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Sample records for zno nanocrystals experimental

  1. Ferromagnetism in Fe-doped ZnO Nanocrystals: Experimental and Theoretical investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Karmakar, Debjani; Mandal, S. K.; Kadam, R. M.; Paulose, P. L.; Rajarajan, A. K.; Nath, T. K.; Das, A. K.; Dasgupta, I.; Das, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals are successfully synthesized and structurally characterized by using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetization measurements on the same system reveal a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition temperature > 450 K with a low-temperature transition from ferromagnetic to spin-glass state due to canting of the disordered surface spins in the nanoparticle system. Local magnetic probes like EPR and Mossbauer indicate the presence of Fe in both v...

  2. Processing of ZnO nanocrystals by solochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusatti, M.; Speckhahn, R.; Silva, L.A.; Rosario, J.A.; Lima, R.B.; Kuhnen, N.C.; Riella, H.G.; Campos, C.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, we report the synthesis of high quality ZnO nanocrystals by solochemical technique. This synthetic strategy has been shown to have advantages over other methods of producing nanostructures in terms of low cost, efficiency, simplicity and uniformity of crystal structure. Zinc chloride solution at room temperature was mixed with sodium hydroxide solution at 50°C to produce ZnO nanocrystals. Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the ZnO nanocrystals obtained. The structure of ZnO was refined by the Rietveld Method from X-ray diffraction data. These methods showed that the product consisted of pure ZnO nanocrystals and has, predominantly, a rod-like morphology. (author)

  3. Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals via ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qian, D.; Jiang, Jianzhong; Hansen, P. L.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents for the precipit......A simple and rapid process has been developed for the preparation of nanometer-sized ZnO crystals via ultrasonic irradiation, by which pure ZnO nanocrystals with an average size of 6 nm and narrow size distribution can be synthesized in a short time and without using any solvents...

  4. Photoluminescence properties of Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lommens, P.; Smet, P.F.; De Mello Donega, C.

    2006-01-01

    We performed photoluminescence experiments on colloidal, Co -doped ZnO nanocrystals in order to study the electronic properties of Co in a ZnO host. Room temperature measurements showed, next to the ZnO exciton and trap emission, an additional emission related to the Co dopant. The spectral...... position and width of this emission does not depend on particle size or Co concentration. At 8 K, a series of ZnO bulk phonon replicas appear on the Co-emission band. We conclude that Co ions are strongly localized in the ZnO host, making the formation of a Co d-band unlikely. Magnetic measurements...

  5. Acceptors in ZnO nanocrystals: A reinterpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlhoff, W.; Hoffmann, A.

    2012-12-01

    In a recent article, Teklemichael et al. reported on the identification of an uncompensated acceptor in ZnO nanocrystals using infrared spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the dark and under illumination. Most of their conclusions, interpretations, and suggestions turned out to be erroneous. The observed EPR signals were interpreted to originate from axial and nonaxial VZn-H defects. We show that the given interpretation of the EPR results is based on misinterpretations of EPR spectra arising from defects in nanocrystals. The explanation of the infrared absorption lines is in conflict with recent results of valence band ordering and valence band splitting.

  6. ZnO nanocrystals and allied materials

    CERN Document Server

    Okada, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    ZnO has been the central theme of research in the past decade due to its various applications in band gap engineering, and textile and biomedical industries. In nanostructured form, it offers ample opportunities to realize tunable optical and optoelectronic properties and it was also termed as a potential material to realize room temperature ferromagnetism. This book presents 17 high-quality contributory chapters on ZnO related systems written by experts in this field. These chapters will help researchers to understand and explore the varied physical properties to envisage device applications of ZnO in thin film, heterostructure and nanostructure forms.

  7. Thermally induced growth of ZnO nanocrystals on mixed metal oxide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat, Alexandra; Makky, Ayman; Giraldo, Jose; Kuhnt, Andreas; Busse, Corinna; Schwieger, Wilhelm

    2014-06-23

    An in situ method for the growth of ZnO nanocrystals on Zn/Al mixed metal oxide (MMO) surfaces is presented. The key to this method is the thermal treatment of Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (Zn/Al LDHs) in the presence of nitrate anions, which results in partial demixing of the LDH/MMO structure and the subsequent crystallization of ZnO crystals on the surface of the forming MMO layers. In a first experimental series, thermal treatment of Zn/Al LDHs with different fractions of nitrate and carbonate in the interlayer space was examined by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectrometry (TG-MS) and in situ XRD. In a second experimental series, Zn/Al LDHs with only carbonate in the interlayer space were thermally treated in the presence of different amounts of an external nitrate source (NH4NO3). All obtained Zn/Al MMO samples were analysed by electron microscopy, nitrogen physisorption and powder X-ray diffraction. The gas phase formed during nitrate decomposition turned out to be responsible for the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles. Accordingly, both interlayer nitrate and the presence of ammonium nitrate led to the formation of supported ZnO nanocrystals with mean diameters between 100 and 400 nm, and both methods offer the possibility to tailor the amount and size of the ZnO crystals by means of the amount of nitrate. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Strong blue emission from ZnO nanocrystals synthesized in acetone-based solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efafi, B.; Majles Ara, M.H.; Mousavi, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this research, ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by an improved sol–gel method. UV–vis, FTIR and photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO solution synthesized by this route indicated different properties compared to the other preparation methods. It was observed from FTIR that the sol (prepared using acetone) with the low concentration contains a noticeable amount of the Zn–O bond. The PL spectrum with a strong blue emission confirmed that these nanocrystals are good candidate for use in applications where a monochromatic emission is required. To the best of our knowledge, monochromatic emission ZnO devices have been fabricated through high technology instruments but this paper introduces a simple method for preparation of ZnO with the high intensity blue peak. The size and morphology of ZnO nanocrystals have been studied using FESEM. The nanocrystal size was estimated about 70 nm which was in good agreement with XRD data. - Highlights: • Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals through a novel method by the use of acetone as the solvent. • Observation of the strong blue emission peak from the ZnO prepared solution. • Reduction of green emission in the synthesized sample compared to the other methods of preparation.

  9. Strong blue emission from ZnO nanocrystals synthesized in acetone-based solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efafi, B. [NanoPhotonics Lab., Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Departments of Physics, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Majles Ara, M.H., E-mail: majlesara@gmail.com [NanoPhotonics Lab., Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, S.S. [NanoPhotonics Lab., Physics Department, Kharazmi University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this research, ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by an improved sol–gel method. UV–vis, FTIR and photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO solution synthesized by this route indicated different properties compared to the other preparation methods. It was observed from FTIR that the sol (prepared using acetone) with the low concentration contains a noticeable amount of the Zn–O bond. The PL spectrum with a strong blue emission confirmed that these nanocrystals are good candidate for use in applications where a monochromatic emission is required. To the best of our knowledge, monochromatic emission ZnO devices have been fabricated through high technology instruments but this paper introduces a simple method for preparation of ZnO with the high intensity blue peak. The size and morphology of ZnO nanocrystals have been studied using FESEM. The nanocrystal size was estimated about 70 nm which was in good agreement with XRD data. - Highlights: • Preparation of ZnO nanocrystals through a novel method by the use of acetone as the solvent. • Observation of the strong blue emission peak from the ZnO prepared solution. • Reduction of green emission in the synthesized sample compared to the other methods of preparation.

  10. Soluble Supercapacitors: Large and Reversible Charge Storage in Colloidal Iron-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Carl K; Zhou, Dongming; Liu, Hongbin; Li, Xiaosong; Kittilstved, Kevin R; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2018-05-09

    Colloidal ZnO semiconductor nanocrystals have previously been shown to accumulate multiple delocalized conduction-band electrons under chemical, electrochemical, or photochemical reducing conditions, leading to emergent semimetallic characteristics such as quantum plasmon resonances and raising prospects for application in multielectron redox transformations. Here, we demonstrate a dramatic enhancement in the capacitance of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals through aliovalent Fe 3+ -doping. Very high areal and volumetric capacitances (33 μF cm -2 , 233 F cm -3 ) are achieved in Zn 0.99 Fe 0.01 O nanocrystals that rival those of the best supercapacitors used in commercial energy-storage devices. The redox properties of these nanocrystals are probed by potentiometric titration and optical spectroscopy. These data indicate an equilibrium between electron localization by Fe 3+ dopants and electron delocalization within the ZnO conduction band, allowing facile reversible charge storage and removal. As "soluble supercapacitors", colloidal iron-doped ZnO nanocrystals constitute a promising class of solution-processable electronic materials with large charge-storage capacity attractive for future energy-storage applications.

  11. Quenching of photoluminescence of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals by nitronyl nitroxide radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroyuk, Oleksandr L., E-mail: stroyuk@inphyschem-nas.kiev.ua [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky avenue, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Yakovenko, Anastasiya V.; Raevskaya, Oleksandra E. [L.V. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 31 Nauky avenue, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Plyusnin, Victor F. [Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Quenching of the photoluminescence of colloidal zinc oxide nanocrystals by a series of stable nitronyl nitroxide radicals was studied by means of stationary and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy. Among the studied radicals the most efficient quenchers of the ZnO luminescence are the carboxyl-substituted species. The meta-substituted radical was found to be a more active quencher, than para-substituted one due to a closer proximity of the radical center to the nanocrystals surface. The PL quenching has a complex dynamic/static character. The dynamic quenching arises from photocatalytic radical reduction by ZnO conduction band electrons, while the static quenching is caused by adsorption of the photoreduction products on the nanocrystal surface. The non-substituted and OH-substituted radicals are inferior to the products of their photoreduction in capability of adsorption of the ZnO surface, and the quenching is dominated by interactions between the nanocrystals and photoreduced hydroxylamines. In case of COOH-substituted radicals, however, the radicals compete with the photoreduction products for the surface sites of ZnO nanocrystals resulting in a dynamic character of photoluminescence quenching.

  12. A dual-colored bio-marker made of doped ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y L; Zeng, X T [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore); Fu, S; Kwek, L C [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, 637616 (Singapore); Tok, A I Y; Boey, F C Y [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Lim, C S [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)

    2008-08-27

    Bio-compatible ZnO nanocrystals doped with Co, Cu and Ni cations, surface capped with two types of aminosilanes and titania are synthesized by a soft chemical process. Due to the small particle size (2-5 nm), surface functional groups and the high photoluminescence emissions at the UV and blue-violet wavelength ranges, bio-imaging on human osteosarcoma (Mg-63) cells and histiocytic lymphoma U-937 monocyte cells showed blue emission at the nucleus and bright turquoise emission at the cytoplasm simultaneously. This is the first report on dual-color bio-images labeled by one semiconductor nanocrystal colloidal solution. Bright green emission was detected on mung bean seedlings labeled by all the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals. Cytotoxicity tests showed that the aminosilanes capped nanoparticles are non-toxic. Quantum yields of the nanocrystals varied from 79% to 95%. The results showed the potential of the pure ZnO and Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals for live imaging of both human cells and plant systems.

  13. Efficient solution route to transparent ZnO semiconductor films using colloidal nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suehiro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanocrystals (NCs were synthesized by heating Zn (II acetylacetonate in oleic acid/oleylamine in the presence of 1,2-hexadecanediol at 220 °C. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS measurements revealed the formation of monodispersed ZnO NCs of ca. 7 nm. ZnO NC assembled films were fabricated on a glass substrate by deposition with the colloidal ZnO NCs dispersed in toluene. The film composed of the NCs showed good optical transparency in the visible to near-infrared region. A device coupling the ZnO NC film with a p-type Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS NC film exhibited an obvious diode-like current–voltage behavior. The results suggest that the transparent ZnO film has a potentiality to be used for an n-type window layer in some optoelectronic applications.

  14. Self-assembled ultra small ZnO nanocrystals for dye-sensitized solar cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patra, Astam K.; Dutta, Arghya; Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a facile chemical approach to produce self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous zinc oxide nanocrystals using sodium salicylate (SS) as a template under hydrothermal conditions. These ZnO nanomaterials have been successfully fabricated as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in the presence of N719 dye and iodine–triiodide electrolyte. The structural features, crystallinity, purity, mesophase and morphology of the nanostructure ZnO are investigated by several characterization tools. N{sub 2} sorption analysis revealed high surface areas (203 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and narrow pore size distributions (5.1–5.4 nm) for different samples. The mesoporous structure and strong photoluminescence facilitates the high dye loading at the mesoscopic void spaces and light harvesting in DSSC. By utilizing this ultra-small ZnO photoelectrode with film thickness of about 7 μm in the DSSC with an open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.74 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 3.83 mA cm{sup −2} and an overall power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved. - Graphical abstract: Ultra-small ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized with sodium salicylate as a template and using it as a photoanode in a dye-sensitized solar cell 1.12% power conversion efficiency has been observed. - Highlights: • Synthesis of self-assembled ultra-small mesoporous ZnO nanocrystals by using sodium salicylate as a template. • Mesoporous ZnO materials have high BET surface areas and void space. • ZnO nanoparticles serve as a photoanode for the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). • Using ZnO nanocrystals as photoelectrode power conversion efficiency of 1.12% has been achieved.

  15. Microstructural and photoluminescence properties of sol–gel derived Tb3+ doped ZnO nanocrystals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kabongo, GL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Un-doped and Tb(Sup3+) doped ZnO nanocrystals with different concentrations of Tb(Sup3+) were synthesized by a sol–gel method and their photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated. The successful incorporation of Tb(sup3+) ions...

  16. Potentiometric Titrations for Measuring the Capacitance of Colloidal Photodoped ZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozek, Carl K; Hartstein, Kimberly H; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2016-08-24

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals offer a unique opportunity to bridge molecular and bulk semiconductor redox phenomena. Here, potentiometric titration is demonstrated as a method for quantifying the Fermi levels and charging potentials of free-standing colloidal n-type ZnO nanocrystals possessing between 0 and 20 conduction-band electrons per nanocrystal, corresponding to carrier densities between 0 and 1.2 × 10(20) cm(-3). Potentiometric titration of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals has not been described previously, and little precedent exists for analogous potentiometric titration of any soluble reductants involving so many electrons. Linear changes in Fermi level vs charge-carrier density are observed for each ensemble of nanocrystals, with slopes that depend on the nanocrystal size. Analysis indicates that the ensemble nanocrystal capacitance is governed by classical surface electrical double layers, showing no evidence of quantum contributions. Systematic shifts in the Fermi level are also observed with specific changes in the identity of the charge-compensating countercation. As a simple and contactless alternative to more common thin-film-based voltammetric techniques, potentiometric titration offers a powerful new approach for quantifying the redox properties of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of surfactant assisted Mn2+ doped ZnO nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shanmugam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis and characterization of Mn doped ZnO nanocrystals, both in the free standing and PVP capped particle forms. The nanocrystals size could be controlled by capping them with polyvinylpyrollidone and was estimated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical compositions of the products were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy measurements reveal that the capping of ZnO leads to blue shift due to quantum confinement effect. The morphology of the particles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Both the Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA curves of the ZnO show no further weight loss and thermal effect at a temperature above 510 °C.

  18. Single and couple doping ZnO nanocrystals characterized by positron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasang, Tenzin; Namratha, Keerthiraj; Byrappa, Kullaiah; Guagliardo, Paul; Ranganathaiah, Chikkakuntappa; Samarin, S; Williams, J F

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals have been synthesized using a mild hydrothermal process using low temperatures and pressures with the advantages of free growth catalyst, low cost and alternative technology. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopic methods have been used to investigate the roles of single- and co-dopants and native defects of the ZnO nanocrystals controlled by the synthesis process. It is shown that single Ag 1+ and Pd 2+ dopants occupy interstitial sites of the ZnO lattice and single Ru 3+ doping replaces Zn vacancies substitutionally with a significant effect on the CDB momentum ratio curves when compared using ZnO as the reference spectrum. The co-doping of the ZnO lattice with (Sn 4+ + Co 2+ ) shows similar CDB ratios as Ru 3+ single-doping. Also co-doping with (Ag 1+ + Pd 2+ ) or (Ag 1+ + W 6+ ) shows significant decreases in the band gap energy up to about 12.6% compared to single doping. The momentum ratio curves, referenced to undoped ZnO, indicate dopants in interstitial and substitutional sites. The presence of transition metal ions interstitially will trap electrons which resist the recombination of electrons and in turn affect the conductivity of the material. (paper)

  19. Single and couple doping ZnO nanocrystals characterized by positron techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasang, Tenzin; Namratha, Keerthiraj; Guagliardo, Paul; Byrappa, Kullaiah; Ranganathaiah, Chikkakuntappa; Samarin, S.; Williams, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals have been synthesized using a mild hydrothermal process using low temperatures and pressures with the advantages of free growth catalyst, low cost and alternative technology. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopic methods have been used to investigate the roles of single- and co-dopants and native defects of the ZnO nanocrystals controlled by the synthesis process. It is shown that single Ag1+ and Pd2+ dopants occupy interstitial sites of the ZnO lattice and single Ru3+ doping replaces Zn vacancies substitutionally with a significant effect on the CDB momentum ratio curves when compared using ZnO as the reference spectrum. The co-doping of the ZnO lattice with (Sn4+ + Co2+) shows similar CDB ratios as Ru3+ single-doping. Also co-doping with (Ag1+ + Pd2+) or (Ag1+ + W6+) shows significant decreases in the band gap energy up to about 12.6% compared to single doping. The momentum ratio curves, referenced to undoped ZnO, indicate dopants in interstitial and substitutional sites. The presence of transition metal ions interstitially will trap electrons which resist the recombination of electrons and in turn affect the conductivity of the material.

  20. Growth of ZnO nanocrystals in silica by rf co-sputter deposition and post-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Kumar, V.V.; Singh, F.; Kumar, Amit; Avasthi, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    Thin films with ZnO nanocrystals in silica were synthesized by rf reactive magnetron co-sputter deposition and post-annealing. The films were deposited from a ZnO/Si composite target in an rf oxygen plasma. The deposited films were annealed in air/vacuum at high temperatures to grow ZnO nanocrystals. The deposited and annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), uv-vis spectroscopy (UV-VIS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements. FT-IR results of the films show the vibrational features of Si-O-Si and Zn-O bonds. UV-VIS spectra of the deposited film shows the band edge of ZnO. The XRD results of the films annealed at 750 deg. C and 1000 deg. C indicate the growth of ZnO nanocrystals with average crystallite sizes between 7 nm and 26 nm. PL measurements of the deposited film show a broad visible luminescence peak which can be due to ZnO. These results suggest the growth of ZnO nanocrystals in silica matrix

  1. Effect of different precursors in the chemical synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusatti, M.; Barroso, G.S.; Souza, D.A.R.; Rosario, J.A.; Lima, R.B.; Silva, L.A.; Riella, H.G.; Kuhnen, N.C.; Campos, C.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the effect of ZnCl 2 and Zn(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O precursors in the synthesis of ZnO nanocrystals. The materials were obtained at a temperature of 90 deg C by a simple solochemical route. The resulting samples were characterized with respect to the determination of the formed phases, particle size and morphology, using the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These characterization techniques confirmed that the sample obtained with Zn(NO 3 ) 2. 6H 2 O has hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO and dimensions in the nanoscale. However, the material formed with ZnCl 2 was composed of a mixture of the ZnO phase and another correspondent to the Zn 5 (OH) 8 Cl 2 .H 2 O phase. For both precursors, the predominant morphology of the obtained ZnO nanocrystals is rod- like structure.(author)

  2. Colloidal Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals: Facile low temperature synthesis, characterization and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, A. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: ansing@barc.gov.in; Achary, S.N.; Tyagi, A.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Manna, P.K.; Yusuf, S.M. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-09-25

    Colloidal Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals, Zn{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}O (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1) have been prepared by thermal decomposition of metal precursors at 200 deg. C with hexadecylamine (HDA) as solvent and surfactant. The nanocrystals so prepared can be easily dispersed in non-polar solvents like chloroform and toluene. The nanocrystals have been structurally characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Magnetization measurements on a representative sample, Zn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}O using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) reveal that the nanocrystals exhibit a weak ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K. This observation is further confirmed by the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Zn{sub 0.95}Fe{sub 0.05}O nanocrystals, which shows a distinct ferromagnetic resonance signal at room temperature.

  3. Novel green synthetic strategy to prepare ZnO nanocrystals using rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) peel extract and its antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvakkumar, R; Suresh, J; Nathanael, A Joseph; Sundrarajan, M; Hong, S I

    2014-08-01

    In the present investigation, we report a sustainable novel green synthetic strategy to synthesis zinc oxide nanocrystals. This is the first report on sustainable biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals employing Nephelium lappaceum L., peel extract as a natural ligation agent. Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals was carried out via zinc-ellagate complex formation using rambutan peel wastes. The successful formation of zinc oxide nanocrystals was confirmed employing standard characterisation studies. A possible mechanism for the formation of ZnO nanocrystals with rambutan peel extract was also proposed. The prepared ZnO nanocrystals were coated on the cotton fabric and their antibacterial activity were analyzed. ZnO nanocrystals coated cotton showed good antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram negative bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), gram positive bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Positron annihilation study of the interfacial defects in ZnO nanocrystals: Correlation with ferromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, D. D.; Qi, N.; Gong, J.; Cao, C. Y.; Tang, Z.

    2010-01-01

    High purity ZnO nanopowders were pressed into pellets and annealed in air between 100 and 1200 °C. The crystal quality and grain size of the ZnO nanocrystals were investigated by x-ray diffraction 2θ scans. Annealing induces an increase in the grain size from 25 to 165 nm with temperature increasing from 400 to 1200 °C. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy observations also confirm the grain growth during annealing. Positron annihilation measurements reveal vacancy defects including Zn vacancies, vacancy clusters, and voids in the grain boundary region. The voids show an easy recovery after annealing at 100-700 °C. However, Zn vacancies and vacancy clusters observed by positrons remain unchanged after annealing at temperatures below 500 °C and begin to recover at higher temperatures. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 °C, no positron trapping by the interfacial defects can be observed. Raman spectroscopy studies confirm the recovery of lattice disorder after annealing. Hysteresis loops are observed for the 100 and 400 °C annealed samples, which indicate ferromagnetism in ZnO nanocrystals. However, the ferromagnetism disappears after annealing above 700 °C, suggesting that it might originate from the surface defects such as Zn vacancies.

  5. Spinel ferrite nanocrystals embedded inside ZnO: magnetic, electronic andmagneto-transport properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengqiang; Potzger, K.; Xu, Qingyu; Kuepper, K.; Talut, G.; Marko, D.; Mucklich, A.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Arenholz, E.; Schmidt, H.

    2009-08-21

    In this paper we show that spinel ferrite nanocrystals (NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) can be texturally embedded inside a ZnO matrix by ion implantation and post-annealing. The two kinds of ferrites show different magnetic properties, e.g. coercivity and magnetization. Anomalous Hall effect and positive magnetoresistance have been observed. Our study suggests a ferrimagnet/semiconductor hybrid system for potential applications in magneto-electronics. This hybrid system can be tuned by selecting different transition metal ions (from Mn to Zn) to obtain various magnetic and electronic properties.

  6. Structural and optical properties of Na doped ZnO nanocrystals: Application to solar photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabib, Asma; Bouslama, Wiem [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Sieber, Brigitte; Addad, Ahmed [UMET, UMR, CNRS 8207, Université Lille 1, 59665 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cédex (France); Elhouichet, Habib, E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, University of Tunis, ElManar 2092 (Tunisia); Férid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut d’Electronique de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR, CNRS, 8520 Avenue Pointcarré, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Na doped ZnO nanocrystals were prepared via sol–gel method. • A substitution of Zn{sup 2+} by Na{sup +} was demonstrated. • Low Na concentration induces higher photocatalytic activity under solar irradiation. • Oxygen vacancies guided the processes of charge separation. - Abstract: Na doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were successfully produced by sol–gel process and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution TEM (HRTEM), Raman scattering, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis indicated that all the prepared samples present pure hexagonal wurtzite structure without any Na related phases. The lattice distortion, calculated using Williamson hall equation, induces stress and a reduction of NCs size from 71.4 to 24.5 nm. TEM images showed NCs with hexagonal shape and a rather uniform size distribution. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns confirmed the high crystal quality along the 〈101〉 direction and is consistent with the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. The Raman spectra are dominated by E{sub 2}{sup high} mode of ZnO. High Na doping shows the occurrence of anomalous local vibrational Raman modes close to 270 and 513 cm{sup −1} that are related to intrinsic host lattice defects and distortion, respectively. Optical band gap was found to vary with Na content. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate the presence of a high density of defects in ZnO NCs which are mainly oxygen vacancies. Finally, the obtained NCs were used as a photocatalyst to degrade Rhodamine B (RhB) in solution, under solar irradiation. Na doping enhances the photocatalytic activity of ZnO NCs till an optimum concentration of 0.5% where a full degradation was observed after 120 min of sun light irradiation. Furthermore, this sample presents a good cycling stability and reusability. Based on scavangers test, it was found that both superoxide and

  7. Preparation, characterization of Sb-doped ZnO nanocrystals and their excellent solar light driven photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasser, Ramzi; Othmen, Walid Ben Haj [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar 2092 (Tunisia); Elhouichet, Habib, E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar 2092 (Tunisia); Férid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia)

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Sb-ZnO was obtained by modified sol-gel method using citric acid as stabilizing agent. • Sb incorporated both in lattice and interstitial sites. • The formation of (Sb{sub Zn}–2 V{sub Zn}) acceptor level was revealed by photoluminescence studies. • Optimum Sb content to show higher photocatalytic activity was found to be 3%. - Abstract: In the present study, undoped and antimony (Sb) doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared by a simple and economical sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the purity of the obtained phase and its high crystallinity. Raman analysis confirms the hexagonal Wurtzite ZnO structure. According to the diffuse reflectance results, the band gap was found to decrease up to 3% of Sb doping (ZSb3 sample). The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements reveal that Sb ions occupied both Zn and interstitials sites. The successful substitution of antimony in ZnO lattice suggests the formation of the complex (Sb{sub Zn}–2 V{sub Zn}) acceptor level above the valence band. Particularly for ZSb3 sample, the UV photoluminescence (PL) band presents an obvious red-shift attributed to the formation of this complex. Rhodamine B (RhB) was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped ZnO NCs under sunlight irradiation. It was found that oxygen vacancies play a major role in the photocatalytic process by trapping the excited electrons and inhibiting the radiative recombination. During the photocatalytic mechanism, the Sb doping, expressed through the apparition of the (Sb{sub Zn}–2 V{sub Zn}) correspondent acceptor level, enhances the sunlight absorption within the ZnO band gap, which stimulates the generation of hydroxyl radicals and promotes the photocatalytics reaction rates. Such important contribution of the hydroxyl radicals was confirmed experimentally when using ethanol as scavenger in the photocatalytic reaction. The photodegradation

  8. Mg doping induced high structural quality of sol–gel ZnO nanocrystals: Application in photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abed, Chayma; Bouzidi, Chaker [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Elhouichet, Habib, E-mail: Habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université Tunis El Manar, Tunis 2092 (Tunisia); Gelloz, Bernard [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, 2-24-16 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Ferid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nancrystals doped with Mg were prepared from sol–gel method. • Structural and optical properties of ZnO:Mg nanocrystals were investigated. • Good crystalline quality of ZnO nanocrystals was reported after Mg doping. • Good photocatalytic activity of Mg doped ZnO nanocrystals was demonstrated under sun light illumination. - Abstract: Undoped and Mg doped ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) ZnO:x%Mg (x = 1, 2, 3, and 5) were synthesized using sol–gel method. The structural and optical properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectivity, and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis demonstrates that all prepared samples present pure hexagonal wurtzite structure without any Mg related phases. The NCs size varies from 26.82 nm to 42.96 nm with Mg concentrations; it presents an optimal value for 2% of Mg. The Raman spectra are dominated by the E{sub 2high} mode. For highly Mg doping (5%), the occurrence of silent B{sub 1(low)} mode suggested that the Mg ions do substitute at Zn sites in the ZnO lattice The band gap energy was estimated from both Tauc and Urbach methods and found to be 3.39 eV for ZnO:2%Mg. The PL spectra exhibit two emission bands in the UV and visible range. Their evolution with Mg doping reveals the reduction of defect density in ZnO at low Mg doping by filling Zn vacancies. In addition, it was found that further Mg doping, above 2%, improves the photocatalytic activity of ZnO NCs for photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under sunlight irradiation. The efficient electron–hole separation is the main factor responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic performance of Mg doped ZnO NCs. Through this work, we show that by varying the Mg contents in ZnO, this material can be a potential candidate for both optoelectronic and photocatalytic applications.

  9. Photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composite: The effects of nanocrystals synthetic route, film deposition and electrolyte composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrella, A. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, del Territorio, Edile e Chimica, Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari (Italy); Curri, M.L.; Striccoli, M. [CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Agostiano, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Cosma, P., E-mail: pinalysa.cosma@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bari, via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); CNR IPCF Sez. Bari c/o Dip. Chimica, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-11-30

    This paper reports a study on the photoelectrochemical processes occurring at the interface of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composites. Colloidal chemical routes were used to obtain size controlled non-hydrolytic ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) dispersible in organic solvents, while a low molecular weight poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), characterized by high degree of structural order, was synthesized via an organometallic method. The optical properties of the nanocomposite material were comprehensively investigated on solution and on films deposited by spin coating. Remarkably, a significant fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO junction was observed. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that the photoactivity of the composite material was significantly improved in the case of non-hydrolytic NCs with respect to hydrolytic route prepared ZnO. Moreover, the effective role of the organic/inorganic blend to improve the charge transfer with respect to the double layer hetero-junction was confirmed, thanks to the extended interfaces which enable an effective electron transfer between the hetero-junction components. The system was also studied at different film thicknesses and electrolyte compositions. The results indicated that film photoactivity increased with film thickness up to 300 nm due to the presence of a large number of interfaces, while the change of cation size influenced the ionic conductivity through the nanocomposite film. It was shown that efficient photoconductivity requires not only efficient charge separation, but also efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. - Highlights: • The photoelectrochemical processes at ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV hetero-junction were studied. • Fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO interface was observed. • Non-hydrolytic ZnO junction showed higher photocurrents than hydrolytic equivalent. • The blends showed

  10. Photoelectrochemical properties of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composite: The effects of nanocrystals synthetic route, film deposition and electrolyte composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrella, A.; Curri, M.L.; Striccoli, M.; Agostiano, A.; Cosma, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the photoelectrochemical processes occurring at the interface of ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV composites. Colloidal chemical routes were used to obtain size controlled non-hydrolytic ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) dispersible in organic solvents, while a low molecular weight poly[2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethyl-hexyloxy)phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV), characterized by high degree of structural order, was synthesized via an organometallic method. The optical properties of the nanocomposite material were comprehensively investigated on solution and on films deposited by spin coating. Remarkably, a significant fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO junction was observed. Photoelectrochemical measurements demonstrated that the photoactivity of the composite material was significantly improved in the case of non-hydrolytic NCs with respect to hydrolytic route prepared ZnO. Moreover, the effective role of the organic/inorganic blend to improve the charge transfer with respect to the double layer hetero-junction was confirmed, thanks to the extended interfaces which enable an effective electron transfer between the hetero-junction components. The system was also studied at different film thicknesses and electrolyte compositions. The results indicated that film photoactivity increased with film thickness up to 300 nm due to the presence of a large number of interfaces, while the change of cation size influenced the ionic conductivity through the nanocomposite film. It was shown that efficient photoconductivity requires not only efficient charge separation, but also efficient transport of the carriers to the electrodes without recombination. - Highlights: • The photoelectrochemical processes at ZnO nanocrystals/MEH-PPV hetero-junction were studied. • Fluorescence quenching of the polymer at the MEH-PPV/ZnO interface was observed. • Non-hydrolytic ZnO junction showed higher photocurrents than hydrolytic equivalent. • The blends showed

  11. Electrochemical and hydrothermal deposition of ZnO on silicon: from continuous films to nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balucani, M.; Nenzi, P.; Chubenko, E.; Klyshko, A.; Bondarenko, V.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the study of the electrochemical deposition of zinc oxide from the non-aqueous solution based on dimethyl sulfoxide and zinc chloride into the porous silicon matrix. The features of the deposition process depending on the thickness of the porous silicon layer are presented. It is shown that after deposition process the porous silicon matrix is filled with zinc oxide nanocrystals with a diameter of 10–50 nm. The electrochemically deposited zinc oxide layers on top of porous silicon are shown to have a crystalline structure. It is also shown that zinc oxide crystals formed by hydrothermal method on the surface of electrochemically deposited zinc oxide film demonstrate ultra-violet luminescence. The effect of the porous silicon layer thickness on the morphology of the zinc oxide is shown. The structures obtained demonstrated two luminescence bands peaking at the 375 and 600 nm wavelengths. Possible applications of ZnO nanostructures, porous and continuous polycrystalline ZnO films such as gas sensors, light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, and nanopiezo energy generators are considered. Aspects of integration with conventional silicon technology are also discussed.

  12. Defect mediated ferromagnetism in Ni-doped ZnO nanocrystals evidenced by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Z. Q.; Zou, B.; Zhao, X. G.; Tang, Z.; Wang, S. J.

    2012-10-01

    NiO/ZnO nanocomposites with NiO content of 4 at. % and 20 at. % were annealed up to 1200 °C to get Ni doped ZnO nanocrystals. Raman scattering spectra illustrate a broad and strong band at 500-600cm-1 in all nanocomposites after annealing above 700 °C, which suggests incorporation of Ni in the ZnO lattice. However, x-ray diffraction measurements show that NiO phase can be still observed in all nanocomposites after annealing, which indicates that Ni is partially doped into the ZnO structure. Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of all nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature up to 1000 °C. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in the NiO/ZnO nanocomposites, which is stronger in the 20 at. % NiO/ZnO nanocomposites, and the magnetization decreases continuously with increasing annealing temperature. This indicates that the ferromagnetism at low annealing temperatures originates from the NiO nanograins, and they become antiferromanetic after subsequent higher temperature annealing which leads to the weakening of ferromagnetism. After annealing up to 1000 °C, the ferromagnetism in both the two samples becomes nearly invisible. The disappearance of ferromagnetism shows good coincidence with the recovery of vacancy defects in NiO/ZnO nanocomposites. It can be inferred that the ferromagnetism is mediated by vacancy defects which are distributed in the interface region.

  13. ZnO nanowire-based nano-floating gate memory with Pt nanocrystals embedded in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Donghyuk; Kang, Jeongmin; Lee, Myoungwon; Jang, Jaewon; Yun, Junggwon; Jeong, Dong-Young; Yoon, Changjoon; Koo, Jamin; Kim, Sangsig [Department of Electrical Engineering and Institute for Nano Science, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sangsig@korea.ac.kr

    2008-10-01

    The memory characteristics of ZnO nanowire-based nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) with Pt nanocrystals acting as the floating gate nodes were investigated in this work. Pt nanocrystals were embedded between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunneling and control oxide layers deposited on ZnO nanowire channels. For a representative ZnO nanowire-based NFGM with embedded Pt nanocrystals, a threshold voltage shift of 3.8 V was observed in its drain current versus gate voltage (I{sub DS}-V{sub GS}) measurements for a double sweep of the gate voltage, revealing that the deep effective potential wells built into the nanocrystals provide our NFGM with a large charge storage capacity. Details of the charge storage effect observed in this memory device are discussed in this paper.

  14. ZnO nanowire-based nano-floating gate memory with Pt nanocrystals embedded in Al2O3 gate oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Donghyuk; Kang, Jeongmin; Lee, Myoungwon; Jang, Jaewon; Yun, Junggwon; Jeong, Dong-Young; Yoon, Changjoon; Koo, Jamin; Kim, Sangsig

    2008-01-01

    The memory characteristics of ZnO nanowire-based nano-floating gate memory (NFGM) with Pt nanocrystals acting as the floating gate nodes were investigated in this work. Pt nanocrystals were embedded between Al 2 O 3 tunneling and control oxide layers deposited on ZnO nanowire channels. For a representative ZnO nanowire-based NFGM with embedded Pt nanocrystals, a threshold voltage shift of 3.8 V was observed in its drain current versus gate voltage (I DS -V GS ) measurements for a double sweep of the gate voltage, revealing that the deep effective potential wells built into the nanocrystals provide our NFGM with a large charge storage capacity. Details of the charge storage effect observed in this memory device are discussed in this paper

  15. ZnO nanocrystals on SiO2/Si surfaces thermally cleaned in ultrahigh vacuum and characterized using spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Leif K. E.; Magnusson, Kjell O.; Zakharov, Alexei A.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal cleaning in ultrahigh vacuum of ZnO nanocrystals distributed on SiO 2 /Si surfaces has been studied using spectroscopic photoemission and low energy electron microscopy (SPELEEM). This study thus concern weakly bound ZnO nanocrystals covering only 5%-10% of the substrate. Chemical properties, crystallinity, and distribution of nanocrystals are used to correlate images acquired with the different techniques showing excellent correspondence. The nanocrystals are shown to be clean enough after thermal cleaning at 650 deg. C to be imaged by LEEM and x-ray PEEM as well as chemically analyzed by site selective x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (μ-XPS). μ-XPS shows a sharp Zn 3d peak and resolve differences in O 1s states in oxides. The strong LEEM reflections together with the obtained chemical information indicates that the ZnO nanocrystals were thermally cleaned, but do not indicate any decomposition of the nanocrystals. μ-XPS was also used to determine the thickness of SiO 2 on Si. This article is the first to our knowledge where the versatile technique SPELEEM has been used to characterize ZnO nanocrystals.

  16. Surface structure, optoelectronic properties and charge transport in ZnO nanocrystal/MDMO-PPV multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qing; Chen, Mu; Mokhtar, Muhamad Z; Wu, Shanglin; Zhu, Mingning; Whittaker, Eric; O'Brien, Paul; Saunders, Brian R

    2018-05-07

    Blends of semiconducting nanocrystals and conjugated polymers continue to attract major research interest because of their potential applications in optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells, photodetectors and light-emitting diodes. In this study we investigate the surface structure, morphological and optoelectronic properties of multilayer films constructed from ZnO nanocrystals (NCs) and poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV). The effects of layer number and ZnO concentration (C ZnO ) used on the multilayer film properties are investigated. An optimised solvent blend enabled well-controlled layers to be sequentially spin coated and the construction of multilayer films containing six ZnO NC (Z) and MDMO-PPV (M) layers (denoted as (ZM) 6 ). Contact angle data showed a strong dependence on C ZnO and indicated distinct differences in the coverage of MDMO-PPV by the ZnO NCs. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that the MDMO-PPV absorption increased linearly with the number of layers in the films and demonstrates highly tuneable light absorption. Photoluminescence spectra showed reversible quenching as well as a surprising red-shift of the MDMO-PPV emission peak. Solar cells were constructed to probe vertical photo-generated charge transport. The measurements showed that (ZM) 6 devices prepared using C ZnO = 14.0 mg mL -1 had a remarkably high open circuit voltage of ∼800 mV. The device power conversion efficiency was similar to that of a control bilayer device prepared using a much thicker MDMO-PPV layer. The results of this study provide insight into the structure-optoelectronic property relationships of new semiconducting multilayer films which should also apply to other semiconducting NC/polymer combinations.

  17. Nonequilibrium-Plasma-Synthesized ZnO Nanocrystals with Plasmon Resonance Tunable via Al Doping and Quantum Confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Benjamin L; Ganguly, Shreyashi; Held, Jacob T; Kramer, Nicolaas J; Mkhoyan, K Andre; Aydil, Eray S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-12-09

    Metal oxide semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) exhibit localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) tunable within the infrared (IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum by vacancy or impurity doping. Although a variety of these NCs have been produced using colloidal synthesis methods, incorporation and activation of dopants in the liquid phase has often been challenging. Herein, using Al-doped ZnO (AZO) NCs as an example, we demonstrate the potential of nonthermal plasma synthesis as an alternative strategy for the production of doped metal oxide NCs. Exploiting unique, thoroughly nonequilibrium synthesis conditions, we obtain NCs in which dopants are not segregated to the NC surfaces and local doping levels are high near the NC centers. Thus, we achieve overall doping levels as high as 2 × 10(20) cm(-3) in NCs with diameters ranging from 12.6 to 3.6 nm, and for the first time experimentally demonstrate a clear quantum confinement blue shift of the LSPR energy in vacancy- and impurity-doped semiconductor NCs. We propose that doping of central cores and heavy doping of small NCs are achievable via nonthermal plasma synthesis, because chemical potential differences between dopant and host atoms-which hinder dopant incorporation in colloidal synthesis-are irrelevant when NC nucleation and growth proceed via irreversible interactions among highly reactive gas-phase ions and radicals and ligand-free NC surfaces. We explore how the distinctive nucleation and growth kinetics occurring in the plasma influences dopant distribution and activation, defect structure, and impurity phase formation.

  18. Annealing temperature and environment effects on ZnO nanocrystals embedded in SiO2: a photoluminescence and TEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Kantisara; Baudin, Pierre; Vu, Quang Vinh; Aad, Roy; Couteau, Christophe; Lérondel, Gilles

    2013-12-06

    We report on efficient ZnO nanocrystal (ZnO-NC) emission in the near-UV region. We show that luminescence from ZnO nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 matrix can vary significantly as a function of the annealing temperature from 450°C to 700°C. We manage to correlate the emission of the ZnO nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 thin films with transmission electron microscopy images in order to optimize the fabrication process. Emission can be explained using two main contributions, near-band-edge emission (UV range) and defect-related emissions (visible). Both contributions over 500°C are found to be size dependent in intensity due to a decrease of the absorption cross section. For the smallest-size nanocrystals, UV emission can only be accounted for using a blueshifted UV contribution as compared to the ZnO band gap. In order to further optimize the emission properties, we have studied different annealing atmospheres under oxygen and under argon gas. We conclude that a softer annealing temperature at 450°C but with longer annealing time under oxygen is the most preferable scenario in order to improve near-UV emission of the ZnO nanocrystals embedded in an SiO2 matrix.

  19. Positron annihilation studies of vacancy-type defects and room temperature ferromagnetism in chemically synthesized Li-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.; Khan, Gobinda Gopal; Mandal, K.; Thapa, Samudrajit; Nambissan, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Evidence of zinc vacancy-induced intrinsic ferromagnetism in Li-doped ZnO. • Modification of defects and properties through alkali metal substitution. • Study of defect-modification using positron annihilation spectroscopy. • New way to prepare ZnO-based magnetic semiconductor for spintronic applications. -- Abstract: In this article, we have investigated the effects of Li incorporation on the lattice defects and room-temperature d 0 ferromagnetic behaviour in ZnO nanocrystals by correlating X-ray photoelectron, photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic study in details. It is found that at low doping level ( 1+ is an effective substituent of Zn site, but it prefers to occupy the interstitial positions when Li-doping exceeds 7 at.% resulting in lattice expansion and increase of particle sizes. The pristine ZnO nanocrystals exhibit ferromagnetic behaviour which is further enhanced significantly after few percentage of Li-doping in ZnO. The magnitude of both saturation magnetizations (M S ) as well as the Curie temperature (T C ) are found to increase considerably up to Li concentration of 10 at.% and then started to decrease on further Li-doping. The gradual enhancement of Zn vacancy (V Zn ) defects in ZnO nanocrystals due to Li substitution as confirmed from photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements might be responsible to induce paramagnetic moments within ZnO host. The ferromagnetic exchange interaction between the localised moments of V Zn defects can be mediated though the holes arising due to Li-substitutional (Li Zn ) acceptor defects within ZnO. Hence, Li doping in ZnO favours in stabilizing considerable V Zn defects and thus helps to sustain long-range high-T C ferromagnetism in ZnO which can be a promising material in future spintronics

  20. Positron annihilation studies of vacancy-type defects and room temperature ferromagnetism in chemically synthesized Li-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S., E-mail: sghoshphysics@gmail.com [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Khan, Gobinda Gopal [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, Technology Campus, Block JD2, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India); Mandal, K. [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India); Thapa, Samudrajit; Nambissan, P.M.G. [Centre for Research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Calcutta, Technology Campus, Block JD2, Sector III, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700098 (India); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector 1, Block AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Evidence of zinc vacancy-induced intrinsic ferromagnetism in Li-doped ZnO. • Modification of defects and properties through alkali metal substitution. • Study of defect-modification using positron annihilation spectroscopy. • New way to prepare ZnO-based magnetic semiconductor for spintronic applications. -- Abstract: In this article, we have investigated the effects of Li incorporation on the lattice defects and room-temperature d{sup 0} ferromagnetic behaviour in ZnO nanocrystals by correlating X-ray photoelectron, photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopic study in details. It is found that at low doping level (<7 at.%), Li{sup 1+} is an effective substituent of Zn site, but it prefers to occupy the interstitial positions when Li-doping exceeds 7 at.% resulting in lattice expansion and increase of particle sizes. The pristine ZnO nanocrystals exhibit ferromagnetic behaviour which is further enhanced significantly after few percentage of Li-doping in ZnO. The magnitude of both saturation magnetizations (M{sub S}) as well as the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) are found to increase considerably up to Li concentration of 10 at.% and then started to decrease on further Li-doping. The gradual enhancement of Zn vacancy (V{sub Zn}) defects in ZnO nanocrystals due to Li substitution as confirmed from photoluminescence and positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements might be responsible to induce paramagnetic moments within ZnO host. The ferromagnetic exchange interaction between the localised moments of V{sub Zn} defects can be mediated though the holes arising due to Li-substitutional (Li{sub Zn}) acceptor defects within ZnO. Hence, Li doping in ZnO favours in stabilizing considerable V{sub Zn} defects and thus helps to sustain long-range high-T{sub C} ferromagnetism in ZnO which can be a promising material in future spintronics.

  1. Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by sonochemical method: Structural, photoluminescence, and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A.A., E-mail: aaelho@yahoo.com [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Osman, M.A. [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Ibrahim, E.M.M. [Sohag University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Ali, Manar A.; Abd-Elrahim, A.G. [Assiut University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by the sonochemical method. • Structural, morphological, optical, photoluminescence and magnetic properties were investigated. • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures reveal a blue shift of the optical band gap. • Photoluminescence spectra of Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures show quenching in the emission intensity. • Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature. - Abstract: This work reports the synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures using ice-bath assisted sonochemical technique. The impact of Mn-doping on structural, morphological, optical, and magnetic properties of ZnO nanostructures is studied. The morphological study shows that the lower doped samples possess mixtures of nanosheets and nanorods while the increase in Mn content leads to improvement of an anisotropic growth in a preferable orientation to form well-defined edge rods at Mn content of 0.04. UV–vis absorption spectra show that the exciton peak in the UV region is blue shifted due to Mn incorporation into the ZnO lattice. Doping ZnO with Mn ions leads to a reduction in the PL intensity due to a creation of more non-radiative recombination centers. The magnetic measurements show that the Mn-doped ZnO nanostructures exhibit ferromagnetic ordering at room temperature, as well as variation of the Mn content can significantly affect the ferromagnetic behavior of the samples.

  2. Colloidal nanocrystal ZnO- and TiO2-modified electrodes sensitized with chlorophyll a and carotenoids: a photoelectrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrella, Andrea; Cosma, Pinalysa; Lucia Curri, M.; Rochira, Sergio; Agostiano, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Heterostructures formed of films of organic-capped ZnO and TiO 2 nanocrystals (both with the size of ca. 6 nm) and photosynthetic pigments were prepared and characterized. The surface of optically transparent electrodes (Indium Tin Oxide) was modified with nanocrystals and prepared by colloidal synthetic routes. The nanostructured electrodes were sensitized by a mixture of chlorophyll a and carotenoids. The characterization of the hybrid structures, carried out by means of steady-state optical measurements, demonstrated such class of dyes able to extend the photoresponse of the large band-gap semiconductors. The charge-transfer processes between the components of the heterojunction were investigated, and photoelectrochemical measurements taken on the sensitized ZnO and TiO 2 nanocrystals electrodes elucidated the photoactivity of the heterojunctions as a function of the dyes and of the red–ox mediator used in solution. The effect of methyl viologen as different red–ox mediator was also evaluated in order to show its effect on the heterojunction photoactivity. The overall results contributed to describe the photoelectrochemical potential of the investigated heterojunctions, highlighting a higher response of the dye-sensitized ZnO nanocrystals, and then provided the TiO 2 -modified counterparts.

  3. Study of morphological and luminescent properties (TL and OSL) of ZnO nanocrystals synthetized by coprecipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, A.F., E-mail: alvarodefarias@hotmail.com; Tatumi, S.H., E-mail: sonia.tatumi@gmail.com; Mazzo, T.M.; Rocca, R.R.; Courrol, L.C.

    2017-06-15

    In this work, ZnO nanocrystalline phosphorus were synthesized using the method of coprecipitation, subsequently different heat treatments at 900 and 1000 °C for 2 h and 1000 °C for 4 h were performed. Afterward, Thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) emissions were verified after exposure to β-radiation. Photoluminescence results showed UV and VIS emissions. Morphological studies with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) confirmed the crystallinity of the samples, with their well-shaped wurtzite hexagonal structures in nanoscale. ZnO calcinated at 900 °C – 2 h emitted a broad TL peak located between the 362–372 °C; for ZnO calcinated at 1000 °C – 2 h, two intense peaks were observed at 144 and 308 °C, this TL emission curve was investigated with more details using Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution and six individual TL peaks were obtained, for sample irradiated with 40.6 Gy, corroborating with the T{sub m}-T{sub stop} results. A study of Minimum Detectable Dose (MDD) was made and a dose of (492±40) μGy was determined. CW-OSL and LM-OSL analysis were made for ZnO calcinated at 1000 °C – 2 h, allowed to verify the behaviour, and the curve existing components (fast and medium, depending on dose). As well as the calculation of the Minimum Detectable Dose for CW-OSL. - Highlights: •ZnO nanocrystals were successfully produced by the method of coprecipitation. •Grains sizes by Scherrer Equation were between 26.9–40.6 nm, corroborating with SEM. •Study of the TL emission: Computerized Glow Curve Deconvolution (CGCD) and Tm-Tstop. •TL emission of ZnO calcinated supplied the minimum detectable dose of (492±40) μGy. •Study of CW-OSL and LM-OSL with CGCD. MDD for CW-OSL evaluation of ZnO calcinated.

  4. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure and magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by solid state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, D. D.; Gong, J.; Cao, C. Y.; Tang, Z.; Huang, L. R.

    2010-11-01

    High purity Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites were annealed in air at different temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C to get Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The structure and grain size of the Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction 2θ scans. Annealing induces an increase of the grain size from 25 to 195 nm and appearance of franklinite phase of ZnFe 2O 4. Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the Fe 2O 3/ZnO nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 °C, the number of vacancies decreases to the lower detection limit of positrons. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals using physical properties measurement system. The ferromagnetism remains after annealing up to 1000 °C, suggesting that it is not related with the interfacial defects.

  5. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure and magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Dong [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Chen, Z.Q., E-mail: chenzq@whu.edu.c [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wang, D.D.; Gong, J. [Hubei Nuclear Solid Physics Key Laboratory, Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Cao, C.Y.; Tang, Z. [Department of Electronic and Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Huang, L.R. [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Opto-electronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-11-15

    High purity Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites were annealed in air at different temperatures between 100 and 1200 {sup o}C to get Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The structure and grain size of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction 2{theta} scans. Annealing induces an increase of the grain size from 25 to 195 nm and appearance of franklinite phase of ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/ZnO nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 {sup o}C, the number of vacancies decreases to the lower detection limit of positrons. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals using physical properties measurement system. The ferromagnetism remains after annealing up to 1000 {sup o}C, suggesting that it is not related with the interfacial defects.

  6. Effect of thermal annealing on the structure and magnetism of Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals synthesized by solid state reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dong; Chen, Z.Q.; Wang, D.D.; Gong, J.; Cao, C.Y.; Tang, Z.; Huang, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    High purity Fe 2 O 3 /ZnO nanocomposites were annealed in air at different temperatures between 100 and 1200 o C to get Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals. The structure and grain size of the Fe 2 O 3 /ZnO nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction 2θ scans. Annealing induces an increase of the grain size from 25 to 195 nm and appearance of franklinite phase of ZnFe 2 O 4 . Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the Fe 2 O 3 /ZnO nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature. After annealing at temperatures higher than 1000 o C, the number of vacancies decreases to the lower detection limit of positrons. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in Fe-doped ZnO nanocrystals using physical properties measurement system. The ferromagnetism remains after annealing up to 1000 o C, suggesting that it is not related with the interfacial defects.

  7. Assembling a Lasing Hybrid Material With Supramolecular Polymers and Nanocrystals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Leiming

    2003-01-01

    .... In the system containing ZnO nanocrystals as the inorganic component, both phases are oriented in the hybrid material forming an ultraviolet lasing medium with a lower threshold relative to pure ZnO nanocrystals.

  8. Elucidation of the enhanced ferromagnetic origin in Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals embedded into a SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sejoon; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deukyoung

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped ZnO (ZnO:Mn) nanocrystals is investigated. ZnO:Mn nanocrystals, which were fabricated by using a laser irradiation method with a 248-nm KrF excimer laser, exhibited two-times increase in the spontaneous magnetization (∼0.4 emu/cm 3 at 300 K) compared to the ZnO:Mn thin film (∼0.2 emu/cm 3 at 300 K). The increased exchange integral of J 1 /k B = 51.6 K in ZnO:Mn nanocrystals, in comparison with the ZnO:Mn thin film (J 1 /k B = 46.9 K), is indicative of the enhanced ferromagnetic exchange interaction. This is attributed to the large number of acceptor defects in the SiO 2 -capped ZnO:Mn nanocrystals. Namely, the holes bound to the acceptor defects form microscopic bound-magnetic-polarons with Mn ions; hence, long-range ferromagnetic coupling is enhanced. The results suggest that ferromagnetism in ZnO-based dilute magnetic semiconductors can be controlled by modulating the density of native point defects, which can be chemically and thermodynamically modified during the material synthesis or preparation.

  9. Elucidation of the enhanced ferromagnetic origin in Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals embedded into a SiO₂ matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sejoon; Lee, Youngmin; Kim, Deukyoung [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped ZnO (ZnO:Mn) nanocrystals is investigated. ZnO:Mn nanocrystals, which were fabricated by using a laser irradiation method with a 248-nm KrF excimer laser, exhibited two-times increase in the spontaneous magnetization (∼0.4 emu/cm³ at 300 K) compared to the ZnO:Mn thin film (∼0.2 emu/cm³ at 300 K). The increased exchange integral of J₁/k{sub B} = 51.6 K in ZnO:Mn nanocrystals, in comparison with the ZnO:Mn thin film (J₁/k{sub B} = 46.9 K), is indicative of the enhanced ferromagnetic exchange interaction. This is attributed to the large number of acceptor defects in the SiO₂-capped ZnO:Mn nanocrystals. Namely, the holes bound to the acceptor defects form microscopic bound-magnetic-polarons with Mn ions; hence, long-range ferromagnetic coupling is enhanced. The results suggest that ferromagnetism in ZnO-based dilute magnetic semiconductors can be controlled by modulating the density of native point defects, which can be chemically and thermodynamically modified during the material synthesis or preparation.

  10. All-inorganic white light emitting devices based on ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nannen, Ekaterina

    2012-09-21

    Semiconductor nanaocrystals (NCs) are very promising candidates for lightweight large-area rollable displays and light emitting devices (LEDs). They are expected to combine the efficiency, robustness and color tunability of conventional semiconductor LEDs with the flexible fabrication techniques known from OLED technology, since the NCs are compatible with solution processing and therefore can be deposited on virtually any substrates including glass and plastic. Today, NC-LEDs consist of chemically synthesized QDs embedded in organic charge injection and transport layers. The organic layers limit the robustness of the NC-LEDs and result in significant constrictions within the device fabrication procedure, such as organic evaporation steps, inert (i.e. humidity and oxygen free) atmosphere and obligatory encapsulation. These limitations during the production process as well as complex chemical synthesis route of the implemented NCs and organic components lead to high fabrication costs and low turnover. So far, only prototype devices have been introduced by several research groups and industrial companies. Still, the main concern retarding NC-LEDs from market launch is the high content of toxic heavy metals like Cd in the active nanocrystalline light emitting material. Within this work, possible environmentally safe and ambient-air-compatible alternatives to conventional QDs and organics were explored, with the main focus on design and fabrication of completely inorganic white NC-LEDs with commercial ZnO nanoparticles as an active light emitting material. While the electrical transport properties through the NC-network of the commercially available VP AdNano {sup registered} ZnO2O particles were already to some extent explored, their optical properties and therefore suitability as an active light emitter in NC-LEDs were not studied so far. (orig.)

  11. Mass production and photoelectric performances of P and Al Co-doped ZnO nanocrystals under different cooling post-processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ya-Juan; Lu, Yi; Liu, Jin-Ku; Yang, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The phosphorus and aluminum co-doped in zinc oxide (ZnO) called PAZO nano-crystals (NCs) have been mass synthesized by a combustion method, which shows a preferable photocatalytic capability and conductive ability. This article focuses on the properties of PAZO NCs experienced by three cooling-down aftertreatments, which were the normalizing, quenching and annealing process, respectively. The influences of different cooling processes on the photocatalytic and conductive performances are discussed in details. From the research, we found the quenched-PAZO NCs showed the most unappealing photocatalysis and conductivity, because excessive defects as the recombination center of electron–hole pairs were generated in the quenching process. - Graphical abstract: This research focuses on the PAZO NCs experienced by different cooling-down aftertreatments, which were the normalizing, quenching and annealing process, respectively. The quenched-PAZO NCs had the most unappealing photocatalysis and conductivity, because of generating excessive defects as the recombination center of electron–hole pairs in the quenching process. - Highlights: • We presented a method to mass synthesize co-doped P and Al in ZnO nanocrystals. • The PAZO NCs have novel photoelectric performances. • The cooling post-process influence on the photoelectric properties was studied. • The excessive defects decline the photocatalytic and conductive activities

  12. Statistical analysis of sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals using Taguchi experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, Sima; Halladj, Rouein; Nazari, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sonochemical synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals. ► Using Taguchi experimental design (L9) for optimizing the experimental procedure. ► The significant effects of all the ultrasonic parameters on the response. - Abstract: SAPO-34 nanocrystals with high crystallinity were synthesized by means of sonochemical method. An L9 orthogonal array of the Taguchi method was implemented to investigate the effects of sonication conditions on the preparation of SAPO-34 with respect to crystallinity of the final product phase. The experimental data establish the favorable phase crystallinity which is improved by increasing the ultrasonic power and the sonication temperature. In the case of ultrasonic irradiation time, however, an initial increases in crystallinity from 5 min to 15 min is followed by a decrease in crystallinity for longer sonication time

  13. Investigation on structural aspects of ZnO nano-crystal using radio-active ion beam and PAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganguly, Bichitra Nandi, E-mail: bichitra.ganguly@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Dutta, Sreetama; Roy, Soma [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Röder, Jens [Physics Department, ISOLDE/CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Physical Chemistry, RWTH-Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Johnston, Karl [Physics Department, ISOLDE/CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Experimental Physics, University of the Saarland, Saarbrücken (Germany); Martin, Manfred [Physical Chemistry, RWTH-Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Nano-crystalline ZnO has been studied with perturbed angular correlation using {sup 111m}Cd, implanted at ISOLDE/CERN and X-ray diffraction using Rietveld analysis. The data show a gradual increase in the crystal size and stress for a sample annealed at 600 °C, and reaching nearly properties of standard ZnO with tempering at 1000 °C. The perturbed angular correlation data show a broad frequency distribution at low annealing temperatures and small particle sizes, whereas at high annealing temperature and larger crystal sizes, results similar to bulk ZnO have been obtained. The ZnO nano-crystalline samples were initially prepared through a wet chemical route, have been examined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and chemical purity has been confirmed with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis as well as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  14. Defect evolution and its impact on the ferromagnetism of Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals upon thermal treatment: A positron annihilation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Yuqian; Zhang, Q. K.; Qi, N.; Chen, Z. Q.; Wang, S. J.; Li, P. H.; Mascher, P.

