film Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. DEORE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of AR grade ZnO were prepared on glass substrate by screen-printing technique. These films were dried and fired at different temperatures between 550 oC, 600 oC and 650 oC for one hour in air atmosphere. The gas sensing performance of thick films was tested for various gases. ZnO films showed larger response (sensitivity to H2S gas (100 ppm at 250 oC for firing temperature 650 oC. The Morphological, Compositional and Structural properties of the ZnO thick films were performed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX and XRD technique respectively. Chemical composition of ZnO film samples changes with firing temperature showing non-stoichiometric behaviours. XRD study indicated the formation of polycrystalline ZnO films with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The gas response (sensitivity, selectivity, response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  5. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure and magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by solid state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, D. D.; Gong, J.; Cao, C. Y.; Tang, Z.; Huang, L. R.

    2010-11-01

    High purity Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites were annealed in air at different temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C to get Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The structure and grain size of the Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction 2θ scans. Annealing induces an increase of the grain size from 25 to 195 nm and appearance of franklinite phase of ZnFe 2O 4. Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 °C, the number of vacancies decreases to the lower detection limit of positrons. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals using physical properties measurement system. The ferromagnetism remains after annealing up to 1000 °C, suggesting that it is not related with the interfacial defects.

  6. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure and magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by solid state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Chen, Z.Q.; Wang, D.D.; Gong, J.; Cao, C.Y.; Tang, Z.; Huang, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    High purity Fe 2 O 3 /ZnO nanocomposites were annealed in air at different temperatures between 100 and 1200 o C to get Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The structure and grain size of the Fe 2 O 3 /ZnO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction 2θ scans. Annealing induces an increase of the grain size from 25 to 195 nm and appearance of franklinite phase of ZnFe 2 O 4 . Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the Fe 2 O 3 /ZnO nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 o C, the number of vacancies decreases to the lower detection limit of positrons. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals using physical properties measurement system. The ferromagnetism remains after annealing up to 1000 o C, suggesting that it is not related with the interfacial defects.

  7. Surface structure, optoelectronic properties and charge transport in ZnO nanocrystal/MDMO-PPV multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qing; Chen, Mu; Mokhtar, Muhamad Z; Wu, Shanglin; Zhu, Mingning; Whittaker, Eric; O'Brien, Paul; Saunders, Brian R

    2018-05-07

    Blends of semiconducting nanocrystals and conjugated polymers continue to attract major research interest because of their potential applications in optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, photodetectors and light-emitting diodes. In this study we investigate the surface structure, morphological and optoelectronic properties of multilayer films constructed from ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV). The effects of layer number and ZnO concentration (C ZnO ) used on the multilayer film properties are investigated. An optimised solvent blend enabled well-controlled layers to be sequentially spin coated and the construction of multilayer films containing six ZnO NC (Z) and MDMO-PPV (M) layers (denoted as (ZM) 6 ). Contact angle data showed a strong dependence on C ZnO and indicated distinct differences in the coverage of MDMO-PPV by the ZnO NCs. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the MDMO-PPV absorption increased linearly with the number of layers in the films and demonstrates highly tuneable light absorption. Photoluminescence spectra showed reversible quenching as well as a surprising red-shift of the MDMO-PPV emission peak. Solar cells were constructed to probe vertical photo-generated charge transport. The measurements showed that (ZM) 6 devices prepared using C ZnO = 14.0 mg mL -1 had a remarkably high open circuit voltage of ∼800 mV. The device power conversion efficiency was similar to that of a control bilayer device prepared using a much thicker MDMO-PPV layer. The results of this study provide insight into the structure-optoelectronic property relationships of new semiconducting multilayer films which should also apply to other semiconducting NC/polymer combinations.

  8. Biomimetic fabrication and tunable wetting properties of three-dimensional hierarchical ZnO structures by combining soft lithography templated with lotus leaf and hydrothermal treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Shuxi; Zhang, Dianbo; Shi, Qing; Han, Xiao; Wang, Shujie; Du, Zuliang

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional hierarchical ZnO films with lotus-leaf-like micro/nano structures were successfully fabricated via a biomimetic route combining sol-gel technique, soft lithography and hydrothermal treatments. PDMS mold replicated from a fresh lotus leaf was used to imprint microscale pillar structures directly into a ZnO sol film. Hierarchical ZnO micro/nano structures were subsequently fabricated by a low-temperature hydrothermal growth of secondary ZnO nanorod arrays on the micro-structur...

  9. Improvements to the hierarchically structured ZnO nanosphere based dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yongzhe; Wu Lihui; Liu Yanping; Xie Erqing, E-mail: zhangyzh04@126.co, E-mail: xieeq@lzu.edu.c [School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2009-04-21

    Hierarchically structured ZnO nanospheres are synthesized by a wet-chemical method and ZnO sphere-consisting films are applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). It is found that the overall light-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}) is significantly enhanced from 0.474% to 1.03% due to light scattering compared with the ZnO nanoparticle-based DSSC. However, the fill factor (FF) and open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) decrease obviously. After annealing the films in an oxygen environment and placing a ZnO blocking layer on the fluorine-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) conducting substrate, the FF and V{sub oc} are greatly improved and {eta} increases from 1.03% to 1.59% and 2.25%, respectively. According to the results of x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence, the significant improvements in the cell performances might be due to the suppression of the recombination and the decrease in the resistances existing in the cell.

  10. Effect of Cu-Dopant on the Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanto, D.; Kurniawan, C.; Subhan, A.; Sudiro, T.; Sebayang, P.; Ginting, M.; Siregar, S. M. K.; Nasruddin, M. N.

    2017-05-01

    Zn1- x Cu x O (x = 0, 2, 3, and 4 at.%) was synthesized by using solid-state reaction technique. The ZnO and CuO powders were mixed and then milled by using high-speed shaker mill. The influence of Cu dopants on the structure, magnetic, and electrical properties was investigated by using XRD, VSM, and I-V and C-V measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the Zn1- x Cu x O had hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline. The diffraction intensity decreased and the peak position shifted directly to a higher 2θ angle with increasing the dopant concentration. Furthermore, the lattice parameters decreased when the ZnO was doped with x = 0.04, which indicated that the crystal structure changed. The increase of Cu dopants was believed to affect the magnetic and electrical properties of ZnO.

  11. Electrodeposition of ZnO nano-wires lattices with a controlled morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, J.; Tena-Zaera, R.; Katty, A.; Levy-Clement, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, it is shown that the electrodeposition is a changeable low cost method which allows, according to the synthesis conditions, to obtain not only plane thin layers of ZnO but different nano-structures too. In a first part, are presented the formation conditions of a compact thin layer of nanocrystalline ZnO electrodeposited on a conducing glass substrate. This layer plays a buffer layer role for the deposition of a lattice of ZnO nano-wires. The step of nano-wires nucleation is not only determined by the electrochemical parameters but by the properties of the buffer layer too as the grain sizes and its thickness. In this context, the use of an electrodeposition method in two steps allows to control the nano-wires length and diameter and their density. The morphology and the structural and optical properties of these nano-structures have been analyzed by different techniques as the scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the X-ray diffraction and the optical spectroscopy. These studies show that ZnO nano-structures are formed of monocrystalline ZnO nano-wires, presenting a great developed surface and a great optical transparency in the visible. These properties make ZnO a good material for the development of nano-structured photovoltaic cells as the extremely thin absorber cells (PV ETA) or those with dye (DSSC) which are generally prepared with porous polycrystalline TiO 2 . Its replacement by a lattice of monocrystalline ZnO nano-wires allows to reduce considerably the number of grain boundaries and in consequence to improve the transport of the electrons. The results are then promising for the PV ETA cells with ZnO nano-wires. (O.M.)

  12. Photoluminescence of spray pyrolysis deposited ZnO nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikli Valdek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Photoluminescence of highly structured ZnO layers comprising well-shaped hexagonal rods is presented. The ZnO rods (length 500-1,000 nm, diameter 100-300 nm were grown in air onto a preheated soda-lime glass (SGL or ITO/SGL substrate by low-cost chemical spray pyrolysis method using zinc chloride precursor solutions and growth temperatures in the range of 450-550°C. We report the effect of the variation in deposition parameters (substrate type, growth temperature, spray rate, solvent type on the photoluminescence properties of the spray-deposited ZnO nanorods. A dominant near band edge (NBE emission is observed at 300 K and at 10 K. High-resolution photoluminescence measurements at 10 K reveal fine structure of the NBE band with the dominant peaks related to the bound exciton transitions. It is found that all studied technological parameters affect the excitonic photoluminescence in ZnO nanorods. PACS: 78.55.Et, 81.15.Rs, 61.46.Km

  13. Effect of ZnO and PbO/ZnO on structural and thermal properties of tellurite glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, Raj Kumar; Bhatnagar, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Structural units/linkages variation of TeO 2 -ZnO and TeO 2 -ZnO-PbO glasses was studied. • Structural arrangements of TeO 2 -ZnO glasses are rich in Te-O-Te network. • A mixture of Te-O-Te and Te-O-Pb networks is identified in TeO 2 -ZnO-PbO glasses. • Changes in thermal parameters T g and T o are correlated with the structural variations. • 15PbO and 20PbO samples of TeO 2 -ZnO-PbO glasses show large thermal stability. - Abstract: Two series of glasses, (100 − x)TeO 2 -xZnO (x = 20, 25, 30, 35) and 70TeO 2 -(30 − y)ZnO-yPbO (y = 5, 10, 15, 20), referred as TZ and TZP, respectively, were prepared by a melt quenching technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), density, refractive index, Raman scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to observe the changes in their properties as a function of ZnO and PbO/ZnO. Variations in individual structural units/linkages in these glasses are derived from the de-convoluted Raman spectra. The glass transition (T g ) and onset of crystallization (T o ) temperatures are determined from DSC isothermal scans. It is observed that the thermal stability (ΔT = T o − T g ) decreases for TZ glasses with increase in x, while it increases for TZP glasses with increase in y. Changes in thermal parameters of these glasses are correlated with the structural variation as a function of ZnO and PbO/ZnO ratio to determine the effect of substitution/addition of metal oxide, ZnO and PbO, to TeO 2 and TeO 2 -ZnO glasses

  14. Falling Leaves Inspired ZnO Nanorods-Nanoslices Hierarchical Structure for Implant Surface Modification with Two Stage Releasing Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hang; Miao, Xinxin; Ye, Jing; Wu, Tianlong; Deng, Zhongbo; Li, Chen; Jia, Jingyu; Cheng, Xigao; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-04-19

    Inspired from falling leaves, ZnO nanorods-nanoslices hierarchical structure (NHS) was constructed to modify the surfaces of two widely used implant materials: titanium (Ti) and tantalum (Ta), respectively. By which means, two-stage release of antibacterial active substances were realized to address the clinical importance of long-term broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. At early stages (within 48 h), the NHS exhibited a rapid releasing to kill the bacteria around the implant immediately. At a second stage (over 2 weeks), the NHS exhibited a slow releasing to realize long-term inhibition. The excellent antibacterial activity of ZnO NHS was confirmed once again by animal test in vivo. According to the subsequent experiments, the ZnO NHS coating exhibited the great advantage of high efficiency, low toxicity, and long-term durability, which could be a feasible manner to prevent the abuse of antibiotics on implant-related surgery.

  15. Physical and chemical contributions of a plasma treatment in the growth of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, J.T. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal synthesis. •Oxygen plasma was done on the surface of seed ZnO nanorods. •The ZnO nanorods with and without plasma treatment were characterized. •The results showed that the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods with plasma treatment were enhanced. -- Abstract: We analyzed the enhancement of optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods by using a plasma treatment. In this study, seed ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal synthesis for 1 h on a ZnO buffered Si substrate. The seed ZnO nanorods were then treated with an oxygen plasma. Next, ZnO was grown for an additional 4 h by hydrothermal synthesis. The resultant ZnO nanorods were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL). The measurements showed that the plasma treatment of the seed ZnO nanorods increased the roughness of the buffer layer and the concentration of oxygen ions on the surfaces of the seed ZnO nanorods and the buffer layer, leading to improved optical and structural properties. In this study, we found that the plasma treatment on the seed ZnO nanorods enhanced the optical and structural properties of the ZnO nanorods.

  16. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Co-doped ZnO thin films grown by sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayani, Zohra Nazir; Shah, Iqra; Zulfiqar, Bareera; Sabah, Aneeqa [Lahore College for Women Univ., Lahore (Pakistan); Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad [Univ. of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan). Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics

    2018-04-01

    Cobalt-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited using a sol-gel route by changing the number of coats on the substrate from 6 to 18. This project deals with various film thicknesses by increasing the number of deposited coats. The effect of thickness on structural, magnetic, surface morphology and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin film was studied. The crystal structure of the Co-doped ZnO films was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The films have polycrystalline wurtzite hexagonal structures. A Co{sup 2+} ion takes the place of a Zn{sup 2+} ion in the lattice without creating any distortion in its hexagonal wurtzite structure. An examination of the optical transmission spectra showed that the energy band gap of the Co-doped ZnO films increased from 3.87 to 3.97 eV with an increase in the number of coatings on the substrate. Ferromagnetic behaviour was confirmed by measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The surface morphology of thin films was assessed by scanning electron microscope. The grain size on the surface of thin films increased with an increase in the number of coats.

  17. Study of defects and vacancies in structural properties of Mn, co-doped oxides: ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Kaushik, A.; Alvi, P. A.; Dalela, B.; Dalela, S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper deals with the Structural properties on Mn, Co doped oxides ZnO samples using XRD, Positron Annihilation Lifetime (PAL) Spectra and Raman Spectra. The Mn, Co doped ZnO samples crystallize in a wurtzite structure without any impurity phases in XRD Spectra. The defect state of these samples has been investigated by using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy technique in which all the relevant lifetime parameters are measured for all the spectra. The results are explained in the direction of doping concentration in these samples in terms of defects structure on Zn lattice site VZn and oxygen defects Vo.

  18. Defects related room temperature ferromagnetism in Cu-implanted ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Li, D.K.; Wu, H.Z.; Liang, F.; Xie, W.; Zou, C.W.; Shao, L.X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Cu-implanted ZnO nanorod arrays. • Cu-implanted ZnO nanorods show a saturation magnetization value of 1.82 μ B /Cu. • The origin of ferromagnetism can be explained by the defects related bound magnetic polarons. -- Abstract: Room temperature ferromagnetism (FM) was observed in Cu-implanted ZnO nanorod arrays. The implantation dose for Cu ions was 1 × 10 16 cm −2 and the implantation energy was 100 keV. The ion implantation induced defects and disorder has been observed by the XRD, PL and TEM experiments. The PL spectrum revealed a dominant luminescence peaks at 390 nm and a broad and strong green emission at 500–700 nm, which is considered to be related to the ionized oxygen vacancy. Cu-implanted ZnO nanorods annealed at 500 °C show a saturation magnetization value of 1.82 μ B /Cu and a positive coercive field of 68 Oe. The carrier concentration is not much improved after annealing and in the order of 10 16 cm −3 , which suggests that FM does not depend upon the presence of a significant carrier concentration. The origin of ferromagnetism behavior can be explained on the basis of electrons and defects that form bound magnetic polarons, which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band

  19. Eosin-Y sensitized core-shell TiO2-ZnO nano-structured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, V S; Palai, Akshaya K; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2018-06-01

    In the current investigation, TiO 2 and TiO 2 -ZnO (core-shell) spherical nanoparticles were synthesized by simple combined hydrolysis and refluxing method. A TiO 2 core nanomaterial on the shell material of ZnO was synthesized by utilizing variable ratios of ZnO. The structural characterization of TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles were done by XRD analysis. The spherical structured morphology of the TiO 2 -ZnO has been confirmed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The UV-visible spectra of TiO 2 -ZnO nanostructures were also compared with the pristine TiO 2 to investigate the shift of wavelength. The TiO 2 -ZnO core/shell nanoparticles at the interface efficiently collect the photogenarated electrons from ZnO and also ZnO act a barrier for reduced charge recombination of electrolyte and dye-nanoparticles interface. This combination improved the light absorption which induced the charge transfer ability and dye loading capacity of core-shell nanoparticles. An enhancement in the short circuit current (J sc ) from 1.67 mA/cm 2 to 2.1 mA/cm 2 has been observed for TiO 2 -ZnObased photoanode (with platinum free counter electrode), promises an improvement in the energy conversion efficiency by 57% in comparison with that of the DSSCs based on the pristine TiO 2 . Henceforth, TiO 2 -ZnO photoelectrode in ZnO will effectively act as barrier at the interface of TiO 2 -ZnO and TiO 2 , ensuring the potential for DSSC application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures electrochemically synthesized on AZO/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated polyethersulfone substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yoo, Chanho; No, Youngsoo; Kim, Suyoun; Kim, Taewhan; Cho, Woonjo; Kim, Jinyoung

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanostructures were formed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates at low temperature by using an electrochemical deposition method. The resistivity of the AZO/Ag/AZO multilayer films decreased with increasing thickness of the Ag film. X-ray diffraction patterns for the ZnO nanostructures showed that the crystal structure of the ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite and that the orientation was along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that the ZnO nanostructures grown at current densities of - 1.0 and - 1.5 mA/cm 2 were ZnO nanorods with diameters of 150 nm and ZnO nanoflowers with a planar dimension, respectively. Photoluminescence spectra showed that the band-edge emission peak of the ZnO nanostructures dominantly appeared in the ultraviolet region. These results showed that ZnO nanorods and nanoflowers with high quality were synthesized on AZO/Ag/AZO-multilayer-film-coated PES substrates.

  1. Comparative effects of indium/ytterbium doping on, mechanical and gas-sensitivity-related morphological, properties of sprayed ZnO compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhachem, A.; Fridjine, S.; Amlouk, A.; Boubaker, K.; Bouhafs, M.; Amlouk, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, conducting and transparent indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by the micro-spray technique. First, zinc oxide layers were obtained by spaying a solution of propanol and zinc acetate in acidified medium. Alternatively, some of the obtained films were doped with indium (In) at the molar rates of: 1%, 2% and 3%. In addition to the classical structural investigated using XRD, AFM and SEM techniques, microhardness Vickers (Hv) measurements have been carried out along with comparative morphological prospecting. The specific gases sensitivity-related surface morphology of the doped ZnO compounds was favorably different from that of the non-doped ones, and showed a thin overlay structure. Results were compared to those recorded for similar ytterbium-doped material.

  2. MoS2-modified ZnO quantum dots nanocomposite: Synthesis and ultrafast humidity response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ze, Lu; Yueqiu, Gong; Xujun, Li; Yong, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • MoS 2 @ZnO QDs composite structure was synthesized by two-steps methods. • Ultrafast humidity sensing response is achieved by MoS 2 @ZnO QDs humidity sensor. • Sensor performs excellent cycle stability from 11% to 95% RH. • Humidity sensor could detect wide humidity range (11–95%). - Abstract: In this work, ZnO quantum dots (QDs), layered MoS 2 and MoS 2 -modified ZnO QDs (MoS 2 @ZnO QDs) nanocomposite were synthesized and then applied as humidity sensor. The crystal structure, morphology and element distribution of ZnO QDs, MoS 2 and MoS 2 @ZnO QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, respectively. The humidity sensing characteristics of the MoS 2 and MoS 2 @ZnO QDs against various relative humidity were measured at room temperature. The results show that the MoS 2 @ZnO QDs sensor exhibits high sensitivity with an impedance variation of three or four orders of magnitude to relative humidity range of 11–95% and it exhibits a short response-recovery time (1 s for adsorption and 20 s for desorption) and excellent repeatability. The mechanisms of the excellent performance for humidity sensing of MoS 2 @ZnO QDs sensor were discussed based on its impedance properties. Our work could offer guidelines to design higher performance especially ultrafast humidity response sensor utilizing the nanocomposite structure with two dimensional material and QDs.

  3. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure and magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dong [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Z.Q., E-mail: chenzq@whu.edu.c [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, D.D.; Gong, J. [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Cao, C.Y.; Tang, Z. [Department of Electronic and Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Huang, L.R. [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Opto-electronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-11-15

    High purity Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites were annealed in air at different temperatures between 100 and 1200 {sup o}C to get Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The structure and grain size of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction 2{theta} scans. Annealing induces an increase of the grain size from 25 to 195 nm and appearance of franklinite phase of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 {sup o}C, the number of vacancies decreases to the lower detection limit of positrons. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals using physical properties measurement system. The ferromagnetism remains after annealing up to 1000 {sup o}C, suggesting that it is not related with the interfacial defects.

  4. A Systematic Study of the Relationship among the Morphological, Structural and Photoelectrochemical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown Using the Microwave Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sungjin; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown on a ZnO seed layer/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate for different growth durations ranging from 5 to 40 min using the microwave chemical bath deposition method. We studied the effect of growth duration on the morphological, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. From this study, we found that the photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructures were largely affected by their morphological and structural properties. As a result, we obtained the highest photocurrent density of 0.46 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 1.5 V vs. SCE) from the sample grown for 30 min.

  5. Characteristics of one-port surface acoustic wave resonator fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Qian, Lirong; Fu, Sulei; Song, Cheng; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Characteristics of one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure were investigated experimentally and theoretically. Phase velocities (V p), electromechanical coupling coefficients (K 2), quality factors (Q), and temperature coefficients of frequency (TCF) of Rayleigh wave (0th mode) and first- and second-order Sezawa wave (1st and 2nd modes, respectively) for different piezoelectric film thickness-to-wavelength (h ZnO /λ) ratios were systematically studied. Results demonstrated that one-port SAW resonators fabricated on the ZnO/6H-SiC layered structure were promising for high-frequency SAW applications with moderate K 2 and TCF values. A high K 2 of 2.44% associated with a V p of 5182 m s‑1 and a TCF of  ‑41.8 ppm/°C was achieved at h ZnO /λ  =  0.41 in the 1st mode, while a large V p of 7210 m s‑1 with a K 2 of 0.19% and a TCF of  ‑36.4 ppm/°C was obtained for h ZnO /λ  =  0.31 in the 2nd mode. Besides, most of the parameters were reported for the first time and will be helpful for the future design and optimization of SAW devices fabricated on ZnO/6H-SiC layered structures.

  6. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures converted from ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Prayas Chandra; Ghosh, Surajit; Srivastava, P.C., E-mail: pcsrivastava50@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. - Highlights: • Phase change of cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO via heat treatment. • Band gap was found to decrease with increasing calcinations temperature. • ZnO samples have higher magnetic moment than ZnS. • Blocking Temperature of the samples is well above room temperature. • Maximum negative%MR with saturation value ∼38% was found for sample calcined at 600° C. - Abstract: The present work concentrates on the synthesis of cubic ZnS and hexagonal ZnO semiconducting nanoparticle from same precursor via co-precipitation method. The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. From the analysis of influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and vibrational properties of the samples, an optimum temperature was found for the total conversion of ZnS nanoparticles to ZnO. Role of quantum confinement due to finite size is evident from the blue shift of the fundamental absorption in UV–vis spectra only in the ZnS nanoparticles. The semiconducting nature of the prepared samples is confirmed from the UV–vis, PL study and transport study. From the magnetic and transport studies, pure ZnO phase was found to be more prone to magnetic field.

  7. PFE: ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for OLED applications: Fabrication and photophysical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhaj, M. [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Dridi, C., E-mail: cherif.Dridi@issatso.rnu.tn [Université de Monastir, Faculté des sciences de Monastir, Département de physique, Laboratoire des Interfaces et des Matériaux Avancés, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia); Université de Sousse, Institut Supérieur des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie de Sousse, Cité Ettafala, 4003 Ibn Khaldoun Sousse (Tunisia); Elhouichet, H. [Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, Laboratoire de physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéreaux et leurs applications, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-01-15

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles (n-ZnO) and poly (9, 9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2, 7-yleneethynylene) (PFE): n-ZnO based thin films were spin-coated onto glass substrates. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO, PFE and the PFE: n-ZnO hybrid films with different n-ZnO mass ratios were investigated. n-ZnO films obtained by sol–gel technique are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. They are also homogenous with an average grain size of about 35 nm. For polymer nanocomposite, the optical properties are closely related to the ZnO content in the mixture. Among the tested active layers, the best performance is observed for that containing 2 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the optical properties of PFE: ZnO nanocomposites . • We have optimized the best PFE: ZnO nanocomposite for the OLED application. • We have demonstrated the feasibility of white OLED devices.

  8. PFE: ZnO hybrid nanocomposites for OLED applications: Fabrication and photophysical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhaj, M.; Dridi, C.; Elhouichet, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles (n-ZnO) and poly (9, 9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2, 7-yleneethynylene) (PFE): n-ZnO based thin films were spin-coated onto glass substrates. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO, PFE and the PFE: n-ZnO hybrid films with different n-ZnO mass ratios were investigated. n-ZnO films obtained by sol–gel technique are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. They are also homogenous with an average grain size of about 35 nm. For polymer nanocomposite, the optical properties are closely related to the ZnO content in the mixture. Among the tested active layers, the best performance is observed for that containing 2 wt% of ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We have analyzed the optical properties of PFE: ZnO nanocomposites . • We have optimized the best PFE: ZnO nanocomposite for the OLED application. • We have demonstrated the feasibility of white OLED devices

  9. Structural characterization of ZnO films grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire with MgO buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecz, B.; El-Shaer, A.; Bakin, A.; Mofor, A.-C.; Waag, A.; Stoemenos, J.

    2006-01-01

    The structural characteristics of the ZnO film grown on sapphire substrate using a thin MgO buffer layer were studied using transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution x-ray diffraction. The growth was carried out in a modified plasma-molecular beam epitaxy system. The observed misfit dislocations were well confined at the sapphire overgrown interface exhibiting domain matching epitaxy, where the integral multiples of lattice constants match across the interface. The main extended defects in the ZnO film were the threading dislocations having a mean density of 4x10 9 cm -2 . The formation of the MgO buffer layer as well as the ZnO growth were monitored in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The very thin ∼1 nm, MgO buffer layer can partially interdiffuse with the ZnO as well as react with the Al 2 O 3 substrate forming an intermediate epitaxial layer having the spinel (MgO/Al 2 O 3 ) structure

  10. Enhancement of exciton radiative recombination for In-doped ZnO nanowires with aluminum cylindrical micropillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jen-Cheng; Liang, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Fang-Ching; Fang, Chia-Hui; Chen, Hung-Ing; Tsai, Chung-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jiang, Joe-Air [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-04-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted intensive research effort in recent years, due to its unique properties and versatile applications. Recent work on the conservation of surface plasmon (SP) and light through period metal arrays has elucidated the propagation of SP resonance behavior. In this paper, we discuss the enhancement of exciton radiative recombination of the ZnO nanowires with Al cylindrical micropillars. Optical characterization of exciton interacted with SP resonance for indium-doped ZnO nanowires with Al cylindrical micropillars has been also investigated. From photoluminescence spectra of In-doped ZnO nanowires, it is found that the In-doped ZnO nanowires have a blue emission at 425 nm, which resulted from the ZnO band-to-band transition. Prior to the arrays of samples were annealed, a broad green emission centered at 500 nm was observed, which is attributed to ZnO native point defects. The relatively strong green band emission results from the radiative recombination that arises from the ionized oxygen vacancy and surface-defect related luminescence. Compare the In-doped ZnO on Si substrate, the enhancement of PL intensity for In-doped ZnO with deposited Al pattern film can be attributed to strong interaction with SP resonance and exciton over a broad temperature range. These experimental results indicate that Al cylindrical micropillars can significantly enhance carrier confinement and increase the quantum efficiency of In-doped ZnO/Al heterostructures due to the interaction of SP resonance between the In-doped ZnO nanowires and Al cylindrical micropillar structures, the surface-defect related luminescence, and the auxiliary test structures with variable micropillar parameters. -- Highlights: ► We examine the exciton radiative recombination of the ZnO nanowires. ► Al cylindrical micropillars affect the carrier recombination of ZnO/Al structures. ► The interaction of SP resonance between In-doped ZnO nanowire and Al pattern film. ► The carrier

  11. Structural, spectroscopic and anti-microbial inspection of PEG capped ZnO nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, J. V.; Koli, V. B.; Kumbhar, S. G.; Borde, L. C.; Phadatare, M. R.; Pawar, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) have a wide range of biomedical applications. Present study demonstrates the new methodology in sol-gel technology for synthesizing Polyethylene glycol (PEG) capped ZnO NPs and its size effect on anti-microbial activity. The reaction time was increased from 1 h to 5 h for the synthesis of ZnO NPs at 130 °C. The size of PEG capped ZnO NPs is increased from 10 to 84 nm by increasing the reaction upto 5 h. The x-ray diffraction studies and transmission electron microscopy analysis reveals the phase purity and hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure with uniform PEG capping on the surface of ZnO NPs. UV–visible spectroscopy exhibits the peak at 366 nm which is attributed to ZnO NPs. No adverse effect is observed in case of absorbance spectroscopy. Further, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis depicts the adsorption of PEG molecules on the ZnO NPs surface. The anti-microbial activities for both Gram-positive (S. aureus) and Gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria were studied by optical density (OD) mesurement. The remarkable anti-microbial activity was observed for PEG capped ZnO NPs synthesized at 1 h reaction time showing higher activity in comparison with that synthesized from 2 h to 5 h reaction time. The microbial growth was found to be inhibited after 10 h OD measurement for both the bacteria. The anti-microbial activity may be attributed to the generation of ROS and H2O2. However, these generated species plays a vital role in inhibition of microbial growth. Hence, PEG capped ZnO NPs has promising biomedical applications.

  12. Synthesis, effect of capping agents, structural, optical and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Viswanath, V.; Janu, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using chemical method in alcohol base. During synthesis three capping agents, i.e. triethanolamine (TEA), oleic acid and thioglycerol, were used and the effect of concentrations was analyzed for their effectiveness in limiting the particle growth. Thermal stability of ZnO nanoparticles prepared using TEA, oleic acid and thioglycerol capping agents, was studied using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). ZnO nanoparticles capped with TEA showed maximum weight loss. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for structural and morphological characterization of ZnO nanoparticles. Particle size was evaluated using effective mass approximation method from UV-vis spectroscopy and Scherrer's formula from XRD patterns. XRD analysis revealed single crystal ZnO nanoparticles of size 12-20 nm in case of TEA capping. TEA, oleic acid and thioglycerol capped synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were investigated at room temperature photoluminescence for three excitation wavelengths i.e. 304, 322 and 325 nm, showing strong peaks at about 471 nm when excited at 322 and 325 nm whereas strong peak was observed at 411 for 304 nm excitation.

  13. Hydrothermal growth and characterizations of dandelion-like ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Rohidas B., E-mail: rb_kale@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Institute of Science, Madam Cama Road, Mumbai 400 032, (M.S.) (India); Lu, Shih-Yuan, E-mail: sylu@nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •The simple, low cost, environmental benign hydrothermal method has been used to synthesize ZnO nanostructure. •The SEM images reveal the interesting 3D dandelion-like morphology of synthesized ZnO nanostructure. The SAED pattern and HRTEM study confirms that the ZnO nanorods are single crystalline. •Change in experimental conditions dramatically changes the morphologies of the synthesized ZnO. •The room temperature PL study reveals strong band edge emission along with much weaker defect related blue emission. •The reaction and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructure is also discussed. -- Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by using a facile low-cost hydrothermal method under mild conditions. Aqueous alkaline ammonia solution of Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} is used to grow 3D ZnO nanostructures. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals the well crystallized hexagonal structure of ZnO. SEM observations depict that the ZnO product grows in the form of nanorods united together to form 3D dandelion-like nanostructures. The elemental analysis using EDAX technique confirms the stoichiometry of the ZnO nanorods. The product exhibits special optical properties with red-shifts in optical absorption peak (376 nm) as compared with those of conventional ZnO nanorods. PL spectra show emission peak (396 nm) at the near band-edge and peak (464 nm) originated from defects states that are produced during the hydrothermal growth. TEM and SAED results reveal single crystalline structure of the synthesized product. The reaction and growth mechanisms on the morphological evolution of the ZnO nanostructures are discussed. The morphology of ZnO product is investigated by varying the reaction time, temperature, and type of complexing reagent.

  14. Electron transport properties in ZnO nanowires/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrid nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Ke; Cheng Gang; Wang Shujie; Fu Dongwei; Zou Bingsuo; Du Zuliang

    2010-01-01

    The ZnO nanowires (NWs) array/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) hybrid prototype device was fabricated. An ultraviolet (UV) light of λ = 350 nm is used to investigate the photo-electric properties of the ZnO NWs array and hybrid structure. In this way, we can avoid the excitation of P3HT, which can give us a real electron transport ability of ZnO NWs itself. Our results demonstrated a higher and faster photo-electric response of 3 s for the hybrid structure while 9 s for the ZnO NWs array. The surface states related slow photo-electric response was also observed for them. The charge transfer mechanism and the influence of surface states were discussed. The current work provides us profound understandings on the electron transport ability of ZnO NWs array in a working hybrid polymer solar cell, which is crucial for optimizing the device performance.

  15. A Review on the Fabrication of Hierarchical ZnO Nanostructures for Photocatalysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor photocatalysis provides potential solutions for many energy and environmental-related issues. Recently, various semiconductors with hierarchical nanostructures have been fabricated to achieve efficient photocatalysts owing to their multiple advantages, such as high surface area, porous structures, as well as enhanced light harvesting. ZnO has been widely investigated and considered as the most promising alternative photocatalyst to TiO2. Herein, we present a review on the fabrication methods, growth mechanisms and photocatalytic applications of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures. Various synthetic strategies and growth mechanisms, including multistep sequential growth routes, template-based synthesis, template-free self-organization and precursor or self-templating strategies, are highlighted. In addition, the fabrication of multicomponent ZnO-based nanocomposites with hierarchical structures is also included. Finally, the application of hierarchical ZnO nanostructures and nanocomposites in typical photocatalytic reactions, such as pollutant degradation and H2 evolution, is reviewed.

  16. On quantum efficiency of photoluminescence in ZnO layers and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reshchikov, M.A., E-mail: mreshchi@vcu.ed [Physics Department, Virginia Commonwealth University, 701 W. Grace St., Richmond, VA 23284 (United States); El-Shaer, A.; Behrends, A.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University of Braunschweig, Braunschweig D-38106 (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In this work we studied PL in ZnO layers and nanostructures, including ZnO homoepitaxial layers on ZnO substrate and ZnO-Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O single quantum well (SQW) structures grown on sapphire substrates by MBE, and ZnO nanowires grown on sapphire by MOCVD. The external quantum efficiency (QE) of PL in O-face ZnO layers exceeded that in Zn-face ZnO layers by two orders of magnitude at low temperatures. In a sample with SQW the combined external QE from the 4.6-nm-wide SQW and 50-nm-thick Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O barriers achieved 28% at 15 K. The highest external QE was observed in one of the samples with ZnO nanowires-52% at 15 K and 2% at 300 K. Contribution of defect-related PL bands in ZnO nanowires samples was extremely low.

  17. Structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films prepared ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    of zinc acetate on glass substrates at 450 °C. Effect of precursor concentration on structural and optical pro- perties has ... dependence of photoresponse properties of sprayed ZnO thin films on ... randomly oriented flake-like grains. The grains ...

  18. Influence of a ZnO Buffer Layer on the Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of ITO/ZnO Bi-Layered Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sung-Bo; Moon, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) films and ITO/ZnO bi-layered films were prepared on polycarbonate substrates by RF magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating. In order to consider the influence of the ZnO thickness on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of ITO/ZnO films, the thickness of the ZnO buffer layer was varied from 5 to 20 nm. As-deposited ITO films show an average optical transmittance of 79.2% in the visible range and an electrical resistivity of 3.0×10"-"4 Ωcm, while films with a 5-nm thick ZnO buffer layer film show an electrical resistivity of 2.6×10"-"4 Ωcm and films with a 20-nm thick ZnO buffer layer show an optical transmittance of 82.0%. Based on the figure of merit, it is concluded that the ZnO buffer layer enhances the optical and electrical performance of ITO films used as transparent conducting oxides in flexible display applications.

  19. Growth, Structural and Optical Characterization of ZnO Nanotubes on Disposable-Flexible Paper Substrates by Low-Temperature Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Soomro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of vertically aligned ZnO nanotubes (NTs on paper substrates by low-temperature hydrothermal method. The growth of ZnO NTs on the paper substrate is discussed; further, the structural and optical properties are investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and cathodoluminescence (CL, and it was found that the ZnO NTs on paper substrate fulfill the structural and optical properties of ZnO NTs grown on other conventional substrates. This will be more beneficial in future usage of ZnO NTs in different fields and applications. Particularly, this approach opens the ways in research and development for high volume manufacturing of low-cost, flexible optoelectronics devices on disposable paper substrates and can be used in the future miniaturization trends.

  20. Photovoltaic properties of ZnO nanorods/p-type Si heterojunction structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Pietruszka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Selected properties of photovoltaic (PV structures based on n-type zinc oxide nanorods grown by a low temperature hydrothermal method on p-type silicon substrates (100 are investigated. PV structures were covered with thin films of Al doped ZnO grown by atomic layer deposition acting as transparent electrodes. The investigated PV structures differ in terms of the shapes and densities of their nanorods. The best response is observed for the structure containing closely-spaced nanorods, which show light conversion efficiency of 3.6%.

  1. Parametric study of self-forming ZnO Nanowall network with honeycomb structure by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    El Zein, B.

    2014-02-01

    The successful synthesis of catalyst free zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanowall networks with honeycomb like structure by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is demonstrated in this paper. The synthesis was conducted directly on Silicon (Si) (1 0 0) and Glass-ITO substrates without the intermediate of metal catalyst, template or chemical etching. Kinetic of growth and effects of gas pressure and substrate temperature were studied by depositing ZnO films on P type Si (1 0 0) substrates with different deposition parameters. The optimized growth parameters were found as: 10 mTorr oxygen pressure, 600 C substrate temperature, and deposition duration equal or higher than 10 min. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to investigate structural, microstructural and optical properties of ZnO Nanowall networks produced. They exhibit a non-uniform size high quality honeycomb structure with low deep level defects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Fast vertical growth of ZnO nanorods using a modified chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae-hyun [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Hyukhyun, E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Department of Materials and Components Engineering, Dong-Eui University, 995 Eomgwangno, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • We grew vertical ZnO nanorods by a modified CBD process with a fast growth rate. • We studied the effects of the CBD process by varying growth temperature, time, and concentration. • The ZnO nanorods grown by the modified CBD showed good morphological and structural properties. - Abstract: In this study, we grew vertical ZnO nanorods on seeded Si (1 0 0) substrates using a modified chemical bath deposition (CBD). We investigated the effects of the growth temperature, growth time and concentration on the morphological and structural properties of the ZnO nanorods using field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) and X-ray diffraction. This modified CBD method shows improved results over conventional CBD. ZnO nanorods with good structural XRD properties were grown with a very fast growth rate in a wide range of growth conditions and did not require post-growth annealing.

  3. Optical properties and photocatalytic activities of spherical ZnO and flower-like ZnO structures synthesized by facile hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yongling [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Li, Zhongyu, E-mail: zhongyuli@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Changzhou Expansion New Stuff Technology Limited Company, Changzhou 213122 (China); Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China); Xu, Song [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Han, Dandan; Lu, Dayong [Jilin Institute of Chemical Technology, Jilin 132022 (China)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Spherical ZnO and flower-like ZnO were prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. •The as-prepared ZnO showed high photocatalytic activity over MO degradation. •The as-prepared ZnO were well crystallized and exhibited good optical properties. -- Abstract: Spherical ZnO and flower-like ZnO were prepared by facile hydrothermal method at 180 °C and 160 °C, respectively. The as-prepared samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) spectra. The optical properties of as-prepared sample, such as photoluminescence (PL) spectra and Raman spectra were studied. The photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared ZnO particles were investigated by degrading the methyl orange (MO) under UV light irradiation. The photocatalytic studies showed that the organic pollutants have been almost completely degraded and mineralized after irradiation of the UV light. These results indicated that the as-prepared ZnO particles exhibited good optical properties and high photocatalytic activities.