    2017-01-01

    CuO/ZnO nanocomposites with 4 at. % CuO were annealed in air at various temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C to produce Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals. X-ray diffraction shows that a CuO phase can be observed in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites annealed at different temperatures, and the Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals are identified to be of wurtzite structure. The main peak (101) appears at slightly lower diffraction angles with increasing annealing temperature from 400 up to 1200 °C, which confirms the successful doping of Cu into the ZnO lattice above 400 °C. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that most particles in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites are isolated when annealing at 100-400 °C, but these particles have a tendency to form clusters or aggregates as the annealing temperature increases from 700 to 1000 °C. Positron annihilation measurements reveal a large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of the nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature up to 1000 °C. Room-temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites, and the magnetization decreases continuously with increasing annealing temperature. However, there may be several different origins of ferromagnetism in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. At low annealing temperatures, the ferromagnetism originates from the CuO nanograins, and the ferromagnetism of CuO nanograins decreases with an increase in the grain size after subsequent higher temperature annealing, which leads to the weakening of ferromagnetism in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. After annealing from 400 to 1000 °C, the ferromagnetism gradually vanishes. The ferromagnetism is probably induced by Cu substitution but is mediated by vacancy defects in the CuO/ZnO nanocomposites. The disappearance of ferromagnetism coincides well with the recovery of vacancy defects. It can be inferred that the ferromagnetism is mediated by vacancy defects that are distributed in the interface region.

  15. Acceptors in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, Matthew D., E-mail: mattmcc@wsu.edu; Corolewski, Caleb D.; Lv, Jinpeng; Tarun, Marianne C.; Teklemichael, Samuel T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Norton, M. Grant; Harrison, Kale W. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 (United States); Ha, Su [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-6515 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential for a range of applications in the area of optoelectronics. The quest for p-type ZnO has focused much attention on acceptors. In this paper, Cu, N, and Li acceptor impurities are discussed. Experimental evidence indicates these point defects have acceptor levels 3.2, 1.4, and 0.8 eV above the valence-band maximum, respectively. The levels are deep because the ZnO valence band is quite low compared to conventional, non-oxide semiconductors. Using MoO{sub 2} contacts, the electrical resistivity of ZnO:Li was measured and showed behavior consistent with bulk hole conduction for temperatures above 400 K. A photoluminescence peak in ZnO nanocrystals is attributed to an acceptor, which may involve a Zn vacancy. High field (W-band) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the nanocrystals revealed an axial center with g{sub ⊥} = 2.0015 and g{sub //} = 2.0056, along with an isotropic center at g = 2.0035.

  16. Experimental and ab initio study of Ta-doped ZnO semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, E. L., E-mail: munoz@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Richard, D., E-mail: richard@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [UNLP, Departamento de Fisica and Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CCT La Plata, CONICET), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Eversheim, P. D. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik (H-ISKP) (Germany); Renteria, M., E-mail: renteria@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [UNLP, Departamento de Fisica and Instituto de Fisica La Plata (IFLP, CCT La Plata, CONICET), Fac. de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2010-04-15

    In this work, we present {gamma}-{gamma} Perturbed-Angular-Correlation results in polycrystalline ZnO semiconductor implanted with {sup 181}Hf({yields}{sup 181}Ta) probes. Calculations in Ta-doped ZnO were carried out using the Full-Potential Augmented Plane Wave plus local orbital method in a supercell and varying self-consistently the charge state of the impurity. Ta is a triple donor impurity with respect to Zn{sup 2 + } in ZnO and thus it can loose 1, 2 or 3 donor electrons under certain circumstances. As expected, the comparison between the experimental Electric-Field-Gradient tensor results and our ab initio predictions shows that the Ta impurity is in an ionized charge state at room temperature.

  17. Experimental and ab initio study of Ta-doped ZnO semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, E. L.; Richard, D.; Eversheim, P. D.; Rentería, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present γ–γ Perturbed-Angular-Correlation results in polycrystalline ZnO semiconductor implanted with 181 Hf(→ 181 Ta) probes. Calculations in Ta-doped ZnO were carried out using the Full-Potential Augmented Plane Wave plus local orbital method in a supercell and varying self-consistently the charge state of the impurity. Ta is a triple donor impurity with respect to Zn 2 +  in ZnO and thus it can loose 1, 2 or 3 donor electrons under certain circumstances. As expected, the comparison between the experimental Electric-Field-Gradient tensor results and our ab initio predictions shows that the Ta impurity is in an ionized charge state at room temperature.

  18. Solvothermal Synthesis of One-Dimensional Transition Metal Doped ZnO Nanocrystals and Their Applications in Smart Window Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Šutka, A; Timusk, M; Kisand, V; Saal, K; Joost, U; Lõhmus, R

    2015-01-01

    Oxide semiconductor nanowire (NW) suspension based devices have been attracted growing interest in smart window applications due to their great controllability of light transmittance, simplicity and long term stability. Recently, we demonstrated smart window device using the suspension of electrospun TiO2 or solvothermally synthesized ZnO NWs in viscous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. The operating principle of the oxide semiconductor NW and PDMS device is based on the alterable orientati...

  19. Oriented Attachment Is a Major Control Mechanism To Form Nail-like Mn-Doped ZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Samuel; Arora, Priyanka; Price, Paige; Dittmar, Jasper W; Das, Vijay Kumar; Pink, Maren; Stein, Barry; Morgan, David Gene; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Koczkur, Kallum M; Skrabalak, Sara E; Bronstein, Lyudmila M

    2017-12-26

    Here, we present a controlled synthesis of Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with predominantly nail-like shapes, whose formation occurs via tip-to-base-oriented attachment of initially formed nanopyramids, followed by leveling of sharp edges that lead to smooth single-crystalline "nails". This shape is prevalent in noncoordinating solvents such as octadecene and octadecane. Yet, the double bond in the former promotes oriented attachment. By contrast, Mn-doped ZnO NP synthesis in a weakly coordinating solvent, benzyl ether, results in dendritic structures because of random attachment of initial NPs. Mn-doped ZnO NPs possess a hexagonal wurtzite structure, and in the majority of cases, the NP surface is enriched with Mn, indicating a migration of Mn 2+ ions to the NP surface during the NP formation. When the NP formation is carried out without the addition of octadecyl alcohol, which serves as a surfactant and a reaction initiator, large, concave pyramid dimers are formed whose attachment takes place via basal planes. UV-vis and photoluminescence spectra of these NPs confirm the utility of controlling the NP shape to tune electro-optical properties.

  20. Competing effects between intrinsic and extrinsic defects in pure and Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruf, Thomas; Repp, Sergej; Urban, Joanna [Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institut für Physikalische Chemie (Germany); Thomann, Ralf [Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum (FMF) (Germany); Erdem, Emre, E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de [Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Institut für Physikalische Chemie (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    Nano-sized ZnO doped with transition metals is one of the most promising candidates in the field of diluted magnetic semiconductors unifying ferromagnetic and semiconductor properties. Promising is the exploitation of the magnetic spin of the electron and by that the application in spintronics. As the mechanism of spin coupling is still controversial, insight into the coexistence and interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic effects is vital for further technological progress. We report on the synthesis of a set of nano-sized Zn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O samples with a nominal concentration of x = 0.000005–0.03 and structural (XRD, TEM, and AFM), as well as electronic (PL, UV–Vis, FTIR, and EPR) investigations. In this contribution, possible interaction effects were summarized in terms of Mn doping and size. PL quenching after doping was also discussed as another aspect for the interrelations of the defects.

  1. Band-Gap Engineering in ZnO Thin Films: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Vani; Jha, Pardeep K.; Panda, S. K.; Jha, Priyanka A.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide thin films are synthesized and characterized using x-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the structural, morphological, and optical properties are closely related to the stress of the sample provided that the texture of the film remains the same. The anomalous results are obtained once the texture is altered to a different orientation. We support this experimental observation by carrying out first-principles hybrid functional calculations for two different orientations of the sample and show that the effect of quantum confinement is much stronger for the (100) surface than the (001) surface of ZnO. Furthermore, our calculations provide a route to enhance the band gap of ZnO by more than 50% compared to the bulk band gap, opening up possibilities for wide-range industrial applications.

  2. Sequential coating upconversion NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm nanocrystals with SiO{sub 2} and ZnO layers for NIR-driven photocatalytic and antibacterial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tou, Meijie; Luo, Zhenguo; Bai, Song; Liu, Fangying; Chai, Qunxia; Li, Sheng; Li, Zhengquan, E-mail: zqli@zjnu.edu.cn

    2017-01-01

    ZnO is one of the most promising materials for both photocatalytic and antibacterial applications, but its wide bandgap requires the excitation of UV light which limits their applications under visible and NIR bands. Herein, we demonstrate a facile approach to synthesize core-shell-shell hybrid nanoparticles consisting of hexagonal NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm, amorphous SiO{sub 2} and wurtzite ZnO. The upconversion nanocrystals are used as the core seeds and sequentially coated with an insulting shell and a semiconductor layer. Such hybrid nanoparticles can efficiently utilize the NIR light through the upconverting process, and display notable photocatalytic performance and antibacterial activity under NIR irradiation. The developed NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm@SiO{sub 2}@ZnO nanoparticles are characterized with TEM, XRD, EDS, XPS and PL spectra, and their working mechanism is also elucidated. - Highlights: • Core-shell NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm@SiO{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} NPs were synthesized via a sequential coating method. • Hybrid NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm@SiO{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} NPs show NIR-light enhanced photocatalytic activity. • NIR-driven antibacterial performance has been realized with NaYF{sub 4}:Yb,Tm@SiO{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} NPs. • Working mechanism of the hybrid photocatalysts as antibacterial agents was proposed.

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of CO adsorption on the surface of single phase hexagonally plate ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Amin; Firooz, Azam Anaraki [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, PO Box 16785-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beheshtian, Javad, E-mail: j.beheshtian@srttu.edu [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, PO Box 16785-163, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi, Abbas Ali [Oil and Gas Processing Center of Excellence, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, 11155-4563 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Hexagonally plate ZnO microstructure was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • HRTEM images indicated a single crystal with a [0 0 1] direction growth. • DFT calculations were performed to reveal structure and electronic properties of ZnO. • The CO sensor response was close to obtained theoretical results. - Abstract: A simple low temperature hydrothermal method has been investigated for synthesis of single phase hexagonally plate ZnO microstructure. The synthesized ZnO was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) photoluminescence spectrum (PL) and ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy (UV–vis) to investigate the surface morphology, crystallographic phase, optical properties and used as a sensor for detection of CO gas molecules. It was observed that the ZnO microstructures were uniform size, single phase and symmetrical, with a hexagonal shape and height of ∼250 nm. The optical band gap value of this sample was calculated to be about 3.22 eV, which show a red shift with theoretical method. High-resolution TEM images indicate that all the microstructures are single crystals with a [0 0 1] direction growth. We studied the gas response of this sample to 500 ppm CO over a temperature range of 200–400 °C and compared with theoretical results. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to investigate the structure and electronic properties of ZnO with simulating the adsorption process of CO gas on the ZnO (1 0 1) surface. The theoretical results were in good agreement with experimental results.

  4. Experimental study on stimulated scattering of ZnO nanospheres dispersed in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jiulin, E-mail: hyq1304@126.com; Wu, Haopeng [Nanchang Hangkong University, Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory for Optoelectronics Testing Technology (China); Yan, Feng; Yang, Junjie [Nanchang Hangkong University, School of Measuring and Optical Engineering (China); He, Xingdao, E-mail: xingdaohe@126.com [Nanchang Hangkong University, Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory for Optoelectronics Testing Technology (China)

    2016-01-15

    The backward stimulated scattering (BSS) from ZnO nanospheres dispersed in water has been investigated experimentally by employing a Nd:YAG pulse laser with ∼532 nm wavelength and ∼8 ns pulse width as the pump laser source. The present results show that the BSS effect is uniquely and unequivocally different compared to other known stimulated scattering, such as stimulated Rayleigh scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and stimulated Raman scattering, and it displays the characteristics of no frequency shift and threshold dependence on initial spontaneous Mie scattering seed source. These can be understood by means of the Mie scattering theory and a laser-induced stationary Bragg grating model.

  5. Visualizing Current Flow at the Mesoscale in Disordered Assemblies of Touching Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qinyi; Guest, Jeffrey R. [Center; Thimsen, Elijah

    2017-07-12

    The transport of electrons through assemblies of nanocrystals is important to performance in optoelectronic applications for these materials. Previous work has primarily focused on single nanocrystals or transitions between pairs of nanocrystals. There is a gap in knowledge of how large numbers of nanocrystals in an assembly behave collectively, and how this collective behavior manifests at the mesoscale. In this work, the variable range hopping (VRH) transport of electrons in disordered assemblies of touching, heavily doped ZnO nanocrystals was visualized at the mesoscale as a function of temperature both theoretically, using the model of Skinner, Chen and Shklovskii (SCS), and experimentally, with conductive atomic force microscopy on ultrathin films only a few particle layers thick. Agreement was obtained between the model and experiments, with a few notable exceptions. The SCS model predicts that a single network within the nanocrystal assembly, comprised of sites connected by small resistances, dominates conduction - namely the optimum band from variable range hopping theory. However, our experiments revealed that in addition to the optimum band, there are subnetworks that appear as additional peaks in the resistance histogram of conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) maps. Furthermore, the connections of these subnetworks to the optimum band change in time, such that some subnetworks become connected to the optimum band while others become disconnected and isolated from the optimum band; this observation appears to be an experimental manifestation of the ‘blinking’ phenomenon in our images of mesoscale transport.

  6. Structural and magnetic Properties of Mn, Co, Ni doped ZnO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is abundant, cost effective, non-toxic and also it is used in many bio-medical applications. ... The XRD of Mn-doped ZnO nanocrystals shows hexagonal structure. ... The TM doped ZnO nanocrystals shows weak ferromagnetic properties at ...

  7. Growth Mechanism Studies of ZnO Nanowires: Experimental Observations and Short-Circuit Diffusion Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Po-Hsun; Wu, Sheng Yun

    2017-07-21

    Plenty of studies have been performed to probe the diverse properties of ZnO nanowires, but only a few have focused on the physical properties of a single nanowire since analyzing the growth mechanism along a single nanowire is difficult. In this study, a single ZnO nanowire was synthesized using a Ti-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to avoid the appearance of catalytic contamination. Two-dimensional energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping with a diffusion model was used to obtain the diffusion length and the activation energy ratio. The ratio value is close to 0.3, revealing that the growth of ZnO nanowires was attributed to the short-circuit diffusion.

  8. An Experimental Study on the Shape Changes of TiO2 Nanocrystals Synthesized by Microemulsion-Solvothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Kong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanocrystals of different shape were successfully synthesized in a new microemulsion system through a solvothermal process. The TiO2 nanocrystals were prepared from the reaction of tetrabutyl titanate (TBT, H2O, and oleic acid (OA, which were used as solvent and surfactant at 300∘C and 240∘C in a stainless steel autoclave. The sphere, polygon, and rhombus-shaped nanocrystals have been prepared at 300∘C and the dot- and- rod shaped nanocrystals have been synthesized at 240∘C. The effect of the reaction time on the shape and size of TiO2 nanocrystals in this method was studied in the present paper. The size distribution of TiO2 nanocrystals prepared at 300∘C for different hours is also studied. In addition, an attempt to describe the mechanism of shape change of TiO2 nanocrystals was presented in this paper.

  9. Ultrasonic synthesis of fern-like ZnO nanoleaves and their enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Qing Lan; Xiong, Rui; Zhai, Bao-gai; Huang, Yuan Ming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating Zn microcrystals in water. • A fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is a self-assembly of ZnO nanoplates along one ZnO nanorod. • Fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity than ZnO nanocrystals. • The branched hierarchical structures are responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Two-dimensional fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were synthesized by ultrasonicating zinc microcrystals in water. The morphology, crystal structure, optical property and photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, respectively. It is found that one fern-like ZnO nanoleaf is composed of one ZnO nanorod as the central trunk and a number of ZnO nanoplates as the side branches in opposite pairs along the central ZnO nanorod. The central ZnO nanorod in the fern-like nanoleaves is about 1 μm long while the side-branching ZnO nanoplates are about 100 nm long and 20 nm wide. Further analysis has revealed that ZnO nanocrystals are the building blocks of the central ZnO nanorod and the side-branching ZnO nanoplates. Under identical conditions, fern-like ZnO nanoleaves exhibit higher photocatalytic activity in photodegrading methyl orange in aqueous solution than spherical ZnO nanocrystals. The first-order photocatalytic rate constant of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves is about four times as large as that of the ZnO nanoparticles. The branched architecture of the hierarchical nanoleaves is suggested be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity of the fern-like ZnO nanoleaves

  10. Cellulose Nanocrystal Templated Graphene Nanoscrolls for High Performance Supercapacitors and Hydrogen Storage: An Experimental and Molecular Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Prodyut; Gaur, Surendra Singh; Kumar, Amit; Katiyar, Vimal

    2018-03-01

    Graphene nanoscrolls (GNS), due to their remarkably interesting properties, have attracted significant interest with applications in various engineering sectors. However, uncontrolled morphologies, poor yield and low quality GNS produced through traditional routes are major challenges associated. We demonstrate sustainable approach of utilizing bio-derived cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as template for fabrication of GNS with tunable morphological dimensions ranging from micron-to-nanoscale(controlled length 1 μm), alongwith encapsulation of catalytically active metallic-species in scroll interlayers. The surface-modified magnetic CNCs acts as structural-directing agents which provides enough momentum to initiate self-scrolling phenomenon of graphene through van der Waals forces and π-π interactions, mechanism of which is demonstrated through experimental and molecular simulation studies. The proposed approach of GNS fabrication provides flexibility to tune physico-chemical properties of GNS by simply varying interlayer spacing, scrolling density and fraction of encapsulated metallic nanoparticles. The hybrid GNS with confined palladium or platinum nanoparticles (at lower loading ~1 wt.%) shows enhanced hydrogen storage capacity (~0.2 wt.% at~20 bar and ~273 K) and excellent supercapacitance behavior (~223-357 F/g) for prolonged cycles (retention ~93.5-96.4% at ~10000 cycles). The current strategy of utilizing bio-based templates can be further extended to incorporate complex architectures or nanomaterials in GNS core or inter-layers, which will potentially broaden its applications in fabrication of high-performance devices.

  11. An Experimental and Computational Approach to the Development of ZnO Nanoparticles that are Safe by Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tu C; Yin, Hong; Chen, Rui; Chen, Yandong; Zhao, Lin; Casey, Philip S; Chen, Chunying; Winkler, David A

    2016-07-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles have found wide application due to their unique optoelectronic and photocatalytic characteristics. However, their safety aspects remain of critical concern, prompting the use of physicochemical modifications of pristine ZnO to reduce any potential toxicity. However, the relationships between these modifications and their effects on biology are complex and still relatively unexplored. To address this knowledge gap, a library of 45 types of ZnO nanoparticles with varying particle size, aspect ratio, doping type, doping concentration, and surface coating is synthesized, and their biological effects measured. Three biological assays measuring cell damage or stress are used to study the responses of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) or human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cells (HepG2) to the nanoparticles. These experimental data are used to develop quantitative and predictive computational models linking nanoparticle properties to cell viability, membrane integrity, and oxidative stress. It is found that the concentration of nanoparticles the cells are exposed to, the type of surface coating, the nature and extent of doping, and the aspect ratio of the particles make significant contributions to the cell toxicity of the nanoparticles tested. Our study shows that it is feasible to generate models that could be used to design or optimize nanoparticles with commercially useful properties that are also safe to humans and the environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Solution-processed efficient CdTe nanocrystal/CBD-CdS hetero-junction solar cells with ZnO interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Yiyao; Zhang, Yijie; Lin, Yizhao; Gao, Kuo; Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Kaiyi; Yang, Qianqian; Zhou, Xiao; Qin, Donghuan; Wu, Hongbin; Xia, Yuxin; Hou, Lintao; Lan, Linfeng; Chen, Junwu; Wang, Dan; Yao, Rihui

    2013-01-01

    CdTe nanocrystal (NC)/CdS p–n hetero-junction solar cells with an ITO/ZnO-In/CdS/CdTe/MoO x /Ag-inverted structure were prepared by using a layer-by-layer solution process. The CdS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition on top of ITO/ZnO-In and were found to be very compact and pin-hole free in a large area, which insured high quality CdTe NCs thin-film formation upon it. The device performance was strongly related to the CdCl 2 annealing temperature and annealing time. Devices exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08 % following 400 °C CdCl 2 annealing for 5 min, which was a good efficiency for solution processed CdTe/CdS NC-inverted solar cells. By carefully designing and optimizing the CdCl 2 -annealing conditions (370 °C CdCl 2 annealing for about 15 min), the PCE of such devices showed a 21 % increase, in comparison to 400 °C CdCl 2 -annealing conditions, and reached a better PCE of 3.73 % while keeping a relatively high V OC of 0.49 V. This PCE value, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest PCE reported for solution processed CdTe–CdS NC solar cells. Moreover, the inverted solar cell device was very stable when kept under ambient conditions, less than 4 % degradation was observed in PCE after 40 days storage

  13. Solution-processed efficient CdTe nanocrystal/CBD-CdS hetero-junction solar cells with ZnO interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yiyao; Zhang, Yijie; Lin, Yizhao; Gao, Kuo; Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Kaiyi; Yang, Qianqian [South China University of Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Zhou, Xiao; Qin, Donghuan, E-mail: qindh@scut.edu.cn; Wu, Hongbin [South China University of Technology, Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices (China); Xia, Yuxin; Hou, Lintao [Jinan University, College of Science and Engineering (China); Lan, Linfeng; Chen, Junwu; Wang, Dan; Yao, Rihui [South China University of Technology, Institute of Polymer Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices (China)

    2013-11-15

    CdTe nanocrystal (NC)/CdS p–n hetero-junction solar cells with an ITO/ZnO-In/CdS/CdTe/MoO{sub x}/Ag-inverted structure were prepared by using a layer-by-layer solution process. The CdS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition on top of ITO/ZnO-In and were found to be very compact and pin-hole free in a large area, which insured high quality CdTe NCs thin-film formation upon it. The device performance was strongly related to the CdCl{sub 2} annealing temperature and annealing time. Devices exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.08 % following 400 °C CdCl{sub 2} annealing for 5 min, which was a good efficiency for solution processed CdTe/CdS NC-inverted solar cells. By carefully designing and optimizing the CdCl{sub 2}-annealing conditions (370 °C CdCl{sub 2} annealing for about 15 min), the PCE of such devices showed a 21 % increase, in comparison to 400 °C CdCl{sub 2}-annealing conditions, and reached a better PCE of 3.73 % while keeping a relatively high V{sub OC} of 0.49 V. This PCE value, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest PCE reported for solution processed CdTe–CdS NC solar cells. Moreover, the inverted solar cell device was very stable when kept under ambient conditions, less than 4 % degradation was observed in PCE after 40 days storage.

  14. Experimental study on electromagnetic-assisted ZnO nanofluid flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Latiff, Noor Rasyada; Alnarabiji, Mohamad Sahban

    2018-01-01

    Recently, nano-EOR has emerged as a new frontier for improved and enhanced oil recovery (IOR & EOR). Despite their benefits, the nanoparticles tend to agglomerate at reservoir conditions which cause their detachment from the oil/water interface, and are consequently retained rather than transported through a porous medium. Dielectric nanoparticles including ZnO have been proposed to be a good replacement for EOR due to their high melting point and thermal properties. But more importantly, these particles can be polarized under electromagnetic (EM) irradiation, which provides an innovative smart Nano-EOR process denoted as EM-Assisted Nano-EOR. In this study, parameters involved in the oil recovery mechanism under EM waves, such as reducing mobility ratio, lowering interfacial tensions (IFT) and altering wettability were investigated. Two-phase displacement experiments were performed in sandpacks under the water-wet condition at 95°C, with permeability in the range of 265–300 mD. A crude oil from Tapis oil field was employed; while ZnO nanofluids of two different particle sizes (55.7 and 117.1 nm) were prepared using 0.1 wt. % nanoparticles that dispersed into brine (3 wt. % NaCl) along with SDBS as a dispersant. In each flooding scheme, three injection sequential scenarios have been conducted: (i) brine flooding as a secondary process, (ii) surfactant/nano/EM-assisted nano flooding, and (iii) second brine flooding to flush nanoparticles. Compare with surfactant flooding (2% original oil in place/OOIP) as tertiary recovery, nano flooding almost reaches 8.5–10.2% of OOIP. On the other hand, EM-assisted nano flooding provides an incremental oil recovery of approximately 9–10.4% of OOIP. By evaluating the contact angle and interfacial tension, it was established that the degree of IFT reduction plays a governing role in the oil displacement mechanism via nano-EOR, compare to mobility ratio. These results reveal a promising way to employ water-based ZnO nanofluid

  15. Experimental study on electromagnetic-assisted ZnO nanofluid flooding for enhanced oil recovery (EOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Muhammad; Lee, Keanchuan; Mohd Zaid, Hasnah; Ahmad Latiff, Noor Rasyada; Alnarabiji, Mohamad Sahban

    2018-01-01

    Recently, nano-EOR has emerged as a new frontier for improved and enhanced oil recovery (IOR & EOR). Despite their benefits, the nanoparticles tend to agglomerate at reservoir conditions which cause their detachment from the oil/water interface, and are consequently retained rather than transported through a porous medium. Dielectric nanoparticles including ZnO have been proposed to be a good replacement for EOR due to their high melting point and thermal properties. But more importantly, these particles can be polarized under electromagnetic (EM) irradiation, which provides an innovative smart Nano-EOR process denoted as EM-Assisted Nano-EOR. In this study, parameters involved in the oil recovery mechanism under EM waves, such as reducing mobility ratio, lowering interfacial tensions (IFT) and altering wettability were investigated. Two-phase displacement experiments were performed in sandpacks under the water-wet condition at 95°C, with permeability in the range of 265-300 mD. A crude oil from Tapis oil field was employed; while ZnO nanofluids of two different particle sizes (55.7 and 117.1 nm) were prepared using 0.1 wt. % nanoparticles that dispersed into brine (3 wt. % NaCl) along with SDBS as a dispersant. In each flooding scheme, three injection sequential scenarios have been conducted: (i) brine flooding as a secondary process, (ii) surfactant/nano/EM-assisted nano flooding, and (iii) second brine flooding to flush nanoparticles. Compare with surfactant flooding (2% original oil in place/OOIP) as tertiary recovery, nano flooding almost reaches 8.5-10.2% of OOIP. On the other hand, EM-assisted nano flooding provides an incremental oil recovery of approximately 9-10.4% of OOIP. By evaluating the contact angle and interfacial tension, it was established that the degree of IFT reduction plays a governing role in the oil displacement mechanism via nano-EOR, compare to mobility ratio. These results reveal a promising way to employ water-based ZnO nanofluid for

  16. Light Scattering Spectroscopies of Semiconductor Nanocrystals (Quantum Dots)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Peter Y; Gardner, Grat; Nozaki, Shinji; Berbezier, Isabelle

    2006-01-01

    We review the study of nanocrystals or quantum dots using inelastic light scattering spectroscopies. In particular recent calculations of the phonon density of states and low frequency Raman spectra in Ge nanocrystals are presented for comparison with experimental results

  17. Hot-injection synthesis of Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with tunable magnetic properties and enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Deqian; Qiu, Yulong; Chen, Yuanzhi, E-mail: yuanzhi@xmu.edu.cn; Zhang, Qinfu; Liu, Xiang; Peng, Dong-Liang, E-mail: dlpeng@xmu.edu.cn [Xiamen University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Materials Genome, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, College of Materials (China)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals containing ferromagnetic Ni and semiconductor ZnO have been prepared via a hot-injection route. The Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals have a flower-like morphology that consists of Ni inner cores and ZnO petal shells. In spite of their large lattice mismatch, ZnO nanocrystals can still grow on faceted Ni nanocrystals to form stable interfaces. The composition of Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals is readily controlled, and the average size of Ni core is tunable from 25 to 50 nm. Room temperature ferromagnetic properties are observed in these hybrid nanocrystals, and tunable magnetic properties also can be achieved by varying the size of Ni core. The as-prepared Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals exhibit enhanced photocatalytic performance under ultraviolet light illumination as compared to pure ZnO nanocrystals. Furthermore, the superior reusability of hybrid nanocrystals for photocatalytic application is achieved by virtue of their magnetic properties. The facile and efficient seed-mediate strategy is particularly attractive to construct hybrid magnetic-semiconducting heterostructures. The as-obtained Ni-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals offer great potential for various applications due to their combined magnetic and semiconducting properties and low-cost earth-abundant availability.

  18. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ae KIM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSome weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol% of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05 and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials.

  19. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Ae, KIM; Hany, ABO-MOSALLAM; Hye-Young, LEE; Jung-Hwan, LEE; Hae-Won, KIM; Hae-Hyoung, LEE

    2015-01-01

    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements. Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitro rat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC. Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs. Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials. PMID:26398508

  20. Eco-friendly approach towards green synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals and its potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Park, Jung-Hee; Lee, Sang-Myeong; Yi, Young-Joo; Cho, Min; Jang, Jum-Suk; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a novel green route for synthesis of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals using Prunus × yedoensis Matsumura leaf extract as a reducing agent without using any surfactant or external energy. Standard characterization studies were carried out to confirm the obtained product using UV-Vis spectra, SEM-EDS, FTIR, TEM, and XRD. In addition, the synthesized ZnO nanocrystals were coated onto fabric and leather samples to study their bacteriostatic effect against odor-causing bacteria Brevibacterium linens and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Zinc oxide nanocrystal-coated fabric and leather showed good activity against both bacteria.

  1. Carbon doped ZnO: Synthesis, characterization and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.K.; Mohapatra, J.; Sharma, M.K.; Chattarjee, R.; Singh, S.K.; Varma, Shikha; Behera, S.N.; Nayak, Sanjeev K.; Entel, P.

    2013-01-01

    A novel thermal plasma in-flight technique has been adopted to synthesize nanocrystalline ZnO and carbon doped nanocrystalline ZnO matrix. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies on these samples show the average particle sizes to be around 32 nm for ZnO and for carbon doped ZnO. An enhancement of saturation magnetization in nanosized carbon doped ZnO matrix by a factor of 3.8 has been found in comparison to ZnO nanoparticles at room temperature. Raman measurement clearly indicates the presence of Zn–C complexes surrounded by ZnO matrix in carbon doped ZnO. This indicates that the ferromagnetic signature in carbon doped ZnO arises from the creation of defects or the development of oxy-carbon clusters, in the carbon doped ZnO system. Theoretical studies based on density functional theory also support the experimental analyses. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO and carbon doped ZnO matrix by inflight thermal plasma reactor. ► Enhancement of ferromagnetism in nanosized carbon doped ZnO in comparison to ZnO nanoparticles. ► Raman measurement indicates the presence of Zn–C complexes surrounded by ZnO matrix. ► Ferromagnetic signature in carbon doped ZnO arises from the development of oxy-carbon clusters. ► DFT supports experimental evidence of ferromagnetism in C doped ZnO nanoparticles.

  2. Synthesis and Doping of Silicon Nanocrystals for Versatile Nanocrystal Inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas Johannes

    atmospheric pressures necessitates high plasma densities to reach temperatures required for crystallization of nanoparticles. Using experimentally determined plasma properties from the literature, the model estimates the nanoparticle temperature that is achieved during synthesis at atmospheric pressures. It was found that temperatures well above those required for crystallization can be achieved. Now that the synthesis of nanocrystals is understood, the second half of this thesis will focus on doping of the nanocrystals. The doping of semiconductor nanocrystals, which is vital for the optimization of nanocrystal-based devices, remains a challenge. Gas phase plasma approaches have been very successful in incorporating dopant atoms into nanocrystals by simply adding a dopant precursor during synthesis. However, little is known about the electronic activation of these dopants. This was investigated with field-effect transistor measurements using doped silicon nanocrystal films. It was found that, analogous to bulk silicon, boron and phosphorous electronically dope silicon nanocrystals. However, the dopant activation efficiency remains low as a result of self-purification of the dopants to the nanocrystal surface. Next the plasmonic properties of heavily doped silicon nanocrystals was explored. While the synthesis method was identical, the plasmonic behavior of phosphorus-doped and boron-doped nanocrystals was found the be significantly different. Phosphorus-doped nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after synthesis, while boron-doped nanocrystals require a post-synthesis annealing or oxidation treatment. This is a result of the difference in dopant location. Phosphorus is more likely to be incorporated into the core of the nanocrystal, while the majority of boron is placed on the surface of the nanocrystal. The oxidized boron-doped particles exhibit stable plasmonic properties, and therefore this allows for the production of air-stable silicon-based plasmonic

  3. The use of ZnO as optical spacer in polymer solar cells : theoretical and experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilot, J.; Barbu, I.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    For org. solar cells, insertion of an optical spacer between the active layer and the reflective electrode results in a redistribution of the optical elec. field. In this paper, theor. calcns. using optical modeling are compared with exptl. results for devices with ZnO as optical spacer. An

  4. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndrez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100 substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.

  5. Flame synthesis of zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchan-Merchan, Wilson, E-mail: wmerchan-merchan@ou.edu [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Farahani, Moien Farmahini [School of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a single-step flame method for the synthesis of Zn oxide nanocrystals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diverse flame positions lead to a variation of Zn oxide nanocrystal growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesized crystals have polyhedral, pipet- and needle-like shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High length-to-diameter aspect-ratio crystals appear in a higher temperature flame. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystal growth mechanism corresponds to vapor-to-solid conversion. - Abstract: Distinctive zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals were synthesized on the surface of Zn probes using a counter-flow flame medium formed by methane/acetylene and oxygen-enriched air streams. The source material, a zinc wire with a purity of {approx}99.99% and diameter of 1 mm, was introduced through a sleeve into the oxygen rich region of the flame. The position of the probe/sleeve was varied within the flame medium resulting in growth variation of ZnO nanocrystals on the surface of the probe. The shape and structural parameters of the grown crystals strongly depend on the flame position. Structural variations of the synthesized crystals include single-crystalline ZnO nanorods and microprisms (ZMPs) (the ZMPs have less than a few micrometers in length and several hundred nanometers in cross section) with a large number of facets and complex axial symmetry with a nanorod protruding from their tips. The protruding rods are less than 100 nm in diameter and lengths are less than 1 {mu}m. The protruding nanorods can be elongated several times by increasing the residence time of the probe/sleeve inside the oxygen-rich flame or by varying the flame position. At different flame heights, nanorods having higher length-to-diameter aspect-ratio can be synthesized. A lattice spacing of {approx}0.26 nm was measured for the synthesized nanorods, which can be closely correlated with the (0 0 2) interplanar spacing of hexagonal ZnO (Wurtzite) cells

  6. Experimental study on structural, optoelectronic and room temperature sensing performance of Nickel doped ZnO based ethanol sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, M.; Radha, S.; Kirubaveni, S.; Kiruthika, R.; Govindaraj, R.; Santhosh, N.

    2018-04-01

    Nano crystalline undoped (1Z) Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and 5, 10 and 15 Wt. % (1ZN, 2ZN and 3ZN) of Nickel doped ZnO based sensors were fabricated using the hydrothermal approach on Fluorine doped Tin Oxide (FTO) glass substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis proved the hexagonal Wurtzite structure of ZnO. Parametric variations in terms of dislocation density, bond length, lattice parameters and micro strain with respect to dopant concentration were analysed. The prominent variations in the crystallite size, optical band gap and Photoluminescence peak ratio of devices fabricated was observed. The Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images showed a change in diameter and density of the nanorods. The effect of the operating temperature, concentration of ethanol and the different doping levels of sensitivity, response and recovery time were investigated. It was inferred that 376% of sensitivity with a very quick response and recovery time of <5 s and 10 s respectively at 150 °C of 3ZN sensor has better performance compared to other three sensors. Also 3ZN sensor showed improved sensitivity of 114%, even at room temperature with response and recovery time of 35 s and 45 s respectively.

  7. Experimental and numerical optical characterization of plasmonic copper nanoparticles embedded in ZnO fabricated by ion implantation and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Khai Q. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hoa Sen University, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Nguyen, Hieu P.T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, NJ 07102 (United States); Ngo, Quang Minh [Institute of Material Sciences, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Canimoglu, Adil [Nigde University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Physics Department, Nigde (Turkey); Can, Nurdogan, E-mail: cannurdogan@yahoo.com [Celal Bayar University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Muradiye, Manisa (Turkey); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, P.O. Box 114, 45142 Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-05

    Here we describe the successfully fabrication of metal nanoparticle crystals by implanting copper (Cu) ions into single zinc oxide (ZnO) crystals with ion energy of 400 keV at ion doses of 1 × 10{sup 16} to 1 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation and post-annealing treatment, the Cu implanted ZnO produces a broad range of luminescence emissions, ranging from green to yellow. A green luminescence peak at 550 nm could be ascribed to the isolated Cu ions. The changes in luminescence emission bands between the initial implant and annealed suggest that the implants give rise to clustering Cu nanoparticles in the host matrix but that the annealing process dissociates these. Numerical modelling of the Cu nanoparticles was employed to simulate their optical properties including the extinction cross section, electron energy loss spectroscopy and cathodoluminescence. We demonstrate that the clustering of nanoparticles generates Fano resonances corresponding to the generation of multiple resonances, while the isolation of nanoparticles results in intensity amplification. - Highlights: • We present the fabrication of metal nanoparticle crystals by implanting Cu into ZnO. • The luminescence properties were studied at different annealing temperature. • Numerical modelling of the Cu nanoparticles was employed. • We demonstrate that the clustering of nanoparticles generates Fano resonances.

  8. Nanocrystal quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Klimov, Victor I

    2010-01-01

    ""Soft"" Chemical Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals, J.A. Hollingsworth and V.I. Klimov Electronic Structure in Semiconductor Nanocrystals: Optical Experiment, D.J. NorrisFine Structure and Polarization Properties of Band-Edge Excitons in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, A.L. EfrosIntraband Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Colloidal Semiconductor Quantum Dots, P. Guyot-Sionnest, M. Shim, and C. WangMultiexciton Phenomena in Semiconductor Nanocrystals, V.I. KlimovOptical Dynamics in Single Semiconductor Quantum Do

  9. Microscopic theory of cation exchange in CdSe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Florian D; Spiegel, Leo L; Norris, David J; Erwin, Steven C

    2014-10-10

    Although poorly understood, cation-exchange reactions are increasingly used to dope or transform colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots). We use density-functional theory and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to develop a microscopic theory that explains structural, optical, and electronic changes observed experimentally in Ag-cation-exchanged CdSe nanocrystals. We find that Coulomb interactions, both between ionized impurities and with the polarized nanocrystal surface, play a key role in cation exchange. Our theory also resolves several experimental puzzles related to photoluminescence and electrical behavior in CdSe nanocrystals doped with Ag.

  10. Photoluminescence of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, C.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Kunold, A.; Reyes-Esqueda, J.A.; Pereyra, P.

    2006-12-01

    We used the theory of finite periodic systems to explain the photoluminescence spectra dependence on the average diameter of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices. Because of the broad matrix band gap, the photoluminescence response is basically determined by isolated nanocrystals and sequences of a few of them. With this model we were able to reproduce the shape and displacement of the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra. (author)

  11. Highly concentrated zinc oxide nanocrystals sol with strong blue emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vafaee, M.; Sasani Ghamsari, M.; Radiman, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highly concentrated ZnO sol was synthesized by an improved sol-gel method. Water was used as a modifier to control the sol-gel reaction and provide a way to increase the sol concentration. Concentration of ZnO in the prepared sol is higher than from other methods. Optical absorption and photoluminescence were used to investigate optical properties of the prepared sol. FTIR test was performed to study the influence of water on the compounds of as-prepared sol. The size and morphology of ZnO nanoparticles have been studied by HRTEM. The prepared colloidal ZnO nanocrystals have narrow size distribution (5-8 nm) and showed strong blue emission. The prepared sol has enough potential for optoelectronic applications. - Research highlights: → Novel sol-gel route has been employed to prepare highly concentrated ZnO colloidal nanocrystals. → Water has been used to control the sources of emission in synthesized material. → A strong blue luminescent material has been obtained.

  12. Doping effect in Si nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongke; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Yicheng; Chen, Kunji

    2018-06-01

    Intentional doping in semiconductors is a fundamental issue since it can control the conduction type and ability as well as modify the optical and electronic properties. To realize effective doping is the basis for developing semiconductor devices. However, by reducing the size of a semiconductor, like Si, to the nanometer scale, the doping effects become complicated due to the coupling between the quantum confinement effect and the surfaces and/or interfaces effect. In particular, by introducing phosphorus or boron impurities as dopants into material containing Si nanocrystals with a dot size of less than 10 nm, it exhibits different behaviors and influences on the physical properties from its bulk counterpart. Understanding the doping effects in Si nanocrystals is currently a challenge in order to further improve the performance of the next generation of nano-electronic and photonic devices. In this review, we present an overview of the latest theoretical studies and experimental results on dopant distributions and their effects on the electronic and optical properties of Si nanocrystals. In particular, the advanced characterization techniques on dopant distribution, the carrier transport process as well as the linear and nonlinear optical properties of doped Si nanocrystals, are systematically summarized.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigations on magnetic behavior of (Al,Co) co-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, O D; Achary, S N; Sudakar, C; Naik, R; Salunke, H G; Rao, Rekha; Peng, X; Ahuja, R; Tyagi, A K

    2010-08-01

    We present the structural and magnetic properties of Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O (x = 0.0 to 0.1) nanoparticles, synthesized by a novel sol-gel route followed by pyrolysis. Powder X-ray diffraction data confirms the formation of a single phase wurtzite type ZnO structure for all the compositions. The Zn(0.95)Co(0.05)O nanoparticles show diamagnetic behavior at room temperature. However, when Al is co-doped with Co with x = 0.0 to 0.10 in Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O, a systematic increase in ferromagnetic moment is observed up to x = 0.07 at 300 K. Above x = 0.07 (e.g. for x = 0.10) a drastic decrease in ferromagnetic nature is observed which is concomitant with the segregation of poorly crystalline Al rich ZnO phase as evidenced from TEM studies. Theoretical studies using density functional calculations on Zn(0.95-x)Co(0.05)Al(x)O suggest that the partial occupancy of S2 states leads to an increased double exchange interaction favoring the ferromagnetic ground states. Such ferromagnetic interactions are favorable beyond a threshold limit. At a high level doping of Al, the exchange splitting is reduced, which suppresses the ferromagnetic ordering.

  14. Influence of Zn/Fe Molar Ratio on Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnO and ZnFe2O4 Nanocrystal as Calcined Products of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coprecipitation method has been used to synthesize layered double hydroxide (Zn-Fe-LDH nanostructure at different Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The structural properties of samples were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD. LDH samples were calcined at 600°C to produce mixed oxides (ZnO and ZnFe2O4. The crystallite size of mixed oxide was found in the nanometer scale (18.1 nm for ZnFe2O4 and 43.3 nm for ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of the calcination products was investigated using ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of calcined LDHs were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The calcined samples showed a paramagnetic behavior for all Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The effect of molar ratio on magnetic susceptibility of the calcined samples was also studied.

  15. Experimental evidence for self-assembly of CeO2 particles in solution: Formation of single-crystalline porous CeO2 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hui Ru; Tan, Joyce Pei Ying; Boothroyd, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Single-crystalline porous CeO2 nanocrystals, with sizes of ∼20 nm and pore diameters of 1-2 nm, were synthesized successfully using a hydrothermal method. Using electron tomography, we imaged the three-dimensional structure of the pores in the nanocrystals and found that the oriented aggregation ...... energy-loss spectroscopy. The oxygen vacancies might play an important role in oxygen diffusion in the crystals and the catalytic activities of single-crystalline porous CeO 2 structures. © 2011 American Chemical Society....

  16. Applying analytical ultracentrifugation to nanocrystal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, Jennifer A; Krueger, Karl M; Mayo, J T; Yavuz, Cafer T; Redden, Jacina J; Colvin, Vicki L, E-mail: colvin@rice.ed [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS-60, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2009-09-02

    While applied frequently in physical biochemistry to the study of protein complexes, the quantitative use of analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) for nanocrystal analysis is relatively rare. Its application in nanoscience is potentially very powerful as it provides a measure of nanocrystal density, size and structure directly in the solution phase. Towards that end, this paper examines the best practices for applying data collection and analysis methods for AUC, geared towards the study of biomolecules, to the unique problems of nanoparticle analysis. Using uniform nanocrystals of cadmium selenide, we compared several schemes for analyzing raw sedimentation data. Comparable values of the mean sedimentation coefficients (s-value) were found using several popular analytical approaches; however, the distribution in sample s-values is best captured using the van Holde-Weischt algorithm. Measured s-values could be reproducibly collected if sample temperature and concentration were controlled; under these circumstances, the variability for average sedimentation values was typically 5%. The full shape of the distribution in s-values, however, is not easily subjected to quantitative interpretation. Moreover, the selection of the appropriate sedimentation speed is crucial for AUC of nanocrystals as the density of inorganic nanocrystals is much larger than that of solvents. Quantitative analysis of sedimentation properties will allow for better agreement between experimental and theoretical models of nanocrystal solution behavior, as well as providing deeper insight into the hydrodynamic size and solution properties of nanomaterials.

  17. Transition metal implanted ZnO. A correlation between structure and magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengqiang

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays ferromagnetism is often found in potential diluted magnetic semiconductor systems. However, many authors question the origin of this ferromagnetism, i.e. if the observed ferromagnetism stems from ferromagnetic precipitates rather than from carriermediated magnetic coupling of ionic impurities, as required for a diluted magnetic semiconductor. In this thesis, this question will be answered for transition-metal implanted ZnO single crystals. Magnetic secondary phases, namely metallic Fe, Co and Ni nanocrystals, are formed inside ZnO. They are - although difficult to detect by common approaches of structural analysis - responsible for the observed ferromagnetism. Particularly Co and Ni nanocrystals are crystallographically oriented with respect to the ZnO matrix. Their structure phase transformation and corresponding evolution of magnetic properties upon annealing have been established. Finally, an approach, pre-annealing ZnO crystals at high temperature before implantation, has been demonstrated to sufficiently suppress the formation of metallic secondary phases. (orig.)

  18. Site-specific growth of Au particles on ZnO nanopyramids under ultraviolet illumination

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Kexin

    2011-01-01

    In this work, wurtzite ZnO nanocrystals with unique "pyramid" morphology were firstly prepared via solvothermal synthesis. It was determined that the ZnO nanopyramids are grown along the polar c-axis with the vertexes pointing to the [001] direction. When the mixture of ZnO nanopyramids and Au precursor (HAuCl4) was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) illumination, Au particles were site-specifically formed on the vertexes of ZnO nanopyramids. The obtained Au/ZnO nanocomposite showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity as compared to the bare ZnO nanopyramids. First-principles based calculations well explained the formation of ZnO nanopyramids as well as the site-specific growth of Au, and revealed that during the photocatalysis process the Au particles can accommodate photoelectrons and thus facilitate the charge separation. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  19. Room temperature synthesis and optical properties of small diameter (5 nm) ZnO nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungho; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2010-10-01

    We report a simple wet-chemical synthesis of ∼5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays at room temperature (20 °C) and normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm) and their optical properties. They were single crystalline in nature, and grew in the [001] direction. These small diameter ZnO nanorod arrays can also be synthesized at 0 °C. Control experiments were also conducted. On the basis of the results, we propose a mechanism for the spontaneous growth of the small diameter ZnO structures. The optical properties of the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays synthesized using this method were probed by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. A clear blue-shift, relative to the absorption band from 50 nm diameter ZnO nanorod arrays, was attributed to the quantum confinement effects caused by the small nanocrystal size in the 5 nm diameter ZnO nanorods.

  20. The role of tetragonal-metal-organic framework-5 loadings with extra ZnO molecule on the gas separation performance of mixed matrix membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjmandi, Mehrzad; Pakizeh, Majid; Pirouzram, Omid

    2015-01-01

    The effect of more ZnO molecule in tetragonal structure of MOF-5 than cubic structure on the gas permeation properties of T-MOF-5/polyetherimide mixed matrix membranes was investigated. T-MOF-5 was first successfully synthesized and carefully characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and N 2 adsorption technique at 77 K. Novel T-MOF-5/PEI MMMs were prepared using solution casting method and characterized by FTIR and SEM. The SEM pictures of the MMMs showed that T-MOF-5 nanocrystals changed the morphology of PEI and exhibited acceptable contacts between the filler particles and the polymer chains. Gas permeation properties of these membranes with different T-MOF-5 contents were studied for pure H 2 , CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 gases. Permeation measurement showed that the all gases' permeability, diffusivity and solubility were increased with T-MOF-5 loading. H 2 permeability and the ideal selectivity of H 2 /CO 2 and H 2 /CH 4 in MMM with 25 wt% loading of T-MOF-5 nanocrystals were increased. This behavior was attributed to more ZnO molecule in T-MOF-5 structure. The experimental gas permeations through T-MOF-5/PEI nanocomposite with different filler loadings were fitted on Higuchi model. Good agreement between the experimental data and the predicted gas permeability was obtained

  1. The role of tetragonal-metal-organic framework-5 loadings with extra ZnO molecule on the gas separation performance of mixed matrix membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjmandi, Mehrzad; Pakizeh, Majid [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pirouzram, Omid [Kurdistan University, Kurdistan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The effect of more ZnO molecule in tetragonal structure of MOF-5 than cubic structure on the gas permeation properties of T-MOF-5/polyetherimide mixed matrix membranes was investigated. T-MOF-5 was first successfully synthesized and carefully characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and N{sub 2} adsorption technique at 77 K. Novel T-MOF-5/PEI MMMs were prepared using solution casting method and characterized by FTIR and SEM. The SEM pictures of the MMMs showed that T-MOF-5 nanocrystals changed the morphology of PEI and exhibited acceptable contacts between the filler particles and the polymer chains. Gas permeation properties of these membranes with different T-MOF-5 contents were studied for pure H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2} gases. Permeation measurement showed that the all gases' permeability, diffusivity and solubility were increased with T-MOF-5 loading. H{sub 2} permeability and the ideal selectivity of H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} in MMM with 25 wt% loading of T-MOF-5 nanocrystals were increased. This behavior was attributed to more ZnO molecule in T-MOF-5 structure. The experimental gas permeations through T-MOF-5/PEI nanocomposite with different filler loadings were fitted on Higuchi model. Good agreement between the experimental data and the predicted gas permeability was obtained.

  2. Plasmonic light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Shahab; Gungor, Kivanc; Mutlugun, Evren; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2013-04-01

    We report plasmonically coupled light-sensitive skins of nanocrystal monolayers that exhibit sensitivity enhancement and spectral range extension with plasmonic nanostructures embedded in their photosensitive nanocrystal platforms. The deposited plasmonic silver nanoparticles of the device increase the optical absorption of a CdTe nanocrystal monolayer incorporated in the device. Controlled separation of these metallic nanoparticles in the vicinity of semiconductor nanocrystals enables optimization of the photovoltage buildup in the proposed nanostructure platform. The enhancement factor was found to depend on the excitation wavelength. We observed broadband sensitivity improvement (across 400-650 nm), with a 2.6-fold enhancement factor around the localized plasmon resonance peak. The simulation results were found to agree well with the experimental data. Such plasmonically enhanced nanocrystal skins hold great promise for large-area UV/visible sensing applications.

  3. Simultaneous control of nanocrystal size and nanocrystal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    applications such as a photo-sensor [11]. Thus, it is desirable to have, not only a control on the size of the nanocrystals, but also an independent tunability of the ... 1-thioglycerol) in 25 ml methanol under inert atmosphere. 10 ml of 0.2 M sodium sulfide solution is then added to the reaction mixture dropwise and the reaction.

  4. Dominant ultraviolet-blue photoluminescence of ZnO embedded into synthetic opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrarov, S.M.; Yuldashev, Sh.U.; Kim, T.W.; Lee, S.B.; Kwon, H.Y.; Kang, T.W.

    2005-01-01

    The temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) embedded into the voids of synthetic opal were studied. ZnO was infiltrated into opal from aqueous solution with zinc nitrate precursor followed by thermal annealing. The PL spectra of the ZnO powder exhibit very high and broad emission peaks in the green region due to crystal defects, such as oxygen vacancies and zinc ion interstitials. In contrast to the PL spectra of ZnO powder, nanocrystals of ZnO embedded into the voids of FCC packed opal matrix exhibit dominant ultraviolet (UV)-blue and rapidly decreasing green PL emissions with decreasing temperature. The temperature-dependent PL characteristics show that the green band suppression in the ZnO nanocrystals is due to the influence of photonic crystal. The infiltration of nanoparticles into synthetic opal may be used for the fabrication of polycrystalline ZnO with dominant UV-blue PL. These results indicate that the luminescent materials embedded into photonic crystal may be promising for the fabrication of the RGB pixels in full-color displays

  5. Enhanced biostability and cellular uptake of zinc oxide nanocrystals shielded with a phospholipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumontel, B; Canta, M; Engelke, H; Chiodoni, A; Racca, L; Ancona, A; Limongi, T; Canavese, G; Cauda, V

    2017-11-28

    The widespread use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications, including therapeutic drug delivery or stimuli-responsive activation, as well as imaging, imposes a careful control over the colloidal stability and long-term behaviour of ZnO in biological media. Moreover, the effect of ZnO nanostructures on living cells, in particular cancer cells, is still under debate. This paper discusses the role of surface chemistry and charge of zinc oxide nanocrystals, of around 15 nm in size, which influence their behaviour in biological fluids and effect on cancer cells. In particular, we address this problem by modifying the surface of pristine ZnO nanocrystals (NCs), rich of hydroxyl groups, with positively charged amino-propyl chains or, more innovatively, by self-assembling a double-lipidic membrane, shielding the ZnO NCs. Our findings show that the prolonged immersion in simulated human plasma and in the cell culture medium leads to highly colloidally dispersed ZnO NCs only when coated by the lipidic bilayer. In contrast, the pristine and amine-functionalized NCs form huge aggregates after already one hour of immersion. Partial dissolution of these two samples into potentially cytotoxic Zn 2+ cations takes place, together with the precipitation of phosphate and carbonate salts on the NCs' surface. When exposed to living HeLa cancer cells, higher amounts of lipid-shielded ZnO NCs are internalized with respect to the other samples, thus showing a reduced cytotoxicity, based on the same amount of internalized NCs. These results pave the way for the development of novel theranostic platforms based on ZnO NCs. The new formulation of ZnO shielded with a lipid-bilayer will prevent strong aggregation and premature degradation into toxic by-products, and promote a highly efficient cell uptake for further therapeutic or diagnostic functions.

  6. Low-temperature growth of (2 1-bar 1-bar 0) ZnO nanofilm on NaCl (0 0 1) surface by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jung-Hsiung; Yeh, Sung-Wei; Huang, Hsing-Lu; Gan, Dershin

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanofilm of the (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) surface was prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition. The nanofilm was prepared on NaCl (0 0 1) surface at 200 o C to produce nearly pure (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) ZnO texture and the orientation relationship was determined and the interface discussed. Transmission electron microscopy lattice images were used to find the interface formed between ZnO nanocrystals. The ZnO nanocrystals coalesced to form a straight (0 1 -bar 1 -bar 2) interface. The photoluminescence spectrum from the (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) ZnO surface showed only a near-band-edge UV emission peak.

  7. Morphologically controlled ZnO nanostructures as electron transport materials in polymer-based organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kyu-Chae; Lee, Eun-Jin; Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Lim, Dong-Chan; Kang, Yong-Cheol; Kim, Yang-Do; Kim, Ki Hyun; Kim, Jae Pil; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhanced efficiency of solar cells using ZnO nanocrystals for charge transport. • Morphology of the charge transport layer is controlled. • Mixture of nanoparticles and nanorods are advantageous for cell efficiency. - ABSTRACT: The morphology of ZnO electron transport layers based on ZnO nanoparticles were modified with incorporation of ZnO nanorods via their co-deposition from mixed colloidal solution of nanoparticles and nanorods. In particular, the short circuit current density and the fill factor of the constructed photovoltaic device were simultaneously improved by applying mixture of ZnO nanoparticles and nanorods. As a result, a large improvement of power conversion efficiency up to 9% for the inverted organic solar cells having a blend of low band gap polymers and fullerene derivative as an active layer was demonstrated with the morphologically controlled ZnO electron transport layer.

  8. Effect of polar and non-polar surfaces of ZnO nanostructures on photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinghai; Wang Jian; Li Xiuyan; Lang Jihui; Liu Fuzhu; Yang Lili; Zhai Hongju; Gao Ming; Zhao Xiaoting

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Large-scale arrayed ZnO nanocrystals including ZnO hexagonal platforms and hamburger-like samples have been successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. ► ZnO with hexagonal platform-like morphology exhibited higher photocatalytic activity compared with that of the hamburger-like ZnO nanostructures. ► The theories of expose surfaces and oxygen vacancies were utilized to explain the photocatalytic mechanism. - Abstract: Large-scale arrayed ZnO nanocrystals with two different expose surfaces, including ZnO hexagonal nanoplatforms with the major expose plane of (0 0 0 1) and hamburger-like samples with the nonpolar planes of {101 ¯ 0} mainly exposed, were successfully fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Mechanisms for compare the photocatalytic activity of two typical ZnO nanostructures were systematic explained as the key point in the paper. Compared with the hamburger-like ZnO nanostructures, the ZnO with hexagonal platform-like morphology exhibited improved ability on the photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in aqueous solution under UV radiation. The relative higher photocatalytic activity of the ZnO hexagonal nanoplatforms was attributed to the exposed polar surfaces and the content of oxygen vacancy on the nanostructures surface. The Zn-terminated (0 0 0 1) polar face and the surface defects are facile to adsorb O 2− and OH − ions, resulting in a greater production rate of O 2 · − and OH· − , hence promoting the photocatalysis reaction.

  9. Nanocrystals Technology for Pharmaceutical Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhongyao; Lian, Yumei; Kamal, Zul; Ma, Xin; Chen, Jianjun; Zhou, Xinbo; Su, Jing; Qiu, Mingfeng

    2018-05-17

    Nanocrystals technology is a promising method for improving the dissolution rate and enhancing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In recent years, it has been developing rapidly and applied to drug research and engineering. Nanocrystal drugs can be formulated into various dosage forms. This review mainly focused on the nanocrystals technology and its application in pharmaceutical science. Firstly, different preparation methods of nanocrystal technology and the characterization of nanocrystal drugs are briefly described. Secondly, the application of nanocrystals technology in pharmaceutical science is mainly discussed followed by the introduction of sustained release formulations. Then, the scaling up process, marketed nanocrystal drug products and regulatory aspects about nanodrugs are summarized. Finally, the specific challenges and opportunities of nanocrystals technology for pharmaceutical science are summarized and discussed. This review will provide a comprehensive guide for scientists and engineers in the field of pharmaceutical science and biochemical engineering. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Real space pseudopotential calculations for size trends in Ga- and Al-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals with wurtzite and zincblende structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbitt, N. Scott; Kim, Minjung [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Sai, Na [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Marom, Noa [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, 70118 (United States); Chelikowsky, James R. [Center for Computational Materials, Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, Departments of Physics and Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    Zinc oxide is often used as a popular inexpensive transparent conducting oxide. Here, we employ density functional theory and local density approximation to examine the effects of quantum confinement in doped nanocrystals of this material. Specifically, we examine the addition of Ga and Al dopants to ZnO nanocrystals on the order of 1.0 nm. We find that the inclusion of these dopants is energetically less favorable in smaller particles and that the electron binding energy, which is associated with the dopant activation, decreases with the nanocrystal size. We find that the introduction of impurities does not alter significantly the Kohn-Sham eigenspectrum for small nanocrystals of ZnO. The added electron occupies the lowest existing state, i.e., no new bound state is introduced in the gap. We verify this assertion with hybrid functional calculations.