  4. ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by chemical bath deposition combined with rapid thermal annealing: structural, photoluminescence and field emission characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hung-Wei; He, Hsin-Min; Lee, Yi-Mu; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays were prepared by low temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD) combined with rapid thermal annealing (RTA) under different ambient conditions. The structure and morphology of the synthesized ZnO have been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The obtained ZnO samples are highly crystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite phase and also display well-aligned array structure. A pronounced effect on increased nanorod length was found for the RTA-treated ZnO as compared to the as-grown ZnO. Analysis of XRD indicates that the (0 0 2) feature peak of the as-grown ZnO was shifted towards a lower angle as compared to the peaks of RTA-treated ZnO samples due to the reduction of tensile strain along the c-axis by RTA. Photoluminescence (PL) studies reveal that the ZnO nanorod arrays receiving RTA in an O 2 environment have the sharpest UV emission band and greatest intensity ratio of near band-edge emission (NBE) to deep level emission (DLE). Additionally, the effects of RTA on the field emission properties were evaluated. The results demonstrate that RTA an O 2 environment can lower the turn-on field and improve the field enhancement factor. The stability of the field emission current was also tested for 4 h. (paper)

  5. Characteristics of surface acoustic waves in (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, ShuYi; Xu, Jing; Xie, YingCai; Lan, XiaoDong

    2018-02-01

    (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structure is promising for high frequency acoustic wave devices. The propagation characteristics of SAWs, including the Rayleigh waves along [0001] direction and Love waves along [1ī00] direction, are investigated by using 3 dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM). The phase velocity ( v p), electromechanical coupling coefficient ( k 2), temperature coefficient of frequency ( TCF) and reflection coefficient ( r) of Rayleigh wave and Love wave devices are theoretically analyzed. Furthermore, the influences of ZnO films with different crystal orientation on SAW properties are also investigated. The results show that the 1st Rayleigh wave has an exceedingly large k 2 of 4.95% in (90°, 90°, 0°) (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate associated with a phase velocity of 5300 m/s; and the 0th Love wave in (0°, 90°, 0°) (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate has a maximum k 2 of 3.86% associated with a phase velocity of 3400 m/s. And (11\\bar 2 0)ZnO film/ R-sapphire substrate structures can be used to design temperature-compensated and wide-band SAW devices. All of the results indicate that the performances of SAW devices can be optimized by suitably selecting ZnO films with different thickness and crystal orientations deposited on R-sapphire substrates.

  6. Effects of Doping with Al, Ga, and In on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown by Hydrothermal Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Park, Hyunggil; Yoon, Hyunsik; Leem, Jaeyoung; Lee, Sangheon; Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sungo

    2013-01-01

    The structural and optical properties of the ZnO, Al-doped ZnO, Ga-doped ZnO, and In-doped ZnO nanorods were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. All the nanorods grew with good alignment on the ZnO seed layers and the ZnO nanorod dimensions could be controlled by the addition of the various dopants. For instance, the diameter of the nanorods decreased with increasing atomic number of the dopants. The ratio between the near-band-edge emission (NBE) and the deep-level emission (DLE) intensities (I NBE /I DLE ) obtained by PL gradually decreased because the DLE intensity from the nanorods gradually increased with increase in the atomic number of the dopants. We found that the dopants affected the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanorods including their dimensions, lattice constants, residual stresses, bond lengths, PL properties, transmittance values, optical band gaps, and Urbach energies

  7. Effects of Doping with Al, Ga, and In on Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanorods Grown by Hydrothermal Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soaram; Nam, Giwoong; Park, Hyunggil; Yoon, Hyunsik; Leem, Jaeyoung [Inje Univ., Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangheon; Kim, Jong Su [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Soo [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Yeob; Kim, Sungo [Clemson Univ., Clemson (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The structural and optical properties of the ZnO, Al-doped ZnO, Ga-doped ZnO, and In-doped ZnO nanorods were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence (PL) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. All the nanorods grew with good alignment on the ZnO seed layers and the ZnO nanorod dimensions could be controlled by the addition of the various dopants. For instance, the diameter of the nanorods decreased with increasing atomic number of the dopants. The ratio between the near-band-edge emission (NBE) and the deep-level emission (DLE) intensities (I{sub NBE}/I{sub DLE}) obtained by PL gradually decreased because the DLE intensity from the nanorods gradually increased with increase in the atomic number of the dopants. We found that the dopants affected the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanorods including their dimensions, lattice constants, residual stresses, bond lengths, PL properties, transmittance values, optical band gaps, and Urbach energies.

  8. One-step synthesis of bird cage-like ZnO and other controlled morphologies: Structural, growth mechanism and photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shuo; Wang, Jian; Li, Xiuyan; Zhai, Hongju; Han, Donglai; Wei, Bing; Wang, Dandan; Yang, Jinghai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanocage arrays were synthesized by a one-step etching route. • ZnO nanocage exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than other samples. • The different photocatalytic activities of different samples were analyzed. • The formation mechanism of ZnO nanocages was proposed. - Abstract: ZnO nanocages and other nanostructures have been synthesized via a simple one-pot hydrothermal method with different reaction times. It is worth mentioning that this is a completely green method which does not require any other chemicals except that Zn foil served as Zn source in the experiment. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV–Vis diffuse reflection spectra were used to characterize the crystallinity, morphology and optical property of ZnO structures. Growth mechanisms of ZnO were proposed based on these results. Furthermore, ZnO films with different morphologies and crystal growth habits exhibited different activities to rhodamine B degradation. The influence of the reaction time on the morphology of ZnO films and the effect of the morphologies on the photocatalytic activity are discussed

  9. UV-Enhanced Ethanol Sensing Properties of RF Magnetron-Sputtered ZnO Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinyu; Du, Yu; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Hao; Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tian, Xiaoqing

    2017-12-26

    ZnO film was deposited by the magnetron sputtering method. The thickness of ZnO film is approximately 2 μm. The influence of UV light illumination on C₂H₅OH sensing properties of ZnO film was investigated. Gas sensing results revealed that the UV-illuminated ZnO film displays excellent C₂H₅OH characteristics in terms of high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, rapid response/recovery, and low detection limit down to 0.1 ppm. The excellent sensing performance of the sensor with UV activation could be attributed to the photocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the ZnO film, the planar film structure with high utilizing efficiency of UV light, high electron mobility, and a good surface/volume ratio of of ZnO film with a relatively rough and porous surface.

  10. Correlation between structural and electrical properties of ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadov, A.; Gao, W.; Li, Z.; Lee, J.; Hodgson, M.

    2005-01-01

    Thin ZnO films were deposited by radio frequency (r.f.) and direct current (d.c.) magnetron sputtering techniques onto glass substrates. Microstructural and electrical properties of ZnO films were studied using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and resistivity measurements. It was found that the size of the crystallites in the d.c. deposited films increased with increasing film thickness, while the crystallite size of r.f. deposited films remained unchanged. The d.c. deposited grains also had much stronger orientation related to the substrate than the r.f. films. XRD data indicated that the thin films with d<350 nm for r.f. and <750 nm for d.c. films have a very high degree of ZnO nonstoichiometry. This agreed well with the conductivity measurements and R(T) behaviour of the films with different resistance R. It was also found that the electrical resistivity of the samples increased exponentially with the thickness of films

  11. Single crystalline ZnO nanorods grown by a simple hydrothermal process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei1977@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Zhao, H.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Tan, W. [Henkel Huawei Electronics Co. Ltd., Lian' yungang, Jiangsu 222006 (China); Yu, H.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China); Chen, Y.W. [Department of Materials Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang Qianfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Molecular Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Key Lab of Materials Science and Processing of Anhui Province, Anhui University of Technology, Ma' anshan, Anhui 243002 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods with wurtzite structure have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal process. The microstructure and composition of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) and Raman spectrum. The nanorods have diameters ranging from 100 nm to 800 nm and length of longer than 10 {mu}m. Raman peak at 437.8 cm{sup -1} displays the characteristic peak of wurtzite ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows a blue light emission at 441 nm, which is related to radiative recombination of photo-generated holes with singularly ionized oxygen vacancies.

  12. Single crystalline ZnO nanorods grown by a simple hydrothermal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Zhao, H.S.; Tan, W.; Yu, H.Y.; Chen, Y.W.; Zhang Qianfeng

    2009-01-01

    Single crystalline ZnO nanorods with wurtzite structure have been prepared by a simple hydrothermal process. The microstructure and composition of the products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) and Raman spectrum. The nanorods have diameters ranging from 100 nm to 800 nm and length of longer than 10 μm. Raman peak at 437.8 cm -1 displays the characteristic peak of wurtzite ZnO. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum shows a blue light emission at 441 nm, which is related to radiative recombination of photo-generated holes with singularly ionized oxygen vacancies.

  13. Correlation of Defect-Related Optoelectronic Properties in Zn5(OH6(CO32/ZnO Nanostructures with Their Quasi-Fractal Dimensionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Paramo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrozincite (Zn5(OH6(CO32 is, among others, a popular precursor used to synthesize nanoscale ZnO with complex morphologies. For many existing and potential applications utilizing nanostructures, performance is determined by the surface and subsurface properties. Current understanding of the relationship between the morphology and the defect properties of nanocrystalline ZnO and hydrozincite systems is still incomplete. Specifically, for the latter nanomaterial the structure-property correlations are largely unreported in the literature despite the extensive use of hydrozincite in the synthesis applications. In our work, we addressed this issue by studying precipitated nanostructures of Zn5(OH6(CO32 with varying quasi-fractal dimensionalities containing relatively small amounts of a ZnO phase. Crystal morphology of the samples was accurately controlled by the growth time. We observed a strong correlation between the morphology of the samples and their optoelectronic properties. Our results indicate that a substantial increase of the free surface in the nanocrystal samples generates higher relative concentration of defects, consistent with the model of defect-rich surface and subsurface layers.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of Tb implanted ZnO single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shengqiang; Potzger, K.; Muecklich, A.; Eichhorn, F.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.; Fassbender, J.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO single crystals have been implanted with Tb ions. For an atomic concentration of 1.5%, annealing at 823 K leads to an increase of the saturation magnetization per implanted Tb ion up to 1.8 μ B at room temperature. Structural investigations revealed no secondary phase formation, but the out-diffusion of Tb. No significant evidence is found for Tb substituting Zn sites either in the as-implanted or annealed samples. However, indications for the existence of a small amount of Tb nanoclusters however have been found using magnetization versus temperature measurements. The ferromagnetic properties disappear completely upon annealing at 1023 K. This behavior is related to the formation of oxide complexes or nanoparticles

  15. Magnetic properties in (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Huawei; Lu, Pengfei; Cong, Zixiang; Yu, Zhongyuan; Cai, Ningning; Zhang, Xianlong; Gao, Tao; Wang, Shumin

    2013-01-01

    Using the first-principles density functional theory, we have studied the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires systematically. The calculated results of formation energy indicate that the configuration of the lowest energy where Mn and Fe atoms form nearest neighbors on the outer cylindrical surface layer along the [0001] direction, will be determined. The magnetic coupling of 8 types of Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires was investigated and ferromagnetic state was found in certain configurations. The mechanism is from the fierce hybridization between 3d of Mn and Fe with O 2p near the Fermi level. The relative energy difference for configuration VIII is 0.221 eV, which indicates that room temperature ferromagnetism could be obtained in such a system and Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires are a promising nanoscale spintronic material. - Highlights: • The stable structure prefers that Mn/Fe form nearest neighbors on the outer surface. • The fierce p–d hybridization is responsible for ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. • Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowire is a promising FM semiconductor material

  16. Magnetic properties in (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huawei [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: photon.bupt@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Cong, Zixiang [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100976 (China); Yu, Zhongyuan; Cai, Ningning; Zhang, Xianlong [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Gao, Tao [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wang, Shumin [Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2013-12-02

    Using the first-principles density functional theory, we have studied the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires systematically. The calculated results of formation energy indicate that the configuration of the lowest energy where Mn and Fe atoms form nearest neighbors on the outer cylindrical surface layer along the [0001] direction, will be determined. The magnetic coupling of 8 types of Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires was investigated and ferromagnetic state was found in certain configurations. The mechanism is from the fierce hybridization between 3d of Mn and Fe with O 2p near the Fermi level. The relative energy difference for configuration VIII is 0.221 eV, which indicates that room temperature ferromagnetism could be obtained in such a system and Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowires are a promising nanoscale spintronic material. - Highlights: • The stable structure prefers that Mn/Fe form nearest neighbors on the outer surface. • The fierce p–d hybridization is responsible for ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. • Mn/Fe codoped ZnO nanowire is a promising FM semiconductor material.

  17. Relative Humidity Sensing Properties Of Cu2O Doped ZnO Nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, N. K.; Tiwari, K.; Tripathi, A.; Roy, A.; Rai, A.; Awasthi, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report application of Cu 2 O doped ZnO composite prepared by solid state reaction route as humidity sensor. Pellet samples of ZnO-Cu 2 O nanocrystalline powders with 2, 5 and 10 weight% of Cu 2 O in ZnO have been prepared. Pellets have been annealed at temperatures of 200-500 deg. C and exposed to humidity. It is observed that as relative humidity increases, resistance of the pellet decreases for the humidity from 10% to 90%. Sample with 5% of Cu 2 O doped in ZnO and annealed at 500 deg. C shows best results with sensitivity of 1.50 MΩ/%RH. In this case the hysteresis is low and the reproducibility high, making it the suitable candidate for humidity sensing.

  18. MoS{sub 2}-modified ZnO quantum dots nanocomposite: Synthesis and ultrafast humidity response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ze, Lu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Yueqiu, Gong, E-mail: yqgong@xtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China); Xujun, Li; Yong, Zhang [School of Physics and Optoelectronics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • MoS{sub 2}@ZnO QDs composite structure was synthesized by two-steps methods. • Ultrafast humidity sensing response is achieved by MoS{sub 2}@ZnO QDs humidity sensor. • Sensor performs excellent cycle stability from 11% to 95% RH. • Humidity sensor could detect wide humidity range (11–95%). - Abstract: In this work, ZnO quantum dots (QDs), layered MoS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}-modified ZnO QDs (MoS{sub 2}@ZnO QDs) nanocomposite were synthesized and then applied as humidity sensor. The crystal structure, morphology and element distribution of ZnO QDs, MoS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}@ZnO QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, respectively. The humidity sensing characteristics of the MoS{sub 2} and MoS{sub 2}@ZnO QDs against various relative humidity were measured at room temperature. The results show that the MoS{sub 2}@ZnO QDs sensor exhibits high sensitivity with an impedance variation of three or four orders of magnitude to relative humidity range of 11–95% and it exhibits a short response-recovery time (1 s for adsorption and 20 s for desorption) and excellent repeatability. The mechanisms of the excellent performance for humidity sensing of MoS{sub 2}@ZnO QDs sensor were discussed based on its impedance properties. Our work could offer guidelines to design higher performance especially ultrafast humidity response sensor utilizing the nanocomposite structure with two dimensional material and QDs.

  19. Temperature-dependence on the structural, optical, andparamagnetic properties of ZnO nanostructures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlongo, GH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available of the phonon peak at 580 cm(sup-1) was gradually enhanced with the increase of annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that all ZnO samples possess a typical wurtzite structure with high...

  20. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndrez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100 substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.

  1. The effect of Ce3+ on structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using the chemical bath method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koao, L.F.; Dejene, F.B.; Swart, H.C.; Botha, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ce 3+ doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by the chemical bath deposition method (CBD). The influence of Ce 3+ as a dopant on the crystallization, surface morphology, optical and luminescent properties of ZnO flowers-like structures were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the ZnO:Ce 3+ nanostructures correspond to the various planes of a single hexagonal ZnO phase for the lower Ce concentration samples. The estimated grain sizes calculated using the XRD spectra were found to be in order of 42±2 nm. The grain size was found to be not dependent on the concentration of the Ce 3+ ions used up to 3 mol% of Ce. Scanning Auger electron microscopy and scanning electron micrographs indicate that the addition of Ce 3+ influence the morphology of the samples. The flower-like structures obtained for the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO changed into a mixed structure with the emergence of pyramid shapes for higher concentration Ce doped samples. The solid undoped and low concentration Ce doped powder showed good optical properties with a high reflectance in the visible regions. The properties, however, diminished at higher Ce concentration. The band gap energies decreased linearly with concentration from 3.0±0.1 to 2.4±0.3 eV for ZnO:0 mol% Ce 3+ up to ZnO:10 mol% Ce 3+ . Under 248 nm excitation, the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO flower-like rods exhibited a green emission, peaking at about 559 nm. The higher Ce concentration (0.3 mol% and above) was emitted at 436 and 503 nm due to the Ce transitions. The intensity of these emission spectra of the ZnO:Ce 3+ decreased with the addition of more Ce 3+ ions. -- Highlights: • Ce 3+ doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by CBD. • Flower-like hexagonal ZnO:Ce 3+ nanostructures were obtained for undoped and low mol% Ce. • ZnO changed into a mixed structure with emergence of pyramid shapes for higher mol% Ce. • Good optical properties with a high reflectance

  2. Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets and their gas sensing properties to volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fanli, E-mail: flmeng@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Hou, Nannan [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ge, Sheng [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Sun, Bai [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Jin, Zhen, E-mail: zjin@iim.ac.cn [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Shen, Wei; Kong, Lingtao; Guo, Zheng [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Yufeng, E-mail: sunyufeng118@126.com [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Anhui Polytechnic University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Wu, Hao; Wang, Chen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Li, Minqiang [Research Center for Biomimetic Functional Materials and Sensing Devices, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets were synthesized. • The flower-like hierarchical structured ZnO exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. • The sensing mechanism of the flower-like hierarchical has been systematically analyzed. - Abstract: Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets (FHPSCZNs) were synthesized by a one-pot wet-chemical method followed by an annealing treatment, which combined the advantages between flower-like hierarchical structure and porous single-crystalline structure. XRD, SEM and HRTEM were used to characterize the synthesized FHPSCZN samples. The sensing properties of the FHPSCZN sensor were also investigated by comparing with ZnO powder sensor, which exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. The sensing mechanism of the FHPSCZN sensor has been further analyzed from the aspects of electronic transport and gas diffusion.

  3. Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets and their gas sensing properties to volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fanli; Hou, Nannan; Ge, Sheng; Sun, Bai; Jin, Zhen; Shen, Wei; Kong, Lingtao; Guo, Zheng; Sun, Yufeng; Wu, Hao; Wang, Chen; Li, Minqiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets were synthesized. • The flower-like hierarchical structured ZnO exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. • The sensing mechanism of the flower-like hierarchical has been systematically analyzed. - Abstract: Flower-like hierarchical structures consisting of porous single-crystalline ZnO nanosheets (FHPSCZNs) were synthesized by a one-pot wet-chemical method followed by an annealing treatment, which combined the advantages between flower-like hierarchical structure and porous single-crystalline structure. XRD, SEM and HRTEM were used to characterize the synthesized FHPSCZN samples. The sensing properties of the FHPSCZN sensor were also investigated by comparing with ZnO powder sensor, which exhibited higher response and shorter response and recovery times. The sensing mechanism of the FHPSCZN sensor has been further analyzed from the aspects of electronic transport and gas diffusion

  4. ZnO Coatings with Controlled Pore Size, Crystallinity and Electrical Conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman SCHMACK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide is a wide bandgap semiconductor with unique optical, electrical and catalytic properties. Many of its practical applications rely on the materials pore structure, crystallinity and electrical conductivity. We report a synthesis method for ZnO films with ordered mesopore structure and tuneable crystallinity and electrical conductivity. The synthesis relies on dip-coating of solutions containing micelles of an amphiphilic block copolymer and complexes of Zn2+ ions with aliphatic ligands. A subsequent calcination at 400°C removes the template and induces crystallization of the pore walls. The pore structure is controlled by the template polymer, whereas the aliphatic ligands control the crystallinity of the pore walls. Complexes with a higher thermal stability result in ZnO films with a higher content of residual carbon, smaller ZnO crystals and therefore lower electrical conductivity. The paper discusses the ability of different types of ligands to assist in the synthesis of mesoporous ZnO and relates the structure and thermal stability of the precursor complexes to the crystallinity and electrical conductivity of the zinc oxide.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.8634

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Flower-Like Bundles of ZnO Nanosheets by a Surfactant-Free Hydrothermal Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets have been prepared by using preheating hydrothermal process without any surfactants. The flower-like bundles consist of many thin and uniform hexagonal-structured ZnO nanosheets, with a thickness of 50 nm. The selected area electronic diffraction (SAED and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM images indicate that the ZnO nanosheets are single crystal in nature. The growth mechanism of the flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is discussed based on the morphology evolution with growth times and reaction conditions. It is believed that the formation of flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets is related to the shielding effect of OH− ions and the self-assembly process, which is dominated by a preheating time. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra results show that the annealing atmosphere strongly affects the visible emission band, which is sensitive to intrinsic and surface defects, especially oxygen interstitials, in flower-like bundles of ZnO nanosheets.

  6. Annealing temperature dependent reversible wettability switching of micro/nano structured ZnO superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayi, Elmira; Norouzbeigi, Reza

    2018-05-01

    Superhydrophobic ZnO surfaces with reversibly tunable wettability were fabricated on stainless steel meshes via a facile chemical bath deposition method just by regulating the micro/nano structured ZnO needles without using chemical post modifications. The obtained surfaces can be easily and reversibly switched between superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic/underwater superoleophobic characteristics by altering the annealing temperatures. As-prepared sample exhibited long-term superhydrophobic properties with a water contact angle (WCA) of 163.8° ± 1.8° and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) of 1.1° ± 0.8°. The SEM, XRD, XPS and Raman analyses were employed to characterize the morphological features and surface chemistry of the prepared samples. SEM images showed the formation of ZnO micro/nanoneedles with a diameter of ∼90 nm on the substrate. The superhydrophobic ZnO surface was switched to highly hydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic properties with an oil contact angle (OCA) of about 172.5° after being annealed at 400 °C in air for 30 min and restored to superhydrophobic state again by altering the annealing temperature to 150 °C. Mechanical durability of the ZnO superhydrophobic surface was tested by an abrasion test. Results confirmed that the prepared surface exhibited an excellent robustness after 20 abrasion cycles under the pressure of 4.7 kPa.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of porous structured ZnO thin film for dye sensitized solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marimuthu, T.; Anandhan, N., E-mail: anandhan-kn@rediffmail.com; Mummoorthi, M. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 003 (India); Dharuman, V. [Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 003 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide/eosin yellow (ZnO/EY) thin films were potentiostatically deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. Effect of eosin yellow dye on structural, morphological and optical properties was studied. X-ray diffraction patterns, micro Raman spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal hexagonal wurtzite structure with less atomic defects in 101 plane orientation of the ZnO/EY film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show flower for ZnO and porous like structure for ZnO/EY thin film, respectively. DSSC was constructed and evaluated by measuring the current density verses voltage curve.

  8. Influence of the spray pyrolysis seeding and growth parameters on the structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Juan, E-mail: jrodriguez@uni.edu.pe [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, P.O. Box 31-139, Lima 31 (Peru); Feuillet, Guy [CEA Grenoble/LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Donatini, Fabrice [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inst NEEL, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Inst NEEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Onna, Diego [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, Luis [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, P.O. Box 31-139, Lima 31 (Peru); Candal, Roberto [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); ECyT, 3iA, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen N° 3100 (1650), San Martín, Pcia de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marchi, M. Claudia [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CMA, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bilmes, Sara A. [DQIAQF-INQUIMAE, FCEyN-Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. II, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chandezon, Frédéric [University Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPRAM, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-02-01

    ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates at low temperatures (90 °C) from Zn{sup 2+} precursors in alkaline media previously seeded with ZnO nanoparticles. These were deposited onto the FTO substrate heated at 350 °C by spray pyrolysis of a Zn acetate solution in a water ethanol mixture. The structure of seeds was tuned by the ethanol to water ratio, Γ, which controls the solvent evaporation rate of drops impinging the substrate. From a detailed characterization using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV–visible absorption and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies, the dependence of the morphology and optical properties of the ZnO NRs on the seeding conditions was demonstrated. NRs grown on seeds deposited from solutions with Γ in the 0.03–0.06 range – i.e. when the surface excess of ethanol in the water–ethanol mixture has a maximum – show thinner average diameters and stacking faults due to the presence of zinc blende domains embedded into an overall wurtzite NR. They furthermore exhibit blue-shifted near band edge emission peak and a high deep level emission in cathodoluminescence. All these findings support the use of spray pyrolysis as a simple and reproducible way to control the seeds deposition, influencing the growth, the structure and the optical properties of the final ZnO NRs. - Highlights: • ZnO pyrolytic seeds tuned by the rate of solvent evaporation. • ZnO NRs grown from tuned pyrolytic seed's structure shows diameter dependence. • ZnO NRs show stacking faults due to the presence of zinc blende domains.

  9. Effects of seed layers on controlling of the morphology of ZnO nanostructures and superhydrophobicity of ZnO nanostructure/stearic acid composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Zhihua, E-mail: sdwfliu@163.com; Liu, Junqi; E, Lei; Liu, Zhifeng, E-mail: tjulzf@163.com

    2016-11-01

    Hydrophobic ZnO self-cleaning thin films with the nanobundles and nanocarpets structures fabricated on indium tin oxides (ITO) glass substrate are reported. The water contact angle of ZnO nanobundles and nanocarpets structures (79° and 67° respectively) is higher than that of unmodified ZnO nanorods. A subsequent chemical treatment with stearic acid (SA) contributed to a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 159°. Its superhydrophobic property is originated from the nanobundles or nanocarpets structures and surface energy of SA/ZnO nanobundles and SA/ZnO nanocarpets composite nanostructures. Moreover, this promising ZnO nanostructured materials show an important application in self-cleaning smart coatings. - Highlights: • PEG and CTAB are firstly introduced to modify the morphology of ZnO seed layers. • ZnO nanobundles and nanocarpets obtained from different seed layers. • Superhydrophobic surfaces obtained by chemcial treatment using SA.

  10. Tungsten-doped ZnO nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization, and highly active photocatalyst toward dye photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah, E-mail: Fallah.m@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A series of W-doped ZnO nanocomposite with different W contents were synthesized by sol–gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and BET surface area measurement. The XRD results revealed that all the W-doped samples showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDS and XPS revealed that W was doped into ZnO structure. The particle size of doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to that of pure ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of undoped ZnO and W-doped ZnO was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the W-doped ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO and the optimum percentage of doped W is 4 mol%. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO samples may be related to the narrowing of the band gap, increase in the charge separation efficiency, particle size reduction and increase of the surface area. Highlights: ► W-doped ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ► The XRD results revealed that all the materials consisting of wurtzite structure. ► The sizes of the W-ZnO nanocomposite are 5–10 nm, obtained from TEM image. ► With W doping into ZnO photoinduced charge separation rate has been enhanced. ► Photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO.

  11. Tungsten-doped ZnO nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization, and highly active photocatalyst toward dye photodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah

    2013-01-01

    A series of W-doped ZnO nanocomposite with different W contents were synthesized by sol–gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and BET surface area measurement. The XRD results revealed that all the W-doped samples showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDS and XPS revealed that W was doped into ZnO structure. The particle size of doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to that of pure ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of undoped ZnO and W-doped ZnO was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the W-doped ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO and the optimum percentage of doped W is 4 mol%. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO samples may be related to the narrowing of the band gap, increase in the charge separation efficiency, particle size reduction and increase of the surface area. Highlights: ► W-doped ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ► The XRD results revealed that all the materials consisting of wurtzite structure. ► The sizes of the W-ZnO nanocomposite are 5–10 nm, obtained from TEM image. ► With W doping into ZnO photoinduced charge separation rate has been enhanced. ► Photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO

  12. Void Structures in Regularly Patterned ZnO Nanorods Grown with the Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The void structures and related optical properties after thermal annealing with ambient oxygen in regularly patterned ZnO nanrorod (NR arrays grown with the hydrothermal method are studied. In increasing the thermal annealing temperature, void distribution starts from the bottom and extends to the top of an NR in the vertical (c-axis growth region. When the annealing temperature is higher than 400°C, void distribution spreads into the lateral (m-axis growth region. Photoluminescence measurement shows that the ZnO band-edge emission, in contrast to defect emission in the yellow-red range, is the strongest under the n-ZnO NR process conditions of 0.003 M in Ga-doping concentration and 300°C in thermal annealing temperature with ambient oxygen. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate that the concentration of hydroxyl groups in the vertical growth region is significantly higher than that in the lateral growth region. During thermal annealing, hydroxyl groups are desorbed from the NR leaving anion vacancies for reacting with cation vacancies to form voids.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO and Ni doped ZnO nanorods by thermal decomposition method for spintronics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, R.; Santhi, Kalavathy; Sivakumar, N.; Narayanan, V.; Stephen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanorods and diluted magnetic semiconducting Ni doped ZnO nanorods were prepared by thermal decomposition method. This method is simple and cost effective. The decomposition temperature of acetate and formation of oxide were determined by TGA before the actual synthesis process. The X-ray diffraction result indicates the single phase hexagonal structure of zinc oxide. The transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy images show rod like structure of ZnO and Ni doped ZnO samples with the diameter ∼ 35 nm and the length in few micrometers. The surface analysis was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. The Ni doped ZnO exhibits room temperature ferromagnetism. This diluted magnetic semiconducting Ni doped ZnO nanorods finds its application in spintronics. - Highlights: ► The method used is very simple and cost effective compared to all other methods for the preparation DMS materials. ► ZnO and Ni doped ZnO nanorods ► Ferromagnetism at room temperature

  14. Optical and structural properties of Mn-doped ZnO nanorods grown by aqueous chemical growth for spintronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelchuk, V.V. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 45 Nauky pr., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Nikolenko, A.S., E-mail: nikolenko_mail@ukr.net [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 45 Nauky pr., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kolomys, O.F.; Rarata, S.V.; Avramenko, K.A.; Lytvyn, P.M. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 45 Nauky pr., 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Tronc, P. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Chey, Chan Oeurn; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus [Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, 601 74 Norrköping (Sweden)

    2016-02-29

    The effect of Mn-doping on the structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the ZnO:Mn nanorods (NRs) synthesized by aqueous chemical process is reported. Grown ZnO:Mn NRs are shown to have hexagonal end facets and the diameters increasing with nominal Mn content. Optical absorption measurements show a decrease in optical band gap with increase of Mn concentration. Raman spectroscopy revealed significant modification of the lattice vibrational properties of the ZnO matrix upon Mn doping. The additional Mn-related vibrational mode, intensity of which increases with amount of Mn can be regarded as an evidence of Mn incorporation into the host lattice of the ZnO. At high Mn concentrations, coexistence of hexagonal Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O phase along with the secondary phases of ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cubic spinel is revealed. Magnetic properties of ZnO:Mn NRs are studied by combinatorial atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy imaging, and obtained clear magnetic contrast at room temperature provides a strong evidence of ferromagnetic behavior. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanorods by hydrothermal method is demonstrated. • Doping with Mn significantly changes the morphology of ZnO nanorods. • Additional Mn-induced Raman modes evidence incorporation of Mn into ZnO matrix. • Formation of secondary ZnMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase is found at high Mn concentrations. • Contrast MFM images of ZnO:Mn nanorods indicate ferromagnetism at room temperature.

  15. Enhancement in the structure quality of ZnO nanorods by diluted Co dopants: Analyses via optical second harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chung-Wei; Hsiao, Chih-Hung; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Brahma, Sanjaya; Chang, Feng Ming; Wang, Peng Han; Lo, Kuang-Yao

    2015-01-01

    We report a systematic study about the effect of cobalt concentration in the growth solution over the crystallization, growth, and optical properties of hydrothermally synthesized Zn 1−x Co x O [0 ≤ x ≤ 0.40, x is the weight (wt.) % of Co in the growth solution] nanorods. Dilute Co concentration of 1 wt. % in the growth solution enhances the bulk crystal quality of ZnO nanorods, and high wt. % leads to distortion in the ZnO lattice that depresses the crystallization, growth as well as the surface structure quality of ZnO. Although, Co concentration in the growth solution varies from 1 to 40 wt. %, the real doping concentration is limited to 0.28 at. % that is due to the low growth temperature of 80 °C. The enhancement in the crystal quality of ZnO nanorods at dilute Co concentration in the solution is due to the strain relaxation that is significantly higher for ZnO nanorods prepared without, and with high wt. % of Co in the growth solution. Second harmonic generation is used to investigate the net dipole distribution from these coatings, which provides detailed information about bulk and surface structure quality of ZnO nanorods at the same time. High quality ZnO nanorods are fabricated by a low-temperature (80 °C) hydrothermal synthesis method, and no post synthesis treatment is needed for further crystallization. Therefore, this method is advantageous for the growth of high quality ZnO coatings on plastic substrates that may lead toward its application in flexible electronics

  16. Structural, optical, and hydrogenation properties of ZnO nanowall networks grown on a Si (1 1 1) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.C.; Lu, Y.M.; Zhang, Z.Z.; Li, B.H.; Shen, D.Z.; Yao, B.; Zhang, J.Y.; Zhao, D.X.; Fan, X.W.

    2008-01-01

    ZnO nanowall networks were grown on a Si (1 1 1) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (P-MBE) without using catalysts. Scanning electronic microscopy (FE-SEM) confirmed the formation of nanowalls with a thickness of about 10-20 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the ZnO nanowall networks were crystallized in a wurtzite structure with their height parallel to the direction. Photoluminescence (PL) of the ZnO nanowall networks exhibited free excitons (FEs), donor-bound exciton (D 0 X), donor-acceptor pair (DAP), and free exciton to acceptor (FA) emissions. The growth mechanism of the ZnO nanowall networks was discussed, and their hydrogenation was also studied

  17. Influence of External Gaseous Environments on the Electrical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures Obtained by a Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Procek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with experimental investigations of ZnO nanostructures, consisting of a mixture of nanoparticles and nanowires, obtained by the chemical (hydrothermal method. The influences of both oxidizing (NO2 and reducing gases (H2, NH3, as well as relative humidity (RH on the physical and chemical properties of ZnO nanostructures were tested. Carrier gas effect on the structure interaction with gases was also tested; experiments were conducted in air and nitrogen (N2 atmospheres. The effect of investigated gases on the resistance of the ZnO nanostructures was tested over a wide range of concentrations at room temperature (RT and at 200 °C. The impact of near- ultraviolet (UV excitation (λ = 390 nm at RT was also studied. These investigations indicated a high response of ZnO nanostructures to small concentrations of NO2. The structure responses to 1 ppm of NO2 amounted to about: 600% in N2/230% in air at 200 °C (in dark conditions and 430% in N2/340% in air at RT (with UV excitation. The response of the structure to the effect of NO2 at 200 °C is more than 105 times greater than the response to NH3, and more than 106 times greater than that to H2 in the relation of 1 ppm. Thus the selectivity of the structure for NO2 is very good. What is more, the selectivity to NO2 at RT with UV excitation increases in comparison at elevated temperature. This paper presents a great potential for practical applications of ZnO nanostructures (including nanoparticles in resistive NO2 sensors.

  18. Annealing impact on the structural and photoluminescence properties of ZnO thin films on Ag substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Zheng, Gaige; Lai, Min; Pei, Shixin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The Gaussian fitting indicates that the PL spectra of the ZnO thin films include four emission peaks which are centered at 380, 520, 570 and 610 nm, respectively. The ZnO thin film deposited on an Ag substrate shows a stronger green emission and a weaker UV emission than the ZnO thin film directly deposited on a Si substrate annealed at 400 °C. With the rise of annealing temperature, the visible emission intensity and wavelength are largely changed. Highlights: • ZnO thin films have been prepared on Ag substrates by sol–gel method. • The Ag substrates have a great effect on the photoluminescence of ZnO thin films. • All the films exhibit three visible emission bands including green, yellow and red. • Annealing causes a large change of the visible emission intensity and wavelength. -- Abstract: In this work, ZnO thin films were prepared by sol–gel method on Ag substrates. The structural and optical properties of the films annealed at different temperatures were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoluminescence, respectively. The results of XRD showed that all the ZnO thin films had a wurtzite phase and were preferentially oriented along the c-axis direction. The sample annealed at 400 °C exhibited better crystalline quality than the ZnO thin film directly deposited on a Si substrate annealed at the same temperature. The photoluminescence spectra showed that ZnO thin films had an ultraviolet emission band and three visible emission bands including green, yellow and red band. The sample annealed at 400 °C exhibited a stronger green emission and a weaker ultraviolet emission compared with the ZnO thin film deposited on a Si substrate annealed at the same temperature. The difference of the luminescence properties was thought to be originated from different substrates. As for the ZnO films on Ag substrates, the increase of annealing temperature led to different changes of visible emissions

  19. Effects of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn"2"+ on fluvial biofilms and the related toxicity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Dai, Shanshan; Wang, Peifang; Miao, Lingzhan; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. The health hazard of ZnO NPs and the contribution of dissolved Zn"2"+ in toxicity of ZnO NPs has attracted extensive worldwide attention. In this study, the toxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and the effects of dissolved Zn"2"+ on fluvial biofilms were investigated. At the end of the exposure time (21 days), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and bioaccumulation experiments revealed that large quantities of ZnO NPs were adsorbed on the biofilm. The algal biomasses were significantly decreased by six- and eleven-fold compared with the control (1.43 μg/L) by exposure to concentrations of 100 mg/L ZnO NPs and 7.85 mg/L Zn"2"+, respectively. Moreover, under the same exposure conditions, the quantum yields presented contents of 53.33 and 33.33% relative to the control, and a shift in the community composition that manifested as a strong reduction in diatoms was observed from 7 days and reached 15.63 and 6.25% of the control after 21 days of exposure, respectively. The reductions in bacteria viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were noticeably enhanced following exposure to 100 mg/L ZnO NPs and 7.85 mg/L Zn"2"+, respectively. Additionally, the acute and rapid toxicity of Zn"2"+ and the increasing toxicity of the ZnO NPs with increased bioaccumulation were noted in the exposure experiment. - Highlights: • Fluvial biofilm was exposed to ZnO NPs and the dissolved Zn"2"+. • Chl-a and Φ_M decreased at high doses (100 and 7.85 mg/L of ZnO NPs and Zn"2"+). • A shift in the algae community composition was observed at high dosage levels. • The enhanced production of ROS declined the bacteria viability. • Zn"2"+ was more toxic than that of the ZnO-NPs.

  20. Investigation on Fe-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by a chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, A.K.; Das, D.

    2010-01-01

    Zn 1-x Fe x O (x = 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) nanoparticles synthesized by a chemical route were characterized by different techniques. The structural characterization by XRD and TEM confirmed the phase purity of the samples and indicated a reduction in particle size with increase in the dopant (Fe) concentration in ZnO. The optical characterization of the nanoparticles by FTIR, PL and UV-visible spectroscopy confirmed the formation of wurtzite structure and incorporation of Fe in the ZnO lattice. Magnetization measurements by VSM and Faraday balance techniques indicate presence of room temperature ferromagnetism in the Fe-doped ZnO samples. Local environment around the Fe atoms has been probed by 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and the measured isomer shifts confirmed the charge state of iron as Fe 3+ . Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements confirm the presence of cation vacancies in the nanoparticles and indicate a reduction of overall defect concentration with incorporation of Fe atoms in the ZnO structure.

  1. Composite structure of ZnO films coated with reduced graphene oxide: structural, electrical and electrochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Weiqiang; Hu, Yuehui; Chen, Yichuan; Hu, Keyan; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhu, Wenjun; Tong, Fan; Lao, Zixuan

    2018-02-01

    ZnO films coated with reduced graphene oxide (RGO-ZnO) were prepared by a simple chemical approach. The graphene oxide (GO) films transferred onto ZnO films by spin coating were reduced to RGO films by two steps (exposed to hydrazine vapor for 12 h and annealed at 600 °C). The crystal structures, electrical and photoluminescence properties of RGO-ZnO films on quartz substrates were systematically studied. The SEM images illustrated that RGO layers have successfully been coated on the ZnO films very tightly. The PL properties of RGO-ZnO were studied. PL spectra show two sharp peaks at 390 nm and a broad visible emission around 490 nm. The resistivity of RGO-ZnO films was measured by a Hall measurement system, RGO as nanofiller considerably decrease the resistivity of ZnO films. An electrode was fabricated, using RGO-ZnO films deposited on Si substrate as active materials, for super capacitor application. By comparison of different results, we conclude that the RGO-ZnO composite material couples possess the properties of super capacitor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61464005, 51562015), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (Nos. 20143ACB21004, 20151BAB212008, 20171BAB216015), the Jiangxi Province Foreign Cooperation Projects, China (No. 20151BDH80031), the Leader Training Object Project of Major Disciplines Academic and Technical of Jiangxi Province (No. 20123BCB22002), and the Key Technology R & D Program of the Jiangxi Provine of Science and Technology (No. 20171BBE50053).