  11. Real space pseudopotential calculations for size trends in Ga- and Al-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals with wurtzite and zincblende structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobbitt, N. Scott; Kim, Minjung; Sai, Na; Marom, Noa; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide is often used as a popular inexpensive transparent conducting oxide. Here, we employ density functional theory and local density approximation to examine the effects of quantum confinement in doped nanocrystals of this material. Specifically, we examine the addition of Ga and Al dopants to ZnO nanocrystals on the order of 1.0 nm. We find that the inclusion of these dopants is energetically less favorable in smaller particles and that the electron binding energy, which is associated with the dopant activation, decreases with the nanocrystal size. We find that the introduction of impurities does not alter significantly the Kohn-Sham eigenspectrum for small nanocrystals of ZnO. The added electron occupies the lowest existing state, i.e., no new bound state is introduced in the gap. We verify this assertion with hybrid functional calculations

  12. Evidence of ferromagnetism in Zn1-xMxO (M = Ni,Cu) nanocrystals for spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perales-Perez, O; Parra-Palomino, A; Singhal, R; Voyles, P M; Zhu, Y; Jia, W; Tomar, M S

    2007-01-01

    We present the conditions for room-temperature synthesis of bare, Ni-and Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals in ethanol and their characterization. The formation of a ZnO host structure was delayed when dopant ions co-existed in the starting solutions. After ageing in mother liquors, well-crystallized doped nanocrystals were produced. Monodispersity of the nanocrystals (5-8 nm) was shown by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements also confirmed the nanocrystalline nature and the continuous growth of the crystals when aged at room temperature. Room-temperature SQUID measurements showed weak but noticeable ferromagnetism, which was dependent on synthesis conditions

  13. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gur, Ilan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  14. High-purity Cu nanocrystal synthesis by a dynamic decomposition method

    OpenAIRE

    Jian, Xian; Cao, Yu; Chen, Guozhang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Hui; Yin, Liangjun; Luan, Chunhong; Liang, Yinglin; Jiang, Jing; Wu, Sixin; Zeng, Qing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chengui

    2014-01-01

    Cu nanocrystals are applied extensively in several fields, particularly in the microelectron, sensor, and catalysis. The catalytic behavior of Cu nanocrystals depends mainly on the structure and particle size. In this work, formation of high-purity Cu nanocrystals is studied using a common chemical vapor deposition precursor of cupric tartrate. This process is investigated through a combined experimental and computational approach. The decomposition kinetics is researched via differential sca...

  15. Hybrid nanocrystal/polymer solar cells based on tetrapod-shaped CdSexTe1-x nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yi; Li Yunchao; Zhong Haizheng; Hou Jianhui; Ding Yuqin; Yang Chunhe; Li Yongfang

    2006-01-01

    A series of ternary tetrapodal nanocrystals of CdSe x Te 1-x with x = 0 (CdTe), 0.23, 0.53, 0.78, 1 (CdSe) were synthesized and used to fabricate hybrid nanocrystal/polymer solar cells. Herein, the nanocrystals acted as electron acceptors, and poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) was used as an electron donor. It was found that the open circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current (J sc ) and power conversion efficiency (η) of the devices all increased with increasing Se content in the CdSe x Te 1-x nanocrystals under identical experimental conditions. The solar cell based on the blend of tetrapodal CdSe nanocrystals and MEH-PPV (9:1 w/w) showed the highest power conversion efficiency of 1.13% under AM 1.5, 80 mW cm -2 , and the maximum incident photon to converted current efficiency (IPCE) of the device reached 47% at 510 nm. The influence of nanocrystal composition on the photovoltaic properties of the hybrid solar cells was explained by the difference of the band level positions between MEH-PPV and the nanocrystals

  16. Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres as a photocatalyst for high performance photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Dongfang; Ge, Qisheng; Ping, Guangxing; Fan, Meiqiang; Qin, Laishun; Bai, Liqun; Lv, Chunju; Shu, Kangying

    2015-01-01

    In this work, graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres (ZnO–graphene nanocomposites) were prepared by a simple facile lyophilization method, followed by thermal treatment process. ZnO nanospheres with the size of about 100–400 nm, composed of numerous nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite structure, were well separated from each other and wrapped with transparent graphene sheets. Compared to ZnO nanospheres, the ZnO–graphene nanocomposites showed a significant enhancement in the photodegradation of methylene blue. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to their favorable dye-adsorption affinity and increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer of the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of ZnO to graphene. Thus, this work could provide a facile and low-cost method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in photocatalysis, solar energy conversion, sensing, and so on. - Highlights: • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were prepared by a facile lyophilization method. • ZnO nanospheres were separated from each other and wrapped with 2D graphene sheets. • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres exhibited superior photocatalytic activities. • The photocatalytic mechanisms of graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were discussed

  17. Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres as a photocatalyst for high performance photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Da, E-mail: dchen_80@hotmail.com [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang, Dongfang; Ge, Qisheng; Ping, Guangxing [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Fan, Meiqiang, E-mail: fanmeiqiang@126.com [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Qin, Laishun [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Bai, Liqun [School of Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Hangzhou 311300 (China); Lv, Chunju; Shu, Kangying [College of Materials Science & Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres (ZnO–graphene nanocomposites) were prepared by a simple facile lyophilization method, followed by thermal treatment process. ZnO nanospheres with the size of about 100–400 nm, composed of numerous nanocrystals with hexagonal wurtzite structure, were well separated from each other and wrapped with transparent graphene sheets. Compared to ZnO nanospheres, the ZnO–graphene nanocomposites showed a significant enhancement in the photodegradation of methylene blue. This enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to their favorable dye-adsorption affinity and increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer of the photogenerated electrons in the conduction band of ZnO to graphene. Thus, this work could provide a facile and low-cost method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in photocatalysis, solar energy conversion, sensing, and so on. - Highlights: • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were prepared by a facile lyophilization method. • ZnO nanospheres were separated from each other and wrapped with 2D graphene sheets. • Graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres exhibited superior photocatalytic activities. • The photocatalytic mechanisms of graphene-wrapped ZnO nanospheres were discussed.

  18. A single molecule switch based on two Pd nanocrystals linked by a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in this single molecule system. 2. Experimental ... (b) Histogram showing size distribution of the nanocrystal in (a). (c) Micro- graph taken ... applied on one of the nanocrystals using the STM tip, a voltage drop is expected along the molecular ...

  19. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  20. Synthesis of Highly Concentrated ZnO Nanorod Sol by Sol-gel Method and their Applications for Inverted Organic Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Solee; Kim, Young Chai; Oh, Seong-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the zinc oxide (ZnO) preparing process on the performance of inverted organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) were explored. The morphology and size of ZnO nanoparticles were controlled, leading to more efficient charge collection from device and higher electron mobility compared with nanospheres. Nanosized ZnO particles were synthesized by using zinc acetate dihydrate and potassium hydroxide in methanol. Also, water was added into the reaction medium to control the morphology of ZnO nanocrystals from spherical particles to rods, and NH 4 OH was used to prevent the gelation of dispersion. Solution-processed ZnO thin films were deposited onto the ITO/glass substrate by using spin coating process and then ZnO films were used as an electron transport layer in inverted organic photovoltaic cells. The analyses were carried out by using TEM, FE-SEM, AFM, DLS, UV-Vis spectroscopy, current density-voltage characteristics and solar simulator

  1. Synthesis and optical characteristics of ZnO nanocrystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Zinc oxide nanomaterials with an average particle size of 20–30 nm are readily synthesized by the reaction of zinc acetate ... solar cells, chemical sensors, piezoelectric transducers, transparent ... radiation (λ = 0⋅15496 nm). The crystalline ...

  2. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species.

  3. Size- and shape-dependent surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2018-05-01

    As the fundamental properties, the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals play a key role in the physical and chemical changes. However, it remains ambiguous about the quantitative influence regularities of size and shape on the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals. Thus by introducing interface variables into the Gibbs energy and combining Young-Laplace equation, relations between the surface thermodynamic properties (surface Gibbs energy, surface enthalpy, surface entropy, surface energy and surface heat capacity), respectively, and size of nanocrystals with different shapes were derived. Theoretical estimations of the orders of the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals agree with available experimental values. Calculated results of the surface thermodynamic properties of Au, Bi and Al nanocrystals suggest that when r > 10 nm, the surface thermodynamic properties linearly vary with the reciprocal of particle size, and when r < 10 nm, the effect of particle size on the surface thermodynamic properties becomes greater and deviates from linear variation. For nanocrystals with identical equivalent diameter, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the larger the surface thermodynamic properties (absolute value) are.

  4. Growth kinetics of tin oxide nanocrystals in colloidal suspensions under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eduardo J.H.; Ribeiro, Caue; Longo, Elson; Leite, Edson R.

    2006-01-01

    Colloidal suspensions of tin oxide nanocrystals were synthesized at room temperature by the hydrolysis reaction of tin chloride (II), in an ethanolic solution. The coarsening kinetics of such nanocrystals was studied by submitting the as-prepared suspensions to hydrothermal treatments at temperatures of 100, 150 and 200 deg. C for periods between 60 and 12,000 min. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the samples (i.e. distribution of nanocrystal size, average particle radius and morphology). The results show that the usual Ostwald ripening coarsening mechanism does not fit well the experimental data, which is an indicative that this process is not significant for SnO 2 nanocrystals, in the studied experimental conditions. The morphology evolution of the nanocrystals upon hydrothermal treatment indicates that growth by oriented attachment (OA) should be significant. A kinetic model that describes OA growth is successfully applied to fit the data

  5. Synthesis and characterization of organically linked ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Christine; Riedel, Ingo; Parisi, Juergen [Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory (EHF), University of Oldenburg, Carl-von Ossietzky-Strasse 9-11, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Kruska, Carsten; Heimbrodt, Wolfram [Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-University Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany); Feser, Clemens [NEXT ENERGY - EWE Research Centre for Energy Technology e.V., Carl-von Ossietzky-Strasse 15, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Beenken, Wichard J.D. [Department of Theoretical Physics I, Ilmenau University of Technology, Weimarer Strasse 25, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Hoppe, Harald [Department of Experimental Physics I, Ilmenau University of Technology, Weimarer Strasse 32, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    We report on the solution-based synthesis and characterization of three-dimensional networks of ZnO nanoparticles where the formation of structures is achieved by covalently linking the nanocrystals with bifunctional organic ligands. The colloidal synthesis will be presented with application of two ligands that vary in size and binding sites. Furthermore we report on structural characterization of dried powders and thin films by means of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy in order to examine the regularity of the structures. We also present first investigations of the optical properties and electrical conductance behavior in lateral direction of the differently linked hybrid ZnO networks. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Synthesis and characterization of organically linked ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chory, Christine; Riedel, Ingo; Parisi, Juergen; Kruska, Carsten; Heimbrodt, Wolfram; Feser, Clemens; Beenken, Wichard J.D.; Hoppe, Harald

    2012-01-01

    We report on the solution-based synthesis and characterization of three-dimensional networks of ZnO nanoparticles where the formation of structures is achieved by covalently linking the nanocrystals with bifunctional organic ligands. The colloidal synthesis will be presented with application of two ligands that vary in size and binding sites. Furthermore we report on structural characterization of dried powders and thin films by means of X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy in order to examine the regularity of the structures. We also present first investigations of the optical properties and electrical conductance behavior in lateral direction of the differently linked hybrid ZnO networks. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Patterning nanocrystals using DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Shara Carol [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    One of the goals of nanotechnology is to enable programmed self-assembly of patterns made of various materials with nanometer-sized control. This dissertation describes the results of experiments templating arrangements of gold and semiconductor nanocrystals using 2'-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Previously, simple DNA-templated linear arrangements of two and three nanocrystals structures have been made.[1] Here, we have sought to assemble larger and more complex nanostructures. Gold-DNA conjugates with 50 to 100 bases self-assembled into planned arrangements using strands of DNA containing complementary base sequences. We used two methods to increase the complexity of the arrangements: using branched synthetic doublers within the DNA covalent backbone to create discrete nanocrystal groupings, and incorporating the nanocrystals into a previously developed DNA lattice structure [2][3] that self-assembles from tiles made of DNA double-crossover molecules to create ordered nanoparticle arrays. In the first project, the introduction of a covalently-branched synthetic doubler reagent into the backbone of DNA strands created a branched DNA ''trimer.'' This DNA trimer templated various structures that contained groupings of three and four gold nanoparticles, giving promising, but inconclusive transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results. Due to the presence of a variety of possible structures in the reaction mixtures, and due to the difficulty of isolating the desired structures, the TEM and gel electrophoresis results for larger structures having four particles, and for structures containing both 5 and 10 nm gold nanoparticles were inconclusive. Better results may come from using optical detection methods, or from improved sample preparation. In the second project, we worked toward making two-dimensional ordered arrays of nanocrystals. We replicated and improved upon previous results for making DNA lattices, increasing the size of the lattices

  8. Photoemission studies of semiconductor nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamad, K.S.; Roth, R.; Alivisatos, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals have been the focus of much attention in the last ten years due predominantly to their size dependent optical properties. Namely, the band gap of nanocrystals exhibits a shift to higher energy with decreasing size due to quantum confinement effects. Research in this field has employed primarily optical techniques to study nanocrystals, and in this respect this system has been investigated extensively. In addition, one is able to synthesize monodisperse, crystalline particles of CdS, CdSe, Si, InP, InAs, as well as CdS/HgS/CdS and CdSe/CdS composites. However, optical spectroscopies have proven ambiguous in determining the degree to which electronic excitations are interior or surface admixtures or giving a complete picture of the density of states. Photoemission is a useful technique for understanding the electronic structure of nanocrystals and the effects of quantum confinement, chemical environments of the nanocrystals, and surface coverages. Of particular interest to the authors is the surface composition and structure of these particles, for they have found that much of the behavior of nanocrystals is governed by their surface. Previously, the authors had performed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on CdSe nanocrystals. XPS has proven to be a powerful tool in that it allows one to determine the composition of the nanocrystal surface

  9. Method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Cyrus; Wu, Yue

    2013-04-23

    A method of synthesizing pyrite nanocrystals is disclosed which in one embodiment includes forming a solution of iron (III) diethyl dithiophosphate and tetra-alkyl-ammonium halide in water. The solution is heated under pressure. Pyrite nanocrystal particles are then recovered from the solution.

  10. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A [Los Alamos, NM; Klimov, Victor L [Los Alamos, NM

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  11. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample

  12. Hierarchical ZnO with twinned structure: Morphology evolution, formation mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Ruixia; Song, Xueling; Li, Jia; Yang, Ping, E-mail: mse_yangp@ujn.edu.cn

    2015-04-15

    Various hierarchical ZnO architectures constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized via a trisodium citrate assisted hydrothermal method on a large scale. The probable formation mechanisms of hierarchical ZnO structures with twinned structure were proposed and discussed. The hierarchical ZnO with twinned structures are composed of two hemispheres with a center concave junction to join them together at their waists. The ZnO microspheres with rough surfaces were obtained when the concentration of trisodium citrate is 0.1 M. However, the football-like microspheres consisted of hexagonal nanosheets were formed when adding glycerol into the water, which should be attributed to the slower nucleation and growth rate of nanocrystals. The hamburger-like ZnO with different aspect ratio and nonuniform ZnO microspheres were generated due to the different quantity of initial nuclei and growth units when simply modulating the concentration of trisodium citrate. The surface area of football-like ZnO is about 3.51 times of microspheres composed of irregular particles. However their photocatalytic performances are similar under UV light irradiation, which indicates that pore sizes of the sample have more important influences on the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Hierarchical ZnO constructed by twinned structures have been synthesized. • The formation mechanisms of ZnO with twinned structure were discussed. • Football-like microspheres were obtained due to the slower nucleation and growth. • Hamburger-like ZnO was formed due to the amount of initial nuclei and growth units. • Pore sizes have important effects on the photocatalytic activity of sample.

  13. Controlled synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Gouder, Thomas; Courtois, Eglantine; Kubel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the size and shape effects on the properties of actinide compounds. As a consequence, the controlled synthesis of well-defined actinide-based nano-crystals constitutes a fundamental step before studying their corresponding properties. In this paper, we report on the non-aqueous surfactant-assisted synthesis of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals. The final characteristics of thorium and uranium oxide nano-crystals can be easily tuned by controlling a few experimental parameters such as the nature of the actinide precursor and the composition of the organic system (e.g., the chemical nature of the surfactants and their relative concentrations). Additionally, the influence of these parameters on the outcome of the synthesis is highly dependent on the nature of the actinide element (thorium versus uranium). By using optimised experimental conditions, monodisperse isotropic uranium oxide nano-crystals with different sizes (4.5 and 10.7 nm) as well as branched nano-crystals (overall size ca. 5 nm), nano-dots (ca. 4 nm) and nano-rods (with ultra-small diameters of 1 nm) of thorium oxide were synthesised. (authors)

  14. Doping Asymmetry Problem in ZnO: Current Status and Outlook. A Review of Experimental and Theoretical Efforts Focused on Achieving P-Type ZnO Suitable for Light-Emitting Optoelectronic Devices for the Blue/Ultraviolet Spectral Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-24

    dominant acceptors in the as-grown n-type ZnO as shown by positron annihilation spectroscopy [19]. To date, n-type doping is relatively well established...recently as a promising material for a variety of applications . To a large extent, the renewed interest in ZnO is fuelled by its wide direct band gap (3.3...problem (also dubbed as the p-type problem in ZnO) is preventing applications of ZnO in light-emitting diodes and potential laser diodes. In this article

  15. Engineering Plasmonic Nanocrystal Coupling through Template-Assisted Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greybush, Nicholas J.

    The construction of materials from nanocrystal building blocks represents a powerful new paradigm for materials design. Just as nature's materials orchestrate intricate combinations of atoms from the library of the periodic table, nanocrystal "metamaterials" integrate individual nanocrystals into larger architectures with emergent collective properties. The individual nanocrystal "meta-atoms" that make up these materials are themselves each a nanoscale atomic system with tailorable size, shape, and elemental composition, enabling the creation of hierarchical materials with predesigned structure at multiple length scales. However, an improved fundamental understanding of the interactions among individual nanocrystals is needed in order to translate this structural control into enhanced functionality. The ability to form precise arrangements of nanocrystals and measure their collective properties is therefore essential for the continued development of nanocrystal metamaterials. In this dissertation, we utilize template-assisted self-assembly and spatially-resolved spectroscopy to form and characterize individual nanocrystal oligomers. At the intersection of "top-down" and "bottom-up" nanoscale patterning schemes, template-assisted self-assembly combines the design freedom of lithography with the chemical control of colloidal synthesis to achieve unique nanocrystal configurations. Here, we employ shape-selective templates to assemble new plasmonic structures, including heterodimers of Au nanorods and upconversion phosphors, a series of hexagonally-packed Au nanocrystal oligomers, and triangular formations of Au nanorods. Through experimental analysis and numerical simulation, we elucidate the means through which inter-nanocrystal coupling imparts collective optical properties to the plasmonic assemblies. Our self-assembly and measurement strategy offers a versatile platform for exploring optical interactions in a wide range of material systems and application areas.

  16. Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical spectra of various ZnO epitaxial layers and of bulk material obtained by different experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priller, H.; Brueckner, J.; Klingshirn, C.; Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gruber, Th.; Waag, A. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Ko, H.J.; Yao, T. [Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2004-03-01

    We investigate ZnO epitaxial layers grown by MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) and MOVPE (Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy) techniques. The samples show similar optical behavior in temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements, reflection and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy in the low density regime. High excitation measurements show different behavior. While the MBE sample leads to stimulated emission from the exciton-exciton-scattering, an electron hole plasma is formed in the MOVPE sample which leads to stimulated emission at higher excitation intensities. The gain value measured by the variable stripe length method is much higher for the MBE grown sample. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Aggregation and growth of ZnO quantum dots prepared from sol-gel chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, C.V.; Pulcinelli, S.H.; Caetano, B.L. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Briois, V.B [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin (France)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Herein we discuss in depth the mechanisms of growth control of ZnO quantum dots (Q-dot) prepared from the zinc oxy-acetate ethanolic solution by the addition of LiOH. Through in situ monitoring of Q-dot radii and of aggregation index calculated from UV-Vis absorption spectra and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) the aggregation and growth of ZnO nanocrystal was well described from two kinetic models: during the first step (t< 50 min) the structural evolution is controlled by the coalescence caused by the oriented attachment between the nanocrystal aggregates while at the advanced time (t> 50 min) the Q-dot coarsening follows the Ostwald ripening (OR) mechanism. From the higher oriented attachment efficiency observed here as compared with early reported synthesis using NaOH and KOH, we propose an universal mechanism to control coalescence and coarsening of ZnO nanocrystal provided from the shield caused by the adsorption of the alkali cation. From X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results we demonstrate that this mechanism is also useful to prepare Q-dot powders with controlled size. (author)

  18. Synthesis and spectroscopic properties of silica-dye-semiconductor nanocrystal hybrid particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ting; Erker, Wolfgang; Basché, Thomas; Schärtl, Wolfgang

    2010-12-07

    We prepared silica-dye-nanocrystal hybrid particles and studied the energy transfer from semiconductor nanocrystals (= donor) to organic dye molecules (= acceptor). Multishell CdSe/CdS/ZnS semiconductor nanocrystals were adsorbed onto monodisperse Stöber silica particles with an outer silica shell of thickness 2-23 nm containing organic dye molecules (Texas Red). The thickness of this dye layer has a strong effect on the energy transfer efficiency, which is explained by the increase in the number of dye molecules homogeneously distributed within the silica shell, in combination with an enhanced surface adsorption of nanocrystals with increasing dye amount. Our conclusions were underlined by comparison of the experimental results with numerically calculated FRET efficiencies and by control experiments confirming attractive interaction between the nanocrystals and Texas Red freely dissolved in solution.

  19. Local transport properties, morphology and microstructure of ZnO decorated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nostrand, Joseph E [Air Force Research Laboratory, Information Directorate, Rome, NY (United States); Cortez, Rebecca [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States); Rice, Zachary P; Cady, Nathaniel C; Bergkvist, Magnus, E-mail: Joseph.VanNostrand@rl.af.mil [Albany College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Albany, NY (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We report on a novel, surfactant free method for achieving nanocrystalline ZnO decoration of an SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle at ambient temperature. The size distributions of the naked and decorated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles are measured by means of dynamic light scattering, and a monodisperse distribution is observed for each. The morphology and microstructure of the nanoparticles are explored using atomic force microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Investigation of the optical properties of the ZnO decorated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles shows absorption at 350 nm. This blue shift in absorption as compared to bulk ZnO is shown to be consistent with quantum confinement effects due to the small size of the ZnO nanocrystals. Finally, the local electronic transport properties of the nanoparticles are explored by scanning conductance atomic force microscopy. A memristive hysteresis in the transport properties of the individual ZnO decorated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles is observed. Optical absorption measurements suggest the presence of oxygen vacancies, whose migration and annihilation appear to contribute to the dynamic conduction properties of the ZnO decorated nanoparticles. We believe this to be the first demonstration of a ZnO decorated SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle, and this represents a simple yet powerful way of achieving the optical and electrical properties of ZnO in combination with the simplicity of SiO{sub 2} synthesis.

  20. PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2009-11-11

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of colloidal PbSe nanocrystal (NC)-based photovoltaic test structures that exhibit an excitonic solar cell mechanism. Charge extraction from the NC active layer is driven by a photoinduced chemical potential energy gradient at the nanostructured heterojunction. By minimizing perturbation to PbSe NC energy levels and thereby gaining insight into the "intrinsic" photovoltaic properties and charge transfer mechanism of PbSe NC, we show a direct correlation between interfacial energy level offsets and photovoltaic device performance. Size dependent PbSe NC energy levels were determined by cyclic voltammetry and optical spectroscopy and correlated to photovoltaic measurements. Photovoltaic test structures were fabricated from PbSe NC films sandwiched between layers of ZnO nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS as electron and hole transporting elements, respectively. The device current-voltage characteristics suggest a charge separation mechanism that Is distinct from previously reported Schottky devices and consistent with signatures of excitonic solar cells. Remarkably, despite the limitation of planar junction structure, and without film thickness optimization, the best performing device shows a 1-sun power conversion efficiency of 3.4%, ranking among the highest performing NC-based solar cells reported to date. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. Biomolecular Assembly of Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micheel, Christine Marya [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-20

    Over the past ten years, methods have been developed to construct discrete nanostructures using nanocrystals and biomolecules. While these frequently consist of gold nanocrystals and DNA, semiconductor nanocrystals as well as antibodies and enzymes have also been used. One example of discrete nanostructures is dimers of gold nanocrystals linked together with complementary DNA. This type of nanostructure is also known as a nanocrystal molecule. Discrete nanostructures of this kind have a number of potential applications, from highly parallel self-assembly of electronics components and rapid read-out of DNA computations to biological imaging and a variety of bioassays. My research focused in three main areas. The first area, the refinement of electrophoresis as a purification and characterization method, included application of agarose gel electrophoresis to the purification of discrete gold nanocrystal/DNA conjugates and nanocrystal molecules, as well as development of a more detailed understanding of the hydrodynamic behavior of these materials in gels. The second area, the development of methods for quantitative analysis of transmission electron microscope data, used computer programs written to find pair correlations as well as higher order correlations. With these programs, it is possible to reliably locate and measure nanocrystal molecules in TEM images. The final area of research explored the use of DNA ligase in the formation of nanocrystal molecules. Synthesis of dimers of gold particles linked with a single strand of DNA possible through the use of DNA ligase opens the possibility for amplification of nanostructures in a manner similar to polymerase chain reaction. These three areas are discussed in the context of the work in the Alivisatos group, as well as the field as a whole.

  2. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Benedetto, Angelo F.; Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2011-09-01

    TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO2 and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO2 pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions 25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO2 and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  3. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A. [Rice University, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (United States); Benedetto, Angelo F. [Rice University, Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology (United States); Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L., E-mail: colvin@rice.edu [Rice University, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2011-09-15

    TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO{sub 2} pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions {approx}25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  4. The structure, composition, and dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO nanomaterials in commercial sunscreens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewicka, Zuzanna A.; Benedetto, Angelo F.; Benoit, Denise N.; Yu, William W.; Fortner, John D.; Colvin, Vicki L.

    2011-01-01

    TiO 2 and ZnO nanomaterials are widely used to block ultraviolet radiation in many skin care products, yet product labels do not specify their dimensions, shape, or composition. The absence of this basic information creates a data gap for both researchers and consumers alike. Here, we investigate the structural similarity of pigments derived from actual sunscreen products to nanocrystals which have been the subject of intense scrutiny in the nanotoxicity literature. TiO 2 and ZnO particles were isolated from eight out of nine commercial suncare products using three extraction methods. Their dimension, shape, crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface area analysis, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. TiO 2 pigments were generally rutile nanocrystals (dimensions ∼25 nm) with needle-like or near-spherical shapes. ZnO pigments were wurtzite rods with a short axes less than 40 nm and longer dimensions often in excess of 100 nm. We identify two commercial sources of TiO 2 and ZnO nanocrystals whose physical and chemical features are similar to the pigments found in sunscreens. These particular materials would be effective surrogates for the commercial product and could be used in studies of the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials contained in sunscreens.

  5. Density functional theory study of atomic and electronic properties of defects in reduced anatase TiO2 nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Kazuki; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2018-03-01

    Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals have received considerable attention owing to their promising applications in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and fuel cells. Although experimental evidence has shown that the performance of nanocrystals can be significantly improved through reduction, the mechanistic basis of this enhancement remains unclear. To shed a light on the chemistry of reduced anatase TiO2 nanocrystals, density functional theory were used to investigate the properties of defects and excess electrons. We demonstrated that oxygen vacancies are stable both on the surface and at the sub-surface of the nanocrystal, while titanium interstitials prefer sub-surface sites. Different defect locations possessed different excess electron structures, which contributed to deep and shallow states in the band gap of the nanocrystals. Furthermore, valence band tailing was observed, resulting in band gap narrowing. The theoretical results presented here deepen our understanding, and show the potential of defects to considerably change the macroscopic properties of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals.

  6. Fundamental absorption edge of NiO nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, V.I., E-mail: visokolov@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of RAS, S. Kovalevskaya Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Druzhinin, A.V. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of RAS, S. Kovalevskaya Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kim, G.A. [Institute of Organic Synthesis Ural Branch of RAS, S. Kovalevskaya Street 20, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gruzdev, N.B.; Yermakov, A.Ye.; Uimin, M.A.; Byzov, I.V.; Shchegoleva, N.N.; Vykhodets, V.B.; Kurennykh, T.E. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch of RAS, S. Kovalevskaya Street 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-01

    NiO nanocrystals with the average size of 5, 10 and 25 nm were synthesized by gas-condensation method. The well-defined increase of the optical density D near the fundamental absorption edge of NiO nanocrystals in the range of 3.5–4.0 eV observed after the annealing in air is caused by the oxygen content growth. It is the direct experimental evidence of the fact that p—d charge transfer transitions form the fundamental absorption edge.

  7. Fundamental absorption edge of NiO nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, V.I.; Druzhinin, A.V.; Kim, G.A.; Gruzdev, N.B.; Yermakov, A.Ye.; Uimin, M.A.; Byzov, I.V.; Shchegoleva, N.N.; Vykhodets, V.B.; Kurennykh, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    NiO nanocrystals with the average size of 5, 10 and 25 nm were synthesized by gas-condensation method. The well-defined increase of the optical density D near the fundamental absorption edge of NiO nanocrystals in the range of 3.5–4.0 eV observed after the annealing in air is caused by the oxygen content growth. It is the direct experimental evidence of the fact that p—d charge transfer transitions form the fundamental absorption edge

  8. A fractal model for intergranular fractures in nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, C.W.; Xiong, L.Y.; Zhou, X.Z.

    1993-09-01

    A fractal model for intergranular fractures in nanocrystals is proposed to explain the dependence of fracture toughness with grain size in this range of scale. Based on positron annihilation and internal friction experimental results, we point out that the assumption of a constant grain boundary thickness in previous models is too simplified to be true. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  9. The relationship between cellulose nanocrystal dispersion and strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizheng Cao; Pablo Zavattieri; Jeffrey Youngblood; Robert Moon; Jason Weiss

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the agglomeration of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and uses ultrasonication to disperse CNCs in cement pastes in an attempt to improve strength. Rheological measurements show that when the concentration of CNCs exceeds 1.35% by volume in deionized water, agglomerates start to develop. This experimental finding is comparable to the value obtained from...

  10. Investigation of some physical properties of ZnO nanofilms synthesized by micro-droplet technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamzaoui

    Full Text Available In this paper, ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized using a simple micro-droplets technique from a solution prepared by dissolving zinc acetate di-hydrate [Zn(CH3COO2, 2H2O] in methanol. Microdroplets were deposited on glass substrates heated at 100 °C, the obtained samples of ZnO films were investigated by XRD, AES, AFM, ellipsometry and PL. XRD patterns reveal the wurtzite structure of ZnO where the lattice parameters a and c, calculated from XRD signals, show a nanometric character of ZnO nanoparticles. The chemical composition of ZnO film surfaces was verified by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES. From Auger signals, oxygen (O-KLL and zinc (Zn-LMM Auger transitions indicate well the presence of Zn-O bonding. The surface topography of the samples was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM where ZnO nanoparticles of average size ranging between 20 and 80 nm were determined. Some optical properties as dielectric constants, refractive index, extinction coefficient as well as the optical band gap were determined from ellipsometry analysis. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of both Cauchy parameters and Wemple & Di-Dominico single oscillator model. The photoluminescence (PL measurements exhibited two emission peaks. The first at 338 nm, corresponding to the band gap of ZnO, is due to excitonic emission while the second around 400 nm, is attributed to the single ionized oxygen vacancies. Keywords: ZnO nanoparticles, Micro droplets technique, AFM, Auger spectroscopy, Ellipsometry, Photoluminescence (PL

  11. Influence of Nanosized Silicon Oxide on the Luminescent Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Shvalagin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For practical use of nanosized zinc oxide as the phosphor its luminescence quantum yields should be maximized. The aim of this work was to enhance luminescent properties of ZnO nanoparticles and obtain high-luminescent ZnO/SiO2 composites using simpler approaches to colloidal synthesis. The luminescence intensity of zinc oxide nanoparticles was increased about 3 times by addition of silica nanocrystals to the source solutions during the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. Then the quantum yield of luminescence of the obtained ZnO/SiO2 composites is more than 30%. Such an impact of silica is suggested to be caused by the distribution of ZnO nanocrystals on the surface of silica, which reduces the probability of separation of photogenerated charges between the zinc oxide nanoparticles of different sizes, and as a consequence, there is a significant increase of the luminescence intensity of ZnO nanoparticles. This way of increasing nano-ZnO luminescence intensity facilitates its use in a variety of devices, including optical ultraviolet and visible screens, luminescent markers, antibacterial coatings, luminescent solar concentrators, luminescent inks for security printing, and food packaging with abilities of informing consumers about the quality and safety of the packaged product.

  12. Optimizing colloidal nanocrystals for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sytnyk, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature colloidal nanocrystals are presented as promising materials for multiple applications, in areas covering optoelectronics, photovoltaics, spintronics, catalysis, and bio-medicine. On the marked are, however, only a very limited number of examples found, indeed implementing colloidal nanocrystals. Thus the scope of this thesis was to modify nanocrystals and to tune their properties to fulfill specific demands. While some modifications could be achieved by post synthetic treatments, one key problem of colloidal nanocrystals, hampering there widespread application is the toxicity of their constituents. To develop nanocrystals from non-toxic materials has been a major goal of this thesis as well. Roughly, the results in this thesis could be subdivided into three parts: (i) the development of ion exchange methods to tailor the properties of metallic and metal-oxide based nanocrystal heterostructures, (ii), the synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals from non-toxic materials, and (iii) the characterization of the nanocrystals by measurements of their morphology, chemical composition, magnetic-, optical-, and electronic properties. In detail, the thesis is subdivided into an introductory chapter, 4 chapters reporting on scientific results, a chapter reporting the used methods, and the conclusions. The 4 chapters devoted to the scientific results correspond to manuscripts, which are either currently in preparation, or have been published in highly ranked scientific journals such as NanoLetters (chapter 2), ACS Nano (chapter 4), or JACS (chapter 5). Thus, these chapters provide also an extra introduction and conclusion section, as well as separate reference lists. Chapter 2 describes a cation exchange process which is used to tune and improve the magnetic properties of different iron-oxide based colloidal nanocrystal-heterostructures. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature, magnetic remanence, and coercivity is tuned by replacing Fe2+ by Co2

  13. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications. The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities.Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications

  14. Size dependent emission stimulation in ZnO nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchynska, T.V.; El Filali, B.

    2014-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL), X ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering have been studied in crystalline ZnO nanosheets (NSs) of different sizes, estimated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). ZnO NSs with the size from the range of 60–600 nm were created by the electrochemical (anodization) method and followed thermal annealing at 400 °C for 2 h in ambient air. XRD study confirms the wurtzite structure of ZnO NSs and has revealed that the lattice parameters increase monotonically with decreasing NS sizes. Simultaneously the intensity of a set of Raman peaks increases and Raman peaks shift into the low energy range. The surface phonon has been detected in smallest size ZnO NSs. Two types of PL bands deal with a set of phonon replicas of free excitons and the defect related emission have been detected in ZnO NSs. The intensity enhancement of exciton- and defect-related PL bands with decreasing ZnO NS sizes has been detected. The intensity stimulation of exciton-related PL bands is attributed to the realization of the week confinement and the exciton-light coupling with the formation of polariton in small size ZnO NSs of 67–170 nm. The intensity rising of defect-related PL bands is attributed to the concentration enlargement of surface defects when the surface to volume ration increases at decreasing ZnO NS sizes. Numerical simulations of radiative lifetimes and exciton radiative recombination rates in ZnO NSs for different emission wavelengths have been done using the exciton-light coupling model. Then the experimental and numerically simulated PL results have been compared and discussed. - Highlights: • Optical and structural investigations of the ZnO nanosheets with the sizes 60–600 nm. • The enlargement of interplanar distances in the wurtzite ZnO crystal lattice is detected. • The change of optic phonon energy and surface phonon appearing are reveled. • ZnO emission stimulation at the week confinement and electron-light coupling with the

  15. Out- versus in-plane magnetic anisotropy of free Fe and Co nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongzhe; Barreteau, Cyrille; Castell, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    We report tight-binding and density functional theory calculations of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) of free Fe (body-centered-cubic) and Co (face-centered-cubic) slabs and nanocrystals. The nanocrystals are truncated square pyramids which can be grown experimentally by deposition...... of metal on a SrTiO3(001) substrate. For both elements our local analysis shows that the totalMAE of the nanocrystals is largely dominated by the contribution of (001) facets. However, while the easy axis of Fe(001) is out-of-plane, it is in-plane for Co(001). This has direct consequences on the magnetic...

  16. Novel silica stabilization method for the analysis of fine nanocrystals using coherent X-ray diffraction imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteforte, Marianne; Estandarte, Ana K.; Chen, Bo; Harder, Ross; Huang, Michael H.; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-06-23

    High-energy X-ray Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) is a well established synchrotron-based technique used to quantitatively reconstruct the three-dimensional morphology and strain distribution in nanocrystals. The BCDI technique has become a powerful analytical tool for quantitative investigations of nanocrystals, nanotubes, nanorods and more recently biological systems. BCDI has however typically failed for fine nanocrystals in sub-100?nm size regimes ? a size routinely achievable by chemical synthesis ? despite the spatial resolution of the BCDI technique being 20?30?nm. The limitations of this technique arise from the movement of nanocrystals under illumination by the highly coherent beam, which prevents full diffraction data sets from being acquired. A solution is provided here to overcome this problem and extend the size limit of the BCDI technique, through the design of a novel stabilization method by embedding the fine nanocrystals into a silica matrix. Chemically synthesized FePt nanocrystals of maximum dimension 20?nm and AuPd nanocrystals in the size range 60?65?nm were investigated with BCDI measurement at beamline 34-ID-C of the APS, Argonne National Laboratory. Novel experimental methodologies to elucidate the presence of strain in fine nanocrystals are a necessary pre-requisite in order to better understand strain profiles in engineered nanocrystals for novel device development.

  17. Cellulose nanocrystal submonolayers by spin coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontturi, E.J.; Johansson, L.S.; Kontturi, K.S.; Ahonen, P.; Thune, P.C.; Laine, J.

    2007-01-01

    Dilute concentrations of cellulose nanocrystal solutions were spin coated onto different substrates to investigate the effect of the substrate on the nanocrystal submonolayers. Three substrates were probed: silica, titania, and amorphous cellulose. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM) images,

  18. MEGACELL: A nanocrystal model construction software for HRTEM multislice simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroppa, Daniel G.; Righetto, Ricardo D.; Montoro, Luciano A.; Ramirez, Antonio J.

    2011-01-01

    Image simulation has an invaluable importance for the accurate analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) results, especially due to its non-linear image formation mechanism. Because the as-obtained images cannot be interpreted in a straightforward fashion, the retrieval of both qualitative and quantitative information from HRTEM micrographs requires an iterative process including the simulation of a nanocrystal model and its comparison with experimental images. However most of the available image simulation software requires atom-by-atom coordinates as input for the calculations, which can be prohibitive for large finite crystals and/or low-symmetry systems and zone axis orientations. This paper presents an open source citation-ware tool named MEGACELL, which was developed to assist on the construction of nanocrystals models. It allows the user to build nanocrystals with virtually any convex polyhedral geometry and to retrieve its atomic positions either as a plain text file or as an output compatible with EMS (Electron Microscopy Software) input protocol. In addition to the description of this tool features, some construction examples and its application for scientific studies are presented. These studies show MEGACELL as a handy tool, which allows an easier construction of complex nanocrystal models and improves the quantitative information extraction from HRTEM images. -- Highlights: → A software to support the HRTEM image simulation of nanocrystals in actual size. → MEGACELL allows the construction of complex nanocrystals models for multislice image simulation. → Some examples of improved nanocrystalline system characterization are presented, including the analysis of 3D morphology and growth behavior.

  19. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnO Nano-Clips by the Polyol-Mediated Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Gong, You-Pin; Zhao, Chao; Tang, Yue-Feng; Wu, Di

    2018-02-09

    ZnO nano-clips with better monodispersion were prepared successfully using zinc acetate hydrate (Zn(OAc) 2 ·nH 2 O) as Zn source and ethylene glycol (EG) as solvent by a simple solution-based route-polyol process. The effect of solution concentration on the formation of ZnO nano-clips has been investigated deeply. We first prove that the 0.01 M Zn(OAc) 2 ·nH 2 O can react with EG without added water or alkaline, producing ZnO nano-clips with polycrystalline wurtzite structure at 170 °C. As-synthesized ZnO nano-clips contain a lot of aggregated nanocrystals (~ 5 to 15 nm) with high specific surface area of 88 m 2 /g. The shapes of ZnO nano-clips basically keep constant with improved crystallinity after annealing at 400-600 °C. The lower solution concentration and slight amount of H 2 O play a decisive role in ZnO nano-clip formation. When the solution concentration is ≤ 0.0125 M, the complexing and polymerization reactions between Zn(OAc) 2 ·nH 2 O and EG predominate, mainly elaborating ZnO nano-clips. When the solution concentration is ≥ 0.015 M, the alcoholysis and polycondensation reactions of Zn(OAc) 2 ·nH 2 O and EG become dominant, leading to ZnO particle formation with spherical and elliptical shapes. The possible growth mechanism based on a competition between complexing and alcoholysis of Zn(OAc) 2 ·nH 2 O and EG has been proposed.

  1. Fabrication and Characterization of ZnO Nano-Clips by the Polyol-Mediated Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Gong, You-Pin; Zhao, Chao; Tang, Yue-Feng; Wu, Di

    2018-02-01

    ZnO nano-clips with better monodispersion were prepared successfully using zinc acetate hydrate (Zn(OAc)2·nH2O) as Zn source and ethylene glycol (EG) as solvent by a simple solution-based route-polyol process. The effect of solution concentration on the formation of ZnO nano-clips has been investigated deeply. We first prove that the 0.01 M Zn(OAc)2·nH2O can react with EG without added water or alkaline, producing ZnO nano-clips with polycrystalline wurtzite structure at 170 °C. As-synthesized ZnO nano-clips contain a lot of aggregated nanocrystals ( 5 to 15 nm) with high specific surface area of 88 m2/g. The shapes of ZnO nano-clips basically keep constant with improved crystallinity after annealing at 400-600 °C. The lower solution concentration and slight amount of H2O play a decisive role in ZnO nano-clip formation. When the solution concentration is ≤ 0.0125 M, the complexing and polymerization reactions between Zn(OAc)2·nH2O and EG predominate, mainly elaborating ZnO nano-clips. When the solution concentration is ≥ 0.015 M, the alcoholysis and polycondensation reactions of Zn(OAc)2·nH2O and EG become dominant, leading to ZnO particle formation with spherical and elliptical shapes. The possible growth mechanism based on a competition between complexing and alcoholysis of Zn(OAc)2·nH2O and EG has been proposed.

  2. Photoelectrochemical properties of the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure prepared by hydrothermal process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao SUN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the transport channels of the photogenerated electrons and enhance the photosensitizer loading ability of the electrode, a new TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is prepared through two-step hydrothermal process. First, TiO2 nanorod array is grown on the FTO conductive glass substrate by hydrothermal proess. Then, ZnO sol is coated onto the TiO2 nanorods through dip-coating method and inverted to ZnO seed layer by sintering. Finally, the secondary ZnO nanorods are grown onto the TiO2 nanorods by the sencond hydrothermal method to form the designed TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure. A spin-coating assisted successive ionic layer reaction method (SC-SILR is used to deposit the CdS nanocrystals into the TiO2 nanorod array and the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure is used to form the CdS/TiO2 and CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanocomposite films. Different methods, such as SEM, TEM, XRD, UV-Vis and transient photocurrent, are employed to characterize and measure the morphologies, structures, light absorption and photoelectric conversion performance of all the samples, respectively. The results indicate that, compared with the pure TiO2 nanorod array, the TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure can load more CdS photosensitizer. The light absorption properties and transient photocurrent performance of the CdS/TiO2-ZnO nanorod hierarchical structure composite film are evidently superior to that of the CdS/TiO2 nanocomposite films. The excellent photoelctrochemical performance of theTiO2-ZnO hierarchical structure reveales its application prospect in photoanode material of the solar cells.

  3. Semiconductor nanocrystals for novel optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jong-Sik

    Inspired by the promise of enhanced spectral response, photorefractive polymeric composites photosensitized with semiconductor nanocrystals have emerged as an important class of materials. Here, we report on the photosensitization of photorefractive polymeric composites at visible wavelengths through the inclusion of narrow band-gap semiconductor nanocrystals composed of PbS. Through this approach, internal diffraction efficiencies in excess of 82%, two-beam-coupling gain coefficients in excess of 211 cm-1, and response times 34 ms have been observed, representing some of the best figures-of-merit reported on this class of materials. In addition to providing efficient photosensitization, however, extensive studies of these hybrid composites have indicated that the inclusion of nanocrystals also provides an enhancement in the charge-carrier mobility and subsequent reduction in the photorefractive response time. Through this approach with PbS as charge-carrier, unprecedented response times of 399 micros were observed, opening the door for video and other high-speed applications. It is further demonstrated that this improvement in response time occurs with little sacrifice in photorefractive efficiency and with internal diffraction efficiencies of 72% and two- beam-coupling gain coefficients of 500 cm-1 being measured. A thorough analysis of the experimental data is presented, supporting the hypothesized mechanism of the enhanced charge mobility without the accompaniment of superfluous traps. Finally, water soluble InP/ZnS and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots interacted with CPP and Herceptin to apply them as a bio-maker. Both of quantum dots showed the excellent potential for use in biomedical imaging and drug delivery applications. It is anticipated that these approaches can play a significant role in the eventual commercialization of these classes of materials.

  4. Optical orientation and alignment of excitons in ensembles of inorganic perovskite nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Nestoklon, M. O.; Goupalov, S. V.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Ken, O. S.; Korenev, V. L.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Sapega, V. F.; de Weerd, C.; Gomez, L.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Lin, Junhao; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Matyushkin, L. B.; Yassievich, I. N.

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate the optical orientation and alignment of excitons in a two-dimensional layer of CsPbI$_3$ perovskite nanocrystals prepared by colloidal synthesis and measure the anisotropic exchange splitting of exciton levels in the nanocrystals. From the experimental data at low temperature (2K), we obtain the average value of anisotropic splitting of bright exciton states of the order of 120{\\mu}eV. Our calculations demonstrate that there is a significant contribution to the splitting due t...

  5. Enhanced wetting of Cu on ZnO by migration of subsurface oxygen vacancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beinik, Igor; Helström, Matti; Jensen, Thomas Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    is of utmost importance. The Cu/ZnO system is among the most investigated of such systems in model studies, but the presence of subsurface ZnO defects and their important role for adhesion on ZnO have been unappreciated so far. Here we reveal that the surface-directed migration of subsurface defects affects...... the Cu adhesion on polar ZnO(0001) in the technologically interesting temperature range up to 550 K. This leads to enhanced adhesion and ultimately complete wetting of ZnO(0001) by a Cu overlayer. On the basis of our experimental and computational results we demonstrate a mechanism which implies...

  6. Electric field gradient calculation at atomic site of In implanted ZnO samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Leyva, A.; Pinnera; Van Espen, P.; Perez, C.

    2011-01-01

    The electric field gradient (EFG) calculated for 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted ZnO samples is reported. The study was made for ideal hexagonal ZnO structures and super-cells considering the In implantation environment at the cation site using the 'WIEN2k' code within the GGA(+U) approximation. The obtained EFG values are in good agreement with the experimental reports for ideal ZnO and 111 In→ 111 Cd implanted structures; measured by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The attribution of substitutional incorporation of 111 In at the ZnO cation site after annealing was confirmed. (Author)

  7. Hydrothermal growth and characterizations of dandelion-like ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Rohidas B., E-mail: rb_kale@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Institute of Science, Madam Cama Road, Mumbai 400 032, (M.S.) (India); Lu, Shih-Yuan, E-mail: sylu@nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •The simple, low cost, environmental benign hydrothermal method has been used to synthesize ZnO nanostructure. •The SEM images reveal the interesting 3D dandelion-like morphology of synthesized ZnO nanostructure. The SAED pattern and HRTEM study confirms that the ZnO nanorods are single crystalline. •Change in experimental conditions dramatically changes the morphologies of the synthesized ZnO. •The room temperature PL study reveals strong band edge emission along with much weaker defect related blue emission. •The reaction and growth mechanism of ZnO nanostructure is also discussed. -- Abstract: Three dimensional (3D) ZnO nanostructures have been synthesized by using a facile low-cost hydrothermal method under mild conditions. Aqueous alkaline ammonia solution of Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} is used to grow 3D ZnO nanostructures. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals the well crystallized hexagonal structure of ZnO. SEM observations depict that the ZnO product grows in the form of nanorods united together to form 3D dandelion-like nanostructures. The elemental analysis using EDAX technique confirms the stoichiometry of the ZnO nanorods. The product exhibits special optical properties with red-shifts in optical absorption peak (376 nm) as compared with those of conventional ZnO nanorods. PL spectra show emission peak (396 nm) at the near band-edge and peak (464 nm) originated from defects states that are produced during the hydrothermal growth. TEM and SAED results reveal single crystalline structure of the synthesized product. The reaction and growth mechanisms on the morphological evolution of the ZnO nanostructures are discussed. The morphology of ZnO product is investigated by varying the reaction time, temperature, and type of complexing reagent.

  8. Semiconductor Nanocrystals for Biological Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua; Gu, Weiwei; Larabell, Carolyn; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-06-28

    Conventional organic fluorophores suffer from poor photo stability, narrow absorption spectra and broad emission feature. Semiconductor nanocrystals, on the other hand, are highly photo-stable with broad absorption spectra and narrow size-tunable emission spectra. Recent advances in the synthesis of these materials have resulted in bright, sensitive, extremely photo-stable and biocompatible semiconductor fluorophores. Commercial availability facilitates their application in a variety of unprecedented biological experiments, including multiplexed cellular imaging, long-term in vitro and in vivo labeling, deep tissue structure mapping and single particle investigation of dynamic cellular processes. Semiconductor nanocrystals are one of the first examples of nanotechnology enabling a new class of biomedical applications.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of Mg-doped ZnO hollow spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, Talaat M.; Salem, Jamil K.

    2011-01-01

    Mg-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple chemical method at low temperature with Mg:Zn atomic ratio from 0 to 7%. The synthesis process is based on the hydrolysis of zinc acetate dihydrate and magnesium acetate tetrahydrate were heated under refluxing at 65 °C using methanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Mg-doped ZnO crystallizes in a wurtzite structure with crystal size of 5–12 nm. These nanocrystals self-aggregated themselves into hollow spheres of size of 800–1100 nm. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images show that each sphere is made up of numerous nanoparticles of average diameter 5–11 nm. The XRD patterns, SEM and TEM micrographs of doping of Mg in ZnO confirmed the formation of hollow spheres indicating that the Mg 2+ is successfully substituted into the ZnO host structure of the Zn 2+ site. Furthermore, the UV–Vis spectra and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the ZnO nanoparticles were also investigated. The band gap of the nanoparticles can be tuned in the range of 3.36–3.55 eV by the use of the dopants.

  10. Effects of Cr-doping on the photoluminescence and ferromagnetism at room temperature in ZnO nanomaterials prepared by soft chemistry route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Baiqi; Iqbal, Javed; Shan Xudong; Huang Guowei; Fu Honggang; Yu Ronghai; Yu Dapeng

    2009-01-01

    The pure and Cr-doped ZnO nanomaterials were prepared by soft chemistry route. The crystallinity and morphology of as-prepared ZnO nanomaterials were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), which show that Cr-doping could influence crystal and improve the oriented growth of ZnO nanomaterials. The amount of contents and valence state of Cr ions were investigated by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), which demonstrate that the Cr ions are uniformly doped about 2 atm% in each nanowire and are in +3 valence state in doped ZnO nanomaterials. The effect of Cr-doping on the photoluminescence (PL) and magnetic properties of as-prepared ZnO nanomaterials were principally investigated at room temperature. The Cr-doping can adjust the energy level of ZnO nanocrystal and increase the amount of defects and oxygen vacancies, which lead to shift in the emission peak position in ultraviolet (UV) region and enhance the PL performance in visible light (VL) region of ZnO nanomaterials. In addition, the presence of Cr dopant in ZnO structures establishes the room-temperature ferromagnetism, which is possibly related to the existence of defects and oxygen vacancies as well as due to exchange interaction between Cr 3d and O 2p spin moments

  11. Eu-doped ZnO-HfO2 hybrid nanocrystal-embedded low-loss glass-ceramic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Subhabrata; N, Shivakiran Bhaktha B.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the sol-gel fabrication, using a dip-coating technique, of low-loss Eu-doped 70SiO2 -(30-x) HfO2-xZnO (x = 2, 5, 7 and 10 mol%) ternary glass-ceramic planar waveguides. Transmission electron microscopy and grazing incident x-ray diffraction experiments confirm the controlled growth of hybrid nanocrystals with an average size of 3 nm-25 nm, composed of ZnO encapsulated by a thin layer of nanocrystalline HfO2, with an increase of ZnO concentration from x = 2 mol% to 10 mol% in the SiO2-HfO2 composite matrix. The effect of crystallization on the local environment of Eu ions, doped in the ZnO-HfO2 hybrid nanocrystal-embedded glass-ceramic matrix, is studied using photoluminescence spectra, wherein an intense mixed-valence state (divalent as well as trivalent) emission of Eu ions is observed. The existence of Eu2+ and Eu3+ in the SiO2-HfO2-ZnO ternary matrix is confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Importantly, the Eu{}2+,3+-doped ternary waveguides exhibit low propagation losses (0.3 ± 0.2 dB cm-1 at 632.8 nm) and optical transparency in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which makes ZnO-HfO2 nanocrystal-embedded SiO2-HfO2-ZnO waveguides a viable candidate for the development of on-chip, active, integrated optical devices.

  12. Density-controllable nonvolatile memory devices having metal nanocrystals through chemical synthesis and assembled by spin-coating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangli; Chen Yubin; Shi Yi; Pu Lin; Pan Lijia; Zhang Rong; Zheng Youdou

    2010-01-01

    A novel two-step method is employed, for the first time, to fabricate nonvolatile memory devices that have metal nanocrystals. First, size-averaged Au nanocrystals are synthesized chemically; second, they are assembled into memory devices by a spin-coating technique at room temperature. This attractive approach makes it possible to tailor the diameter and control the density of nanocrystals individually. In addition, processes at room temperature prevent Au diffusion, which is a main concern for the application of metal nanocrystal-based memory. The experimental results, both the morphology characterization and the electrical measurements, reveal that there is an optimum density of nanocrystal monolayer to balance between long data retention and a large hysteresis memory window. At the same time, density-controllable devices could also feed the preferential emphasis on either memory window or retention time. All these facts confirm the advantages and novelty of our two-step method. (semiconductor devices)

  13. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-24

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts

  14. Aluminum doping tunes band gap energy level as well as oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Mohd Javed; Alhadlaq, Hisham A.; Alshamsan, Aws; Majeed Khan, M. A.; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether Aluminum (Al) doping tunes band gap energy level as well as selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Pure and Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a simple sol-gel method. Characterization study confirmed the formation of single phase of AlxZn1-xO nanocrystals with the size range of 33-55 nm. Al-doping increased the band gap energy of ZnO nanoparticles (from 3.51 eV for pure to 3.87 eV for Al-doped ZnO). Al-doping also enhanced the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress response of ZnO nanoparticles in MCF-7 cells. The IC50 for undoped ZnO nanoparticles was 44 μg/ml while for the Al-doped ZnO counterparts was 31 μg/ml. Up-regulation of apoptotic genes (e.g. p53, bax/bcl2 ratio, caspase-3 & caspase-9) along with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggested that Al-doped ZnO nanoparticles induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells through mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, Al-doping did not change the benign nature of ZnO nanoparticles towards normal cells suggesting that Al-doping improves the selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward MCF-7 cells without affecting the normal cells. Our results indicated a novel approach through which the inherent selective cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles against cancer cells can be further improved.

  15. Effects of the Absorption Behaviour of ZnO Nanoparticles on Cytotoxicity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigar Najim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO absorbs certain wavelengths of light and this behavior is more pronounced for nanoparticles of ZnO. As many toxicity measurements rely on measuring light transmission in cell lines, it is essential to determine how far this light absorption influences experimental toxicity measurements. The main objective was to study the ZnO absorption and how this influenced the cytotoxicity measurements. The cytotoxicity of differently sized ZnO nanoparticles in normal and cancer cell lines derived from lung tissue (Hs888Lu, neuron-phenotypic cells (SH-SY5Y, neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, human histiocytic lymphoma (U937, and lung cancer (A549 was investigated. Our results demonstrate that the presence of ZnO affected the cytotoxicity measurements due to the absorption characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles. The data revealed that the ZnO nanoparticles with an average particle size of around 85.7 nm and 190 nm showed cytotoxicity towards U937, SH-SY5Y, differentiated SH-SY5Y, and Hs888Lu cell lines. No effect on the A549 cells was observed. It was also found that the cytotoxicity of ZnO was particle size, concentration, and time dependent. These studies are the first to quantify the influence of ZnO nanoparticles on cytotoxicity assays. Corrections for absorption effects were carried out which gave an accurate estimation of the concentrations that produce the cytotoxic effects.

  16. Phase transitions and doping in semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ayaskanta

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals are a promising technological material because their size-dependent optical and electronic properties can be exploited for a diverse range of applications such as light-emitting diodes, bio-labels, transistors, and solar cells. For many of these applications, electrical current needs to be transported through the devices. However, while their solution processability makes these colloidal nanocrystals attractive candidates for device applications, the bulky surfactants that render these nanocrystals dispersible in common solvents block electrical current. Thus, in order to realize the full potential of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals in the next-generation of solid-state devices, methods must be devised to make conductive films from these nanocrystals. One way to achieve this would be to add minute amounts of foreign impurity atoms (dopants) to increase their conductivity. Electronic doping in nanocrystals is still very much in its infancy with limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern the doping process. This thesis introduces an innovative synthesis of doped nanocrystals and aims at expanding the fundamental understanding of charge transport in these doped nanocrystal films. The list of semiconductor nanocrystals that can be doped is large, and if one combines that with available dopants, an even larger set of materials with interesting properties and applications can be generated. In addition to doping, another promising route to increase conductivity in nanocrystal films is to use nanocrystals with high ionic conductivities. This thesis also examines this possibility by studying new phases of mixed ionic and electronic conductors at the nanoscale. Such a versatile approach may open new pathways for interesting fundamental research, and also lay the foundation for the creation of novel materials with important applications. In addition to their size-dependence, the intentional incorporation of

  17. Highly transparent and conductive Sn/F and Al co-doped ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Luo, Junming; Tian, Xinlong; Wu, Shoukun; Chen, Chun; Deng, Jianfeng; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • F/Sn and Al co-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by sol–gel method. • The co-doped nanocrystals exhibit good crystal quality. • The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. • The films showed high transmittance and low resistivity. -- Abstract: Al doped ZnO, Al–Sn co-doped ZnO and Al–F co-doped ZnO nanocrystals were successfully synthesized onto glass substrates by the sol–gel method. The structure and morphology of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results indicated that all the films were polycrystalline with a hexagonal wurtzite structure and exhibited a c-axis preferred orientation. The electrical and optical properties were also investigated by 4-point probe device and Uv–vis spectroscopy, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectrum (Raman), respectively. The PL and Raman results suggested that the co-doped films with a very low defect concentration and exhibit a better crystallinity than AZO thin films. The XPS study confirmed the incorporation of Al, Sn and F ions in the ZnO lattice

  18. Accurate thermodynamic relations of the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different shapes and pure theoretical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jinhua; Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang, E-mail: xyqlw@126.com; Cui, Zixiang

    2017-05-01

    Based on the surface pre-melting model, accurate thermodynamic relations of the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different shapes (tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, nanowire) were derived. The theoretically calculated melting temperatures are in relative good agreements with experimental, molecular dynamic simulation and other theoretical results for nanometer Au, Ag, Al, In and Pb. It is found that the particle size and shape have notable effects on the melting temperature of nanocrystals, and the smaller the particle size, the greater the effect of shape. Furthermore, at the same equivalent radius, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the lower the melting temperature is. The value of melting temperature depression of cylindrical nanowire is just half of that of spherical nanoparticle with an identical radius. The theoretical relations enable one to quantitatively describe the influence regularities of size and shape on the melting temperature and to provide an effective way to predict and interpret the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different sizes and shapes. - Highlights: • Accurate relations of T{sub m} of nanocrystals with various shapes are derived. • Calculated T{sub m} agree with literature results for nano Au, Ag, Al, In and Pb. • ΔT{sub m} (nanowire) = 0.5ΔT{sub m} (spherical nanocrystal). • The relations apply to predict and interpret the melting behaviors of nanocrystals.