  2. Investigations of rapid thermal annealing induced structural evolution of ZnO: Ge nanocomposite thin films via GISAXS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceylan, Abdullah, E-mail: aceylanabd@yahoo.com [Department of Physics Eng., Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Ozcan, Yusuf [Department of Electricity and Energy, Pamukkale University, Denizli (Turkey); Orujalipoor, Ilghar [Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Huang, Yen-Chih; Jeng, U-Ser [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Ide, Semra [Department of Physics Eng., Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-06-07

    In this work, we present in depth structural investigations of nanocomposite ZnO: Ge thin films by utilizing a state of the art grazing incidence small angle x-ray spectroscopy (GISAXS) technique. The samples have been deposited by sequential r.f. and d.c. sputtering of ZnO and Ge thin film layers, respectively, on single crystal Si(100) substrates. Transformation of Ge layers into Ge nanoparticles (Ge-np) has been initiated by ex-situ rapid thermal annealing of asprepared thin film samples at 600 °C for 30, 60, and 90 s under forming gas atmosphere. A special attention has been paid on the effects of reactive and nonreactive growth of ZnO layers on the structural evolution of Ge-np. GISAXS analyses have been performed via cylindrical and spherical form factor calculations for different nanostructure types. Variations of the size, shape, and distributions of both ZnO and Ge nanostructures have been determined. It has been realized that GISAXS results are not only remarkably consistent with the electron microscopy observations but also provide additional information on the large scale size and shape distribution of the nanostructured components.

  3. Structural, optical and magnetic properties of Mn doped ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, Arun, E-mail: aruncusat@gmail.com [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022, Kerala (India); Jayaraj, M.K., E-mail: mkj@cusat.ac.in [Nanophotonic and Optoelectronic Devices Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022, Kerala (India); Kumar, Mukesh; Chandra, Ramesh [Nano Science Laboratory, Institute Instrumentation Centre, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247 667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Defect induced Raman active modes in Mn doped ZnO thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room temperature ferromagnetism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphological variations of ZnO thin films with Mn doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variation of refractive index of ZnO thin films with Mn doping. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The phase purity and the structure were confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. The films have a transmittance more than 80% in the visible region. The refractive index of Zn{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.10}O films is found to be 1.77 at 550 nm. The presence of non-polar E{sub 2}{sup high} and E{sub 2}{sup low} Raman modes in thin films indicates that 'Mn' doping does not change the wurtzite structure of ZnO. Apart from the normal modes of ZnO the Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O ceramic targets show two additional modes at 332 cm{sup -1} (I{sub 1}) and 524 cm{sup -1} (I{sub 2}). The broad Raman peaks (340-600 cm{sup -1}) observed Zn{sub 0.90}Mn{sub 0.10}O thin films can be deconvoluted into five peaks, denoted as P{sub 1}-P{sub 5}. The possible origins of Raman peaks in Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O films are the structural disorder and morphological change caused by the Mn dopant. The B{sub 1}{sup low}, {sup 2}B{sub 1}{sup low}, B{sub 1}{sup high} and A{sub 1}{sup LO} modes as well as the surface phonon mode have been observed in heavily Mn-doped ZnO films. Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O thin film shows room temperature ferromagnetism. The saturation magnetic moment of the Zn{sub 0.98}Mn{sub 0.02}O thin film is 0.42{mu}{sub B}/Mn atom. The undoped ZnO film prepared under the same condition shows diamagnetic nature. At higher doping concentrations the formation of Mn clusters suppress the room temperature ferromagnetism in Zn{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}O thin films and shows paramagnetism. XPS confirms the incorporation of Mn{sup 2+} into the ZnO lattice.

  4. Structural and room temperature ferromagnetic properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles via low-temperature hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kun; Liu, Changzhen, E-mail: liuchangzhen94@163.com; Chen, Rui; Fang, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Xiuling; Liu, Jie

    2016-12-01

    A series of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O (x=0, 1%, 3%, 5%) nanoparticles have been synthesized via a low-temperature hydrothermal method. Influence of Ni doping concentration on the structure, morphology, optical properties and magnetism of the samples was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis spectrophotometer and vibrating sample magnetometer instruments. The results show that the undoped and doped ZnO nanoparticles are both hexagonal wurtzite structures. The surface analysis was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. The images of SEM reveal that the structure of pure ZnO and Ni doped samples are nanoparticles which intended to form flakes with thickness of few nanometers, being overlain with each one to develop the network with some pores and voids. Based on the ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy analysis, it indicates that the band gap energy decreases with the increasing concentration of Ni. Furthermore, The Ni doped ZnO samples didn't exhibit higher ultraviolet-light-driven photocatalytic activity compared to the undoped ZnO sample. Vibrating sample magnetometer was used for the magnetic property investigations, and the result indicates that room temperature ferromagnetism property of 3% Ni doped sample is attributed to oxygen vacancy and interaction between doped ions.

  5. Hierarchical core-shell structure of ZnO nanorod@NiO/MoO₂ composite nanosheet arrays for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Sucheng; Zhang, Guanhua; Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Jian; Gong, Feilong; Li, Feng; Duan, Huigao

    2014-08-27

    A hierarchical core-shell structure of ZnO nanorod@NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheet arrays on nickel foam substrate for high-performance supercapacitors was constructed by a two-step solution-based method involving two hydrothermal processes followed by a calcination treatment. Compared to one composed of pure NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheets, the hierarchical core-shell structure electrode displays better pseudocapacitive behaviors in 2 M KOH, including high areal specific capacitance values of 1.18 F cm(-2) at 5 mA cm(-2) and 0.6 F cm(-2) at 30 mA cm(-2) as well as relatively good rate capability at high current densities. Furthermore, it also shows remarkable cycle stability, remaining at 91.7% of the initial value even after 4000 cycles at a current density of 10 mA cm(-2). The enhanced pseudocapacitive behaviors are mainly due to the unique hierarchical core-shell structure and the synergistic effect of combining ZnO nanorod arrays and NiO/MoO2 composite nanosheets. This novel hierarchical core-shell structure shows promise for use in next-generation supercapacitors.

  6. Processing of ZnO nanocrystals by solochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusatti, M.; Speckhahn, R.; Silva, L.A.; Rosario, J.A.; Lima, R.B.; Kuhnen, N.C.; Riella, H.G.; Campos, C.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we report the synthesis of high quality ZnO nanocrystals by solochemical technique. This synthetic strategy has been shown to have advantages over other methods of producing nanostructures in terms of low cost, efficiency, simplicity and uniformity of crystal structure. Zinc chloride solution at room temperature was mixed with sodium hydroxide solution at 50°C to produce ZnO nanocrystals. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the ZnO nanocrystals obtained. The structure of ZnO was refined by the Rietveld Method from X-ray diffraction data. These methods showed that the product consisted of pure ZnO nanocrystals and has, predominantly, a rod-like morphology. (author)

  7. Effect of aging time on the optical, structural and photoluminescence properties of nanocrystalline ZnO films prepared by a sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.B.; AL-Shomar, S.M.; Ahmad, Sahrim Hj.

    2013-01-01

    The nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited by a sol–gel method and the effect of sol aging time 0, 1, 7 and 11 days on the structural, optical and photoluminescence properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the deposited films were polycrystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure and high orientation along c-axis direction. The grain size was in the range of 42–60 nm increased with sol aging time also the thickness increased from 70 to 147 nm with the aging time increment. The roughness of ZnO film investigated by atomic force microscope showed that roughness of the films increased then decreased with the increment of the aging time. The deposited films are highly transparent with an average transmission exceeding 82–95% in the visible range (400–800 nm), which slightly improved with aging time. The measured optical band gap values of the ZnO films were between 3.1 eV and 3.6 eV. The photoluminescence intensity increased with the aging time and the ZnO films have ultraviolet, violet and green emission.

  8. Annealing temperature dependence of the structures and properties of Co-implanted ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Bin; Tang, Kun; Gu, Shulin; Ye, Jiandong; Huang, Shimin; Gu, Ran; Zhang, Yang; Yao, Zhengrong; Zhu, Shunming; Zheng, Youdou

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To avoid the forming of Co clusters and explore the origin of the magnetism, detailed investigation on the properties of the Co-implanted ZnO films with a rather low dose of 8 × 10 15 cm −2 and high implantation energy of 1 MeV were carried out. • The crystalline structure of the damaged region caused by ion-implantation has been recovered via the thermal annealing treatment at the temperature of 900 °C and above. • The low temperature magnetic hysteresis loops have indicated paramagnetism for the annealed films with weak ferromagnetic characteristics. • The zero-field cooling (ZFC) magnetization curves of the Co-implanted ZnO samples have varied from concave shape to convex one as the annealing temperature increased from 750 °C to 1000 °C. - Abstract: The effects of thermal annealing treatment on the structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Co-implanted ZnO (0 0 0 1) films have been investigated in detail. The crystalline structure of the damaged region caused by ion implantation has been recovered via the thermal annealing at the temperature of 900 °C and above, and no Co clusters or its related oxide phases have been observed. The electrical and optical properties of the annealed films have shown strong dependence on the annealing temperature. The zero field cooling magnetization curves of the annealed films have varied from concave shape to convex one as the annealing temperature increased from 750 °C to 1000 °C, which are possibly tuned by the changes of the ratio of the itinerant carriers over the localized spin density. The low temperature magnetic hysteresis loops have indicated paramagnetic behavior for the annealed films with weak ferromagnetic characteristics. The ferromagnetism is attributed to the substituted Co 2+ ions and vacancy defects, while the paramagnetism could be induced by ionized interstitial Zn defects

  9. The optoelectronic properties and role of Cu concentration on the structural and electrical properties of Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omri, K.; Bettaibi, A.; Khirouni, K.; El Mir, L.

    2018-05-01

    In the current study, we synthesized a Cu-doped ZnO (CZO) nanoparticles material using a sol-gel method with different doping concentrations of Cu (0, 2, 3 and 4 at.%). The control of the Cu concentration on structural, electrical and optical properties of CZO nanoparticles was investigated in detail. The XRD analysis of the CZO nanoparticles reveals the formation of ZnO hexagonal wurtzite structure for all samples which confirm the incorporation of Cu2+ ions into the ZnO lattice by substitution. Furthermore, CZO nanoparticles showed a small red shift of absorption band with the incorporation of Cu from 0 to 4 at.%; i.e. a decreased band gap value from 3.34 eV to 3.27 eV with increasing of Cu doping content. The frequency dispersion of the electric conductivity were studied using the Jonscher universal power law, according to relation σ(ω) = σDC + A ωs(T). Alternative current conductivity increases with increasing Cu content in spite of the decrease the activation energy with copper loading. It was found that the conductivity reached its maximum value for critical Cu concentration of 3 at.%. The frequency relaxation phenomenon was also investigated and all results were discussed in term of the copper doping concentration.

  10. Study of structural, morphological, optical and electroluminescent properties of undoped ZnO nanorods grown by a simple chemical precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods were obtained by a simple chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent: polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD result indicates that the synthesized undoped ZnO nanorods have hexagonal wurtzite structure without any impurities. It has been observed that the growth direction of the prepared ZnO nanorods is [1 0 1]. XRD analysis revealed that the nanorods have the crystallite size of 49 nm. Crystallite size is calculated by Debye-Scherrer formula and lattice strain is calculated by Williomson-Hall equation. Cell volume, Lorentz factor, Lorentz polarization factor, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density have also been studied. We also compared the interplanar spacings and relative peak intensities with their standard values at different angles. The scanning electron microscope (SEM images confirmed the size and shape of these nanorods. It has been found that the diameter of the nanorods ranges from 1.52 μm to 1.61 μm and the length is about 4.89 μm. It has also been observed that at room temperature ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis absorption band is around 355 nm (blue shifted as compared to the bulk. The average particle size has also been calculated by mathematical model of effective mass approximation equation, using UV-Vis absorption peak. Finally, the bandgap has been calculated using UV-absorption peak. Electroluminescence (EL studies show that emission of light is possible at very small threshold voltage and it increases rapidly with increasing applied voltage. It is seen that smaller ZnO nanoparticles give higher electroluminescence brightness starting at lower threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  11. Transport and structural characterization of solution-processable doped ZnO nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Noriega, Rodrigo

    2009-08-18

    The use of ZnO nanowires has become a widespread topic of interest in optoelectronics. In order to correctly assess the quality, functionality, and possible applications of such nanostructures it is important to accurately understand their electrical and optical properties. Aluminum- and gallium-doped crystalline ZnO nanowires were synthesized using a low-temperature solution-based process, achieving dopant densities of the order of 1020 cm-3. A non-contact optical technique, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, is used to characterize ensembles of ZnO nanowires. By modeling the free charge carrier absorption as a Drude metal, we are able to calculate the free carrier density and mobility. Determining the location of the dopant atoms in the ZnO lattice is important to determine the doping mechanisms of the ZnO nanowires. Solid-state NMR is used to distinguish between coordination environments of the dopant atoms.

  12. Improved ITO thin films for photovoltaic applications with a thin ZnO layer by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, J.; Guillen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The improvement of the optical and electrical characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) layers is pursued to achieve a higher efficiency in its application as frontal electrical contacts in thin film photovoltaic devices. In order to take advantage of the polycrystalline structure of ZnO films as growth support, the properties of ITO layers prepared at room temperature by sputtering onto bare and ZnO-coated substrates have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction, optical and electrical measurements. It has been found that by inserting a thin ZnO layer, the ITO film resistivity can be reduced as compared to that of a single ITO film with similar optical transmittance. The electrical quality improvement is related to ITO grain growth enhancement onto the polycrystalline ZnO underlayer

  13. Annealed Ce{sup 3+}-doped ZnO flower-like morphology synthesized by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koao, Lehlohonolo F., E-mail: koaolf@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwa Qwa campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, Francis B.; Tsega, Moges [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwa Qwa campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, Hendrik C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    We have successfully synthesized ZnO:xmol% Ce{sup 3+} (0≤x≤10 mol%) doped nanopowders via the chemical bath deposition method (CBD) technique at low temperature (80 °C) and annealed in air at 700 °C. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that all the undoped and Ce-doped ZnO nanopowders have a hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline structure with an average crystallite size of about 46 nm. Weak diffraction peaks related mainly to cerium oxide were also detected at higher concentrations of Ce{sup 3+} (x=5–10 mol%). The scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the nanopowder samples were assembled in flower-shaped undoped ZnO and pyramid-shaped Ce{sup 3+}-doped ZnO nanostructures. The UV–vis spectra showed that the absorption edges shifted slightly to the longer wavelengths with the increase in the Ce{sup 3+} ions concentration. Moreover, the photoluminescence (PL) results showed a relative weak visible emission for the Ce{sup 3+}-doped ZnO nanoparticles compared to the undoped ZnO. The effects of Ce{sup 3+}-doping on the structure and PL of ZnO nanopowders are discussed in detail.

  14. Microwave combustion synthesis of hexagonal prism shaped ZnO nanoparticles and effect of Cr on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yathisha, R.O. [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta 577 451, Karnataka (India); Nayaka, Y. Arthoba, E-mail: drarthoba@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical Sciences, Kuvempu University, Jnanasahyadri, Shankaraghatta 577 451, Karnataka (India); Vidyasagar, C.C. [Department of Chemistry, School of Basic Sciences, Ranichannamma University, Belgaum 591156, Karnataka (India)

    2016-09-15

    The synthesis and study of semiconducting nanostructure materials have become a considerable interdisciplinary area of research over the past few decades. The control of morphologies and effective doping by right dopant are the two tasks for the synthesis of semiconducting nanoparticles. The present work outlines the synthesis of ZnO and Cr-ZnO nanoparticles via microwave combustion method without using any fuel. The crystal morphology, optical and electrical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction study (XRD), UV–Visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive analysis using X-rays (EDAX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Keithley source meter. The crystal size was determined from XRD, whose values were found to be decreased with increase in the concentration of Cr up to 2 wt% and further increase in the dopant concentration resulted the formation secondary phase (ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}). Scanning electron micrographs shows the hexagonal prism structure of ZnO and Cr-ZnO nanoparticles. EDAX shows the existence of Cr ion in the Cr-ZnO. The optical properties and bandgap studies were undertaken by UV–Visible spectroscopy. I-V characterization study was performed to determine the electrical property of ZnO and Cr-ZnO films. - Highlights: • The prism shaped Zn{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) was prepared by microwave combustion method. • Effect of Cr on the properties of ZnO was reported. • Change in crystal size was explained by lattice strain and Zener-Pinning effect. • The optical measurements shows up to 8 wt% of Cr doping had more efficient. • Compared to ZnO, Cr doped ZnO enhance the photo voltaic activity.

  15. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Feng [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Liu, Hongfeng [School of Basic Medical Sciences, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Qu, Fengyu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Cai, Xue, E-mail: xuecai@mail.sdu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157011 (China); Wu, Xiang, E-mail: wuxiang@hrbnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment.

  16. High efficient ZnO nanowalnuts photocatalyst: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongfeng; Qu, Fengyu; Cai, Xue; Wu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. • Morphologies and microstructures of the as-obtained ZnO products were investigated. • The photocatalytic results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. - Abstract: Walnut-like ZnO nanostructures are successfully synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The photocatalytic properties of ZnO nanowalnuts are investigated by photodegradating several organic dyes, such as Congo red (CR), methyl orange (MO) and eosin red aqueous solutions under UV irradiation, respectively. The results demonstrate that methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution can be degraded over 97% after 45 min under UV light irradiation. In addition, eosin red and Congo red (CR) aqueous solution degradation experiments are also conducted in the same condition, respectively. It showed that ZnO nanowalnuts represent high photocatalytic activities with a degradation efficiency of 87% for CR with 115 min of irradiation and 97% for eosin red with 55 min of irradiation. The reported ZnO products may be promising candidates as the photocatalysts in waste water treatment

  17. Sol-gel synthesized ZnO for optoelectronics applications: a characterization review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Kausar; Hussain, Fayaz; Purwanto, Agus; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Zawadzka, Anna; Azmin Mohamad, Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    The rapid growth in green technology has resulted in a marked increase in the incorporation of ZnO in energy and optoelectronic devices. Research involving ZnO is being given renewed attention in the quest to fully exploit its promising properties. The purity and state of defects in the ZnO system are optimized through several modifications to the synthesis conditions and the starting materials. These works have been verified through a series of characterizations. This review covers the essential characterization outcomes of pure ZnO nanoparticles. Emphasis is placed on recent techniques, examples and some issues concerning sol-gel synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. Thermal, phase, structural and morphological observations are combined to ascertain the level of purity of ZnO. The subsequent elemental and optical characterizations are also discussed. This review would be the collective information and suggestions at one place for investigators to focus on the best development of ZnO-based optical and energy devices.

  18. Efficacy of saccharides bio-template on structural, morphological, optical and antibacterial property of ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanalakshmi, A; Palanimurugan, A; Natarajan, B

    2018-09-01

    Mono, di and polysaccharides of glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), sucrose (C 12 H 24 O 12 ) and starch (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) n bio-template ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has prepared by chemical precipitation method. Saccharides bio-template ZnO (SBts-ZnO) NPs were efficiently prepared for their structural and optical properties were examined by using XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, FTIR, UV and PL techniques. All the samples are polycrystalline nature with a preferential orientation depending on the (1 0 1) plane. The reduction of crystalline size by utilizing glucose, sucrose and starch bio-template of ZnO NPs. FE-SEM images revealed that the spherical and nano-rods like morphologies for ZnO and SBts-ZnO NPs respectively. AFM recorded images shows spherical features that confirmed and also the morphological changes were noticed with the addition of polymers. Interaction of bio-templated saccharides (glucose G 1 , sucrose S 2 & starch S n ) molecules was proved by FTIR study. Optical absorbance and emission behaviours were investigated using UV-Vis and photoluminescence techniques. The antibacterial study revealed that SBts-ZnO have excellent antibacterial effect than ZnO. The S n -ZnO sample has potent antibacterial activity against the Proteus vulgaris followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Photoluminescence study of ZnO structures grown by aqueous chemical growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenanakis, G.; Androulidaki, M.; Vernardou, D.; Katsarakis, N.; Koudoumas, E.

    2011-01-01

    ZnO micro-structures were deposited by aqueous chemical growth on Si (100) substrates, their morphology and size depending on the growth period. Characterization of the structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Photoluminescence spectra recorded at 18 and 295 K for 325 nm CW excitation indicated that these are strongly affected by the morphology of the structures. Rods and tubes emit stronger UV radiation, in contrast to stronger yellow-green emission observed for flower-like structures. A red shift of the UV emission was found for increasing input power, while, thermal annealing of the samples induced stimulated emission for quite high excitation intensities.

  20. Effect of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and magnetic properties of pure and Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal Singh Raminder Preet

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, pure ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO (Zn0.97Fe0.03O nanoparticles were synthesized by simple coprecipitation method with zinc acetate, ferric nitrate and sodium hydroxide precursors. Pure ZnO and Fe-doped ZnO were further calcined at 450 °C, 600 °C and 750 °C for 2 h. The structural, morphological and optical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the as-synthesized pure and doped ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The average crystallite size was calculated using Debye-Scherrer’s formula. The particle size was found to be in nano range and increased with an increase in calcination temperature. SEM micrographs confirmed the formation of spherical nanoparticles. Elemental compositions of various elements in pure and doped ZnO nanoparticles were determined by EDX spectroscopy. UV-Vis absorption spectra showed red shift (decrease in band gap with increasing calcination temperature. Effect of calcination on the magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO sample was also studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. M-H curves at room temperature revealed that coercivity and remanent polarization increase with an increase in calcination temperature from 450 °C to 750 °C, whereas reverse effect was observed for magnetization saturation.

  1. Hybrid 3D structures of ZnO nanoflowers and PdO nanoparticles as a highly selective methanol sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, D; Huang, K Y; Chattopadhyay, P P; Ho, M S; Fecht, H-J; Bhattacharyya, P

    2016-05-10

    The present study concerns the enhancement of methanol selectivity of three dimensional (3D) nanoflowers (NFs) of ZnO by dispersing nickel oxide (NiO) and palladium oxide (PdO) nanoparticles on the surface of the nanoflowers to form localized hybrid nano-junctions. The nanoflowers were fabricated through a liquid phase deposition technique and the modification was achieved by addition of NiCl and PdCl2 solutions. In addition to the detailed structural (like X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray mapping, XPS) and morphological characterization (by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)), the existence of different defect states (viz. oxygen vacancy) was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The sensing properties of the pristine and metal oxide nanoparticle (NiO/PdO)-ZnO NF hybrid sensor structures, towards different alcohol vapors (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol) were investigated in the concentration range of 0.5-700 ppm at 100-350 °C. Methanol selectivity study against other interfering species, viz. ethanol, 2-propanol, acetone, benzene, xylene and toluene was also investigated. It was found that the PdO-ZnO NF hybrid system offered enhanced selectivity towards methanol at low temperature (150 °C) compared to the NiO-ZnO NF and pristine ZnO NF counterparts. The underlying mechanism for such improvement has been discussed with respective energy band diagram and preferential dissociation of target species on such 3D hybrid structures. The corresponding improvement in transient characteristics has also been co-related with the proposed model.

  2. Effect of R.F. Power to the Structural Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sin, N.D.M.; Rusop, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of RF power variation (100 watt∼400 watt ) on the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films electrical, optical and structural properties were examined using current voltage (I-V) measurement, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscope (AFM). ZnO thin films were prepared at room temperature in pure argon atmosphere by a RF magnetron sputtering using ZnO target. The resistivity of thin film show the lowest at 300 watt. The absorption coefficient spectra obtained from UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer measurement show all films have low absorbance in visible and near infrared (IR) region but have high UV absorption properties using UV-VIS spectrophotometer (JASCO 670) . Highly oriented ZnO thin films [002] direction were obtained by using Rigaku Ultima IV. (author)

  3. The effect of Ce{sup 3+} on structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using the chemical bath method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koao, L.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, F.B., E-mail: dejenebf@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, H.C., E-mail: swarthc@ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2013-11-15

    Ce{sup 3+} doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by the chemical bath deposition method (CBD). The influence of Ce{sup 3+} as a dopant on the crystallization, surface morphology, optical and luminescent properties of ZnO flowers-like structures were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the ZnO:Ce{sup 3+}nanostructures correspond to the various planes of a single hexagonal ZnO phase for the lower Ce concentration samples. The estimated grain sizes calculated using the XRD spectra were found to be in order of 42±2 nm. The grain size was found to be not dependent on the concentration of the Ce{sup 3+} ions used up to 3 mol% of Ce. Scanning Auger electron microscopy and scanning electron micrographs indicate that the addition of Ce{sup 3+} influence the morphology of the samples. The flower-like structures obtained for the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO changed into a mixed structure with the emergence of pyramid shapes for higher concentration Ce doped samples. The solid undoped and low concentration Ce doped powder showed good optical properties with a high reflectance in the visible regions. The properties, however, diminished at higher Ce concentration. The band gap energies decreased linearly with concentration from 3.0±0.1 to 2.4±0.3 eV for ZnO:0 mol% Ce{sup 3+} up to ZnO:10 mol% Ce{sup 3+}. Under 248 nm excitation, the undoped and low concentration Ce doped ZnO flower-like rods exhibited a green emission, peaking at about 559 nm. The higher Ce concentration (0.3 mol% and above) was emitted at 436 and 503 nm due to the Ce transitions. The intensity of these emission spectra of the ZnO:Ce{sup 3+} decreased with the addition of more Ce{sup 3+} ions. -- Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} doped ZnO flower-like structures were synthesized by CBD. • Flower-like hexagonal ZnO:Ce{sup 3+}nanostructures were obtained for undoped and low mol% Ce. • ZnO changed into a mixed structure with emergence of pyramid shapes for higher mol% Ce

  4. Influence of Fe-doping on the structural, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changzhen; Meng Dawei; Pang Haixia; Wu Xiuling; Xie Jing; Yu Xiaohong; Chen Long; Liu Xiaoyang

    2012-01-01

    Zn 1–x Fe x O (x=0–0.05) nanoparticles were synthesized without a catalyst by a two-step method. Fe was doped into ZnO by a source of metallic Fe sheets in a solid–liquid system at 80 °C, and the Zn 1−x Fe x O nanoparticles were obtained by annealing at 300 °C. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the structural properties of the as-grown Zn 1−x Fe x O. The optical properties were determined by Infrared and Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy. The results confirm that the crystallinity of the ZnO is deteriorated due to Fe-doping. XPS results show that there is a mixture of Fe 0+ and the Fe 3+ in the representative Zn 0.95 Fe 0.05 O sample. The optical band gap of Zn 1−x Fe x O is enhanced with increasing of Fe-doping. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in all the Fe-doped ZnO samples. - Highlights: ► Zn 1−x Fe x O nanoparticles were synthesized with a simple two-step method. ► The Zn 1−x Fe x O predecessors were synthesized at a low temperature. ► Fe element was readily doped from the source of metallic Fe sheet. ► All the Fe doping ZnO samples have room temperature ferromagnetism. ► The structural and properties of the Zn 1−x Fe x O are regular with different x.

  5. Optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods grown on graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide film by hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alver, U., E-mail: alver@ksu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, K. Maras 46100 (Turkey); Zhou, W.; Belay, A.B. [Nanoscience and Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States); Krueger, R. [Nanoscience and Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Davis, K.O.; Hickman, N.S. [Nanoscience and Technology Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    ZnO nanorods were grown on graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films with seed layers by using simple hydrothermal method. The GO films were deposited by spray coating and then annealed at 400 Degree-Sign C in argon atmosphere to obtain RGO films. The optical and structural properties of the ZnO nanorods were systematically studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and SEM images show that without a seed layer, no ZnO nanorod deposition occurs on GO or RGO films. Transmittance of ZnO nanorods grown on RGO films was measured to be approximately 83% at 550 nm. Furthermore, while transmittance of RGO films increases with ZnO nanorod deposition, transmittance of GO decreases.

  6. Investigation on Fe-doped ZnO nanostructures prepared by a chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, A.K. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre III/LB-8, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India); Das, D., E-mail: ddas@alpha.iuc.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre III/LB-8, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2010-07-25

    Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O (x = 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) nanoparticles synthesized by a chemical route were characterized by different techniques. The structural characterization by XRD and TEM confirmed the phase purity of the samples and indicated a reduction in particle size with increase in the dopant (Fe) concentration in ZnO. The optical characterization of the nanoparticles by FTIR, PL and UV-visible spectroscopy confirmed the formation of wurtzite structure and incorporation of Fe in the ZnO lattice. Magnetization measurements by VSM and Faraday balance techniques indicate presence of room temperature ferromagnetism in the Fe-doped ZnO samples. Local environment around the Fe atoms has been probed by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and the measured isomer shifts confirmed the charge state of iron as Fe{sup 3+}. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) measurements confirm the presence of cation vacancies in the nanoparticles and indicate a reduction of overall defect concentration with incorporation of Fe atoms in the ZnO structure.

  7. Substrate Temperature Effect on Charge Transport Performance of ZnO Electron Transport Layer Prepared by a Facile Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis in Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for high-quality ZnO films based on zinc-ammonia solution was achieved in air. To investigate the structural and optical properties as well as the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs, ZnO films at different substrate temperatures and thicknesses were prepared. The performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene:[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM based PSC was found to be improved due to the ZnO films. The crystal structure and roughness of the ZnO films fabricated at different temperatures were found to affect the performance of PSCs. The optimized power conversion efficiency was found to be maximum for PSCs with ZnO films prepared at 200°C. The growth process of these ZnO films is very simple, cost-effective, and compatible for larger-scale PSC preparation. The precursor used for spray pyrolysis is environmentally friendly and helps to achieve ZnO film preparation at a relative low temperature.

  8. Microwave Synthesized ZnO Nanorod Arrays for UV Sensors: A Seed Layer Annealing Temperature Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Ana; Ferreira, Sofia Henriques; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomas; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2016-04-20

    The present work reports the influence of zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer annealing temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorod arrays, synthesized by hydrothermal method assisted by microwave radiation, to be used as UV sensors. The ZnO seed layer was produced using the spin-coating method and several annealing temperatures, ranging from 100 to 500 °C, have been tested. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectrophotometry measurements have been used to investigate the structure, morphology, and optical properties variations of the produced ZnO nanorod arrays regarding the seed layer annealing temperatures employed. After the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays, the whole structure was tested as UV sensors, showing an increase in the sensitivity with the increase of seed layer annealing temperature. The UV sensor response of ZnO nanorod arrays produced with the seed layer annealed temperature of 500 °C was 50 times superior to the ones produced with a seed layer annealed at 100 °C.

  9. Effects of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn{sup 2+} on fluvial biofilms and the related toxicity mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Hou, Jun, E-mail: hhuhjyhj@126.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Dai, Shanshan [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Wang, Peifang, E-mail: pfwang2005@hhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Miao, Lingzhan; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. The health hazard of ZnO NPs and the contribution of dissolved Zn{sup 2+} in toxicity of ZnO NPs has attracted extensive worldwide attention. In this study, the toxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and the effects of dissolved Zn{sup 2+} on fluvial biofilms were investigated. At the end of the exposure time (21 days), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and bioaccumulation experiments revealed that large quantities of ZnO NPs were adsorbed on the biofilm. The algal biomasses were significantly decreased by six- and eleven-fold compared with the control (1.43 μg/L) by exposure to concentrations of 100 mg/L ZnO NPs and 7.85 mg/L Zn{sup 2+}, respectively. Moreover, under the same exposure conditions, the quantum yields presented contents of 53.33 and 33.33% relative to the control, and a shift in the community composition that manifested as a strong reduction in diatoms was observed from 7 days and reached 15.63 and 6.25% of the control after 21 days of exposure, respectively. The reductions in bacteria viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were noticeably enhanced following exposure to 100 mg/L ZnO NPs and 7.85 mg/L Zn{sup 2+}, respectively. Additionally, the acute and rapid toxicity of Zn{sup 2+} and the increasing toxicity of the ZnO NPs with increased bioaccumulation were noted in the exposure experiment. - Highlights: • Fluvial biofilm was exposed to ZnO NPs and the dissolved Zn{sup 2+}. • Chl-a and Φ{sub M} decreased at high doses (100 and 7.85 mg/L of ZnO NPs and Zn{sup 2+}). • A shift in the algae community composition was observed at high dosage levels. • The enhanced production of ROS declined the bacteria viability. • Zn{sup 2+} was more toxic than that of the ZnO-NPs.

  10. Optoelectronic characterisation of an individual ZnO nanowire in contact with a micro-grid template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wei; Gao Hong; Xu Ling-Ling; Ma Jia-Ning; Zhang E; Wei Ping; Lin Jia-Qi

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic characterisation of an individual ZnO nanowire in contact with a micro-grid template has been studied. The low-cost micro-grid template made by photolithography is used to fabricate the ohmic contact metal electrodes. The current increases linearly with the bias, indicating good ohmic contacts between the nanowire and the electrodes. The resistivity of the ZnO nanowire is calculated to be 3.8 Ω·cm. We investigate the photoresponses of an individual ZnO nanowire under different light illumination using light emitting diodes (λ = 505 nm, 460 nm, 375 nm) as excitation sources in atmosphere. When individual ZnO nanowire is exposured to different light irradiation, we find that it is extremely sensitive to UV illumination; the conductance is much larger upon UV illumination than that in the dark at room temperature. This phenomenon may be related to the surface oxygen molecule adsorbtion, which indicates their potential application to the optoelectronic switching device. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. Effect of Co doping concentration on structural properties and optical parameters of Co-doped ZnO thin films by sol-gel dip-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Giwoong; Yoon, Hyunsik; Kim, Byunggu; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jong Su; Leem, Jae-Young

    2014-11-01

    The structural and optical properties of Co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating method were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films were grown with a c-axis preferred orientation. The position of the (002) peak was almost the same in all samples, irrespective of the Co concentration. It is thus clear that Co doping had little effect on the position of the (002) peak. To confirm that Co2+ was substituted for Zn2+ in the wurtzite structure, optical measurements were conducted at room temperature by a UV-visible spectrometer. Three absorption peaks are apparent in the Co-doped ZnO thin films that do not appear for the undoped ZnO thin film. As the Co concentration was increased, absorption related to characteristic Co2+ transitions increased because three absorption band intensities and the area underneath the absorption wells between 500 and 700 nm increased with increasing Co concentration. The optical band gap and static dielectric constant decreased and the Urbach energy and extinction coefficient increased with increasing Co concentration.

  12. Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres as a photocatalyst for high performance photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Dongfang; Ge, Qisheng; Ping, Guangxing; Fan, Meiqiang; Qin, Laishun; Bai, Liqun; Lv, Chunju; Shu, Kangying

    2015-01-01

    In this work, graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres (ZnO–graphene nanocomposites) were prepared by a simple facile lyophilization method, followed by thermal treatment process. ZnO nanospheres with the size of about 100–400 nm, composed of numerous nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite structure, were well separated from each other and wrapped with transparent graphene sheets. Compared to ZnO nanospheres, the ZnO–graphene nanocomposites showed a significant enhancement in the photodegradation of methylene blue. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to their favorable dye-adsorption affinity and increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer of the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of ZnO to graphene. Thus, this work could provide a facile and low-cost method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in photocatalysis, solar energy conversion, sensing, and so on. - Highlights: • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were prepared by a facile lyophilization method. • ZnO nanospheres were separated from each other and wrapped with 2D graphene sheets. • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres exhibited superior photocatalytic activities. • The photocatalytic mechanisms of graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were discussed

  13. Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres as a photocatalyst for high performance photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Da, E-mail: dchen_80@hotmail.com [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Dongfang; Ge, Qisheng; Ping, Guangxing [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Fan, Meiqiang, E-mail: fanmeiqiang@126.com [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Qin, Laishun [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Bai, Liqun [School of Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Lv, Chunju; Shu, Kangying [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres (ZnO–graphene nanocomposites) were prepared by a simple facile lyophilization method, followed by thermal treatment process. ZnO nanospheres with the size of about 100–400 nm, composed of numerous nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite structure, were well separated from each other and wrapped with transparent graphene sheets. Compared to ZnO nanospheres, the ZnO–graphene nanocomposites showed a significant enhancement in the photodegradation of methylene blue. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to their favorable dye-adsorption affinity and increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer of the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of ZnO to graphene. Thus, this work could provide a facile and low-cost method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in photocatalysis, solar energy conversion, sensing, and so on. - Highlights: • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were prepared by a facile lyophilization method. • ZnO nanospheres were separated from each other and wrapped with 2D graphene sheets. • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres exhibited superior photocatalytic activities. • The photocatalytic mechanisms of graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were discussed.

  14. Influence of the processing conditions on the structural properties of ZnO layers obtained by PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitova, S; Danev, G, E-mail: skitova@clf.bas.b [Institute of Optical Materials and Technology ' Acad. J. Malinowski' , Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl.109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-11-01

    The plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is a powerful and flexible instrument for depositing thin layers, nanocomposites or nanostructures. In this work ZnO layers have been grown by metal-organic PECVD (RF - 13.56 MHz) on Si wafers. Zn acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor and oxygen as oxidant. The influence of the oxygen content in gas mixture, the total pressure, substrate temperature and ZnO seed layer on the structural properties of the layers deposited on Si wafers has been studied. ZnO layer properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD data have shown that all layers are crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallites are preferentially oriented along c-axis direction perpendicular to the substrate surfaces. The results obtained indicate that by controlling the oxygen content in gas mixture, the total pressure and substrate temperature during the film growth one can control the formation of c-axis phase and the crystallite grain size. Nanorods with good alignment, vertically orientated to the substrate surface can be observed in the layers deposited at low content of O{sub 2} in plasma at substrate temperature of 400 {sup o}C. Due to their structural characteristics these layers are potential materials for preparing chemical- and biosensors where inherently large surface to volume ratio of structured materials are important prerequisite for enhanced sensitivity.

  15. A sol-gel method for preparing ZnO quantum dots with strong blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhong; Li Xiaoxia; Du Guoping; Chen Nan; Suen, Andy Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with strong blue emission have been successfully synthesized by sol-gel method, and their crystal structures, sizes, and photoluminescence properties were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. It has been found that ZnO QDs had a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure, and their average diameter was about 16.0-32.2 nm. Both the reaction time and temperature were found to have a strong influence on the average size and photoluminescence properties of ZnO QDs. Longer reaction time and higher reaction temperature resulted in larger average size for ZnO QDs. It has been shown that at reaction temperature 60 deg. C the emission intensity for ZnO QDs increased first with reaction time before 7 h and then decreased after 7 h. For the same reaction time 7 h, ZnO QDs synthesized at 60 deg. C showed the strongest emission intensity. It was found that annealing in nitrogen, vacuum, and air all resulted in an increase of the size of ZnO QDs and a reduction in their photoluminescence. The dependence of the size and properties of ZnO QDs on the reaction parameters as well as the annealing conditions has been discussed. - Highlights: → ZnO quantum dots (QDs) with strong blue emission were prepared by sol-gel method. → ZnO QDs had a pure spectral blue with the chromaticity coordinates (0.166, 0.215). → Optimal reaction time and temperature were 7 h and 60 deg. C, respectively.

  16. ZnO film deposition on Al film and effects of deposition temperature on ZnO film growth characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Giwan; Yim, Munhyuk; Kim, Donghyun; Linh, Mai; Chai, Dongkyu

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the deposition temperature on the growth characteristics of the ZnO films were studied for film bulk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) device applications. All films were deposited using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. It was found that the growth characteristics of ZnO films have a strong dependence on the deposition temperature from 25 to 350 deg. C. ZnO films deposited below 200 deg. C exhibited reasonably good columnar grain structures with highly preferred c-axis orientation while those above 200 deg. C showed very poor columnar grain structures with mixed-axis orientation. This study seems very useful for future FBAR device applications

  17. Effect of reaction time on structural, morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanoflakes prepared by chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molefe, F.V.; Koao, L.F., E-mail: koaolf@qwa.ufs.ac.za; Dolo, J.J.; Dejene, B.F.

    2014-04-15

    ZnO nanoflakes have been successfully synthesized by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for different reaction times. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the initial formation of the cubic ZnO structure. However, increasing the reaction time resulted into the emergence of the well-known hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the presence of agglomerated nanoflakes. The morphology was found not to depend on synthesis time. UV–vis spectra showed a partially increase in the percentage reflectance and the absorption edges red shifted to the higher wavelength with an increase in synthesis time. The highest band gap energy was obtained for ZnO synthesized for 1 min, with its estimated band gap energy of 3.91±0.08 eV. The estimated band gap decreased with an increase in the reaction time. The photoluminescent intensity of the emission peak at 473 nm decreased with an increase in reaction time.

  18. Effects of growth duration on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods grown on seed-layer ZnO/polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Y.I.; Shin, C.M.; Heo, J.H. [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, H., E-mail: hhryu@inje.ac.kr [Department of Nano Systems Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing Inje University, Gimhae, Gyeongnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.J. [Department of Nano Engineering, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, J.H. [Major of Nano Semiconductor, Korea Maritime University, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Son, C.S. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Silla University, Busan 617-736 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. [Department of Nano Science and Engineering, Institute of Advanced Materials Kyungnam University, Changwon, Gyeongnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-01

    Well-aligned single crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were successfully grown, by hydrothermal synthesis at a low temperature, on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a seed layer. Photoluminescence (PL), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurements were used to analyze the optical and structural properties of ZnO nanorods grown for various durations from 0.5 h to 10 h. Regular and well-aligned ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 62 nm to 127 nm and lengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.65 {mu}m were formed after almost 5 h of growth. The growth rate of ZnO grown on PET substrates is lower than that grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates. Enlarged TEM images show that the tips of the ZnO nanorods grown for 6 h have a round shape, whereas the tips grown for 10 h are sharpened. The crystal properties of ZnO nanorods can be tuned by using the growth duration as a growth condition. The XRD and PL results indicate that the structural and optical properties of the ZnO nanorods are most improved after 5 h and 6 h of growth, respectively.