  19. Characterization of CdSe-nanocrystals used in semiconductors for aerospace applications: Production and optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof A. Hegazy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor nanocrystals (NC’s are the materials with dimensions less than 10 nm. When the dimensions of nanocrystals are reduced the bulk bohr diameter, the photo generated electron-hole pair becomes confined and nanocrystal exhibits size dependent upon optical properties. This work is focused on the studying of CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals. These nanocrystals are considered as one of the most widely studies semiconductors because of their size – tunable optical properties from the visible spectrum. CdSe-nanocrystals are produced and obtained throughout the experimental setup initiated at Nano-NRIAG Unit (NNU, which has been constructed and assembled at NRIAG institute. This unit has a specific characterization for preparing chemical compositions, which may be used for solar cell fabrications and space science technology. The materials prepared included cadmium oxide and selinid have sizes ranging between 2.27 nm and 3.75 nm. CdSe-nanocrystals are synthesized in “TOP/TOPO (tri–octyl phosphine/tri–octyl phosphine oxide. Diagnostic tools, include UV analysis, TEM microscope, and X-ray diffraction, which are considered for the analytical studies of the obtained materials. The results show that, in this size regime, the generated particles have unique optical properties, which is achieved from the UV analysis. Also, the TEM image analysis shows the size and shape of the produced particles. These studies are carried out to optimize the photoluminescent efficiency of these nanoparticles. Moreover, the data revealed that, the grain size of nanocrystals is dependent upon the growth time in turn, it leads to a change in the energy gap. Some applications of this class of materials are outlined.

  20. Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with chlorosilane surfaces - synthesis and reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Ignaz M. D.; Kehrle, Julian; Purkait, Tapas K.; Veinot, Jonathan G. C.; Rieger, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    We present a new efficient two-step method to covalently functionalize hydride terminated silicon nanocrystals with nucleophiles. First a reactive chlorosilane layer was formed via diazonium salt initiated hydrosilylation of chlorodimethyl(vinyl)silane which was then reacted with alcohols, silanols and organolithium reagents. With organolithium compounds a side reaction is observed in which a direct functionalization of the silicon surface takes place.We present a new efficient two-step method to covalently functionalize hydride terminated silicon nanocrystals with nucleophiles. First a reactive chlorosilane layer was formed via diazonium salt initiated hydrosilylation of chlorodimethyl(vinyl)silane which was then reacted with alcohols, silanols and organolithium reagents. With organolithium compounds a side reaction is observed in which a direct functionalization of the silicon surface takes place. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedures and additional NMR, PL, EDX, DLS and TEM data. See DOI: 10.1039/C4NR05888G

  1. Efficient light extraction from GaN LEDs using gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Alhadidi, A.

    2015-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the effect of depositing gold-coated ZnO nanoparticles on the surface of GaN multi-quantum well LED structures. We show that this method can significantly increase the amount of extracted light.

  2. Heterojunction PbS nanocrystal solar cells with oxide charge-transport layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool; Choi, Joshua J; Seyler, Kyle L; Hanrath, Tobias; Wise, Frank W

    2013-12-23

    Oxides are commonly employed as electron-transport layers in optoelectronic devices based on semiconductor nanocrystals, but are relatively rare as hole-transport layers. We report studies of NiO hole-transport layers in PbS nanocrystal photovoltaic structures. Transient fluorescence experiments are used to verify the relevant energy levels for hole transfer. On the basis of these results, planar heterojunction devices with ZnO as the photoanode and NiO as the photocathode were fabricated and characterized. Solution-processed devices were used to systematically study the dependence on nanocrystal size and achieve conversion efficiency as high as 2.5%. Optical modeling indicates that optimum performance should be obtained with thinner oxide layers than can be produced reliably by solution casting. Room-temperature sputtering allows deposition of oxide layers as thin as 10 nm, which enables optimization of device performance with respect to the thickness of the charge-transport layers. The best devices achieve an open-circuit voltage of 0.72 V and efficiency of 5.3% while eliminating most organic material from the structure and being compatible with tandem structures.

  3. Heterojunction PbS Nanocrystal Solar Cells with Oxide Charge-Transport Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Hyun, Byung-Ryool

    2013-12-23

    Oxides are commonly employed as electron-transport layers in optoelectronic devices based on semiconductor nanocrystals, but are relatively rare as hole-transport layers. We report studies of NiO hole-transport layers in PbS nanocrystal photovoltaic structures. Transient fluorescence experiments are used to verify the relevant energy levels for hole transfer. On the basis of these results, planar heterojunction devices with ZnO as the photoanode and NiO as the photocathode were fabricated and characterized. Solution-processed devices were used to systematically study the dependence on nanocrystal size and achieve conversion efficiency as high as 2.5%. Optical modeling indicates that optimum performance should be obtained with thinner oxide layers than can be produced reliably by solution casting. Roomerature sputtering allows deposition of oxide layers as thin as 10 nm, which enables optimization of device performance with respect to the thickness of the charge-transport layers. The best devices achieve an open-circuit voltage of 0.72 V and efficiency of 5.3% while eliminating most organic material from the structure and being compatible with tandem structures. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by the arc discharge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, F; Futter, J; Markwitz, A; Kennedy, J

    2009-01-01

    The UV and humidity sensing properties of ZnO nanorods prepared by arc discharge have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy were carried out to analyze the morphology and optical properties of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods. Proton induced x-ray emission was used to probe the impurities in the ZnO nanorods. A large quantity of high purity ZnO nanorod structures were obtained with lengths of 0.5-1 μm. The diameters of the as-synthesized ZnO nanorods were found to be between 40 and 400 nm. The nanorods interlace with each other, forming 3D networks which make them suitable for sensing application. The addition of a polymeric film-forming agent (BASF LUVISKOL VA 64) improved the conductivity, as it facilitates the construction of conducting networks. Ultrasonication helped to separate the ZnO nanorods and disperse them evenly through the polymeric agent. Improved photoconductivity was measured for a ZnO nanorod sensor annealed in air at 200 deg. C for 30 min. The ZnO nanorod sensors showed a UV-sensitive photoconduction, where the photocurrent increased by nearly four orders of magnitude from 2.7 x 10 -10 to 1.0 x 10 -6 A at 18 V under 340 nm UV illumination. High humidity sensitivity and good stability were also measured. The resistance of the ZnO nanorod sensor decreased almost linearly with increasing relative humidity (RH). The resistance of the ZnO nanorods changed by approximately five orders of magnitude from 4.35 x 10 11 Ω in dry air (7% RH) to about 4.95 x 10 6 Ω in 95% RH air. It is experimentally demonstrated that ZnO nanorods obtained by the arc discharge method show excellent performance and promise for applications in both UV and humidity sensors.

  5. Direct current magnetron sputter-deposited ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong; Knipp, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising electronic material for emerging transparent large-area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 150 nm to 750 nm were deposited on glass substrates. The deposition pressure and the substrate temperature were varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr, and from room temperature to 450 deg. C, respectively. The influence of the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature on structural and optical properties of the ZnO films was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The experimental results reveal that the film thickness, deposition pressure and the substrate temperature play significant role in the structural formation and the optical properties of the deposited ZnO thin films.

  6. Defect dynamics in Li substituted nanocrystalline ZnO: A spectroscopic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S., E-mail: sghoshphysics@gmail.com [Department of Material Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 2A and 2B Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Nambissan, P.M.G.; Thapa, S. [Applied Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector 1, Block AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Mandal, K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700098 (India)

    2014-12-01

    Very recently, vacancy-type defects have been found to play a major role in stabilizing d{sup 0} ferromagnetism in various low dimensional ZnO systems. In this context, the evolution of vacancy-type defects within the ZnO nanocrystals due to the doping of ZnO by alkali metal lithium (Li) is investigated using X-ray photoelectron (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Li-doping is found to have significant effects in modifying the vacancy-type defects, especially the Zn vacancy (V{sub Zn}) defects within the ZnO lattice. XPS measurement indicated that initially the Li{sup 1+} ions substitute at Zn{sup 2+} sites, but when Li concentration exceeds 7 at%, excess Li starts to move through the interstitial sites. The increase in positron lifetime components and the lineshape S-parameter obtained from coincident Doppler broadening spectra with Li-doping indicated an enhancement of V{sub Zn} defect concentration within the doped ZnO lattice. The vacancy type defects, initially of the predominant configuration V{sub Zn+O+Zn} got reduced to neutral ZnO divacancies due to the partial recombination by the doped Li{sup 1+} ions but, when the doping concentration exceeded 7 at% and Li{sup 1+} ions started migrating to the interstitials, positron diffusion is partly impeded and this results in reduced probability of annihilation. PL spectra have shown intense green and yellow-orange emission due to the stabilization of a large number of V{sub Zn} defects and Li substitutional (Li{sub Zn}) defects respectively. Hence Li can be a very useful dopant in stabilizing and modifying significant amount of Zn vacancy-defects which can play a useful role in determining the material behavior.

  7. Defect dynamics in Li substituted nanocrystalline ZnO: A spectroscopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Nambissan, P. M. G.; Thapa, S.; Mandal, K.

    2014-12-01

    Very recently, vacancy-type defects have been found to play a major role in stabilizing d0 ferromagnetism in various low dimensional ZnO systems. In this context, the evolution of vacancy-type defects within the ZnO nanocrystals due to the doping of ZnO by alkali metal lithium (Li) is investigated using X-ray photoelectron (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Li-doping is found to have significant effects in modifying the vacancy-type defects, especially the Zn vacancy (VZn) defects within the ZnO lattice. XPS measurement indicated that initially the Li1+ ions substitute at Zn2+ sites, but when Li concentration exceeds 7 at%, excess Li starts to move through the interstitial sites. The increase in positron lifetime components and the lineshape S-parameter obtained from coincident Doppler broadening spectra with Li-doping indicated an enhancement of VZn defect concentration within the doped ZnO lattice. The vacancy type defects, initially of the predominant configuration VZn+O+Zn got reduced to neutral ZnO divacancies due to the partial recombination by the doped Li1+ ions but, when the doping concentration exceeded 7 at% and Li1+ ions started migrating to the interstitials, positron diffusion is partly impeded and this results in reduced probability of annihilation. PL spectra have shown intense green and yellow-orange emission due to the stabilization of a large number of VZn defects and Li substitutional (LiZn) defects respectively. Hence Li can be a very useful dopant in stabilizing and modifying significant amount of Zn vacancy-defects which can play a useful role in determining the material behavior.

  8. Defect dynamics in Li substituted nanocrystalline ZnO: A spectroscopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.; Nambissan, P.M.G.; Thapa, S.; Mandal, K.

    2014-01-01

    Very recently, vacancy-type defects have been found to play a major role in stabilizing d 0 ferromagnetism in various low dimensional ZnO systems. In this context, the evolution of vacancy-type defects within the ZnO nanocrystals due to the doping of ZnO by alkali metal lithium (Li) is investigated using X-ray photoelectron (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). Li-doping is found to have significant effects in modifying the vacancy-type defects, especially the Zn vacancy (V Zn ) defects within the ZnO lattice. XPS measurement indicated that initially the Li 1+ ions substitute at Zn 2+ sites, but when Li concentration exceeds 7 at%, excess Li starts to move through the interstitial sites. The increase in positron lifetime components and the lineshape S-parameter obtained from coincident Doppler broadening spectra with Li-doping indicated an enhancement of V Zn defect concentration within the doped ZnO lattice. The vacancy type defects, initially of the predominant configuration V Zn+O+Zn got reduced to neutral ZnO divacancies due to the partial recombination by the doped Li 1+ ions but, when the doping concentration exceeded 7 at% and Li 1+ ions started migrating to the interstitials, positron diffusion is partly impeded and this results in reduced probability of annihilation. PL spectra have shown intense green and yellow-orange emission due to the stabilization of a large number of V Zn defects and Li substitutional (Li Zn ) defects respectively. Hence Li can be a very useful dopant in stabilizing and modifying significant amount of Zn vacancy-defects which can play a useful role in determining the material behavior

  9. Nature of native defects in ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, F A; Weber, M H; Solodovnikov, D; Lynn, K G

    2007-08-24

    This study revealed the nature of native defects and their roles in ZnO through positron annihilation and optical transmission measurements. It showed oxygen vacancies are the origin for the shift in the optical absorption band that causes the red or orange coloration. It also revealed experimental evidence that the donor nature of oxygen vacancy is approximately 0.7 eV. In addition, this work showed the Zn interstitial was not the donor in the as-grown ZnO and supported recent calculations that predicted hydrogen in an oxygen vacancy forms multicenter bonds and acts as a shallow donor.

  10. Preparation of Carbon-Encapsulated ZnO Tetrahedron as an Anode Material for Ultralong Cycle Life Performance Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhimin; Wang, Zhiyu; Chen, Chao; Wang, Jia; Fu, Xinxin; Fan, Chenyao; Qian, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel architecture of 3D carbon framework to encapsulate ZnO nanocrystals was prepared. • The ZnO@C exhibits ultralong cycle life and high specific capacity when was used as anode. • The in situ carbonization leads to a strong connection between the carbon and ZnO. - ABSTRACT: In this paper we report a novel architecture of three-dimension (3D) carbon framework to encapsulate tetrahedron ZnO nanocrystals that serves as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The ZnO@C composites are prepared via a simple internal-reflux method combined with subsequent calcination in argon. The amorphous carbon is formed on the surface of the ZnO crystals by in situ carbonization of the surfactant, which leads to a strong connection between the carbon framework and the active materials and guarantees faster charge transfer on the electrode. The ZnO crystal calcined at 500°C (ZnO@C-5) possesses regular tetrahedron shape with a side length of 150-200 nm and all of them are uniformly anchored among the network of amorphous carbon. The developed ZnO@C structures not only improve the electronic conductivity of the electrode, but they also offer a larger volume expansion of ZnO during cycling. As a result, the ZnO@C-5 demonstrates a higher reversible capacity, ultralong cycle life and better rate capability than that of the ZnO@C-7 and pure ZnO crystals. After 300 cycles, the ZnO@C-5 demonstrates a high capacity of 518 mAhg −1 at a current density of 110.7 mAg −1 . Moreover, this simple approach prepared the 3D composites architecture could shed light on the design and synthesis of other transition metal oxides for energy storage

  11. Fabrication and Characterization of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays via Inverted Monolayer Colloidal Crystals Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Ding, Taotao; Qi, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2018-04-01

    The periodically ordered ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays have been successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal approach on the silicon substrates by templating of the TiO2 ring deriving from the polystyrene (PS) nanosphere monolayer colloidal crystals (MCC). With the inverted MCC mask, sol-gel-derived ZnO seeds could serve as the periodic nucleation positions for the site-specific growth of ZnO NRs. The large-scale patterned arrays of single ZnO NR with good side-orientation can be readily produced. According to the experimental results, the as-integrated ZnO NR arrays showed an excellent crystal quality and optical property, very suitable for optoelectronic applications such as stimulated emitters and ZnO photonic crystal devices.

  12. ZnO Film Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosi Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have synthesized high-quality, nanoscale ultrathin ZnO films at relatively low temperature using a facile and effective hydrothermal approach. ZnO films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL, and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The products demonstrated 95% photodegradation efficiency with Congo red (CR after 40 min irradiation. The photocatalytic degradation experiments of methyl orange (MO and eosin red also were carried out. The results indicate that the as-obtained ZnO films might be promising candidates as the excellent photocatalysts for elimination of waste water.

  13. Structure Map for Embedded Binary Alloy Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C.W.; Shin, S.J.; Liao, C.Y.; Guzman, J.; Stone, P.R.; Watanabe, M.; Ager III, J.W.; Haller, E.E.; Chrzan, D.C.

    2008-09-20

    The equilibrium structure of embedded nanocrystals formed from strongly segregating binary-alloys is considered within a simple thermodynamic model. The model identifies two dimensionlessinterface energies that dictate the structure, and allows prediction of the stable structure for anychoice of these parameters. The resulting structure map includes three distinct nanocrystal mor-phologies: core/shell, lobe/lobe, and completely separated spheres.

  14. Hollow nanocrystals and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A Paul [Oakland, CA; Yin, Yadong [Moreno Valley, CA; Erdonmez, Can Kerem [Berkeley, CA

    2011-07-05

    Described herein are hollow nanocrystals having various shapes that can be produced by a simple chemical process. The hollow nanocrystals described herein may have a shell as thin as 0.5 nm and outside diameters that can be controlled by the process of making.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopy and simulation of doped nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyver, Jan Frederik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (ZnS or ZnSe) in the size range (diameter) of 2 nm to 10 nm. The nanocrystals under investigation are doped with the transition metal ions manganese or copper. The goal is to study photoluminescence and electroluminescence from

  16. Electronic displays using optically pumped luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shimon [Pinole, CA; Schlamp, Michael C [Plainsboro, NJ; Alivisatos, A Paul [Oakland, CA

    2011-09-27

    A multicolor electronic display is based on an array of luminescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Nanocrystals which emit light of different colors are grouped into pixels. The nanocrystals are optically pumped to produce a multicolor display. Different sized nanocrystals are used to produce the different colors. A variety of pixel addressing systems can be used.

  17. Activities towards p-type doping of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, G; Kuriplach, J; Ling, C C; Djurisic, A B

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an interesting and promising semiconductor material for many potential applications, e.g. in opto-electronics and for sensor devices. However, its p-type doping represents a challenging problem, and the physical reasons of its mostly n-type conductivity are not perfectly clear at present. Efforts to achieve p-type conductivity by ion implantation are reviewed, and ways to achieve p-type ZnO nanorods and thin films through various growth conditions are summarized. Then, issues associated with the preparation of Schottky contacts is discussed in some detail as this is a requirement of the device formation process. Finally, the possible incorporation of hydrogen and nitrogen into structural defects, which can act as trapping sites for positrons, is discussed in the context of experimental and theoretical positron results and the estimated H and N content in a variety of ZnO materials.

  18. Activities towards p-type doping of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, G [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Postfach 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Kuriplach, J [Department of Low Temperature Physics, Charles University, V Holetovickach 2, CZ-18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Ling, C C; Djurisic, A B, E-mail: g.brauer@fzd.de [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-10

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an interesting and promising semiconductor material for many potential applications, e.g. in opto-electronics and for sensor devices. However, its p-type doping represents a challenging problem, and the physical reasons of its mostly n-type conductivity are not perfectly clear at present. Efforts to achieve p-type conductivity by ion implantation are reviewed, and ways to achieve p-type ZnO nanorods and thin films through various growth conditions are summarized. Then, issues associated with the preparation of Schottky contacts is discussed in some detail as this is a requirement of the device formation process. Finally, the possible incorporation of hydrogen and nitrogen into structural defects, which can act as trapping sites for positrons, is discussed in the context of experimental and theoretical positron results and the estimated H and N content in a variety of ZnO materials.

  19. Defect induced ferromagnetism in undoped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainey, K.; Chess, J.; Eixenberger, J.; Tenne, D. A.; Hanna, C. B.; Punnoose, A., E-mail: apunnoos@boisestate.edu [Department of Physics, Boise State University, Boise, Idaho 83725 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Undoped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with size ∼12 nm were produced using forced hydrolysis methods using diethylene glycol (DEG) [called ZnO-I] or denatured ethanol [called ZnO-II] as the reaction solvent; both using Zn acetate dehydrate as precursor. Both samples showed weak ferromagnetic behavior at 300 K with saturation magnetization M{sub s} = 0.077 ± 0.002 memu/g and 0.088 ± 0.013 memu/g for ZnO-I and ZnO-II samples, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that ZnO-I nanocrystals had DEG fragments linked to their surface. Photoluminescence (PL) data showed a broad emission near 500 nm for ZnO-II which is absent in the ZnO-I samples, presumably due to the blocking of surface traps by the capping molecules. Intentional oxygen vacancies created in the ZnO-I NPs by annealing at 450 °C in flowing Ar gas gradually increased M{sub s} up to 90 min and x-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) suggested that oxygen vacancies may have a key role in the observed changes in M{sub s}. Finally, PL spectra of ZnO showed the appearance of a blue/violet emission, attributed to Zn interstitials, whose intensity changes with annealing time, similar to the trend seen for M{sub s}. The observed variation in the magnetization of ZnO NP with increasing Ar annealing time seems to depend on the changes in the number of Zn interstitials and oxygen vacancies.

  20. Symmetry breaking during seeded growth of nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohu; Xia, Younan

    2012-11-14

    Currently, most of the reported noble-metal nanocrystals are limited to a high level of symmetry, as constrained by the inherent, face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of these metals. In this paper, we report, for the first time, a facile and versatile approach (backed up by a clear mechanistic understanding) for breaking the symmetry of an fcc lattice and thus obtaining nanocrystals with highly unsymmetrical shapes. The key strategy is to induce and direct the growth of nanocrystal seeds into unsymmetrical modes by manipulating the reduction kinetics. With silver as an example, we demonstrated that the diversity of possible shapes taken by noble-metal nanocrystals could be greatly expanded by incorporating a series of new shapes drastically deviated from the fcc lattice. This work provides a new method to investigate shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystal.

  1. Measuring the Valence of Nanocrystal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Jonathan Scharle [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The goal of this project is to understand and control the interplay between nanocrystal stoichiometry, surface ligand binding and exchange, and the optoelectronic properties of semiconductor nanocrystals in solution and in thin solid films. We pursued three research directions with this goal in mind: 1) We characterized nanocrystal stoichiometry and its influence on the binding of L-type and X-type ligands, including the thermodynamics of binding and the kinetics of ligand exchange. 2) We developed a quantitative understanding of the relationship between surface ligand passivation and photoluminescence quantum yield. 3) We developed methods to replace the organic ligands on the nanocrystal with halide ligands and controllably deposit these nanocrystals into thin films, where electrical measurements were used to investigate the electrical transport and internanocrystal electronic coupling.

  2. Adsorption and spectroscopic characterization of lactoferrin on hydroxyapatite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iafisco, Michele; Di Foggia, Michele; Bonora, Sergio; Prat, Maria; Roveri, Norberto

    2011-01-28

    Lactoferrin (LF), a well-characterized protein of blood plasma and milk with antioxidant, cariostatic, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory properties, has been adsorbed onto biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocrystals at two different pH values (7.4 and 9.0). The interaction was herein investigated by spectroscopic, thermal and microscopic techniques. The positive electrostatic surface potential of LF at pH 7.4 allows a strong surface interaction with the slightly negative HA nanocrystals and avoids the protein-protein interaction, leading to the formation of a coating protein monolayer. In contrast, at pH 9.0 the surface potential of LF is a mix of negative and positive zones favouring the protein-protein interaction and reducing the interaction with HA nanocrystals; as a result a double layer of coating protein was formed. These experimental findings are supported by the good fittings of the adsorption isotherms by different theoretical models according to Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The nanosized HA does not appreciably affect the conformation of the adsorbed protein. In fact, using FT-Raman and FT-IR, we found that after adsorption the protein was only slightly unfolded with a small fraction of the α-helix structure being converted into turn, while the β-sheet content remained almost unchanged. The bioactive surface of HA functionalized with LF could be utilized to improve the material performance towards the biological environment for biomedical applications.

  3. Effect of Eosin Y Dye on Electrical Properties of ZnO Film Synthesized by Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents preparation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles by the sol-gel technique. ZnO films were prepared by the doctor-blade method, and the resulting films were sensitized with eosin Y (EY) by immersing them in a solution of EY dye in ethanol. The prepared samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy. The monodispersed ZnO nanocrystals possess a wurtzite hexagonal structure with diameter of ˜7 nm to 17 nm as observed by XRD and TEM analyses. The absorption spectrum of EY-dye-sensitized ZnO (ZnO/EY) film is slightly broadened, with a red-shift in the peak position compared with the absorbance spectrum of the dye in ethanol. Measurements of electrical parameters such as dark conductivity and photoconductivity were carried out at different temperatures. Transient photoconductivity was also studied at different temperatures to investigate the photoconduction mechanism. The photosensitivity of the ZnO/EY film is higher than that of the ZnO film. Hall measurements show n-type behavior for both samples. The visible absorption spectrum and high photosensitivity of the ZnO/EY films support their potential use as photoanode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells and optoelectronic devices.

  4. Detailed investigations of ZnO photoelectrodes preparation for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Renata; Werner, Fabian; Ahmad, Rameez; Lobaz, Volodymyr; Guldi, Dirk M; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2011-04-05

    Wurtzite ZnO hexagonal nanopyramids were successfully synthesized in the liquid phase from homogeneous methanolic solutions of zinc acetate and tetramethylammonium hydroxide at an excess of zinc ions. The formation and properties of the nanocrystals were examined as a function of synthesis conditions. No significant influence of the [Zn(2+)]/[OH(-)] ratio was noticed on the final particle size, in spite of increased amounts of OH(-) ions, which tend to accelerate the particle nucleation and growth. Nevertheless, the reactant concentration ratio influences the surface properties of the ZnO nanocrystals. Mesoporous ZnO films were prepared by doctor blading ethanolic pastes containing ZnO nanoparticles and ethyl cellulose onto FTO conductive glass substrate followed by calcination. Additionally, the influence of a plasticizer (triacetin)-used during the paste preparation-on the film quality was investigated. A higher content of ZnO nanoparticles and plasticizer in the pastes improved the film quality. Four different temperatures (i.e., 400, 425, 450, and 475 °C) were used for the film calcination and their influence on the structural properties of the films was characterized. In principle, increasing the calcination temperature goes hand in hand with an increase of particle size, as well as the pore diameter and reduction of the surface area. Suitable mesoporous films were employed as photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In order to assess the effect of the varied parameters on complete DSSC devices-using cis-diisothiocyanato-bis(2,2'-bipyridyl-4,4'-dicarboxylato) ruthenium(II)bis(tetrabutylammonium (N719) as a sensitizer-incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) and current voltage measurements were carried out. The IPCE measurements confirmed photoinduced electron injection from the dye, reaching IPCE values up to 76%. Furthermore, current-voltage characteristics of complete cells emphasized the importance of the proper preparation methods and

  5. Properties of fluorine and tin co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Zhang, Pengwei; Tian, Xinlong; Cheng, Guo; Xie, Yinghao; Zhang, Huangchu; Zeng, Xiangfu; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •F and Sn co-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by sol–gel method. •The effects of different F doping concentrations were investigated. •The co-doped nanocrystals exhibit good crystal quality. •The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. •The films showed high transmittance and low resistivity. -- Abstract: Highly transparent and conducting fluorine (F) and tin (Sn) co-doped ZnO (FTZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol–gel processing. The structure and morphology of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with various F doping concentrations. SEM images showed that the hexagonal ZnO crystals were well-arranged on the glass substrates and the HRTEM images indicated that the individual nanocrystals are highly oriented and exhibited a perfect lattice structure. Owing to its high carrier concentration and mobility, as well as good crystal quality, a minimum resistivity of 1 × 10 −3 Ω cm was obtained from the FTZO thin film with 3% F doping, and the average optical transmittance in the entire visible wavelength region was higher than 90%. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study confirmed the substitution of Zn 2+ by Sn ions and Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) observed for pure and FTZO thin films suggested the films exhibit a good crystallinity with a very low defect concentration

  6. Grafted SiC nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saini, Isha; Sharma, Annu; Dhiman, Rajnish

    2017-01-01

    ), raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy was used to study optical properties such as optical energy gap (Eg), Urbach's energy (Eu), refractive index (n), real (ε1) and imaginary (ε2) parts of dielectric constant of PVA as well as PVA......Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) grafted SiC (PVA-g-SiC)/PVA nanocomposite was synthesized by incorporating PVA grafted silicon carbide (SiC) nanocrystals inside PVA matrix. In-depth structural characterization of resulting nanocomposite was carried out using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR...

  7. Phenomenological model of photoluminescence degradation and photoinduced defect formation in silicon nanocrystal ensembles under singlet oxygen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gongalsky, Maxim B., E-mail: mgongalsky@gmail.com; Timoshenko, Victor Yu. [Faculty of Physics, Moscow State M.V. Lomonosov University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-28

    We propose a phenomenological model to explain photoluminescence degradation of silicon nanocrystals under singlet oxygen generation in gaseous and liquid systems. The model considers coupled rate equations, which take into account the exciton radiative recombination in silicon nanocrystals, photosensitization of singlet oxygen generation, defect formation on the surface of silicon nanocrystals as well as quenching processes for both excitons and singlet oxygen molecules. The model describes well the experimentally observed power law dependences of the photoluminescence intensity, singlet oxygen concentration, and lifetime versus photoexcitation time. The defect concentration in silicon nanocrystals increases by power law with a fractional exponent, which depends on the singlet oxygen concentration and ambient conditions. The obtained results are discussed in a view of optimization of the photosensitized singlet oxygen generation for biomedical applications.

  8. Encapsulating Quantum Dots into ZnO Nanorods for Advanced photonics and Laser Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-12

    axis of a hexagonal ZnO NMR is confined by total- internal reflections according to previous theoretical and experimental studies20,21. The use of QDs...monolayer of PMMA microspheres self-assembled on the GaN substrate, (b) Microporous TiO2 ring template obtained after removing PMMA microspheres. (c...TEM allows us to qualitatively probe the internal structure of the ZnO NMRs and composite QDs and to determine QDs distribution in ZnO NMRs surface

  9. Facile Synthesis of Rambutan-Like ZnO Hierarchical Hollow Microspheres with Highly Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Jian Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan-like ZnO hierarchical hollow microspheres (ZnO HHMs were constructed under hydrothermal conditions, using carboxyl methyl starch (CMS as a soft template. The resulting products were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The experimental parameters and growth mechanism of rambutan-like ZnO HHMs were discussed in some detail. The as-prepared samples displayed improved photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B under ultraviolet (UV irradiation.

  10. Development Considerations for Nanocrystal Drug Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Ling; John, Mathew; Lee, Sau L; Tyner, Katherine M

    2017-05-01

    Nanocrystal technology has emerged as a valuable tool for facilitating the delivery of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and enhancing API bioavailability. To date, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received over 80 applications for drug products containing nanocrystals. These products can be delivered by different routes of administration and are used in a variety of therapeutic areas. To aid in identifying key developmental considerations for these products, a retrospective analysis was performed on the submissions received by the FDA to date. Over 60% of the submissions were for the oral route of administration. Based on the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS), most nanocrystal drugs submitted to the FDA are class II compounds that possess low aqueous solubility and high intestinal permeability. Impact of food on drug bioavailability was reduced for most nanocrystal formulations as compared with their micronized counterparts. For all routes of administration, dose proportionality was observed for some, but not all, nanocrystal products. Particular emphasis in the development of nanocrystal products was placed on the in-process tests and controls at critical manufacturing steps (such as milling process), mitigation and control of process-related impurities, and the stability of APIs or polymorphic form (s) during manufacturing and upon storage. This emphasis resulted in identifying challenges to the development of these products including accurate determination of particle size (distribution) of drug substance and/or nanocrystal colloidal dispersion, identification of polymorphic form (s), and establishment of drug substance/product specifications.

  11. Robust, functional nanocrystal solids by infilling with atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yao; Gibbs, Markelle; Perkins, Craig L.; Tolentino, Jason; Zarghami, Mohammad H.; Bustamante, Jr., J.; Law, Matt

    2011-12-14

    Thin films of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) are inherently metatstable materials prone to oxidative and photothermal degradation driven by their large surface-to-volume ratios and high surface energies. The fabrication of practical electronic devices based on NC solids hinges on preventing oxidation, surface diffusion, ripening, sintering, and other unwanted physicochemical changes that can plague these materials. Here we use low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) to infill conductive PbSe NC solids with metal oxides to produce inorganic nanocomposites in which the NCs are locked in place and protected against oxidative and photothermal damage. Infilling NC field-effect transistors and solar cells with amorphous alumina yields devices that operate with enhanced and stable performance for at least months in air. Furthermore, ALD infilling with ZnO lowers the height of the inter-NC tunnel barrier for electron transport, yielding PbSe NC films with electron mobilities of 1 cm² V-1 s-1. Our ALD technique is a versatile means to fabricate robust NC solids for optoelectronic devices.

  12. Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2: Optical studies in the vacuum ultraviolet range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratov, V.; Osinniy, Viktor; Kotlov, A.

    2011-01-01

    done. It is demonstrated that the experimentally determined blueshift of the photoluminescence excitation and absorption spectra is larger than the theoretical predictions. The influence of point defects in the SiO2 matrix on the optical and luminescence properties of the embedded Si nanocrystals...... is discussed. Moreover, it is demonstrated that no energy transfer takes place between the SiO2 and Si nanocrystals when the excitation energy is higher than the band-to-band transition energy in SiO2....

  13. Enhanced light emission in photonic crystal nanocavities with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, Maria; Sih, Vanessa; Vuckovic, Jelena; Warga, Joe; Li Rui; Dal Negro, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Photonic crystal nanocavities are fabricated in silicon membranes covered by thermally annealed silicon-rich nitride films with Erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals. Silicon nitride films were deposited by sputtering on top of silicon on insulator wafers. The nanocavities were carefully designed in order to enhance emission from the nanocrystal sensitized Erbium at the 1540 nm wavelength. Experimentally measured quality factors of ∼6000 were found to be consistent theoretical predictions. The Purcell factor of 1.4 was estimated from the observed 20-fold enhancement of Erbium luminescence

  14. Constructing MnO{sub 2}/single crystalline ZnO nanorod hybrids with enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Weiwei [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Liu, Tiangui, E-mail: tianguiliu@gmail.com [College of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Cao, Shiyi; Wang, Chen [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China); Chen, Chuansheng, E-mail: 1666423158@qq.com [College of Physics and Electronic Science, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114 (China)

    2016-07-15

    In order to improve the photocatalytic and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanorods, ZnO nanorods decorated with MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles (MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids) were prepared by using microwave assisted coprecipitation method under the influence of hydrogen peroxide, and the structure, photocatalytic activity and antibacterial property of the products were studied. Experimental results indicated that MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are decorated on the surface of single crystalline ZnO nanorods. Moreover, the resultant MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids have been proven to possess good photocatalytic and antibacterial activity, which their degradated efficiency for Rhodamin B (RhB) is twice as the pure ZnO nanorods. Enhancement for photocatalytic and antibacterial activity is mainly attributed to the low band gap energy and excellent electrochemical properties of MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. - Graphical abstract: The MnO{sub 2}/single crystalline ZnO nanorods hybrids, which MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles are loaded on the surface of ZnO nanorods, were prepared by the step-by-step precipitation method under the assistance of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids were prepared by the step-by-step assembly method. • Single crystalline ZnO nanorods can be decorated by MnO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • MnO{sub 2}/ZnO nanorod hybrids possess good photocatalytic and antibacterial activity. • MnO{sub 2} can improve the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods under visible light.

  15. Doped and codoped silicon nanocrystals: The role of surfaces and interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Ivan; Degoli, Elena; Ossicini, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    Si nanocrystals have been extensively studied because of their novel properties and their potential applications in electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, thermoelectric and biological devices. These new properties are achieved through the combination of the quantum confinement of carriers and the strong influence of surface chemistry. As in the case of bulk Si the tuning of the electronic, optical and transport properties is related to the possibility of doping, in a controlled way, the nanocrystals. This is a big challenge since several studies have revealed that doping in Si nanocrystals differs from the one of the bulk. Theory and experiments have underlined that doping and codoping are influenced by a large number of parameters such as size, shape, passivation and chemical environment of the silicon nanocrystals. However, the connection between these parameters and dopant localization as well as the occurrence of self-purification effects are still not clear. In this review we summarize the latest progress in this fascinating research field considering free-standing and matrix-embedded Si nanocrystals both from the theoretical and experimental point of view, with special attention given to the results obtained by ab-initio calculations and to size-, surface- and interface-induced effects.

  16. High-purity Cu nanocrystal synthesis by a dynamic decomposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xian; Cao, Yu; Chen, Guozhang; Wang, Chao; Tang, Hui; Yin, Liangjun; Luan, Chunhong; Liang, Yinglin; Jiang, Jing; Wu, Sixin; Zeng, Qing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chengui

    2014-12-01

    Cu nanocrystals are applied extensively in several fields, particularly in the microelectron, sensor, and catalysis. The catalytic behavior of Cu nanocrystals depends mainly on the structure and particle size. In this work, formation of high-purity Cu nanocrystals is studied using a common chemical vapor deposition precursor of cupric tartrate. This process is investigated through a combined experimental and computational approach. The decomposition kinetics is researched via differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis using Flynn-Wall-Ozawa, Kissinger, and Starink methods. The growth was found to be influenced by the factors of reaction temperature, protective gas, and time. And microstructural and thermal characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Decomposition of cupric tartrate at different temperatures was simulated by density functional theory calculations under the generalized gradient approximation. High crystalline Cu nanocrystals without floccules were obtained from thermal decomposition of cupric tartrate at 271°C for 8 h under Ar. This general approach paves a way to controllable synthesis of Cu nanocrystals with high purity.

  17. Synthesis of highly luminescent Mn:ZnSe/ZnS nanocrystals in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheng; Wu Ping; Zhong Xinhua; Yang Yongji

    2010-01-01

    High-quality water-dispersible Mn 2+ -doped ZnSe core/ZnS shell (Mn:ZnSe/ZnS) nanocrystals have been synthesized directly in aqueous media. Overcoating a high bandgap ZnS shell around the Mn:ZnSe cores can bring forward an efficient energy transfer from the ZnSe host nanocrystals to the dopant Mn. The quantum yields of the dopant Mn photoluminescence in the as-prepared water-soluble Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals can be up to 35 ± 5%. The optical features and structure of the obtained Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals have been characterized by UV-vis, PL spectroscopy, TEM, XRD and ICP elementary analysis. The influences of various experimental variables, including the Mn concentration, the Se/Zn molar ratio as well as the kind and amount of capping ligand used in the core production and shell deposition process, on the luminescent properties of the obtained Mn:ZnSe/ZnS nanocrystals have been systematically investigated.

  18. Explicit all-atom modeling of realistically sized ligand-capped nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.; Clancy, Paulette

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of an explicit all-atom representation of nanocrystals of experimentally relevant sizes (up to 6 nm), capped with alkyl chain ligands, in vacuum. We employ all-atom molecular dynamics simulation methods in concert with a well

  19. Synthesis and optical spectroscopy of (hetero)-nanocrystals: An exciting interplay between Chemistry and Physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, E.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the synthesis and study of the optical properties of various colloidal semiconductor (hetero)nanocrystals ((H)NCs). Before the experimental results are discussed in detail, the essential theoretical background on the chemical and physical aspects of this work is provided in

  20. Thermal Expansion of Self-Organized and Shear-Oriented Cellulose Nanocrystal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairo A. Diaz; Xiawa Wu; Ashlie Martini; Jeffrey P. Youngblood; Robert J. Moon

    2013-01-01

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films was characterized using novel experimental techniques complemented by molecular simulations. The characteristic birefringence exhibited by CNC films was utilized to calculate the in-plane CTE of selforganized and shear-oriented self-standing CNC films from room temperature to 100 °...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of transition-metal-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals for spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng

    Spintronics (spin transport electr onics), in which both spin and charge of carriers are utilized for information processing, is believed to challenge the current microelectronics and to become the next-generation electronics. Nanostructured spintronic materials and their synthetic methodologies are of paramount importance for manufacturing future nanoscale spintronic devices. This thesis aims at studying synthesis, characterization, and magnetism of transition-metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals---a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS)---for potential applications in future nano-spintronics. A simple bottom-up-based synthetic strategy named a solvothermal technique is introduced as the primary synthetic approach and its crystal growth mechanism is scrutinized. N-type cobalt-doped ZnO-based DMS nanocrystals are employed as a model system, and characterized by a broad spectrum of advanced microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. It is found that the self-orientation growth mechanism, imperfect oriented attachment, is intimately correlated with the high-temperature ferromagnetism via defects. The influence of processing on the magnetic properties, such as compositional variations, reaction conditions, and post-growth treatment, is also studied. In this way, an in-depth understanding of processing-structure-property interrelationships and origins of magnetism in DMS nanocrystals are obtained in light of the theoretical framework of a spin-split impurity band model. In addition, a nanoscale spinodal decomposition phase model is also briefly discussed. Following the similar synthetic route, copper- and manganese-doped ZnO nanocrystals have been synthesized and characterized. They both show high-temperature ferromagnetism in line with the aforementioned theoretical model(s). Moreover, they display interesting exchange biasing phenomena at low temperatures, revealing the complexity of magnetic phases therein. The crystal growth strategy demonstrated in this work

  2. Genesis, challenges and opportunities for colloidal lead halide perovskite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Quinten A.; Rainò, Gabriele; Kovalenko, Maksym V.; Manna, Liberato

    2018-05-01

    Lead halide perovskites (LHPs) in the form of nanometre-sized colloidal crystals, or nanocrystals (NCs), have attracted the attention of diverse materials scientists due to their unique optical versatility, high photoluminescence quantum yields and facile synthesis. LHP NCs have a `soft' and predominantly ionic lattice, and their optical and electronic properties are highly tolerant to structural defects and surface states. Therefore, they cannot be approached with the same experimental mindset and theoretical framework as conventional semiconductor NCs. In this Review, we discuss LHP NCs historical and current research pursuits, challenges in applications, and the related present and future mitigation strategies explored.

  3. Interface-defect-mediated photocatalysis of mesocrystalline ZnO assembly synthesized in-situ via a template-free hydrothermal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Cuicui; Chen, Qifeng; Ren, Baosheng; Guan, Ruifang; Cao, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xiaopeng; Duan, Ran

    2017-08-01

    Both architecture construction and defects engineering of photocatalysts are highly vital in the photocatalytic activity. We report herein that the interface-defect-mediated photocatalytic activity of pompon-like ZnO (P-ZnO) mesocrystal photocatalyst synthesized via an aqueous approach, in the presence of sodium citrate without any other organic templates. The microstructure and defects of the diverse ZnO photocatalysts were examined with various techniques. The results indicated that the P-ZnO assemblies were composed of mesocrystal nanosheets exposed high energy (002) facet with high crystallinity. More importantly, the defects located at the interfaces among the nanocrystals in ZnO mesocrystals played an important role in the photocatalytic activity than that of interstitial zinc vacancies in bulk, which was confirmed by photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, such as methylene blue (MB) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The results showed that the P-ZnO exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than that of the nanosized ZnO (N-ZnO), which could be attributed to not only the unique mesocrystal structure and high energy (002) facet exposed, but also the defects located at interfaces among nanocrystals in ZnO mesocrystals. In addition, the formation mechanism of the P-ZnO was investigated via a time-dependent method. It was found that the formation of P-ZnO hierarchical architecture assembled with ZnO mesocrystals involved a nonclassical crystallization growth and Ostwald Ripening process. This study provides a perspective on the improvement in photocatalytic activity via adjusting the bulk and interface defects and construction of hierarchical architectures of semiconductors.

  4. Theory of the thermodynamic influence of solution-phase additives in shape-controlled nanocrystal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Fichthorn, Kristen A

    2017-10-19

    Though many experimental studies have documented that certain solution-phase additives can play a key role in the shape-selective synthesis of metal nanocrystals, the origins and mechanisms of this shape selectivity are still unclear. One possible role of such molecules is to thermodynamically induce the equilibrium shape of a nanocrystal by altering the interfacial free energies of the facets. Using a multi-scheme thermodynamic integration method that we recently developed [J. Chem. Phys., 2016, 145, 194108], we calculate the solid-liquid interfacial free energies γ sl and investigate the propensity to achieve equilibrium shapes in such syntheses. We first apply this method to Ag(100) and Ag(111) facets in ethylene glycol solution containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), to mimic the environment in polyol synthesis of Ag nanocrystals. We find that although PVP has a preferred binding to Ag(100), its selectivity is not sufficient to induce a thermodynamic preference for {100}-faceted nanocubes, as has been observed experimentally. This indicates that PVP promotes Ag nanocube formation kinetically rather than thermodynamically. We further quantify the thermodynamic influence of adsorbed solution-phase additives for generic molecules, by building a γ sl ratio/nanocrystal shape map as a function of zero-temperature binding energies. This map can be used to gauge the efficacy of candidate additive molecules for producing targeted thermodynamic nanocrystal shapes. The results indicate that only additives with a strong facet selectivity can impart significant thermodynamic-shape change. Therefore, many of the nanocrystals observed in experiments are likely kinetic products.

  5. Charge transport in a CoPt3 nanocrystal microwire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecher, P.; De Marzi, G.; Quinn, A.J.; Redmond, G.; Shevchenko, E.V.; Weller, H.

    2004-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of single CoPt 3 nanocrystal microwires formed by magnetic field-directed growth from colloidal solutions are presented. The wires comprise disordered assemblies of discrete nanocrystals, separated from each other by protective organic ligand shells. Electrical data indicate that the activated charge transport properties of the wires are determined by the nanocrystal charging energy, governed by the size and capacitance of the individual nanocrystals. Focused ion beam-assisted deposition of Pt metal at the wire-electrode junctions is employed to optimize the wire-electrode contacts, whilst maintaining the nanocrystal-dominated transport characteristics of these one-dimensional nanocrystal structures

  6. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  7. Optical and Electrical Performance of ZnO Films Textured by Chemical Etching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuh-Chuan HER

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO films were prepared by radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering on the glass substrate as transparent conductive oxide films. For silicon solar cells, a proper surface texture is essential to introduce light scattering and subsequent light trapping to enhance the current generation. In this study, the magnetron-sputtered ZnO films were textured by wet-chemical etching in diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl for better light scattering. The diffuse transmittance of the surface textured ZnO films was measured to evaluate the light scattering. The influence of hydrochloric acid concentration on the morphology, optical and electrical properties of the surface-textured ZnO film was investigated. The ZnO film etched in 0.05M HCl solution for 30 s exhibited average diffuse transmittance in the visible wavelength range of 9.52 % and good resistivity of 1.10 x 10-3 W×cm while the as-deposited ZnO film had average diffuse transmittance of 0.51 % and relatively high resistivity of 5.84 x 10-2 W×cm. Experimental results illustrated that the optical and electrical performance of ZnO films can be significantly improved by introducing the surface texture through the wet-chemical etching process.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9624

  8. High Temperature AL-Nanocrystal Alloy Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perepezko, J

    2001-01-01

    Aluminum-rich metallic glasses containing transition metals and rare earth elements have been found to yield finely mixed microstructures of Al nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix and exhibit...

  9. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  10. Controlled synthesis of ZnO hollow microspheres via precursor-template method and its gas sensing property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Yu; Li, Jinchai; Xiong, Hui; Dai, Jiangnan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Zn powder as precursor template for synthesis ZnO hollow spheres. ► Different precursor templates result in different ZnO nanostructures. ► Different experimental conditions enable growth of different surface morphologies of ZnO sphere. ► ZnO hollow sphere materials have good gas sensing performance for detecting ethanol gas. - Abstract: Using Zn powder as precursor templates, ZnO hollow microspheres were successfully prepared by thermal evaporation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. It was found that different size and shape of precursor resulted in different ZnO nanostructures. When varying experimental conditions, such as air flow rate and working pressure, ZnO hollow spheres with different surface morphologies could be obtained. The advantages of the present synthetic technology are simple, relatively low cost, and high reproducibility. A gas sensor was fabricated from the as-prepared ZnO hollow microspheres and tested to the ethanol gas at different operating temperatures.

  11. Density functional theory study of atomic and electronic properties of defects in reduced anatase TiO2 nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Morita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Anatase TiO2 nanocrystals have received considerable attention owing to their promising applications in photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and fuel cells. Although experimental evidence has shown that the performance of nanocrystals can be significantly improved through reduction, the mechanistic basis of this enhancement remains unclear. To shed a light on the chemistry of reduced anatase TiO2 nanocrystals, density functional theory were used to investigate the properties of defects and excess electrons. We demonstrated that oxygen vacancies are stable both on the surface and at the sub-surface of the nanocrystal, while titanium interstitials prefer sub-surface sites. Different defect locations possessed different excess electron structures, which contributed to deep and shallow states in the band gap of the nanocrystals. Furthermore, valence band tailing was observed, resulting in band gap narrowing. The theoretical results presented here deepen our understanding, and show the potential of defects to considerably change the macroscopic properties of anatase TiO2 nanocrystals.

  12. Visible tunable lighting system based on polymer composites embedding ZnO and metallic clusters: from colloids to thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Truong, Thai Giang; Dierre, Benjamin; Grasset, Fabien; Saito, Noriko; Saito, Norio; Nguyen, Thi Kim Ngan; Takahashi, Kohsei; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Amela-Cortes, Marian; Molard, Yann; Cordier, St?phane; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The development of phosphor devices free of heavy metal or rare earth elements is an important issue for environmental reasons and energy efficiency. Different mixtures of ZnO nanocrystals with Cs2Mo6I8(OOC2F5)6 cluster compound (CMIF) dispersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix have been prepared by very simple and low cost solution chemistry. The resulting solutions have been used to fabricate highly transparent and luminescent films by dip coating free of heavy metal or rare earth ...

  13. Elucidating the in vivo fate of nanocrystals using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model: a case study with the anticancer agent SNX-2112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong D

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dong Dong,1* Xiao Wang,1* Huailing Wang,1 Xingwang Zhang,2 Yifei Wang,1 Baojian Wu2 1Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, 2Division of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: SNX-2112 is a promising anticancer agent but has poor solubility in both water and oil. In the study reported here, we aimed to develop a nanocrystal formulation for SNX-2112 and to determine the pharmacokinetic behaviors of the prepared nanocrystals. Methods: Nanocrystals of SNX-2112 were prepared using the wet-media milling technique and characterized by particle size, differential scanning calorimetry, drug release, etc. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was undertaken to evaluate the drug’s disposition in rats following administration of drug cosolvent or nanocrystals. Results: The optimized SNX-2112 nanocrystals (with poloxamer 188 as the stabilizer were 203 nm in size with a zeta potential of -11.6 mV. In addition, the nanocrystals showed a comparable release profile to the control (drug cosolvent. Further, the rat PBPK model incorporating the parameters of particulate uptake (into the liver and spleen and of in vivo drug release was well fitted to the experimental data following administration of the drug nanocrystals. The results reveal that the nanocrystals rapidly released drug molecules in vivo, accounting for their cosolvent-like pharmacokinetic behaviors. Due to particulate uptake, drug accumulation in the liver and spleen was significant at the initial time points (within 1 hour. Conclusion: The nanocrystals should be a good choice for the systemic delivery of the poorly soluble drug SNX-2112. Also, our study contributes to an improved understanding of the in vivo fate of nanocrystals. Keywords: intravenous delivery, PBPK, tissue distribution, poloxamer 188

  14. Bright trions in direct-bandgap silicon nanocrystals revealed bylow-temperature single-nanocrystal spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůsová, Kateřina; Pelant, Ivan; Valenta, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, Oct (2015), e336 ISSN 2047-7538 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR GPP204/12/P235 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : silicon nanocrystals * single-nanocrystal spectroscopy * luminescing trions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 13.600, year: 2015

  15. Solution synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerung, Henry [Albuquerque, NM; Boyle, Timothy J [Kensington, MD; Bunge, Scott D [Cuyahoga Falls, OH

    2009-09-22

    A method for providing a route for the synthesis of a Ge(0) nanometer-sized material from. A Ge(II) precursor is dissolved in a ligand heated to a temperature, generally between approximately 100.degree. C. and 400.degree. C., sufficient to thermally reduce the Ge(II) to Ge(0), where the ligand is a compound that can bond to the surface of the germanium nanomaterials to subsequently prevent agglomeration of the nanomaterials. The ligand encapsulates the surface of the Ge(0) material to prevent agglomeration. The resulting solution is cooled for handling, with the cooling characteristics useful in controlling the size and size distribution of the Ge(0) materials. The characteristics of the Ge(II) precursor determine whether the Ge(0) materials that result will be nanocrystals or nanowires.

  16. Polyimide Cellulose Nanocrystal Composite Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Baochau N.; Meador, Mary Ann; Rowan, Stuart; Cudjoe, Elvis; Sandberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Polyimide (PI) aerogels are highly porous solids having low density, high porosity and low thermal conductivity with good mechanical properties. They are ideal for various applications including use in antenna and insulation such as inflatable decelerators used in entry, decent and landing operations. Recently, attention has been focused on stimuli responsive materials such as cellulose nano crystals (CNCs). CNCs are environmentally friendly, bio-renewable, commonly found in plants and the dermis of sea tunicates, and potentially low cost. This study is to examine the effects of CNC on the polyimide aerogels. The CNC used in this project are extracted from mantle of a sea creature called tunicates. A series of polyimide cellulose nanocrystal composite aerogels has been fabricated having 0-13 wt of CNC. Results will be discussed.

  17. 2009 Clusters, Nanocrystals & Nanostructures GRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lai-Sheng [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2009-07-19

    For over thirty years, this Gordon Conference has been the premiere meeting for the field of cluster science, which studies the phenomena that arise when matter becomes small. During its history, participants have witnessed the discovery and development of many novel materials, including C60, carbon nanotubes, semiconductor and metal nanocrystals, and nanowires. In addition to addressing fundamental scientific questions related to these materials, the meeting has always included a discussion of their potential applications. Consequently, this conference has played a critical role in the birth and growth of nanoscience and engineering. The goal of the 2009 Gordon Conference is to continue the forward-looking tradition of this meeting and discuss the most recent advances in the field of clusters, nanocrystals, and nanostructures. As in past meetings, this will include new topics that broaden the field. In particular, a special emphasis will be placed on nanomaterials related to the efficient use, generation, or conversion of energy. For example, we anticipate presentations related to batteries, catalysts, photovoltaics, and thermoelectrics. In addition, we expect to address the controversy surrounding carrier multiplication with a session in which recent results addressing this phenomenon will be discussed and debated. The atmosphere of the conference, which emphasizes the presentation of unpublished results and lengthy discussion periods, ensures that attendees will enjoy a valuable and stimulating experience. Because only a limited number of participants are allowed to attend this conference, and oversubscription is anticipated, we encourage all interested researchers from academia, industry, and government institutions to apply as early as possible. An invitation is not required. We also encourage all attendees to submit their latest results for presentation at the poster sessions. We anticipate that several posters will be selected for 'hot topic' oral

  18. Piezoelectric Response Evaluation of ZnO Thin Film Prepared by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Da-Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important parameter of piezoelectric materials is piezoelectric coefficient (d33. In this study, the piezoelectric ZnO thin films were deposited on the SiNx/Si substrate. The 4 inches substrate is diced into 8 cm× 8 cm piece. During the deposition process, a zinc target (99.999 wt% of 2 inches diameter was used. The vertical distance between the target and the substrate holder was fixed at 5 cm. The piezoelectric response of zinc oxide (ZnO thin films were obtained by using a direct measurement system. The system adopts a mini impact tip to generate an impulsive force and read out the piezoelectric signals immediately. Experimentally, a servo motor is used to produce a fixed quantity of force, for giving an impact against to the piezoelectric film. The ZnO thin films were deposited using the reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering method. The electric charges should be generated because of the material’s extrusion. This phenomenon was investigated through the oscilloscope by one shot trigger. It was apparent that all ZnO films exhibit piezoelectric responses evaluated by our measurement system, however, its exhibit a significant discrepancy. The piezoelectric responses of ZnO thin film at various deposition positions were measured and the crystal structures of the sputtering pressure were also discussed. The crystalline characteristics of ZnO thin films are investigated through the XRD and SEM. The results show the ZnO thin film exhibits good crystalline pattern and surface morphology with controlled sputtering condition. The ZnO thin films sputtered using 2 inches target present various piezoelectric responses. With the exactly related position, a best piezoelectric response of ZnO thin film can be achieved.

  19. High-quality ZnO growth, doping, and polarization effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Tang; Shulin, Gu; Jiandong, Ye; Shunming, Zhu; Rong, Zhang; Youdou, Zheng

    2016-03-01

    The authors have reported their recent progress in the research field of ZnO materials as well as the corresponding global advance. Recent results regarding (1) the development of high-quality epitaxy techniques, (2) the defect physics and the Te/N co-doping mechanism for p-type conduction, and (3) the design, realization, and properties of the ZnMgO/ZnO hetero-structures have been shown and discussed. A complete technology of the growth of high-quality ZnO epi-films and nano-crystals has been developed. The co-doping of N plus an iso-valent element to oxygen has been found to be the most hopeful path to overcome the notorious p-type hurdle. High mobility electrons have been observed in low-dimensional structures utilizing the polarization of ZnMgO and ZnO. Very different properties as well as new physics of the electrons in 2DEG and 3DES have been found as compared to the electrons in the bulk. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61025020, 61274058, 61322403, 61504057, 61574075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Nos. BK2011437, BK20130013, BK20150585), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of ZNO/MN Nanocomposite by using Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, S. K. W.; Bahrizal, B.; Nasra, E.; Nizar, U. K.; Farisya, R.

    2018-04-01

    Zink oxide doped Mn nanocomposites were synthesized by simple sol-gel method at low temperature by using combination of aquadest with methanol as the solvent and ethylene glycol as the additive. Zink acetate dehydrate and manganese chloride tetrahydrate were used as the precursors. Composition dopants were 1,3,5,and 7%. The crystals were formed by drying at 110°C for 1 hour, after which they were heated at ± 500°C for 2 hours. The as-prepared ZnO/Mn nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV Diffuse Reflectance Spectrometer (UVDRS). The XRD patterns of the ZnO nanocrystals showed that they are mostly hexagonal wurtzite with specific peaks at 2θ = 31, 34, 36, 47, 56, 63, 66 dan 69. The sizes of the ZnO doped Mn particles produced with 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% were18-95; 17-87; 18-96 19-98 nm, respectively. UVDRS analysis showed that the band gap of the ZnO were 2,60; 2,90; 2,99 dan 3,01 eV for 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% Mn respectively.

  1. Defect properties of ZnO nanopowders and their modifications induced by remote plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramo, J A; Peters, R M; Quarles, C A; Strzhemechny, Y M [Physics Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Vallejo, H [North Side High School, Fort Worth, TX 79129 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) and positron lifetime (LT) measurements were used on several commercial ZnO nanopowders. We observed that sample-to-sample differences in the quality of the powders overshadow any observation of probable size effects. However, the average LT for all nanocrystals is longer than in a bulk sample, consistent with the hypothesis of crystals with surface and subsurface layers rich in defects. Temperature-dependent PL spectra from the ZnO nanopowders were analyzed in detail for the bound-exciton (BEx) range and the numerical fits of the peak positions yielded activation energies that suggested different channels of recombination for the BEx. Also, fits for the full width at half maximum (FWHM) show nonlinear behavior, indicating contribution from surface phonons. We, also, used remote nitrogen and hydrogen plasma treatment on the ZnO nanosystems to manipulate their surface and subsurface defect states. We demonstrated that those plasma species induce a variety of changes in the deep defect visible emission as well as in the BEx luminescence, most likely associated with the surface/subsurface states.

  2. Defect properties of ZnO nanopowders and their modifications induced by remote plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramo, J A; Peters, R M; Quarles, C A; Strzhemechny, Y M; Vallejo, H

    2009-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and positron lifetime (LT) measurements were used on several commercial ZnO nanopowders. We observed that sample-to-sample differences in the quality of the powders overshadow any observation of probable size effects. However, the average LT for all nanocrystals is longer than in a bulk sample, consistent with the hypothesis of crystals with surface and subsurface layers rich in defects. Temperature-dependent PL spectra from the ZnO nanopowders were analyzed in detail for the bound-exciton (BEx) range and the numerical fits of the peak positions yielded activation energies that suggested different channels of recombination for the BEx. Also, fits for the full width at half maximum (FWHM) show nonlinear behavior, indicating contribution from surface phonons. We, also, used remote nitrogen and hydrogen plasma treatment on the ZnO nanosystems to manipulate their surface and subsurface defect states. We demonstrated that those plasma species induce a variety of changes in the deep defect visible emission as well as in the BEx luminescence, most likely associated with the surface/subsurface states.

  3. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal Metal and Photovoltaic Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2014-01-01

    -performing photovoltaic nanocrystals contain toxic elements, such as Pb, or scarce elements, such as In; thus, the production of solution-processable nanocrystals from earth-abundant materials using environmentally benign synthesis and processing methods has become a

  5. Near-infrared light emitting device using semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supran, Geoffrey J.S.; Song, Katherine W.; Hwang, Gyuweon; Correa, Raoul Emile; Shirasaki, Yasuhiro; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Bulovic, Vladimir; Scherer, Jennifer

    2018-04-03

    A near-infrared light emitting device can include semiconductor nanocrystals that emit at wavelengths beyond 1 .mu.m. The semiconductor nanocrystals can include a core and an overcoating on a surface of the core.

  6. Synthesis of well-dispersed ZnO nanomaterials by directly calcining zinc stearate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Guangsheng; Shi Chen; Tao Dongliang; Qian Weizhong; Han Dongmei

    2009-01-01

    Well-dispersed ZnO nanomaterials were synthesized by direct calcination of zinc stearate. Results from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated both the decomposition degree of organic ligand and the purity of calcined products were increased with the calcination temperature. The influence of decomposition temperature on the morphology of ZnO nanomaterials was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results revealed the morphology of ZnO transformed from nanosheets to hexagonal nanopyramids and then to nanoparticles at 573, 673 and 773 K respectively. Finally, a morphology evolution model of ZnO nanomaterials under different temperatures was proposed

  7. Synthesis and physicochemical characterizations and antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhumika K.; Patel, Kinjal; Roy, Debesh R.

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit very interesting and useful physicochemical properties when they interact with substrates and goes through some physicochemical and/or biological processes. ZnO is known to be a highly demanding nanomaterial due to its discreet properties, shapes and sizes. A detail experimental study on the synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) is performed. ZnO NPs are synthesized using chemical precipitation method. The understanding of crystal structure, morphology and elemental compositions are explained using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is performed to achieve the information on the presence of various functional groups. The antibacterial activity of these ZnO NPs is investigated in terms of Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) microorganisms.

  8. Piezoelectric Nanogenerator Using p-Type ZnO Nanowire Arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Ming-Pei

    2009-03-11

    Using phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays grown on silicon substrate, energy conversion using the p-type ZnO NWs has been demonstrated for the first time. The p-type ZnO NWs produce positive output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope (AFM) in contact mode. The output voltage pulse is generated when the tip contacts the stretched side (positive piezoelectric potential side) of the NW. In contrast, the n-type ZnO NW produces negative output voltage when scanned by the AFM tip, and the output voltage pulse is generated when the tip contacts the compressed side (negative potential side) of the NW. In reference to theoretical simulation, these experimentally observed phenomena have been systematically explained based on the mechanism proposed for a nanogenerator. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  9. Luminescence properties of Tb implanted ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetin, A.; Kibar, R.; Selvi, S.; Townsend, P.D.; Can, N.

    2009-01-01

    ZnO [0 0 0 1] crystals were irradiated at room temperature with Tb + ions of 400 keV with fluences from 1x10 16 to 2x10 17 cm -2 . The implanted layer was examined by several methods, including radioluminescence (RL), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and optical spectroscopy. The optical extinction spectra were simulated using Mie scattering theory. Absorption spectra predicted by Mie theory for particles of decreasing diameter were compared with those obtained experimentally. Some qualitative agreement between theoretical and experimental data was achieved. It was also shown that the intensities of the characteristic green emission bands associated with Tb produced by 5 D 4 → 7 F j=5,4 transitions have increased about 8 times after annealing. Optical spectroscopy and radioluminescence data have revealed that the ion implantation is a promising tool for synthesizing Tb nanoparticles in the ZnO surface. The Tb nanoparticles exhibit a rather weak plasma resonance.

  10. Effect of High Temperature Annealing on Conduction-Type ZnO Films Prepared by Direct-Current Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Li-Jie; He Dong-Kai; Xu Xiao-Qiu; Zhong Ze; Wu Xiao-Peng; Lin Bi-Xia; Fu Zhu-Xi

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally find that the ZnO thin films deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering have different conduction types after annealing at high temperature in different ambient. Hall measurements show that ZnO films annealed at 1100°C in N 2 and in O 2 ambient become n-type and p-type, respectively. This is due to the generation of different intrinsic defects by annealing in different ambient. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and photolumi-nescence measurements indicate that zinc interstitial becomes a main defects after annealing at 1100°C in N 2 ambient, and these defects play an important role for n-type conductivity of ZnO. While the ZnO films annealed at 1100°C in O 2 ambient, the oxygen antisite contributes ZnO films to p-type. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  11. Fabrication of thin ZnO films with wide-range tuned optical properties by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, A.; Tselikov, G.; Dilone, D.; Rao, K. V.; Kabashin, A. V.; Belova, L.

    2018-02-01

    We report the manufacturing of thin zinc oxide films by reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature, and examine their structural and optical properties. We show that the partial oxygen pressure in DC mode can have dramatic effect on absorption and refractive index (RI) of the films in a broad spectral range. In particular, the change of the oxygen pressure from 7% to 5% can lead to either conventional crystalline ZnO films having low absorption and characteristic descending dependence of RI from 2.4-2.7 RIU in the visible to 1.8-2 RIU in the near-infrared (1600 nm) range, or to untypical films, composed of ZnO nano-crystals embedded into amorphous matrix, exhibiting unexpectedly high absorption in the visible-infrared region and ascending dependence of RI with values varying from 1.5 RIU in the visible to 4 RIU in the IR (1600 nm), respectively. Untypical optical characteristics in the second case are explained by defects in ZnO structure arising due to under-oxidation of ZnO crystals. We also show that the observed defect-related film structure remains stable even after annealing of films under relatively high temperatures (30 min under 450 °C). We assume that both types of films can be of importance for photovoltaic (as contact or active layers, respectively), as well as for chemical or biological sensing, optoelectronics etc.

  12. Grain boundary effect of ZnO voltage sensitive ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ziying; Lei Deming; Li Jingde

    1991-01-01

    Positron annihilation techenique has been to study the non-linear Ohmic effect of ZnO. The resemblence of curve representing the short life-time τ 1 and its component I 1 vs. current i with the voltage drop curve proves that this component I 1 belongs to the annihilation of transporting electron and positron. The experimental results give support to the explaination of Schottky barrier model for the effect of intergranular boundary

  13. Nanocrystal Bioassembly: Asymmetry, Proximity, and Enzymatic Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Research at the interface between biomolecules and inorganic nanocrystals has resulted in a great number of new discoveries. In part this arises from the synergistic duality of the system: biomolecules may act as self-assembly agents for organizing inorganic nanocrystals into functional materials; alternatively, nanocrystals may act as microscopic or spectroscopic labels for elucidating the behavior of complex biomolecular systems. However, success in either of these functions relies heavily uponthe ability to control the conjugation and assembly processes.In the work presented here, we first design a branched DNA scaffold which allows hybridization of DNA-nanocrystal monoconjugates to form discrete assemblies. Importantly, the asymmetry of the branched scaffold allows the formation of asymmetric2assemblies of nanocrystals. In the context of a self-assembled device, this can be considered a step toward the ability to engineer functionally distinct inputs and outputs.Next we develop an anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography purification method which allows large gold nanocrystals attached to single strands of very short DNA to be purified. When two such complementary conjugates are hybridized, the large nanocrystals are brought into close proximity, allowing their plasmon resonances to couple. Such plasmon-coupled constructs are of interest both as optical interconnects for nanoscale devices and as `plasmon ruler? biomolecular probes.We then present an enzymatic ligation strategy for creating multi-nanoparticle building blocks for self-assembly. In constructing a nanoscale device, such a strategy would allow pre-assembly and purification of components; these constructs can also act as multi-label probes of single-stranded DNA conformational dynamics. Finally we demonstrate a simple proof-of-concept of a nanoparticle analog of the polymerase chain reaction.

  14. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorods: Effects of zinc salt concentration, various solvents and alkaline mineralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edalati, Khatereh, E-mail: kh_ed834@stu.um.ac.ir [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakiba, Atefeh [Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vahdati-Khaki, Jalil; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) Campus, Azadi Sq., Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized ZnO nanorods by a simple hydrothermal process at 60 °C. • Effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent and alkaline mineralizer was studied. • Increasing concentration of zinc salt changed ZnO nucleation system. • NaOH yielded better results in the production of nanorods in both solvents. • Methanol performed better in the formation of nanorods using the two mineralizers. - Abstract: ZnO has been produced using various methods in the solid, gaseous, and liquid states, and the hydrothermal synthesis at low temperatures has been shown to be an environmentally-friendly one. The current work utilizes a low reaction temperature (60 °C) for the simple hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanorod morphologies. Furthermore, the effects of zinc salt concentration, solvent type and alkaline mineralizer type on ZnO nanorods synthesis at a low reaction temperature by hydrothermal processing was studied. Obtained samples were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Increasing the concentration of the starting zinc salt from 0.02 to 0.2 M changed ZnO nucleation system from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous state. The XRD results confirmed the production hexagonal ZnO nanostructures of with a crystallite size of 40.4 nm. Varying the experimental parameters (mineralizer and solvent) yielded ZnO nanorods with diameters ranging from 90–250 nm and lengths of 1–2 μm.

  15. Cellulose nanocrystal: electronically conducting polymer nanocomposites for supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Soon Yee

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of cellulose nanocrystals for the fabrication of porous nanocomposites with electronic conducting polymers for electrochemical supercapacitor applications. The exceptional strength and negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals are utilised in these nanocomposites. The negatively charged surface functionalities on cellulose nanocrystals allow their simultaneous incorporation into electropolymerised, positively charged conducting polymer ...

  16. On the formation of Mo{sub 2}C nanocrystals by a novel system through microwave assisted combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseinpur, Arman, E-mail: arman_hoseinpur@metaleng.iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalaly, Maisam [Nanotechnology Department, School of New Technologies, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bafghi, Mohammad Sh. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), 16846-13114, Narmak, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khaki, Jalil Vahdati [Department of Materials Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 91775-1111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This research is devoted to microwave assisted combustion synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles. The ternary system of MoO{sub 3}–Zn–C was used as a novel approach for the in-situ synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C in which the zincothermic reduction of MoO{sub 3} was responsible for the combustion to take place. Results showed that the formation of Mo{sub 2}C was assisted by the zincothermic reaction, although further microwave heating up to 6 min was necessary to complete the reaction. The effects of the microwave heating and mechanical activation on the reaction progress were investigated. X-ray powder diffraction was used to examine the synthesis progress. Final products (Mo{sub 2}C and ZnO) were successfully separated from each other and the synthesized carbide was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), showing the formation of Mo{sub 2}C hexagonal nanocrystals during combustion process. - Highlights: • Hexagonal β-Mo{sub 2}C nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. • MoO{sub 3}–Zn–C powder mixture was selected as the initial mixture for the in-situ synthesis of Mo{sub 2}C. • 30 min of mechanical activation was necessary for the carbide formation to be completed. • The zincothermic reduction of MoO{sub 3} by Zn was responsible for the combustion. • The final products included of Mo{sub 2}C and ZnO in which ZnO was removed by acid leaching.

  17. Stimulated emission from ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, R.; Lange, H.; Priller, H.; Klingshirn, C.; Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kling, R. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU-Braunschweig, H.-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Fan, H.J.; Zacharias, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    By means of time resolved spectroscopy we compare two samples of ZnO nanorods with respect to their suitability as stimulated emitters. In the case of narrow nanorods their wave guiding quality causes a suppression of exciton-exciton scattering whereas no laser emission is detectable. Unlike their narrow counterparts, wide nanorods not only benefit from a larger overlap of the guided mode with the gain medium but a variation in VLS growth results in gold nanoparticles being present at the bottom of nanorods. Consequently, laser emission from single wide rods is evidenced up to 150 K. In addition to experimental studies we carry out 3D numerical simulations of the electric field distribution to evaluate the influence of gold nanoparticles at the nanorod/substrate interface. This finite element analysis confirms that gold leads to an enhancement of confinement within the resonator. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals synthesized by the microwave-hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.A.P. [INCTMN-DQ-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, SP (Brazil); Cavalcante, L.S., E-mail: laeciosc@bol.com.br [INCTMN-Universidade Estadual, Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Morilla-Santos, C.; Filho, P.N. Lisboa [MAv-Universidade Estadual, Paulista, P.O. Box 473, 17033-360, Bauru, SP (Brazil); Beltran, A.; Andres, J.; Gracia, L. [Department de Quimica Fisica i Analitica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12071 Castello (Spain); Longo, E. [INCTMN-DQ-Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, P.O. Box 676, 13565-905, SP (Brazil); INCTMN-Universidade Estadual, Paulista, P.O. Box 355, 14801-907, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    This communication reports that FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by the microwave-hydrothermal method at 443 K for 1 h. The structure and shape of these nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, and transmission electron microscopy. The experimental results and first principles calculations were combined to explain the electronic structure and magnetic properties. Experimental data were obtained by magnetization measurements for different applied magnetic fields. Theoretical calculations revealed that magnetic properties of FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals can be assigned to two magnetic orderings with parallel or antiparallel spins in adjacent chains. These factors are crucial to understanding of competition between ferro- and antiferromagnetic behavior. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monophasic FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals were synthesized by the microwave-hydrothermal method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rietveld refinement and clusters model for monoclinic structure Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of FeWO{sub 4} nanocrystals at different temperatures.

  19. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-01-01

    electronic Dexter energy transfer. On the other hand, it may pave the way for imitation of the natural photosynthesis where both energy transfer and charge separation are realized on the nanoscale. The nanocrystals may be used as building blocks to replace the organic molecules of natural processes. The closely packed selfassembly of type II aligned nanocrystals may find application in solid state devices such as extremely thin absorber solar cells with surface enhanced substrates. Also colloidal application for water splitting may be an option, where semiconductor nanocrystals may provide both energy transfer and charge separation. The organic barrier around the particles may help to protect the semiconductor nanocrystals against degradation during photo-catalytic water splitting. Moreover, the semiconductor nanocrystals may be used as a tape rule for sensing the relative energetic alignment to other nanoparticles or molecules. The PL-quenching rate correlates with the offset of the energy levels which can be tuned due to the quantum confinement effect. PL-quenching studies may reveal the relative energetic alignment of other nanoparticles when experimental series of their closely packed hybrid assemblies with different nanocrystal sizes are analyzed.

  20. Charge separation and transfer in hybrid type II tunneling structures of CdTe and CdSe nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Dieter Konrad Michael

    2013-11-08

    electronic Dexter energy transfer. On the other hand, it may pave the way for imitation of the natural photosynthesis where both energy transfer and charge separation are realized on the nanoscale. The nanocrystals may be used as building blocks to replace the organic molecules of natural processes. The closely packed selfassembly of type II aligned nanocrystals may find application in solid state devices such as extremely thin absorber solar cells with surface enhanced substrates. Also colloidal application for water splitting may be an option, where semiconductor nanocrystals may provide both energy transfer and charge separation. The organic barrier around the particles may help to protect the semiconductor nanocrystals against degradation during photo-catalytic water splitting. Moreover, the semiconductor nanocrystals may be used as a tape rule for sensing the relative energetic alignment to other nanoparticles or molecules. The PL-quenching rate correlates with the offset of the energy levels which can be tuned due to the quantum confinement effect. PL-quenching studies may reveal the relative energetic alignment of other nanoparticles when experimental series of their closely packed hybrid assemblies with different nanocrystal sizes are analyzed.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  2. Crystallization and Growth of Colloidal Nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, Edson Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Since the size, shape, and microstructure of nanocrystalline materials strongly impact physical and chemical properties, the development of new synthetic routes to  nanocrystals with controlled composition and morphology is a key objective of the nanomaterials community. This objective is dependent on control of the nucleation and growth mechanisms that occur during the synthetic process, which in turn requires a fundamental understanding of both classical nucleation and growth and non-classical growth processes in nanostructured materials.  Recently, a novel growth process called Oriented Attachment (OA) was identified which appears to be a fundamental mechanism during the development of nanoscale  materials. OA is a special case of aggregation that provides an important route by which nanocrystals grow, defects are formed, and unique—often symmetry-defying—crystal morphologies can be produced. This growth mechanism involves reversible self-assembly of primary nanocrystals followed by reorientati...

  3. Shaping metal nanocrystals through epitaxial seeded growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Susan E.; Lee, Hyunjoo; Radmilovic, Velimir; Somorjai,Gabor A.; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-17

    Morphological control of nanocrystals has becomeincreasingly important, as many of their physical and chemical propertiesare highly shape-dependent. Nanocrystal shape control for both single andmultiple material systems, however, remains fairly empirical andchallenging. New methods need to be explored for the rational syntheticdesign of heterostructures with controlled morphology. Overgrowth of adifferent material on well-faceted seeds, for example, allows for the useof the defined seed morphology to control nucleation and growth of thesecondary structure. Here, we have used highly faceted cubic Pt seeds todirect the epitaxial overgrowth of a secondary metal. We demonstrate thisconcept with lattice matched Pd to produce conformal shape-controlledcore-shell particles, and then extend it to lattice mismatched Au to giveanisotropic growth. Seeding with faceted nanocrystals may havesignificant potential towards the development of shape-controlledheterostructures with defined interfaces.

  4. The structure and morphology of semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadavanich, Andreas V. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-11-01

    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals were studied using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). Organically capped nanocrystals were found to have faceted shapes consistent with Wulff polyhedra after the effects of capping ligands on surface energies were taken into account. The basic shape thus derived for wurtzite (WZ) structure CdSe nanocrystals capped by tri-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) was a truncated hexagonal prism, elongated alone the <001> axis with (100) and (002) facets. This structure has C{sub 3v} point group symmetry. The main defect in this structure is a stacking fault (a single layer of zinc blende type stacking), which does not significantly affect the shape (does not alter the point group).

  5. Strained interface defects in silicon nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Benjamin G.; Stradins, Paul [National Center for Photovoltaics, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Hiller, Daniel; Zacharias, Margit [IMTEK - Faculty of Engineering, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg (Germany); Luo, Jun-Wei; Beard, Matthew C. [Chemical and Materials Science, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Semonin, Octavi E. [Chemical and Materials Science, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-08-07

    The surface of silicon nanocrystals embedded in an oxide matrix can contain numerous interface defects. These defects strongly affect the nanocrystals' photoluminescence efficiency and optical absorption. Dangling-bond defects are nearly eliminated by H{sub 2} passivation, thus decreasing absorption below the quantum-confined bandgap and enhancing PL efficiency by an order of magnitude. However, there remain numerous other defects seen in absorption by photothermal deflection spectroscopy; these defects cause non-radiative recombination that limits the PL efficiency to <15%. Using atomistic pseudopotential simulations, we attribute these defects to two specific types of distorted bonds: Si-Si and bridging Si-O-Si bonds between two Si atoms at the nanocrystal surface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Developing New Nanoprobes from Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Aihua [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots havegarnered the spotlight as an important new class of biological labelingtool. Withoptical properties superior to conventional organicfluorophores from many aspects, such as high photostability andmultiplexing capability, quantum dots have been applied in a variety ofadvanced imaging applications. This dissertation research goes along withlarge amount of research efforts in this field, while focusing on thedesign and development of new nanoprobes from semiconductor nanocrystalsthat are aimed for useful imaging or sensing applications not possiblewith quantum dots alone. Specifically speaking, two strategies have beenapplied. In one, we have taken advantage of the increasing capability ofmanipulating the shape of semiconductor nanocrystals by developingsemiconductor quantum rods as fluorescent biological labels. In theother, we have assembled quantum dots and gold nanocrystals into discretenanostructures using DNA. The background information and synthesis,surface manipulation, property characterization and applications of thesenew nanoprobes in a few biological experiments are detailed in thedissertation.

  7. Atomic-scale modeling of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiawa

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), the most abundant nanomaterials in nature, are recognized as one of the most promising candidates to meet the growing demand of green, bio-degradable and sustainable nanomaterials for future applications. CNCs draw significant interest due to their high axial elasticity and low density-elasticity ratio, both of which are extensively researched over the years. In spite of the great potential of CNCs as functional nanoparticles for nanocomposite materials, a fundamental understanding of CNC properties and their role in composite property enhancement is not available. In this work, CNCs are studied using molecular dynamics simulation method to predict their material' behaviors in the nanoscale. (a) Mechanical properties include tensile deformation in the elastic and plastic regions using molecular mechanics, molecular dynamics and nanoindentation methods. This allows comparisons between the methods and closer connectivity to experimental measurement techniques. The elastic moduli in the axial and transverse directions are obtained and the results are found to be in good agreement with previous research. The ultimate properties in plastic deformation are reported for the first time and failure mechanism are analyzed in details. (b) The thermal expansion of CNC crystals and films are studied. It is proposed that CNC film thermal expansion is due primarily to single crystal expansion and CNC-CNC interfacial motion. The relative contributions of inter- and intra-crystal responses to heating are explored. (c) Friction at cellulose-CNCs and diamond-CNCs interfaces is studied. The effects of sliding velocity, normal load, and relative angle between sliding surfaces are predicted. The Cellulose-CNC model is analyzed in terms of hydrogen bonding effect, and the diamond-CNC model compliments some of the discussion of the previous model. In summary, CNC's material properties and molecular models are both studied in this research, contributing to

  8. Properties and local environment of p-type and photoluminescent rare earths implanted into ZnO single crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Rita, EMC; Wahl, U; Soares, JC

    This thesis presents an experimental study of the local environment of p-type and Rare- Earth dopants implanted in ZnO single-crystals (SCs). Various nuclear and bulk property techniques were combined in the following evaluations: Implantation damage annealing was evaluated in ZnO SCs implanted with Fe, Sr and Ca. P-type dopants Cu and Ag implanted ZnO SCs were studied revealing that the solubility of Cu in substituting Zn is considerably higher than that of Ag. These results are discussed within the scope of the ZnO p-type doping problematic with these elements. Experimental proofs of the As “anti-site” behavior in ZnO were for the first time attained, i.e., the majority of As atoms are substitutional at the Zn site (SZn), possibly surrounded by two Zn vacancies (VZn). This reinforces the theoretical prediction that As acts as an acceptor in ZnO via the AsZn-2VZn complex formation. The co-doping of ZnO SC with In (donor) and As (acceptor) was addressed. The most striking result is the possible In-As “p...

  9. A simple photolytic reactor employing Ag-doped ZnO nanowires for water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udom, Innocent; Zhang, Yangyang [Clean Energy Research Center, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Ram, Manoj K., E-mail: mkram@usf.edu [Clean Energy Research Center, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Stefanakos, Elias K. [Clean Energy Research Center, College of Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Hepp, Aloysius F. [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fl 33620 (United States); Elzein, Radwan; Schlaf, Rudy [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, Fl 33620 (United States); Goswami, D. Yogi [NASA Glenn Research Center, Research and Technology Directorate, MS 302-1, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Well-aligned native zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver-doped ZnO (Ag-ZnO) films were deposited on borosilicate glass via a simple, low-cost, low-temperature, scalable hydrothermal process. The as-synthesized ZnO and Ag-ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction; scanning electron microscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A simple photolytic reactor was fabricated and later used to find the optimum experimental conditions for photocatalytic performance. The photodegradation of methyl orange in water was investigated using as-prepared ZnO and Ag-ZnO nanowires, and was compared to P25 (a commercial photocatalyst) in both visible and UV radiations. The P25 and Ag-ZnO showed a similar photodegradation performance under UV light, but Ag-ZnO demonstrated superior photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation. The optimized doping of Ag in Ag-ZnO enhanced photocatalytic activity in a simple reactor design and indicated potential applicability of Ag-ZnO for large-scale purification of water under solar irradiation. - Highlights: • Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver-doped ZnO (Ag-ZnO) nanowires were developed. • Simple and effective photolytic reactor was fabricated for water purification. • Ag-ZnO demonstrated superior photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation. • Amount of Ag atoms in Ag-ZnO nanowires is a key to increase photocatalytic activity.

  10. A simple photolytic reactor employing Ag-doped ZnO nanowires for water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udom, Innocent; Zhang, Yangyang; Ram, Manoj K.; Stefanakos, Elias K.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Elzein, Radwan; Schlaf, Rudy; Goswami, D. Yogi

    2014-01-01

    Well-aligned native zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver-doped ZnO (Ag-ZnO) films were deposited on borosilicate glass via a simple, low-cost, low-temperature, scalable hydrothermal process. The as-synthesized ZnO and Ag-ZnO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction; scanning electron microscopy, UV–visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A simple photolytic reactor was fabricated and later used to find the optimum experimental conditions for photocatalytic performance. The photodegradation of methyl orange in water was investigated using as-prepared ZnO and Ag-ZnO nanowires, and was compared to P25 (a commercial photocatalyst) in both visible and UV radiations. The P25 and Ag-ZnO showed a similar photodegradation performance under UV light, but Ag-ZnO demonstrated superior photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation. The optimized doping of Ag in Ag-ZnO enhanced photocatalytic activity in a simple reactor design and indicated potential applicability of Ag-ZnO for large-scale purification of water under solar irradiation. - Highlights: • Well-aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver-doped ZnO (Ag-ZnO) nanowires were developed. • Simple and effective photolytic reactor was fabricated for water purification. • Ag-ZnO demonstrated superior photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation. • Amount of Ag atoms in Ag-ZnO nanowires is a key to increase photocatalytic activity

  11. Dependence of the microstructural properties of ZnO particles on their synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, Svetozar; Saric, Ankica; Popovic, Stanko

    2008-01-01

    The influence of experimental conditions on the precipitation of ZnO particles and their microstructural properties has been investigated using X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal field emission scanning electron microscopy. Mixing of ZnCl 2 or Zn(ac) 2 solution with Na 2 CO 3 solution of proper concentrations yielded aggregates of fine Zn 5 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 6 particles, which were converted to nanosize ZnO particles at 300 deg. C. The size of these ZnO particles increased to around 100 nm upon heating at 600 deg. C, whereas a small fraction of them turned out in the form of aggregates. The obtained ZnO particles assumed a pseudospherical shape; however, their basic structure was based on the hexagonal space group. Precipitation of Zn 2+ ions in decomposing HMTA at 90 deg. C yielded ZnO particles around micron range. Crystalline Zn(OH) 2 was not detected in the precipitates. ZnO particles obtained by this method were strongly elongated in the direction of the crystallographic c-axis

  12. Significant room-temperature ferromagnetism in porous ZnO films: The role of oxygen vacancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Xue; Liu, Huiyuan [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Sun, Huiyuan, E-mail: huiyuansun@126.com [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Liu, Lihu; Jia, Xiaoxuan [College of Physics Science & Information Engineering, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Films of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous ZnO films were deposited on porous anodic alumina substrates. • Significant ferromagnetism (FM) has been observed in porous ZnO films (110 emu/cm{sup 3}). • The strong magnetic anisotropy was observed in the porous ZnO films. • The origin of FM is attributed to the oxygen vacancy with a local magnetic moment. - Abstract: Pure porous ZnO films were prepared by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering on porous anodic alumina substrates. Remarkably large room-temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the films. The highest saturation moment along the out-of-plane direction was about 110 emu/cm{sup 3}. Experimental and theoretical results suggested that the oxygen vacancies and the unique porous structure of the films are responsible for the large ferromagnetism. There are two modes of coupling between oxygen vacancies in the porous ZnO films: (i) exchange interactions directly between the oxygen vacancies and (ii) with the mediation of conduction electrons. In addition, it was found that the magnetic moment of ZnO films can be changed by tuning the concentration of oxygen vacancies. These observations may be useful in the development of ZnO-based spintronics devices.

  13. Photovoltaic and Electroluminescence Characters in Hybrid ZnO and Conjugated Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jun-Peng; QU Sheng-Chun; XU Ying; CHEN Yong-Hai; ZENG Xiang-Bo; WANG Zhi-Jie; ZHOU Hui-Ying; WANG Zhan-Guo

    2007-01-01

    We report electroluminescence in hybrid ZnO and conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MDMO-PPV) bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells. Photoluminescence quenching experimental results indicate that the ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer occurs from MDMO-PPV to ZnO under illumination. The ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer effect is induced because ZnO has an electron affinity about 1.2 eV greater than that of MDMO-PPV. Electron 'back transfer' can occur if the interfacial barrier between ZnO and MDMO-PPV can be overcome by applying a substantial electric field. Therefore, electroluminescence action due to the fact that the back transfer effect can be observed in the ZnO: MDMO-PPV devices since a forward bias is applied. The photovoltaic and electroluminescence actions in the same ZnO: MDMO-PPV device can be induced by different injection ways: photoinjection and electrical injection. The devices are expected to provide an opportunity for dual functionality devices with photovoltaic effect and electroluminescence character.

  14. Plasmonic Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals Doped with Boron and Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Nicolaas J; Schramke, Katelyn S; Kortshagen, Uwe R

    2015-08-12

    Degenerately doped silicon nanocrystals are appealing plasmonic materials due to silicon's low cost and low toxicity. While surface plasmonic resonances of boron-doped and phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals were recently observed, there currently is poor understanding of the effect of surface conditions on their plasmonic behavior. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit a plasmon resonance immediately after their synthesis but may lose their plasmonic response with oxidation. In contrast, boron-doped nanocrystals initially do not exhibit plasmonic response but become plasmonically active through postsynthesis oxidation or annealing. We interpret these results in terms of substitutional doping being the dominant doping mechanism for phosphorus-doped silicon nanocrystals, with oxidation-induced defects trapping free electrons. The behavior of boron-doped silicon nanocrystals is more consistent with a strong contribution of surface doping. Importantly, boron-doped silicon nanocrystals exhibit air-stable plasmonic behavior over periods of more than a year.

  15. Luminescence in colloidal Mn2+-doped semiconductor nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaulac, Remi; Archer, Paul I.; Gamelin, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in nanocrystal doping chemistries have substantially broadened the variety of photophysical properties that can be observed in colloidal Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals. A brief overview is provided, focusing on Mn 2+ -doped II-VI semiconductor nanocrystals prepared by direct chemical synthesis and capped with coordinating surface ligands. These Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals are organized into three major groups according to the location of various Mn 2+ -related excited states relative to the energy gap of the host semiconductor nanocrystals. The positioning of these excited states gives rise to three distinct relaxation scenarios following photoexcitation. A brief outlook on future research directions is provided. - Graphical abstract: Mn 2+ -doped semiconductor nanocrystals are organized into three major groups according to the location of various Mn 2+ -related excited states relative to the energy gap of the host semiconductor nanocrystals. The positioning of these excited states gives rise to three distinct relaxation scenarios following photoexcitation

  16. Synthesis of ZnO nanopowders by DC thermal plasma for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Choi, Jinsub [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Dong-Wha, E-mail: dwpark@inha.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanopowders were synthesized using DC thermal plasma process. ► Type and flow rate of reaction gas were controlled as experimental variables. ► Various morphologies were identified by changing the reaction gas. ► The photovoltaic performances were promoted by removing the unreacted precursors. ► DSSCs based on 1D nanostructure ZnO show the enhanced energy conversion efficiency. -- Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanopowders were synthesized from commercially available micro-sized zinc powders (Aldrich Co., 98%, 10 μm) by a DC thermal plasma process at atmospheric pressure. The micro-sized zinc powders were vaporized in the plasma region, after which the plasma processing equipment was rapidly quenched, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanopowders with a size of less than 300 nm. Two different reaction gases of oxygen and carbon dioxide were used as the oxygen source and each gas flow rate was controlled as a process variable. The obtained ZnO nanopowders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All synthesized ZnO nanopowders showed high crystalline wurtzite structures and the differences in their morphologies were strongly dependent on the operating variables. The photocurrent–voltage (J–V) curve of the ZnO nanopowders with a dye of ruthenium (II) 535 bis-TBA (N719, Solaronix) in redox electrolyte showed an overall energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.54%, demonstrating that the application of the mass-producible ZnO nanopowders by thermal plasma processing to DSSC was feasible.

  17. Electron paramagnetic resonance in Cu-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, R.; Acosta-Humánez, F.; Almanza, O.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn1-xCuxO, x = 3%), with a calcination temperature of 500∘C were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The particles were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band, measurement in a temperature range from 90 K to room temperature. AAS confirmed a good correspondence between the experimental doping concentration and the theoretical value. XRD reveals the presence of ZnO phase in hexagonal wurtzite structure and a nanoparticle size for the samples synthesized. EPR spectroscopy shows the presence of point defects in both samples with g-values of g = 1.959 for shallow donors and g = 2.004 for ionized vacancies. It is important when these materials are required have been used as catalysts, as suggested that it is not necessary prepare them at higher temperature. A simulation of the Cu EPR signal using an anisotropic spin Hamiltonian was performed and showed good coincidence with the experimental spectra. It was shown that Cu2+ ions enter interstitial octahedral sites of orthorhombic symmetry in the wurtzite crystal structure. Temperature dependence of the EPR linewidth and signal intensity shows a paramagnetic behavior of the sample in the measurement range. A Néel temperature TN = 78 ± 19 K was determined.

  18. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-08-01

    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  19. Formation mechanisms of metallic Zn nanodots by using ZnO thin films deposited on n-Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuk, J. M.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y.; No, Y. S.; Kim, T. W.; Choi, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results showed that metallic Zn nanodots (NDs) were fabricated through transformation of ZnO thin films by deposition of SiO x on ZnO/n-Si (100) heterostructures. The Zn NDs with various sizes and densities were formed due to the occurrence of the mass diffusion of atoms along the grain boundaries in the ZnO thin films. The fabrication mechanisms of metallic Zn NDs through transformation of ZnO thin films deposited on n-Si substrates are described on the basis of the experimental results.

  20. Study on the performance of ZnO nanomaterial-based surface acoustic wave ultraviolet detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Wenbo; He, Yongning; Zhao, Xiaolong; Liu, Han; Kang, Xue; Wen, Changbao

    2013-01-01

    A ZnO nanomaterial-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) ultraviolet (UV) detector is highly desirable for UV radiation detection due to its high sensitivity. In this work, firstly the ZnO nanomaterial-based SAW UV detectors operating at three different frequencies (∼50, ∼100 and ∼200 MHz) were fabricated. Then, four ZnO nanomaterial sensing layers with different thicknesses were synthesized on the SAW UV detectors operating at ∼200 MHz. The morphology, crystallization and photoluminescence of ZnO nanomaterial sensing layers were characterized using the scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectrometer, respectively. The SAW UV detectors based on different operating frequencies and ZnO nanomaterial sensing layer's thicknesses were exposed under UV illumination at a wavelength of 365 nm and their UV responses were measured. The experimental results indicate that the frequency shift of ZnO nanomaterial-based SAW UV detector can be significantly improved by increasing operating frequency or ZnO nanomaterial sensing layer's thickness. Furthermore, the detectors exhibit good selectivity of UV illumination, an ultrahigh UV sensitivity of about 9.6 ppm (µW cm −2 ) −1  and fast transient properties. The experimental results agree well with the acousto-electric effect theory. What deserves to be noted is that, under a UV intensity of 150 µW cm −2 , the frequency shift of the SAW UV detector operating at ∼50 MHz with a thin ZnO nanomaterial sensing layer was only ∼50 kHz while that of the SAW UV detector operating at ∼200 MHz with a thick ZnO nanomaterial sensing layer could reach ∼292 kHz. These results suggest the huge potential applications of ultra-sensitive ZnO nanomaterial-based SAW UV detectors for remote wireless UV and radiation monitoring. (paper)

  1. Role of the interface region on the optoelectronic properties of silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldosso, N.; Dalba, G.; Fornasini, P.; Grisenti, R.; Pavesi, L.; Luppi, M.; Magri, R.; Ossicini, S.; Degoli, E.; Rocca, F.; Boninelli, S.; Priolo, F.; Spinella, C.; Iacona, F.

    2003-01-01

    Light-emitting silicon nanocrystals embedded in SiO 2 have been investigated by x-ray absorption measurements in total electron and photoluminescence yields, by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and by ab initio total energy calculations. Both experimental and theoretical results show that the interface between the silicon nanocrystals and the surrounding SiO 2 is not sharp: an intermediate region of amorphous nature and variable composition links the crystalline Si with the amorphous stoichiometric SiO 2 . This region plays an active role in the light-emission process

  2. Direct femtosecond observation of charge carrier recombination in ternary semiconductor nanocrystals: The effect of composition and shelling

    KAUST Repository

    Bose, Riya

    2015-02-12

    Heavy-metal free ternary semiconductor nanocrystals are emerging as key materials in photoactive applications. However, the relative abundance of intra-bandgap defect states and lack of understanding of their origins within this class of nanocrystals are major factors limiting their applicability. To remove these undesirable defect states which considerably shorten the lifetimes of photogenerated excited carriers, a detailed understanding about their origin and nature is required. In this report, we monitor the ultrafast charge carrier dynamics of CuInS2 (CIS), CuInSSe (CISSe), and CuInSe2 (CISe) nanocrystals, before and after ZnS shelling, using state-of-the-art time-resolved laser spectroscopy with broadband capabilities. The experimental results demonstrate the presence of both electron and hole trapping intra-bandgap states in the nanocrystals which can be removed significantly by ZnS shelling, and the carrier dynamics is slowed down. Another important observation remains the reduction of carrier lifetime in the presence of Se, and the shelling strategy is observed to be less effective at suppressing trap states. This study provides quantitative physical insights into the role of anion composition and shelling on the charge carrier dynamics in ternary CIS, CISSe, and CISe nanocrystals which are essential to improve their applicability for photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

  3. Prospects of Colloidal Copper Chalcogenide Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stam, W.; Berends, A.C.; de Mello-Donega, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, colloidal copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional Cd and Pb chalcogenide NCs. Owing to their wide size, shape, and composition tunability, Cu chalcogenide NCs hold great promise for several applications, such as

  4. Hafnium carbide nanocrystal chains for field emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Song; Li, Hejun; Zhang, Yulei; Ren, Jincui; Qiang, Xinfa; Zhang, Shouyang

    2014-01-01

    A hafnium carbide (HfC) nanostructure, i.e., HfC nanocrystal chain, was synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. X-ray diffractometer, field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer were employed to characterize the product. The synthesized one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with many faceted octahedral nanocrystals possess diameters of tens of nanometers to 500 nm and lengths of a few microns. The chain-like structures possess a single crystalline structure and preferential growth direction along the [1 0 0] crystal orientation. The growth of the chains occurred through the vapor–liquid–solid process along with a negative-feedback mechanism. The field emission (FE) properties of the HfC nanocrystal chains as the cold cathode emitters were examined. The HfC nanocrystal chains display good FE properties with a low turn-on field of about 3.9 V μm −1 and a high field enhancement factor of 2157, implying potential applications in vacuum microelectronics.

  5. Atomic force microscopy characterization of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roya R. Lahiji; Xin Xu; Ronald Reifenberger; Arvind Raman; Alan Rudie; Robert J. Moon

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are gaining interest as a “green” nanomaterial with superior mechanical and chemical properties for high-performance nanocomposite materials; however, there is a lack of accurate material property characterization of individual CNCs. Here, a detailed study of the topography, elastic and adhesive properties of individual wood-derived CNCs...

  6. Biocompatibility of bio based calcium carbonate nanocrystals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Currently, there has been extensive research interest for inorganic nanocrystals such as calcium phosphate, iron oxide, silicone, carbon nanotube and layered double hydroxide as a drug delivery system especially in cancer therapy. However, toxicological screening of such particles is paramount importance ...

  7. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of CZTS nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumasiya, Ajay; Shah, N. M.

    2017-05-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising thin film absorber material for low cost solar cell applications. CZTS nanoparticle ink synthesized using solvothermal route is an attractive option to deposit absorber layer using screen printing or spin coating method in CZTS thin film solar cell. In this study we have synthesized CZTS nanocrystals using solvothermal method from aqueous solution of Copper nitrate [Cu(NO3)2], Zinc nitrate [Zn(NO3)2], tin chloride [SnCl4] and thiourea with varying concentration of Cu(NO3)2 (viz 0.82 mmol,1.4 mmol, 1.7 mmol) keeping concentrations of rest of solutions constant. As synthesized CZTS nanocrystals are characterized using Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX) to verify stoichiometry of elements. Analysis of EDAX data suggests that CZTS nanocrystals having Copper nitrate [Cu (NO3)2] concentration of 1.4 m mole is near stoichiometric. X-ray diffraction analysis study of CZTS nanocrystals having Copper nitrate [Cu (NO3)2] concentration of 1.4 m mole reveals the preferred orientation of the grains in (112), (220) and (312) direction confirming Kesterite structure of CZTS.

  8. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A [Los Alamos, NM; Chen, Yongfen [Eugene, OR; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos, NM; Vela, Javier [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  9. Biodegradation behaviors of cellulose nanocrystals -PVA nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rohani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, biodegradation behaviors of cellulose nanocrystals-poly vinyl alcohol nanocomposites were investigated. Nanocomposite films with different filler loading levels (3, 6, 9 and 12% by wt were developed by solvent casting method. The effect of cellulose nanocrystals on the biodegradation behaviors of nanocomposite films was studied. Water absorption and water solubility tests were performed by immersing specimens into distilled water. The characteristic parameter of diffusion coefficient and maximum moisture content were determined from the obtained water absorption curves. The water absorption behavior of the nanocomposites was found to follow a Fickian behavior. The maximum water absorption and diffusion coefficients were decreased by increasing the cellulose nanocrystals contents, however the water solubility decrease. The biodegradability of the films was investigated by immersing specimens into cellulase enzymatic solution as well as by burial in soil. The results showed that adding cellulose nanocrystals increase the weight loss of specimens in enzymatic solution but decrease it in soil media. The limited biodegradability of specimens in soil media attributed to development of strong interactions with solid substrates that inhibit the accessibility of functional groups. Specimens with the low degree of hydrolysis underwent extensive biodegradation in both enzymatic and soil media, whilst specimens with the high degree of hydrolysis showed recalcitrance to biodegradation under those conditions.

  10. Mechanistic Study of Monodisperse Iron Oxide Nanocrystals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To gain better insight into the formation of iron oxide nanocrystals from the solution phase thermal decomposition of iron (III) oleate complex, different reaction conditions including time, heating ramp, as well as concentrations of iron oleate precursor and oleic acid ligand were systematically varied and the resulting ...

  11. Silicon nanocrystal films for electronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, Robert W.

    2009-02-06

    Whether nanoparticles of silicon are really suited for such applications, whether layers fabricated from this exhibit semiconducting properties, whether they can be doped, and whether for instance via the doping the conductivity can be tuned, was studied in the present thesis. Starting material for this were on the one hand spherical silicon nanocrystals with a sharp size distribution and mean diameters in the range from 4-50 nm. Furthermore silicon particle were available, which are with 50-500 nm distinctly larger and exhibit a broad distribution of the mean size and a polycrystalline fine structure with strongly bifurcated external morphology. The small conductivities and tje low mobility values of the charge carriers in the layers of silicon nanocrystals suggest to apply suited thermal after-treatment procedures. So was found that the aluminium-induced layer exchange (ALILE) also can be transferred to the porous layers of nanocrystals. With the deuteron passivation a method was available to change the charge-carrier concentration in the polycrystalline layers. Additionally to ALILE laser crystallization as alternative after-treatment procedure of the nanocrystal layers was studied.

  12. Compressibility of the high-pressure rocksalt phase of ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Recio, J.M.; Blanco, M.A.; Luana, V.

    1998-01-01

    We report the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation on the stability and the volume behavior under hydrostatic pressure of the rocksalt (B1) phase of ZnO. Synchrotron-radiation x-ray powder-diffraction data are obtained from 0 to 30 GPa. Static simulations of the ZnO B1...... phase are performed using the ab initio perturbed ion method and the local and nonlocal approximations to the density-functional theory. After the pressure induced transition from the wurtzite phase, we have found that a large fraction of the B1 high-pressure phase is retained when pressure is released....... The metastability of this ZnO polymorph is confirmed through the theoretical evaluation of the Hessian eigenvalues of a nine-parameter potential energy surface. This allows us to treat the experimental and theoretical pressure-volume data on an equal basis. In both cases, we have obtained values of the bulk modulus...

  13. A novel one-pot room-temperature synthesis route to produce very small photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-Gallardo, Oscar A.; Burgos-Paci, Maxi A.; Mendoza-Cruz, Rubén; Putnam, Karl G.; Josefina Arellano-Jiménez, M.; José-Yacamán, Miguel; Mariscal, Marcelo M.; Macagno, Vicente A.; Sánchez, Cristián G.; Pérez, Manuel A.

    2018-03-01

    A novel strategy to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) from a reaction between tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and trimethyl-hexadecyl-ammonium borohydride (CTABH4) in organic solvent is presented. The formation reaction occurs spontaneously at room temperature in homogeneous phase. The produced silicon nanocrystals are characterized by using their photoluminescent properties and via HRTEM. In addition, theoretical calculations of the optical absorption spectrum of silicon quantum dots in vacuum with different sizes and surface moieties were performed in order to compare with the experimental findings. The new chemical reaction is simple and can be implemented to produce silicon nanocrystal with regular laboratory materials by performing easy and safe procedures. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Biomimetic synthesis of noble metal nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Yi

    At the nanometer scale, the physical and chemical properties of materials heavily depend on their sizes and shapes. This fact has triggered considerable efforts in developing controllable nanomaterial synthesis. The controlled growth of colloidal nanocrystal is a kinetic process, in which high-energy facets grow faster and then vanish, leading to a nanocrystal enclosed by low-energy facets. Identifying a surfactant that can selectively bind to a particular crystal facet and thus lower its surface energy, is critical and challenging in shape controlled synthesis of nanocrystals. Biomolecules exhibiting exquisite molecular recognition properties can be exploited to precisely engineer nanostructured materials. In the first part of my thesis, we employed the phage display technique to select a specific multifunctional peptide sequence which can bind on Pd surface and mediate Pd crystal nucleation and growth, achieving size controlled synthesis of Pd nanocrystals in aqueous solution. We further demonstrated a rational biomimetic approach to the predictable synthesis of nanocrystals enclosed by a particular facet in the case of Pt. Specifically, Pt {100} and Pt {111} facet-specific peptides were identified and used to synthesize Pt nanocubes and Pt nano-tetrahedrons, respectively. The mechanistic studies of Pt {111} facet-specific peptide had led us to study the facet-selective adsorption of aromatic molecules on noble metal surfaces. The discoveries had achieved the development of design strategies to select facet-selective molecules which can synthesize nanocrystals with expected shapes in both Pt and Pd system. At last, we exploited Pt facet-specific peptides and controlled the molecular interaction to produce one- and three- dimensional nanostructures composed of anisotropic nanoparticles in synthetic conditions without supramolecular pre-organization, demonstrating the full potential of biomolecules in mediating material formation process. My research on biomimetic

  15. Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Colloidal Metal Nanocrystals: Thermodynamic versus Kinetic Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Younan; Xia, Xiaohu; Peng, Hsin-Chieh

    2015-07-01

    This Perspective provides a contemporary understanding of the shape evolution of colloidal metal nanocrystals under thermodynamically and kinetically controlled conditions. It has been extremely challenging to investigate this subject in the setting of one-pot synthesis because both the type and number of seeds involved would be changed whenever the experimental conditions are altered, making it essentially impossible to draw conclusions when comparing the outcomes of two syntheses conducted under different conditions. Because of the uncertainty about seeds, most of the mechanistic insights reported in literature for one-pot syntheses of metal nanocrystals with different shapes are either incomplete or ambiguous, and some of them might be misleading or even wrong. Recently, with the use of well-defined seeds for such syntheses, it became possible to separate growth from nucleation and therefore investigate the explicit role(s) played by a specific thermodynamic or kinetic parameter in directing the evolution of colloidal metal nanocrystals into a specific shape. Starting from single-crystal seeds enclosed by a mix of {100}, {111}, and {110} facets, for example, one can obtain colloidal nanocrystals with diversified shapes by adjusting various thermodynamic or kinetic parameters. The mechanistic insights learnt from these studies can also be extended to account for the products of conventional one-pot syntheses that involve self-nucleation only. The knowledge can be further applied to many other types of seeds with twin defects or stacking faults, making it an exciting time to design and synthesize colloidal metal nanocrystals with the shapes sought for a variety of fundamental studies and technologically important applications.

  16. Microstructural changes in CdSe-coated ZnO nanowires evaluated by in situ annealing in transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majidi, Hasti; Baxter, Jason B; Winkler, Christopher R; Taheri, Mitra L

    2012-01-01

    We report on the crystallite growth and phase change of electrodeposited CdSe coatings on ZnO nanowires during annealing. Both in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal that the nanocrystal size increases from ∼3 to ∼10 nm upon annealing at 350 °C for 1 h and then to more than 30 nm during another 1 h at 400 °C, exhibiting two distinct growth regimes. Nanocrystal growth occurs together with a structural change from zinc blende to wurtzite. The structural transition begins at 350 °C, which results in the formation of stacking faults. Increased crystallite size, comparable to the coating thickness, can improve charge separation in extremely thin absorber solar cells. We demonstrate a nearly two-fold improvement in power conversion efficiency upon annealing. (paper)

  17. Microstructural changes in CdSe-coated ZnO nanowires evaluated by in situ annealing in transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Hasti; Winkler, Christopher R.; Taheri, Mitra L.; Baxter, Jason B.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the crystallite growth and phase change of electrodeposited CdSe coatings on ZnO nanowires during annealing. Both in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal that the nanocrystal size increases from ˜3 to ˜10 nm upon annealing at 350 °C for 1 h and then to more than 30 nm during another 1 h at 400 °C, exhibiting two distinct growth regimes. Nanocrystal growth occurs together with a structural change from zinc blende to wurtzite. The structural transition begins at 350 °C, which results in the formation of stacking faults. Increased crystallite size, comparable to the coating thickness, can improve charge separation in extremely thin absorber solar cells. We demonstrate a nearly two-fold improvement in power conversion efficiency upon annealing.

  18. Photoluminescence investigation of ZnO quantum dots surface modified with silane coupling agent as a capping agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghaddam, E., E-mail: e.moghaddam@merc.ac.ir; Youzbashi, A.A; Kazemzadeh, A.; Eshraghi, M.J.

    2015-12-15

    This report presents the luminescence measurement results of surface modified zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) performed with different concentrations of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as a capping agent. Surface modification was performed by an in situ procedure on the surface of ZnO QDs in a sol gel solution route. The modified samples were characterized by various analytical techniques such as XRD, TEM, FT-IR, and UV–vis spectroscopy. Surface modification efficiency was experimentally investigated by variation of the photoluminescence) PL (emission intensities observed by changing the capping agent concentration. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the capping agent on the stability of the QDs, The PL spectra of the surface modified ZnO QDs were compared with that of unmodified ZnO QDs. Molecular layer of this type and similar silane based molecules with a variety of surface terminations that have the same molecular attachment schemes should enable interface engineering in optimizing the chemical selectivity of ZnO biosensors or electrical and optical properties of ZnO-polymer hybrid films. - Highlights: • Surface modification of ZnO QDs resulted in the small- size QDs (around 2 nm). • Surface modification resulted in the enhancement of the UV emission upon quenching the visible emission. • Surface modification efficiency was decreased with reduction of the QD size • Intensified stability of the surface modified ZnO QDs was obtained from surface modification.

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of CNT/TiO2/ZnO Composites with High Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhen Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel carbon nanotubes (CNTs/titanium dioxide (TiO2/zinc oxide (ZnO composites have been successfully synthesized via a two-step solution method using titanyl sulfate as the titanium precursor. Its structural performances were researched by various characterization methods, such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-vis DRS. The performance of the composites was tested by degrading rhodamine B (RhB under UV-vis illumination and found to strongly rely on the content of ZnO. The experimental results showed that the CNT/TiO2/ZnO-90 wt % expressed more outstanding photocatalytic performance compared to the corresponding binary composites and the CNT/TiO2/ZnO-85 wt %, CNT/TiO2/ZnO-95 wt % materials. The improved photocatalytic activity was attributed to synergistic effect of CNT, TiO2 and ZnO, in which ZnO can absorb photons to produce electrons and holes, whereas TiO2 and CNT can reduce the electron-hole recombination.

  20. Synthesis of nanocrystals and nanocrystal self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoying

    Chapter 1. A general introduction is presented on nanomaterials and nanoscience. Nanoparticles are discussed with respect to their structure and properties. Ferroelectric materials and nanoparticles in particular are highlighted, especially in the case of the barium titanate, and their potential applications are discussed. Different nanocrystal synthetic techniques are discussed. Nanoparticle superlattices, the novel "meta-materials" built from self-assembly at the nanoscale, are introduced. The formation of nanoparticle superlattices and the importance and interest of synthesizing these nanostructures is discussed. Chapter 2. Advanced applications for high k dielectric and ferroelectric materials in the electronics industry continues to demand an understanding of the underlying physics in decreasing dimensions into the nanoscale. The first part of this chapter presents the synthesis, processing, and electrical characterization of nanostructured thin films (thickness ˜100 nm) of barium titanate BaTiO3 built from uniform nanoparticles (alcohols were used to study the effect of size and morphological control over the nanocrystals. Techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy are used to examine crystallinity and morphology. Chapter 3. By investigating the self-assembly of cadmium selenide-gold (CdSe-Au) nanoparticle mixtures by transmission electron microscopy after solvent evaporation, the effect of solvents in the formation process of CdSe-Au binary nanoparticle superlattices (BNSLs) was studied. 1-dodecanethiol was found to be critical in generating conditions necessary for superlattice formation, prior to the other factors that likely determine structure, highlighting the dual role of this organic polar molecule as both ligand and high boiling point/crystallization solvent. The influence of thiol was investigated under various concentrations (and also

  1. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  2. Optical properties of oxide magnetic ZnO, Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O and Cu{sub 2}O nanopowders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, V.I., E-mail: visokolov@imp.uran.r [Institute of Metal Physics UD RAS, S.Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Yermakov, A.Ye.; Uimin, M.A.; Mysik, A.A. [Institute of Metal Physics UD RAS, S.Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Pustovarov, V.A. [Ural State Technical University, Mira Street 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Chukichev, M.V. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Physics Faculty, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gruzdev, N.B. [Institute of Metal Physics UD RAS, S.Kovalevskaya Str. 18, 620041 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    ZnO, Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O and Cu{sub 2}O nanocrystals are synthesized. Excitonic lines in absorption spectra of these materials are detected. In photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectra of Zn{sub 0.95}Mn{sub 0.05}O the dangling bond hybrid (DBH) state is found. It has splitted out from the top of the valence band due to the hybridization between d-states of the Mn impurity and the p-states of oxygen.

  3. Structure and transformation of tactoids in cellulose nanocrystal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Xi; Hamad, Wadood Y.; MacLachlan, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals obtained from natural sources are of great interest for many applications. In water, cellulose nanocrystals form a liquid crystalline phase whose hierarchical structure is retained in solid films after drying. Although tactoids, one of the most primitive components of liquid crystals, are thought to have a significant role in the evolution of this phase, they have evaded structural study of their internal organization. Here we report the capture of cellulose nanocrystal tactoids in a polymer matrix. This method allows us to visualize, for the first time, the arrangement of cellulose nanocrystals within individual tactoids by electron microscopy. Furthermore, we can follow the structural evolution of the liquid crystalline phase from tactoids to iridescent-layered films. Our insights into the early nucleation events of cellulose nanocrystals give important information about the growth of cholesteric liquid crystalline phases, especially for cellulose nanocrystals, and are crucial for preparing photonics-quality films.

  4. Organization of silicon nanocrystals by localized electrochemical etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayari-Kanoun, Asma; Drouin, Dominique; Beauvais, Jacques; Lysenko, Vladimir; Nychyporuk, Tetyana; Souifi, Abdelkader

    2009-01-01

    An approach to form a monolayer of organized silicon nanocrystals on a monocrystalline Si wafer is reported. Ordered arrays of nanoholes in a silicon nitride layer were obtained by combining electron beam lithography and plasma etching. Then, a short electrochemical etching current pulse led to formation of a single Si nanocrystal per each nanohole. As a result, high quality silicon nanocrystal arrays were formed with well controlled and reproducible morphologies. In future, this approach can be used to fabricate single electron devices.

  5. Blue electroluminescence nanodevice prototype based on vertical ZnO nanowire/polymer film on silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ying; Wang Junan; Chen Xiaoban; Zhang Wenfei; Zeng Xuyu; Gu Qiuwen

    2010-01-01

    We present a polymer-complexing soft template technique to construct the ZnO-nanowire/polymer light emitting device prototype that exhibits blue electrically driven emission with a relatively low-threshold voltage at room temperature in ambient atmosphere, and the ZnO-nanowire-based LED's emission wavelength is easily tuned by controlling the applied-excitation voltage. The nearly vertically aligned ZnO-nanowires with polymer film were used as emissive layers in the devices. The method uses polymer as binder in the LED device and dispersion medium in the luminescence layer, which stabilizes the quasi-arrays of ZnO nanowires embedding in a thin polymer film on silicon substrate and passivates the surface of ZnO nanocrystals, to prevent the quenching of luminescence. Additionally, the measurements of electrical properties showed that ZnO-nanowire/polymer film could significantly improve the conductivity of the film, which could be attributed to an increase in both Hall mobility and carrier concentration. The results indicated that the novel technique is a low-cost process for ZnO-based UV or blue light emission and reduces the requirement for achieving robust p-doping of ZnO film. It suggests that such ZnO-nanowire/polymer-based LEDs will be suitable for the electro-optical application.

  6. Magnetic properties of sol-gel synthesized C-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, Nguyen Duc, E-mail: dung.nguyenduc@hust.edu.vn [Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Son, Cao Thai; Loc, Pham Vu; Cuong, Nguyen Huu; Kien, Pham The; Huy, Pham Thanh [Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ha, Ngo Ngoc [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-05-25

    ZnO doping with Carbon (C-doped ZnO) materials were prepared by sol-gel technique following with a heat treatment process. Single phase of Wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO was concluded via x-ray diffraction (XRD) with a large amount of excess C tracking by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Two types of ZnO crystals (twinning particles) with different grain sizes and shapes were identified via scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The first type has a smaller grain size of about 20 nm and hexagonal shape. And the second type has a larger grain size of about 80–120 nm and round shape. C substitutions of both Zn and O sites to form C–O and C–Zn bonds were conclusively confirmed via x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). Experimental evidences for the co-existence of different ferromagnetic phases in the materials are reported and discussed. Two Curie points at high temperatures (>500 °C) are presented. A metamagnetic transition was observed at magnetic field H = 19.2 kOe which was related to the co-existence of ferromagnetic phases. These involve in the formation of twinning C-doped ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Formation of sol-gel prepared single phase wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles. • Two morphological C-doped ZnO nanoparticles of different grain sizes. • The room temperature ferromagnetism. • An abnormal metamagnetic transition at magnetic field H = 19.2 kOe. • Two different Curie points (T{sub C}) at 500–600 °C.