  19. Electrochemical design of ZnO hierarchical structures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guerin, V. M.; Rathouský, Jiří; Pauporté, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 102, JUL 2012 (2012), s. 8-14 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100400702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ZnO hierarchical structures * epitaxy * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.630, year: 2012

  20. Adsorption property of volatile molecules on ZnO nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    Keywords: ZnO; interaction; ammonia; band structure; density of states. 1. 2. 3 .... Virtual NanoLab [18] software was utilized to construct the ZnO nanowires with 24 Zn ..... But in reality, the ZnO NWs shows a better response (80.2) towards NH3.

  1. Thermal, optical and structural properties of glasses within the TeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-ZnO system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghribi, N. [CNRS-Université de Limoges, Science des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR7315 CNRS, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Sciences des Matériaux et de l’Environnement Laboratory, Sfax University, Route de Soukra km 4, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Dutreilh-Colas, M.; Duclère, J.-R. [CNRS-Université de Limoges, Science des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR7315 CNRS, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Hayakawa, T. [Field of Advanced Energy Conversion, Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Carreaud, J. [CNRS-Université de Limoges, Science des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR7315 CNRS, Centre Européen de la Céramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Karray, R.; Kabadou, A. [Sciences des Matériaux et de l’Environnement Laboratory, Sfax University, Route de Soukra km 4, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); and others

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • This paper reports on original results on new tellurium oxide-based glasses which are actually very promising glasses in the field of nonlinear optics. • We present for the first time the determination of a new glassy system and the structure of the glasses has been investigated using Raman spectroscopy which is actually the most adapted method in laboratory to study the local structure of tellurite glasses, a detail linear and non-linear optical study is also presented. - Abstract: A glass-forming domain was evidenced and studied within the TeO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-ZnO system. Density, glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and onset crystallization temperature (T{sub 0}) were measured and interpreted as a function of the zinc oxide mole fraction for relevant glasses. It was concluded that the zinc oxide favors the thermal stability of glasses. On the other hand, the impact of TiO{sub 2} addition is even more pronounced on the enhancement of the thermal stability. The optical transmission was recorded for series of glasses in the UV-Visible-NIR range. Refractive index and optical band gap were extracted from these measurements and studied as a function of the ZnO content. Linear refractive indices and optical band gap were found to decrease and increase respectively, with increasing ZnO content. The third-order non-linear susceptibility Re (χ{sup 3}), measured for two series of glasses (TiO{sub 2} content was fixed either to 5 or 10 mol%), was found to progressively decrease when the ZnO concentration increases. The impact of ZnO modifier on the glass structure was discussed based on Raman spectroscopy data. We evidenced that TiO{sub 2} does not change drastically the glass network, whereas ZnO leads in a first step to the breaking of the Te-O-Te bridges, inducing network depolymerization. A further addition in ZnO leads to the formation of new Te-O-Zn and Zn-O-Zn linkages.

  2. Effect of the substrate surface topology and temperature on the structural properties of ZnO layers obtained by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitova, S; Danev, G, E-mail: skitova@clf.bas.b [Acad. J .Malinowski Central Laboratory of Photoprocesses, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl.109, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    In this work thin ZnO layers were grown by metal-organic PECVD (RF 13.56 MHz) on Si wafers. Zn acetylacetonate was used as a precursor and oxygen as oxidant. A system for dosed injection of the precursor and oxidant into the plasma reactor was developed. The influence of the substrate surface topology and temperature on the structural properties of the deposited layers was studied. ZnO and graphite powder dispersions were used to modify the silicon wafers before starting the deposition process of the layers. Some of the ZnO layers were deposited on the back, unpolished, side of Si wafers. Depositions at 400 {sup 0}C were performed to examine the effect of the substrate temperatures on the layer growth. The film structure was examined by XRD and SEM. The results show that all layers are crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallites are preferentially oriented along the c-axis direction perpendicular to the substrate surfaces. ZnO layers deposited on thin ZnO seed films and clean Si surface exhibit well-developed grain structures and more c-axis preferred phase with better crystal quality than that of the layers deposited on graphite seed layer or rough, unpolished Si wafer.

  3. Density functional calculation of electronic surface structure and Fe adsorption on ZnO (0001) and (000 anti 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Sougata; Jasper-Toennies, Torben; Hack, Michael; Pehlke, Eckhard [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Kiel (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The structure and electronic properties of the ZnO(0001) and ZnO(000 anti 1) surfaces as studied by density functional calculations are presented. The stability of the surface has already been investigated by various groups. The electronic surface band structure, however, in particular the existence of surface states and the differences between experimental band dispersion for both terminations, still appears to pose open problems. To address these issues, we compare Kohn Sham band structures and electrostatic potentials close to the surface for the relaxed (1 x 1)-surface, (2 x 2) vacancy reconstructions, and surfaces with pits. In particular the effect of the bending of the electrostatic potential at the surface on the eigenstates is quantified. Comparing the adsorption energies of Fe atoms for various adsorption sites on ZnO(000 anti 1), the fcc hollow position turned out to be energetically favorable. The oxidation state of the Fe atom is derived from the projected density of states.

  4. A Mössbauer and magnetic study of ball milled Fe-doped ZnO Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Ligia E., E-mail: ligia.zamora@correounivalle.edu.co; Paz, J. C.; Piamba, J. F.; Tabares, J. A.; Alcázar, G. A. Pérez [Universidad del Valle, Departamento de física (Colombia)

    2015-06-15

    The structural and magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO are reported in this study, as obtained by mechanical alloying from elemental powders of ZnO and Fe. The properties of Zn{sub 0.90}Fe{sub 0.10}O samples alloying while varying the milling time (6, 12, 24 and 36 h) are also reported. The Rietveld refinement of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that the system presents two structures: the würtzite structure of ZnO and the bcc structure of α-Fe. The Mössbauer spectra show that the samples present three components: a ferromagnetic component, associated with the Fe phase and two paramagnetic components, associated with the Fe atoms, which penetrate inside the ZnO matrix behaving as Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 2+}. The milling time contributes to an increase in the paramagnetic sites, and a solubility limit of the Fe atoms in the ZnO lattice was detected. The VSM measurements at room temperature detected ferromagnetic behavior with a saturation magnetization of 11 emu/g and a coercive field of 330 Oe for the sample alloyed over 24 h. A similar behavior was shown by the other samples.

  5. Field evaporation of ZnO: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Yu, E-mail: yuxia@dal.ca; Karahka, Markus; Kreuzer, H. J. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2015-07-14

    With recent advances in atom probe tomography of insulators and semiconductors, there is a need to understand high electrostatic field effects in these materials as well as the details of field evaporation. We use density functional theory to study field effects in ZnO clusters calculating the potential energy curves, the local field distribution, the polarizability, and the dielectric constant as a function of field strength. We confirm that, as in MgO, the HOMO-LUMO gap of a ZnO cluster closes at the evaporation field strength signaling field-induced metallization of the insulator. Following the structural changes in the cluster at the evaporation field strength, we can identify the field evaporated species, in particular, we show that the most abundant ion, Zn{sup 2+}, is NOT post-ionized but leaves the surface as 2+ largely confirming the experimental observations. Our results also help to explain problems related to stoichiometry in the mass spectra measured in atom probe tomography.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures on noble-metal coated substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikovska, A.Og. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasova, G.B. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Avdeev, G.V. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str., bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nedyalkov, N.N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on Au–Ag alloy coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. • Morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy content in the catalyst layer. • Increasing the Ag content in Au–Ag catalyst layer changes the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures from nanorods to nanobelts. - Abstract: In this work, ZnO nanostructures were fabricated on noble-metal (Au, Ag and Au–Ag alloys) coated silicon substrates by applying pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared at a substrate temperature of 550 °C, an oxygen pressure of 5 Pa, and a laser fluence of 2 J cm{sup −2} – process parameters usually used for deposition of smooth and dense thin films. The metal layer's role is substantial for the preparation of nanostructures. Heating of the substrate changed the morphology of the metal layer and, subsequently, nanoparticles were formed. The use of different metal particles resulted in different morphologies and properties of the ZnO nanostructures synthesized. The morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was related to the Au–Ag alloy's content of the catalyst layer. It was found that the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures evolved from nanorods to nanobelts as the ratio of Au/Ag in the alloy catalyst was varied. The use of a small quantity of Ag in the Au–Ag catalyst (Au{sub 3}Ag) layer resulted predominantly in the deposition of ZnO nanorods. A higher Ag content in the catalyst alloy (AuAg{sub 2}) layer resulted in the growth of a dense structure of ZnO nanobelts.

  7. Room temperature photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods grown by hydrothermal reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwan, S., E-mail: iwan-sugihartono@unj.ac.id [Jurusan Fisika, FMIPA-UNJ, Rawamangun, Jakarta (Indonesia); Prodi Ilmu Material, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Fauzia, Vivi [Prodi Ilmu Material, Departemen Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Umar, A. A. [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Sun, X. W. [School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue (Singapore)

    2016-04-19

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were fabricated by a hydrothermal reaction on silicon (Si) substrate at 95 °C for 6 hours. The ZnO seed layer was fabricated by depositing ZnO thin films on Si substrates by ultrasonic spray pyrolisis (USP). The annealing effects on crystal structure and optical properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated. The post-annealing treatment was performed at 800 °C with different environments. The annealed of ZnO nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) in order to analyze crystal structure and optical properties, respectively. The results show the orientations of [002], [101], [102], and [103] diffraction peaks were observed and hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO nanorods were vertically grown on Si substrates. The room temperature PL spectra show ultra-violet (UV) and visible emissions. The annealed of ZnO nanorods in vacuum condition (3.8 × 10{sup −3} Torr) has dominant UV emission. Meanwhile, non-annealed of ZnO nanorods has dominant visible emission. It was expected that the annealed of ZnO in vacuum condition suppresses the existence of native defects in ZnO nanorods.

  8. Single and multi-layered core-shell structures based on ZnO nanorods obtained by aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sáenz-Trevizo, A.; Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M., E-mail: mario.miki@cimav.edu.mx

    2015-07-15

    Core–shell nanorod structures were prepared by a sequential synthesis using an aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. Several samples consisting of ZnO nanorods were initially grown over TiO{sub 2} film-coated borosilicate glass substrates, following the synthesis conditions reported elsewhere. Later on, a uniform layer consisting of individual Al, Ni, Ti or Fe oxides was grown onto ZnO nanorod samples forming the so-called single MO{sub x}/ZnO nanorod core–shell structures, where MO{sub x} was the metal oxide shell. Additionally, a three-layer core–shell sample was developed by growing Fe, Ti and Fe oxides alternately, onto the ZnO nanorods. The microstructure of the core–shell materials was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was employed to corroborate the formation of different metal oxides. X-ray diffraction outcomes for single core–shell structures showed solely the presence of ZnO as wurtzite and TiO{sub 2} as anatase. For the multi-layered shell sample, the existence of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} as hematite was also detected. Morphological observations suggested the existence of an outer material grown onto the nanorods and further microstructural analysis by HR-STEM confirmed the development of core–shell structures in all cases. These studies also showed that the individual Al, Fe, Ni and Ti oxide layers are amorphous; an observation that matched with X-ray diffraction analysis where no apparent extra oxides were detected. For the multi-layered sample, the development of a shell consisting of three different oxide layers onto the nanorods was found. Overall results showed that no alteration in the primary ZnO core was produced during the growth of the shells, indicating that the deposition technique used herein was and it is suitable for the synthesis of homogeneous and complex nanomaterials high in quality and purity. In addition

  9. Effects of the ZnO layer on the structure and white light emission properties of a ZnS:Mn/GaN nanocomposite system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Feng; Hu, Bo

    2017-10-01

    ZnO films were inserted between the ZnS:Mn films and GaN substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The structure, morphology, and optical properties of the ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN nanocomposite systems have been investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that there are three diffraction peaks located at 28.4°, 34.4°, and 34.1°, which correspond to the β-ZnS(111), ZnO(002), and GaN(002) planes, respectively. Due to the insertion of ZnO films, the diffraction peak intensity of ZnS:Mn in ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN is stronger than that of ZnS:Mn in ZnS:Mn/GaN, and the full width at half-maximum is smaller. Though the transmittance of ZnS:Mn/ZnO films is slightly lower than that of ZnS:Mn films, the transmittance is still higher than 80%. Compared with ZnS:Mn/GaN, an ultraviolet (UV) emission at 387 nm (originated from the near-band emission of ZnO) and a green light emission at about 520 nm appeared in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN, in addition to the blue emission at 435 nm and the orange-red emission at 580 nm. The emission at 520 nm may be related to the deep-level emission from ZnO and the interface of ZnS:Mn/ZnO. The PL spectrum of ZnS:Mn/ZnO/GaN covers the visible region from the blue light to the red light (400-700 nm), and its color coordinate and color temperature are (0.3103,0.3063) and 6869 K, respectively, presenting strong white light emission.

  10. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles in the oxygen uptake during aerobic wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Avilés, Pabel; Brito, Elcia M. S. [University of Guanajuato, Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering & Environmental Engineering (Mexico); Duran, Robert [Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Equipe Environment et Microbiologie (France); Martínez, Arodí Bernal; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán, E-mail: german28@ugto.mx [University of Guanajuato, Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering & Environmental Engineering (Mexico)

    2016-07-15

    The increased use of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in everyday products indicates the importance of studying NPs release to the wastewater and its possible effect on biological process for wastewater treatment. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the effect of the presence of ZnO NPs in aerobic wastewater treatment. The results indicated that the oxygen uptake rate of microorganisms is inhibited for concentrations higher than 473 mg L{sup −1} of ZnO NPs. The diversity of microorganisms involved in wastewater treatment was reduced in presence of ZnO NPs. Related to morphological interaction between ZnO NPs and suspended biomass, physical damage in flocs structure were observed in presence of ZnO NPs. However, the internalization of Zn compounds in microorganisms not presented mechanical damage in the membrane cell. These findings suggest that inhibition in oxygen uptake was caused for negative effect that ZnO NPs induces in aerobic microorganisms involved in wastewater treatment.

  11. Effect of Ag Doping on the Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of ZnO(0001 Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principle calculations, the geometrical structure, the electronic and optical properties of Ag-doped ZnO(0001 surface have been investigated. We found that Ag-doped ZnO(0001 surface is more easily formed on the first layer. On the other hand, the doped surface has gradually become an equipotential body, showing obvious metallic characteristics. We found that a new peak appeared in the low energy region after Ag doping, which was mainly due to the electron transition between the two orbital levels of Ag-4d and O-2p.

  12. Enhanced ultraviolet photo-response in Dy doped ZnO thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Ranveer; Pandey, Praveen C.

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, a Dy doped ZnO thin film deposited by the spin coating method has been studied for its potential application in a ZnO based UV detector. The investigations on the structural property and surface morphology of the thin film ensure that the prepared samples are crystalline and exhibit a hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO. A small change in crystallite size has been observed due to Dy doping in ZnO. AFM analysis ascertains the grain growth and smooth surface of the thin films. The Dy doped ZnO thin film exhibits a significant enhancement in UV region absorption as compared to the pure ZnO thin film, which suggests that Dy doped ZnO can be used as a UV detector. Under UV irradiation of wavelength 325 nm, the photocurrent value of Dy doped ZnO is 105.54 μA at 4.5 V, which is 31 times greater than that of the un-doped ZnO thin film (3.39 μA). The calculated value of responsivity is found to increase significantly due to the incorporation of Dy in the ZnO lattice. The observed higher value of photocurrent and responsivity could be attributed to the substitution of Dy in the ZnO lattice, which enhances the conductivity, electron mobility, and defects in ZnO and benefits the UV sensing property.

  13. A vanadium-doped ZnO nanosheets-polymer composite for flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Kwon, Yang Hyeog; Lee, Min Hyung; Jung, Joo-Yun; Seol, Jae Hun; Nah, Junghyo

    2016-01-01

    We report high performance flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) by employing vanadium (V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite structure. The V-doped ZnO NSs were synthesized to overcome the inherently low piezoelectric properties of intrinsic ZnO. Ferroelectric phase transition induced in the V-doped ZnO NSs contributed to significantly improve the performance of the PENGs after the poling process. Consequently, the PENGs exhibited high output voltage and current up to ~32 V and ~6.2 μA, respectively, under the applied strain, which are sufficient to directly turn on a number of light emitting diodes (LEDs). The composite approach for PENG fabrication is scalable, robust, and reproducible during periodic bending/releasing over extended cycles. The approach introduced here extends the performance limits of ZnO-based PENGs and demonstrates their potential as energy harvesting devices.We report high performance flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PENGs) by employing vanadium (V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite structure. The V-doped ZnO NSs were synthesized to overcome the inherently low piezoelectric properties of intrinsic ZnO. Ferroelectric phase transition induced in the V-doped ZnO NSs contributed to significantly improve the performance of the PENGs after the poling process. Consequently, the PENGs exhibited high output voltage and current up to ~32 V and ~6.2 μA, respectively, under the applied strain, which are sufficient to directly turn on a number of light emitting diodes (LEDs). The composite approach for PENG fabrication is scalable, robust, and reproducible during periodic bending/releasing over extended cycles. The approach introduced here extends the performance limits of ZnO-based PENGs and demonstrates their potential as energy harvesting devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07185b

  14. Enhanced fluorescence imaging performance of hydrophobic colloidal ZnO nanoparticles by a facile method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang, Zhigang; Tang, Xiaosheng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A dual phase hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles. • ZnO nanoparticles show a stability and solubility in the aqueous environment. • ZnO nanoparticles with a blue emission wavelength at around 420 nm and small size (30 nm). • ZnO nanoparticles as biological labeling agent was also shown. - Abstract: A facile synthesis method for the formation of ZnO nanoparticles by using a double-phase reaction was demonstrated in this paper. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles shows a flower-shape. Hydrogen peroxide was used as a unique oxygenic source to promote the formation of ZnO in the presence of organic zinc precursor. The as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles also show a stability and solubility in the aqueous environment. The structure and properties of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as UV–vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The as-prepared hydrophobic colloidal ZnO nanoparticles could be modified to become water-soluble via ligand exchange with amineothanethiol⋅HCl while retaining the photoluminescence properties. In addition, the potential application for biological label of water-soluble ZnO nanoparticles were also demonstrated. These results not only have applications towards using colloidal ZnO nanoparticles effectively in biological fluorescence imaging, but also promote its application in the field of targeted drug delivery

  15. Effects of Chromium Dopant on Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of ZnO Nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, S.; Safa, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2017-07-01

    Structural and optical properties of bare ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods have been investigated. Encapsulated ZnO nanorods were grown using a simple two-stage method in which ZnO nanorods were first grown on a glass substrate directly from a hydrothermal bath, then encapsulated with a thin layer of Cr-doped ZnO by dip coating. Comparative study of x-ray diffraction patterns showed that Cr was successfully incorporated into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods. Moreover, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed presence of Cr in this sample. It was observed that the thickness of the shell layer around the core of the ZnO nanorods was at least about 20 nm. Transmission electron microscopy of bare ZnO nanorods revealed single-crystalline structure. Based on optical results, both the encapsulation process and addition of Cr dopant decreased the optical bandgap of the samples. Indeed, the optical bandgap values of Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods, and bare ZnO nanorods were 2.89 eV, 3.15 eV, and 3.34 eV, respectively. The ultraviolet (UV) parameters demonstrated that incorporation of Cr dopant into the shell layer of ZnO nanorods considerably facilitated formation and transportation of photogenerated carriers, optimizing their performance as a practical UV detector. As a result, the photocurrent of the Cr-doped ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods was the highest (0.6 mA), compared with ZnO-encapsulated ZnO nanorods and bare ZnO nanorods (0.21 mA and 0.06 mA, respectively).

  16. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H F; Chi, D Z; Liu, W; Guo, S

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [–4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al 2 O 3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings. (paper)

  17. Crystallographic tilt and in-plane anisotropies of an a-plane InGaN/GaN layered structure grown by MOCVD on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. F.; Liu, W.; Guo, S.; Chi, D. Z.

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction (HRXRD) was used to investigate the crystallographic tilts and structural anisotropies in epitaxial nonpolar a-plane InGaN/GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on r-plane sapphire using a ZnO buffer. The substrate had an unintentional miscut of 0.14° towards its [-4 2 2 3] axis. However, HRXRD revealed a tilt of 0.26° (0.20°) between the ZnO (GaN) (11-20) and the Al2O3 (1-102) atomic planes, with the (11-20) axis of ZnO (GaN) tilted towards its c-axis, which has a difference of 163° in azimuth from that of the substrate’s miscut. Excess broadenings in the GaN/ZnO (11-20) rocking curves (RCs) were observed along its c-axis. Specific analyses revealed that partial dislocations and anisotropic in-plane strains, rather than surface-related effects, wafer curvature or stacking faults, are the dominant factors for the structural anisotropy. The orientation of the partial dislocations is most likely affected by the miscut of the substrate, e.g. via tilting of the misfit dislocation gliding planes created during island coalescences. Their Burgers vector components in the growth direction, in turn, gave rise to crystallographic tilts in the same direction as that of the excess RC-broadenings.

  18. New route of phase transition for enhanced TCO property of ZnO: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Santosh; Tripathi, Madhvendra Nath, E-mail: ommadhav27@gmail.com [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya (Central University), Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India 495009 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The ZnO is one of the best transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials for optoelectronic properties. Primarilly three phases of ZnO namely wurtzite, rocksalt and zincblend along with other prominent phases under different pressure and with different phase transformation routes are reported. The route of phase transformation may differ and depends on the external parameters such as pressure. The conventional route for the phase transformation of wurtzite (B4) phase into CsCl type (B2) phase via rocksalt phase (B1) is estimated at the relatively high pressure value of the 256 GPa. In present paper, we propose a new route of transformation of B4 to B2 phase of ZnO via β-BeO type phase at relatively low pressure value of 43 GPa. In present study, the phase transformation analysis and the electronic structure analysis for different phases are carried out by using density functional theory (DFT). It is also observed that B2 phase have high dispersive nature of bottom of conduction band and consequently high mobility of charge carriers. It indicates the possibility of B2 phase may have better TCO properties among other phases of ZnO.

  19. The study of structural and optical properties of (Eu, La, Sm) codoped ZnO nanoparticles via a chemical route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Jihui; Zhang, Qi; Han, Qiang; Fang, Yue; Wang, Jiaying; Li, Xiuyan; Liu, Yanqing [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Siping, 136000 (China); Wang, Dandan [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China); Yang, Jinghai, E-mail: jhyang1@jlnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Physics and Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Jilin Normal University, Siping, 136000 (China); Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130033 (China)

    2017-06-15

    The (Eu, La, Sm) ions were doped into ZnO nanoparticles by a chemical route, and the substitution of (Eu, La, Sm) for Zn{sup 2+} ions was proved by analytic techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, transmission electron microscope (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. The results revealed that the codoping did not change the wurtzite structure of ZnO nanoparticles, but the diameter of the nanoparticles decreased with increasing the rare earth (RE) doping concentrations. The optical bandgaps calculated through UV–visible absorption spectroscopy were found to decrease from 3.26 to 3.14 eV with increasing the RE doping concentrations, which also proved by the slight shift of UV positions in PL spectra. The sharp red emissions located at 578.2, 590.1 and 615.7 nm were originated from the 4f-4f transitions in Eu{sup 3+} ions under excitation of 325 nm. And these red emissions of Eu{sup 3+} ions showed a strong correlation with the energy storage centers of oxygen vacancies in the samples which was introduced by the other RE ions of La{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} codoping. - Highlights: • Doping of (Eu, La, Sm) ions into ZnO nanoparticles is realized by a chemical route. • Eu{sup 3+}-related red emissions from intra-4f follow a similar trend as broad defect emission. • Red emissions of Eu{sup 3+} enhance with RE codoping due to oxygen vacancies as energy storage centers. • The bandgap can be tuned by RE codoping, which shows a prospect for the visible utilization.

  20. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, F.A., E-mail: felipe.garces@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Budini, N. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe S3000AOM (Argentina)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknesses • Film thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness.

  1. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, F.A.; Budini, N.; Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknesses • Film thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness

  2. Hybrid electroluminescent device based on MEH-PPV and ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewidy, Dina; Gadallah, A.-S.; Fattah, G. Abdel

    2017-02-15

    Hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device based on the structure of glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/MEH-PPV/ZnO/ZnO submicrorods/Al has been manufactured. Spin coating has been used to deposit both PEDOT:PSS and MEH-PPV. Two-step process has been used to synthesis ZnO submicrorods, namely, spin coating and chemical bath deposition. Changing the dimensions of the ZnO submicrorods in this layer structure has been investigated to improve the performance of the organic/inorganic electroluminescence device. Such layer structure provides electroluminescence with narrow emission bands due to a high gain with this structure. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images show that ZnO submicrorods have hexagon structure. Current-voltage curve for the structure has been reported. Electroluminescence curves (electroluminescence intensity versus wavelength) at different bias voltages have been presented and these results show narrowing in full width at half maximum in the spectra at high current density compared to photoluminescence excitation. The narrowing in the spectrum has been explained. - Highlights: • Manufacturing of MEH-PPV and ZnO electroluminescent device has been reported. • Spin coating and chemical bath deposition have been used for preparation of ZnO. • SEM images and X-ray diffraction of ZnO have been presented. • Current-voltage curves and electroluminescent measurements have been reported.

  3. Low-temperature growth of aligned ZnO nanorods: effect of annealing gases on the structural and optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Ahmad; Hahn, Yoon-Bong; Al-Hajry, A; Abaker, M

    2014-06-01

    Aligned ZnO nanorods were grown on ZnO/Si substrate via simple aqueous solution process at low-temperature of - 65 degrees C by using zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA). The detailed morphological and structural properties measured by FESEM, XRD, EDS and TEM confirmed that the as-grown nanorods are vertically aligned, well-crystalline possessing wurtzite hexagonal phase and grown along the [0001] direction. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the grown nanorods exhibited a strong and broad green emission and small ultraviolet emission. The as-prepared ZnO nanorods were post-annealed in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) environments and further characterized in terms of their morphological, structural and optical properties. After annealing the nanorods exhibit well-crystallinity and wurtzite hexagonal phase. Moreover, by annealing the PL spectra show the enhancement in the UV emission and suppression in the green emission. The presented results demonstrate that simply by post-annealing process, the optical properties of ZnO nanostructures can be controlled.

  4. The influence of annealing in nitrogen atmosphere on the electrical, optical and structural properties of spray- deposited ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikhmayies, S.J. [Applied Science Private Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Physics; Abu El-Haija, N.M.; Ahmad-Bitar, R.N. [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Physics

    2009-07-01

    Thin-film zinc oxide (ZnO) has many applications in solar cell technology and is considered to be a candidate for the substitution of indium tin oxide and tin oxide. ZnO thin films can be prepared by thermal evaporation, rf-sputtering, atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition, sol-gel, laser ablation and spray pyrolysis technique. Spray pyrolysis has received much attention because of its simplicity and low cost. In this study, large area and highly uniform polycrystalline ZnO thin films were produced by spray pyrolysis using a home-made spraying system on glass substrates at 450 degrees C. The electrical, optical and structural properties of the ZnO films were enhanced by annealing the thin films in nitrogen atmosphere. X-ray diffraction revealed that the films are polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The preferential orientation did not change with annealing, but XRD patterns revealed that some very weak lines had grown. There was no noticeable increase in the grain size. The transmittance of the films increased as a result of annealing. It was concluded that post-deposition annealing is essential to improve the quality of the ZnO thin films. The electrical properties improved due to a decrease in resistivity. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  5. ZnO Film Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosi Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized high-quality, nanoscale ultrathin ZnO films at relatively low temperature using a facile and effective hydrothermal approach. ZnO films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The products demonstrated 95% photodegradation efficiency with Congo red (CR after 40 min irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange (MO and eosin red also were carried out. The results indicate that the as-obtained ZnO films might be promising candidates as the excellent photocatalysts for elimination of waste water.

  6. Carrier transport mechanisms of hybrid ZnO nanorod-polymer LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sungjae; Lee, Kyuseung; Son, Dongick; Oh, Youngjei; Choi, Wonkook; Angadi, Basavaraj

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid polymer-nanorod (NR) light-emitting diode (LED), consisting of a hole-conducting polymer poly (9-vinyl carbazole) (PVK) and ZnO nanorod (NR) composite, with the device structure of glass/indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/PEDOT:PSS/(PVK + ZnO nanorods)/Al is fabricated through a simple spin coating technique. TEM images shows inhomogeneous deposition and the agglomeration of ZnO NRs, which is explained through their low probability of adsorption on PVK due to two-dimensional structural property. In the current-voltage characteristics, negative differential resistance (NDR) phenomenon is observed corresponding to device structure without ZnO NRs. The carrier transport behavior in the LED device is well described by both ohmic and space-charge-limited-current (SCLC) mechanisms. Broad blue electroluminescence (EL) consisting of two sub peaks, are centered at 441 nm and the other at 495 nm, is observed, which indicates that the ZnO nanorod play a role as a recombination center for excitons. The red shift in the position of the EL compared to that photoluminescence is well explained through band offsets at the heterojunction between the PVK and ZnO NRs.

  7. Photoluminescent ZnO Nanoparticles and Their Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yong Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, numerous achievements concerning luminescent zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs have been reported due to their improved luminescence and good biocompatibility. The photoluminescence of ZnO NPs usually contains two parts, the exciton-related ultraviolet (UV emission and the defect-related visible emission. With respect to the visible emission, many routes have been developed to synthesize and functionalize ZnO NPs for the applications in detecting metal ions and biomolecules, biological fluorescence imaging, nonlinear multiphoton imaging, and fluorescence lifetime imaging. As the biological applications of ZnO NPs develop rapidly, the toxicity of ZnO NPs has attracted more and more attention because ZnO can produce the reactive oxygen species (ROS and release Zn2+ ions. Just as a coin has two sides, both the drug delivery and the antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs become attractive at the same time. Hence, in this review, we will focus on the progress in the synthetic methods, luminescent properties, and biological applications of ZnO NPs.

  8. Room temperature synthesis and optical properties of small diameter (5 nm) ZnO nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungho; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-10-01

    We report a simple wet-chemical synthesis of ∼5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays at room temperature (20 °C) and normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and their optical properties. They were single crystalline in nature, and grew in the [001] direction. These small diameter ZnO nanorod arrays can also be synthesized at 0 °C. Control experiments were also conducted. On the basis of the results, we propose a mechanism for the spontaneous growth of the small diameter ZnO structures. The optical properties of the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays synthesized using this method were probed by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. A clear blue-shift, relative to the absorption band from 50 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays, was attributed to the quantum confinement effects caused by the small nanocrystal size in the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorods.

  9. Influences of Co doping on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed Khan, M. A.; Wasi Khan, M.; Alhoshan, Mansour; Alsalhi, M. S.; Aldwayyan, A. S.

    2010-07-01

    Pure and Co-doped ZnO nanostructured samples have been synthesized by a chemical route. We have studied the structural and optical properties of the samples by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field-emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The XRD patterns show that all the samples are hexagonal wurtzite structures. Changes in crystallite size due to mechanical activation were also determined from X-ray measurements. These results were correlated with changes in particle size followed by SEM and TEM. The average crystallite sizes obtained from XRD were between 20 to 25 nm. The TEM images showed the average particle size of undoped ZnO nanostructure was about 20 nm whereas the smallest average grain size at 3% Co was about 15 nm. Optical parameters such as absorption coefficient ( α), energy band gap ( E g ), the refractive index ( n), and dielectric constants ( σ) have been determined using different methods.

  10. Effect of precursor concentration on the structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestari, Amie; Iwan, S.; Djuhana, Dede; Imawan, Cuk; Harmoko, Adhi; Fauzia, Vivi

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods has attractive properties for nanoscale optoelectronic applications, such as optical sensors, ultraviolet laser diodes, and photodetectors. ZnO nanorods, can be fabricated by simple and low cost chemical approach, such as hydrothermal method. In this method, the morphology, microstructure, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanorods are highly determined by process parameters such as solvent, deposition time, deposition temperature as well as annealing condition. In this paper we report the fabrication of ZnO nanorods that were grown on transparent conducting indium tin oxide coated glass substrates. Initially, ZnO seed layers were deposited on heated substrates with temperature of 450 °C using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method with frequency of 1.7 MHz and then grown by hydrothermal method with three different precursor concentrations, namely 0.02 M, 0.06 M, and 0.1 M. The surface morphology and structure were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), while the optical properties were observed by photoluminescence (PL) and and UV VIS reflectance spectroscopy.

  11. ZnO nanorods/polyaniline heterojunctions for low-power flexible light sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talib, Rawnaq A.; Abdullah, M.J. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (NOR) Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Al-Salman, Husam S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Mohammad, Sabah M. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (NOR) Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia); Allam, Nageh K., E-mail: nageh.allam@aucegypt.edu [Energy Materials Laboratory (EML), School of Sciences and Engineering, The American University in Cairo, New Cairo, 11835 (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    Zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) were directly grown on p-type polyaniline (PAni)/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) using chemical bath deposition method at low temperature. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to study the morphology and structure of the fabricated films. The resulted ZnO NRs are hexagonal and grew vertically on the PAni surface in the (002) direction along the c-axis. The compressive strain, Raman and photoluminescence measurements confirmed the high-quality crystal structure of the formed ZnO NRs with no damage of the PAni surface. The photodetector made using ZnO NRs/PAni junction showed a sensitivity of 85% and a quantum efficiency of 12.3% at 5 V. - Highlights: • ZnO NRs/polyaniline p-n junction photodetectors were fabricated on flexible substrates. • The fabricated ZnO NRs grew along the (002) direction. • The fabricated ZnO NRs have low compressive strain. • The ZnO NRs/PAni junction showed a high sensitivity of 85%. • The photodetectors showed quantum efficiency as high as 12%.

  12. A Resistive Humidity Sensor Based on Nanostructured WO3-ZnO Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunesh Tiwari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Paper reports morphological and humidity sensing studies of WO3 and WO3-ZnO composite pellets prepared in the weight % ratio of 10:1, 4:1 and 2:1 by solid-state reaction route. The pellets have been annealed at temperatures of 300-500 °C. XRD pattern shows peaks of ZnWO4 formed due to solid state reaction between WO3 and ZnO. SEM micrographs show that the sensing elements manifest porous structure. Granulation and tendency to agglomerate seen in the SEM micrograph are due to the presence of zinc ions in ZnWO4. Nanoparticles are having their sizes in the range 37-182 nm. The average Kelvin radius at 20˚C room temperature is 27 Ả. Humidity sensing application of the pellets has been studied in a humidity control cabinet. It is observed that as relative humidity increases, there is decrease in the resistance of pellets in the range 10-85 % RH. Sensing element of WO3-ZnO in 2:1 weight % ratio shows best results in 10-85 % relative humidity range. The average sensitivity of this sample is 1.25 MΩ/%RH. This sensing element shows good reproducibility, low hysteresis and less effect of aging.

  13. Effect of doping on structural, optical and electrical properties of nanostructure ZnO films deposited onto a-Si:H/Si heterojunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, S.; Boumaour, M.; Kermadi, S.; Keffous, A.; Kechouane, M.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the structural; optical and electrical properties of ZnO thin films as the n-type semiconductor for silicon a-Si:H/Si heterojunction photodiodes. The ZnO film forms the front contact of the super-strata solar cell and has to exhibit good electrical (high conductivity) and optical (high transmittance) properties. In this paper we focused our attention on the influence of doping on device performance. The results show that the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed a preferred orientation of the crystallites along c-axis. SEM images show that all films display a granular, polycrystalline morphology and the ZnO:Al exhibits a better grain uniformity. The transmittance of the doped films was found to be higher when compared to undoped ZnO. A low resistivity of the order of 2.8 × 10-4 Ω cm is obtained for ZnO:Al using 0.4 M concentration of zinc acetate. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra exhibit a blue band with two peaks centered at 442 nm (2.80 eV) and 490 nm (2.53 eV). It is noted that after doping the ZnO films a shift of the band by 22 nm (0.15 eV) is recorded and a high luminescence occurs when using Al as a dopant. Dark I-V curves of ZnO/a-Si:H/Si structure showed large difference, which means there is a kind of barrier to current flow between ZnO and a-Si:H layer. Doping films was applied and the turn-on voltages are around 0.6 V. Under reverse bias, the current of the ZnO/a-Si:H/Si heterojunction is larger than that of ZnO:Al/a-Si:H/Si. The improvement with ZnO:Al is attributed to a higher number of generated carriers in the nanostructure (due to the higher transmittance and a higher luminescence) that increases the probability of collisions.

  14. Structural and optical properties of ZnMgO nanostructures formed by Mg in-diffused ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, C.-J.; Hsu, H.-C.; Cheng, H.-M.; Wu, C.-Y.; Hsieh, W.-F.

    2007-01-01

    ZnMgO nanostructures with wurtzite phase were prepared by thermal diffusion of Mg into the ZnO nanowires. As ZnO light-emitting devices have been operated by using ZnMgO layers as energy barrier layers to confine the carriers, it is essential to realize the characterization of ZnMgO particularly. In this work, the Mg content in Zn 1 -x Mg x O alloy determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) shows a good coincidence. The variation of lattice constant and the blueshift of near-band-edge emission indicate that Zn 2+ ions are successfully substituted by Mg 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice. In Raman-scattering studies, the change of E 2 (high) phonon line shape in ZnO:Mg nanostructures reveals the microscopic substitutional disorder. In addition to the host phonons of ZnO, two additional bands around 383 and 510 cm -1 are presumably attributed to the Mg-related vibrational modes. - Graphical abstract: We reported the synthesis of the ZnMgO nanostructures prepared by a simple vapor transport method. Magnesium-related anomalous modes are observed by Raman spectra for the first time in ZnMgO system

  15. Organometallic synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for gas sensing: towards selectivity through nanoparticles morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhikov, Andrey; Jońca, Justyna; Kahn, Myrtil; Fajerwerg, Katia [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination (LCC), CNRS (France); Chaudret, Bruno [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de Nano-objets (LPCNO), INSA, UPS, CNRS (France); Chapelle, Audrey [Laboratoire d’Analyse et d’Architecture des Systèmes (LAAS), CNRS (France); Ménini, Philippe [Université Toulouse III, Paul Sabatier (France); Shim, Chang Hyun [Laboratoire d’Analyse et d’Architecture des Systèmes (LAAS), CNRS (France); Gaudon, Alain [Alpha M.O.S. SA (France); Fau, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.fau@lcc-toulouse.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination (LCC), CNRS (France)

    2015-07-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (NP) with different morphologies such as nanorods (NR), isotropic NP, and cloud-like (CL) structures have been synthesized by an organometallic route. The prepared ZnO nanostructures have been deposited on miniaturized silicon gas sensor substrates by an inkjet method, and their responses to CO, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, and NH{sub 3} gases have been studied at different operating temperatures (340–500 °C) and relative humidity of 50 %. It is noteworthy that the morphology of the nanostructure of the sensitive layer is maintained after thermal treatment. The morphology of ZnO NP significantly influences the sensor response level and their selectivity properties to reducing gases. Among the three different ZnO types, sensors prepared with NR show the highest response to both CO and C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. Sensors made of isotropic NP and CL structures show a lower but similar response to CO. From all investigated nanostructures, sensors made of CL structures show the weakest response to C{sub 3}H{sub 8}. With NH{sub 3} gas, no effect of the morphology of the ZnO sensitive layer has been evidenced. These different responses highlight the important role of the nanostructure of the ZnO sensitive layer and the nature of the target gas on the detection properties of the sensors. Graphical Abstract: Three different ZnO nanoparticles morphologies (cloud-like, dots, rods) have been employed as sensitive layers in chemoresistive sensors for the selective detection of CO, C{sub 3}H{sub 8} and NH{sub 3}.

  16. Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2 to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, Pauline L.; Diez Ortiz, Maria; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2011-01-01

    The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl 2 were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants K f of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl 2 respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl 2 , respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size. - Highlights: → ZnO nanoparticles and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to Folsomia candida in soil. → Pore water from soil spiked with ZnO nanoparticles showed saturation with zinc suggesting aggregation. → Pore water based EC50 values for ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl 2 were similar. → ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in soil was most probably due to Zn dissolution from the nanoparticles. - ZnO nanoparticle toxicity to springtails in soil can be explained from Zn dissolution but not from particle size.