  7. Development and validation of TOF-SIMS and CLSM imaging method for cytotoxicity study of ZnO nanoparticles in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Ling; Chen, Bo-Chia; Gollavelli, Ganesh; Shen, Sin-Yu; Yin, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Shiu-Ling; Jhang, Cian-Ling; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2014-07-30

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) exhibit novel physiochemical properties and have found increasing use in sunscreen products and cosmetics. The potential toxicity is of increasing concern due to their close association with human skin. A time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging method was developed and validated for rapid and sensitive cytotoxicity study of ZnO NPs using human skin equivalent HaCaT cells as a model system. Assorted material, chemical, and toxicological analysis methods were used to confirm their shape, size, crystalline structure, and aggregation properties as well as dissolution behavior and effect on HaCaT cell viability in the presence of various concentrations of ZnO NPs in aqueous media. Comparative and correlative analyses of aforementioned results with TOF-SIMS and CLSM imaging results exhibit reasonable and acceptable outcome. A marked drop in survival rate was observed with 50μg/ml ZnO NPs. The CLSM images reveal the absorption and localization of ZnO NPs in cytoplasm and nuclei. The TOF-SIMS images demonstrate elevated levels of intracellular ZnO concentration and associated Zn concentration-dependent (40)Ca/(39)K ratio, presumably caused by the dissolution behavior of ZnO NPs. Additional validation by using stable isotope-labeled (68)ZnO NPs as tracers under the same experimental conditions yields similar cytotoxicity effect. The imaging results demonstrate spatially-resolved cytotoxicity relationship between intracellular ZnO NPs, (40)Ca/(39)K ratio, phosphocholine fragments, and glutathione fragments. The trend of change in TOF-SIMS spectra and images of ZnO NPs treated HaCaT cells demonstrate the possible mode of actions by ZnO NP involves cell membrane disruption, cytotoxic response, and ROS mediated apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Controllable synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles with high intensity visible photoemission and investigation of its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yunbo; Xiao Wen; Li Weiyan; Xue Junmin; Ding Jun

    2013-01-01

    ZnO is known as a good photoluminescent semiconductor due to its ability to emit visible light. However, the visible emission mechanism is still under debate. In this work, we have successfully synthesized nanoparticles using LiOH, KOH and NaOH as bases and have achieved visible emission of various colours, such as blue, cyan, green and orange. We demonstrate that LiOH is the most efficient base to control the properties of ZnO nanoparticle emission by varying LiOH concentration. Moreover, detailed studies by TEM, UV and XRD show that ZnO particle size plays an important role in the colour of the emitted light and smaller particles tend to emit shorter wavelength photons. The visible emission is suggested to arise from an electron transition from the conduction band to a deep-trapped defect state. Our experimental results suggest the presence of oxygen vacancies on the ZnO nanoparticle surface. (paper)

  9. Pressurized polyol synthesis of Al-doped ZnO nanoclusters with high electrical conductivity and low near-infrared transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho-Nyun; Shin, Chi-Ho [Surface Technology R& BD Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Duck Kun [Department of Corporate Diagnosis, Small and Medium Business Corporation, Seoul 150-718 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haekyoung [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyeongseok [Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Inha Technical College, Incheon 402-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun-Jong, E-mail: hjkim23@kitech.re.kr [Surface Technology R& BD Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • Low-temperature pressurized polyol method synthesized Al-doped ZnO nanoclusters. • Reaction time affected the doping efficiency, resistivity, and NIR transmittance. • The near-IR blocking efficiency of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoclusters reached 85%. • AZO nanocluster coatings could be used for heat reflectors or artificial glasses. - Abstract: In this study, a novel pressurized polyol method is proposed to synthesize aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) nanoclusters without utilizing additional thermal treatment to avoid the merging of nanoclusters. The size of the AZO nanoclusters range from 100 to 150 nm with a resistivity of 204 Ω cm. The AZO nanoclusters primarily consist of approximately 10-nm nanocrystals that form a spherically clustered morphology. A two-stage growth model has been proposed based on the results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images, nanocluster sizes, and X-ray diffraction patterns. The primary AZO nanocrystals first nucleate under pressurized conditions and then spontaneously aggregate into larger nanoclusters. Optically, the AZO nanoclusters exhibit a significant decrease in the near-infrared (NIR) transmittance compared to pure ZnO nanoparticles. The NIR blocking efficiency of AZO nanoclusters reached 85%. Moreover, the doping efficiency, resistivity, and NIR transmittance of AZO nanoclusters are influenced by the reaction time in the pressurized polyol solution. On the other hand, the reaction time has no effect on the particle size and crystallinity. An optically transparent coating for the AZO nanoclusters, which consisted of iso-propanol solvent and ultraviolet-curable acrylic binder, was also demonstrated.

  10. Opto-mechano-electrical tripling in ZnO nanowires probed by photocurrent spectroscopy in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.; Golberg, D., E-mail: xuzhi@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050044 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3058577 (Japan); Xu, Z., E-mail: xuzhi@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: golberg.dmitri@nims.go.jp [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Kvashnin, D. G. [National University of Science and Technology, MISIS, Leninskiy Prospect 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Tang, D.-M.; Xue, Y. M.; Bando, Y. [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 3050044 (Japan); Sorokin, P. B. [National University of Science and Technology, MISIS, Leninskiy Prospect 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutsky Lane 9, Dolgoprudny 141700 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    Photocurrent spectroscopy of individual free-standing ZnO nanowires inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) is reported. By using specially designed optical in situ TEM system capable of scanning tunneling microscopy probing paired with light illumination, opto-mechano-electrical tripling phenomenon in ZnO nanowires is demonstrated. Splitting of photocurrent spectra at around 3.3 eV under in situ TEM bending of ZnO nanowires directly corresponds to nanowire deformation and appearance of expanded and compressed nanowire sides. Theoretical simulation of a bent ZnO nanowire has an excellent agreement with the experimental data. The splitting effect could be explained by a change in the valence band structure of ZnO nanowires due to a lattice strain. The strain-induced splitting provides important clues for future flexible piezo-phototronics.

  11. Study on Crystallographic Properties of Li Doped ZnO Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khine Khine Linn; Than Than Win; Yin Maung Maung; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2008-03-01

    Li-doped ZnO film is prepared on highly polished Si substrate. The process temperature are range from 400 0 C to 600 0 C and maintained 1 hr for homogenization. According to the experimental results, it is significant that the growth chemistry is quite feasible and expected to be crystalline at above-mentioned temperatures.

  12. Exploring excitonic signal in optical conductivity of ZnO through first-order electron-hole vertex correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoirunnisa, Humaira; Aziz Majidi, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    The emergence of exitonic signal in the optical response of a wide band-gap semiconductor has been a common knowledge in physics. There have been numerous experimental studies exploring the important role of excitons on influencing both the transport and optical properties of the materials. Despite the existence of much information on excitonic effects, there has not been much literature that explores detailed theoretical explanation on how the exitonic signal appears and how it evolves with temperature. Here, we propose a theoretical study on the optical conductivity of ZnO, a well-known wide band-gap semiconductor that we choose as a case study. ZnO has been known to exhibit excitonic states in its optical spectra in the energy range of ∼3.13-3.41 eV, with a high exciton binding energy of ∼60 meV. An experimental study on ZnO in 2014 revealed such a signal in its optical conductivity spectrum. We present a theoretical investigation on the appearance of excitonic signal in optical conductivity of ZnO. We model the wurtzite ZnO within an 8-band k.p approximation. We calculate the optical conductivity by incorporating the first-order vertex correction derived from the Feynman diagrams. Our calculation up to the first-order correction spectrum qualitatively confirms the existence of excitons in wurtzite ZnO.

  13. Sorption of Th(IV) onto ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite-supported ZnO nanocomposite. Kinetics, mechanism and activation parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusan, Sabriye; Aslani, Mahmut A.A.; Aytas, Sule [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Bampaiti, Anastasia; Noli, Fotini [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry; Erenturk, Sema [Istanbul Technical Univ., Ayazaga Campus, Maslak-Istanbul (Turkey). Energy Inst.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, for the first time ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite-supported ZnO nanocomposite have been utilized as adsorbent for the removal of Th(IV) ions from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin- Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms were used to analyze the equilibrium data. The sorption equilibrium data were fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm with maximum sorption capacities values was found to be 1.105 mmol/g and 0.320 mmol/g for ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite supported ZnO nanocomposite, respectively. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second order equations, Intraparticle diffusion and Bangham's models were considered to evaluate the rate parameters and sorption mechanism. Sorption kinetics were better reproduced by the pseudo-second order model (R{sup 2} > 0.999), with an activation energy (E{sub a}) of +99.74 kJ/mol and +62.95 kJ/mol for ZnO nanoparticles and diatomite-supported ZnO nanocomposite, respectively. In order to specify the type of sorption reaction, thermodynamic parameters were also determined. The evaluated ΔG* and ΔH* indicate the non-spontaneous and endothermic nature of the reactions. The results of this work suggest that both of the used materials are fast and effective adsorbents for removing Th(IV) from aqueous solutions and chemical sorption plays a role in controlling the sorption rate.

  14. Contact Resistance Reduction of ZnO Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) with Saw-Shaped Electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Woojin

    2018-05-15

    We report a saw-shaped electrode architecture ZnO thin film transistor (TFT) for effectively increase channel width. Such a saw-shaped electrode has ~2 times longer contact line at the contact metal/ZnO channel junction. We experimentally observed an enhancement in the output drive current by 50% and reduction in the contact resistance by over 50%, when compared to a typical shaped electrode ZnO TFT consuming the same chip area. This performance enhancement is attributed to extension of channel width. This technique can contribute to device performance enhancement and especially reduction in the contact resistance which is a serious challenge.

  15. Self-assembled ZnO agave-like nanowires and anomalous superhydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y H; Li, Z Y; Wang, B; Wang, C X; Chen, D H; Yang, G W [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2005-09-07

    Thin films of ZnO agave-like nanowires were prepared on amorphous carbon thin layers on silicon substrates using thermal chemical vapour transport and condensation without any metal catalysts. The unusual superhydrophobicity of the fabricated surface was measured; the water contact angle reaches 151.1 deg. On the basis of experimental and theoretical analyses, it appears likely that the biomimetic microcomposite and nanocomposite surfaces of the prepared thin films of ZnO agave-like nanowires are responsible for the excellent superhydrophobicity.

  16. Selective synthesis and characterization of sea urchin-like metallic nickel nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaohe; Liang Xudong; Zhang Ning; Qiu Guanzhou; Yi Ran

    2006-01-01

    Sea urchin-like nanobelt-based and nanorod-based metallic nickel nanocrystals have been selective synthesized via a hydrothermal reduction route in which sodium hydroxide was used as alkaline reagent and aqueous hydrazine (N 2 H 4 .H 2 O) was used as reducing agent. The morphology and structure of final products could be easily controlled by adjust process parameters such as hydrothermal time, reaction temperature and alkaline concentration. Surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was also important parameter influencing the morphology of the products. The morphology and phase structure of the final products have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The probable formation mechanism of the sea urchin-like metallic nickel nanocrystals was discussed on the basis of the experimental results

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of sea urchin-like nickel and cobalt selenides nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaohe [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China) and School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)]. E-mail: liuxh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Zhang Ning [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Yi Ran [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Qiu Guanzhou [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Yan Aiguo [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Wu Hongyi [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Meng Dapeng [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Tang, Motang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2007-05-25

    Sea urchin-like nanorod-based nickel and cobalt selenides nanocrystals have been selective synthesized via a hydrothermal reduction route in which hydrated nickel chloride and hydrated cobalt chloride were employed to supply Ni and Co source and aqueous hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O) was used as reducing agent. The composition, morphology, and structure of final products could be easily controlled by adjusting the molar ratios of reactants and process parameters such as hydrothermal time. The morphology and phase structure of the final products have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The probable formation mechanism of the sea urchin-like nanorod-based nickel and cobalt selenides nanocrystals was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  18. Selective synthesis and characterization of sea urchin-like metallic nickel nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaohe [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)]. E-mail: liuxh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Liang Xudong [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang Ning [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Qiu Guanzhou [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Yi Ran [Department of Inorganic Materials, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Sea urchin-like nanobelt-based and nanorod-based metallic nickel nanocrystals have been selective synthesized via a hydrothermal reduction route in which sodium hydroxide was used as alkaline reagent and aqueous hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O) was used as reducing agent. The morphology and structure of final products could be easily controlled by adjust process parameters such as hydrothermal time, reaction temperature and alkaline concentration. Surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was also important parameter influencing the morphology of the products. The morphology and phase structure of the final products have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The probable formation mechanism of the sea urchin-like metallic nickel nanocrystals was discussed on the basis of the experimental results.

  19. A probabilistic model of the electron transport in films of nanocrystals arranged in a cubic lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriegel, Ilka [Department of Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Scotognella, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.scotognella@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Center for Nano Science and Technology@PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    The fabrication of nanocrystal (NC) films, starting from colloidal dispersion, is a very attractive topic in condensed matter physics community. NC films can be employed for transistors, light emitting diodes, lasers, and solar cells. For this reason the understanding of the film conductivity is of major importance. In this paper we describe a probabilistic model that allows the prediction of the conductivity of NC films, in this case of a cubic lattice of Lead Selenide or Cadmium Selenide NCs. The model is based on the hopping probability between NCs. The results are compared to experimental data reported in literature. - Highlights: • Colloidal nanocrystal (NC) film conductivity is a topic of major importance. • We present a probabilistic model to predict the electron conductivity in NC films. • The model is based on the hopping probability between NCs. • We found a good agreement between the model and data reported in literature.

  20. Raman scattering study of the anharmonic effects in CeO2-y nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Z. V.; Dohčević-Mitrović, Z.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A.

    2007-12-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of the F2g Raman mode phonon frequency and broadening in CeO2-y nanocrystals. The phonon softening and phonon linewidth are calculated using a model which takes into account the three-and four-phonon anharmonic processes. A detailed comparison of the experimental data with theoretical calculations revealed the predominance of four-phonon anharmonic processes in the temperature dependence of the phonon energy and broadening of the nanocrystals. On the other hand, three-phonon processes dominate the temperature behavior of phonons in polycrystalline samples. The anti-Stokes/Stokes peak intensity ratio was also investigated and found to be smaller for nanosized CeO2 powders than in the bulk counterpart.

  1. Raman scattering study of the anharmonic effects in CeO2-y nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, Z V; Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z; Cros, A; Cantarero, A

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of the F 2g Raman mode phonon frequency and broadening in CeO 2-y nanocrystals. The phonon softening and phonon linewidth are calculated using a model which takes into account the three-and four-phonon anharmonic processes. A detailed comparison of the experimental data with theoretical calculations revealed the predominance of four-phonon anharmonic processes in the temperature dependence of the phonon energy and broadening of the nanocrystals. On the other hand, three-phonon processes dominate the temperature behavior of phonons in polycrystalline samples. The anti-Stokes/Stokes peak intensity ratio was also investigated and found to be smaller for nanosized CeO 2 powders than in the bulk counterpart

  2. Raman scattering study of the anharmonic effects in CeO{sub 2-y} nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Z V [Center for Solid State Physics and New Materials, Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Dohcevic-Mitrovic, Z [Center for Solid State Physics and New Materials, Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Cros, A [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, P O Box 22085, E-46071, Valencia (Spain); Cantarero, A [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, P O Box 22085, E-46071, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-12-12

    We have studied the temperature dependence of the F{sub 2g} Raman mode phonon frequency and broadening in CeO{sub 2-y} nanocrystals. The phonon softening and phonon linewidth are calculated using a model which takes into account the three-and four-phonon anharmonic processes. A detailed comparison of the experimental data with theoretical calculations revealed the predominance of four-phonon anharmonic processes in the temperature dependence of the phonon energy and broadening of the nanocrystals. On the other hand, three-phonon processes dominate the temperature behavior of phonons in polycrystalline samples. The anti-Stokes/Stokes peak intensity ratio was also investigated and found to be smaller for nanosized CeO{sub 2} powders than in the bulk counterpart.

  3. Phonon dispersion and thermal conductivity of nanocrystal superlattices using three-dimensional atomistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanjani, Mehdi B.; Lukes, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    A computational study of thermal conductivity and phonon dispersion of gold nanocrystal superlattices is presented. Phonon dispersion curves, reported here for the first time from combined molecular dynamics and lattice dynamics calculations, show multiple phononic band gaps and consist of many more dispersion branches than simple atomic crystals. Fully atomistic three dimensional molecular dynamics calculations of thermal conductivity using the Green Kubo method are also performed for the first time on these materials. Thermal conductivity is observed to increase for increasing nanocrystal core size and decrease for increasing surface ligand density. Our calculations predict values in the range 0.1–1 W/m K that are consistent with reported experimental results

  4. A new insight into the interaction of ZnO with calf thymus DNA through surface defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumita; Chatterjee, Sabyasachi; Pramanik, Srikrishna; Devi, Parukuttyamma Sujatha; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2018-01-01

    Experimental evidences on the binding interaction of ZnO and Calf Thymus (CT) DNA using several biophysical techniques are the centre of interest of the present study. The interaction of ZnO with CT DNA has been investigated in detail by absorption spectral study, fluorescence titration, Raman analysis, zeta potential measurement, viscometric experiment along with thermal melting study and microscopic analysis. Steady-state fluorescence study revealed the quenching (48%) of the surface defect related peak intensity of ZnO on interaction with DNA. The optimized concentration of ZnO and DNA to obtain this level of quenching has been found to be 0.049mM and 1.027μM, respectively. Additional fluorescence study with 8-hydroxy-5-quinoline (HQ) as a fluorescence probe for Zn 2+ ruled out the dissolution effect of ZnO under the experimental conditions. DNA conjugation on the surface of ZnO was also supported by Raman study. The quantitative variation in conductivity as well as electrophoretic mobility indicated significant interaction of ZnO with the DNA molecule. Circular dichroism (CD) and viscometry titrations provided clear evidence in support of the conformational retention of the DNA on interaction with ZnO. The binding interaction was found to be predominantly entropy driven in nature. The bio-physical studies presented in this paper exploring ZnO-CT DNA interaction could add a new horizon to understand the interaction between metal oxide and DNA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Cellulose nanocrystal properties and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahdi jonoobi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is to provide an overview of recent research in the area of cellulose nonmaterials production from different sources. Due to their abundance, their renewability, high strength and stiffness, being eco-friendly, and low weight; numerous studies have been reported on the isolation of cellulose nanomaterials from different cellulosic sources and their use in high performance applications. This work covers an introduction into the nano cellulose definition as well as used methods for isolation of nanomaterials (nanocrystals from various sources. The rod-like cellulose nanocrystals (CNC can be isolated from sources like wood, plant fibers, agriculture and industrial bio residues, tunicates, and bacterial cellulose using acid hydrolysis process. Following this, the paper focused on characterization methods, materials properties and structure. The current review is a comprehensive literature regarding the nano cellulose isolation and demonstrates the potential of cellulose nanomaterials to be used in a wide range of high-tech applications.

  6. Tunable plasmonic lattices of silver nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Andrea; Sinsermsuksakul, Prasert; Yang, Peidong

    2008-02-18

    Silver nanocrystals are ideal building blocks for plasmonicmaterials that exhibit a wide range of unique and potentially usefuloptical phenomena. Individual nanocrystals display distinct opticalscattering spectra and can be assembled into hierarchical structures thatcouple strongly to external electromagnetic fields. This coupling, whichis mediated by surface plasmons, depends on their shape and arrangement.Here we demonstrate the bottom-up assembly of polyhedral silvernanocrystals into macroscopic two-dimensional superlattices using theLangmuir-Blodgett technique. Our ability to control interparticlespacing, density, and packing symmetry allows for tunability of theoptical response over the entire visible range. This assembly strategyoffers a new, practical approach to making novel plasmonic materials forapplication in spectroscopic sensors, sub-wavelength optics, andintegrated devices that utilize field enhancement effects.

  7. Photoelectrochemical performance of N-doped ZnO branched nanowire photoanodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrok Allami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A ZnO branched-nanowire (BNW photoanode was doped with N for use in a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC to generate H2 from water splitting. First, ZnO BNWs were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method. Two experimental methods were used for N-doping: the time-controlled direct-current glow discharge plasma (DCGDP and the DC magnetron plasma (DCMP methods, to optimize N-doping of the NW structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS provided the N distribution and atomic percentage in the BNWs. The XPS results confirmed that N distribution into ZnO BNWs occurred by N substitution of O sites in the ZnO structure and through well-screened molecular N2. The morphologies and structures of the fabricated nanostructures were investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction respectively. The photoanode performance was demonstrated in photoelectrochemical studies at various power densities under both dark and illuminated conditions. Increasing the N amount in the ZnO BNWs increased the photocurrent in the PEC. Keywords: Engineering, Condensed matter physics, Nanotechnology, Materials science

  8. Blood plasma separation in ZnO nanoflowers-supported paper based microfluidic for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhimmah, Luthviyah Choirotul; Roekmono, Hadi, Harsono; Yuwono, Rio Akbar; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung

    2018-04-01

    Blood plasma separation is essential to analyze and quantify the bio-substances in the human blood and hence, allows for diagnosing various diseases. This paper presents the two layer paper-based microfluidic analytical devices coated with ZnO nanoflowers (ZnO NF-µPAD) for a rapid blood plasma separation and glucose sensing. Plasma separation in ZnO NF-µPAD was evaluated experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics package for a flow over porous networks. Glucose detection was carried out using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. The glucose concentrations in the red blood samples investigated here vary in the range of 150 - 310 mg.dl-1. The plasma separation process on ZnO NF-μPAD requires 240 ± 93 s. The spectroscopic data reveals that the IR absorptions and Raman signals at the typical vibrational frequencies of glucose are increasing at higher glucose concentration. After subtraction from absorption background arising from ZnO NF and the paper, linearly increasing IR absorption (913 and 1349 cm-1) and Raman signals (1346 and 1461 cm-1) are observable with a relatively good sensitivity.

  9. Hydrogen-surfactant-assisted coherent growth of GaN on ZnO substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Zhu, Junyi

    2018-01-01

    Heterostructures of wurtzite based devices have attracted great research interest because of the tremendous success of GaN in light emitting diodes (LED) industry. High-quality GaN thin films on inexpensive and lattice matched ZnO substrates are both commercially and technologically desirable. Intrinsic wetting conditions, however, forbid such heterostructures as the energy of ZnO polar surfaces is much lower than that of GaN polar surfaces, resulting in 3D growth mode and poor crystal quality. Based on first-principles calculations, we propose the use of surfactant hydrogen to dramatically alter the growth mode of the heterostructures. Stable H-involved surface configurations and interfaces are investigated with the help of our newly developed modelling techniques. The temperature and chemical potential dependence of our proposed strategy, which is critical in experiments, is predicted by applying the experimental Gibbs free energy of H2. Our thermodynamic wetting condition analysis is a crucial step for the growth of GaN on ZnO, and we find that introducing H will not degrade the stability of ZnO substrate. This approach will allow the growth of high-quality GaN thin films on ZnO substrates. We believe that our new strategy may reduce the manufactory cost, improve the crystal quality, and improve the efficiency of GaN-based devices.

  10. Preparation and characterization of ZnO transparent semiconductor thin films by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Fan, Kai-Shiung; Chen, Sih-Han; Tsai, Chia-Hao

    2010-01-01

    Transparent semiconductor thin films of zinc oxide (ZnO) were deposited onto alkali-free glass substrates by the sol-gel method and spin-coating technique. In this study, authors investigate the influence of the heating rate of the preheating process (4 or 10 o C/min) on the crystallization, surface morphology, and optical properties of sol-gel derived ZnO thin films. The ZnO sol was synthesized by dissolving zinc acetate dehydrate in ethanol, and then adding monoethanolamine. The as-coated films were preheated at 300 o C for 10 min and annealed at 500 o C for 1 h in air ambiance. Experimental results indicate that the heating rate of the preheating process strongly affected the surface morphology and transparency of ZnO thin film. Specifically, a heating rate of 10 o C/min for the preheating process produces a preferred orientation along the (0 0 2) plane and a high transmittance of 92% at a wavelength of 550 nm. Furthermore, this study reports the fabrication of thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a transparent ZnO active channel layer and evaluates their electrical performance.

  11. Sensing performances of ZnO nanostructures grown under different oxygen pressures to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Jin; Peng, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhenbo; Feng, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Surface morphology depends on the oxygen pressure. ► Structural degradation was observed for the ZnO samples when oxygen pressure was overhigh. ► The sensitivity of the ZnO-based sensors increase with grown oxygen pressure. -- Abstract: For extensive use in an industrialized process of individual ZnO nanostructures applied in gas sensors, a simple, inexpensive, and safe synthesis process is required. Here, nanostructured ZnO films were grown by a pulsed laser deposition technique under different oxygen pressures. Scanning electron microscopy images show nanopores, nanotips, and nanoparticles are obtained and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate oxygen concentration of the synthesized samples increases monotonously with oxygen pressure. The sensor based on ZnO with high oxygen concentration has high sensitivity, rapid response (9 s) and recovery (80 s) behavior to 500 ppm hydrogen below 150 °C. Experimental data indicate that high oxygen concentration effectively improves the sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO.

  12. Gum Tragacanth-Mediated Synthesis of Nanocrystalline ZnO Powder for Use in Varistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Mao-Hua; Su, Hang; Chen, Xi; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Ruo-Chen

    2015-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanopowders were synthesized by a sol-gel method with gum tragacanth and zinc nitrate as raw materials. Gum tragacanth was used as stabilizer to control the mobility of zinc cations and the growth of the nanopowders. Thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared samples. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles calcined at different temperatures had a hexagonal wurtzite structure with average particle size ranging from 32.29 nm to 42.83 nm. The crystallinity of ZnO nanoparticles was improved by increasing the calcination temperature. The density of ZnO varistor ceramics sintered at 1150°C for 2 h in air was 5.46 g/cm3, which was 97.5% of the theoretical density, their breakdown voltage was 4572 V/cm, and their nonlinear coefficient was ~16.8. This method can be used as an excellent alternative method for synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles with a plant extract as a raw material. Our experimental results show our method had the advantage of improving the electrical performance of ZnO varistors.

  13. Enhancement of exciton radiative recombination for In-doped ZnO nanowires with aluminum cylindrical micropillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jen-Cheng; Liang, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Fang-Ching; Fang, Chia-Hui; Chen, Hung-Ing; Tsai, Chung-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China); Jiang, Joe-Air [Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Nee, Tzer-En, E-mail: neete@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering and Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-04-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted intensive research effort in recent years, due to its unique properties and versatile applications. Recent work on the conservation of surface plasmon (SP) and light through period metal arrays has elucidated the propagation of SP resonance behavior. In this paper, we discuss the enhancement of exciton radiative recombination of the ZnO nanowires with Al cylindrical micropillars. Optical characterization of exciton interacted with SP resonance for indium-doped ZnO nanowires with Al cylindrical micropillars has been also investigated. From photoluminescence spectra of In-doped ZnO nanowires, it is found that the In-doped ZnO nanowires have a blue emission at 425 nm, which resulted from the ZnO band-to-band transition. Prior to the arrays of samples were annealed, a broad green emission centered at 500 nm was observed, which is attributed to ZnO native point defects. The relatively strong green band emission results from the radiative recombination that arises from the ionized oxygen vacancy and surface-defect related luminescence. Compare the In-doped ZnO on Si substrate, the enhancement of PL intensity for In-doped ZnO with deposited Al pattern film can be attributed to strong interaction with SP resonance and exciton over a broad temperature range. These experimental results indicate that Al cylindrical micropillars can significantly enhance carrier confinement and increase the quantum efficiency of In-doped ZnO/Al heterostructures due to the interaction of SP resonance between the In-doped ZnO nanowires and Al cylindrical micropillar structures, the surface-defect related luminescence, and the auxiliary test structures with variable micropillar parameters. -- Highlights: ► We examine the exciton radiative recombination of the ZnO nanowires. ► Al cylindrical micropillars affect the carrier recombination of ZnO/Al structures. ► The interaction of SP resonance between In-doped ZnO nanowire and Al pattern film. ► The carrier

  14. Nitrogen binding behavior in ZnO films with time-resolved cathodoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Y.F.; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Siu, G.G.; Wong, K.W.; Chu, Paul K.; Wang, R.S.; Ong, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    ZnO film with (1 0 0) orientation was produced on silicon substrate and doped with nitrogen using plasma immersion ion implantation. The effects due to N doping were investigated using cathodoluminescence (CL). In the heavily nitrogen-doped ZnO film, the intensity of ultraviolet (UV) band decreases and that of the visible band increases as a function of the electron bombardment cycle i.e. time. Based on the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the unstable Zn-N bond is responsible for the CL behavior and the experimental results agree well with the first-principle calculation. Our work is helpful to our understanding of the role of p-type dopants in ZnO

  15. Magnetism in V-/Mn-doped ZnO layers fabricated on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofor, A.C.; El-Shaer, A.; Schlenker, E.; Bakin, A.; Waag, A. [Technical University Braunschweig, Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig (Germany); Reuss, F.; Kling, R.; Schoch, W.; Limmer, W. [University Ulm, Department of Semiconductor Physics, Ulm (Germany); Ahlers, H.; Siegner, U.; Sievers, S.; Albrecht, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Eisenmenger, J.; Mueller, T.; Ziemann, P. [University Ulm, Department of Solid State Physics, Ulm (Germany); Huebel, A.; Denninger, G. [Universitaet Stuttgart, 2. Physkalisches Institut, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Doping ZnO with transition metals (TM) is an obvious approach to produce diluted magnetic semiconductors for magnetoelectronic and spintronic applications. We have carried out experimental studies on the fabrication and characterisation of Mn-doped ZnO layers and V-doped ZnO layers and nanorods, the results of which are reviewed in this paper. From SQUID measurements, both epitaxial and implanted ZnMnO layers show paramagnetic behaviour. Epitaxial ZnVO layers show ferromagnetic SQUID signals, but the presence of any secondary phases in the ZnVO layers may not be ruled out. We also show that the used Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates produce a ferromagnetic SQUID signal, that complicates the analysis of magnetisation data and hence the confirmation of ferromagnetism only from SQUID results. (orig.)

  16. Electrospray Deposition of ZnO Thin Films and Its Application to Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrospray is a simple and cost-effective method to fabricate micro-structured thin films. This work investigates the electrospray process of ZnO patterns. The effects of experimental parameters on jet characteristics and electrosprayed patterns are studied. The length of stable jets increases with increasing applied voltage and flow rate, and decreases with increasing nozzle-to-substrate distance, while electrospray angles exhibit an opposite trend with respect to the stable jet lengths. The diameter of electrosprayed particles decreases with increasing applied voltage, and increases with flow rate. Furthermore, an alcohol gas sensor is presented. The ZnAc is calcined into ZnO, which reveals good repeatability and stability of response in target gas. The sensing response, defined as the resistance ratio of R0/Rg, where R0 and Rg are resistance of ZnO in air and alcohol gas, increases with the concentration of alcohol vapors and electrospray deposition time.

  17. Temperature-dependent luminescence dynamics in ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priller, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: heiko.priller@physik.uni-karlsruhe.de; Hauschild, R. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Zeller, J. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Klingshirn, C. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe and Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kling, R. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Reuss, F. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Kirchner, Ch. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Waag, A. [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-04-15

    We report on an experimental study of the temporal photoluminescence dynamics of high-quality ZnO nanopillars from 10 K to room temperature. We find that defect states play an important role in the time evolution of the photoluminescence signal. At low excitation intensities capture into defects dominates the time dependence of the PL, at higher intensities they are saturated and the intrinsic excitation decay is observed. We separate the intrinsic exciton decay from the fast nonlinear M-band with the method of decay associated spectra and obtain the temperature dependence of the intrinsic exciton decay. High excitation measurements show a reduced exciton-exciton scattering in these thin nanorods.

  18. Catalyst growth of single crystal aligned ZnO nanorods on ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Andreazza, Caroline; Andreazza, Pascal [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2005-02-01

    One dimensional ZnO nanorods were successfully fabricated on Si substrates via a simple physical vapor-phase transport method at 950 C. A ZnO shell covered Au/Zn alloy is assumed as the nucleation site, then ZnO nanorods grow following a vapor-solid (VS) process. In order to guide the nanorod growth a c-axis oriented ZnO thin film and Au catalyst were first deposited on Si (100) surface. SEM images show nanorods grown on this substrate are vertical to the substrate surface. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  20. Structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Hong, Sun Ig

    2015-09-01

    Niobium oxide nanocrystals were successfully synthesized employing the green synthesis method. Phase formation, microstructure and compositional properties of 1, 4 and 7 days incubation treated samples after calcinations at 450 °C were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman, photoluminescence (PL), infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectra and transmission electron microscopic characterizations. It was observed that phase formation of Nb2O5 nanocrystals was dependent upon the incubation period required to form stable metal oxides. The characteristic results clearly revealed that with increasing incubation and aging, the transformation of cubic, orthorhombic and monoclinic phases were observed. The uniform heating at room temperature (32 °C) and the ligation of niobium atoms due to higher phenolic constituents of utilized rambutan during aging processing plays a vital role in structural phase transitions in niobium oxide nanocrystals. The defects over a period of incubation and the intensities of the PL spectra changing over a period of aging were related to the amount of the defects induced by the phase transition.

  1. Spontaneous emission enhancement of colloidal perovskite nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhili; Waks, Edo

    Halide perovskite semiconductors have emerged as prominent photovoltaic materials since their high conversion efficiency and promising light emitting materials in optoelectronics. In particular, easy-to-fabricated colloidal perovskite nanocrystals based on CsPbX3 quantum dots has been intensively investigated recently. Their luminescent wavelength could be tuned precisely by their chemical composition and size of growth. This opens new applications including light-emitting diodes, optical amplifiers and lasing since their promising performance as emitters. However, this potentially high-efficient emitter and gain material has not been fully investigated and realized in integrated photonic structures. Here we demonstrate Purcell enhancement effect of CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals by coupling to an optimized photonic crystal nanobeam cavity as a first crucial step towards realization of integrated on-chip coherent light source with low energy consumption. We show clearly highly-enhanced photoluminescent spectrum and an averaged Purcell enhancement factor of 2.9 is achieved when they are coupled to nanobeam photonic crystal cavities compared to the ones on unpatterned surface in our lifetime measurement. Our success in enhancement of emission from CsPbX3 perovskite nanocrystals paves the way towards the realization of efficient light sources for integrated optoelectronic devices with low energy consumption.

  2. Fabrication and electronic transport studies of single nanocrystal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, David Louis [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting electronic transport behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of electronic states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the electronic study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that electronic investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create electronic devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single electron transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines electron beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the transport behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its electronic structure.

  3. In vitro cytotoxicity effect and antibacterial performance of human lung epithelial cells A549 activity of Zinc oxide doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals: Investigation of bio-medical application by chemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaviyarasu, K., E-mail: kaviyarasuloyolacollege@gmail.com [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology Laboratories, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Group (MRG), i Themba LABS-National Research Foundation - NRF, 1 Old Faure Road, 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa); Geetha, N. [Research and Development Center, Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Kanimozhi, K. [PG Research & Department of Chemistry, Auxilium College (Autonomous), Vellore (India); Maria Magdalane, C. [Department of Chemistry, St. Xavier’s College (Autonomous), Tirunelveli 627002 (India); LIFE, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College (Autonomous), Chennai 600034 (India); Sivaranjani, S. [Research and Development Center, Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Department of Physics, SBM College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul -624 005 (India); Ayeshamariam, A. [Research and Development Center, Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Department of Physics, Khadir Mohideen College, Adirampattinam 614601 (India); Kennedy, J. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology Laboratories, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); National Isotope Centre, GNS Science, PO Box 31312, Lower Hutt 5010 (New Zealand); Maaza, M. [UNESCO-UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences/Nanotechnology Laboratories, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa (UNISA), Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Nanosciences African Network (NANOAFNET), Materials Research Group (MRG), i Themba LABS-National Research Foundation - NRF, 1 Old Faure Road, 7129, PO Box 722, Somerset West, Western Cape Province (South Africa)

    2017-05-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality ZnO doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals by chemical method at room temperature (RT), it can cause serious oxidative stress and DNA damage to human lung epithelial cells (A549) lines. Our aim in this study, to reduce the cytotoxicity effect of ZnO doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals are widely in biological fields. Several studies have been performed to understand the influence of ZnO doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}-NPs) on cell function; however the effects of nanoparticle against to exposure on the cell membrane have been duly addressed fascinatingly so far. However, In this interaction, which may alter cell metabolism and integrity, it is one of the importance to understand the modifications of the cell membrane, mechanisms of pulmonary A549 cell lines nanoparticles were uptake and the molecular pathway during the initial cell responses are still unclear and much more investigative efforts are need to properly characterize the ZnO doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were reported successfully. In particular of the epithelial cells, upon particles are exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) to various concentrations of composition, structure and morphology of the nanocrystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD assessed the crystal structure of the nanocrystals which identified peaks associated with (002), (100) and (101) planes of hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO with lattice constants of a = b = 3.249 Å and c = 5.219 Å. The IR results showed high purity of products and indicated that the nanocrystals are made up of Ti−O and Zn−O bonds. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating a narrow size distribution of ZnO/TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals which exhibits antibacterial activity over a broad range of bacterial species and in particular against Stre. Mut

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity effect and antibacterial performance of human lung epithelial cells A549 activity of Zinc oxide doped TiO2 nanocrystals: Investigation of bio-medical application by chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaviyarasu, K.; Geetha, N.; Kanimozhi, K.; Maria Magdalane, C.; Sivaranjani, S.; Ayeshamariam, A.; Kennedy, J.; Maaza, M.

    2017-01-01

    We report the synthesis of high quality ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals by chemical method at room temperature (RT), it can cause serious oxidative stress and DNA damage to human lung epithelial cells (A549) lines. Our aim in this study, to reduce the cytotoxicity effect of ZnO doped TiO 2 nanocrystals are widely in biological fields. Several studies have been performed to understand the influence of ZnO doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 -NPs) on cell function; however the effects of nanoparticle against to exposure on the cell membrane have been duly addressed fascinatingly so far. However, In this interaction, which may alter cell metabolism and integrity, it is one of the importance to understand the modifications of the cell membrane, mechanisms of pulmonary A549 cell lines nanoparticles were uptake and the molecular pathway during the initial cell responses are still unclear and much more investigative efforts are need to properly characterize the ZnO doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles were reported successfully. In particular of the epithelial cells, upon particles are exposed human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549) to various concentrations of composition, structure and morphology of the nanocrystals were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD assessed the crystal structure of the nanocrystals which identified peaks associated with (002), (100) and (101) planes of hexagonal wurtzite-type ZnO with lattice constants of a = b = 3.249 Å and c = 5.219 Å. The IR results showed high purity of products and indicated that the nanocrystals are made up of Ti−O and Zn−O bonds. The Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are dominated by a strong narrow band edge emission tunable in the blue region of the visible spectra indicating a narrow size distribution of ZnO/TiO 2 nanocrystals which exhibits antibacterial activity over a broad range of bacterial species and in particular against Stre. Mut where it out competes

  5. Modeling and simulation of floating gate nanocrystal FET devices and circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasaneen, El-Sayed A. M.

    The nonvolatile memory market has been growing very fast during the last decade, especially for mobile communication systems. The Semiconductor Industry Association International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors states that the difficult challenge for nonvolatile semiconductor memories is to achieve reliable, low power, low voltage performance and high-speed write/erase. This can be achieved by aggressive scaling of the nonvolatile memory cells. Unfortunately, scaling down of conventional nonvolatile memory will further degrade the retention time due to the charge loss between the floating gate and drain/source contacts and substrate which makes conventional nonvolatile memory unattractive. Using nanocrystals as charge storage sites reduces dramatically the charge leakage through oxide defects and drain/source contacts. Floating gate nanocrystal nonvolatile memory, FG-NCNVM, is a candidate for future memory because it is advantageous in terms of high-speed write/erase, small size, good scalability, low-voltage, low-power applications, and the capability to store multiple bits per cell. Many studies regarding FG-NCNVMs have been published. Most of them have dealt with fabrication improvements of the devices and device characterizations. Due to the promising FG-NCNVM applications in integrated circuits, there is a need for circuit a simulation model to simulate the electrical characteristics of the floating gate devices. In this thesis, a FG-NCNVM circuit simulation model has been proposed. It is based on the SPICE BSIM simulation model. This model simulates the cell behavior during normal operation. Model validation results have been presented. The SPICE model shows good agreement with experimental results. Current-voltage characteristics, transconductance and unity gain frequency (fT) have been studied showing the effect of the threshold voltage shift (DeltaVth) due to nanocrystal charge on the device characteristics. The threshold voltage shift due to

  6. DFT calculations on electronic properties of ZnO thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, J.M.; Reynoso, V.C.; Azevedo, D.H.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Introduction - Thin films of Zinc oxide (ZnO) has a wide range of technological applications, as transparent conducting electrodes in solar cells, flat panel displays, and sensors, for example. More recently applications in optoelectronics, like light emitter diodes and laser diodes, due to its large band gap, are been explored. Studies of ZnO thin films are important for these applications. Methodology - In this study thin films of ZnO have been deposited by spray pyrolysis on glass substrate. The films were characterized by XRD and UV-VIS techniques and the electronic properties as a function of the film thickness have been investigated by DFT calculations with B3LYP hybrid potential implemented in the CRYSTAL09 code. Results - The diffractograms obtained for the ZnO thin films as a function of the thickness are shown. The films exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferred c-axis orientation in (002) direction of ZnO crystal. A quantum mechanical approach based on the periodic Density Functional Theory (DFT), with B3LYP hybrid potential was used to investigate the electronic structure of the films as a function of the thickness. The CRYSTAL09 code has been used for the calculations on the wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO - spatial group P63mc. For optimizing the geometry of the pure ZnO crystal, the experimental lattice parameters were got as follows: a= 0.325 nm, b= 0.325 nm, c= 0.5207 nm with c/a= 1.602. Considering to the calculations of the band structure, it is suggested that the semiconducting properties of ZnO arises from the overlapping of the 4s orbital of the conducting band of Zn and the 2p orbital of the top of valence band of O. Conclusions - The structure of ZnO thin film deposited on glass substrate present preferential orientation in (002) direction. Variation in the optical properties as a function of the film thickness was observed. The band gap energy was determined from optical analysis to be ∼ 3.27 eV. The refractive

  7. Extraordinary Interfacial Stitching between Single All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Leyre; Lin, Junhao; De Weerd, Chris; Poirier, Lucas; Boehme, Simon C.; Von Hauff, Elizabeth; Fujiwara, Yasufumi; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Gregorkiewicz, Tom

    2018-01-01

    All-inorganic cesium lead halide perovskite nanocrystals are extensively studied because of their outstanding optoelectronic properties. Being of a cubic shape and typically featuring a narrow size distribution, CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, and I) nanocrystals are the ideal starting material for the

  8. Synthesis and preservation of graphene-supported uranium dioxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hanyu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Wang, Haitao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, Texas Tech University, 911 Boston Ave., Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Burns, Peter C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 251 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); McNamara, Bruce K.; Buck, Edgar C. [Nuclear Chemistry & Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Na, Chongzheng, E-mail: chongzheng.na@gmail.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, Texas Tech University, 911 Boston Ave., Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Graphene-supported uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) nanocrystals are potentially important fuel materials. Here, we investigate the possibility of synthesizing graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals in polar ethylene glycol compounds by the polyol reduction of uranyl acetylacetone under boiling reflux, thereby enabling the use of an inexpensive graphene precursor graphene oxide into a one-pot process. We show that triethylene glycol is the most suitable solvent with an appropriate reduction potential for producing nanometer-sized UO{sub 2} crystals compared to monoethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol. Graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized with triethylene glycol show evidence of heteroepitaxy, which can be beneficial for facilitating heat transfer in nuclear fuel particles. Furthermore, we show that graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals synthesized by polyol reduction can be readily stored in alcohols, impeding oxidation from the prevalent oxygen in air. Together, these methods provide a facile approach for preparing and storing graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals for further investigation and development under ambient conditions. - Highlights: • UO{sub 2} nanocrystals are synthesized using polyol reduction method. • Triethylene glycol is the best reducing agent for nano-sized UO{sub 2} crystals. • UO{sub 2} nanocrystals grow on graphene through heteroepitaxy. • Graphene-supported UO{sub 2} nanocrystals can be stored in alcohols to prevent oxidation.

  9. Characterization of Ge-nanocrystal films with photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostedt, C.; Buuren, T. van; Willey, T.M.; Nelson, A.J.; Franco, N.; Moeller, T.; Terminello, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The Ge 3d core-levels of germanium nanocrystal films have been investigated by means of photoelectron spectroscopy. The experiments indicate bulk-like coordinated atoms in the nanocrystals and suggest structured disorder on the nanoparticle surface. The results underline the importance of the surface on the overall electronic structure of this class of nanostructured materials

  10. Group IV nanocrystals with ion-exchangeable surface ligands and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lance M.; Nichols, Asa W.; Chernomordik, Boris D.; Anderson, Nicholas C.; Beard, Matthew C.; Neale, Nathan R.

    2018-01-09

    Methods are described that include reacting a starting nanocrystal that includes a starting nanocrystal core and a covalently bound surface species to create an ion-exchangeable (IE) nanocrystal that includes a surface charge and a first ion-exchangeable (IE) surface ligand ionically bound to the surface charge, where the starting nanocrystal core includes a group IV element.

  11. Intrinsic defects in ZnO varistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are presented for equilibrium concentrations of zinc and oxygen vacancies in ZnO. Results are presented at the sintering temperature, and also at room temperature. Theoretical calculations of reaction constants show that the intrinsic donor is the oxygen vacancy, rather than the zinc interstitial. The depletion of vacancies in the surface region, as the ZnO is cooled from the sintering temperature, is also calculated. Homojunction effects which are caused by such depletion are shown to be small

  12. Photoluminescence from Si nanocrystals in silica: The effect of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheylan, S.; Elliman, R.G.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of H passivation on the PL emission of Si nanocrystals produced in silica by ion-implantion and annealing is shown to depend on the implant fluence. At low fluences, where the nanocrystals are small, passivation causes an enhancement of the emission intensity that is uniform over the full spectral range and therefore appears to be independent of nanocrystal size. For higher fluences, where the average size and size distribution of the nanocrystals are larger, the enhancement occurs preferentially at longer wavelengths, giving rise to a red-shift in the emission spectra. Both the enhancement and the red-shift increase monotonically with increasing fluence. These data are shown to be consistent with a model in which the probability to contain a non-radiative defect increases with nanocrystal size

  13. Isolating and moving single atoms using silicon nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2010-09-07

    A method is disclosed for isolating single atoms of an atomic species of interest by locating the atoms within silicon nanocrystals. This can be done by implanting, on the average, a single atom of the atomic species of interest into each nanocrystal, and then measuring an electrical charge distribution on the nanocrystals with scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) or electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) to identify and select those nanocrystals having exactly one atom of the atomic species of interest therein. The nanocrystals with the single atom of the atomic species of interest therein can be sorted and moved using an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip. The method is useful for forming nanoscale electronic and optical devices including quantum computers and single-photon light sources.

  14. Facile synthesis of water-soluble curcumin nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Zoran M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, facile synthesis of water soluble curcumin nanocrystals is reported. Solvent exchange method was applied to synthesize curcumin nanocrystals. Different techniques were used to characterize the structural and photophysical properties of curcumin nanocrystals. We found that nanocurcumin prepared by this method had good chemical and physical stability, could be stored in the powder form at room temperature, and was freely dispersible in water. It was established that the size of curcumin nanocrystals was varied in the range of 20-500 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Vis analyses showed the presence of tetrahydrofuran inside the curcumin nanocrystals. Also, it was found that nanocurcumin emitted photoluminescencewith yellow-green colour. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172003

  15. Effects of annealing conditions on the photoelectrochemical properties of dye-sensitized solar cells made with ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lanlan; Li, Renjie; Fan, Ke [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Peng, Tianyou [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated by using porous ZnO electrodes derived from home-made ZnO nanoparticles. Electrochemical impedance spectra and open-circuit photovoltage decay curves measurements were performed to investigate the photoelectrochemical characteristics of ZnO films annealed at different temperatures. The experimental results indicate that the effects of the bulk traps and the surface states within the ZnO films on the recombination processes of the photoinjected electrons in DSSCs depend on the annealing temperature. The DSSC based on the ZnO electrode annealed at 400 C exhibits an optimal energy conversion efficiency of 3.92% under the illumination of one sun simulated sunlight because the farthest decrease in the effects of both bulk traps and surface states at this film can maintain a lower charge recombination probability. This result indicates that the ZnO film electrode has promising application in the field of DSSCs, and the optimization of porous film fabrication condition is efficient for the improvement of ZnO-based DSSC's performances. (author)

  16. Z-Contrast STEM Imaging and EELS of CdSe Nanocrystals: Towards the Analysis of Individual Nanocrystal Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erwin, M.; Kadavanich, A.V.; Kippeny, T.; Pennycook, S.J.; Rosenthal, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    We have applied Atomic Number Contract Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Z-Contrast STEM) and STEM/EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) towards the study of colloidal CdSe semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in MEH-PPV polymer films. Unlike the case of conventional phase-contrast High Resolution TEM, Z-Contrast images are direct projections of the atomic structure. Hence they can be interpreted without the need for sophisticated image simulation and the image intensity is a direct measure of the thickness of a nanocrystal. Our thickness measurements are in agreement with the predicted faceted shape of these nanocrystals. Our unique 1.3A resolution STEM has successfully resolve3d the sublattice structure of these CdSe nanocrystals. In [010] projection (the polar axis in the image plane) we can distinguish Se atom columns from Cd columns. Consequently we can study the effects of lattice polarity on the nanocrystal morphology. Furthermore, since the STEM technique does not rely on diffraction, it is superbly suited to the study of non-periodic detail, such as the surface structure of the nanocrystals. EELS measurements on individual nanocrystals indicate a significant amount (equivalet to 0.5-1 surface monolayers) of oxygen on the nanocrystals, despite processing in an inert atmosphere. Spatially resolved measurements at 7A resolution suggest a surface oxide layer. However, the uncertainty in the measurement precludes definitive assignment at this time. The source of the oxygen is under investigation as well

  17. Synthesis of 1-D ZnO nanorods and polypyrrole/1-D ZnO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1-D ZnO nanorods and PPy/1-D ZnO nanocomposites were prepared by the surfactant-assisted precipitation and in situ polymerization method, respectively. The synthesized nanorods and nanocomposites were characterized by UV–Vis spectrophotometer, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction ...

  18. Instantaneous ballistic velocity of suspended Brownian nanocrystals measured by upconversion nanothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Carlos D. S.; Xie, Xiaoji; Debasu, Mengistie L.; Qin, Xian; Chen, Runfeng; Huang, Wei; Rocha, João; Liu, Xiaogang; Carlos, Luís D.

    2016-10-01

    Brownian motion is one of the most fascinating phenomena in nature. Its conceptual implications have a profound impact in almost every field of science and even economics, from dissipative processes in thermodynamic systems, gene therapy in biomedical research, artificial motors and galaxy formation to the behaviour of stock prices. However, despite extensive experimental investigations, the basic microscopic knowledge of prototypical systems such as colloidal particles in a fluid is still far from being complete. This is particularly the case for the measurement of the particles' instantaneous velocities, elusive due to the rapid random movements on extremely short timescales. Here, we report the measurement of the instantaneous ballistic velocity of Brownian nanocrystals suspended in both aqueous and organic solvents. To achieve this, we develop a technique based on upconversion nanothermometry. We find that the population of excited electronic states in NaYF4:Yb/Er nanocrystals at thermal equilibrium can be used for temperature mapping of the nanofluid with great thermal sensitivity (1.15% K-1 at 296 K) and a high spatial resolution (<1 μm). A distinct correlation between the heat flux in the nanofluid and the temporal evolution of Er3+ emission allows us to measure the instantaneous velocity of nanocrystals with different sizes and shapes.

  19. Using Plasmonic Copper Sulfide Nanocrystals as Smart Light-Driven Sterilants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Xianjun; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2015-10-27

    As an efficient route to control pet overpopulation and develop neutered experimental animals, male sterilization via surgical techniques, chemical injections, and antifertility vaccines has brought particular attention recently. However, these traditional ways usually induce long-term adverse reactions, immune suppression, and serious infection and pain. To overcome the above limitations, we developed a platform in the present study by using plasmonic copper sulfide nanocrystals (Cu2-xS NCs) as intelligent light-driven sterilants with ideal outcomes. Upon NIR laser irradiation, these well-prepared Cu2-xS NCs can possess NIR-induced hyperthermia and generate high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Due to the cooperation of photothermal and photodynamic effects, these nanocrystals exhibited NIR-mediated toxicity toward Sertoli cells both in vitro and in vivo in a mild manner. We attribute the potential mechanism of cellular injury to the apoptosis-related death and denaturation of protein in the testicles. Furthermore, the possible metabolism route and long-term toxicity of these nanocrystals after testicular injection indicate their high biocompatibility. Taking together, our study on the NIR-induced toxicity of Cu2-xS NCs provides keen insights for the usage of plasmonic nanomaterials in biomedicine.

  20. Optical and Morphological Properties of ZnO- and TiO2-Derived Nanostructures Synthesized via a Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosipho Moloto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was used to synthesize ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures. The experimental results show that the method resulted in crystalline monodispersed ZnO nanorods that have pointed tips with hexagonal crystal phase. TiO2 nanotubes were also formed with minimum bundles. The mechanism for the formation of the tubes was validated by HRTEM results. The optical properties of both ZnO and TiO2 nanostructures showed characteristics of strong quantum confinement regime. The photoluminescence spectrum of TiO2 nanotubes shows good improvement from previously reported data.

  1. Self-assembled hybrid materials based on conjugated polymers and semiconductors nano-crystals for plastic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolamo, J. de

    2007-11-01

    This work is devoted to the elaboration of self-assembled hybrid materials based on poly(3- hexyl-thiophene) and CdSe nano-crystals for photovoltaic applications. For that, complementary molecular recognition units were introduced as side chain groups on the polymer and at the nano-crystals' surface. Diamino-pyrimidine groups were introduced by post-functionalization of a precursor copolymer, namely poly(3-hexyl-thiophene-co-3- bromo-hexyl-thiophene) whereas thymine groups were introduced at the nano-crystals' surface by a ligand exchange reaction with 1-(6-mercapto-hexyl)thymine. However, due to their different solubility, the mixing of the two components by solution processes is difficult. A 'one-pot' procedure was developed, but this method led to insoluble aggregates without control of the hybrid composition. To overcome the solubility problem, the layer-by-layer method was used to prepare the films. This method allows a precise control of the deposition process. Experimental parameters were tested in order to evaluate their impact on the resulting film. The films morphology was investigated by microscopy and X-Ray diffraction techniques. These analyses reveal an interpenetrated structure of nano-crystals within the polymer matrix rather than a multilayered structure. Electrochemical and spectro electrochemical studies were performed on the hybrid material deposited by the LBL process. Finally the materials were tested in a solar cell configuration and the I=f(V) curves reveals a clear photovoltaic behaviour. (author)

  2. Colloidal Nanocrystals of Lead-Free Double-Perovskite (Elpasolite) Semiconductors: Synthesis and Anion Exchange To Access New Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, Sidney E; Crites, Evan N; De Siena, Michael C; Gamelin, Daniel R

    2018-02-14

    Concerns about the toxicity and instability of lead-halide perovskites have driven a recent surge in research toward alternative lead-free perovskite materials, including lead-free double perovskites with the elpasolite structure and visible bandgaps. Synthetic approaches to this class of materials remain limited, however, and no examples of heterometallic elpasolites as nanomaterials have been reported. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of colloidal nanocrystals of Cs 2 AgBiX 6 (X = Cl, Br) elpasolites using a hot-injection approach. We further show that postsynthetic modification through anion exchange and cation extraction can be used to convert these nanocrystals to new materials including Cs 2 AgBiI 6 , which was previously unknown experimentally. Nanocrystals of Cs 2 AgBiI 6 , synthesized via a novel anion-exchange protocol using trimethylsilyl iodide, have strong absorption throughout the visible region, confirming theoretical predictions that this material could be a promising photovoltaic absorber. The synthetic methodologies presented here are expected to be broadly generalizable. This work demonstrates that nanocrystal ion-exchange reactivity can be used to discover and develop new lead-free halide perovskite materials that may be difficult or impossible to access through direct synthesis.