  17. Empirical optimization of DFT  +  U and HSE for the band structure of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashyal, Keshab; Pyles, Christopher K.; Afroosheh, Sajjad; Lamichhane, Aneer; Zayak, Alexey T.

    2018-02-01

    ZnO is a well-known wide band gap semiconductor with promising potential for applications in optoelectronics, transparent electronics, and spintronics. Computational simulations based on the density functional theory (DFT) play an important role in the research of ZnO, but the standard functionals, like Perdew-Burke-Erzenhof, result in largely underestimated values of the band gap and the binding energies of the Zn3d electrons. Methods like DFT  +  U and hybrid functionals are meant to remedy the weaknesses of plain DFT. However, both methods are not parameter-free. Direct comparison with experimental data is the best way to optimize the computational parameters. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is commonly considered as a benchmark for the computed electronic densities of states. In this work, both DFT  +  U and HSE methods were parametrized to fit almost exactly the binding energies of electrons in ZnO obtained by XPS. The optimized parameterizations of DFT  +  U and HSE lead to significantly worse results in reproducing the ion-clamped static dielectric tensor, compared to standard high-level calculations, including GW, which in turn yield a perfect match for the dielectric tensor. The failure of our XPS-based optimization reveals the fact that XPS does not report the ground state electronic structure for ZnO and should not be used for benchmarking ground state electronic structure calculations.

  18. Annealing effect on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO bilayer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. I.; Imran, S.; Shahnawaz; Saleem, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif

    2018-03-01

    The effect of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO (TZ) thin films has been observed. Bilayer thin films of TiO2/ZnO are deposited on FTO glass substrate by spray pyrolysis method. After deposition, these films are annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K. XRD shows that TiO2 is present in anatase phase only and ZnO is present in hexagonal phase. No other phases of TiO2 and ZnO are present. Also, there is no evidence of other compounds like Zn-Ti etc. It also shows that the average grain size of TiO2/ZnO films is increased by increasing annealing temperature. AFM (Atomic force microscope) showed that the average roughness of TiO2/ZnO films is decreased at temperature 573-723 K and then increased at 873 K. The calculated average sheet resistivity of thin films annealed at 573 K, 723 K and 873 K is 152.28 × 102, 75.29 × 102 and 63.34 × 102 ohm-m respectively. This decrease in sheet resistivity might be due to the increment of electron concentration with increasing thickness and the temperature of thin films.

  19. Structural and Optical Properties of Eu Doped ZnO Nanorods prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Alarawi, Abeer

    2014-01-01

    Nano structured wide band gap semiconductors have attracted attention of many researchers due to their potential electronic and optoelectronic applications. In this thesis, we report successful synthesis of well aligned Eu doped ZnO nano

  20. Role of nickel doping on structural, optical, magnetic properties and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Palanisamy, S.; Prabhu, N.M. [Department of Animal Health and Management, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalingam, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, Y. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Ravi, G., E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The XRD analyses revealed that the synthesizes nickel doped ZnO (Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O, x = 0.0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09) nanostructures have hexagonal wurtzite structure. • The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of different bands due to zinc and oxygen vacancies. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the Ni incorporation in ZnO lattice as Ni{sup 2+} ions. • Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed due to the oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials are the main reasons for ferromagnetism in Ni doped ZnO NPs. - Abstract: Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The crystallite sizes of the synthesized samples found to decrease from 38 to 26 nm with increase in nickel concentration. FTIR spectra confirmed the presence of Zn−O stretching bands at 577, 573, 569 and 565 cm{sup −1} in the respective ZnO NPs. Optical absorption spectra revealed the red shifted and estimated band gap is found to decrease with increase of Ni doping concentration. The PL spectra of all the samples exhibited a broad emission at 390 nm in the visible range. The carriers (donors) bounded on the Ni sites were observed from the micro Raman spectroscopic studies. Pure and Ni doped ZnO NPs showed significant changes in the M–H loop, especially the diamagnetic behavior changed into ferromagnetic nature for Ni doped samples. The antiferromagnetic super-exchange interactions between Ni{sup 2+} ions is increased in higher Ni doped ZnO NPs and also their antibacterial activity has been studied.

  1. Effect of Annealing on the Structural and Optical Properties of Nano Fiber ZnO Films Deposited by Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Islam

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Nano fiber ZnO films have been deposited on to glass substrate at 200 °C by a simple spray pyrolysis technique under atmospheric pressure. The effect of annealing temperature on the structural and optical properties of the as grown films has been studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM attached with an EDX, powder X-ray diffraction and UV visible spectroscopy. The atomic weight % of Zinc and Oxygen were found to be 49.22 % and 49.62 % respectively. The SEM micrographs show nano fiber structure and uniform deposition on the substrate. Average grain size of ZnO thin film was found in the range of 21 to 27 nm. The lattice constant a and c of ZnO thin film are determined at different annealing temperatures and values are found slightly larger than those of JCPDS data and lower for the sample annealed at 600 °C. The lattice parameters a and c decrease with increasing temperature. It reveals that the samples are poly-crystalline and having with low densities. Band gap energy of ZnO was found in the range of 3.33 to 3.17 eV and decreases with the increase of the annealing temperature.

  2. Direct current magnetron sputter-deposited ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong; Knipp, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising electronic material for emerging transparent large-area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 150 nm to 750 nm were deposited on glass substrates. The deposition pressure and the substrate temperature were varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr, and from room temperature to 450 deg. C, respectively. The influence of the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of the ZnO films was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The experimental results reveal that the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature play significant role in the structural formation and the optical properties of the deposited ZnO thin films.

  3. From Bloch to random lasing in ZnO self-assembled nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Pedro David; Cefe, López

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present measurements on UV lasing in ZnO ordered and disordered nanostructures. Bloch lasing is achieved in the ordered structures by exploiting very low group-velocity Bloch modes in ZnO photonic crystals. In the second case, random lasing is observed in ZnO photonic glasses. We...... study the lasing threshold in both cases and its dependence on the structural parameters. Finally, we present the transition from Bloch to random lasing by deliberately doping a ZnO inverse photonic crystal with a controlled amount of lattice vacancies effectively converting it into a translationally...

  4. A treatise on first-principles studies of ZnO as diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Sanjeev Kumar

    2012-04-24

    The scope of the present thesis is to study the properties of ZnO doped with transition metal elements by the density functional theory (DFT).cc In this thesis, there is extensive study of the electronic structure of ZnO beyond the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as exchange-correlation functional (E{sub xc}), which is well known to be associated with some drawback in predicting the semiconducting properties. One of the methods adopted for improvement is by adding extra correlation-energy to GGA (GGA+U) in line with the Hubbard model. We find that with adding U on Zn d-orbitals, the band gap improves with simultaneous shift of the Zn d-bands to lower energies. The band gap nevertheless is still far below the experimental value. Another approach to correct for the E{sub xc} is by the treatment of screened hybrid-functionals proposed by Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE), where the contribution to the exchange energy is through the blend of some percentage of screened Hartree-Fock exchange and rest from the GGA exchange. The correlation energy is derived from GGA. This method also has limitations in describing the electronic structure of ZnO. A simple proposition of mixing the GGA+U and the hybrid-functional treatment may be a solution, which has been investigated in this work. The band structure of ZnO has been compared for various level of theory for E{sub xc}, namely, LDA, GGA, GGA+U, and HSE functionals with different screening lengths ({omega}). A proposal for HSE+U functionals has been been put forward and supported. Using some of the treatments for E{sub xc} as stated above, the magnetic properties of TM(Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) doped ZnO are studied. Firstly, the electronic structure calculations for TM doped ZnO are done with the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method with the LDA and using the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The exchange integrals are then calculated using the Liechtenstein's formalism, which are then used in the Monte Carlo

  5. Structure and properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopach, V. R.; Klepikova, K. S.; Klochko, N. P., E-mail: klochko-np@mail.ru; Khrypunov, G. S.; Korsun, V. E.; Lyubov, V. M.; Kirichenko, M. V.; Kopach, A. V. [National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute” (Ukraine)

    2017-03-15

    We investigate the structure, surface morphology, and optical properties of nanostructured ZnO arrays fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition, Ag nanoparticles precipitated from colloidal solutions, and a ZnO/Ag nanocomposite based on them. The electronic and electrical parameters of the ZnO arrays and ZnO/Ag nanocomposites are analyzed by studying the I–V and C–V characteristics. Optimal modes for fabricating the ZnO/Ag heterostructures with the high stability and sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation as promising materials for use in photodetectors, gas sensors, and photocatalysts are determined.

  6. Structural characteristics and UV-light enhanced gas sensitivity of La-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Chunqiao; Xie Changsheng; Hu Mulin; Gui Yanghai; Bai Zikui; Zeng Dawen

    2007-01-01

    La-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method starting from zinc acetate dihydrate, lanthanum sesquioxide, alcohol and nitric acid. The crystal structure and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, FESEM, respectively. The thermal decomposition behavior of the the ZnO-based xerogel was detected by TG-DSC. The results show that as-prepared nanoparticles with the hexagonal wurtzite contain the adsorbed water and some organic compounds below 300 o C, which is the key to the calcinations of the ZnO-based xerogel. Pure ZnO and La-doped ZnO thick film sensors were prepared and tested for specific sensitivity to alcohol and benzene with (and without) UV-light excitation. Among all, 10 at.%La-ZnO-based sensors are significantly sensitive to 100 ppm alcohol and 100 ppm benzene. There is an obvious enhancement of the gas-sensing performances with UV-light excitation. That is, the sensitivity to 100 ppm benzene rises twice. The observed sensitivity to alcohol and benzene could be explained with the surface adsorption theory and the conduction-band theory

  7. Heterogeneous nucleation for synthesis of sub-20nm ZnO nanopods and their application to optical humidity sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majithia, R; Ritter, S; Meissner, K E

    2014-02-17

    We present a novel method for colloidal synthesis of one-dimensional ZnO nanopods by heterogeneous nucleation on zero-dimensional ZnO nanoparticle 'seeds'. Ultra-small ZnO nanopods, multi-legged structures with sub-20 nm individual leg diameters, can be synthesized by hydrolysis of a Zn2+ precursor growth solution in presence of ∼4 nm ZnO seeds under hydrothermal conditions via microwave-assisted heating in as little as 20 min of reaction time. One-dimensional ZnO nanorods are initially generated in the reaction mixture by heterogeneous nucleation and growth along the [0001] direction of the ZnO crystal. Growth of one-dimensional nanorods subsequently yields to an 'attachment' and size-focusing phase where individual nanorods fuse together to form multi-legged nanopods having diameters ∼15 nm. ZnO nanopods exhibit broad orange-red defect-related photoluminescence in addition to a near-band edge emission at 373 nm when excited above the band-gap at 350 nm. The defect-related photoluminescence of the ZnO nanopods has been applied towards reversible optical humidity sensing at room temperature. The sensors demonstrated a linear response between 22% and 70% relative humidity with a 0.4% increase in optical intensity per % change in relative humidity. Due to their ultra-small dimensions, ZnO nanopods exhibit a large dynamic range and enhanced sensitivity to changes in ambient humidity, thus showcasing their ability as a platform for optical environmental sensing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanism of oxidative stress involved in the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against eukaryotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saliani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO NPs (zinc oxide nanoparticles has generated significant scientific interest as a novel antibacterial and anticancer agent. Since oxidative stress is a critical determinant of ZnO NPs-induced damage, it is necessary to characterize their underlying mode of action. Different structural and physicochemical properties of ZnO NPs such as particle surface, size, shape, crystal structure, chemical position, and presence of metals can lead to changes in biological activities including ROS (reactive oxygen species production. However, there are some inconsistencies in the literature on the relation between the physicochemical features of ZnO NPs and their plausible oxidative stress mechanism. Herein, the possible oxidative stress mechanism of ZnO NPs was reviewed. This is worthy of further detailed evaluations in order to improve our understanding of vital NPs characteristics governing their toxicity. Therefore, this study focuses on the different reported oxidative stress paradigms induced by ZnO NPs including ROS generated by NPs, oxidative stress due to the NPs-cell interaction, and role of the particle dissolution in the oxidative damage. Also, this study tries to characterize and understand the multiple pathways involved in oxidative stress induced by ZnO NPs. Knowledge about different cellular signaling cascades stimulated by ZnO NPs lead to the better interpretation of the toxic influences induced by the cellular and acellular parameters. Regarding the potential benefits of toxic effects of ZnO NPs, in-depth evaluation of their toxicity mechanism and various effects of these nanoparticles would facilitate their implementation for biomedical applications.

  9. Structural and optical characterization of indium-antimony complexes in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Türker, M.; Deicher, M., E-mail: manfred.deicher@tech-phys.uni-sb.de; Johnston, K.; Wolf, H.; Wichert, Th. [Universität des Saarlandes, Experimentalphysik (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    One of the main obstacles to the technical application of the wide-gap semiconductor ZnO represents the difficulty to achieve reliable p-type doping of ZnO with group V elements (N, P, As, Sb) acting as acceptors located on O lattice sites. The theoretically proposed concepts of cluster-doping or codoping may lead to an enhanced and stable p-type conductivity of ZnO. We report on PAC results obtained by codoping experiments of ZnO by ion implantation using the donor {sup 111}In and the group-V acceptor Sb. The formation of In-Sb pairs has been observed. Based on these PAC results, there is no evidence for the formation of In-acceptor complexes involving more than one Sb acceptor. These results has been complemented by photoluminescence measurements.

  10. Structure, interface, and luminescence of (011-bar1) ZnO nanofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jung-Hsiung; Yeh, Sung-Wei; Huang, Hsing-Lu; Gan, Dershin

    2010-01-01

    ZnO nanofilms of (011-bar1) texture have been prepared by ion beam sputtering on the (001) surface of single-crystal NaCl. The orientation relationship between them is determined by transmission electron microscopy. Analyses of electron diffraction patterns and interface confirm that the ZnO (011-bar1) plane is the interface with the NaCl (001) surface. The photoluminescence spectrum from the ZnO (011-bar1) surface shows a near-band-edge UV emission and a broad green emission. The result indicates that the inherent high surface defects of oxygen vacancies on the (011-bar1) surface are the probable origin of the green emission.

  11. Aqueous chemical growth and application of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postels, Bianca; Kasprzak, Anna; Mofor, Augustine C.; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Bakin, Andrey; Waag, Andreas [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    A very promising fabrication process for ZnO nanostructures is the aqueous chemical growth (ACG), since it is a cost efficient and low temperature approach. Using this growth technique we generated wafer-scale ZnO nanorod arrays on Si, sapphire, ITO coated glass and even on flexible polymer substrates. ACG is found to be only weakly influenced by the substrate material and we are also able to control the dimensions of the ZnO nanorods. Another benefit of ACG is the ability to fabricate patterned arrays of ZnO nanorods by a selective growth process on structured metallised surfaces. Results of structural analysis with SEM and XRD are reported. Additionally, optical properties were investigated by PL measurements. First attempts on the preparation of dye sensitised solar cells (DSSCs) are also reported. Here, the traditional sintered TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are replaced by a densely packed and vertically aligned array of ACG ZnO nanorods. The size and morphology of the ZnO nanorods can be controlled. The influence of the length of the nanorods on the cell properties is investigated. A vapour phase transport technique was also used as alternative growth method.

  12. Electrodeposition of hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays on flexible stainless steel mesh for dye-sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Hui; Zhai, Xiangyang; Liu, Wenwu; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min, E-mail: guomin@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) were synthesized on flexible stainless steel mesh (SSM) in large scale by a two-step facile electrodeposition method. The structure and morphology of the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The growth mechanism of the ZnO hierarchical nanostructures was also discussed. Moreover, the effect of ZnO morphology on the photovoltaic performance of the flexible DSSCs based on SSM supported ZnO nanostructures was investigated in detail. It is shown that the flexible DSSCs exhibited a relatively higher power conversion efficiency of 1.11% compared with that based on primary ZNRAs. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) were prepared by electrodeposition method. • Flexible stainless steel mesh (SSM) supported with hierarchical ZNRAs was first used for DSSCs. • The effect of ZnO morphology on the photovoltaic performance of flexible DSSCs was investigated. • The DSSC based on 3-Hierarchical ZNRAs/ZNPs showed a relatively efficiency of 1.11%.

  13. Effect of the electrochemical technique on nanocrystalline ZnO electrodeposition, its structural, morphological and photoelectrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chettah, Hamdane; Abdi, Djamila, E-mail: naimadjam@hotmail.com

    2013-06-30

    This article reports the influence of the electrochemical technique on the electrodeposition of nanoscopic zinc oxide from aqueous mixed bath of zinc nitrate and potassium chloride at 70 °C onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrates. ZnO thin films were elaborated via cyclic voltamperometry and chronoamperometry techniques. This study shows structural and morphological differences in films deposited according to both methods. Thin and adherent films obtained via cyclic voltamperometry have been obtained after 100 cycles, and those obtained using the chronoampermetric method grown at potential of − 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl during 1 h. The structural characterisation of such films was performed using X-ray diffraction, which showed the most important peaks of ZnO wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along the (002) axis for deposits obtained via cyclic voltamperometry presenting nanometric grain sizes (42 nm). Atomic force microscopy was used to study surface morphology and estimate the surface roughness factor for two deposits. Photoelectrochemical study indicates that both kinds of films had n-type electrical conductivity and presents high photoanodic-generated currents. - Highlights: • Zinc oxide films were electrodeposited on fluorine doped tin oxide substrates at 70 °C. • Two electrochemical techniques were used cyclic voltamperometry and chronoamperometry. • X-ray diffraction showed the most important peaks of ZnO wurtzite structure. • Preferential orientation along the (002) axis for cyclic voltamperometry films. • Deposits had n-type electrical conductivity and high photoanodic-generated currents.

  14. Synthesis, structural and optical properties of ZnO spindle/reduced graphene oxide composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, S.; Pudukudy, M.; Sohila, S.; Harish, S.; Navaneethan, M.; Navaneethan, D.; Ramesh, R.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, spindle-shaped ZnO and reduced graphene oxide sheets were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method and then ZnO/r-GO composite was prepared by a direct solution mixing method. Various characterization results confirmed the interior and surface decoration of spindle-shaped ZnO on the reduced graphene oxide sheets. The phase formation, crystalline structure, morphology, surface states and optical properties were characterized using Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of ZnO with high crystalline quality. The band gap of the ZnO/r-GO composite was found to be low (3.03eV) compared to the band gap of spindle shaped ZnO (3.13 eV), as calculated from optical studies. The spindle-like morphology of the single crystalline ZnO was clearly shown in the electron microscopic images. The chemical bonding and surface states of the samples were studied using XPS measurement. Moreover, a possible growth mechanism for the ZnO spindle was proposed. The catalytic activity of the as-synthesized samples was evaluated for the photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. Among the synthesized samples, the ZnO/r-GO composite showed higher degradation efficiency of 93% and successfully reused for four consecutive run without any activity loss.

  15. Structural and optical properties of pentacene films grown on differently oriented ZnO surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Helou, M; Lietke, E; Helzel, J; Heimbrodt, W; Witte, G

    2012-01-01

    Pentacene films have been grown on two polar zinc oxide surfaces, i.e., ZnO(0001) and ZnO(0 0 0 1-bar ), as well as on the mixed-terminated ZnO(1 0 1-bar 0) and are characterized by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). In all cases, pentacene aggregates in an upright orientation without any evidence for the formation of an interface stabilized wetting layer. Additional films deposited on a highly-defective, oxygen-depleted ZnO(0 0 0 1-bar ) reveal no altered growth mode. Nearly identical optical absorption spectra have been measured for all films, thus corroborating a weak molecule-substrate interaction. Upon cooling, however, a slightly different relaxation behavior could be resolved for pentacene films on polar ZnO surfaces compared to pentacene on the mixed-terminated ZnO(1 0 1-bar 0) surface.

  16. Fabrication of graphene and ZnO nanocones hybrid structure for transparent field emission device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulkifli, Zurita [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Mara (Malaysia); Shinde, Sachin M.; Suguira, Takatoshi [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Kalita, Golap, E-mail: kalita.golap@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Center for Fostering Young and Innovative Researchers, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Tanemura, Masaki [Department of Frontier Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: Fabrication of a transparent field emission device with chemical vapor deposited graphene and zinc oxide nanocones showing low turn-on field due to locally enhance electric field. - Highlights: • Demonstrated transparent field emission device with CVD graphene and ZnO nanocones. • Graphene film was coated on carbon doped ZnO nanocone prepared by ion irradiation. • Low turn-on field for the graphene/C:ZnO nanocones hybrid structure is achieved. • Graphene/C:ZnO heterostructure is promising for transparent field emission devices. - Abstract: Fabrication of a transparent and high performance electron emission device is the key challenge for suitable display applications. Here, we demonstrate fabrication of a transparent and efficient field emission device integrating large-area chemical vapor deposited graphene and carbon doped zinc oxide (C:ZnO) nanocones. The ZnO nanocones were obtained with ion irradiation process at room temperature, over which the graphene film was transferred without destroying nanocone tips. Significant enhancement in field emission properties were observed with the transferred graphene film on C:ZnO nanocones. The threshold field for hybrid and pristine C:ZnO nanocones film at current density of 1 μA/cm{sup 2} was obtained as 4.3 V/μm and 6.5 V/μm, respectively. The enhanced field emission properties with low turn-on field for the graphene/C:ZnO nanocones can be attributed to locally enhance electric field. Our finding shows that a graphene/C:ZnO hybridized structure is very promising to fabricate field emission devices without compromising with high transparency.

  17. Optical characterization of Er-implanted ZnO films formed by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukudome, T.; Kaminaka, A.; Isshiki, H.; Saito, R.; Yugo, S.; Kimura, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the 1.54 μm photoluminescence (PL) of Er-implanted ZnO thin films formed by a sol-gel method on Si substrates. In spite of the polycrystalline structure of the sol-gel ZnO thin films, they showed strong PL emissions due to the near band edge recombination at 375 nm as well as the Er-related luminescence at 1.54 μm. The Er-related luminescence showed no decrease (quench) in the intensity up to the Er concentration of 1.5 x 10 21 cm -3 . The PL intensity of Er-implanted ZnO at 1.54 μm was found to be as strong as Er-doped PS (porous Si) at 20 K, and the intensity reduced to 1/3 at room temperature

  18. Hierarchical ZnO Nanowires-loaded Sb-doped SnO2-ZnO Micrograting Pattern via Direct Imprinting-assisted Hydrothermal Growth and Its Selective Detection of Acetone Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hak-Jong; Choi, Seon-Jin; Choo, Soyoung; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Heon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel synthetic route by combining imprinting transfer of a Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO)-ZnO composite micrograting pattern (MP), i.e., microstrip lines, on a sensor substrate and subsequent hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs) for producing a hierarchical ZnO NW-loaded ATO-ZnO MP as an improved chemo-resistive sensing layer. Here, ATO-ZnO MP structure with 3-μm line width, 9-μm pitch, and 6-μm height was fabricated by direct transfer of mixed ATO and ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-dispersed resists, which are pre-patterned on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold. ZnO NWs with an average diameter of less than 50 nm and a height of 250 nm were quasi-vertically grown on the ATO-ZnO MP, leading to markedly enhanced surface area and heterojunction composites between each ATO NP, ZnO NP, and ZnO NW. A ZnO NW-loaded MP sensor with a relative ratio of 1:9 between ATO and ZnO (1:9 ATO-ZnO), exhibited highly sensitive and selective acetone sensing performance with 2.84-fold higher response (Rair/Rgas = 12.8) compared to that (Rair/Rgas = 4.5) of pristine 1:9 ATO-ZnO MP sensor at 5 ppm. Our results demonstrate the processing advantages of direct imprinting-assisted hydrothermal growth for large-scale homogeneous coating of hierarchical oxide layers, particularly for applications in highly sensitive and selective chemical sensors.

  19. Optical and structural properties of thin films of ZnO at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayani, Zohra N.; Afzal, Tosif; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin films of ZnO are prepared on glass substrates using dip-coating. • The X-ray diffraction showed that films are crystalline. • Optical measurements show that the film possesses high transmittance in visible region. • The transmission decreased with increased withdrawal speed. • The films has direct band gap in range 3.78-3.48 eV. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on glass substrate by sol–gel dip-coating method. The paper presents the properties of zinc oxide thin films deposited on soda-lime-glass substrate via dip-coating technique, using zinc acetate dehydrate and ethanol as raw materials. The effect of withdrawal speed on the crystalline structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films has been investigated using XRD, SEM and UV–Vis spectrophotometer. X-ray diffraction study shows that all the films have hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred orientation in (0 0 2) direction and transmission spectra showed highly transparent films with band gap ranging from 3.78 to 3.48 eV

  20. Annealing Temperature Dependent Structural and Optical Properties of RF Sputtered ZnO Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shashikant; Varma, Tarun; Asokan, K; Periasamy, C; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the effect of annealing temperature on structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown over Si 100 and glass substrates using RF sputtering technique. Annealing temperature has been varied from 300 °C to 600 °C in steps of 100, and different microstructural parameters such as grain size, dislocation density, lattice constant, stress and strain have been evaluated. The structural and surface morphological characterization has been done using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). XRD analysis reveals that the peak intensity of 002 crystallographic orientation increases with increased annealing temperature. Optical characterization of deposited films have been done using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectrometer. An increase in optical bandgap of deposited ZnO thin films with increasing annealing temperature has been observed. The average optical transmittance was found to be more than 85% for all deposited films. Photoluminiscense spectra (PL) suggest that the crystalline quality of deposited film has increased at higher annealing temperature.

  1. Photoelectrochemical performance of N-doped ZnO branched nanowire photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrok Allami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A ZnO branched-nanowire (BNW photoanode was doped with N for use in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC to generate H2 from water splitting. First, ZnO BNWs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method. Two experimental methods were used for N-doping: the time-controlled direct-current glow discharge plasma (DCGDP and the DC magnetron plasma (DCMP methods, to optimize N-doping of the NW structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS provided the N distribution and atomic percentage in the BNWs. The XPS results confirmed that N distribution into ZnO BNWs occurred by N substitution of O sites in the ZnO structure and through well-screened molecular N2. The morphologies and structures of the fabricated nanostructures were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. The photoanode performance was demonstrated in photoelectrochemical studies at various power densities under both dark and illuminated conditions. Increasing the N amount in the ZnO BNWs increased the photocurrent in the PEC. Keywords: Engineering, Condensed matter physics, Nanotechnology, Materials science

  2. Ultrasonic synthesis of fern-like ZnO nanoleaves and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Qing Lan; Xiong, Rui; Zhai, Bao-gai; Huang, Yuan Ming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating Zn microcrystals in water. • A fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is a self-assembly of ZnO nanoplates along one ZnO nanorod. • Fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity than ZnO nanocrystals. • The branched hierarchical structures are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Two-dimensional fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating zinc microcrystals in water. The morphology, crystal structure, optical property and photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that one fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is composed of one ZnO nanorod as the central trunk and a number of ZnO nanoplates as the side branches in opposite pairs along the central ZnO nanorod. The central ZnO nanorod in the fern-like nanoleaves is about 1 μm long while the side-branching ZnO nanoplates are about 100 nm long and 20 nm wide. Further analysis has revealed that ZnO nanocrystals are the building blocks of the central ZnO nanorod and the side-branching ZnO nanoplates. Under identical conditions, fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit higher photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methyl orange in aqueous solution than spherical ZnO nanocrystals. The first-order photocatalytic rate constant of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves is about four times as large as that of the ZnO nanoparticles. The branched architecture of the hierarchical nanoleaves is suggested be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves

  3. UV irradiation assisted growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Bo; Shi, Tielin; Liao, Guanglan; Li, Xiaoping; Huang, Jie; Zhou, Temgyuan; Tang, Zirong, E-mail: zirong@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • A new fabrication process combined a hydrothermal process with UV irradiation from optical fiber is developed. • The growth of ZnO nanowires is efficient in the utilization of UV light. • A novel hybrid structure which integrates ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface is synthesized. • The UV assisted growth of ZnO nanowires shows preferred orientation and better quality. • A mechanism of growing ZnO nanowires under UV irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel approach was developed for the enhanced growth of ZnO nanowires on optical fiber surface. The method combined a hydrothermal process with the efficient UV irradiation from the fiber core, and the effects of UV irradiation on the growth behavior of ZnO nanowires were investigated. The results show that UV irradiation had great effects on the preferred growth orientation and the quality of the ZnO nanowires. The crystallization velocity along the c-axis would increase rapidly with the increase of the irradiation power, while the growth process in the lateral direction was marginally affected by the irradiation. The structure of ZnO nanowires also shows less oxygen vacancy with UV irradiation of higher power. The developed approach is applicable for the efficient growth of nanowires on the fiber surface, and the ZnO nanowires/optical fiber hybrid structures have great potentials for a wide variety of applications such as optical fiber sensors and probes.

  4. Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kool, Pauline L., E-mail: pauline.kool@falw.vu.nl [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Diez Ortiz, Maria [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pole de Recherche ROVALTAIN en Toxicologie Environnementale et Ecotoxicologie, Batiment Rhovalparc, BP 15173, 26958 Valence Cedex 9 (France); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants K{sub f} of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2}, respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size. - Highlights: > ZnO nanoparticles and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to Folsomia candida in soil. > Pore water from soil spiked with ZnO nanoparticles showed saturation with zinc suggesting aggregation. > Pore water based EC50 values for ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl{sub 2} were similar. > ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in soil was most probably due to Zn dissolution from the nanoparticles. - ZnO nanoparticle toxicity to springtails in soil can be explained from Zn dissolution but not from particle size.

  5. A comparison study between ZnO nanorods coated with graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Jijun; Wang, Minqiang; Deng, Jianping; Gao, Weiyin; Yang, Zhi; Ran, Chenxin; Zhang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optical properties between ZnO-GO and ZnO-RGO composites were compared. • Photoluminescence quenching was observed in ZnO-GO composites. • We obtained enhanced photoluminescence in ZnO-RGO composites. -- Abstract: ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) coated with graphene oxide (ZnO-GO) and reduced graphene oxide sheets (ZnO-RGO) were prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The crystal structures, morphology and optical properties were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, absorption spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. A comparison between PL properties from ZnO-GO and ZnO-RGO were studied. Results indicated that the peak at 442 nm and a broad band at 450–600 nm of ZnO NRs show PL quenching after coating with GO sheets. As coating with RGO sheets, the extent of PL quenching increases. It is interesting to note that as ZnO NRs coated with RGO sheets, the intensity of PL peak at 390 nm significantly increased. The enhanced PL emission research in ZnO-RGO is directed toward development of the “nextgeneration” optoelectronics devices related with graphene materials

  6. Effects of stabilizer ratio on photoluminescence properties of sol-gel ZnO nano-structured thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjouan, F.; Chelouche, A.; Touam, T.; Djouadi, D.; Khodja, S.; Tazerout, M.; Ouerdane, Y.; Hadjoub, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured ZnO thin films with different molar ratios of MEA to zinc acetate (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) have been deposited on glass substrates by a sol–gel dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the effect of MEA stabilizer ratio on structural, morphological, absorbance and emission properties of the ZnO thin films. Diffraction patterns have shown that all the films are polycrystalline and exhibit a wurtzite hexagonal structure. The c axis orientation has been enhanced with increasing stabilizer ratio. SEM micrographs have revealed that the morphology of the ZnO films depend on stabilizer ratio. The UV–visible absorption spectra have demonstrated that the optical absorption is affected by stabilizer ratio. The photoluminescence spectra have indicated one ultraviolet and two visible emission bands (green and red), while band intensities are found to be dependent on stabilizer ratio. ZnO thin films deposited at MEA ratio of 1.0 show the highest UV emission while the minimum UV emission intensity is observed in thin films deposited at ratio of 0.5 and the maximum green has been recorded for films deposited at MEA ratio of 2.0. - Highlight: • c axis orientation increases with increasing MEA ratio. • The increase of MEA ration from 0.5 to 1.0 enhances greatly the UV emission. • The larger I UV /I visible is obtained for the MEA to Zn ratio of 1:1. • The MEA ratio of 0.5 favors the formation of large density of V zn . • The MEA ratio of 2.0 increases the V o density

  7. Synthesis of ZnO nanorods and observation of resistive switching memory in ZnO based polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manjula G.; Malakar, Meenakshi; Mohapatra, Saumya R.; Chowdhury, Avijit

    2018-05-01

    This research reports the observation of bipolar resistive switching memory in ZnO nanorod based polymer nanocomposites. We synthesized ZnO nanorods by wet-chemical method and characterized them using XRD, UV-VIS spectroscopy and SEM. The synthesized materials have hexagonal ZnO phase with grain size of 24 nm and having strong orientation along (101) direction as observed from XRD. The SEM micrograph confirms the formation of ZnO nanorods with diameter in the range of 10 to 20 nm and length of the order of 1 µm. From optical absorption spectra the band gap is estimated to be 2.42 eV. ZnO nanorods were dispersed in PVDF-HFP polymer matrix to prepare the nanocomposite. This nanocomposite was used as active layer in the devices having sandwich structure of ITO/PVDF-HFP+ZnO nanorods/Al. Bipolar non-volatile memory was observed with ON-OFF resistance ratio of the order of 103 and with a wide voltage window of 2.3V. The switching mechanism could be due to the trapping and de-trapping of electrons by the ZnO nanorods in the nanocomposite during ON and OFF states respectively.

  8. Formation and vibrational structure of Si nano-clusters in ZnO matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Serrano, J. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Hidalgo (Mexico); Pal, U. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Koshizaki, N.; Sasaki, T. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    We have studied the formation and vibrational structure of Si nano-clusters in ZnO matrix prepared by radio-frequency (r.f.) co-sputtering, and characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Infrared (IR) spectroscopy techniques. The composite films of Si/ZnO were grown o quartz substrates by co-sputtering of Si and ZnO targets. TEM images show a homogeneous distribution of clusters in the matrix with average size varied from 3.7 nm to 34 nm depending on the temperature of annealing. IR absorption measurements revealed the bands correspond to the modes of vibrations of Si{sub 3} in its triangular geometrical structure. By analysing the IR absorption and XPS spectra we found that the nano-clusters consist of a Si{sub 3} core and a SiO{sub x} cap layer. With the increase of annealing temperature, the vibrational states of Si changed from the triplet {sup 3}B1(C2{sub v}) and {sup 3}A'{sub 2}(D{sub 3h}) states to its singlet ground state {sup 1}A{sub 1}(C2{sub v}) and the oxidation state of Si in SiO{sub x} increased. The evolution of the local atomic structure of the Si nano-clusters with the variation of Si content in the film and with the variation of the temperature of annealing are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia la formacion y estructura vibracional de nano-cumulos de Si en matriz de ZnO preparados por la tecnica de radio-frecuencia (r.f.) co-sputtering, y caracterizados por Microscopia Electronica de Transmision (TEM), Espectroscopia Fotoelectronica de rayos X (XPS) y Espectroscopia de Infrarrojo (IR). Las peliculas compositas de Si/ZnO fueron crecidas sobre sustratos de cuarzo mediante el co-sputtering de blancos de Si y ZnO. Las imagenes de TEM mostraron una distribucion homogenea de cumulos en la matriz con un tamano promedio de 3.7 nm a 34 nm dependiendo de la temperatura de tratamiento. Las mediciones de IR relevaron las bandas correspondientes a los modos de vibracion de Si{sub 3} en su estructura

  9. Improving ultraviolet photodetection of ZnO nanorods by Cr doped ZnO encapsulation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, S.; Mokhtari, S.; Khayatian, A.; Azimirad, R.

    2018-04-01

    Encapsulated ZnO nanorods (NRs) with different Cr concentration (0-4.5 at.%) were prepared in two different steps. First, ZnO NRs were grown by hydrothermal method. Then, they were encapsulated by dip coating method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometer analyses. XRD analysis proved that Cr incorporated into the ZnO structure successfully. Based on optical analysis, band gap changes in the range of 2.74-3.84 eV. Finally, UV responses of all samples were deeply investigated. It revealed 0.5 at.% Cr doped sample had the most photocurrent (0.75 mA) and photoresponsivity (0.8 A/W) of all which were about three times greater than photocurrent and photoresponsivity of the undoped sample.

  10. Defect induced d{sup 0} ferromagnetism in a ZnO grain boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assa Aravindh, Sasikala Devi; Schwingenschloegl, Udo; Roqan, Iman S, E-mail: iman.roqan@kaust.edu.sa [Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 2955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-12-14

    Several experimental studies have referred to the grain boundary (GB) defect as the origin of ferromagnetism in zinc oxide (ZnO). However, the mechanism of this hypothesis has never been confirmed. Present study investigates the atomic structure and the effect of point defects in a ZnO GB using the generalized gradient approximation+U approximation. The relaxed GB possesses large periodicity and channels with 8 and 10 numbered atoms having 4 and 3 fold coordination. The Zn vacancy (V{sub Zn}) shows a tendency to be attracted to the GB, relative to the bulk-like region. Although no magnetization is obtained from point defect-free GB, V{sub Zn} induces spin polarization as large as 0.68 μ{sub B}/atom to the O sites at the GB. Ferromagnetic exchange energy >150 eV is obtained by increasing the concentration of V{sub Zn} and by the injection of holes into the system. Electronic structure analysis indicates that the spin polarization without external dopants originates from the O 2p orbitals, a common feature of d{sup 0} semiconductors.

  11. Investigation on structural and optical properties of ZnO film prepared by simple wet chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholehah, Amalia; Mulyadi, Rendi; Haryono, Didied; Muttakin, Imamul; Rusbana, Tb Bahtiar; Mardiyanto

    2018-04-01

    ZnO thin layer has a broad potential application in electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, vertically align ZnO layers were deposited on ITO glass using wet chemistry method. The seed layers were prepared using electrodeposition technique at 3°C. The growing process was carried out using chemical bath deposition at 90°C. To improve the structural properties, two different hydrothermal treatment variations were applied separately. From the experiment, it is shown that the hydrothermal process using N2 gas has given the best result, with average diameter, crystallite size, and band-gap energy of 68.83 nm; 56.37 nm; and 3.16 eV, respectively.

  12. Preparation, structural and luminescent properties of nanocrystalline ZnO films doped Ag by close space sublimation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomchenko, Viktoriya; Mazin, Mikhail; Sopinskyy, Mykola; Lytvyn, Oksana; Dan'ko, Viktor; Piryatinskii, Yurii; Demydiuk, Pavlo

    2018-05-01

    The simple way for silver doping of ZnO films is presented. The ZnO films were prepared by reactive rf-magnetron sputtering on silicon and sapphire substrates. Ag doping is carried out by sublimation of the Ag source located at close space at atmospheric pressure in air. Then the ZnO and ZnO-Ag films were annealed in wet media. The microstructure and optical properties of the films were compared and studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL). XRD results indicated that all the ZnO films have a polycrystalline hexagonal structure and a preferred orientation with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. The annealing and Ag doping promote increasing grain's sizes and modification of grain size distribution. The effect of substrate temperature, substrate type, Ag doping and post-growth annealing of the films was studied by PL spectroscopy. The effect of Ag doping was obvious and identical for all the films, namely the wide visible bands of PL spectra are suppressed by Ag doping. The intensity of ultraviolet band increased 15 times as compared to their reference films on sapphire substrate. The ultraviolet/visible emission ratio was 20. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) for a 380 nm band was 14 nm, which is comparable with that of epitaxial ZnO. The data implies the high quality of ZnO-Ag films. Possible mechanisms to enhance UV emission are discussed.

  13. AuNPs Hybrid Black ZnO Nanorods Made by a Sol-Gel Method for Highly Sensitive Humidity Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive self-powered humidity sensor has been realized from AuNPs hybrid black zinc oxide (ZnO nanorods prepared through a sol-gel method. XRD pattern reveals that both ZnO and ZnO/AuNPs exhibit a wurtzite structure. ZnO/AuNPs nanorods grow in a vertical alignment, which possesses high uniformity and forms dense arrays with a smaller diameter than that of ZnO nanoparticles. All ZnO/AuNPs and pure black ZnO show lower band gap energy than the typically reported 3.34 eV of pure ZnO. Furthermore, the band gap of ZnO/AuNPs nanocomposites is effectively influenced by the amount of AuNPs. The humidity sensing tests clearly prove that all the ZnO/AuNPs humidity sensors exhibit much higher response than that of ZnO sensors, and the sensitivity of such ZnO/AuNPs nanorods (6 mL AuNPs display a change three orders higher than that of pure ZnO with relative humidity (RH ranging from 11% to 95% at room temperature. The response and recovery time of the ZnO/AuNPs are 5.6 s and 32.4 s, respectively. This study of the construction of semiconductor/noble metal sensors provides a rational way to control the morphology of semiconductor nanomaterials and to design a humidity sensor with high performance.

  14. Growth of ZnS-coated ZnO nanorod arrays on (1 0 0) silicon substrate by two-step chemical synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumarakuru, Haridas; Urgessa, Zelalem N.; Olivier, Ezra J.; Botha, Johannes R.; Venter, Andre; Neethling, Johannes H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnS coated ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a simple two-step chemical method. • The uniform ZnS coating exhibits a polycrystalline face centered cubic structure. • Initial ZnS deposit exhibits a partial epitaxial relationship with ZnO. • An ion-exchange reaction was deduced for this sulphidation process. • Detailed microscopy results are complemented by room temperature photoluminescence. - Abstract: In this study, ZnS coated ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a simple, cost effective two-step chemical method. A continuous coating of ZnS on a ZnO nanorod, having a uniform thickness, is demonstrated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and selected area diffraction (SAD). These core–shell structures can be produced at relatively low temperatures (75 °C) and within relatively short times (3 h). The ZnS coating exhibits a polycrystalline structure with a lattice parameter of 5.35 Å, which is 1.1% smaller than the unstrained cubic zinc-blende structure. The SAD pattern taken at the ZnO–ZnS interface exhibits a partial epitaxial relationship, where (1 0 –1 0) ZnO//(1 1 1) ZnS. Our detailed analysis shows that the ZnS shell comprises two different regions: a ZnS rich inner shell region is produced via the first sulphidation process, followed by a mixture of ZnO and ZnS in the outer shell region during the second treatment. From the detailed microscopy results a growth mechanism is proposed for each step of the sulphidation process. The results are complemented by room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Strong emission from free excitons in ZnO is observed at 3.27 eV before ZnS coating, while a composite band peaking at 2.9 eV is measured after sulphidation. The origin of the latter will be discussed

  15. Growth of ZnS-coated ZnO nanorod arrays on (1 0 0) silicon substrate by two-step chemical synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumarakuru, Haridas, E-mail: haridas.kumarakuru@nmmu.ac.za [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (CHRTEM), Department of Physics, P.O.Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Urgessa, Zelalem N. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Olivier, Ezra J. [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (CHRTEM), Department of Physics, P.O.Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Botha, Johannes R.; Venter, Andre [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Neethling, Johannes H. [Centre for High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (CHRTEM), Department of Physics, P.O.Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU), P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2014-11-05

    Highlights: • ZnS coated ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a simple two-step chemical method. • The uniform ZnS coating exhibits a polycrystalline face centered cubic structure. • Initial ZnS deposit exhibits a partial epitaxial relationship with ZnO. • An ion-exchange reaction was deduced for this sulphidation process. • Detailed microscopy results are complemented by room temperature photoluminescence. - Abstract: In this study, ZnS coated ZnO nanorods were synthesized using a simple, cost effective two-step chemical method. A continuous coating of ZnS on a ZnO nanorod, having a uniform thickness, is demonstrated using high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and selected area diffraction (SAD). These core–shell structures can be produced at relatively low temperatures (75 °C) and within relatively short times (3 h). The ZnS coating exhibits a polycrystalline structure with a lattice parameter of 5.35 Å, which is 1.1% smaller than the unstrained cubic zinc-blende structure. The SAD pattern taken at the ZnO–ZnS interface exhibits a partial epitaxial relationship, where (1 0 –1 0) ZnO//(1 1 1) ZnS. Our detailed analysis shows that the ZnS shell comprises two different regions: a ZnS rich inner shell region is produced via the first sulphidation process, followed by a mixture of ZnO and ZnS in the outer shell region during the second treatment. From the detailed microscopy results a growth mechanism is proposed for each step of the sulphidation process. The results are complemented by room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Strong emission from free excitons in ZnO is observed at 3.27 eV before ZnS coating, while a composite band peaking at 2.9 eV is measured after sulphidation. The origin of the latter will be discussed.

  16. Trioctylphosphine-assisted morphology control of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun-Kun; Cho, GeonHee; Park, YoonSu; Oh, Soong Ju; Ha, Don-Hyung

    2018-06-01

    This study investigates the morphological change in colloidal ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized with trioctylphosphine (TOP). The addition of TOP to the synthesis causes an evolution in the shape of ZnO NPs to tadpole-like particles from quasi-spherical particles at 300 °C. The total length of the tadpole-like ZnO NPs can be modified by controlling the molar ratio of TOP to oleylamine (OLAM). The tadpole-like particles are elongated as the concentration of TOP increased but decreased when the addition of TOP is excessive. These tadpole-like ZnO NPs transform to quasi-spherical NPs regardless of the amount of TOP at a reaction time of 3 h at 300 °C. At 200 °C, the effect of TOP on the ZnO NP synthesis differs from that at 300 °C. The ZnO NPs synthesized by controlling the molar ratios of surfactant ligands (TOP:OLAM = 2:100 and 70:100) at 200 °C share similar amorphous structures, while a crystalline ZnO phase is formed when the reaction time is 3 h. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis shows that TOP influences the oxidation of ZnO and suggests that a combination of OLAM and TOP plays a role in controlling the shape of ZnO NPs. These results provide critical insights to the utilization of TOP for a shape controlling ligand in ZnO NPs and suggest a new route to design oxide NPs.

  17. Ultrasonic-assisted fabrication of superhydrophobic ZnO nanowall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The results suggested that the synergistic effect of the aluminium oxide seed layer and sonochemical process can enable the formation of ZnO nanowall structures favourable for superhydrophobic property. A possible growth mechanism of ZnO nanowalls formation during sonication process has been discussed in detail.

  18. Hydrogen absorption in thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Meilkhova, O.; Čížek, J.; Lukáč,, F.; Vlček, M.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    ZnO films with thickness of ~80 nm were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO (1 0 0) single crystal and amorphous fused silica (FS) substrates. Structural studies of ZnO films and a high quality reference ZnO single crystal were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It was found that ZnO films exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the reference ZnO crystal. Moreover, the ZnO film deposited on MgO substrate exhibits higher concentration of defects...

  19. Surface potential driven dissolution phenomena of [0 0 0 1]-oriented ZnO nanorods grown from ZnO and Pt seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Youngmi; Kim, Jung Hyeun

    2011-06-01

    Highly oriented ZnO nanorods are synthesized hydrothermally on ZnO and Pt seed layers, and they are dissolved in KOH solution. The rods grown on ZnO seed layer show uniform dissolution, but those grown on Pt seed layer are rod-selectively dissolved. The ZnO nanorods from both seed layers show the same crystalline structure through XRD and Raman spectrometer data. However, the surface potential analysis reveals big difference for ZnO and Pt seed cases. The surface potential distribution is very uniform for the ZnO seed case, but it is much fluctuated on the Pt seed case. It suggests that the rod-selective dissolution phenomena on Pt seed case are likely due to the surface energy difference.

  20. xanthen-11-ones by ZnO Nanoparticles Catalyzed Three Co

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Highly effective zinc oxide nanoparticles catalyzed solvent-free synthesis of some tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthen-11-one derivatives ... efficient, green and simple method for the preparation of ... Characterization of ZnO NPs structure was continued by SEM ... catalysts may be related to higher surface area available for.

  1. Site specific interaction between ZnO nanoparticles and tyrosine: A density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satvinder; Singh, Janpreet; Singh, Baljinder; Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    First Principles Calculations have been performed on ZnO/Tyrosine atomic complex to study site specific interaction of Tyrosine and ZnO nanoparticles. Calculated results shows that -COOH group present in Tyrosine is energetically more favorable than -NH2 group. Interactions show ionic bonding between ZnO and Tyrosine. All the calculations have been performed under the Density Functional Theory (DFT) framework. Structural and electronic properties of (ZnO)3/Tyrosine complex have been studied. Gaussian basis set approach has been adopted for the calculations. A ring type most stable (ZnO)3 atomic cluster has been modeled, analyzed and used for the calculations.

  2. Structural and electrical properties of TiO2/ZnO core–shell nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlazan, P.; Ursu, D.H.; Irina-Moisescu, C.; Miron, I.; Sfirloaga, P.; Rusu, E.

    2015-01-01

    TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in two stages: first stage is the hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and second stage the obtained ZnO nanoparticles are encapsulated in TiO 2 . The obtained ZnO, TiO 2 and TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer, Emmett, Teller and resistance measurements. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of both, TiO 2 and ZnO phases in TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles. According to transmission electron microscopy images, ZnO nanoparticles have hexagonal shapes, TiO 2 nanoparticles have a spherical shape, and TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles present agglomerates and the shape of particles is not well defined. The activation energy of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about 101 meV. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated by means of XRD, TEM and BET. • Electrical properties of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles were investigated. • The activation energy of TiO 2 /ZnO core–shell nanoparticles was about E a = 101 meV

  3. Effect of ion beam irradiation on the structure of ZnO films deposited by a dc arc plasmatron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkov, Oleksiy V; Lee, Heon-Ju; Plaksin, Vadim Yu; Ko, Min Gook; Joa, Sang Beom; Yim, Chan Joo

    2008-02-01

    The deposition of polycrystalline ZnO film on a cold substrate was performed by using a plasmatron in rough vacuum condition. Low energy oxygen ion beam generated by a cold cathode ion source was introduced during the deposition process. The change of film property on the ion beam energy was checked. It is shown that irradiation by 200 eV ions improves crystalline structure of the film. Increasing of ion beam energy up to 400 eV leads to the degradation of a crystalline structure and decreases the deposition rate.

  4. Preparation of Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays on Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films by Sonicated Sol-Gel Immersion Fabricated for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Saurdi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aligned ZnO Nanorod arrays are deposited on the Sn-doped ZnO thin film via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Sn-doped ZnO thin films were investigated. Results show that the Sn-doped ZnO thin films with small grain size (~20 nm, high average transmittance (96% in visible region, and good resistivity 7.7 × 102 Ω·cm are obtained for 2 at.% Sn doping concentration. The aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with large surface area were also obtained for 2 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin film. They were grown on sol-gel derived Sn-doped ZnO thin film, which acts as a seed layer, via sonicated sol-gel immersion method. The grown aligned ZnO nanorod arrays show high transmittance at visible region. The fabricated dye-sensitised solar cell based on the 2.0 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin film with aligned ZnO nanorod arrays exhibits improved current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and conversion efficiency compared with the undoped ZnO and 1 at.% Sn-doped ZnO thin films.

  5. In vitro antibacterial activity of ZnO and Nd doped ZnO nanoparticles against ESBL producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed Haja; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Ahamed, Abdulazees Parveez; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Ravi, Ganasan

    2016-04-01

    Pure ZnO and Neodymium (Nd) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The synthesized nanoparticles retained the wurtzite hexagonal structure. From FESEM studies, ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs showed nanorod and nanoflower like morphology respectively. The FT-IR spectra confirmed the Zn-O stretching bands at 422 and 451 cm-1 for ZnO and Nd doped ZnO NPs respectively. From the UV-VIS spectroscopic measurement, the excitonic peaks were found around 373 nm and 380 nm for the respective samples. The photoluminescence measurements revealed that the broad emission was composed of ten different bands due to zinc vacancies, oxygen vacancies and surface defects. The antibacterial studies performed against extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed that the Nd doped ZnO NPs possessed a greater antibacterial effect than the pure ZnO NPs. From confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) analysis, the apoptotic nature of the cells was confirmed by the cell shrinkage, disorganization of cell wall and cell membrane and dead cell of the bacteria. SEM analysis revealed the existence of bacterial loss of viability due to an impairment of cell membrane integrity, which was highly consistent with the damage of cell walls.

  6. Structural and Morphological Properties of Nanostructured ZnO Particles Grown by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method with Horizontal Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Flores-Carrasco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized in a horizontal furnace at 500°C using different zinc nitrate hexahydrate concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 M as reactive solution by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method. The physical-chemical properties of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles have been characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. With the TGA is has optimized the temperature at which the initial reactive (Zn(NO32·6H2O, is decomposed completely to give way to its corresponding oxide, ZnO. SEM revealed secondary particles with a quasispherical shape that do not change significantly with the increasing of precursor solution concentration as well as some content of the broken spheres. Increasing the precursor solution concentration leads to the increase in the average size of ZnO secondary particles from 248±73 to 470±160 nm; XRD reveals the similar tendency for the crystallite size which changes from 23±4 to 45±4 nm. HRTEM implies that the secondary particles are with hierarchical structure composed of primary nanosized subunits. These results showed that the precursor concentration plays an important role in the evolution on the size, stoichiometry, and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles.

  7. Photoluminescence properties of Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lommens, P.; Smet, P.F.; De Mello Donega, C.

    2006-01-01

    We performed photoluminescence experiments on colloidal, Co -doped ZnO nanocrystals in order to study the electronic properties of Co in a ZnO host. Room temperature measurements showed, next to the ZnO exciton and trap emission, an additional emission related to the Co dopant. The spectral...... position and width of this emission does not depend on particle size or Co concentration. At 8 K, a series of ZnO bulk phonon replicas appear on the Co-emission band. We conclude that Co ions are strongly localized in the ZnO host, making the formation of a Co d-band unlikely. Magnetic measurements...

  8. Probing magnetism and electronic structure of Fe-doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Amiri, A.; Moubah, R.; Lmai, F.; Abid, M.; Hassanain, N.; Hlil, E.K.; Lassri, H.

    2016-01-01

    Ab-initio calculations using Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation were performed in order to study the magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO thin films with different Fe contents. The extracted parameters are compared with those determined experimentally. Based on total and partial densities of state curves, we demonstrate that there is a competition between p–d exchange and superexchange mechanisms leading to weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic contributions, respectively. The dominant mechanism is found to be antiferromagnetic. However, with increasing Fe content the ferromagnetic contribution increases. In addition, the effect of structural defects on the magnetism of the system is reported. It is shown that both Zn and O vacancies increase ferromagnetism, which is more pronounced in case of Zn. - Highlights: • The KKR–CPA approach was used to study the magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO thin films. • There is a competition between p–d exchange and superexchange mechanisms leading to weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic contributions. • Zn vacancies are more significant than the O ones for obtaining ferromagnetism.

  9. Probing magnetism and electronic structure of Fe-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Amiri, A., E-mail: aelamiri@casablanca.ma [LPFA, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, BP 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Moubah, R., E-mail: reda.moubah@hotmail.fr [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, BP 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Lmai, F. [LPTA, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, BP 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Abid, M. [LPFA, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, BP 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco); Hassanain, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences, BP 1014 Rabat (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Lassri, H. [LPMMAT, Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, BP 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2016-01-15

    Ab-initio calculations using Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker method combined with the coherent potential approximation were performed in order to study the magnetic properties of Fe-doped ZnO thin films with different Fe contents. The extracted parameters are compared with those determined experimentally. Based on total and partial densities of state curves, we demonstrate that there is a competition between p–d exchange and superexchange mechanisms leading to weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic contributions, respectively. The dominant mechanism is found to be antiferromagnetic. However, with increasing Fe content the ferromagnetic contribution increases. In addition, the effect of structural defects on the magnetism of the system is reported. It is shown that both Zn and O vacancies increase ferromagnetism, which is more pronounced in case of Zn. - Highlights: • The KKR–CPA approach was used to study the magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO thin films. • There is a competition between p–d exchange and superexchange mechanisms leading to weak ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic contributions. • Zn vacancies are more significant than the O ones for obtaining ferromagnetism.

  10. Morphology engineering of ZnO nanostructures for high performance supercapacitors: enhanced electrochemistry of ZnO nanocones compared to ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoli; Yoo, Joung Eun; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures is engineered to demonstrate enhanced supercapacitor characteristics of ZnO nanocones (NCs) compared to ZnO nanowires (NWs). ZnO NCs are obtained by chemically etching ZnO NWs. Electrochemical characteristics of ZnO NCs and NWs are extensively investigated to demonstrate morphology dependent capacitive performance of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these two kinds of electrodes in a three-electrode cell confirms that ZnO NCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 378.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, which is almost twice that of ZnO NWs (191.5 F g-1). The charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements also clearly result in enhanced capacitive performance of NCs as evidenced by higher specific capacitances and lower internal resistance. Asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated using activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and ZnO NWs and NCs as positive electrodes. The ZnO NC⫽AC can deliver a maximum specific capacitance of 126 F g-1 at a current density of 1.33 A g-1 with an energy density of 25.2 W h kg-1 at the power density of 896.44 W kg-1. In contrast, ZnO NW⫽AC displays 63% of the capacitance obtained from the ZnO NC⫽AC supercapacitor. The enhanced performance of NCs is attributed to the higher surface area of ZnO nanostructures after the morphology is altered from NWs to NCs.

  11. Visible-light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene-violet by rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO ternary nanohybrid structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangavel, Srinivas [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Center of Excellence in Advanced Materials and Green Technologies, Department of Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore 641 112, Tamil Nadu (India); Thangavel, Sakthivel [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Raghavan, Nivea [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 690-756 (Korea, Republic of); Venugopal, Gunasekaran, E-mail: gunasekaran@karunya.edu [Nanomaterials Research Lab ( NmRL ), Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641 114, Tamil Nadu (India); Solid State Electronics Lab, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-04-25

    A novel ternary nanohybrid structure was constructed with reduced graphene-oxide/iron-oxide/zinc-oxide (rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO) via a facile hydrothermal method. The structural, morphological and optical properties were explored using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectra and photoluminescence (PL) studies. The functional groups of ternary nanohybrid were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. SEM images confirm the presence of two-dimensional GO sheets, one dimensional Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and ZnO nanorods. The PL spectra showed the quenching effect which has been observed from the reduction of electron–hole recombination in hybrid. Degradation efficiency of this system was evaluated and compared with pure ZnO and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO. Under visible light condition, the ternary nanohybrid has shown an excellent photocatalytic degradation of methylene-violet dye. The degradation efficiency of rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO was systematically analyzed by absorption spectra and total organic carbon removal techniques. Our experimental results will show the potential way for the development of futuristic rGO based nanohybrids as an effective photocatalytic materials for waste-water treatment and environmental remedial applications. - Graphical abstract: A new ternary nanohybrid has been constructed with 1D Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–ZnO and 2D rGO sheets to utilize as visible-light photocatalyst. Highly active photocatalyst has been prepared by a feasible hydrothermal approach. For the first time, rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO ternary nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of methylene-violet (dye) and the same can be used for environmental remediation applications. - Highlights: • Ternary nanohybrid constructed with 1D ZnO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and 2D rGO. • Aggregation free rGO/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/ZnO nanohybrid exhibits superior photocatalytic activity. • rGO boost up

  12. Influence of Mn and Co on structural and morphological characteristics of ZnO synthesized by combustion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, R.A.; Costa, C.F.M.; Kiminami, R.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of doping of 0.2 mol of Mn and Co on structural and morphological characteristics of ZnO synthesized by combustion reaction. During the synthesis was the measurement of temperature and time of the combustion flame. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, particle size distribution and nitrogen adsorption (BET). The maximum temperature the reactions were 428 deg C and 436 deg C, reaction time, and 115 and 0 seconds for the samples doped with Mn and Co, respectively. The XRD data showed that for both impurities were formed only ZnO phase. For Co were formed secondary phase CoO. The crystallite size and surface area were 18 nm and 22 nm, and 52 and 38 m2/g for ZnO doped with Mn and Co, respectively. (author)

  13. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Benedetto, Angelo F.; Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2011-09-01

    TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO2 and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO2 pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions 25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO2 and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  14. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Benedetto, Angelo F.; Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2011-01-01

    TiO 2 and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO 2 and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO 2 pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions ∼25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO 2 and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  15. Explanation of ferromagnetism origin in C-doped ZnO by first principle calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Amiri, A.; Lassri, H.; Hlil, E.K.; Abid, M.

    2015-01-01

    By ab-initio calculations, we systematically study possible source of ferromagnetism C-doped ZnO compound. The electronic structure and magnetic properties of C-doped ZnO with / without ZnO host and C defects were investigated using the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker (KKR) method combined with coherent potential approximation (CPA). We show that Zn vacancy and presence of C defects (substitutional, interstitial or combination of both) induce the ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO. From density of state (DOS) analysis, we show that p–p interaction between C atoms and/or C and O atoms is the mechanism of ferromagnetic coupling in C-doped ZnO. - Highlights: • We study the effect of ZnO host and C defects on ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO. • Details of KKR method calculations performed to investigate both magnetic and electronic structures. • Magnetic moments, total and partial DOS for C-doped ZnO are well calculated and discussed. • Based on DOS calculations we interpret a origin of ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO. • Mechanism of ferromagnetic coupling is well proposed

  16. Explanation of ferromagnetism origin in C-doped ZnO by first principle calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Amiri, A., E-mail: aelamiri@casablanca.ma [Laboratoire de Physique Fondamentale et Appliquée (LPFA), Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca, Maroc (Morocco); Lassri, H. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux, Micro-électronique, Automatique et Thermique (LPMMAT). Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca, Maroc (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble (France); Abid, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Fondamentale et Appliquée (LPFA), Faculté des Sciences Ain Chock, Université Hassan II, B.P. 5366 Mâarif, Casablanca, Maroc (Morocco)

    2015-01-15

    By ab-initio calculations, we systematically study possible source of ferromagnetism C-doped ZnO compound. The electronic structure and magnetic properties of C-doped ZnO with / without ZnO host and C defects were investigated using the Korringa–Kohn–Rostoker (KKR) method combined with coherent potential approximation (CPA). We show that Zn vacancy and presence of C defects (substitutional, interstitial or combination of both) induce the ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO. From density of state (DOS) analysis, we show that p–p interaction between C atoms and/or C and O atoms is the mechanism of ferromagnetic coupling in C-doped ZnO. - Highlights: • We study the effect of ZnO host and C defects on ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO. • Details of KKR method calculations performed to investigate both magnetic and electronic structures. • Magnetic moments, total and partial DOS for C-doped ZnO are well calculated and discussed. • Based on DOS calculations we interpret a origin of ferromagnetism in C-doped ZnO. • Mechanism of ferromagnetic coupling is well proposed.

  17. Recent progress on doped ZnO nanostructures for visible-light photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samadi, Morasae; Zirak, Mohammad; Naseri, Amene; Khorashadizade, Elham; Moshfegh, Alireza Z.

    2016-01-01

    Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. - Highlights: • Metals and nonmetals used as a dopant to shift ZnO band gap toward visible-light. • Modification of electronic structure played a crucial role in doped ZnO activity. • Correlation between dopant's characteristics and ZnO visible activity was reviewed. • Photo-degradation of doped ZnO was studied and compared for different dopants.

  18. Recent progress on doped ZnO nanostructures for visible-light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Morasae; Zirak, Mohammad [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naseri, Amene [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorashadizade, Elham [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moshfegh, Alireza Z., E-mail: moshfegh@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11555-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-8639, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-30

    Global environmental pollution and energy supply demand have been regarded as important concerns in recent years. Metal oxide semiconductor photocatalysts is a promising approach to apply environmental remediation as well as fuel generation from water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. ZnO nanostructures have been shown promising photocatalytic activities due to their non-toxic, inexpensive, and highly efficient nature. However, its wide band gap hinders photo-excitation for practical photocatalytic applications under solar light as an abundant, clean and safe energy source. To overcome this barrier, many strategies have been developed in the last decade to apply ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. In this review, we have classified different approaches to activate ZnO as a photocatalyst in visible-light spectrum. Utilization of various nonmetals, transition metals and rare-earth metals for doping in ZnO crystal lattice to create visible-light-responsive doped ZnO photocatalysts is discussed. Generation of localized energy levels within the gap in doped ZnO nanostructures has played an important role in effective photocatalytic reaction under visible-light irradiation. The effect of dopant type, ionic size and its concentration on the crystal structure, electronic property and morphology of doped ZnO with a narrower band gap is reviewed systematically. Finally, a comparative study is performed to evaluate two classes of metals and nonmetals as useful dopants for ZnO nanostructured photocatalysts under visible light. - Highlights: • Metals and nonmetals used as a dopant to shift ZnO band gap toward visible-light. • Modification of electronic structure played a crucial role in doped ZnO activity. • Correlation between dopant's characteristics and ZnO visible activity was reviewed. • Photo-degradation of doped ZnO was studied and compared for different dopants.

  19. Study of a sol–gel precursor and its evolution towards ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Núñez, Alberto [University of Barcelona, Department of Electronics, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); López, Concepción [University of Barcelona, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Alonso-Gil, Santiago [University of Barcelona, Department of Organic Chemistry, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Roura, Pere [University of Girona, Department of Physics, Campus Montilivi, Edif. PII, E17071 Girona (Spain); Vilà, Anna, E-mail: anna.vila@ub.edu [University of Barcelona, Department of Electronics, Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    The processes involved in the assembly of zinc acetate dihydrate {Zn(CH_3COO)_2·2H_2O} and ethanolamine (H{sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH), with or without 2-methoxyethanol as solvent, have been analysed by infrared spectra, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, powder X-ray diffraction and computational studies. Thermal evolution of the mixtures was characterized by thermoanalytical and structural techniques (thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Computational studies together with experiments served to thoroughly describe the precursor and its decomposition. The thermal decomposition of the mixture and its transformation into crystalline ZnO take place in a temperature range between 50 and 450 °C through different processes. With solvent, the processes need temperatures 90 °C higher with respect to the mixture without solvent, and ZnO arises at 250 °C. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Tetramer structure of the zinc-acetate plus ethanolamine precursor confirmed by IR, MS and theoretical calculations. • Precursor crystal structure determined to be of the monoclinic P2{sub 1}/m system. • High influence of the metoxyethanol solvent on the formation temperature of ZnO. • Detailed description of the thermal evolution from the zinc-based precursor to ZnO.

  20. Photoelectrocatalytic activity of a hydrothermally grown branched Zno nanorod-array electrode for paracetamol degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin Jung; Liao, Shu-Jun; Kao, Li-Cheng; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2015-06-30

    Hierarchical branched ZnO nanorod (B-ZnR) arrays as an electrode for efficient photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol were grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using a solution route. The morphologic and structural studies show the ZnO trunks are single-crystalline hexagonal wurtzite ZnO with a [0001] growth direction and are densely covered by c-axis-oriented ZnO branches. The obvious enhancement in photocurrent response of the B-ZnR electrode was obtained than that in the ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO NP) electrode. For the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of paracetamol in 20 h, the conversion fraction of the drug increased from 32% over ZnO NP electrode to 62% over B-ZnR arrays with about 3-fold increase in initial reaction rate. The light intensity-dependent photoelectrocatalytic experiment indicated that the superior performance over the B-ZnR electrode was mainly ascribed to the increased specific surface area without significantly sacrificing the charge transport and pollutant diffusion efficiencies. Two aromatic intermediate compounds were observed and eventually converted into harmless carboxylic acids and ammonia. Hierarchical tree-like ZnO arrays can be considered effective alternatives to improve photoelectro degradation rates without the need for expensive additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural, optical, photoluminescence and photocatalytic assessment of Sr-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeev Raj, K.; Sadaiyandi, K.; Kennedy, A.; Thamizselvi, R.

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and Strontium doped ZnO nanoparticles (2–6 mol %) (SZ-NPs) were synthesized via Co-precipitation method. Synthesized samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Elemental dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), UV–visible, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Photocatalytic studies for Rhodamine B (RhB) dye in aqueous solution under UV–Vis radiation. XRD analysis confirms that all the samples have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The average crystallite size of the nanoparticles was in the range of 29–51 nm. From the Williamson –Hall (W-H) plot, a positive slope is inferred for pure and SZ-NPs, confirming the presence of tensile strain. SEM images reveal the synthesized NPs are in nanometer range with various shapes are observed. The presence of strontium (Sr) in the host lattice was confirmed by EDS spectroscopy. The optical analysis shows the absorption decreases on doping and shifts slightly towards the longer wavelength region. The band gap energy (Eg) decreases (3.32–3.03 eV) with the increase of Sr dopant concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum reveals the UV emission is strong near the band-edge region (NBE) (392 nm) and intrinsic defects resulted in series of Vis emissions around 400–560 nm. Kinetic studies on RhB dye indicates the degradation rate has increased with dopant concentration. The improved photocatalytic activity is observed due to the efficient charge separation, improved visible light absorption, inhibition of the electron-hole pair's recombination and better adsorptive of RhB dye molecule on the surface of SZ-NPs. Moreover, the reduction in the total organic carbon (TOC) results reveals the improved photocatalytic activity of strontium doped ZnO NPs. - Highlights: • Effective synthesis of ZnO and Sr−ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. • Samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, UV–Vis and PL technique. • Higher optical absorption and

  2. Structural, optical, photoluminescence and photocatalytic assessment of Sr-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeev Raj, K., E-mail: pradeevraj@gmail.com [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641 046, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Physics, CSI College of Engineering, Ooty, The Nilgiris, 643 215, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadaiyandi, K. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi, Sivagangai, 630 003, Tamil Nadu (India); Kennedy, A. [Department of Physics, CSI College of Engineering, Ooty, The Nilgiris, 643 215, Tamil Nadu (India); Thamizselvi, R. [Department of Chemistry, L.R.G. Govt Arts College for Women, Tirupur, 641604, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-11-01

    ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and Strontium doped ZnO nanoparticles (2–6 mol %) (SZ-NPs) were synthesized via Co-precipitation method. Synthesized samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Elemental dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), UV–visible, and Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Photocatalytic studies for Rhodamine B (RhB) dye in aqueous solution under UV–Vis radiation. XRD analysis confirms that all the samples have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The average crystallite size of the nanoparticles was in the range of 29–51 nm. From the Williamson –Hall (W-H) plot, a positive slope is inferred for pure and SZ-NPs, confirming the presence of tensile strain. SEM images reveal the synthesized NPs are in nanometer range with various shapes are observed. The presence of strontium (Sr) in the host lattice was confirmed by EDS spectroscopy. The optical analysis shows the absorption decreases on doping and shifts slightly towards the longer wavelength region. The band gap energy (Eg) decreases (3.32–3.03 eV) with the increase of Sr dopant concentration. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum reveals the UV emission is strong near the band-edge region (NBE) (392 nm) and intrinsic defects resulted in series of Vis emissions around 400–560 nm. Kinetic studies on RhB dye indicates the degradation rate has increased with dopant concentration. The improved photocatalytic activity is observed due to the efficient charge separation, improved visible light absorption, inhibition of the electron-hole pair's recombination and better adsorptive of RhB dye molecule on the surface of SZ-NPs. Moreover, the reduction in the total organic carbon (TOC) results reveals the improved photocatalytic activity of strontium doped ZnO NPs. - Highlights: • Effective synthesis of ZnO and Sr−ZnO nanoparticles by co-precipitation method. • Samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, UV–Vis and PL technique. • Higher optical absorption

  3. A detailed study on Sn4+ doped ZnO for enhanced photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beura, Rosalin; Pachaiappan, R.; Thangadurai, P.

    2018-03-01

    The samples of Sn4+ doped (1, 5, 10, 15, 20 & 30%) ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a low temperature hydrothermal method. Structural analysis by XRD and Raman spectroscopy showed the hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and the formation of a secondary phase Zn2SnO4 beyond 10% doping of Sn4+. Microstructural analysis by TEM also confirmed the wurtzite ZnO with rod as well as particle like structure. Presence of various functional groups (sbnd OH, sbnd CH, Znsbnd O) were confirmed by FTIR. Optical properties were studied by UV-vis absorption, photoluminescence emission spectroscopies and lifetime measurement. Band gap of the undoped and Sn4+ doped ZnO were analyzed by Tauc plot and it was observed that the band gap of the materials had slightly decreased from 3.2 to 3.16 eV and again increased to 3.23 eV with respect to the increase in the doping concentration from 1 to 30%. A significant change was also noticed in the photoluminescence emission properties of ZnO i.e. increase in the intensity of NBE emission and decrease in DLE, on subject to Sn4+ doping. Average PL lifetime had increased from 29.45 ns for ZnO to 30.62 ns upon 1% Sn ion doping in ZnO. Electrical properties studied by solid state impedance spectroscopy showed that the conductivity had increased by one order of magnitude (from 7.48×10-8 to 2.21×10-7 S/cm) on Sn4+ doping. Photocatalytic experiments were performed on methyl orange (MO) as a model industrial dye under UV light irradiation for different irradiation times. The optimum Sn4+ content in order to achieve highest photocatalytic activity was found to be 1% Sn 4+ doping. The enhancement was achieved due to a decrease in the band gap favoring the generation of electron-hole pairs and the enhanced PL life time that delays the recombination of these charge carrier formation. The third reason was that the increased electrical conductivity that indicated the faster charge transfer in this material to enhance the photocatalytic activity. The Sn

  4. Magnetic properties of sol-gel synthesized C-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, Nguyen Duc, E-mail: dung.nguyenduc@hust.edu.vn [Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Son, Cao Thai; Loc, Pham Vu; Cuong, Nguyen Huu; Kien, Pham The; Huy, Pham Thanh [Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ha, Ngo Ngoc [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-05-25

    ZnO doping with Carbon (C-doped ZnO) materials were prepared by sol-gel technique following with a heat treatment process. Single phase of Wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO was concluded via x-ray diffraction (XRD) with a large amount of excess C tracking by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Two types of ZnO crystals (twinning particles) with different grain sizes and shapes were identified via scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The first type has a smaller grain size of about 20 nm and hexagonal shape. And the second type has a larger grain size of about 80–120 nm and round shape. C substitutions of both Zn and O sites to form C–O and C–Zn bonds were conclusively confirmed via x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). Experimental evidences for the co-existence of different ferromagnetic phases in the materials are reported and discussed. Two Curie points at high temperatures (>500 °C) are presented. A metamagnetic transition was observed at magnetic field H = 19.2 kOe which was related to the co-existence of ferromagnetic phases. These involve in the formation of twinning C-doped ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Formation of sol-gel prepared single phase wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles. • Two morphological C-doped ZnO nanoparticles of different grain sizes. • The room temperature ferromagnetism. • An abnormal metamagnetic transition at magnetic field H = 19.2 kOe. • Two different Curie points (T{sub C}) at 500–600 °C.

  5. Glancing angle deposited Al-doped ZnO nanostructures with different structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, A., E-mail: yildizab@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Cansizoglu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Turkoz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Electrical-Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Karabuk, Karabuk (Turkey); Abdulrahman, R.; Al-Hilo, Alaa; Cansizoglu, M.F.; Demirkan, T.M.; Karabacak, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructure arrays with different shapes (tilted rods, vertical rods, spirals, and zigzags) were fabricated by utilizing glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique in a DC sputter growth unit at room temperature. During GLAD, all the samples were tilted at an oblique angle of about 90° with respect to incoming flux direction. In order to vary the shapes of nanostructures, each sample was rotated at different speeds around the substrate normal axis. Rotation speed did not only affect the shape but also changed the microstructural and optical properties of GLAD AZO nanostructures. The experimental results reveal that GLAD AZO nanostructures of different shapes each have unique morphological, crystal structure, mechanical, and optical properties determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission, and reflectance measurements. Vertical nanorods display the largest grain size, minimum strain, lowest defect density, and highest optical transmittance compared to the other shapes. Growth dynamics of GLAD has been discussed to explain the dependence of structural and optical properties of nanostructures on the substrate rotation speed. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures with different shapes were fabricated. • They have unique morphological, crystal structure, and optical properties. • Vertical AZO nanorods show an enhanced optical transmittance.

  6. Enormous enhancement of ZnO nanorod photoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.H.; Duan, W.J.; Wu, Z.L.; Zheng, D.; Zhou, X.W.; Zhou, B.Y.; Dai, L.J.; Wang, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on quartz slices in the aqueous solution of zinc acetate and hexamethylenetetramine at 90 °C. Then ZnO:Mg shells were epitaxially grown on the nanorods to form core/shell structures in the aqueous solution of zinc acetate, magnesium acetate and hexamethylenetetramine at the same temperature. Effects of the shells and UV laser beam irradiation on the crystal structure and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods were studied. ZnO:Mg shells suppress the green emission and enhance the UV emission intensity of the nanorods by 38 times. Enhancement of the UV emission depends on the Mg content in the shells. Short time UV laser beam irradiation could improve ZnO nanorod emission efficiently. The UV emission intensity of ZnO nanorods is enhanced by 71 times by capping and subsequent UV laser beam irradiation. - Highlights: ► ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on quartz slices in solution at 90 °C. ► The nanorods were capped by ZnO:Mg layers to form core/shell structures. ► ZnO:MgO shells suppress the green emission and enhance the UV emission intensity by 38 times. ► The enhancement depends on the Mg content in the shells. ► Exposing the nanorods to 325 laser beam improves the UV emission efficiently. ► Capping and 325 nm laser beam irradiation could enhance the nanorod UV emission intensity by 71 times.

  7. Effect of temperature on structural, optical and photoluminescence studies on ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the standard co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, K. Pradeev [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Physics, CSI College of Engineering, Ooty 643215, Tamil Nadu (India); Sadayandi, K. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Government Arts College, Karaikudi, Sivagangai 630003, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-04-15

    This present study brings the synthesis of Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) by the standard aqueous chemical route technique. The impact of calcination temperature on the extent of the ZnO nanoparticles is studied for its lattice constraints. X-ray diffraction (XRD) affirms the hexagonal Wurtzite structure of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles. From the Williamson–Hall (W–H) plot, positive slope is inferred for pure and calcined ZnO NPs and confirms the presence of tensile strain. From the SEM images it is found that the crystallinity enhances with calcination temperature. From the optical studies, it is found that the band gap energy decreases with improved transmission. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum reveals the UV emission is strong near the band-edge. The emission peaks around 400–480 nm result in blue emission and the peaks around 540–560 nm result in green emission. Decrease in band gap energy and enhancement in PL studies reveal the red shift of the calcined ZnO exhibiting solid quantum confinements.

  8. Effects of Ag loading on structural and photocatalytic properties of flower-like ZnO microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaodong, E-mail: fatzhxd@126.com [Environment and Low-Carbon Research Center, School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Wang, Yuxin, E-mail: wyx790914@aliyun.com [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, Taizhou Vocation & Technical College, Taizhou Zhejiang 318000 (China); Hou, Fulin; Li, Hongxin; Yang, Yang [Environment and Low-Carbon Research Center, School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Zhang, Xinxin [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, Taizhou Vocation & Technical College, Taizhou Zhejiang 318000 (China); Yang, Yiqiong; Wang, Yin [Environment and Low-Carbon Research Center, School of Environment and Architecture, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique flower-like Ag/ZnO spheres were synthesized by simple hydrothermal method. • Depositing with moderate Ag improved visible light response and activity. • Photoexcited electrons transfer from Ag to ZnO due to surface plasmon resonance. • Ag/ZnO was stable even after recycling many times. - Abstract: Flower-like Ag/ZnO samples were successfully fabricated via a simple and cost efficient method without surfactants. The morphologies, structural and optical properties of Ag/ZnO samples with various Ag content were investigated. The samples were systematically characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherm, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). It was found that ZnO was wurtzite phase and metallic Ag particles were wrapped by ZnO nanosheets. Compared with pure metallic Ag, the binding energy of Ag 3d for the Ag/ZnO samples distinctly shifted to the lower binding energy, which was attributed to the interaction between ZnO and Ag. With the increase of Ag content, surface plasmon absorption band of Ag/ZnO samples was obviously widened; meanwhile, PL intensity was decreased. The photocatalytic performance of Ag/ZnO samples were carried out by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under visible light irradiation. The deposition of a certain amount of Ag was beneficial to the improvement of photocatalytic activity. The degradation rate of the Ag/ZnO sample with Ag/Zn ratio 1/20 was greater than fourfold times faster than that of ZnO. It was suggested that photoexcited electrons transferred from Ag to ZnO due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR), which could effectively reduce the recombination of electron–hole pairs and prolong lifetime of the electron–holes pairs, promoting the degradation efficiency. The deposition of a large amount of Ag

  9. Implanted ZnO thin films: Microstructure, electrical and electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.; Metson, J.; Evans, P.J.; Kinsey, R.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetron sputtered polycrystalline ZnO thin films were implanted using Al, Ag, Sn, Sb and codoped with TiN in order to improve the conductivity and to attempt to achieve p-type behaviour. Structural and electrical properties of the implanted ZnO thin films were examined with X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conductivity measurements. Depth profiles of the implanted elements varied with the implant species. Implantation causes a partial amorphisation of the crystalline structure and decreases the effective grain size of the films. One of the findings is the improvement, as a consequence of implantation, in the conductivity of initially poorly conductive samples. Heavy doping may help for the conversion of conduction type of ZnO thin films. Annealing in vacuum mitigated structural damage and stress caused by implantation, and improved the conductivity of the implanted ZnO thin films

  10. Cytotoxicity evaluation of ZnO-eugenol (ZOE) using different ZnO structure on human gingival fibroblast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Mahmud, Shahrom; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Ann, Ling Chuo; Sirelkhatim, Amna

    2017-07-01

    Application of ZnO is widely used in many industries, such as in optoelectronic devices, automotive, textile, cosmetics, medical and dentistry. In this study, emphasis was given on ZnO-eugenol (ZOE) that has been used in dental restoration. ZOE contained 80% ZnO and 20% eugenol. ZOE exhibited selective toxicity that could kill bacteria but safe on human cells. The safety of ZOE on humans is critically important. Two types of ZnO with different morphology, namely ZnO-A and ZnO-K were used to make ZOE (ZOE-A and ZOE-K) and the cytotoxicity level on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cell line were evaluated. Both ZnO were characterized for its morphology and structural using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD), respectively. The cytotoxicity level was evaluated using CCK-8 assay where the percentage of viable cells after 72 h were observed. The result showed ZnO-A, containing mostly rod-like shape with a crystallite size of 37.5 nm, had a higher percentage of viable cells after 72 h. Sample ZnO-K, containing irregular shape morphology with bigger crystallite size of 42.2 nm, had a lower percentage of viable cells after 72 h. The HGF cell line was treated with extract dilution of ZOE-A and ZOE-K at 5, 10 and 15%, respectively. At 15% of extracts dilution, 97.3% of the HGF cells survived (for ZOE-A) while the survival percentage of ZOE-K was only 88.1%. This fact was probably due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio of ZnO-A that gave better interlocking bond in ZOE-A. This interlocking bond can prevent the ZnO and eugenol elements leaching out from the ZOE matrix thereby decrease in cytotoxicity effects on HGF.