  3. Spectroscopic characterization and docking studies of ZnO nanoparticle modified with BSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledesma, Ana E.; Chemes, Doly María; Frías, María de los Angeles; Guauque Torres, Maria del Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The ZnO NPs have synthesized at moderate temperature and conjugated with BSA to elucidate the characteristics of best binding site in the protein cavity. • The Docking studies have successfully applied to identify the amino acids residues involved in the interaction. • The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs and ZnO-BSA NPs and esterase-like activity of the protein have evaluated, with very promising results for medical applications. - Abstract: Nanoparticles (NP) into a biological environment are an interesting topic for diagnosis and therapy in applications for medicine or environment and the knowledge about this interaction is important from the perspective of safe use of nanomaterials. In the current study, we characterized the type of interaction and the orientation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorbed on ZnO nanoparticle surfaces as a function of size, using molecular docking. To probe experimentally different theoretical hypothesis about the interaction, ZnO-NPs were prepared in aqueous solution, and then were bioconjugated with BSA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy confirm the spherical shape of NP and the irreversible adsorption of BSA on NP surface. Raman and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveal that BSA interaction with ZnO nanoparticle produced a conformational rearrangement into protein, observing changes in Tyr and Trp environment, a minor percentage of α-helix structure and a more extended chain. The fluorescence analysis demonstrated that when BSA concentration higher than 30 μM is used the signal due to the self-oligomerization of protein overlaps with the ZnO nanoparticle emission. The results predicted that the most probable interaction site is near to domain IB and IIA and ionic interactions are the major responsible for the binding. Thermal stability studies reveals that the denaturalization temperature of BSA increase from 57 °C to 65 °C in presence of ZnO NP and their esterase-like activity was

  4. Spectroscopic characterization and docking studies of ZnO nanoparticle modified with BSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledesma, Ana E., E-mail: anael@unse.edu.ar [CITSE-UNSE, CONICET, FCEyT, RN 9, km 1125, 4206 Santiago del Estero (Argentina); Chemes, Doly María [INQUINOA, UNT, CONICET, FBQyF, San Lorenzo 456, San Miguel de Tucumán CPA T4000ILI, Tucumán (Argentina); Frías, María de los Angeles [Laboratory of Biointerphases and Biomimetic Systems, (CITSE) National University of Santiago del Estero and CONICET, 4206, RN 9- Km 1125, Santiago del Estero (Argentina); Guauque Torres, Maria del Pilar [CITSE-UNSE, CONICET, FCEyT, RN 9, km 1125, 4206 Santiago del Estero (Argentina)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • The ZnO NPs have synthesized at moderate temperature and conjugated with BSA to elucidate the characteristics of best binding site in the protein cavity. • The Docking studies have successfully applied to identify the amino acids residues involved in the interaction. • The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs and ZnO-BSA NPs and esterase-like activity of the protein have evaluated, with very promising results for medical applications. - Abstract: Nanoparticles (NP) into a biological environment are an interesting topic for diagnosis and therapy in applications for medicine or environment and the knowledge about this interaction is important from the perspective of safe use of nanomaterials. In the current study, we characterized the type of interaction and the orientation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorbed on ZnO nanoparticle surfaces as a function of size, using molecular docking. To probe experimentally different theoretical hypothesis about the interaction, ZnO-NPs were prepared in aqueous solution, and then were bioconjugated with BSA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy confirm the spherical shape of NP and the irreversible adsorption of BSA on NP surface. Raman and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveal that BSA interaction with ZnO nanoparticle produced a conformational rearrangement into protein, observing changes in Tyr and Trp environment, a minor percentage of α-helix structure and a more extended chain. The fluorescence analysis demonstrated that when BSA concentration higher than 30 μM is used the signal due to the self-oligomerization of protein overlaps with the ZnO nanoparticle emission. The results predicted that the most probable interaction site is near to domain IB and IIA and ionic interactions are the major responsible for the binding. Thermal stability studies reveals that the denaturalization temperature of BSA increase from 57 °C to 65 °C in presence of ZnO NP and their esterase-like activity was

  5. Porous nanostructured ZnO films deposited by picosecond laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, Cornelia; Grigoriu, Constantin; Besleaga, Cristina; Mitran, Tudor; Ion, Lucian; Antohe, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We deposite porous nanostructured ZnO films by picoseconds laser ablation (PLA). ► We examine changes of the films structure on the experimental parameter deposition. ► We demonstrate PLA capability to produce ZnO nanostructured films free of particulates. - Abstract: Porous nanostructured polycrystalline ZnO films, free of large particulates, were deposited by picosecond laser ablation. Using a Zn target, zinc oxide films were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using a picosecond Nd:YVO 4 laser (8 ps, 50 kHz, 532 nm, 0.17 J/cm 2 ) in an oxygen atmosphere at room temperature (RT). The morpho-structural characteristics of ZnO films deposited at different oxygen pressures (150–900 mTorr) and gas flow rates (0.25 and 10 sccm) were studied. The post-deposition influence of annealing (250–550 °C) in oxygen on the film characteristics was also investigated. At RT, a mixture of Zn and ZnO formed. At substrate temperatures above 350 °C, the films were completely oxidized, containing a ZnO wurtzite phase with crystallite sizes of 12.2–40.1 nm. At pressures of up to 450 mTorr, the porous films consisted of well-distinguished primary nanoparticles with average sizes of 45–58 nm, while at higher pressures, larger clusters (3.1–14.7 μm) were dominant, leading to thicker films; higher flow rates favored clustering.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Colloidal Metal and Photovoltaic Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Abulikemu, Mutalifu

    2014-11-05

    Metal and semiconducting nanocrystals have received a great deal of attention from fundamental scientists and application-oriented researchers due to their physical and chemical properties, which differ from those of bulk materials. Nanocrystals are essential building blocks in the development of nanostructured devices for energy conversion. Colloidal metals and metal chalcogenides have been developed for use as nanocrystal inks to produce efficient solar cells with lower costs. All high-performing photovoltaic nanocrystals contain toxic elements, such as Pb, or scarce elements, such as In; thus, the production of solution-processable nanocrystals from earth-abundant materials using environmentally benign synthesis and processing methods has become a major challenge for the inorganic semiconductor-based solar field. This dissertation, divided into two parts, addresses several aspects of these emerging challenges. The first portion of the thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of nanocrystals of antimony sulfide, which is composed of non-scarce and non-toxic elements, and examines their performance in photovoltaic devices. The effect of various synthetic parameters on the final morphology is explored. The structural, optical and morphological properties of the nanocrystals were investigated, and Sb2S3 nanocrystal-based solid-state semiconductor-sensitized solar cells were fabricated using different deposition processes. We achieved promising power conversion efficiencies of 1.48%. The second part of the thesis demonstrates a novel method for the in situ synthesis and patterning of nanocrystals via reactive inkjet printing. The use of low-cost manufacturing approaches for the synthesis of nanocrystals is critical for many applications, including photonics and electronics. In this work, a simple, low-cost method for the synthesis of nanocrystals with minimum size variation and waste using reactive inkjet printing is introduced. As a proof of concept, the

  7. Formation of noble metal nanocrystals in the presence of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Justin Lockheart

    One of the most promising, yet least studied routes for producing biocompatible nanostructures involves synthesis in the presence of biomolecules. I hypothesized that globular proteins could provide a suitable framework to regulate the formation of noble metal nanocrystals. As proof of concept, I designed two novel synthesis protocols utilizing bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein to regulate the formation of gold nanocrystals. In the first case, the standard protocol for polyol reduction was modified by replacing ethylene glycol with glycerin, replacing synthetic polymers with BSA as protecting agent, and decreasing the reaction temperature. In the second case, the Brust-Schiffrin two-phase reduction was modified by replacing alkylthiols with BSA as protecting agent, which facilitated a strictly aqueous phase synthesis. Due to superior product yield and rapid reduction at room temperature, the aqueous protocol became the foundation for subsequent studies. I extended this approach to produce well-dispersed ˜2nm silver, gold, and platinum nanocrystals. Having demonstrated the feasibility of BSA-functionalized nanocrystals, some potential uses were explored. BSA-functionalized silver nanocrystals were employed in a broader study on the interaction of silver nanocrystals with HIV. BSA-functionalized gold nanocrystals were utilized for in vivo dosage of a contrast enhancing agent to bacteria. BSA-functionalized platinum nanocrystals were studied as hydrogenation catalysts. Since many intriguing uses for protein-functionalized nanocrystals involve incorporation into biosystems, I sought to enhance biocompatibility by using ascorbic acid as reducing agent. Initial experiments revealed elongated and branched nanocrystals. Such structures were not observed in previous synthesis protocols with BSA, so I hypothesized ascorbic acid was driving their formation. To test my assertion, I reduced ionic gold in an aqueous solution of ascorbic acid, thereby discovering a new method

  8. Hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature: Boosting palladium nanocrystals efficiency by coupling with copper via liquid phase pulsed laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hanbit; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Seunghee; Ma, Rory; Lim, Manho; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PdCu bimetallic nanospheres fabricated by laser ablation. • Physical characterizations of synthesized PdCu nanospheres. • Assessments of catalytic performance of PdCu nanospheres for the reduction of nitrophenol. • Significant improvement of the catalytic activity in PdCu bimetallic nanocrystals. - Abstract: Ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanomaterials have attracted much attention in the hydrogenation of highly toxic aromatic nitro compounds to aromatic amines owing to their high stability, superior activity, reusability, and unique optical and electronic properties, as compared to monometalic nanocrystals. However, the lack of facile and economically controllable strategies of producing highly pure ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanocatalysts limits their practical industrial applications. Considering the above obstacles, we present a simple and effective strategy for the formation of bimetallic (PdCu) nanocrystals by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation using a bulk Pd metal plate submerged in CuCl 2 solutions with different concentrations, in contrast to the complex and costly experimental methods used previously. The microstructural and optical properties of the synthesized nanocrystals indicate that the obtained bimetallic nanostructures are highly pure and monodispersed. Moreover, bimetallic PdCu nanostructures show a higher catalytic activity than monometallic Pd nanocrystals for the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature, also exhibiting high stability for up to four recycles. The mechanism of the enhanced catalytic activity and stability of bimetallic nanocrystals is discussed in detail. Finally, we believe that the presented design strategy and utilization of bimetallic nanocrystals for catalytic applications enables the development of novel bimetallic nanostructures by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation and their catalytic application for environmental remediation.

  9. Hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature: Boosting palladium nanocrystals efficiency by coupling with copper via liquid phase pulsed laser ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hanbit; Reddy, D. Amaranatha; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Seunghee; Ma, Rory; Lim, Manho, E-mail: mhlim@pusan.ac.kr; Kim, Tae Kyu, E-mail: tkkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • PdCu bimetallic nanospheres fabricated by laser ablation. • Physical characterizations of synthesized PdCu nanospheres. • Assessments of catalytic performance of PdCu nanospheres for the reduction of nitrophenol. • Significant improvement of the catalytic activity in PdCu bimetallic nanocrystals. - Abstract: Ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanomaterials have attracted much attention in the hydrogenation of highly toxic aromatic nitro compounds to aromatic amines owing to their high stability, superior activity, reusability, and unique optical and electronic properties, as compared to monometalic nanocrystals. However, the lack of facile and economically controllable strategies of producing highly pure ultra-dispersed bimetallic nanocatalysts limits their practical industrial applications. Considering the above obstacles, we present a simple and effective strategy for the formation of bimetallic (PdCu) nanocrystals by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation using a bulk Pd metal plate submerged in CuCl{sub 2} solutions with different concentrations, in contrast to the complex and costly experimental methods used previously. The microstructural and optical properties of the synthesized nanocrystals indicate that the obtained bimetallic nanostructures are highly pure and monodispersed. Moreover, bimetallic PdCu nanostructures show a higher catalytic activity than monometallic Pd nanocrystals for the hydrogenation of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol at room temperature, also exhibiting high stability for up to four recycles. The mechanism of the enhanced catalytic activity and stability of bimetallic nanocrystals is discussed in detail. Finally, we believe that the presented design strategy and utilization of bimetallic nanocrystals for catalytic applications enables the development of novel bimetallic nanostructures by liquid phase pulsed laser ablation and their catalytic application for environmental remediation.

  10. Silicon Nanocrystal Synthesis in Microplasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ken

    Nanocrystalline silicon particles with grains smaller than 5 nm are widely recognized as a key material in optoelectronic devices, lithium battery electrodes, and bio-medical labels. Another important characteristic is that silicon is an environmentally safe material that is used in numerous silicon technologies. To date, several synthesis methods such as sputtering, laser ablation, and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) based on low-pressure silane chemistry (SiH4) have been developed for precise control of size and density distributions of silicon nanocrystals. In this study, we explore the possibility of microplasma technologies for efficient production of mono-dispersed nanocrystalline silicon particles on a micrometer-scale, continuous-flow plasma reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Mixtures of argon, hydrogen, and silicon tetrachloride were activated using a very-high-frequency (144 MHz) power source in a capillary glass tube with volume of less than 1 μl. Fundamental plasma parameters of the microplasma were characterized using optical emission spectroscopy, which respectively indicated electron density of 1015 cm-3, argon excitation temperature of 5000 K, and rotational temperature of 1500 K. Such high-density non-thermal reactive plasma can decompose silicon tetrachloride into atomic silicon to produce supersaturated silicon vapor, followed by gas-phase nucleation via three-body collision: particle synthesis in high-density plasma media is beneficial for promoting nucleation processes. In addition, further growth of silicon nuclei can be terminated in a short-residence-time reactor. Micro-Raman scattering spectra showed that as-deposited particles are mostly amorphous silicon with a small fraction of silicon nanocrystals. Transmission electron micrography confirmed individual 3-15 nm silicon nanocrystals. Although particles were not mono-dispersed, they were well separated and not coagulated.

  11. Synthesis of Silicon Nanocrystals in Microplasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Kenji; Ogino, Tomohisa; Asahi, Daisuke; Okazaki, Ken

    Nanocrystalline silicon particles with a grain size of at least less than 10 nm are widely recognized as one of the key materials in optoelectronic devices, electrodes of lithium battery, bio-medical labels. There is also important character that silicon is safe material to the environment and easily gets involved in existing silicon technologies. To date, several synthesis methods such as sputtering, laser ablation, and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) based on low-pressure silane chemistry (SiH4) have been developed for precise control of size and density distributions of silicon nanocrystals. We explore the possibility of microplasma technologies for the efficient production of mono-dispersed nanocrystalline silicon particles in a micrometer-scale, continuous-flow plasma reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Mixtures of argon, hydrogen, and silicon tetrachloride were activated using very high frequency (VHF = 144 MHz) power source in a capillary glass tube with a volume of less than 1 μ-liter. Fundamental plasma parameters of VHF capacitively coupled microplasma were characterized by optical emission spectroscopy, showing electron density of approximately 1015 cm-3 and rotational temperature of 1500 K, respectively. Such high-density non-thermal reactive plasma has a capability of decomposing silicon tetrachloride into atomic silicon to produce supersaturated atomic silicon vapor, followed by gas phase nucleation via three-body collision. The particle synthesis in high-density plasma media is beneficial for promoting nucleation process. In addition, further growth of silicon nuclei was able to be favorably terminated in a short-residence time reactor. Micro Raman scattering spectrum showed that as-deposited particles were mostly amorphous silicon with small fraction of silicon nanocrystals. Transmission electron micrograph confirmed individual silicon nanocrystals of 3-15 nm size. Although those particles were not mono-dispersed, they were

  12. Solvothermal crystallization of nanocrystals of metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, S; Amino, H; Iwamoto, S; Inoue, M

    2008-01-01

    Solvothermal crystallization of the hydroxide gels obtained by hydrolysis of alkoxides (Zr, Ta, Nb, ln, Sn, Ti and Al) was examined. Nanocrystals having high surface areas (S BET > 170 m 2 g -1 ) were obtained except for the product derived from indium isopropoxide. The effect of water in organic solvent upon the crystallinity of the product was investigated. The increase in the activity of water by using high concentration of alkoxide or intentional addition of water to the solvothermal medium led to crystal growth of the products. In contrast, decrease in activity of water by adding ethylene glycol before solvothermal treatment caused a decrease in crystallinity of the product

  13. Structure and Magnetic Properties of Lanthanide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, James Henry [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We have had considerable success on this project, particularly in the understanding of the relationship between nanostructure and magnetic properties in lanthanide nanocrystals. We also have successfully facilitated the doctoral degrees of Dr. Suseela Somarajan, in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Dr. Melissa Harrison, in the Materials Science Program. The following passages summarize the various accomplishments that were featured in 9 publications that were generated based on support from this grant. We thank the Department of Energy for their generous support of our research efforts in this area of materials science, magnetism, and electron microscopy.

  14. Solvothermal crystallization of nanocrystals of metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, S.; Amino, H.; Iwamoto, S.; Inoue, M.

    2008-07-01

    Solvothermal crystallization of the hydroxide gels obtained by hydrolysis of alkoxides (Zr, Ta, Nb, ln, Sn, Ti and Al) was examined. Nanocrystals having high surface areas (SBET > 170 m2 g-1) were obtained except for the product derived from indium isopropoxide. The effect of water in organic solvent upon the crystallinity of the product was investigated. The increase in the activity of water by using high concentration of alkoxide or intentional addition of water to the solvothermal medium led to crystal growth of the products. In contrast, decrease in activity of water by adding ethylene glycol before solvothermal treatment caused a decrease in crystallinity of the product.

  15. Morphology engineering of ZnO nanostructures for high performance supercapacitors: enhanced electrochemistry of ZnO nanocones compared to ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoli; Yoo, Joung Eun; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures is engineered to demonstrate enhanced supercapacitor characteristics of ZnO nanocones (NCs) compared to ZnO nanowires (NWs). ZnO NCs are obtained by chemically etching ZnO NWs. Electrochemical characteristics of ZnO NCs and NWs are extensively investigated to demonstrate morphology dependent capacitive performance of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these two kinds of electrodes in a three-electrode cell confirms that ZnO NCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 378.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, which is almost twice that of ZnO NWs (191.5 F g-1). The charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements also clearly result in enhanced capacitive performance of NCs as evidenced by higher specific capacitances and lower internal resistance. Asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated using activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and ZnO NWs and NCs as positive electrodes. The ZnO NC⫽AC can deliver a maximum specific capacitance of 126 F g-1 at a current density of 1.33 A g-1 with an energy density of 25.2 W h kg-1 at the power density of 896.44 W kg-1. In contrast, ZnO NW⫽AC displays 63% of the capacitance obtained from the ZnO NC⫽AC supercapacitor. The enhanced performance of NCs is attributed to the higher surface area of ZnO nanostructures after the morphology is altered from NWs to NCs.

  16. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  17. Surface and Core Electronic Structure of Oxidized Silicon Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor A. Nama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ab initio restricted Hartree-Fock method within the framework of large unit cell formalism is used to simulate silicon nanocrystals between 216 and 1000 atoms (1.6–2.65 nm in diameter that include Bravais and primitive cell multiples. The investigated properties include core and oxidized surface properties. Results revealed that electronic properties converge to some limit as the size of the nanocrystal increases. Increasing the size of the core of a nanocrystal resulted in an increase of the energy gap, valence band width, and cohesive energy. The lattice constant of the core and oxidized surface parts shows a decreasing trend as the nanocrystal increases in a size that converges to 5.28 Ǻ in a good agreement with the experiment. Surface and core convergence to the same lattice constant reflects good adherence of oxide layer at the surface. The core density of states shows highly degenerate states that split at the oxygenated (001-(1×1 surface due to symmetry breaking. The nanocrystal surface shows smaller gap and higher valence and conduction bands when compared to the core part, due to oxygen surface atoms and reduced structural symmetry. The smaller surface energy gap shows that energy gap of the nanocrystal is controlled by the surface part. Unlike the core part, the surface part shows a descending energy gap that proves its obedience to quantum confinement effects. Nanocrystal geometry proved to have some influence on all electronic properties including the energy gap.

  18. Adsorption property of volatile molecules on ZnO nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    Keywords: ZnO; interaction; ammonia; band structure; density of states. 1. 2. 3 .... Virtual NanoLab [18] software was utilized to construct the ZnO nanowires with 24 Zn ..... But in reality, the ZnO NWs shows a better response (80.2) towards NH3.

  19. Interfacial interactions between calcined hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Masahiro; Furukawa, Keiko; Serizawa, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kawai, Tomoji; Furuzono, Tsutomu

    2009-06-02

    Interfacial interactions between calcined hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystals and surface-modified substrates were investigated by measuring adsorption behavior and adhesion strength with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and a contact-mode atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. The goal was to develop better control of HAp-nanocrystal coatings on biomedical materials. HAp nanocrystals with rodlike or spherical morphology were prepared by a wet chemical process followed by calcination at 800 degrees C with an antisintering agent to prevent the formation of sintered polycrystals. The substrate surface was modified by chemical reaction with a low-molecular-weight compound, or graft polymerization with a functional monomer. QCM measurement showed that the rodlike HAp nanocrystals adsorbed preferentially onto anionic COOH-modified substrates compared to cationic NH2- or hydrophobic CH3-modified substrates. On the other hand, the spherical nanocrystals adsorbed onto NH2- and COOH-modified substrates, which indicates that the surface properties of the HAp nanocrystals determined their adsorption behavior. The adhesion strength, which was estimated from the force required to move the nanocrystal in contact-mode AFM, on a COOH-grafted substrate prepared by graft polymerization was almost 9 times larger than that on a COOH-modified substrate prepared by chemical reaction with a low-molecular-weight compound, indicating that the long-chain polymer grafted on the substrate mitigated the surface roughness mismatch between the nanocrystal and the substrate. The adhesion strength of the nanocrystal bonded covalently by the coupling reaction to a Si(OCH3)-grafted substrate prepared by graft polymerization was approximately 1.5 times larger than that when adsorbed on the COOH-grafted substrate.

  20. Cytotoxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on mouse testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Z

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Zhe Han,1,* Qi Yan,1,* Wei Ge,2 Zhi-Guo Liu,1 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,3 Massimo De Felici,4 Wei Shen,2 Xi-Feng Zhang1 1College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement in Universities of Shandong, College of Animal Science and Technology, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Nanoscience and nanotechnology are developing rapidly, and the applications of nanoparticles (NPs have been found in several fields. At present, NPs are widely used in traditional consumer and industrial products, however, the properties and safety of NPs are still unclear and there are concerns about their potential environmental and health effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential toxicity of ZnO NPs on testicular cells using both in vitro and in vivo systems in a mouse experimental model. Methods: ZnO NPs with a crystalline size of 70 nm were characterized with various analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The cytotoxicity of the ZnO NPs was examined in vitro on Leydig cell and Sertoli cell lines, and in vivo on the testes of CD1 mice injected with single doses of ZnO NPs.Results: ZnO NPs were internalized by Leydig cells and Sertoli cells, and this resulted in cytotoxicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis likely occurred as a consequence of DNA damage (detected as γ-H2AX and RAD51 foci caused by increase in reactive oxygen

  1. Aqueous chemical growth of free standing vertical ZnO nanoprisms, nanorods and nanodiskettes with improved texture co-efficient and tunable size uniformity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram, S.D.G. [Bharath Niketan Engineering College, Department of Physics, Aundipatti (India); Ravi, G.; Mahalingam, T. [Alagappa University, Department of Physics, Karaikudi (India); Athimoolam, A. [Fatima Michael College of Engineering and Technology, Department of Physics, Madurai (India); Kulandainathan, M.A. [Central Electro Chemical Research Institute, Karaikudi (India)

    2011-12-15

    Tuning the morphology, size and aspect ratio of free standing ZnO nanostructured arrays by a simple hydrothermal method is reported. Pre-coated ZnO seed layers of two different thicknesses ({approx}350 nm or 550 nm) were used as substrates to grow ZnO nanostructures for the study. Various parameters such as chemical ambience, pH of the solution, strength of the Zn{sup 2+} atoms and thickness of seed bed are varied to analyze their effects on the resultant ZnO nanostructures. Vertically oriented hexagonal nanorods, multi-angular nanorods, hexagonal diskette and popcorn-like nanostructures are obtained by altering the experimental parameters. All the produced nanostructures were analysed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis and found to be grown in the (002) orientation of wurtzite ZnO. The texture co-efficient of ZnO layer was improved by combining a thick seed layer with higher cationic strength. Surface morphological studies reveal various nanostructures such as nanorods, diskettes and popcorn-like structures based on various preparation conditions. The optical property of the closest packed nanorods array was recorded by UV-VIS spectrometry, and the band gap value simulated from the results reflect the near characteristic band gap of ZnO. The surface roughness profile taken from the Atomic Force Microscopy reveals a roughness of less than 320 nm. (orig.)

  2. Self organized formation of Ge nanocrystals in multilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Zschintzsch-Dias, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to create a process which allows the tailored growth of Ge nanocrystals for use in photovoltic applications. The multilayer systems used here provide a reliable method to control the Ge nanocrystal size after phase separation. In this thesis, the deposition of GeOx/SiO2 and Ge:SiOx~ 2/SiO2 multilayers via reactive dc magnetron sputtering and the self-ordered Ge nanocrystal formation within the GeOx and Ge:SiOx~ 2 sublayers during subsequent annealing is investigated...

  3. PPLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite prepared by in situ polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula, Everton L. de; Pereirea, Fabiano V.; Mano, Valdir

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the preparation and and characterization of a PLLA-cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite obtained by in situ polymerization. The nanocomposite was prepared by ring opening polymerization of the lactide dimer in the presence of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and the as-obtained materials was characterized using FTIR, DSC, XRD and TGA measurements. The incorporation of cellulose nanocrystals in PLLA using this method improved the thermal stability and increased the crystallinity of PLLA. These results indicate that the incorporation of CNCs by in situ polymerization improve thermal properties and has potential to improve also mechanical properties of this biodegradable polymer. (author)

  4. Multicolor light emitters based on energy exchange between Tb and Eu ions co-doped into ultrasmall β-NaYF 4 nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Podhorodecki, Artur P.; Bański, Mateusz; Misiewicz, Jan J.; Afzaal, Mohammad; O'Brien, Paul J.; Cha, Dong Kyu; Wang, Xianbin

    2012-01-01

    based on the experimental results and calculations using Judd-Ofelt theory. It has been shown that efficient energy transfer from Tb to Eu ions accounts for the efficient red emission of NaYF4:Tb,Eu nanocrystals. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  5. Reusable hydroxyapatite nanocrystal sensors for protein adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagaya, Motohiro; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Chakarov, Dinko; Kasemo, Bengt; Tanaka, Junzo

    2010-01-01

    The repeatability of the adsorption and removal of fibrinogen and fetal bovine serum on hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanocrystal sensors was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring technique. The HAp nanocrystals were coated on a gold-coated quartz sensor by electrophoretic deposition. Proteins adsorbed on the HAp sensors were removed by (i) ammonia/hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM), (ii) ultraviolet light (UV), (iii) UV/APM, (iv) APM/UV and (v) sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) treatments. FTIR spectra of the reused surfaces revealed that the APM and SDS treatments left peptide fragments or the proteins adsorbed on the surfaces, whereas the other methods successfully removed the proteins. The QCM-D measurements indicated that in the removal treatments, fibrinogen was slowly adsorbed in the first cycle because of the change in surface wettability revealed by contact angle measurements. The SDS treatment was not effective in removing proteins. The APM or UV treatment decreased the frequency shifts for the reused HAp sensors. The UV/APM treatment did not induce the frequency shifts but decreased the dissipation shifts. Therefore, we conclude that the APM/UV treatment is the most useful method for reproducing protein adsorption behavior on HAp sensors.

  6. Reusable hydroxyapatite nanocrystal sensors for protein adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Tagaya, Toshiyuki Ikoma, Nobutaka Hanagata, Dinko Chakarov, Bengt Kasemo and Junzo Tanaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The repeatability of the adsorption and removal of fibrinogen and fetal bovine serum on hydroxyapatite (HAp nanocrystal sensors was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D monitoring technique. The HAp nanocrystals were coated on a gold-coated quartz sensor by electrophoretic deposition. Proteins adsorbed on the HAp sensors were removed by (i ammonia/hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM, (ii ultraviolet light (UV, (iii UV/APM, (iv APM/UV and (v sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS treatments. FTIR spectra of the reused surfaces revealed that the APM and SDS treatments left peptide fragments or the proteins adsorbed on the surfaces, whereas the other methods successfully removed the proteins. The QCM-D measurements indicated that in the removal treatments, fibrinogen was slowly adsorbed in the first cycle because of the change in surface wettability revealed by contact angle measurements. The SDS treatment was not effective in removing proteins. The APM or UV treatment decreased the frequency shifts for the reused HAp sensors. The UV/APM treatment did not induce the frequency shifts but decreased the dissipation shifts. Therefore, we conclude that the APM/UV treatment is the most useful method for reproducing protein adsorption behavior on HAp sensors.

  7. The hydrodynamic size of polymer stabilized nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Karl M; Al-Somali, Ali M; Mejia, Michelle; Colvin, Vicki L [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, MS-60 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2007-11-28

    For many emerging applications, nanocrystals are surface functionalized with polymers to control self-assembly, prevent aggregation, and promote incorporation into polymer matrices and biological systems. The hydrodynamic diameter of these nanoparticle-polymer complexes is a critical factor for many applications, and predicting this size is complicated by the fact that the structure of the grafted polymer at a nanocrystalline interface is not generally established. In this work we evaluate using size-exclusion chromatography the overall hydrodynamic diameter of nanocrystals (Au, CdSe, d<5 nm) surface coated with polystyrene of varying molecular weight. The polymer is tethered to the nanoparticles via a terminal thiol to provide strong attachment. Our data show that at full coverage the polymer assumes a brush conformation and is 44% longer than the unbound polymer in solution. The brush conformation is confirmed by comparison with models used to describe polymer brushes at flat interfaces. From this work, we suggest an empirical formula which predicts the hydrodynamic diameter of polymer coated nanoparticles based on the size of the nanoparticle core and the size of the randomly coiled unbound polymer in solution.

  8. Great Disparity in Photoluminesence Quantum Yields of Colloidal CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals with Varied Shape: The Effect of Crystal Lattice Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangtao; Liu, Mei; Fang, Li; Jiang, Shenlong; Zhou, Jingtian; Ding, Huaiyi; Huang, Hongwen; Wen, Wen; Luo, Zhenlin; Zhang, Qun; Wang, Xiaoping; Gao, Chen

    2017-07-06

    Understanding the big discrepancy in the photoluminesence quantum yields (PLQYs) of nanoscale colloidal materials with varied morphologies is of great significance to its property optimization and functional application. Using different shaped CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals with the same fabrication processes as model, quantitative synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis reveals the increasing trend in lattice strain values of the nanocrystals: nanocube, nanoplate, nanowire. Furthermore, transient spectroscopic measurements reveal the same trend in the defect quantities of these nanocrystals. These experimental results unambiguously point out that large lattice strain existing in CsPbBr 3 nanoparticles induces more crystal defects and thus decreases the PLQY, implying that lattice strain is a key factor other than the surface defect to dominate the PLQY of colloidal photoluminesence materials.

  9. Fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals via supramolecular assembly of terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals and terpyridine-modified perylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohammad L.; Moorefield, Charles M.; Elbatal, Hany S.; Newkome, George R.; Modarelli, David A.; Romano, Natalie C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Surfaces of cellulose nanocrystals were modified with terpyridine ligands. ► Fluorescent nanocrystals could be obtained via self-assembly of terpyridine-modified perylene dye onto the terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals. ► Further self-assembly of azide-functionalized terpyridine onto the fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals was possible to obtain nanocellulosic material with expected use in bioimaging. - Abstract: Due to their natural origin, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity, cellulose nanocrystals are promising candidates for applications in nanomedicine. Highly fluorescent nanocellulosic material was prepared via surface modification of cellulose nanocrystals with 2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridine side chains followed by supramolecular assembly of terpyridine-modified perylene dye onto the terpyridine-modified cellulose nanocrystals (CTP) via Ru III /Ru II reduction. The prepared terpyridine-modified cellulose-Ru II -terpyridine-modified perylene (CTP-Ru II -PeryTP) fluorescent nanocrystals were characterized using cross-polarized/magic angle spin 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (CP/MAS 13 C NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV–visible, and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, further self-assembly of terpyridine units with azide functional groups onto CTP-Ru II -PeryTP was possible via repeating the Ru III /Ru II reduction protocol to prepare supramolecular fluorescent nanocrystals with azide functionality (CTP-Ru II -PeryTP-Ru II -AZTP). The prepared derivative may have potential application in bio-imaging since the terminal azide groups can be easily reacted with antigens via “Click” chemistry reaction.

  10. Electrical characterization of ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlenker, E.; Bakin, A.; Postels, B.; Mofor, A.C.; Wehmann, H.H.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Weimann, T.; Hinze, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods were grown by a wet chemical approach and by vapor phase transport. To explore the electrical properties of individual nanostructures current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were obtained by using an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a conductive tip or by detaching the nanorods from the growth substrate, transferring them to an isolating substrate and contacting them with evaporated Ti/Au electrodes patterned by electron-beam lithography. The AFM-approach only yields a Schottky diode behavior, while the Ti/Au forms ohmic contacts to the ZnO. For the latter method the obtained I-V curves reveal a resistivity of the nanorods in the order of 10{sup -5} {omega} cm which is unusually low for undoped ZnO. We therefore assume the existence of a highly conductive surface channel. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Photoluminescence measurements of ZnO heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Isao; Ohashi, Naoki; Haneda, Hajime; Ryoken, Haruki; Takenaka, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    ZnO thin films were grown on TbAlO 3 single crystal substrates by pulsed laser deposition. In photoluminescence (PL) measurements, strong emissions from TbAlO 3 were observed with the emission from ZnO when the film thickness was less than 100 nm. The relationship between the ZnO film thickness and the emission intensity from TbAlO 3 was investigated in order to determine the penetration depth of excitation light. Information on the heterostructures ranging from the surface to a depth of 300 nm was obtained by PL measurements in this study, and the absorption coefficient for a wavelength of 325 nm was estimated to be 1.31x10 5 cm -1 . (author)

  12. Cu-Doping Effects in CdI(2) Nanocrystals: The Role of Cu-Agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2008-11-22

    Cu-doping effects in CdI(2) nanocrystals are studied experimentally. We use the photostimulated second harmonic generation (PSSHG) as a tool to investigate the effects. It is found that the PSSHG increases with increasing Cu content up to 0.6% and then decreases due to the formation of the Cu-agglomerates. The PSSHG for the crystal with Cu content higher than 1% reduces to that for the undoped CdI(2) crystal. The results suggest that a crucial role of the Cu-metallic agglomerates is involved in the processes as responsible for the observed effects.

  13. Cu-Doping Effects in CdI2Nanocrystals: The Role of Cu-Agglomerates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cu-doping effects in CdI2nanocrystals are studied experimentally. We use the photostimulated second harmonic generation (PSSHG as a tool to investigate the effects. It is found that the PSSHG increases with increasing Cu content up to 0.6% and then decreases due to the formation of the Cu-agglomerates. The PSSHG for the crystal with Cu content higher than 1% reduces to that for the undoped CdI2crystal. The results suggest that a crucial role of the Cu-metallic agglomerates is involved in the processes as responsible for the observed effects.

  14. Observation of spin-selective tunneling in SiGe nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, G; Golovach, V N; Spathis, P; Ares, N; Stoffel, M; Fournel, F; Schmidt, O G; Glazman, L I; De Franceschi, S

    2011-12-09

    Spin-selective tunneling of holes in SiGe nanocrystals contacted by normal-metal leads is reported. The spin selectivity arises from an interplay of the orbital effect of the magnetic field with the strong spin-orbit interaction present in the valence band of the semiconductor. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that spin-selective tunneling in semiconductor nanostructures can be achieved without the use of ferromagnetic contacts. The reported effect, which relies on mixing the light and heavy holes, should be observable in a broad class of quantum-dot systems formed in semiconductors with a degenerate valence band.

  15. Application of CuInS{sub 2} and ZnO nanoparticles in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheunemann, Dorothea; Wilken, Sebastian; Frevert, Katja; Witt, Florian; Borchert, Holger; Parisi, Juergen [University of Oldenburg, Department of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Laboratory, 26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQD) are attractive for photovoltaics because of their solution processability and spectral tunability due to quantum size effects. Rapid advances in CQD photovoltaics in the recent years have led to high power conversion efficiencies. Previous works mainly focused on highly toxic materials containing cadmium or lead which might limit their possible application. One promising alternative material is CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) which has shown attractive device performance in thin film solar cells. Here, we present solution processed CIS nanoparticles as absorber layer in nanocrystal based solar cells. In order to achieve efficient charge separation we use a heterojunction based on a bilayer structure of CIS and intrinsically n-doped ZnO nanocrystals. One issue in thin film photovoltaics is the optimization of the absorber thickness, taking into account light absorption as well as charge carrier collection. Therefore, we determined the absorption coefficient and transport properties which can serve as input parameters into an electro-optical simulation in order to determine the optimal absorber thickness.

  16. Acceptor Type Vacancy Complexes In As-Grown ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuniga-Perez, J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the many technological areas that ZnO is interesting for is the construction of opto-electronic devices working in the blue-UV range as its large band gap (∼3.4 eV at 10 K) makes them suitable for that purpose. As-grown ZnO shows generally n-type conductivity partially due to the large concentration of unintentional shallow donors, like H, but impurities can also form complexes with acceptor type defects (Zn vacancy) leading to the creation of compensating defects. Recently, Li Zn and Na Zn acceptors have been measured and H could form similar type of defects. Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation spectroscopy experimental results on the observation of Zn related vacancy complexes in ZnO thin films, as-grown, O implanted and Al doped will be presented. Results show that as-grown ZnO film show small Zn vacancy related complexed that could be related to presence of H as a unintentional doping element.

  17. Acceptor Type Vacancy Complexes In As-Grown ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiaga, A.; Tuomisto, F.; Zuñiga-Pérez, J.

    2010-11-01

    One of the many technological areas that ZnO is interesting for is the construction of opto-electronic devices working in the blue-UV range as its large band gap (˜3.4 eV at 10 K) makes them suitable for that purpose. As-grown ZnO shows generally n-type conductivity partially due to the large concentration of unintentional shallow donors, like H, but impurities can also form complexes with acceptor type defects (Zn vacancy) leading to the creation of compensating defects. Recently, LiZn and NaZn acceptors have been measured and H could form similar type of defects. Doppler Broadening Positron Annihilation spectroscopy experimental results on the observation of Zn related vacancy complexes in ZnO thin films, as-grown, O implanted and Al doped will be presented. Results show that as-grown ZnO film show small Zn vacancy related complexed that could be related to presence of H as a unintentional doping element.

  18. Starch assisted growth of dumbbell-shaped ZnO microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranwal, V., E-mail: vikasphy@gmail.com [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 21002 (India); Zahra, Abeer [Department of Physics, Integral University, Lucknow 226026 (India); Singh, Prashant K.; Pandey, Avinash C. [Nanotechnology Application Centre, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 21002 (India)

    2015-10-15

    We present an experimental study on evolution of dumbbell-shaped ZnO microstructures. Structure, shape, size and optical properties were monitored by means of scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence spectroscopy, respectively. Our results show that a crystalline phase of ZnO is formed. A uniform distribution of randomly oriented dumbbell-shaped ZnO microstructures is observed. Near band edge as well as deep level visible emissions confirmed that there are intrinsic defects present in the system. Emissions extending from UV region to visible region show that these microstructures are good quality optical material which can be used in photocatalytic field. - Highlights: • Dumbbell-shaped ZnO micro-rods were synthesized by starch assisted hydrothermal process. • Micro-rods were of crystalline nature, confirmed by x-ray diffraction. • UV-emission as well as deep level visible emissions were observed. • Broad absorption band is observed which can be utilized in photocatalytic field.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization and docking studies of ZnO nanoparticle modified with BSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Ana E.; Chemes, Doly María; Frías, María de los Angeles; Guauque Torres, Maria del Pilar

    2017-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) into a biological environment are an interesting topic for diagnosis and therapy in applications for medicine or environment and the knowledge about this interaction is important from the perspective of safe use of nanomaterials. In the current study, we characterized the type of interaction and the orientation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorbed on ZnO nanoparticle surfaces as a function of size, using molecular docking. To probe experimentally different theoretical hypothesis about the interaction, ZnO-NPs were prepared in aqueous solution, and then were bioconjugated with BSA. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy confirm the spherical shape of NP and the irreversible adsorption of BSA on NP surface. Raman and Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) reveal that BSA interaction with ZnO nanoparticle produced a conformational rearrangement into protein, observing changes in Tyr and Trp environment, a minor percentage of α-helix structure and a more extended chain. The fluorescence analysis demonstrated that when BSA concentration higher than 30 μM is used the signal due to the self-oligomerization of protein overlaps with the ZnO nanoparticle emission. The results predicted that the most probable interaction site is near to domain IB and IIA and ionic interactions are the major responsible for the binding. Thermal stability studies reveals that the denaturalization temperature of BSA increase from 57 °C to 65 °C in presence of ZnO NP and their esterase-like activity was improved.

  20. Surface strain engineering through Tb doping to study the pressure dependence of exciton-phonon coupling in ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.; Dhar, S.; Singh, B. P.; Nayak, C.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Jha, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    A compressive hydrostatic strain has been found to develop in the ZnO lattice as a result of accumulation of Tb ions on the surface of the nanoparticles for Tb mole-fraction less than 0.04. This hydrostatic strain can be controlled up to ≈14 GPa by varying the Tb mole-fraction. Here, we have utilized this novel technique of surface strain engineering through Tb doping for introducing hydrostatic compressive strain in the lattice to study the pressure dependent electronic and vibrational properties of ZnO nanoparticles. Our study reveals that when subjected to pressure, nanoparticles of ZnO behave quite differently than bulk in many aspects. Unlike bulk ZnO, which is reported to go through a wurtzite to rock-salt structural phase transition at ≈8 GPa, ZnO nanoparticles do not show such transition and remain in wurtzite phase even at 14 GPa of pressure. Furthermore, the Grüneisen parameters for the optical phonon modes are found to be order of magnitude smaller in ZnO nanoparticles as compared to bulk. Our study also suggests an increase of the dielectric constant with pressure, which is opposite to what has been reported for bulk ZnO. Interestingly, it has also been found that the exciton-phonon interaction depends strongly upon pressure in this system. The exciton-phonon coupling has been found to decrease as pressure increases. A variational technique has been adopted to theoretically calculate the exciton-LO phonon coupling coefficient in ZnO nanoparticles as a function of pressure, which shows a good agreement with the experimental results. These findings imply that surface engineering of ZnO nanoparticles with Tb could indeed be an efficient tool to enhance and control the optical performance of this material

  1. Surface strain engineering through Tb doping to study the pressure dependence of exciton-phonon coupling in ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.; Dhar, S., E-mail: dhar@phy.iitb.ac.in; Singh, B. P. [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Nayak, C.; Bhattacharyya, D. [Applied Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Jha, S. N. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore (India)

    2013-12-07

    A compressive hydrostatic strain has been found to develop in the ZnO lattice as a result of accumulation of Tb ions on the surface of the nanoparticles for Tb mole-fraction less than 0.04. This hydrostatic strain can be controlled up to ≈14 GPa by varying the Tb mole-fraction. Here, we have utilized this novel technique of surface strain engineering through Tb doping for introducing hydrostatic compressive strain in the lattice to study the pressure dependent electronic and vibrational properties of ZnO nanoparticles. Our study reveals that when subjected to pressure, nanoparticles of ZnO behave quite differently than bulk in many aspects. Unlike bulk ZnO, which is reported to go through a wurtzite to rock-salt structural phase transition at ≈8 GPa, ZnO nanoparticles do not show such transition and remain in wurtzite phase even at 14 GPa of pressure. Furthermore, the Grüneisen parameters for the optical phonon modes are found to be order of magnitude smaller in ZnO nanoparticles as compared to bulk. Our study also suggests an increase of the dielectric constant with pressure, which is opposite to what has been reported for bulk ZnO. Interestingly, it has also been found that the exciton-phonon interaction depends strongly upon pressure in this system. The exciton-phonon coupling has been found to decrease as pressure increases. A variational technique has been adopted to theoretically calculate the exciton-LO phonon coupling coefficient in ZnO nanoparticles as a function of pressure, which shows a good agreement with the experimental results. These findings imply that surface engineering of ZnO nanoparticles with Tb could indeed be an efficient tool to enhance and control the optical performance of this material.

  2. Memory characteristics of an MOS capacitor structure with double-layer semiconductor and metal heterogeneous nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Henan; Wu Liangcai; Song Zhitang; Hui Chun

    2009-01-01

    An MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) capacitor structure with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals consisting of semiconductor and metal embedded in a gate oxide for nonvolatile memory applications has been fabricated and characterized. By combining vacuum electron-beam co-evaporated Si nanocrystals and self-assembled Ni nanocrystals in a SiO 2 matrix, an MOS capacitor with double-layer heterogeneous nanocrystals can have larger charge storage capacity and improved retention characteristics compared to one with single-layer nanocrystals. The upper metal nanocrystals as an additional charge trap layer enable the direct tunneling mechanism to enhance the flat voltage shift and prolong the retention time. (semiconductor devices)

  3. Magneto-optical transitions in multilayer semiconductor nanocrystals

    CERN Document Server

    Climente, J; Jaskolski, W; Aliaga, J I

    2003-01-01

    Absorption spectra of chemically synthesized uniform and multilayer semiconductor nanocrystals in a magnetic field are investigated theoretically. The nanocrystals are modelled by spherical barrier/well potentials. The electron states are calculated within the effective mass model. A four-band k centre dot p Hamiltonian, accounting for the valence subband mixing, is used to obtain the hole states. The magneto-optical transition spectrum depends strongly on the size and composition of the nanocrystals. In the case of small uniform quantum dots, only the linear Zeeman splitting of the electron and hole energy levels is observed even for very strong magnetic fields. In larger nanocrystals, the quadratic magnetic interaction turns out to be important and the transition spectrum becomes complicated. The most complicated influence of the magnetic field is found in quantum dot-quantum well systems in which the lowest electron and hole states are localized in a thin spherical layer. It is shown that transitions that ...

  4. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals: Simple preparation, characterization and formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Fereshteh, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles and nanorods have been successfully synthesized via a simple precipitation method. To control the shape and particle size of HAP nanocrystals, coordination ligands derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde were first prepared, characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H-NMR) spectroscopies, and finally applied in the synthesis process of HAP. On the other hand, the HAP nanocrystals were also characterized by several techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the FE-SEM and TEM micrographs, it was found that the morphology and crystallinity of the HAP powders depended on the coordination mode of the ligands. - Highlights: • HAP nanobundles and nanoparticles have been prepared by a precipitation method. • Morphologies of HAP nanocrystals were controlled by different coordination ligands. • The formation mechanism of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was also considered

  5. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals: Simple preparation, characterization and formation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohandes, Fatemeh [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box. 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud, E-mail: salavati@kashanu.ac.ir [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box. 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P. O. Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Mohammadhossein [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dental Materials Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fereshteh, Zeinab [Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-01

    Crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles and nanorods have been successfully synthesized via a simple precipitation method. To control the shape and particle size of HAP nanocrystals, coordination ligands derived from 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde were first prepared, characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 1}H-NMR) spectroscopies, and finally applied in the synthesis process of HAP. On the other hand, the HAP nanocrystals were also characterized by several techniques including powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). According to the FE-SEM and TEM micrographs, it was found that the morphology and crystallinity of the HAP powders depended on the coordination mode of the ligands. - Highlights: • HAP nanobundles and nanoparticles have been prepared by a precipitation method. • Morphologies of HAP nanocrystals were controlled by different coordination ligands. • The formation mechanism of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was also considered.

  6. Chemically Addressable Perovskite Nanocrystals for Light-Emitting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haizhu; Yang, Zhenyu; Wei, Mingyang; Sun, Wei; Li, Xiyan; Ye, Shuyang; Zhao, Yongbiao; Tan, Hairen; Kynaston, Emily L.; Schon, Tyler B.; Yan, Han; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Ozin, Geoffrey A.; Sargent, Edward H.; Seferos, Dwight S.

    2017-01-01

    Whereas organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite nanocrystals (PNCs) have remarkable potential in the development of optoelectronic materials, their relatively poor chemical and colloidal stability undermines their performance in optoelectronic devices

  7. Pyridine-induced Dimensionality Change in Hybrid Perovskite Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ghada H.; Yin, Jun; Bose, Riya; Sinatra, Lutfan; Alarousu, Erkki; Yengel, Emre; AlYami, Noktan; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Zhang, Yuhai; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Bakr, Osman; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Mohammed, Omar F.

    2017-01-01

    of pyridine during the synthesis of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr) perovskite nanocrystals can transform three-dimensional (3D) cubes into two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations show that pyridine preferentially

  8. Rapid thermal synthesis of GaN nanocrystals and nanodisks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sofer, Z.; Sedmidubský, D.; Huber, Š.; Šimek, P.; Šaněk, F.; Jankovský, O.; Gregorová, E.; Fiala, R.; Matějková, Stanislava; Mikulics, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2013), 1411/1-1411/7 ISSN 1388-0764 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : gallium nitride * thermal ammonolysis * nanodisks * nanocrystals Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.278, year: 2013

  9. A single molecule switch based on two Pd nanocrystals linked

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conducting molecule; nanocrystals; scanning tunneling microscopy; negative differential resistance. Abstract. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements have been carried out on a single molecule device formed by two Pd ... Current Issue : Vol.

  10. Nonvolatile memory effect of tungsten nanocrystals under oxygen plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Wei-Ren; Lo, Yuan-Chun; Wu, Kai-Ting; Sze, S.M.; Chen, Jason; Liao, I.H.; Yeh, Fon-Shan

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an oxygen plasma treatment was used to improve the memory effect of nonvolatile W nanocrystal memory, including memory window, retention and endurance. To investigate the role of the oxygen plasma treatment in charge storage characteristics, the X-ray photon-emission spectra (XPS) were performed to analyze the variation of chemical composition for W nanocrystal embedded oxide both with and without the oxygen plasma treatment. In addition, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses were also used to identify the microstructure in the thin film and the size and density of W nanocrystals. The device with the oxygen plasma treatment shows a significant improvement of charge storage effect, because the oxygen plasma treatment enhanced the quality of silicon oxide surrounding the W nanocrystals. Therefore, the data retention and endurance characteristics were also improved by the passivation.

  11. Self-aggregation of magnetic semiconductor EuS nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Kamikubo, Hironari; Kataoka, Mikio; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Controlled formation of aggregates having organized structure of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals is reported. The EuS aggregates in liquid media (methanol) were obtained by means of van der Waals interaction between EuS nanocrystals. The packing structure of the EuS aggregates is characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering measurements (SAXS). TEM image indicates the EuS nanocrystals form self-aggregated 2D orthogonal lattice structure. The diffraction peak of (111) of SAXS profile shows that the cube-shaped EuS form 3D cubic superlattice. We successfully demonstrated that the aggregates of cube-shaped EuS nanocrystals formed cubic stacking structure.

  12. Correlation of Defect-Related Optoelectronic Properties in Zn5(OH6(CO32/ZnO Nanostructures with Their Quasi-Fractal Dimensionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Paramo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrozincite (Zn5(OH6(CO32 is, among others, a popular precursor used to synthesize nanoscale ZnO with complex morphologies. For many existing and potential applications utilizing nanostructures, performance is determined by the surface and subsurface properties. Current understanding of the relationship between the morphology and the defect properties of nanocrystalline ZnO and hydrozincite systems is still incomplete. Specifically, for the latter nanomaterial the structure-property correlations are largely unreported in the literature despite the extensive use of hydrozincite in the synthesis applications. In our work, we addressed this issue by studying precipitated nanostructures of Zn5(OH6(CO32 with varying quasi-fractal dimensionalities containing relatively small amounts of a ZnO phase. Crystal morphology of the samples was accurately controlled by the growth time. We observed a strong correlation between the morphology of the samples and their optoelectronic properties. Our results indicate that a substantial increase of the free surface in the nanocrystal samples generates higher relative concentration of defects, consistent with the model of defect-rich surface and subsurface layers.

  13. Simultaneous tuning of electric field intensity and structural properties of ZnO: Graphene nanostructures for FOSPR based nicotine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2017-05-15

    We report theoretical and experimental realization of a SPR based fiber optic nicotine sensor having coatings of silver and graphene doped ZnO nanostructure onto the unclad core of the optical fiber. The volume fraction (f) of graphene in ZnO was optimized using simulation of electric field intensity. Four types of graphene doped ZnO nanostructures viz. nanocomposites, nanoflowers, nanotubes and nanofibers were prepared using optimized value of f. The morphology, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and UV-vis spectra of these nanostructures were studied. The peak PL intensity was found to be highest for ZnO: graphene nanofibers. The optimized value of f in ZnO: graphene nanofiber was reconfirmed using UV-vis spectroscopy. The experiments were performed on the fiber optic probe fabricated with Ag/ZnO: graphene layer and optimized parameters for in-situ detection of nicotine. The interaction of nicotine with ZnO: graphene nanostructures alters the dielectric function of ZnO: graphene nanostructure which is manifested in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. From the sensing signal, the performance parameters were measured including sensitivity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), stability, repeatability and selectivity. The real sample prepared using cigarette tobacco leaves and analyzed using the fabricated sensor makes it suitable for practical applications. The achieved values of LOD and LOQ are found to be unrivalled in comparison to the reported ones. The sensor possesses additional advantages such as, immunity to electromagnetic interference, low cost, capability of online monitoring, remote sensing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Kinetics activity of Yersinia Intermedia Against ZnO Nanoparticles Either Synergism Antibiotics by Double-Disc Synergy Test Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi Azar Khavarani, Motahareh; Najafi, Mahla; Shakibapour, Zahra; Zaeifi, Davood

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial resistance to the commonly used antibacterial agents is an increasing challenge in the medicine, and a major problem for the health care systems; the control of their spread is a constant challenge for the hospitals. In this study, we have investigated the antimicrobial activity of the Zinc Oxide nanoparticles against clinical sample; Yersinia intermedia bacteria. Nanoparticle susceptibility constants and death kinetic were used to evaluate the antimicrobial characteristics of the Zinc Oxide (ZnO) against the bacteria. Antimicrobial tests were performed with 10 8 cfu.mL -1 at baseline. At first, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ZnO was determined and then nanoparticle suspension at one and two times of the MIC was used for death kinetic and susceptibility constant assay at 0 to 360 min treatment time. ZnO nanoparticles with size ranging from 10 to 30 nm showed the highest susceptibility reaction against Y. intermedia (Z=39.06 mL.μg -1 ). The process of Y. intermedia death in ZnO suspension was assumed to follow the first-order kinetics and the survival ratio of bacteria decreased with the increasing treatment time. An increased concentration of the nanoparticle was seen to enhance the bactericidal action of the nanoparticle. Then we performed the best ratio of the nanoparticles on semi-sensitive and resistance antibiotic for the bacteria. However, based on experimental results, synergy of ZnO nanoparticles and Oxacilin was determined and Y. intermedia showed a higher sensitivity compared to the ZnO nanoparticles alone. The results of the present study illustrates that ZnO has a strong antimicrobial effect and could potentially be employed to aid the bacterial control. It could also improve- antibacterial effects in combination with the antibiotics.

  15. Mechanisms involved in the hydrothermal growth of ultra-thin and high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demes, Thomas [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ternon, Céline, E-mail: celine.ternon@grenoble-inp.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, LTM, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Morisot, Fanny [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP" 2, IMEP-LaHC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Riassetto, David [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Legallais, Maxime [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP" 2, IMEP-LaHC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Roussel, Hervé; Langlet, Michel [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble-INP, LMGP, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires are grown on sol-gel ZnO seed layers by hydrothermal synthesis. • Ultra-thin and high aspect ratio nanowires are obtained without using additives. • Nanowire diameter is 20–25 nm regardless of growth time and seed morphology. • A nanowire growth model is developed on the basis of thermodynamic considerations. • The nanowires are intended for integration into electrically conductive nanonets. - Abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with tailored dimensions, notably high aspect ratios (AR) and small diameters, is a major concern for a wide range of applications and still represents a challenging and recurring issue. In this work, an additive-free and reproducible hydrothermal procedure has been developed to grow ultra-thin and high AR ZnO NWs on sol-gel deposited ZnO seed layers. Controlling the substrate temperature and using a low reagent concentration (1 mM) has been found to be essential for obtaining such NWs. We show that the NW diameter remains constant at about 20–25 nm with growth time contrary to the NW length that can be selectively increased leading to NWs with ARs up to 400. On the basis of investigated experimental conditions along with thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, a ZnO NW growth mechanism has been developed which involves the formation and growth of nuclei followed by NW growth when the nuclei reach a critical size of about 20–25 nm. The low reagent concentration inhibits NW lateral growth leading to ultra-thin and high AR NWs. These NWs have been assembled into electrically conductive ZnO nanowire networks, which opens attractive perspectives toward the development of highly sensitive low-cost gas- or bio-sensors.

  16. Formation of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. The aspect of nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudera, S.

    2007-08-17

    The present work describes different techniques to control some major parameters of colloidal nanocrystals. The individual techniques rely on the manipulation of the nucleation event. The sensitive control of the nanocrystals' size and shape is discussed. Furthermore the formation of hybrid nanocrystals composed of different materials is presented. The synthesis technique for the production of the different samples involves organic solvents and surfactants and reactions at elevated temperatures. The presence of magic size clusters offers a possibility to control the size of the nanocrystals even at very small dimensions. The clusters produced comprise ca. 100 atoms. In the case of CdSe, nanocrystals of this size emit a blue fluorescence and therefore extend the routinely accessible spectrum for this material over the whole visible range. Samples fluorescing in the spectral range from green to red are produced with standard recipes. In this work a reaction scheme for magic size clusters is presented and a theoretical model to explain the particular behaviour of their growth dynamics is discussed. The samples are investigated by optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. A method to form branched nanocrystals is discussed. The branching point is analysed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and proves for the occurrence of a multiple twinned structure are strengthened by simulation of the observed patterns. Two different techniques to generate nanocrystals of this type are presented. The first relies on a seeded growth approach in which the nucleation of the second material is allowed only on de ned sites of the seeds. The second technique uses the tips of pre-formed nano-dumbbells as sacrificial domains. The material on the tips is replaced by gold. Hybrid materials are formed by a seeded-growth mechanism. Pre-formed nanocrystals provide the nucleation sites for the second material. (orig.)

  17. Formation of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. The aspect of nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudera, S

    2007-08-17

    The present work describes different techniques to control some major parameters of colloidal nanocrystals. The individual techniques rely on the manipulation of the nucleation event. The sensitive control of the nanocrystals' size and shape is discussed. Furthermore the formation of hybrid nanocrystals composed of different materials is presented. The synthesis technique for the production of the different samples involves organic solvents and surfactants and reactions at elevated temperatures. The presence of magic size clusters offers a possibility to control the size of the nanocrystals even at very small dimensions. The clusters produced comprise ca. 100 atoms. In the case of CdSe, nanocrystals of this size emit a blue fluorescence and therefore extend the routinely accessible spectrum for this material over the whole visible range. Samples fluorescing in the spectral range from green to red are produced with standard recipes. In this work a reaction scheme for magic size clusters is presented and a theoretical model to explain the particular behaviour of their growth dynamics is discussed. The samples are investigated by optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and elemental analysis. A method to form branched nanocrystals is discussed. The branching point is analysed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and proves for the occurrence of a multiple twinned structure are strengthened by simulation of the observed patterns. Two different techniques to generate nanocrystals of this type are presented. The first relies on a seeded growth approach in which the nucleation of the second material is allowed only on de ned sites of the seeds. The second technique uses the tips of pre-formed nano-dumbbells as sacrificial domains. The material on the tips is replaced by gold. Hybrid materials are formed by a seeded-growth mechanism. Pre-formed nanocrystals provide the nucleation sites for the second material. (orig.)

  18. Catalytic Oxidation of Toluene on Hydrothermally Prepared Ceria Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Duplančić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceria nanocrystals were prepared hydrothermally and tested as potential catalysts for oxidation of volatile organic compounds using toluene as a model compound. Pure ceria with a crystallite size of 4 nm, determined by the Scherrer method from XRD pattern has been obtained. The specific surface area of the prepared nanoparticles determined by BET analysis yielded 201 m2 g–1, while the band gap of 3.2 eV was estimated from DRS spectrum via Tauc’s plot. Catalytic tests were performed on calcined ceria (500 °C with increased crystallite size (9 nm caused by thermal treatment. The tests showed good activities for the toluene oxidation with T50 temperatures, corresponding to 50 % toluene conversion, observed at 250 °C and even lower temperatures depending on the total flow rate of the gas mixture. The one-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model of the fixed bed reactor was proposed to describe the reactor performance and the appropriate kinetic parameters were estimated. Good agreement between experimental data and the proposed model was observed.

  19. Enhanced field emission of ZnO nanoneedle arrays via solution etching at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Huanming; Qin, Zhiwei; Wang, Zaide

    2017-01-01

    ZnO nanoneedle arrays (ZnO nns) were synthesized by a facile two-step solution-phase method based on the etching of pre-synthesized ZnO nanowire arrays (ZnO nws) with flat ends at room temperature. Field emission measurement results showed that the turn-on electronic fields of ZnO nns and nws wer...