  11. Direct Precipitation and Characterization of ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Moharram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles are prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of zinc acetate dihydrate by potassium hydroxide in alcoholic medium at low temperatures. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA of the precursor is made in order to specify the temperature range over which the weight loss and thermal effect are significant. X-ray diffraction of the as-prepared specimens shows that the hexagonal (a=3.2459 Å, c=5.1999 Å structure is the predominant crystallographic structure. According to Scherer’s formula, the average size of the nanoparticles is 22.4 ± 0.6 nm. The structural properties of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles have been confirmed using the TEM micrographs. The optical energy gap of the ZnO nanoparticles, as obtained from applying Tauc’s equation, is equal to 3.52 eV, which is higher than that of the bulk material. Absorption peak of the as-prepared sample is 298 nm which is highly blue shifted as compared to the bulk (360 nm. Large optical energy gap and highly blue shifted absorption edge confirm that the prepared ZnO nanoparticle exhibits strong quantum confinement effect.

  12. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods on porous silicon substrates: Effect of growth time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shabannia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vertically aligned ZnO nanorods were successfully grown on porous silicon (PS substrates by chemical bath deposition at a low temperature. X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL analyses were carried out to investigate the effect of growth duration (2 h to 8 h on the optical and structural properties of the aligned ZnO nanorods. Strong and sharp ZnO (0 0 2 peaks of the ZnO nanorods proved that the aligned ZnO nanorods were preferentially fabricated along the c-axis of the hexagonal wurtzite structure. FESEM images demonstrated that the ZnO nanorod arrays were well aligned along the c-axis and perpendicular to the PS substrates regardless of the growth duration. The TEM image showed that the top surfaces of the ZnO nanorods were round with a smooth curvature. PL spectra demonstrated that the ZnO nanorods grown for 5 h exhibited the sharpest and most intense PL peaks within the ultraviolet range among all samples.

  13. Defect mediated magnetic interaction and high Tc ferromagnetism in Co doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Bappaditya; Giri, P K

    2011-10-01

    Structural, optical and magnetic studies have been carried out for the Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). ZnO NPs are doped with 3% and 5% Co using ball milling and ferromagnetism (FM) is studied at room temperature and above. A high Curie temperature (Tc) has been observed from the Co doped ZnO NPs. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis confirm the absence of metallic Co clusters or any other phase different from würtzite-type ZnO. UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence studies on the doped samples show change in band structure and oxygen vacancy defects, respectively. Micro-Raman studies of doped samples shows defect related additional strong bands at 547 and 574 cm(-1) confirming the presence of oxygen vacancy defects in ZnO lattice. The field dependence of magnetization (M-H curve) measured at room temperature exhibits the clear M-H loop with saturation magnetization and coercive field of the order of 4-6 emu/g and 260 G, respectively. Temperature dependence of magnetization measurement shows sharp ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition with a high Tc = 791 K for 3% Co doped ZnO NPs. Ferromagnetic ordering is interpreted in terms of overlapping of polarons mediated through oxygen vacancy defects based on the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) model. We show that the observed FM data fits well with the BMP model involving localised carriers and magnetic cations.

  14. Effect of solvent medium on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungula, J., E-mail: ungulaj@qwa.ufs.ac.za; Dejene, B.F.

    2016-01-01

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized using a sol–gel method. The effect of solvent medium on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy ( EDS). The XRD patterns showed single phase hexagonal structure. The crystallite size of as prepared ZnO nanoparticles was found to decrease from 28.1 nm to 10.8 nm with the increase in volume ratio of ethanol in the solvent as peak intensities and sharpness increase with corresponding increase in volume ratio of water. SEM micrographs showed that samples prepared in water medium are fairly spherical which turned to tiny rods with increasing volume ratios of ethanol. A sharp ultraviolet (UV) emission peak centred about 385 nm and a broad green–yellow emission at about 550 nm are observed with PL measurements. The band gap of ZnO decreased from 3.31 to 3.17 eV with an increase in the ethanol composition in the solvent, implying that the optical properties of these materials are clearly affected by the synthesis medium.

  15. Parametric study of self-forming ZnO Nanowall network with honeycomb structure by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    El Zein, B.; Boulfrad, Samir; Jabbour, Ghassan E.; Doghè che, Elhadj Hadj

    2014-01-01

    The successful synthesis of catalyst free zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanowall networks with honeycomb like structure by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is demonstrated in this paper. The synthesis was conducted directly on Silicon (Si) (1 0 0) and Glass

  16. Photocatalysis and Bandgap Engineering Using ZnO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Johar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites have a great potential to work as efficient, multifunctional materials for energy conversion and photoelectrochemical reactions. Nanocomposites may reveal more improved photocatalysis by implying the improvements of their electronic and structural properties than pure photocatalyst. This paper presents the recent work carried out on photoelectrochemical reactions using the composite materials of ZnO with CdS, ZnO with SnO2, ZnO with TiO2, ZnO with Ag2S, and ZnO with graphene and graphene oxide. The photocatalytic efficiency mainly depends upon the light harvesting span of a material, lifetime of photogenerated electron-hole pair, and reactive sites available in the photocatalyst. We reviewed the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of nanocomposite and photodegradation reported by the same material and how photodegradation depends upon the factors described above. Finally the improvement in the absorption band edge of nanocomposite material is discussed.

  17. A novel hierarchical ZnO disordered/ordered bilayer nanostructured film for dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yamin, E-mail: yaminfengccnuphy@outlook.com; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Jianhui; Fodjouong, Ghislain Joel; Meng, Gaoxiang; Xing, Yanmin; Wang, Wenwu; Huang, Xintang, E-mail: xthuang@phy.ccnu.edu.cn

    2013-12-25

    Graphical abstract: A novel hierarchical disordered/ordered bilayer ZnO nanostructured film in the length of 18 μm have been successfully synthesized on the FTO substrate; the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film electrodes applied in DSSCs exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 5.16%. Highlights: •A novel hierarchical ZnO structure film was fabricated on a FTO substrate. •Hierarchical ZnO film is applied as the electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. •The film possess high specific surface area and fast electron transport effect. •The light-scattering effect of the hierarchical film is pronounced. •The energy conversion efficiency of hierarchical ZnO electrode reaches to 5.16%. -- Abstract: A novel hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is synthesized via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method followed by a treatment of thermal decomposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. This hierarchical film is composed of disordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) (top layer) and ordered ZnO nanowires (NWs) (bottom layer). The products possess the following features such as high specific surface area, fast electron transport, and pronounced light-scattering effect, which are quite suitable for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.16% is achieved when the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is used as the photoanode under 100 mW cm{sup −2} illumination. This efficiency is found to be much higher than that of the DSSCs with pure ordered ZnO NWs (1.45%) and disordered ZnO NRs (3.31%) photoanodes.

  18. A novel hierarchical ZnO disordered/ordered bilayer nanostructured film for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yamin; Wu, Fei; Jiang, Jian; Zhu, Jianhui; Fodjouong, Ghislain Joel; Meng, Gaoxiang; Xing, Yanmin; Wang, Wenwu; Huang, Xintang

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel hierarchical disordered/ordered bilayer ZnO nanostructured film in the length of 18 μm have been successfully synthesized on the FTO substrate; the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film electrodes applied in DSSCs exhibit photoelectric conversion efficiency as high as 5.16%. Highlights: •A novel hierarchical ZnO structure film was fabricated on a FTO substrate. •Hierarchical ZnO film is applied as the electrodes for dye sensitized solar cells. •The film possess high specific surface area and fast electron transport effect. •The light-scattering effect of the hierarchical film is pronounced. •The energy conversion efficiency of hierarchical ZnO electrode reaches to 5.16%. -- Abstract: A novel hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is synthesized via a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method followed by a treatment of thermal decomposition onto a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate. This hierarchical film is composed of disordered ZnO nanorods (NRs) (top layer) and ordered ZnO nanowires (NWs) (bottom layer). The products possess the following features such as high specific surface area, fast electron transport, and pronounced light-scattering effect, which are quite suitable for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) applications. A light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 5.16% is achieved when the hierarchical ZnO nanostructured film is used as the photoanode under 100 mW cm −2 illumination. This efficiency is found to be much higher than that of the DSSCs with pure ordered ZnO NWs (1.45%) and disordered ZnO NRs (3.31%) photoanodes

  19. Hydrothermal growth of upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ruixia; Yang, Ping; Dong, Xiaobin; Jia, Changchao; Li, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals were hydrothermally fabricated. • The ZnO sheets were prepared with sodium oxalate at 70 °C without any surfactant. • The preferable adsorption of oxalate anions causes the formation of ZnO sheet. • The continuous growth in six directions leads to the formation of hexagonal sheets. - Abstract: Large-scale upright-standing ZnO sheet microcrystals were fabricated on Zn substrate using sodium oxalate as structure-directing agent by a hydrothermal method at low temperature (70 °C) without any surfactant. The sheets are about 3–5 μm in dimension and 100–300 nm in thickness. The strong and narrow diffraction peaks of ZnO indicate that the sample has a good crystallinity and size. The morphology of sheet-like ZnO varied with the concentrations of sodium oxalate and reaction time. The sheet-like ZnO would transform into rod-like ones when sodium oxalate was substituted by equivalent sodium acetate. The formation of sheet-like ZnO is attributed to the preferable adsorption of oxalate anions on (0 0 0 1) face of ZnO, which inhibits the intrinsic growth of ZnO. Additionally, the continuous growth in six (0 1 −1 0) directions that have the lowest surface energy leads to the formation of hexagonal sheets

  20. Acceptors related to group I elements in ZnO ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnirenko, V.I. [V. Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, Pr. Nauky 45, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Markevich, I.V., E-mail: ivmarkevich@ukr.net [V. Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, Pr. Nauky 45, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Zashivailo, T.V. [National Technical University of Ukraine ' KPI' , Pr. Pobedy 37, Kiev 03056 (Ukraine)

    2012-08-15

    ZnO ceramics doped with Li, Na or K were sintered in air for 4 h at 1000 Degree-Sign C. Electrical conductivity as well as photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation and photoconductivity spectra were measured and compared with those in undoped samples. The influence of both fast and slow cooling of the samples from 1000 Degree-Sign C on measured characteristics was investigated. The yellow-orange PL bands associated with the deep acceptors Li{sub Zn}, Na{sub Zn} and K{sub Zn} were observed and the corresponding PL excitation spectra were determined. These acceptors were found to form some complexes with other lattice defects. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centers related to Li, Na and K impurities in zinc oxide were investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was shown that Li{sub Zn}, Na{sub Zn} and K{sub Zn} centers were deep acceptors responsible for yellow-orange PL bands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These acceptors were found to form some complexes with other lattice defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of shallow acceptors due to doping ZnO ceramics with Li, Na and K was not found.

  1. Selective growth of ZnO thin film nanostructures: Structure, morphology and tunable optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakanth, Katturi Naga; Sunandana, C. S. [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-50046 (India); Rajesh, Desapogu, E-mail: rajesh.esapogu@gmail.com, E-mail: mperd@nus.edu.sg [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-50046 (India); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-23

    The ZnO nanostructures (spherical, rod shape) have been successfully fabricated via a thermal evaporation followed by dip coating method. The pure, doped ZnO thin films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, respectively. A possible growth mechanism of the spherical, rod shape ZnO nanostructures are discussed. XRD patterns revealed that all films consist of pure ZnO phase and were well crystallized with preferential orientation towards (002) direction. Doping by PVA, PVA+Cu has effective role in the enhancement of the crystalline quality and increases in the band gap.

  2. Fabrication and Characterization of Highly Oriented N-Doped ZnO Nanorods by Selective Area Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality nitrogen-doped ZnO nanorods have been selectively grown on patterned and bare ZnO templates by the combination of nanoimprint lithography and chemical vapor transport methods. The grown nanorods exhibited uniformity in size and orientation as well as controllable density and surface-to-volume ratio. The structural and optical properties of ZnO nanorods and the behaviour of N dopants have been investigated by means of the scanning electron microscope, photoluminescence (PL spectra, and Raman scattering spectra. The additional vibration modes observed in Raman spectra of N-doped ZnO nanorods provided solid evidence of N incorporation in ZnO nanorods. The difference of excitonic emissions from ZnO nanorods with varied density and surface-to-volume ratio suggested the different spatial distribution of intrinsic defects. It was found that the defects giving rise to acceptor-bound exciton (A0X emission were most likely to distribute in the sidewall surface with nonpolar characteristics, while the donor bound exciton (D0X emission related defects distributed uniformly in the near top polar surface.

  3. Variation in Structural and Optical Properties of Al Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja Aravapalli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on analyzing structural and optical properties of Al doped ZnO (AZO synthesized with two different precursors aluminum chloride and aluminum nitrate. The nanoparticles were successfully fabricated and characterized at room temperature by sol-gel process. The objective of improving properties of ZnO nanoparticles by introducing dopants was successful with formation of nanoparticles having different crystalline sizes, optical absorption and luminescence properties. The two different sources influenced properties of ZnO. The particles with less crystalline size obtained from aluminum nitrate. Change in morphology from spherical to bar like morphology proved from SEM spectra. Presence of functional groups predicted from FTIR spectra. PL spectra proved UV emission and visible emission for AZO nanoparticles synthesized using dopant sources aluminum chloride and aluminum nitrate respectively. The obtained properties prove successful utilization of AZO nanoparticles as building materials in fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  4. Photovoltaic Properties of Co-doped ZnO Thin Film on Glass Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabia Aye; Zin Ma Ma; May Nwe Oo; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2011-12-01

    Cobalt (Co) 0.4 mol doped zinc oxide (ZnO) fine powder was prepared by solid state mixed oxide route. Phase formation and crystal structure of Co-doped ZnO (CZO) powder were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the micro structure of Co doped ZnO powder. Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescent (EDXRF) technique gave the elemental content of cobalt and zinc. Co-doped ZnO film was formed on glass substrate by spin coating technique. Photovoltaic properties of CZO/glass cell were measured.

  5. Reducing ZnO nanoparticles toxicity through silica coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Ling Chia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ZnO NPs have good antimicrobial activity that can be utilized as agents to prevent harmful microorganism growth in food. However, the use of ZnO NPs as food additive is limited by the perceived high toxicity of ZnO NPs in many earlier toxicity studies. In this study, surface modification by silica coating was used to reduce the toxicity of ZnO NPs by significantly reducing the dissolution of the core ZnO NPs. To more accurately recapitulate the scenario of ingested ZnO NPs, we tested our as synthesized ZnO NPs in ingestion fluids (synthetic saliva and synthetic gastric juice to determine the possible forms of ZnO NPs in digestive system before exposing the products to colorectal cell lines. The results showed that silica coating is highly effective in reducing toxicity of ZnO NPs through prevention of the dissociation of ZnO NPs to zinc ions in both neutral and acidic condition. The silica coating however did not alter the desired antimicrobial activity of ZnO NPs to E. coli and S. aureus. Thus, silica coating offered a potential solution to improve the biocompatibility of ZnO NPs for applications such as antimicrobial agent in foods or food related products like food packaging. Nevertheless, caution remains that high concentration of silica coated ZnO NPs can still induce undesirable cytotoxicity to mammalian gut cells. This study indicated that upstream safer-by-design philosophy in nanotechnology can be very helpful in a product development.

  6. Polarized Raman scattering of single ZnO nanorod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J. L.; Lai, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Z.; Cheng, S. Y.; Chen, Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Polarized Raman scattering measurement on single wurtzite c-plane (001) ZnO nanorod grown by hydrothermal method has been performed at room temperature. The polarization dependence of the intensity of the Raman scattering for the phonon modes A 1 (TO), E 1 (TO), and E 2 high in the ZnO nanorod are obtained. The deviations of polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy from the prediction of Raman selection rules are observed, which can be attributed to the structure defects in the ZnO nanorod as confirmed by the comparison of the transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectra as well as the polarization dependent Raman signal of the annealed and unannealed ZnO nanorod. The Raman tensor elements of A 1 (TO) and E 1 (TO) phonon modes normalized to that of the E 2 high phonon mode are |a/d|=0.32±0.01, |b/d|=0.49±0.02, and |c/d|=0.23±0.01 for the unannealed ZnO nanorod, and |a/d|=0.33±0.01, |b/d|=0.45±0.01, and |c/d|=0.20±0.01 for the annealed ZnO nanorod, which shows strong anisotropy compared to that of bulk ZnO epilayer

  7. Fabrication of thin ZnO films with wide-range tuned optical properties by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, A.; Tselikov, G.; Dilone, D.; Rao, K. V.; Kabashin, A. V.; Belova, L.

    2018-02-01

    We report the manufacturing of thin zinc oxide films by reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature, and examine their structural and optical properties. We show that the partial oxygen pressure in DC mode can have dramatic effect on absorption and refractive index (RI) of the films in a broad spectral range. In particular, the change of the oxygen pressure from 7% to 5% can lead to either conventional crystalline ZnO films having low absorption and characteristic descending dependence of RI from 2.4-2.7 RIU in the visible to 1.8-2 RIU in the near-infrared (1600 nm) range, or to untypical films, composed of ZnO nano-crystals embedded into amorphous matrix, exhibiting unexpectedly high absorption in the visible-infrared region and ascending dependence of RI with values varying from 1.5 RIU in the visible to 4 RIU in the IR (1600 nm), respectively. Untypical optical characteristics in the second case are explained by defects in ZnO structure arising due to under-oxidation of ZnO crystals. We also show that the observed defect-related film structure remains stable even after annealing of films under relatively high temperatures (30 min under 450 °C). We assume that both types of films can be of importance for photovoltaic (as contact or active layers, respectively), as well as for chemical or biological sensing, optoelectronics etc.

  8. Room temperature ferromagnetism and gas sensing in ZnO nanostructures: Influence of intrinsic defects and Mn, Co, Cu doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhlongo, Gugu H., E-mail: gmhlongo@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Shingange, Katekani; Tshabalala, Zamaswazi P.; Dhonge, Baban P. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Mahmoud, Fawzy A. [Solid State Physics Dept., National Research Centre, P.O. 12622, Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Mwakikunga, Bonex W.; Motaung, David E. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Preparation of Mn, Co, Cu doped ZnO via microwave-assisted method. • Doping alters the morphology of ZnO nanostructures. • Concentration of zinc and oxygen related defects vary with doping. • Correlation between PL and EPR was established. • Both undoped and doped ZnO nanostructures showed selectivity towards NH{sub 3}. - Abstract: Undoped and transition metal (Cu, Co and Mn) doped ZnO nanostructures were successfully prepared via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method followed by annealing at 500 °C. Numerous characterization facilities such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were employed to acquire the structural and morphological information of the prepared ZnO based products. Combination of defect structure analysis based on photoluminescence (PL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) indicated that co-existing oxygen vacancies (V{sub O}) and zinc interstitials (Zn{sub i}) defects are responsible for the observed ferromagnetism in undoped and transition metal (TM) doped ZnO systems. PL analysis demonstrated that undoped ZnO has more donor defects (V{sub O} and Zn{sub i}) which are beneficial for gas response enhancement. Undoped ZnO based sensor exhibited a higher sensor response to NH{sub 3} gas compared to its counterparts owing to high content of donor defects while transition metal doped sensors showed short response and recovery times compared to undoped ZnO.

  9. Self-assembly and optical properties of patterned ZnO nanodot arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yijian; Zheng Maojun; Ma Li

    2007-01-01

    Patterned ZnO nanodot (ND) arrays and a ND-cavity microstructure were realized on an anodic alumina membrane (AAM) surface through a spin-coating sol-gel process, which benefits from the morphology and localized negative charge surface of AAM as well as the optimized sol concentration. The growth mechanism is believed to be a self-assembly process. This provides a simple approach to fabricate semiconductor quantum dot (QD) arrays and a QD-cavity system with its advantage in low cost and mass production. Strong ultra-violet emission, a multi-phonon process, and its special structure-related properties were observed in the patterned ZnO ND arrays

  10. Tunable, flexible antireflection layer of ZnO nanowires embedded in PDMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Yi, Dong Kee; Paik, Ungyu

    2010-05-18

    In this article, we report the fabrication of ordered hybrid structures composed of ZnO nanowires and a polymeric matrix with a polymer precursor infiltrating the nanowire arrays. The antireflective properties of the resulting ZnO nanowire-embedded polydimethylsiloxane composite (ZPC) were investigated at various ZnO nanowire lengths and ZPC bending angles. Interestingly, we found that whereas the antireflective properties showed a strong dependence on the length of the embedded ZnO nanowires in PDMS, the bending of ZPC has little effect on the antireflective properties.

  11. Laser molecular beam epitaxy of ZnO thin films and heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opel, Matthias; Geprägs, Stephan; Althammer, Matthias; Brenninger, Thomas; Gross, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We report on the growth of epitaxial ZnO thin films and ZnO-based heterostructures on sapphire substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We first discuss some recent developments in laser-MBE such as flexible ultraviolet laser beam optics, infrared laser heating systems or the use of atomic oxygen and nitrogen sources, and describe the technical realization of our advanced laser-MBE system. Then we describe the optimization of the deposition parameters for ZnO films such as laser fluence and substrate temperature and the use of buffer layers. The detailed structural characterization by x-ray analysis and transmission electron microscopy shows that epitaxial ZnO thin films with high structural quality can be achieved, as demonstrated by a small out-of-plane and in-plane mosaic spread as well as the absence of rotational domains. We also demonstrate the heteroepitaxial growth of ZnO-based multilayers as a prerequisite for spin transport experiments and the realization of spintronic devices. As an example, we show that TiN/Co/ZnO/Ni/Au multilayer stacks can be grown on (0 0 0 1)-oriented sapphire with good structural quality of all layers and well defined in-plane epitaxial relations. (paper)

  12. Twinning in ZnO ceramics with Sb sub 2 O sub 3 additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, T. (Ministry of Transportation, Tokyo (Japan). Ship Research Inst.); Bradt, R.C. (Univ. of Nevada-Reno, Nevada (U.S.A.). Mackay School of Mines)

    1991-09-01

    A mechanism is proposed for the nucleation of ZnO growth twins which is based on the crystallography of the wurtzite and spinel structures. In this paper, possible twin origins from either phase transformation or a result of deformation are both rejected. It is concluded that the ZnO twins are growth twins which nucleate in the early stages of sintering and grain growth of the ceramic powder compacts. Consideration of the oxygen anion stacking layer sequences in the hexagonal ZnO wurtzite structure and the cubic Zn {sub 7} Sb {sub 2} O {sub 12} spinel structure suggests that the nuclei for the twins may form as embryos consisting of a faulted region of the spinel-oxygen anion layer stacking sequence. And then, the faulted layer sequence is created by the presence of the antimony oxide and its reaction with the ZnO. Further, the fact that the wurtzite structure is polar and the ZnO twins are inversion twins explains why there is only a single twin per grain, as multiple twins would result in the unfavorable structural configuration. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: dkuldeep.physics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Future spintronics technologies based on diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) will rely heavily on a sound understanding of the microscopic origins of ferromagnetism in such materials. It remains unclear, however, whether the ferromagnetism in DMS is intrinsic - a precondition for spintronics - or due to dopant clustering. For this, we include a simultaneous doping from transition metal (Ni, Cu) and rare earth (Ce) ions in ZnO nanoparticles that increase the antiferromagnetic ordering to achieve high-T{sub c} ferromagnetism. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns indicate that the dopant ions in ZnO had a wurtzite structure and the dopants, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions, are highly influenced the lattice constants to induce lattice defects. The Ni, Cu, Ce ions in ZnO have nanoparticles formation than nanorods was observed in pure sample. FTIR involve some organic groups to induce lattice defects and the metal-oxygen bonding of Zn, Ni, Cu, Ce and O atoms to confirm wurtzite structure. Raman analysis evaluates the crystalline quality, structural disorder and defects in ZnO lattice with doping. Photoluminescence spectra have strong near-band-edge emission and visible emission bands responsible for defects due to oxygen vacancies. The energy band gap is calculated using Tauc relation. Room temperature ferromagnetism has been described due to bound magnetic polarons formation with Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions in ZnO via oxygen vacancies. The zero field and field cooling SQUID measurement confirm the strength of antiferromagnetism in ZnO. The field cooling magnetization is studied by Curie-Weiss law that include antiferromagnetic interactions up to low temperature. The XPS spectra have involve +3/+4 oxidation states of Ce ions to influence the observed ferromagnetism. - Graphical abstract: The lattice defects/vacancies attributed by Ni and Ce ions in the wurtzite ZnO structure are responsible in high T{sub c} -ferromagnetism due to long-range magnetic

  14. Device quality ZnO grown using a Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzwawi, Salim; Kim, Hyung Suk; Heinhold, Robert; Lynam, Max; Turner, Gary; Partridge, Jim G.; McCulloch, Dougal G.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on the structural, electrical and optical characteristics of unintentionally doped ZnO films grown on a-plane sapphire substrates using the Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc (FCVA) technique. The resulting films showed considerable promise for device applications with properties including high transparency, moderate intrinsic carrier concentrations (10 17 -10 19 cm -3 ), electron mobilities up to 30 cm 2 /Vs, low surface roughness (typically <2% of film thickness) and well-structured photoluminescence. Post-annealing in oxygen at temperatures up to 800 °C produced significant improvements in the properties of these films. Silver oxide Schottky diodes fabricated on FCVA ZnO showed ideality factors as low as 1.20 and good sensitivity to ultraviolet light.

  15. Nanostructured porous ZnO film with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lina; Zheng Yingying; Li Xiaoyun; Dong Wenjun; Tang Weihua; Chen Benyong; Li Chaorong; Li Xiao; Zhang Tierui

    2011-01-01

    Well-defined ZnO nanostructured films have been fabricated directly on Zn foil via hydrothermal synthesis. During the fabrication of the ZnO nanostructured films, the Zn foil serves as the Zn source and also the substrate. Porous nanosheet-based, nanotube-based and nanoflower-based ZnO films can all be easily prepared by adjusting the alkali type, reaction time and reaction temperature. The composition, morphology and structure of ZnO films are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The porous ZnO nanosheet-based film exhibits enhanced photocatalytic activity in the degradation of Rhodamine B under UV light irradiation. This can be attributed to the high surface area of the ZnO nanosheet and the large percentage of the exposed [001] facet. Moreover, the self-supporting, recyclable and stable ZnO photocatalytic film can be readily recovered and potentially applied for pollution disposal.

  16. Optimization of processing parameters on the controlled growth of c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malek, M. F., E-mail: mfmalek07@gmail.com; Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Musa, M. Z., E-mail: musa948@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Pulau Pinang, Jalan Permatang Pauh, 13500 Permatang Pauh, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Saurdi, I., E-mail: saurdy788@gmail.com; Ishak, A., E-mail: ishak@sarawak.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Sarawak, Kampus Kota Samarahan, Jalan Meranek, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-07-06

    Optimization of the growth time parameter was conducted to synthesize high-quality c-axis ZnO nanorod arrays. The effects of the parameter on the crystal growth and properties were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the growth time influence the properties of ZnO nanorods where the crystallite size of the structures was increased at higher deposition time. Field emission scanning electron microsope analysis confirmed the morphologies structure of the ZnO nanorods. The ZnO nanostructures prepared under the optimized growth conditions showed an intense XRD peak which reveal a higher c-axis oriented ZnO nanorod arrays thus demonstrating the formation of defect free structure.

  17. Optical and electro-catalytic properties of bundled ZnO nanowires grown on a ITO substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Cao; Wang Ning; Wang Long

    2010-01-01

    Bundled wurtzite zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires were fabricated in a facile manner on an ITO-conducting substrate via a microemulsion route without using any hard template or external electric/magnetic field. Structure and properties of the as-prepared ZnO electrode were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy, as well as electrochemical tests. The ZnO electrode shows excellent optical and electrocatalytic ability, which may find further applications such as optoelectronics or as sensors as well as other modern industrial areas.

  18. Hydrogen absorption in thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhova, O.; Čížek, J.; Lukáč, F.; Vlček, M.; Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.; Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thin ZnO films and high quality ZnO crystal were electrochemically doped with hydrogen. ► Hydrogen absorbed in ZnO causes plastic deformation both in ZnO crystal and thin films. ► In ZnO crystal a sub-surface region with very high density of defects was formed. ► Moreover, plastic deformation causes specific surface modification of ZnO crystal. ► In ZnO films hydrogen-induced plastic deformation introduced defects in the whole film. -- Abstract: ZnO films with thickness of ∼80 nm were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO (1 0 0) single crystal and amorphous fused silica (FS) substrates. Structural studies of ZnO films and a high quality reference ZnO single crystal were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It was found that ZnO films exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the reference ZnO crystal. Moreover, the ZnO film deposited on MgO substrate exhibits higher concentration of defects than the film deposited on amorphous FS substrate most probably due to a dense network of misfit dislocations. The ZnO films and the reference ZnO crystal were subsequently loaded with hydrogen by electrochemical cathodic charging. SPIS characterizations revealed that absorbed hydrogen introduces new defects into ZnO

  19. Hydrogen absorption in thin ZnO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melikhova, O., E-mail: oksivmel@yahoo.com [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Čížek, J.; Lukáč, F.; Vlček, M. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, CZ-180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Novotný, M.; Bulíř, J.; Lančok, J. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Anwand, W.; Brauer, G. [Institut für Strahlenphysik, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PO Box 510 119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Connolly, J.; McCarthy, E.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Mosnier, J.-P. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology, School of Physical Sciences, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Thin ZnO films and high quality ZnO crystal were electrochemically doped with hydrogen. ► Hydrogen absorbed in ZnO causes plastic deformation both in ZnO crystal and thin films. ► In ZnO crystal a sub-surface region with very high density of defects was formed. ► Moreover, plastic deformation causes specific surface modification of ZnO crystal. ► In ZnO films hydrogen-induced plastic deformation introduced defects in the whole film. -- Abstract: ZnO films with thickness of ∼80 nm were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on MgO (1 0 0) single crystal and amorphous fused silica (FS) substrates. Structural studies of ZnO films and a high quality reference ZnO single crystal were performed by slow positron implantation spectroscopy (SPIS). It was found that ZnO films exhibit significantly higher density of defects than the reference ZnO crystal. Moreover, the ZnO film deposited on MgO substrate exhibits higher concentration of defects than the film deposited on amorphous FS substrate most probably due to a dense network of misfit dislocations. The ZnO films and the reference ZnO crystal were subsequently loaded with hydrogen by electrochemical cathodic charging. SPIS characterizations revealed that absorbed hydrogen introduces new defects into ZnO.

  20. Characterization of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) piezoelectric properties for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosydi Zakaria, Mohd; Johari, Shazlina; Hafiz Ismail, Mohd; Hashim, Uda

    2017-11-01

    In fabricating Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) biosensors device, the substrate is one of important factors that affected to performance device. there are many types of piezoelectric substrate in the markets and the cheapest is zinc Oxide substrate. Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with its unique properties can be used as piezoelectric substrate along with SAW devices for detection of DNA in this research. In this project, ZnO thin film is deposited onto silicon oxide substrate using electron beam evaporation (E-beam) and Sol-Gel technique. Different material structure is used to compare the roughness and best piezoelectric substrate of ZnO thin film. Two different structures of ZnO target which are pellet and granular are used for e-beam deposition and one sol-gel liquid were synthesize and compared. Parameter for thickness of ZnO e-beam deposition is fixed to a 0.1kÅ for both materials structure and sol-gel was coat using spin coat technique. After the process is done, samples are annealed at temperature of 500°C for 2 hours. The structural properties of effect of post annealing using different material structure of ZnO are studied using Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) for surface morphology and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) for phase structure.

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition of Nickel on ZnO Nanowire Arrays for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Wang, Yong-Ping; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ji, Xin-Ming; Devi, Anjana; Jiang, An-Quan; Zhang, David Wei

    2018-01-10

    A novel hybrid core-shell structure of ZnO nanowires (NWs)/Ni as a pseudocapacitor electrode was successfully fabricated by atomic layer deposition of a nickel shell, and its capacitive performance was systemically investigated. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that the NiO was formed at the interface between ZnO and Ni where the Ni was oxidized by ZnO during the ALD of the Ni layer. Electrochemical measurement results revealed that the Ti/ZnO NWs/Ni (1500 cycles) electrode with a 30 nm thick Ni-NiO shell layer had the best supercapacitor properties including ultrahigh specific capacitance (∼2440 F g -1 ), good rate capability (80.5%) under high current charge-discharge conditions, and a relatively better cycling stability (86.7% of the initial value remained after 750 cycles at 10 A g -1 ). These attractive capacitive behaviors are mainly attributed to the unique core-shell structure and the combined effect of ZnO NW arrays as short charge transfer pathways for ion diffusion and electron transfer as well as conductive Ni serving as channel for the fast electron transport to Ti substrate. This high-performance Ti/ZnO NWs/Ni hybrid structure is expected to be one of a promising electrodes for high-performance supercapacitor applications.

  2. Anodized ZnO nanostructures for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mao-Chia [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Wang, TsingHai [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environment Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wu, Bin-Jui [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jing-Chie, E-mail: jclin4046@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ching-Chen [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 310, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by electrochemical anodic process. • The parameter of ZnO nanostructure was anodic potential. • The model of growth of ZnO nanostructure was investigated. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were fabricated on the polished zinc foil by anodic deposition in an alkaline solution containing 1.0 M NaOH and 0.25 M Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}. Potentiostatic anodization was conducted at two potentials (−0.7 V in the passive region and −1.0 V in the active region vs. SCE) which are higher than the open circuit potential (−1.03 V vs. SCE) and as-obtained ZnO nanostrcutures were investigated focusing on their structural, optical, electrical and photoelectrochemical (PEC) characteristics. All samples were confirmed ZnO by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectra. Observations in the SEM images clearly showed that ZnO nanostructures prepared at −0.7 V vs. SCE were composed of nanowires at while those obtained at −1.0 V vs. SCE possessed nanosheets morphology. Result from transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction patterns suggested that the ZnO nanowires belonged to single crystalline with a preferred orientation of (0 0 2) whereas the ZnO nanosheets were polycrystalline. Following PEC experiments indicated that ZnO nanowires had higher photocurrent density of 0.32 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.5 V vs. SCE under 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination. This value was about 1.9 times higher than that of ZnO nanosheets. Observed higher photocurrent was likely due to the single crystalline, preferred (0 0 2) orientation, higher carrier concentration and lower charge transfer resistance.

  3. Enhancement of Si solar cell efficiency using ZnO nanowires with various diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Reyhani, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Mehrabi, M.

    2018-01-01

    Here, Zinc Oxide nanowires are synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition of a Zn granulate source and used to enhance a significant Si-solar cell efficiency with simple and low cost method. The nanowires are grown in various O2 flow rates. Those affect the shape, yield, structure and the quality of ZnO nanowires according to scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. This delineates that the ZnO nanostructure is dependent on the synthesis conditions. The photoluminescence spectroscopy of ZnO indicates optical emission at the Ultra-Violet and blue-green regions whose intensity varies as a function of diameter of ZnO nano-wires. The optical property of ZnO layer is measured by UV-visible and diffuse reflection spectroscopy that demonstrate high absorbance at 280-550 nm. Furthermore, the photovoltaic characterization of ZnO nanowires is investigated based on the drop casting on Si-solar cell. The ZnO nanowires with various diameters demonstrate different effects on the efficiency of Si-solar cells. We have shown that the reduction of the spectral reflectance and down-shifting process as well as the reduction of photon trapping are essential parameters on the efficiency of Si-solar cells. However, the latter is dominated here. In fact, the trapped photons during the electron-hole generation are dominant due to lessening the absorption rate in ZnO nano-wires. The results indicate that the mean diameters reduction of ZnO nanowires is also essential to improve the fill factor. The external and internal quantum efficiency analyses attest the efficiency improvement over the blue region which is related to the key parameters above.

  4. ZnO nanocrystals and allied materials

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    ZnO has been the central theme of research in the past decade due to its various applications in band gap engineering, and textile and biomedical industries. In nanostructured form, it offers ample opportunities to realize tunable optical and optoelectronic properties and it was also termed as a potential material to realize room temperature ferromagnetism. This book presents 17 high-quality contributory chapters on ZnO related systems written by experts in this field. These chapters will help researchers to understand and explore the varied physical properties to envisage device applications of ZnO in thin film, heterostructure and nanostructure forms.

  5. The effect of Cu{sup 2+} on structure, morphology and optical properties of flower-like ZnO synthesized using the chemical bath deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koao, L.F., E-mail: koaolf@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, B.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2014-04-15

    In this work undoped and Cu{sup 2+}-doped ZnO nanostructures were prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method at 80 °C. The structural, optical and luminescence properties of the undoped and Cu{sup 2+}-doped ZnO nanostructures were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV–Visible Spectroscopy (UV) and Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) analyses. XRD analysis showed the sample prepared were hexagonal ZnO with grain sizes in the order of 46±1 nm. The estimated grain size was found not to dependent on the concentration of the Cu{sup 2+} ions used. The SEM analysis revealed that the shapes of the particles were flower-like and the addition of Cu{sup 2+} ions influenced the morphology of the samples. In the UV–Visible study the reflectance intensity decreased with an increase in the molar concentration of Cu{sup 2+} and there was no shift in the absorption edges. The PL analyses revealed that the highest luminescence intensity was obtained for the undoped ZnO. Thus Cu incorporated into the ZnO resulted in the change in its morphological, structural, and optical and luminescence properties.

  6. Fe-tannic acid complex dye as photo sensitizer for different morphological ZnO based DSSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Soner; Özacar, Mahmut

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we have synthesized different morphological ZnO nanostructures via microwave hydrothermal methods at low temperature within a short time. We described different morphologies of ZnO at different Zn(NO3)2/KOH mole ratio. The ZnO nanostructures were characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis spectrophotometry. All ZnO structures have hexagonal wurtzite type structures. The FESEM images showed various morphologies of ZnO such as plate, rod and nanoparticles. Dye sensitized solar cells have been assembled by these different morphological structures photo electrode and tannic acid or Fe-tannic acid complex dye as sensitizer. We have achieved at maximum efficiencies of photovoltaic cells prepared with ZnO plate in all dye systems. The conversion efficiencies of dye sensitized solar cells are 0.37% and 1.00% with tannic acid and Fe-tannic acid complex dye, respectively.

  7. Hydrogen in ZnO - a challenge to experiments and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Gerhard [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Kuriplach, Jan [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    Positron lifetime spectroscopy, nuclear reaction analysis and X-ray diffraction have been combined to investigate various, nominally undoped, ZnO single crystals. Hydrogen is detected in all crystals in a bound state (0.3-0.8 at.-%), and in some cases also in an unbound state (0.7-1.9 at.-%), which can be removed by annealing. A single positron lifetime of 180-182 ps and 165-167 ps is measured for all hydrothermally and melt grown crystals, respectively. These lifetimes are attributed to zinc vacancy-hydrogen complexes, as deduced from ab initio studies of various vacancy-hydrogen defect configurations in ZnO and related positron calculations. In addition, various defect studies of hydrothermally grown (0001) oriented ZnO crystals electrochemically doped with hydrogen are presented. It is demonstrated that a very high amount of hydrogen (up to {proportional_to}30 at.-%) can be introduced into the crystals by electrochemical doping. It is found that more than half of this amount is chemically bound, i.e. incorporated into the ZnO crystal lattice.

  8. Strain-Gated Field Effect Transistor of a MoS2-ZnO 2D-1D Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Libo; Xue, Fei; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Xin; Wang, Longfei; Kou, Jinzong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-26

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an exciting material due to its unique electrical, optical, and piezoelectric properties. Owing to an intrinsic band gap of 1.2-1.9 eV, monolayer or a-few-layer MoS2 is used for fabricating field effect transistors (FETs) with high electron mobility and on/off ratio. However, the traditional FETs are controlled by an externally supplied gate voltage, which may not be sensitive enough to directly interface with a mechanical stimulus for applications in electronic skin. Here we report a type of top-pressure/force-gated field effect transistors (PGFETs) based on a hybrid structure of a 2D MoS2 flake and 1D ZnO nanowire (NW) array. Once an external pressure is applied, the piezoelectric polarization charges created at the tips of ZnO NWs grown on MoS2 act as a gate voltage to tune/control the source-drain transport property in MoS2. At a 6.25 MPa applied stimulus on a packaged device, the source-drain current can be tuned for ∼25%, equivalent to the results of applying an extra -5 V back gate voltage. Another type of PGFET with a dielectric layer (Al2O3) sandwiched between MoS2 and ZnO also shows consistent results. A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the received data. This study sets the foundation for applying the 2D material-based FETs in the field of artificial intelligence.

  9. Effect of nickel doping concentration on structural and magnetic properties of ultrafine diluted magnetic semiconductor ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prashant K.; Dutta, Ranu K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2009-01-01

    The ZnO:Ni 2+ nanoparticles of mean size 2-12 nm were synthesized at room temperature by the simple co-precipitation method. The crystallite structure, morphology and size were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The wurtzite structure of ZnO gradually degrades with the increasing Ni doping concentration and an additional NiO-associated diffraction peak was observed above 15% of Ni 2+ doping. The change in magnetic behavior of the nanoparticles of ZnO with varying Ni 2+ doping concentration was investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Initially, these nanoparticles showed strong ferromagnetic behavior, however, at higher doping percentage of Ni 2+ , the ferromagnetic behavior was suppressed and paramagnetic nature was observed. The enhanced antiferromagnetic interaction between neighboring Ni-Ni ions suppressed the ferromagnetism at higher doping concentrations of Ni 2+ .

  10. Template-free sonochemical synthesis of flower-like ZnO nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huawa; Fan, Huiqing; Wang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Pengfei; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Flower-like ZnO nanostructures have been successfully synthesized via a facile and template-free sonochemical method, using zinc acetate and potassium hydroxide as reactants only. The as-synthesized flower-like ZnO nanostructures were composed of nanorods with the width of ∼300–400 nm and the length of ∼2–3 μm. The structures, morphologies and optical properties of the as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Raman-scattering spectroscopy. A plausible formation mechanism of flower-like ZnO nanostructures was studied by SEM which monitors an intermediate morphology transformation of the product at the different ultrasonic time (t=80,90,95,105, and 120 min). - Highlights: • A facile and template-free sonochemical method to fabricate flower-like ZnO nanostructures was proposed. • The flower-like ZnO nanostructures follow the ingrowth of ZnO from the matrix of Zn(OH) 2 crystals. • The flower-like ZnO nanostructures are also expected to explore their application in the field of nano-electronic devices

  11. Structural and optical properties of DC magnetron sputtered ZnO films on glass substrate and their modification by Ag ions implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R.; Afzal, Naveed; Amjad, U.; Jabbar, S.; Hussain, T.; Hussnain, A.

    2017-07-01

    This work is focused on investigating the effects of deposition time and Ag ions implantation on structural and optical properties of ZnO film. The ZnO film was prepared on glass substrate by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering of pure Zn target in reactive oxygen environment for 2 h, 3 h, 4 h and 5 h respectively. X-ray diffraction results revealed polycrystalline ZnO film whose crystallinity was improved with increase of the deposition time. The morphological features indicated agglomeration of smaller grains into larger ones by increasing the deposition time. The UV-vis spectroscopy analysis depicted a small decrease in the band gap of ZnO from 3.36 eV to 3.27 eV with increase of deposition time. The Ag ions implantation in ZnO films deposited for 5 h on glass was carried out by using Pelletron Accelerator at different ions fluences ranging from 1  ×  1011 ions cm-2 to 2  ×  1012 ions cm-2. XRD patterns of Ag ions implanted ZnO did not show significant change in crystallite size by increasing ions fluence from 1  ×  1011 ions cm-2 to 5  ×  1011 ions cm-2. However, with further increase of the ions fluence, the crystallite size was decreased. The band gap of Ag ions implanted ZnO indicated anomalous variations with increase of the ions fluence.

  12. Atom probe microscopy of zinc isotopic enrichment in ZnO nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Ironside

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on atomic probe microscopy (APM of isotopically enriched ZnO nanorods that measures the spatial distribution of zinc isotopes in sections of ZnO nanorods for natural abundance natZnO and 64Zn and 66Zn enriched ZnO nanorods. The results demonstrate that APM can accurately quantify isotopic abundances within these nanoscale structures. Therefore the atom probe microscope is a useful tool for characterizing Zn isotopic heterostructures in ZnO. Isotopic heterostructures have been proposed for controlling thermal conductivity and also, combined with neutron transmutation doping, they could be key to a novel technology for producing p-n junctions in ZnO thin films and nanorods.

  13. Vanadium substitution: A simple and economic way to improve UV sensing in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Tulika; Bajpai, Gaurav; Rathore, Gyanendra; Liu, Shun Wei; Biring, Sajal; Sen, Somaditya

    2018-04-01

    The UV sensing in pure ZnO is due to oxygen adsorption/desorption process from the ZnO surface. Vanadium doping improves the UV sensitivity of ZnO. The enhancement in UV sensitivity in vanadium-substituted ZnO is attributed to trapping and de-trapping of electrons at V4+ and V5+-related defect states. The V4+ state has an extra electron than the V5+ state. A V4+ to V5+ transformation happens with excitation of this electron to the conduction band, while a reverse trapping process liberates a visible light. An analytic study of response phenomenon reveals this trapping and de-trapping process.

  14. Strong compensation hinders the p-type doping of ZnO: a glance over surface defect levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a surface doping model of ZnO to elucidate the p-type doping and compensations in ZnO nanomaterials. With an N-dopant, the effects of N on the ZnO surface demonstrate a relatively shallow acceptor level in the band gap. As the dimension of the ZnO materials decreases, the quantum confinement effects will increase and render the charge transfer on surface to influence the shifting of Fermi level, by evidence of transition level changes of the N-dopant. We report that this can overwhelm the intrinsic p-type conductivity and transport of the ZnO bulk system. This may provide a possible route of using surface doping to modify the electronic transport and conductivity of ZnO nanomaterials.

  15. Piezoelectric Response Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Da-Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important parameter of piezoelectric materials is piezoelectric coefficient (d33. In this study, the piezoelectric ZnO thin films were deposited on the SiNx/Si substrate. The 4 inches substrate is diced into 8 cm× 8 cm piece. During the deposition process, a zinc target (99.999 wt% of 2 inches diameter was used. The vertical distance between the target and the substrate holder was fixed at 5 cm. The piezoelectric response of zinc oxide (ZnO thin films were obtained by using a direct measurement system. The system adopts a mini impact tip to generate an impulsive force and read out the piezoelectric signals immediately. Experimentally, a servo motor is used to produce a fixed quantity of force, for giving an impact against to the piezoelectric film. The ZnO thin films were deposited using the reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. The electric charges should be generated because of the material’s extrusion. This phenomenon was investigated through the oscilloscope by one shot trigger. It was apparent that all ZnO films exhibit piezoelectric responses evaluated by our measurement system, however, its exhibit a significant discrepancy. The piezoelectric responses of ZnO thin film at various deposition positions were measured and the crystal structures of the sputtering pressure were also discussed. The crystalline characteristics of ZnO thin films are investigated through the XRD and SEM. The results show the ZnO thin film exhibits good crystalline pattern and surface morphology with controlled sputtering condition. The ZnO thin films sputtered using 2 inches target present various piezoelectric responses. With the exactly related position, a best piezoelectric response of ZnO thin film can be achieved.

  16. Investigation on structural and electrical properties of Fe doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by solution combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Mast; Bala, Kanchan; Sharma, Hakikat; Kumar, Arun; Negi, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, nanoparticles of Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) [Zn_1_-_xFe_xO where x=0.0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.05] were prepared by cost effective solution combustion method. The powder X-ray diffractometry confirms the formation of single phase wurtzite structure. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the micrsostructure of Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles. The DC electrical conductivity was found to increase with temperature and measurement was carried out in the temperature range of 300-473K. DC electrical conductivity increases with temperature and decreases with Fe doping concentration.

  17. Band-Gap Engineering in ZnO Thin Films: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Vani; Jha, Pardeep K.; Panda, S. K.; Jha, Priyanka A.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films are synthesized and characterized using x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the structural, morphological, and optical properties are closely related to the stress of the sample provided that the texture of the film remains the same. The anomalous results are obtained once the texture is altered to a different orientation. We support this experimental observation by carrying out first-principles hybrid functional calculations for two different orientations of the sample and show that the effect of quantum confinement is much stronger for the (100) surface than the (001) surface of ZnO. Furthermore, our calculations provide a route to enhance the band gap of ZnO by more than 50% compared to the bulk band gap, opening up possibilities for wide-range industrial applications.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Mg-doped ZnO hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, Talaat M.; Salem, Jamil K.

    2011-01-01

    Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple chemical method at low temperature with Mg:Zn atomic ratio from 0 to 7%. The synthesis process is based on the hydrolysis of zinc acetate dihydrate and magnesium acetate tetrahydrate were heated under refluxing at 65 °C using methanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Mg-doped ZnO crystallizes in a wurtzite structure with crystal size of 5–12 nm. These nanocrystals self-aggregated themselves into hollow spheres of size of 800–1100 nm. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that each sphere is made up of numerous nanoparticles of average diameter 5–11 nm. The XRD patterns, SEM and TEM micrographs of doping of Mg in ZnO confirmed the formation of hollow spheres indicating that the Mg 2+ is successfully substituted into the ZnO host structure of the Zn 2+ site. Furthermore, the UV–Vis spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the ZnO nanoparticles were also investigated. The band gap of the nanoparticles can be tuned in the range of 3.36–3.55 eV by the use of the dopants.

  19. Synthesis from zinc oxalate, growth mechanism and optical properties of ZnO nano/micro structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, C. Justin; Varma, K.B.R. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Joshi, R.K. [Special Center for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2011-11-15

    We report the synthesis of various morphological micro to nano structured zinc oxide crystals via simple precipitation technique. The growth mechanisms of the zinc oxide nanostructures such as snowflake, rose, platelets, porous pyramid and rectangular shapes were studied in detail under various growth conditions. The precursor powders were prepared using several zinc counter ions such as chloride, nitrate and sulphate along with oxalic acid as a precipitating agent. The precursors were decomposed by heating in air resulting in the formation of different shapes of zinc oxide crystals. Variations in ZnO nanostructural shapes were possibly due to the counter ion effect. Sulphate counter ion led to unusual rose-shape morphology. Strong ultrasonic treatment on ZnO rose shows that it was formed by irregular arrangement of micro to nano size hexagonal zinc oxide platelets. The X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the wurzite structure of all zinc oxide samples synthesized using different zinc counter ions. Functional groups of the zinc oxalate precursor and zinc oxide were identified using micro Raman studies. The blue light emission spectra of the various morphologies were recorded using luminescence spectrometer. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Synthesis of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nano rods on Various Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, J.J.; Hassan, Z.; Abu Hassan, H.; Mahdi, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We successfully synthesized vertically aligned ZnO nano rods on Si, GaN, Sic, Al 2 O 3 , ITO, and quartz substrates using microwave assisted chemical bath deposition (MA-CBD) method. All these types of substrates were seeded with PVA-ZnO nano composites layer prior to the nano rods growth. The effect of substrate type on the morphology of the ZnO nano rods was studied. The diameter of grown ZnO nano rods ranged from 50 nm to 200 nm. Structural quality and morphology of ZnO nano rods were determined by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, which revealed hexagonal wurtzite structures perpendicular to the substrate along the z-axis in the direction of (002). Photoluminescence measurements of grown ZnO nano rods on all substrates exhibited high UV peak intensity. Raman scattering studies were conducted to estimate the lattice vibration modes. (author)

  1. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of sheet-like ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Changzhen; Meng, Dawei; Wu, Xiuling; Wang, Yongqian; Yu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Zhengjie; Liu, Xiaoyang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Sheet-like ZnO with regular hexagon shape was synthesized with a two-step method. → Sheet-like ZnO predecessor was synthesized at low temperature in open system. → The diameter and thickness of ZnO sheet can be controlled conveniently. → This low-cost and environmentally benign approach is controllable and reproducible. → Sheet-like ZnO may have potential application in optical and electrical devices. -- Abstract: Sheet-like ZnO with regular hexagon shape and uniform diameter has been successfully synthesized through a two-step method without any metal catalyst. First, the sheet-like ZnO precursor was synthesized in a weak alkaline carbamide environment with stirring in a constant temperature water-bath by the homogeneous precipitation method, then sheet-like ZnO was obtained by calcining at 600 o C for 2 h. The structures and optical properties of sheet-like ZnO have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL) and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The results reveal that the product is highly crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite phase and has appearance of hexagon at (0 0 0 1) plane. The HRTEM images confirm that the individual sheet-like ZnO is single crystal. The PL spectrum exhibits a narrow ultraviolet emission at 397 nm and a broad visible emission centering at 502 nm. The band gap of sheet-like ZnO is about 3.15 eV.

  2. Crystallinity improvement of ZnO nanorods by optimization of low-cost electrodeposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özdal, Teoman, E-mail: teomanozdal@hotmail.com; Taktakoğlu, Renna; Özdamar, Havva; Esen, Mehmet; Takçı, Deniz Kadir; Kavak, Hamide

    2015-10-01

    Extremely low-cost electrodeposition technique was developed to deposit ZnO nanorods. The growth process was performed using standard DC power supply, milliammeter and two-electrode electrochemical cell. The deposition was carried out on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates by changing deposition parameters such as cathodic deposition current and time, solution molarity and temperature. The parameters varied to obtain optimum transparent semiconductor material for optoelectronic applications. Structural characterizations by X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicate the formation of polycrystalline phase ZnO with strong c-axis orientation and were sensitive to deposition temperatures and molarity as well. Average optical transmittance for the best two ZnO nanorod series was around 60% and 42%, respectively. The optical energy band gap of the ZnO nanorods decreased from 3.24 eV to 3.21 eV as the deposition time increased. All the nanorods were n-type with a high carrier concentration of 1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} and low 1–2 × 10{sup −3} Ωcm resistivity. - Highlights: • n-Type ZnO nanorods were electrochemically deposited employing standard DC power supply and milliammeter. • ZnO nanorods show very good polycrystalline and electrical properties consistent with the literature. • ZnO nanorod structures are hexagonal wurtzite and highly oriented along the c-axis perpendicular to the substrates. • Produced ZnO nanorod structures show good transparent conductive oxide properties.

  3. Fabrication and Raman scattering of a core–shell structure based on Mn doped ZnO and barium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, M.; Baibarac, M.; Vasile, E.; Sima, Ma.; Mihut, L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO/BaTiO_3 nanorod array on FTO substrate. • Oxygen vacancies in the ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO nanostructure. • The interface between the ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO core and the BaTiO_3 shell without unwanted phases. - Abstract: A combination of chemical and thermal annealing techniques was used to prepare an array of ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO/BaTiO_3 nanorods. ZnO nanorod arrays were obtained by hydrothermal–electrochemical processes. The precursors for Zn_1_−_xMn_xO and BaTiO_3, prepared by sol–gel technique were deposited by spin coating on the surface of ZnO nanorods. Each deposition stage was accompanied by thermal treatment stages. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveal the presence of a film of Zn_1_−_xMn_xO with wurtzite structure on the surface of ZnO nanorods. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrate that a layer of BaTiO_3 is deposited on the surface of each ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO core shell nanorod. BaTiO_3 film onto the ZnO/Zn_1_−_xMn_xO core shell nanorods is also evidenced in Raman scattering by broadening of the Raman band situated in the spectral range 500–750 cm"−"1.

  4. Synthesis of ordered large-scale ZnO nanopore arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, G.Q.; Shen, W.Z.; Zheng, M.J.; Fan, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    An effective approach is demonstrated for growing ordered large-scale ZnO nanopore arrays through radio-frequency magnetron sputtering deposition on porous alumina membranes (PAMs). The realization of highly ordered hexagonal ZnO nanopore arrays benefits from the unique properties of ZnO (hexagonal structure, polar surfaces, and preferable growth directions) and PAMs (controllable hexagonal nanopores and localized negative charges). Further evidence has been shown through the effects of nanorod size and thermal treatment of PAMs on the yielded morphology of ZnO nanopore arrays. This approach opens the possibility of creating regular semiconducting nanopore arrays for the application of filters, sensors, and templates

  5. Morphological, structural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by dip coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marouf, Sara; Beniaiche, Abdelkrim; Guessas, Hocine, E-mail: aziziamor@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire des Systemes Photoniques et Optiques Non Lineaires, Institut d' Optique et Mecanique de Precision, Universite Ferhat Abbas-Setif 1, Setif (Algeria); Azizi, Amor [Laboratoire de Chimie, Ingenierie Moleculaire et Nanostructures, Universite Ferhat Abbas-Setif 1, Setif (Algeria)

    2017-01-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were deposited on glass substrate by dip coating technique. The effects of sol aging time on the deposition of ZnO films was studied by using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and optical transmission techniques. The morphology of the films strongly depends on preparation route and deposition technique. It is noteworthy that films deposited from the freshly prepared solution feature indistinct characteristics; had relatively poor crystalline quality and low optical transmittance in the visible region. The increase in sol aging time resulted in a gradual improvement in crystallinity (in terms of peak sharpness and peak intensity) of the hexagonal phase for all diffraction peaks. Effect of sol aging on optical transparency is quite obvious through increased transmission with prolonged sol aging time. Interestingly, 72-168 h sol aging time was found to be optimal to achieve smooth surface morphology, good crystallinity and high optical transmittance which were attributed to an ideal stability of solution. These findings present a better-defined and more versatile procedure for production of clean ZnO sols of readily adjustable nanocrystalline size. (author)

  6. Smoothing of ZnO films by gas cluster ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.; Liu, S.W.; Wang, X.M.; Iliev, M.N.; Chen, C.L.; Yu, X.K.; Liu, J.R.; Ma, K.; Chu, W.K.

    2005-01-01

    Planarization of wide-band-gap semiconductor ZnO surface is crucial for thin-film device performance. In this study, the rough initial surfaces of ZnO films deposited by r.f. magnetron sputtering on Si substrates were smoothed by gas cluster ion beams. AFM measurements show that the average surface roughness (R a ) of the ZnO films could be reduced considerably from 16.1 nm to 0.9 nm. Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the structure of both the as-grown and the smoothed ZnO films. Rutherford back-scattering in combination with channeling effect was used to study the damage production induced by the cluster bombardment

  7. Synthesis and characterization of flowerlike ZnO nanostructures via an ethylenediamine-meditated solution route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiangdong; Li Xiaomin; Yu Weidong

    2005-01-01

    Flowerlike ZnO nanostructures were deposited on Si substrate by choosing hexamethylenetetramine as the nucleation control reagent and ethylenediamine as the chelating and capping reagent. Structural and optical measurements reveal that obtained ZnO exhibits well-defined flowerlike morphology, hexagonal wurtzite structure, uniform distribution on substrate, and strong photoluminescence in ultraviolet band. The well-arrayed pedals of each ZnO flower possess the typical tapering feature, and are built up by many well-aligned ZnO nanorods. Moreover, each single nanorod building up the pedal exhibits the single crystal nature and the growth direction along c-axis. Effects of the precursor composition on the morphology of ZnO were discussed

  8. UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by the arc discharge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, F; Futter, J; Markwitz, A; Kennedy, J

    2009-01-01

    The UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by arc discharge have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy were carried out to analyze the morphology and optical properties of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods. Proton induced x-ray emission was used to probe the impurities in the ZnO nanorods. A large quantity of high purity ZnO nanorod structures were obtained with lengths of 0.5-1 μm. The diameters of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods were found to be between 40 and 400 nm. The nanorods interlace with each other, forming 3D networks which make them suitable for sensing application. The addition of a polymeric film-forming agent (BASF LUVISKOL VA 64) improved the conductivity, as it facilitates the construction of conducting networks. Ultrasonication helped to separate the ZnO nanorods and disperse them evenly through the polymeric agent. Improved photoconductivity was measured for a ZnO nanorod sensor annealed in air at 200 deg. C for 30 min. The ZnO nanorod sensors showed a UV-sensitive photoconduction, where the photocurrent increased by nearly four orders of magnitude from 2.7 x 10 -10 to 1.0 x 10 -6 A at 18 V under 340 nm UV illumination. High humidity sensitivity and good stability were also measured. The resistance of the ZnO nanorod sensor decreased almost linearly with increasing relative humidity (RH). The resistance of the ZnO nanorods changed by approximately five orders of magnitude from 4.35 x 10 11 Ω in dry air (7% RH) to about 4.95 x 10 6 Ω in 95% RH air. It is experimentally demonstrated that ZnO nanorods obtained by the arc discharge method show excellent performance and promise for applications in both UV and humidity sensors.

  9. Investigation on structure, electronic and magnetic properties of Cr doped (ZnO)12 clusters: First-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Zhang, Jian-Min

    2018-05-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of (ZnO)12 clusters doped with Cr atoms have been investigated by using spin-polarized first-principles calculations. The exohedral a3 isomer is favorable than endohedral a2 isomer. The isomer a1 and a5 respectively have the narrowest and biggest gap between highest unoccupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) of 0.473 and 1.291 eV among these five monodoped isomers. The magnetic moment may be related to the local environment around the Cr atom that the a2 isomer whose total magnetic moment is 6 μB while the other monodoped isomers which all isomers have nearly total magnetic moments 4 μB . For Cr-doped (ZnO)12 on a1 or a3 isomer, the DOS of spin-up channel cross the Fermi level EF showing a finite magnitude near the Fermi level which might be useful for half metallic character. For the bidoped cases, the exohedral isomers are found to be most favorable. Including all bipoed isomers of substitutional, exohedral and endohedral bidoped clusters, the total magnetic moment of the ferromagnetic (antiferromagnetic) state is 8 (0) μB and the HOMO-LUMO gap of antiferromagnetic state is slightly larger than that of ferromagnetic state. The magnetic coupling between the Cr atoms in bidoped configurations is mainly governed by the competition between direct Cr and Cr atoms antiferromagnetic interaction and the ferromagnetic interaction between two Cr atoms via O atom due to strong p-d hybridization. Most importantly, we show that the exohedral bidoped (ZnO)12 clusters favor the ferromagnetic state, which may have the future applications in spin-dependent magneto-optical and magneto-electrical devices.

  10. Positron annihilation spectroscopy: Applications to Si, ZnO, and multilayer semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, J. P.; Rohatgi, A.; Dewald, A. B.; Frost, R. L.; Pang, S. K.

    1989-11-01

    The potential of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) for defect characterization at the atomic scale in semiconductors is demonstrated for Si, ZnO, and multilayer structures, such as an AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell. The types of defects discussed include: i) vacancy complexes, oxygen impurities and dopants, ii) the influence of cooling rates on spatial non-uniformities in defects, and iii) characterization of buried interfaces. In sev-eral instances, the results of the PAS investigations are correlated with data from other established semiconductor characterization techniques.

  11. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A. [Rice University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States); Benedetto, Angelo F. [Rice University, Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (United States); Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L., E-mail: colvin@rice.edu [Rice University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2011-09-15

    TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO{sub 2} pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions {approx}25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  12. Simple Fabrication Process for 2D ZnO Nanowalls and Their Potential Application as a Methane Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Shuo Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D ZnO nanowalls were prepared on a glass substrate by a low-temperature thermal evaporation method, in which the fabrication process did not use a metal catalyst or the pre-deposition of a ZnO seed layer on the substrate. The nanowalls were characterized for their surface morphology, and the structural and optical properties were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL. The fabricated ZnO nanowalls have many advantages, such as low growth temperature and good crystal quality, while being fast, low cost, and easy to fabricate. Methane sensor measurements of the ZnO nanowalls show a high sensitivity to methane gas, and rapid response and recovery times. These unique characteristics are attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the ZnO nanowalls. Thus, the ZnO nanowall methane sensor is a potential gas sensor candidate owing to its good performance.

  13. Photoluminescence of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Kuo-Sheng; Shih, Wei-Che; Ye, Wei-Tsuen; Cheng, Da-Long

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated surface acoustic wave devices with an Al/ZnO/Si structure for use in ultraviolet sensors. ZnO thin films were fabricated using a reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The substrate temperature of ZnO thin films can be varied to obtain highly crystalline properties. The surface morphologies and c-axis preferred orientation of the ZnO thin films were determined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. In addition, bright-field images of ZnO crystallization were investigated using a transmission electron microscope. From photoluminescence analysis, four peaks were obtained at 377.8, 384.9, 391.4, and 403.4 nm. Interdigital transducers of an aluminum electrode were fabricated on the ZnO/Si structure by using a direct current sputtering system and photolithography, combined with the lift-off method, thereby obtaining a surface acoustic wave device. Finally, frequency responses were measured using a network analyzer, and an illuminating test was adopted for the ultraviolet sensor, using a wavelength of 355 nm from a light-emitting diode. The sensitivities of the ultraviolet sensor were also discussed. - Highlights: • The ZnO/Si SAW devices exhibit the Rayleigh and Sezawa modes. • The crystalline of ZnO affects the EHP recombination and generation. • The PL spectrum of ZnO shows Gaussian fitting distributions. • The CTD_U_V is influenced by SAW types and ZnO film characteristics.

  14. Photoluminescence of ZnO thin films deposited at various substrate temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Kuo-Sheng [Department of Computer and Communication, SHU-TE University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Shih, Wei-Che [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Ye, Wei-Tsuen [Department of Computer and Communication, SHU-TE University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Da-Long, E-mail: dlcheng@stu.edu.tw [Department of Computer and Communication, SHU-TE University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-30

    This study investigated surface acoustic wave devices with an Al/ZnO/Si structure for use in ultraviolet sensors. ZnO thin films were fabricated using a reactive radio frequency magnetron sputtering system. The substrate temperature of ZnO thin films can be varied to obtain highly crystalline properties. The surface morphologies and c-axis preferred orientation of the ZnO thin films were determined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. In addition, bright-field images of ZnO crystallization were investigated using a transmission electron microscope. From photoluminescence analysis, four peaks were obtained at 377.8, 384.9, 391.4, and 403.4 nm. Interdigital transducers of an aluminum electrode were fabricated on the ZnO/Si structure by using a direct current sputtering system and photolithography, combined with the lift-off method, thereby obtaining a surface acoustic wave device. Finally, frequency responses were measured using a network analyzer, and an illuminating test was adopted for the ultraviolet sensor, using a wavelength of 355 nm from a light-emitting diode. The sensitivities of the ultraviolet sensor were also discussed. - Highlights: • The ZnO/Si SAW devices exhibit the Rayleigh and Sezawa modes. • The crystalline of ZnO affects the EHP recombination and generation. • The PL spectrum of ZnO shows Gaussian fitting distributions. • The CTD{sub UV} is influenced by SAW types and ZnO film characteristics.

  15. A Simple Method for the Preparation of ZnO Prickly Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da Zhi LI; Xin Yu SONG; Si Xiu SUN; Jin Xin GUO

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of ZnO prickly spheres using precipitation followed by heating treatment was investigated. Zn(OH)2 precursor was prepared by precipitation process using Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O in mixed 1-propanol-water solvent. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as the anionic surfactant was added to control the morphology. The size and structure of ZnO prickly spheres were studied using XRD, TEM and SEM. The results showed that the morphologies and size of the spheres strongly depended on the volume ratio of 1-propanol /water and molar ratio of SDS/Zn2+. ZnO prickly spheres composed of nanorods could be obtained, when the volume ratio of 1-propanol/water = 2:3 and the molar ratio of Zn2+/SDS ≈ 450:1.

  16. Synthesis and properties of ZnO nanorods as ethanol gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabbaszadeh, K; Mehrabian, M

    2012-01-01

    Uniform ZnO nanorods were synthesized via the sol-gel process under mild conditions in which different ZnO nanostructures have been prepared by changing the pH of growth solution. It was seen that the optimum nanorods were grown at pH 11.33. The prepared ZnO nanostructures and morphologies were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements. The ZnO one-dimensional nanostructures were found to have a wurtzite hexagonal crystalline structure and grow along the [001] direction. The optimum nanorods were about 1 μm in length and less than 100 nm in diameter. The ZnO nanostructures have been tested for different concentrations and different operating temperatures for ethanol vapor in air and the surface resistance of the sensors has been evaluated as a function of different parameters. The gas sensor fabricated from ZnO nanorods grown in solution with a special pH exhibited good performance. The sensor response to 5000 ppm ethanol was up to about 2.5 at the operating temperature of 300 °C. The differences in gas-sensing performance between the sensors were analyzed based on the defects created in the nanorods during their fast growth. The correlations between material structures and the properties of the gas sensors are discussed.

  17. Thermal expansivity and bulk modulus of ZnO with NaCl-type cubic structure at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaowei; Liu Zijiang; Chen Qifeng; Chu Yandong; Wang Chengwei

    2006-01-01

    The thermal expansivity and bulk modulus of ZnO with NaCl-type cubic structure were estimated by using the constant temperature and pressure molecular dynamics technique with effective pair potentials which consist of the Coulomb, dispersion, and repulsion interaction at high pressures and temperatures. It is shown that the calculated thermodynamic parameters including linear thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal bulk modulus and its pressure derivative are in good agreement with the available experimental data and the latest theoretical results. At an extended pressure and temperature ranges, linear thermal expansion coefficient and isothermal bulk modus have also been predicted. The thermodynamic properties of ZnO with NaCl-type cubic structure are summarized in the pressure 0-150 GPa ranges and the temperature up to 3000 K

  18. Construction of 3D Arrays of Cylindrically Hierarchical Structures with ZnO Nanorods Hydrothermally Synthesized on Optical Fiber Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weixuan Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With ZnO nanorods hydrothermally synthesized on manually assembled arrays of optical fiber cores, 3D arrays of ZnO nanorod-based cylindrically hierarchical structures with nominal pitch 250 μm or 375 μm were constructed. Based on micrographs of scanning electron microscopy and image processing operators of MATLAB software, the 3D arrays of cylindrically hierarchical structures were quantitatively characterized. The values of the actual diameters, the actual pitches, and the parallelism errors suggest that the process capability of the manual assembling is sufficient and the quality of the 3D arrays of cylindrically hierarchical structures is acceptable. The values of the characteristic parameters such as roughness, skewness, kurtosis, correlation length, and power spectrum density show that the surface morphologies of the cylindrically hierarchical structures not only were affected significantly by Zn2+ concentration of the growth solution but also were anisotropic due to different curvature radii of the optical fiber core at side and front view.

  19. CBE growth of high-quality ZnO epitaxial layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shaer, A.; Bakin, A.; Mofor, A.C.; Kreye, M.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Blaesing, J.; Krost, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Stoimenos, J. [Physics Department, Aristotele University, Univ. Campus, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pecz, B. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Heuken, M. [Aixtron AG, Kackertstr. 15-17, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Further improvements on the recently reported novel approach to zinc oxide Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) are presented. Hydrogen peroxide is employed as a very efficient novel oxidant. ZnO layers with a thickness from 100 nm to 600 nm were grown on c-sapphire using a MgO buffer. PL-mapping as well as conductivity mapping shows a good uniformity across the 2 inch ZnO-on-sapphire epiwafers. The measured surface roughness for the best layers is as low as 0.26 nm. HRXRD measurements of the obtained ZnO layers show excellent quality of the single crystalline ZnO. The FWHM of the HRXRD (0002) rocking curves measured for the 2 inch ZnO-on-sapphire wafers is as low as 27 arcsec with a very high lateral homogeneity across the whole wafer. Plane view HRTEM observations reveal the very good quality of the ZnO films. The results indicate that CBE is a suitable technique to fabricate ZnO of very high structural quality, which can eventually be used as an alternative to bulk ZnO substrates. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Electric field gradient calculation at atomic site of In implanted ZnO samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Leyva, A.; Pinnera; Van Espen, P.; Perez, C.

    2011-01-01

    The electric field gradient (EFG) calculated for 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted ZnO samples is reported. The study was made for ideal hexagonal ZnO structures and super-cells considering the In implantation environment at the cation site using the 'WIEN2k' code within the GGA(+U) approximation. The obtained EFG values are in good agreement with the experimental reports for ideal ZnO and 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted structures; measured by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The attribution of substitutional incorporation of 111 In at the ZnO cation site after annealing was confirmed. (Author)

  1. Microstructure, electronic structure and optical properties of combustion synthesized Co doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinatha, N. [Department of Physics, JB Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India); Nair, K.G.M. [UGC-DAE-CSR, Kalpakkam Node, Kalpakkam, Kokilamedu 603102 (India); Angadi, Basavaraj, E-mail: brangadi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, JB Campus, Bangalore University, Bangalore 560056 (India)

    2015-10-01

    We report on the microstructure, electronic structure and optical properties of nanocrystalline Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O (x=0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07) particles prepared by solution combustion technique using L-Valine as fuel. The detailed structural and micro-structural studies were carried out by XRD, HRTEM and TEM-SAED respectively, which confirms the formation of single phased, nano-sized particles. The electronic structure was determined through NEXAFS and atomic multiplet calculations/simulations performed for various symmetries and valence states of ‘Co’ to determine the valance state, symmetry and crystal field splitting. The correlations between the experimental NEXAFS spectra and atomic multiplet simulations, confirms that, ‘Co’ present is in the 2+ valence state and substituted at the ‘Zn’ site in tetrahedral symmetry with crystal field splitting, 10Dq =−0.6 eV. The optical properties and ‘Co’ induced defect formation of as-synthesized materials were examined by using diffuse reflectance and Photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. Red-shift of band gap energy (E{sub g}) was observed in Zn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}O samples due to Co (0.58 Å) substitution at Zn (0.60 Å) site of the host ZnO. Also, in PL spectra, a prominent pre-edge peak corresponds to ultraviolet (UV) emission around 360–370 nm was observed with Co concentration along with near band edge emission (NBE) of the wide band gap ZnO and all samples show emission in the blue region.

  2. Diameter-dependence of the electronic structures of the ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, J.W.; Kumar, K.P.K.; Jan, J.C.; Tsai, H.M.; Bao, C.W.; Pong, W.F.; Tsai, M.-H.; Hong, I.-H.; Klauser, R.; Lee, J.F.; Wu, J.J.; Liu, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: O K-, Zn L3- and K-edges x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra and scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM) spectra were measured for the ZnO nanorods with various diameters to study their electronic structures. Analysis of the XANES spectra revealed that charge transfer from the O 2p to Zn 3d states is enhanced with the decrease of the nanorod diameter. The charge transfer due to O 2p-Zn 3d hybridization is found to be compensated by the Zn 4p to O 2p charge transfer due to O 2p-Zn 4p rehybridization in consistence with the Zn 3d SPEM results. The valence-band photoemission spectra show changes in the electronic structures, especially near to the Fermi level, with the decrease of the nanorod diameter due to surface effect and/or local electrostatic polarization

  3. Structural Characterization and Magnetic Properties of Undoped and Ti-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Prepared by Modified Oxalate Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekane Peter Etape

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-doped zinc oxide and pure zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a modified oxalate route using Averrhoa carambola fruit juice as a natural source of oxalate. The characteristics of the precursors have been investigated by FTIR, TGA, and XRD. The results from the investigation revealed that the precursors are zinc oxalate and Ti-doped zinc oxalate which readily decompose at 450°C. The as-prepared precursors were calcined at 450°C for 4 hours, and the decomposition products have been characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, and VSM. XRD results revealed crystallinity with hexagonal wurtzite structure, while the average grain size was found to be 26 nm for Ti-doped ZnO and 29 nm for ZnO, using calculations based on Debye-Scherrer equation. Furthermore, the morphological studies by SEM showed particle agglomeration, while the presence of Ti3+ in the zinc oxide lattice is indicated by EDS analysis. Finally the hysteresis loop from VSM results shows that Ti-doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetism.

  4. Identifying the influence of the intrinsic defects in Gd-doped ZnO thin-films

    KAUST Repository

    Flemban, Tahani H.; Sequeira, M. C.; Zhang, Z.; Venkatesh, S.; Alves, E.; Lorenz, K.; Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-01-01

    Gd-doped ZnO thin films were prepared using pulsed laser deposition at different oxygen pressures and varied Gd concentrations. The effects of oxygen deficiency-related defects on the Gd incorporation, optical and structural properties, were explored by studying the impact of oxygen pressure during deposition and post-growth thermal annealing in vacuum. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry revealed that the Gd concentration increases with increasing oxygen pressure for samples grown with the same Gd-doped ZnO target. Unexpectedly, the c-lattice parameter of the samples tends to decrease with increasing Gd concentration, suggesting that Gd-defect complexes play an important role in the structural properties. Using low-temperature photoluminescence(PL), Raman measurements and density functional theory calculations, we identified oxygen vacancies as the dominant intrinsic point defects. PL spectra show a defect band related to oxygen vacancies for samples grown at oxygen deficiency.

  5. Identifying the influence of the intrinsic defects in Gd-doped ZnO thin-films

    KAUST Repository

    Flemban, Tahani H.

    2016-02-08

    Gd-doped ZnO thin films were prepared using pulsed laser deposition at different oxygen pressures and varied Gd concentrations. The effects of oxygen deficiency-related defects on the Gd incorporation, optical and structural properties, were explored by studying the impact of oxygen pressure during deposition and post-growth thermal annealing in vacuum. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry revealed that the Gd concentration increases with increasing oxygen pressure for samples grown with the same Gd-doped ZnO target. Unexpectedly, the c-lattice parameter of the samples tends to decrease with increasing Gd concentration, suggesting that Gd-defect complexes play an important role in the structural properties. Using low-temperature photoluminescence(PL), Raman measurements and density functional theory calculations, we identified oxygen vacancies as the dominant intrinsic point defects. PL spectra show a defect band related to oxygen vacancies for samples grown at oxygen deficiency.

  6. III-nitrides on oxygen- and zinc-face ZnO substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Burnham, Shawn; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Trybus, Elaissa; Doolittle, W. Alan; Losurdo, Maria; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni; Nemeth, Bill; Nause, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of III-nitrides grown on zinc- and oxygen-face ZnO by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern indicates formation of a cubic phase at the interface between III-nitride and both Zn- and O-face ZnO. The polarity indicates that Zn-face ZnO leads to a single polarity, while O-face ZnO forms mixed polarity of III-nitrides. Furthermore, by using a vicinal ZnO substrate, the terrace-step growth of GaN was realized with a reduction by two orders of magnitude in the dislocation-related etch pit density to ∼10 8 cm -2 , while a dislocation density of ∼10 10 cm -2 was obtained on the on-axis ZnO substrates

  7. Magnetism in Sc-doped ZnO with zinc vacancies: A hybrid density functional and GGA + U approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed; Goumri-Said, Souraya; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Manchon, Aurelien

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the zinc vacancy effects on the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Sc-doped ZnO, by performing first-principles calculations within both GGA + U and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional methods. We find that Sc impurities stabilize considerably Zn vacancies. The electronic and magnetic analysis shows a half metallic ferromagnetic character with a total magnetic moment of 2.01 μ B. The magnetism mainly stems from the O 2p states around the Zn vacancies. Calculations with the hybrid density functional agree with the GGA + U results but give an accurate description of the electronic structure for pure ZnO and Sc-doped ZnO with Zn vacancies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetism in Sc-doped ZnO with zinc vacancies: A hybrid density functional and GGA + U approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Kanoun, Mohammed

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the zinc vacancy effects on the electronic structures and magnetic properties of Sc-doped ZnO, by performing first-principles calculations within both GGA + U and Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof hybrid functional methods. We find that Sc impurities stabilize considerably Zn vacancies. The electronic and magnetic analysis shows a half metallic ferromagnetic character with a total magnetic moment of 2.01 μ B. The magnetism mainly stems from the O 2p states around the Zn vacancies. Calculations with the hybrid density functional agree with the GGA + U results but give an accurate description of the electronic structure for pure ZnO and Sc-doped ZnO with Zn vacancies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synthesis of ZnO nanopencils using wet chemical method and its investigation as LPG sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimpi, Navinchand