  20. Converse Piezoelectric Effect Induced Transverse Deflection of a Free-Standing ZnO Microbelt

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Youfan

    2009-07-08

    We demonstrate the first electric field induced transverse deflection of a single-crystal, free-standing ZnO microbelt as a result of converse piezoelectric effect. For a microbelt growing along the c-axis, a shear stress in the a-c plane can be induced when an electric field E is applied along the a-axis of the wurtzite structure. As amplified by the large aspect ratio of the microbelt that grows along the c-axis, the strain localized near the root can be detected via the transverse deflection perpendicular to the ZnO microbelt. After an experimental approach was carefully designed and possible artifacts were ruled out, the experimentally observed degree of deflection of the microbelt agrees well with the theoretically expected result. The device demonstrated has potential applications as transverse actuators/sensors/switches and electric field induced mechanical deflectors. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  1. Synthesis and photoluminescence of a full zinc blende phase ZnO nanorod array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shaomin; Gong Hechun; Zhang Bin; Du Zuliang; Zhang Xingtang; Wu Sixin

    2008-01-01

    A single-crystalline ZnO nanorod array with rectangular cross-sections has been synthesized, in which the as-obtained products are a complete metastable zinc blende (ZB) phase. X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy, and elemental maps have been used to show that the ZB-ZnO samples have a lattice constant a = 4.580 A, and are free from contamination by hexagonal wurtzite (HW) ZnO. Based on our experimental data, the associated growth mechanism is tentatively suggested. In addition, the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum (about 400 nm (3.1 eV)) of the as-fabricated ZB-ZnO products was detected; this is the first experimental report of the optical properties of ZB-ZnO nanorod arrays

  2. Chemistry of the Colloidal Group II-VI Nanocrystal Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haitao

    2007-01-01

    In the last two decades, the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology has witnessed tremendous advancement in the synthesis and application of group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. The synthesis based on high temperature decomposition of organometallic precursors has become one of the most successful methods of making group II-VI colloidal nanocrystals. This method is first demonstrated by Bawendi and coworkers in 1993 to prepare cadmium chalcogenide colloidal quantum dots and later extended by others to prepare other group II-VI quantum dots as well as anisotropic shaped colloidal nanocrystals, such as nanorod and tetrapod. This dissertation focuses on the chemistry of this type of nanocrystal synthesis. The synthesis of group II-VI nanocrystals was studied by characterizing the molecular structures of the precursors and products and following their time evolution in the synthesis. Based on these results, a mechanism was proposed to account for the 2 reaction between the precursors that presumably produces monomer for the growth of nanocrystals. Theoretical study based on density functional theory calculations revealed the detailed free energy landscape of the precursor decomposition and monomer formation pathway. Based on the proposed reaction mechanism, a new synthetic method was designed that uses water as a novel reagent to control the diameter and the aspect ratio of CdSe and CdS nanorods

  3. Cellulose nanocrystals from acacia bark-Influence of solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taflick, Ticiane; Schwendler, Luana A; Rosa, Simone M L; Bica, Clara I D; Nachtigall, Sônia M B

    2017-08-01

    The isolation of cellulose nanocrystals from different lignocellulosic materials has shown increased interest in academic and technological research. These materials have excellent mechanical properties and can be used as nanofillers for polymer composites as well as transparent films for various applications. In this work, cellulose isolation was performed following an environmental friendly procedure without chlorine. Cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from the exhausted acacia bark (after the industrial process of extracting tannin) with the objective of evaluating the effect of the solvent extraction steps on the characteristics of cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals. It was also assessed the effect of acid hydrolysis time on the thermal stability, morphology and size of the nanocrystals, through TGA, TEM and light scattering analyses. It was concluded that the extraction step with solvents was important in the isolation of cellulose, but irrelevant in the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Light scattering experiments indicated that 30min of hydrolysis was long enough for the isolation of cellulose nanocrystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Visible tunable lighting system based on polymer composites embedding ZnO and metallic clusters: from colloids to thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thai Giang; Dierre, Benjamin; Grasset, Fabien; Saito, Noriko; Saito, Norio; Nguyen, Thi Kim Ngan; Takahashi, Kohsei; Uchikoshi, Tetsuo; Amela-Cortes, Marian; Molard, Yann; Cordier, Stéphane; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    The development of phosphor devices free of heavy metal or rare earth elements is an important issue for environmental reasons and energy efficiency. Different mixtures of ZnO nanocrystals with Cs2Mo6I8(OOC2F5)6 cluster compound (CMIF) dispersed into polyvinylpyrrolidone matrix have been prepared by very simple and low cost solution chemistry. The resulting solutions have been used to fabricate highly transparent and luminescent films by dip coating free of heavy metal or rare earth elements. The luminescence properties of solution and dip-coated films were investigated. The luminescence of such a system is strongly dependent on the ratios between ZnO and CMIF amounts, the excitation wavelength and the nature of the system. By varying these two parameters (ratio and wavelength), a large variety of colors, from blue to red as well as white, can be achieved. In addition, differences in the luminescence properties have been observed between solutions and thin films as well as changes of CMIF emission band maximum wavelength. This may suggest some possible interactions between the different luminophore centers, such as energy transfer or ligands exchange on the Mo6 clusters.

  5. Design of a novel dual Z-scheme photocatalytic system composited of Ag{sub 2}O modified Ti{sup 3+} self doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with individual exposed (001) and (101) facets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengyan; Liu, Hui, E-mail: liuhui@sust.edu.cn; Liu, Tingting; Qin, Yangxiao

    2017-02-15

    A novel dual Z-scheme photocatalytic system composited of Ag{sub 2}O nanocrystals modified Ti{sup 3+} self doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with individual exposed (001) and (101) facets were successfully fabricated. In which, the Ti{sup 3+} self doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with individual exposed (001) and (101) facets have been firstly prepared by a simple hydrothermal method, subsequently the as-prepared products were modified with Ag{sub 2}O nanocrystals through a sonochemical depositing process in order to build a novel dual Z-scheme photocatalytic system. The samples were carefully characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV–vis DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The photocatalytic activity toward degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh B) aqueous solution under stimulated solar light was investigated. The experimental results showed this new dual Z-scheme photocatalytic system possess an enhanced photocatalytic degradation activity compared to that similar surface heterojunction photocatalysts composed of Ti{sup 3+} self doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals with individual exposed (001) and (101) facets. This novel photocatalytic system presents a high charge-separation efficiency and strong redox ability. This study will help us to better understand the photocatalytic mechanism of semiconductor photocatalysts with exposed different facets, and provide a new insight into the design and fabrication of advanced photocatalytic materials. - Highlights: •A novel dual Z-scheme system was built by Ag{sub 2}O and facet exposed TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals. •The individual TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals exposed (001) and (101) facets respectively. •Ag{sub 2}O coupled with Ti{sup 3+} self doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals through a sonochemical process. •The as-prepared sample possesses a super photocatalytic activity.

  6. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced foamed nitrile rubber nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yukun; Zhang, Yuanbing; Xu, Chuanhui; Cao, Xiaodong

    2015-10-05

    Research on foamed nitrile rubber (NBR)/cellulose nanocrystals (CNs) nanocomposites is rarely found in the literatures. In this paper, CNs suspension and NBR latex was mixed to prepared the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites. We found that the CNs mainly located in the cell walls, effectively reinforcing the foamed NBR. The strong interaction between the CNs and NBR matrix restricted the mobility of NBR chains surrounding the CNs, hence increasing the crosslink density of the NBR matrix. CNs exhibited excellent reinforcement on the foamed NBR: a remarkable increase nearly 76% in the tensile strength of the foamed nanocomposites was achieved with a load of only 15 phr CNs. Enhanced mechanical properties make the foamed NBR/CNs nanocomposites a promising damping material for industrial applications with a potential to reduce the petroleum consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Making sense of nanocrystal lattice fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraundorf, P.; Qin Wentao; Moeck, Peter; Mandell, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The orientation dependence of thin-crystal lattice fringes can be gracefully quantified using fringe-visibility maps, a direct-space analog of Kikuchi maps [Nishikawa and Kikuchi, Nature (London) 121, 1019 (1928)]. As in navigation of reciprocal space with the aid of Kikuchi lines, fringe-visibility maps facilitate acquisition of crystallographic information from lattice images. In particular, these maps can help researchers to determine the three-dimensional lattice of individual nanocrystals, to 'fringe-fingerprint' collections of randomly oriented particles, and to measure local specimen thickness with only a modest tilt. Since the number of fringes in an image increases with maximum spatial-frequency squared, these strategies (with help from more precise goniometers) will be more useful as aberration correction moves resolutions into the subangstrom range

  8. Flexible and fragmentable tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, S.; Uran, C.; Bozok, B.; Gungor, K.; Kelestemur, Y.; Lesnyak, V.; Gaponik, N.; Eychmüller, A.; Demir, H. V.

    2016-02-01

    We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of single monolayers of colloidal water-soluble CdTe and CdHgTe nanocrystals (NCs) in adjacent junctions on a Kapton polymer tape. Owing to the usage of a single NC layer in each junction, noise generation was significantly reduced while keeping the resulting PNS films considerably transparent. In each junction, photogenerated excitons are dissociated at the interface of the semi-transparent Al electrode and the NC layer, with holes migrating to the contact electrode and electrons trapped in the NCs. As a result, the tandem PNSs lead to an open-circuit photovoltage buildup equal to the sum of those of the two single junctions, exhibiting a total voltage buildup of 128.4 mV at an excitation intensity of 75.8 μW cm-2 at 350 nm. Furthermore, we showed that these flexible PNSs could be bent over 3.5 mm radius of curvature and cut out in arbitrary shapes without damaging the operation of individual parts and without introducing any significant loss in the total sensitivity. These findings indicate that the NC skins are promising as building blocks to make low-cost, flexible, large-area UV/visible sensing platforms with highly efficient full-spectrum conversion.We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of

  9. Development and validation of TOF-SIMS and CLSM imaging method for cytotoxicity study of ZnO nanoparticles in HaCaT cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Pei-Ling; Chen, Bo-Chia; Gollavelli, Ganesh [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Shen, Sin-Yu [Graduate Institute of Medical Science, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Yin, Yu-Sheng; Lei, Shiu-Ling [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Jhang, Cian-Ling; Lee, Woan-Ruoh [Department of Dermatology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Ling, Yong-Chien, E-mail: ycling@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medical Science, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • Assorted material, chemical, and toxicological analysis methods were used to confirm the shape, size, crystalline structure, and aggregation properties of ZnO NPS as well as their dissolution behavior and effect on HaCaT cell viability. • The developed TOF-SIMS and CLSM imaging method for rapid and sensitive study of ZnO NPs in HaCaT cells was validated by comparative and correlative analyses to aforementioned experimental results. • The imaging results demonstrate spatially-resolved cytotoxicity relationship between intracellular ZnO NPs concentration, {sup 40}Ca/{sup 39}K ratio, phosphocholine fragments, and glutathione fragments. CLSM images reveal the localization of ZnO NPs in cytoplasm and nuclei. • The trend of change in TOF-SIMS spectra and images of ZnO NPs treated HaCaT cells demonstrate the possible mode of actions by ZnO NP involves cell membrane disruption, cytotoxic response, and ROS mediated apoptosis. - Abstract: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) exhibit novel physiochemical properties and have found increasing use in sunscreen products and cosmetics. The potential toxicity is of increasing concern due to their close association with human skin. A time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) imaging method was developed and validated for rapid and sensitive cytotoxicity study of ZnO NPs using human skin equivalent HaCaT cells as a model system. Assorted material, chemical, and toxicological analysis methods were used to confirm their shape, size, crystalline structure, and aggregation properties as well as dissolution behavior and effect on HaCaT cell viability in the presence of various concentrations of ZnO NPs in aqueous media. Comparative and correlative analyses of aforementioned results with TOF-SIMS and CLSM imaging results exhibit reasonable and acceptable outcome. A marked drop in survival rate was observed with 50 μg/ml ZnO NPs. The CLSM images reveal the

  10. Characteristics of ZnO nanostructures produced with [DMIm]BF{sub 4} using ultrasonic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, I. B. Abdul; Ayob, M. T. M.; Ishak, I. S.; Mohd Lawi, R. L.; Isahak, W. N. R. W.; Hamid, M. H. N. Abd; Othman, N. K.; Radiman, S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Chemistry and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia); School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2012-11-27

    Great interests in metallic oxides have emerged because of the promising properties of these materials for various applications such as solar cells and sensors. ZnO nanostructures with different morphologies were successfully synthesized from Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} Bullet 2H{sub 2}O, NaOH and room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] with ultrasound irradiation. Parameters such as the effect of sonication time (30, 60 and 90 minutes) and Zn(Ac){sub 2} precursor to [DMIm][BF{sub 4}] ratios of 3:5, 5:5 and 5:3 were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the ZnO nanocrystals were hexagonal zincite crystalline in structure. The band gap energies (E{sub g}) were estimated to be 3.35-3.55 eV from the UV-Visible spectrum. The solution with the highest ratio of Zn was analysed with photoluminescence spectroscopy, which exhibited peaks at 362, 403, 468 and 539 nm, at room temperature. The micrographs of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesis products were spherical (30-60 nm), spindle ({approx}10 Multiplication-Sign 70 nm for width Multiplication-Sign length) and whisker-like (100-200 nm), with their dimensions decreasing systematically with increased sonication time. Chemical compositions were approximated at 1:1 for Zn and O, estimated by electron dispersive x-ray spectrum.

  11. Synthesis and optical properties of Co2+-doped ZnO Network prepared by new precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari, Fereshteh; Zorriasatein, Suzan; Farahmandjou, Majid; Elahi, Seyed Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    Pure ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and Co/ZnO alloy NPs were synthesized with different percentages of cobalt impurity (1%, 3%, 5%, and 25%) with new precursors through the coprecipitation method. The structural results of the XRD analysis indicated that the pure and impure samples have a wurtzite hexagonal structure such that with an elevation of Co impurity up to 1%, the size of the nanocrystals declines by up to 30 nm. Furthermore, the FESEM analysis results suggest the homogeneity of the NPs such that with increased cobalt impurity, its level declines. The TEM analysis results revealed that the NPs with 5% impurity have a mean size of 32 nm in spherical form. The FTIR optical analysis results suggest a very sharp absorption peak within the wavelength ranges of 434–448 cm‑1, belonging to the Zn-O vibration bond. In addition, the absorption peak developed at the wavelength of 3428 cm‑1 is related to the activation of the OH radicals, whose absorption value grows with the addition of an impurity, thereby, causing enhanced photocatalytic activity. The UV-DRS optical analysis indicated that the absorption wavelength grows with increased impurity, causing the development of redshift and a reduction of the energy band gap. In this regard, for the pure sample, the band gap value was 3.18 eV, while for the sample with 5% impurity, the band gap was obtained as 2.68 eV. The VSM magnetic analysis suggests ferromagnetic development in the impure sample, with a saturation magnetism of 16 memu g‑1 and a coercivity field of 342 G.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by C3N4/ZnO: the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    heating at 540◦C for 3 h in air, melamine was converted to C3N4 but the formation of C3N4 depended on the ratios of the melamine and ZnO (M/Z) powders. From the experimental results, ... decolourize the textile wastewater such as adsorption, chem- ical coagulation, oxidization and so on [1–3]. Photocataly- sis is one of ...

  13. Parameters Calculation of ZnO Surge Arrester Models by Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bayadi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to provide a new technique based on the genetic algorithm to obtain the best possible series of values of the parameters of the ZnO surge arresters models. The validity of the predicted parameters is then checked by comparing the results predicted with the experimental results available in the literature. Using the ATP-EMTP package an application of the arrester model on network system studies is presented and discussed.

  14. Removal of thorium (IV) ions from aqueous solution by a novel nanoporous ZnO: Isotherms, kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynar, Ümit H; Ayvacıklı, Mehmet; Hiçsönmez, Ümran; Kaynar, Sermin Çam

    2015-12-01

    The adsorption of thorium (IV) from aqueous solutions onto a novel nanoporous ZnO particles prepared by microwave assisted combustion was studied using batch methods under different experimental conditions. The effect of contact time, solution pH, initial concentration and temperature on adsorption process was studied. The ability of this material to remove Th (IV) from aqueous solution was characterises by Langmuir, Freunlinch and Temkin adsorption isotherms. The adsorption percent and distribution coefficient for nanoporous ZnO powders in optimum conditions were 97% ± 1.02; 8080 L kg(-1)for Th (IV), respectively. Based on the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity of nanoporous ZnO for Th (IV) was found to be 1500 g kg(-1). Thermodynamic parameters were determined and discussed. The results indicated that nanoporous ZnO was suitable as sorbent material for recovery and adsorption of Th (IV) ions from aqueous solutions. The radioactive Th (VI) in surface water, sea water and waste waters from technologies producing nuclear fuels, mining (uranium and thorium) and laboratories working with radioactive materials (uranium and thorium) can be removed with this nanoporous ZnO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Alternative Atomistic Models for the Incipient Growth of ZnO by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Manh-Hung; Tian, Liang; Chaker, Ahmad; Skopin, Evgenii; Cantelli, Valentina; Ouled, Toufik; Boichot, Raphaël; Crisci, Alexandre; Lay, Sabine; Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Thomas, Olivier; Deschanvres, Jean-Luc; Renevier, Hubert; Fong, Dillon; Ciatto, Gianluca

    2017-03-20

    ZnO thin films are interesting for applications in several technological fields, including optoelectronics and renewable energies. Nanodevice applications require controlled synthesis of ZnO structures at nanometer scale, which can be achieved via atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, the mechanisms governing the initial stages of ALD had not been addressed until very recently. Investigations into the initial nucleation and growth as well as the atomic structure of the heterointerface are crucial to optimize the ALD process and understand the structure-property relationships for ZnO. We have used a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron x-ray techniques to investigate both the structural and chemical evolution during ZnO growth by ALD on two different substrates, i.e., SiO2 and Al2O3, which led us to formulate an atomistic model of the incipient growth of ZnO. The model relies on the formation of nanoscale islands of different size and aspect ratio and consequent disorder induced in the Zn neighbors' distribution. However, endorsement of our model requires testing and discussion of possible alternative models which could account for the experimental results. In this work, we review, test, and rule out several alternative models; the results confirm our view of the atomistic mechanisms at play, which influence the overall microstructure and resulting properties of the final thin film.

  16. First-principles study on electronic and magnetic properties of (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Huawei; Lu, Pengfei; Cai, Ningning; Zhang, Xianlong; Yu, Zhongyuan; Gao, Tao; Wang, Shumin

    2014-01-01

    First-principle calculations have been performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U schemes. The formation energy of five different configurations is investigated and the ground state is demonstrated to be ferromagnetic ordering. By applying the U correction, the band gap energy of pure ZnO is close to the experimental values, while the ferromagnetic ordering of the ground state remains unchanged. The ferromagnetic stabilization is mediated by double exchange mechanism. In addition, defects corresponding to Zn-vacancy and O-vacancy cannot enhance the ferromagnetism obviously. These results indicate that (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO are promising magneto-electronic and spintronic materials. - Highlights: • We have considered 5 different configurations of Mn/Fe codoped bulk ZnO. • The formation energy is calculated to investigate the structural stability. • The double exchange mechanism is responsible for the ferromagnetic behavior. • Defects are not effective method to get room temperature ferromagnetism. • Mn/Fe codoped ZnO are promising ferromagnetic semiconductor materials

  17. First-principles study on electronic and magnetic properties of (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Huawei [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: photon.bupt@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Cai, Ningning; Zhang, Xianlong; Yu, Zhongyuan [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100876 (China); Gao, Tao [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wang, Shumin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    First-principle calculations have been performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and GGA+U schemes. The formation energy of five different configurations is investigated and the ground state is demonstrated to be ferromagnetic ordering. By applying the U correction, the band gap energy of pure ZnO is close to the experimental values, while the ferromagnetic ordering of the ground state remains unchanged. The ferromagnetic stabilization is mediated by double exchange mechanism. In addition, defects corresponding to Zn-vacancy and O-vacancy cannot enhance the ferromagnetism obviously. These results indicate that (Mn,Fe)-codoped ZnO are promising magneto-electronic and spintronic materials. - Highlights: • We have considered 5 different configurations of Mn/Fe codoped bulk ZnO. • The formation energy is calculated to investigate the structural stability. • The double exchange mechanism is responsible for the ferromagnetic behavior. • Defects are not effective method to get room temperature ferromagnetism. • Mn/Fe codoped ZnO are promising ferromagnetic semiconductor materials.

  18. Mechanisms involved in the hydrothermal growth of ultra-thin and high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demes, Thomas; Ternon, Céline; Morisot, Fanny; Riassetto, David; Legallais, Maxime; Roussel, Hervé; Langlet, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO nanowires (NWs) with tailored dimensions, notably high aspect ratios (AR) and small diameters, is a major concern for a wide range of applications and still represents a challenging and recurring issue. In this work, an additive-free and reproducible hydrothermal procedure has been developed to grow ultra-thin and high AR ZnO NWs on sol-gel deposited ZnO seed layers. Controlling the substrate temperature and using a low reagent concentration (1 mM) has been found to be essential for obtaining such NWs. We show that the NW diameter remains constant at about 20-25 nm with growth time contrary to the NW length that can be selectively increased leading to NWs with ARs up to 400. On the basis of investigated experimental conditions along with thermodynamic and kinetic considerations, a ZnO NW growth mechanism has been developed which involves the formation and growth of nuclei followed by NW growth when the nuclei reach a critical size of about 20-25 nm. The low reagent concentration inhibits NW lateral growth leading to ultra-thin and high AR NWs. These NWs have been assembled into electrically conductive ZnO nanowire networks, which opens attractive perspectives toward the development of highly sensitive low-cost gas- or bio-sensors.

  19. Application of Powder Diffraction Methods to the Analysis of the Atomic Structure of Nanocrystals: The Concept of the Apparent Lattice Parameter (ALP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, B.; Grzanka, E.; Gierlotka, S.; Stelmakh, S.; Pielaszek, R.; Bismayer, U.; Weber, H.-P.; Palosz, W.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of standard methods of elaboration of powder diffraction data for determination of the structure of nano-size crystallites is analysed. Based on our theoretical calculations of powder diffraction data we show, that the assumption of the infinite crystal lattice for nanocrystals smaller than 20 nm in size is not justified. Application of conventional tools developed for elaboration of powder diffraction data, like the Rietveld method, may lead to erroneous interpretation of the experimental results. An alternate evaluation of diffraction data of nanoparticles, based on the so-called 'apparent lattice parameter' (alp) is introduced. We assume a model of nanocrystal having a grain core with well-defined crystal structure, surrounded by a surface shell with the atomic structure similar to that of the core but being under a strain (compressive or tensile). The two structural components, the core and the shell, form essentially a composite crystal with interfering, inseparable diffraction properties. Because the structure of such a nanocrystal is not uniform, it defies the basic definitions of an unambiguous crystallographic phase. Consequently, a set of lattice parameters used for characterization of simple crystal phases is insufficient for a proper description of the complex structure of nanocrystals. We developed a method of evaluation of powder diffraction data of nanocrystals, which refers to a core-shell model and is based on the 'apparent lattice parameter' methodology. For a given diffraction pattem, the alp values are calculated for every individual Bragg reflection. For nanocrystals the alp values depend on the diffraction vector Q. By modeling different a0tomic structures of nanocrystals and calculating theoretically corresponding diffraction patterns using the Debye functions we showed, that alp-Q plots show characteristic shapes which can be used for evaluation of the atomic structure of the core-shell system. We show, that using a simple

  20. Photoluminescence behaviors of single CdSe/ZnS/TOPO nanocrystals: Adsorption effects of water molecules onto nanocrystal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masaru; Hasegawa, Atsushi; Iwami, Noriya; Nishiura, Ken; Ando, Naohisa; Nishiyama, Akira; Horiuchi, Hiromi; Tani, Toshiro

    2007-01-01

    We report here the distinctive modifications of photoluminescence (PL) behaviors in single CdSe/ZnS/TOPO nanocrystals depending on their environments. Long-time traces of PL intensity from single nanocrystals have been obtained in both vacuum and a wet nitrogen atmosphere. While all of the nanocrystals in both environments exhibit PL blinking behaviors, i.e. on-off intermittency of PL intensity, as usual, some of the nanocrystals in the wet nitrogen atmosphere show significant increase in duration time of on-events. As for the duration time of blinking off-events, it is for the moment associated with the occasional events of carrier capturing at trap sites on or near the nanocrystal surfaces. We propose a model in which adsorbed water molecules at the trap sites on the nanocrystal surfaces transform them under light irradiation, which eventually decreases the occurrence of the trapping events due to their inactivation. It in turn increases the PL on-times. In addition to the drastic modification of the blinking profile, we also found that in the PL time traces some kinds of undulated behaviors, i.e. continuous and rather low frequency fluctuation of PL intensity, appear during each on-event in vacuum while they disappear totally in the wet nitrogen atmosphere. These results are also described on the basis of the inactivation model of the trap sites introduced above

  1. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgessa, Z.N., E-mail: zelalem.urgessa@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Oluwafemi, O.S. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI, 5117 (South Africa); Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH{sup -} to Zn{sup 2+} ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H{sup +} and OH{sup -} in the solution.

  2. Role of VI/II ratio on the growth of ZnO nanostructures using chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urgessa, Z.N.; Oluwafemi, O.S.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the growth process and morphological evolution of ZnO nanostructures were investigated in a series of experiments using chemical bath deposition. The experimental results indicate that the morphological evolution depends on the reaction conditions, particularly on OH − to Zn 2+ ratio (which directly affects the pH). For low VI/II ratios, quasi-spherical nanoparticles of an average diameter 30 nm are obtained, whereas for larger VI/II ratios, nanorods with an average diameter less than 100 nm are produced, which indicates that by systematically controlling the VI/II ratio, it is possible to produce different shapes and sizes of ZnO nanostructures. A possible mechanism for the nanostructural change of the as-synthesized ZnO from particle to rod was elucidated based on the relative densities of H + and OH − in the solution.

  3. Transient heat transfer in a directly-irradiated solar chemical reactor for the thermal dissociation of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Lipinski, W.; Steinfeld, A.

    2008-01-01

    A numerical and experimental investigation is carried out in a solar thermochemical reactor for the thermal dissociation of ZnO at 2000 K using concentrated solar energy. The reactor consists of a cavity-receiver lined with ZnO particles and directly exposed to high-flux irradiation. A transient heat transfer model is formulated to link the rate of radiation, convection, and conduction heat transfer to the reaction kinetics. The radiosity and Monte Carlo methods are applied to obtain the distribution of net radiative fluxes at the internal surfaces of the reactor cavity and at the surface of the ZnO bed. Validation is accomplished in terms of the calculated and measured transient temperature profiles and chemical reaction rates

  4. Density functional calculation of electronic surface structure and Fe adsorption on ZnO (0001) and (000 anti 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Sougata; Jasper-Toennies, Torben; Hack, Michael; Pehlke, Eckhard [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Kiel (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The structure and electronic properties of the ZnO(0001) and ZnO(000 anti 1) surfaces as studied by density functional calculations are presented. The stability of the surface has already been investigated by various groups. The electronic surface band structure, however, in particular the existence of surface states and the differences between experimental band dispersion for both terminations, still appears to pose open problems. To address these issues, we compare Kohn Sham band structures and electrostatic potentials close to the surface for the relaxed (1 x 1)-surface, (2 x 2) vacancy reconstructions, and surfaces with pits. In particular the effect of the bending of the electrostatic potential at the surface on the eigenstates is quantified. Comparing the adsorption energies of Fe atoms for various adsorption sites on ZnO(000 anti 1), the fcc hollow position turned out to be energetically favorable. The oxidation state of the Fe atom is derived from the projected density of states.

  5. On the transparent conducting oxide Al doped ZnO: First Principles and Boltzmann equations study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slassi, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); Naji, S. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ibb University, Ibb (Yemen); Benyoussef, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M., E-mail: hamedoun@hotmail.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); El Kenz, A. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Rabat (Morocco)

    2014-08-25

    Highlights: • The incorporation of Al in ZnO increases the optical band edge absorption. • Incorporated Al creates shallow donor states of Al-3s around Fermi level. • Transmittance decreases in the visible and IR regions, while it increases in the UV region. • Electrical conductivity increases and reaches almost the saturation for high concentration of Al. - Abstract: We report, in this work, a theoretical study on the electronic, optical and electrical properties of pure and Al doped ZnO with different concentrations. In fact, we investigate these properties using both First Principles calculations within TB-mBJ approximation and Boltzmann equations under the constant relaxation time approximation for charge carriers. It is found out that, the calculated lattice parameters and the optical band gap of pure ZnO are close to the experimental values and in a good agreement with the other theoretical studies. It is also observed that, the incorporations of Al in ZnO increase the optical band edge absorption which leads to a blue shift and no deep impurities levels are induced in the band gap as well. More precisely, these incorporations create shallow donor states around Fermi level in the conduction band minimum from mainly Al-3s orbital. Beside this, it is found that, the transmittance is decreased in the visible and IR regions, while it is significantly improved in UV region. Finally, our calculations show that the electrical conductivity is enhanced as a result of Al doping and it reaches almost the saturation for high concentration of Al. These features make Al doped ZnO a transparent conducting electrode for optoelectronic device applications.

  6. First principles study of magneto-optical properties of Fe-doped ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoqiang, Guo [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Qingyu, Hou, E-mail: by0501119@126.com [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Zhenchao, Xu [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); Chunwang, Zhao [College of Science, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051 (China); College of Arts and Sciences, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Studies on optical band gaps and absorption spectra of Fe-doped ZnO have conflicting conclusions, such as contradictory redshifted and blueshifted spectra. To solve this contradiction, we constructed models of un-doped and Fe-doped ZnO using first-principles theory and optimized the geometry of the three models. Electronic structures and absorption spectra were also calculated using the GGA+U method. Higher doping content of Fe resulted in larger volume of doped system, and higher total energy resulted in lower stability. Higher formation energy also led to more difficult doping. Meanwhile, the band gaps broadened and the absorption spectra exhibited an evident blue shift. The calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Given the unipolar structure of ZnO, four possible magnetic coupling configurations for Zn{sub 14}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 16} were calculated to investigate the magnetic properties. Results suggest that Fe doping can improve ferromagnetism in the ZnO system and that ferromagnetic stabilization was mediated by p–d exchange interaction between Fe-3d and O-2p orbitals. Therefore, the doped system is expected to obtain high stability and high Curie temperature of diluted magnetic semiconductor material, which are useful as theoretical bases for the design and preparation of the Fe-doped ZnO system’s magneto-optical properties. - Highlights: • A biomonitoring tool for the freshwater zone of template estuaries. • Water quality characterization related to nutrients and organic matter enrichment. • The percentage of a group of 24 tolerant species were capable of detecting the impairment of the water quality. • Characterization of morpho-functional traits of the selected tolerant species.

  7. Investigation of the generation of singlet oxygen in ensembles of photoexcited silicon nanocrystals by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinova, E. A.; Demin, V. A.; Timoshenko, V. Yu.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of singlet oxygen is investigated and its concentration upon photoexcitation of silicon nanocrystals in porous silicon layers is determined using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The relaxation times of spin centers, i.e., silicon dangling bonds, in vacuum and in an oxygen atmosphere in the dark and under illumination of the samples are measured for the first time. It is revealed that the spin-lattice relaxation in porous silicon is retarded as compared to that in a single-crystal substrate. From analyzing experimental data, a microscopic model is proposed for interaction of oxygen molecules in the triplet state and spin centers at the surface of silicon nanocrystals. The results obtained have demonstrated that porous silicon holds promise for the use as a photosensitizer of molecular oxygen in biomedical applications

  8. Nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, E., E-mail: heredia.edu@gmail.com [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.; Casanova, J.; Cánepa, H. [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Craievich, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, 66318 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kellermann, G. [Universidade Federal do Paraná, 19044 Paraná (Brazil)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • ZnO films synthesized by sol–gel were deposited by spin-coating on flat substrates. • Structural features of ZnO films with several thicknesses were characterized by means of different techniques. • The thicknesses of different ZnO thin films were determined by means of FESEM and AFM. • The nanoporous structures of ZnO thin films were characterized by GISAXS using IsGISAXS software. • The average densities of ZnO thin films were derived from (i) the critical angle in 1D XR patterns, (ii) the angle of Yoneda peak in 2D GISAXS images, (iii) minimization of chi2 using IsGISAXS best fitting procedure. - Abstract: ZnO thin films deposited on silica flat plates were prepared by spin-coating and studied by applying several techniques for structural characterization. The films were prepared by depositing different numbers of layers, each deposition being followed by a thermal treatment at 200 °C to dry and consolidate the successive layers. After depositing all layers, a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 3 h was also applied in order to eliminate organic components and to promote the crystallization of the thin films. The total thickness of the multilayered films – ranging from 40 nm up to 150 nm – was determined by AFM and FESEM. The analysis by GIXD showed that the thin films are composed of ZnO crystallites with an average diameter of 25 nm circa. XR results demonstrated that the thin films also exhibit a large volume fraction of nanoporosity, typically 30–40 vol.% in thin films having thicknesses larger than ∼70 nm. GISAXS measurements showed that the experimental scattering intensity is well described by a structural model composed of nanopores with shape of oblate spheroids, height/diameter aspect ratio within the 0.8–0.9 range and average diameter along the sample surface plane in the 5–7 nm range.

  9. The Role of Shape on Electronic Structure and Charge Transport in Faceted PbSe Nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.; Lukose, Binit; Clancy, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    We have determined the effect of shape on the charge transport characteristics of nanocrystals. Our study looked at the explicit determination of the electronic properties of faceted nanocrystals that essentially probe the limit of current

  10. State of the art of nanocrystals technology for delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuqi; Du, Juan; Wang, Lulu; Wang, Yancai, E-mail: wangyancai1999@163.com [Qilu University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering (China)

    2016-09-15

    Formulation of nanocrystals is a distinctive approach which can effectively improve the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, thus enticing the development of the nanocrystals technology. The characteristics of nanocrystals resulted in an exceptional drug delivery conductance, including saturation solubility, dissolution velocity, adhesiveness, and affinity. Nanocrystals were treated as versatile pharmaceuticals that could be delivered through almost all routes of administration. In the current review, oral, pulmonary, and intravenous routes of administration were presented. Also, the targeting of drug nanocrystals, as well as issues of efficacy and safety, were also discussed. Several methods were applied for nanocrystals production including top-down production strategy (media milling, high-pressure homogenization), bottom-up production strategy (antisolvent precipitation, supercritical fluid process, and precipitation by removal of solvent), and the combination approaches. Moreover, this review also described the evaluation and characterization of the drug nanocrystals and summarized the current commercial pharmaceutical products utilizing nanocrystals technology.

  11. Fundamental aspects of nucleation and growth in the solution-phase synthesis of germanium nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Codoluto, Stephen C.; Baumgardner, William J.; Hanrath, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    Colloidal Ge nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized via the solution phase reduction of germanium(ii) iodide. We report a systematic investigation of the nanocrystal nucleation and growth as a function of synthesis conditions including the nature

  12. Mechanical, barrier and morphological properties of starch nanocrystals-reinforced pea starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Qiu, Chao; Ji, Na; Sun, Cuixia; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2015-05-05

    To characterize the pea starch films reinforced with waxy maize starch nanocrystals, the mechanical, water vapor barrier and morphological properties of the composite films were investigated. The addition of starch nanocrystals increased the tensile strength of the composite films, and the value of tensile strength of the composite films was highest when starch nanocrystals content was 5% (w/w). The moisture content (%), water vapor permeability, and water-vapor transmission rate of the composite films significantly decreased as starch nanocrystals content increased. When their starch nanocrystals content was 1-5%, the starch nanocrystals dispersed homogeneously in the composite films, resulting in a relatively smooth and compact film surface and better thermal stability. However, when starch nanocrystals content was more than 7%, the starch nanocrystals began to aggregate, which resulted in the surface of the composite films developing a longitudinal fibrous structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing ZnO nanoparticles toxicity through silica coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing Ling Chia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ZnO NPs have good antimicrobial activity that can be utilized as agents to prevent harmful microorganism growth in food. However, the use of ZnO NPs as food additive is limited by the perceived high toxicity of ZnO NPs in many earlier toxicity studies. In this study, surface modification by silica coating was used to reduce the toxicity of ZnO NPs by significantly reducing the dissolution of the core ZnO NPs. To more accurately recapitulate the scenario of ingested ZnO NPs, we tested our as synthesized ZnO NPs in ingestion fluids (synthetic saliva and synthetic gastric juice to determine the possible forms of ZnO NPs in digestive system before exposing the products to colorectal cell lines. The results showed that silica coating is highly effective in reducing toxicity of ZnO NPs through prevention of the dissociation of ZnO NPs to zinc ions in both neutral and acidic condition. The silica coating however did not alter the desired antimicrobial activity of ZnO NPs to E. coli and S. aureus. Thus, silica coating offered a potential solution to improve the biocompatibility of ZnO NPs for applications such as antimicrobial agent in foods or food related products like food packaging. Nevertheless, caution remains that high concentration of silica coated ZnO NPs can still induce undesirable cytotoxicity to mammalian gut cells. This study indicated that upstream safer-by-design philosophy in nanotechnology can be very helpful in a product development.

  14. Cellulose nanocrystals with tunable surface charge for nanomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Alam, Md Nur; Sim, Goeun; Tufenkji, Nathalie; van de Ven, Theo G. M.

    2015-10-01

    Crystalline nanoparticles of cellulose exhibit attractive properties as nanoscale carriers for bioactive molecules in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. For applications in imaging and drug delivery, surface charge is one of the most important factors affecting the performance of nanocarriers. However, current methods of preparation offer little flexibility for controlling the surface charge of cellulose nanocrystals, leading to compromised colloidal stability under physiological conditions. We report a synthesis method that results in nanocrystals with remarkably high carboxyl content (6.6 mmol g-1) and offers continuous control over surface charge without any adjustment to the reaction conditions. Six fractions of nanocrystals with various surface carboxyl contents were synthesized from a single sample of softwood pulp with carboxyl contents varying from 6.6 to 1.7 mmol g-1 and were fully characterized. The proposed method resulted in highly stable colloidal nanocrystals that did not aggregate when exposed to high salt concentrations or serum-containing media. Interactions of these fractions with four different tissue cell lines were investigated over a wide range of concentrations (50-300 μg mL-1). Darkfield hyperspectral imaging and confocal microscopy confirmed the uptake of nanocrystals by selected cell lines without any evidence of membrane damage or change in cell density; however a charge-dependent decrease in mitochondrial activity was observed for charge contents higher than 3.9 mmol g-1. A high surface carboxyl content allowed for facile conjugation of fluorophores to the nanocrystals without compromising colloidal stability. The cellular uptake of fluoresceinamine-conjugated nanocrystals exhibited a time-dose dependent relationship and increased significantly with doubling of the surface charge.Crystalline nanoparticles of cellulose exhibit attractive properties as nanoscale carriers for bioactive molecules in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. For

  15. Protein Adsorption and Antibacterial Behavior for Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    OpenAIRE

    笠原, 英充; 小形, 信男; 荻原, 隆

    2005-01-01

    Homogeneous hydroxyapatite nanocrystals which have aspect ratio with more than four were synthesized by hydrothermal method. X-ray fluorescence analysis revealed that the Ca/P ratio of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals was maintaining start composition. The protein adsorption properties and bacteria-resistant of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals were investigated. The protein adsorption properties of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals were improvement after the hydrothermal treatment. Bacteria-resistant behavio...

  16. Aqueous dispersion of monodisperse magnetic iron oxide nanocrystals through phase transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, William W; Chang, Emmanuel; Sayes, Christie M; Drezek, Rebekah; Colvin, Vicki L

    2006-01-01

    A facile method was developed for completely transferring high quality monodisperse iron oxide nanocrystals from organic solvents to water. The as-prepared aqueous dispersions of iron oxide nanocrystals were extremely stable and could be functionalized for bioconjugation with biomolecules. These iron oxide nanocrystals showed negligible cytotoxicity to human breast cancer cells (SK-BR-3) and human dermal fibroblast cells. This method is general and versatile for many organic solvent-synthesized nanoparticles, including fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals

  17. The aggregation and characteristics of radiation-induced defects in lithium fluoride nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitovich, A. P.; Kalinov, V. S.; Korzhik, M. V.; Martynovich, E. F.; Runets, L. P.; Stupak, A. P.

    2013-02-01

    It has been established that diffusion activation energies for anion vacancies and centres ? in lithium fluoride nanocrystals are higher than those in bulk crystals. In nanocrystals, ? centres migrating in the range of the temperature close to room temperature is not observed and these centres remain stable. The ratio of centres ? and F 2 concentrations in nanocrystals is higher than in bulk crystals. A new type of colour centres, which is absent in bulk crystals, is discovered in nanocrystals.

  18. Preparation of NiFe binary alloy nanocrystals for nonvolatile memory applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this work,an idea which applies binary alloy nanocrystal floating gate to nonvolatile memory application was introduced.The relationship between binary alloy’s work function and its composition was discussed theoretically.A nanocrystal floating gate structure with NiFe nanocrystals embedded in SiO2 dielectric layers was fabricated by magnetron sputtering.The micro-structure and composition deviation of the prepared NiFe nanocrystals were also investigated by TEM and EDS.

  19. Controlled synthesis of novel octapod platinum nanocrystals under microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Lei; Chi, Quan; Zhao, Yanxi; Liu, Hanfan; Zhou, Zhongqiang; Li, Jinlin; Huang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Under microwave irradiation, novel octapod Pt nanocrystals were synthesized by reducing H 2 PtCl 6 in TEG with PVP as a stabilizer. The as-prepared Pt nanocrystals displayed a unique octapod nanostructure with five little mastoids in each concave center. The use of KI was crucial to the formation of novel Pt octapods. Novel Octapod Platinum Nanocrystals. - Highlights: • A novel octapod Pt nanocrystals different from the common octapod were obtained. • The use of KI was crucial to the formation of the novel Pt octapods. • Microwave was readily employed in controlled synthesis of the novel Pt octapods. - Abstract: Microwave was employed in the shape-controlled synthesis of Pt nanoparticles. Novel octapod Pt nanocrystals enclosed with (1 1 1) facets were readily synthesized with H 2 PtCl 6 as a precursor, tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as both a solvent and a reducing agent, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizer in the presence of an appropriate amount of KI under microwave irradiation for 140 s. The as-prepared Pt nanocrystals displayed a unique octapod nanostructure with five little mastoids in each concave center and exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity than commercial Pt black in the electro-oxidations of methanol and formic acid. The results demonstrated that the use of KI was crucial to the formation of Pt octapods. KI determined the formation of the novel octapod Pt nanocrystals by tuning up the reduction kinetics and adsorbing on the surfaces of growing Pt nanoparticles. The optimum molar ratio of H 2 PtCl 6 /KI/PVP was 1/30/45

  20. Engineering Gold Nanorod-Based Plasmonic Nanocrystals for Optical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jianfeng

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals have a unique ability to support localized surface plasmon resonances and exhibit rich and intriguing optical properties. Engineering plasmonic nanocrystals can maximize their potentials for specific applications. In this dissertation, we developed three unprecedented Au nanorod-based plasmonic nanocrystals through rational design of the crystal shape and/or composition, and successfully demonstrated their applications in light condensation, photothermal conversion, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The “Au nanorod-Au nanosphere dimer” nanocrystal was synthesized via the ligand-induced asymmetric growth of a Au nanosphere on a Au nanorod. This dimeric nanostructure features an extraordinary broadband optical absorption in the range of 400‒1400nm, and it proved to be an ideal black-body material for light condensation and an efficient solar-light harvester for photothermal conversion. The “Au nanorod (core) @ AuAg alloy (shell)” nanocrystal was built through the epitaxial growth of homogeneously alloyed AuAg shells on Au nanorods by precisely controlled synthesis. The resulting core-shell structured, bimetallic nanorods integrate the merits of the AuAg alloy with the advantages of anisotropic nanorods, exhibiting strong, stable and tunable surface plasmon resonances that are essential for SERS applications in a corrosive environment. The “high-index faceted Au nanorod (core) @ AuPd alloy (shell)” nanocrystal was produced via site-specific epitaxial growth of AuPd alloyed horns at the ends of Au nanorods. The AuPd alloyed horns are bound with high-index side facets, while the Au nanorod concentrates an intensive electric field at each end. This unique configuration unites highly active catalytic sites with strong SERS sites into a single entity and was demonstrated to be ideal for in situ monitoring of Pd-catalyzed reactions by SERS. The synthetic strategies developed here are promising towards the fabrication of

  1. Photocatalytic degradation of trichloroethylene in aqueous phase using nano-ZNO/Laponite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Jin Chul; Ahn, Chang Hyuk; Jang, Dae Gyu; Yoon, Young Han; Kim, Jong Kyu; Campos, Luiza; Ahn, Hosang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Stable nano-ZnO/Laponite composites (NZLc) as an alternative to TiO 2 were produced. • Nanoscale ZnO complexed with NZLc was found to be an effective photocatalyst. • TCE removal efficiency of NZLc was greater than that of bare nanoscale ZnO. • Nanoscale ZnO-mediated photodegradation varied with experimental conditions. • Developed NZLc overcame drawbacks (e.g., filtration and recovery of photocatalysts). -- Abstract: The feasibility of nano-ZnO/Laponite composites (NZLc) as a valid alternative to TiO 2 to mineralize trichloroethylene (TCE) without difficulties for recovery of photocatalysts was evaluated. Based on the experimental observations, the removal of TCE using NZLc under UV irradiation was multiple reaction processes (i.e., sorption, photolysis, and photocatalysis). Sorption of TCE was thermodynamically favorable due to the hydrophobic partitioning into crosslinked poly vinyl alcohol, and the adsorption onto high-surface-area mineral surfaces of both ZnO and Laponite. The degradation efficiency of TCE can be significantly improved using NZLc under UV irradiation, indicating that ZnO-mediated heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation occurred. However, the degradation efficiency was found to vary with experimental conditions (e.g., initial concentration of TCE, loading amount of NZLc, the intensity of light and initial solution pH). Although the removal of TCE by NZLc was found to be a complex function of sorption, photolysis, and photocatalysis, the photocatalytic degradation of TCE on the surface of ZnO was critical. Consequently, developed NZLc can be applied as a valid alternative to suspended TiO 2 powder, and overcome drawbacks (e.g., filtration and recovery of photocatalysts) in degradation of TCE for various water resources

  2. Photocatalytic degradation of trichloroethylene in aqueous phase using nano-ZNO/Laponite composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Jin Chul; Ahn, Chang Hyuk; Jang, Dae Gyu; Yoon, Young Han [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Water Resource and Environment Research Department (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Kyu; Campos, Luiza [University College London, Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geomatic Engineering (United Kingdom); Ahn, Hosang, E-mail: hahn@kict.re.kr [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Water Resource and Environment Research Department (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Stable nano-ZnO/Laponite composites (NZLc) as an alternative to TiO{sub 2} were produced. • Nanoscale ZnO complexed with NZLc was found to be an effective photocatalyst. • TCE removal efficiency of NZLc was greater than that of bare nanoscale ZnO. • Nanoscale ZnO-mediated photodegradation varied with experimental conditions. • Developed NZLc overcame drawbacks (e.g., filtration and recovery of photocatalysts). -- Abstract: The feasibility of nano-ZnO/Laponite composites (NZLc) as a valid alternative to TiO{sub 2} to mineralize trichloroethylene (TCE) without difficulties for recovery of photocatalysts was evaluated. Based on the experimental observations, the removal of TCE using NZLc under UV irradiation was multiple reaction processes (i.e., sorption, photolysis, and photocatalysis). Sorption of TCE was thermodynamically favorable due to the hydrophobic partitioning into crosslinked poly vinyl alcohol, and the adsorption onto high-surface-area mineral surfaces of both ZnO and Laponite. The degradation efficiency of TCE can be significantly improved using NZLc under UV irradiation, indicating that ZnO-mediated heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation occurred. However, the degradation efficiency was found to vary with experimental conditions (e.g., initial concentration of TCE, loading amount of NZLc, the intensity of light and initial solution pH). Although the removal of TCE by NZLc was found to be a complex function of sorption, photolysis, and photocatalysis, the photocatalytic degradation of TCE on the surface of ZnO was critical. Consequently, developed NZLc can be applied as a valid alternative to suspended TiO{sub 2} powder, and overcome drawbacks (e.g., filtration and recovery of photocatalysts) in degradation of TCE for various water resources.

  3. ZnO quantum dots–decorated ZnO nanowires for the enhancement of antibacterial and photocatalytic performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jyh Ming; Tsay, Li-Yi

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate highly antibacterial activities for killing off Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using ZnO nanowires decorated with ZnO quantum dots (so-called ZnO QDs/NWs) under visible-light irradiation and dark conditions. The average size of the ZnO QDs is in the range of 3–5 nm; these were uniformly dispersed on the ZnO nanowires’ surface to form the ZnO QDs/NWs. A significant blue-shift effect was observed using photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The size of the ZnO QDs is strongly dependent on the material’s synthesis time. The ZnO QDs/NWs exhibited an excellent photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. The ZnO QDs’ active sites (i.e. the O–H bond and Zn"2"+) accelerate the photogenerated-carrier migration from the QDs to the NWs. As a consequence, the electrons reacted with the dissolved oxygen to form oxygen ions and produced hydroperoxyl radicals to enhance photocatalytic activity. The antibacterial activities (as indicated by R-factor-inhibiting activity) of the ZnO QDs/NWs for killing off Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is around 4.9 and 5.5 under visible-light irradiation and dark conditions, respectively. The hydroxyl radicals served as an efficient oxidized agent for decomposing the organic dye and microorganism species. The antibacterial activities of the ZnO QDs/NWs in the dark may be attributed to the Zn"2"+ ions that were released from the ZnO QDs and infused into the microbial solution against the growth of bacteria thus disrupting the microorganism. The highly antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of the ZnO QDs/NWs can be well implanted on a screen window, thus offering a promising solution to inhibit the spread of germs under visible-light and dark conditions. (paper)

  4. Depleted Nanocrystal-Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High...reviewed journals: Final Report: 4.3 Electronic Sensing - Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High-Sensitivity Infrared Detection Report Title...PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: 1 1 Final Progress Report Project title: Depleted Nanocrystal- Oxide Heterojunctions for High

  5. Infrared Emitting and Photoconducting Colloidal Silver Chalcogenide Nanocrystal Quantum Dots from a Silylamide-Promoted Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yarema, Maksym; Pichler, Stefan; Sytnyk, Mykhailo; Seyrkammer, Robert; Lechner, Rainer T.; Fritz-Popovski, Gerhard; Jarzab, Dorota; Szendrei, Krisztina; Resel, Roland; Korovyanko, Oleksandra; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Paris, Oskar; Hesser, Guenter; Heiss, Wolfgang; Hesser, Günter

    Here, we present a hot injection synthesis of colloidal Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals (Ag(2)Se, Ag(2)Te, and Ag(2)S) that resulted in exceptionally small nanocrystal sizes in the range between 2 and 4 nm. Ag chalcogenide nanocrystals exhibit band gap energies within the near-infrared spectral region,

  6. Energy conversion from aluminium and phosphate rich solution via ZnO activation of aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, Gymama, E-mail: gslaught@umbc.edu; Sunday, Joshua; Stevens, Brian

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical power sources have motivated intense research efforts in the development of alternative ‘green’ power sources for ultra-low powered bioelectronic devices. Biofuel cells employ immobilized enzymes to convert the available chemical energy of organic fuels directly into electricity. However, biofuel cells are limited by short lifetime due to enzyme inactivation and frequent need to incorporate mediators to shuttle electrons to the final electron acceptor. In this context, other electrochemical power sources are necessary in energy conversion and storage device applications. Here we report on the fabrication and characterization of a membrane-free aluminium/phosphate cell based on the activation of aluminium (Al) using ZnO nanocrystal in an Al/phosphate cell as a ‘green’ alternative to the traditional enzymatic biofuel cells. The hybrid cell operates in neutral phosphate buffer solution and physiological saline buffer. The ZnO modifier in the phosphate rich electrolyte activated the pitting of Al resulting in the production of hydrogen, as the reducing agent for the reduction of H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup −} ions to HPO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions at a formal potential of −0.250 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Specifically, the fabricated cell operating in phosphate buffer and physiological saline buffer exhibit an open-circuit voltage of 0.810 V and 0.751 V and delivered a maximum power density of 0.225 mW cm{sup −2} and 1.77 mW cm{sup −2}, respectively. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of generating electricity by activating Al as anodic material in a hybrid cell supplied with phosphate rich electrolyte. Our approach simplifies the construction and operation of the electrochemical power source as a novel “green” alternative to the current anodic substrates used in enzymatic biofuel cells for low power bioelectronics applications. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • ZnO activation of metallic Al for generating electricity for

  7. Influence of ZnO nanostructures in liquid crystal interfaces for bistable switching applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kaushik, E-mail: kaushikpal@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Zhan, Bihong, E-mail: bihong_zhan@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Madhu Mohan, M.L.N. [Liquid Crystal Research Laboratory (LCRL), Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638 401 (India); Schirhagl, Romana [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of BioMedical Engineering, Ant. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Wang, Guoping, E-mail: guopingwang@whu.edu.cn [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, 8 East Lake South Road, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • One step bench top novel synthesis and growth dynamics of ZnO structures are successfully performed. • Nanostructures dispersing liquid crystals (NDLC) is recently found to have significant influence on the nucleation and growth of many functional nanocrystals (NCs), and provide a fundamental approach to modify the crystallographic phase, size, morphology, and electronic configuration of nanomaterials. • Electro-optical switching application ensures the bright field droplet design marble pattern of smectic G phase, nematic and most significant twist nematic phase pattern are obtained. • Spontaneous polarization, rotational viscosity and response time study, exploring smart applications in LCD technology. - Abstract: The controlled fabrication of nanometer-scale objects is without doubt one of the central issues in current science and technology. In this article, we exhibit a simple, one-step bench top synthesis of zinc oxide nano-tetrapods and nano-spheres which were tailored by the facial growth of nano-wires (diameter ≈ 24 nm; length ≈ 118 nm) and nano-cubes (≈395 nm edge) to nano-sphere (diameter ≈ 585 nm) appeaded. The possibilities of inexpensive, simple solvo-chemical synthesis of nanostructures were considered. In this article, a successful attempt has been made that ZnO nano-structures dispersed on well aligned hydrogen bonded liquid crystals (HBLC) comprising azelaic acid (AC) with p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acid (nBAO) by varying the respective alkyloxy carbon number (n = 5). The dispersion of nanomaterials with HBLC is an effective route to enhance the existing functionalities. A series of these composite materials were analyzed by polarizing optical microscope's electro-optical switching. An interesting feature of AC + nBAO is the inducement of tilted smectic G phase with increasing carbon chain length. Phase diagrams of the above hybrid ZnO nanomaterial influenced LC complex and pure LC were

  8. Explicit all-atom modeling of realistically sized ligand-capped nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Kaushik, Ananth P.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of an explicit all-atom representation of nanocrystals of experimentally relevant sizes (up to 6 nm), capped with alkyl chain ligands, in vacuum. We employ all-atom molecular dynamics simulation methods in concert with a well-tested intermolecular potential model, MM3 (molecular mechanics 3), for the studies presented here. These studies include determining the preferred conformation of an isolated single nanocrystal (NC), pairs of isolated NCs, and (presaging studies of superlattice arrays) unit cells of NC superlattices. We observe that very small NCs (3 nm) behave differently in a superlattice as compared to larger NCs (6 nm and above) due to the conformations adopted by the capping ligands on the NC surface. Short ligands adopt a uniform distribution of orientational preferences, including some that lie against the face of the nanocrystal. In contrast, longer ligands prefer to interdigitate. We also study the effect of changing ligand length and ligand coverage on the NCs on the preferred ligand configurations. Since explicit all-atom modeling constrains the maximum system size that can be studied, we discuss issues related to coarse-graining the representation of the ligands, including a comparison of two commonly used coarse-grained models. We find that care has to be exercised in the choice of coarse-grained model. The data provided by these realistically sized ligand-capped NCs, determined using explicit all-atom models, should serve as a reference standard for future models of coarse-graining ligands using united atom models, especially for self-assembly processes. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  9. A highly sensitive chemical gas detecting device based on N-doped ZnO as a modified nanostructure media: A DFT+NBO analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Amirali; Sardroodi, Jaber Jahanbin

    2018-02-01

    We presented a density functional theory study of the adsorption of O3 and NO2 molecules on ZnO nanoparticles. Various adsorption geometries of O3 and NO2 over the nanoparticles were considered. For both O3 and NO2 adsorption systems, it was found that the adsorption on the N-doped nanoparticle is more favorable in energy than that on the pristine one. Therefore, the N-doped ZnO has a better efficiency to be utilized as O3 and NO2 detection device. For all cases, the binding sites were located on the zinc atoms of the nanoparticle. The charge analysis based on natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis indicates that charge was transferred from the surface to the adsorbed molecule. The projected density of states of the interacting atoms represent the formation of chemical bonds at the interface region. Molecular orbitals of the adsorption systems indicate that the HOMOs were mainly localized on the adsorbed O3 and NO2 molecules, whereas the electronic densities in the LUMOs were dominant at the ZnO nanocrystal surface. By examining the distribution of spin densities, we found that the magnetization was mainly located over the adsorbed molecules. For NO2 adsorbate, we found that the symmetric and asymmetric stretches were shifted to a lower frequency. The bending stretch mode was shifted to the higher frequency. Our DFT results thus provide a theoretical basis for why the adsorption of O3 and NO2 molecules on the N-doped ZnO nanoparticles may increase, giving rise to design and development of innovative and highly efficient sensor devices for O3 and NO2 recognition.

  10. An alternative approach to studying the effects of ZnO nanoparticles in cultured human lymphocytes: combining electrochemistry and genotoxicity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branica, Gina; Mladinić, Marin; Omanović, Dario; Želježić, Davor

    2016-12-01

    Nanoparticle use has increased radically raising concern about possible adverse effects in humans. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are among the most common nanomaterials in consumer and medical products. Several studies indicate problems with their safe use. The aim of our study was to see at which levels ZnO NPs start to produce adverse cytogenetic effects in human lymphocytes as an early attempt toward establishing safety limits for ZnO NP exposure in humans. We assessed the genotoxic effects of low ZnO NP concentrations (1.0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 μg mL-1) in lymphocyte cultures over 14 days of exposure. We also tested whether low and high-density lymphocytes differed in their ability to accumulate ZnO NPs in these experimental conditions. Primary DNA damage (measured with the alkaline comet assay) increased with nanoparticle concentration in unseparated and high density lymphocytes. The same happened with the fragmentation of TP53 (measured with the comet-FISH). Nanoparticle accumulation was significant only with the two highest concentrations, regardless of lymphocyte density. High-density lymphocytes had significantly more intracellular Zn2+ than light-density ones. Our results suggest that exposure to ZnO NPs in concentrations above 5 μg mL-1 increases cytogenetic damage and intracellular Zn2+ levels in lymphocytes.

  11. Admittance spectroscopy of spray-pyrolyzed ZnO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavasoglu, Nese; Kavasoglu, A. Sertap

    2008-01-01

    A ZnO film was deposited using the spray pyrolysis method. The admittance spectroscopy method was used to establish the contributions to electrical behavior from grains, grain boundaries, and electrodes of film. Proper equivalent electrical circuit of a ZnO film composed of a single parallel resistor, capacitor, and inductor network connected with a series resistance was proposed. Moreover, we displayed metal-semiconductor transition (MST) in the ZnO film via admittance spectroscopy

  12. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cu doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasir; Singh, Budhi; Khan, Zaheer Ahmed; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-05-01

    We report the room temperature ferromagnetism in 2% Cu doped ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to ascertain the oxidation states of Cu in ZnO. The presence of defects within Cu-doped ZnO films can be revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance. It has been observed that saturated magnetic moment increase as we increase the zinc vacancies during deposition.

  13. Hybrid Light-Emitting Diode Enhanced With Emissive Nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopylov, Oleksii

    This thesis investigates a new type of white light emitting hybrid diode, composed of a light emitting GaN/InGaN LED and a layer of semiconductor nanocrystals for color conversion. Unlike standard white LEDs, the device is configured to achieve high color conversion efficiency via non-radiative e......This thesis investigates a new type of white light emitting hybrid diode, composed of a light emitting GaN/InGaN LED and a layer of semiconductor nanocrystals for color conversion. Unlike standard white LEDs, the device is configured to achieve high color conversion efficiency via non...... of the hybrid diode fabrication including process techniques for GaN LED and incorporation of the nanocrystals are presented with the emphasis on the differences with standard LED processing. Results and analysis of optical and electrical characterization including photoluminescence (PL), micro-PL, time......-resolved PL and electroluminescence (EL) together with current-voltage characteristics are presented to evaluate the device performance. A clear evidence of non-radiative energy transfer was seen in the carrier dynamics of both the LED and the nanocrystals when the quantum well – nanocrystals separation...

  14. Preparation, characterization and catalytic effects of copper oxalate nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdip; Kapoor, Inder Pal Singh; Dubey, Reena; Srivastava, Pratibha

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Prepared copper oxalate nanocrystals were characterized by FE-SEM and bright field TEM micrographs. Its catalytic activity was evaluated on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate using TG and TG-DSC techniques. Highlights: ► Preparation of nanocrystals (∼9.0 nm) of copper oxalate using Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O, oxalic acid and acetone under thermal conditions. ► Method is simple and novel. ► Characterization using XRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM and ED pattern. ► Catalytic activity of copper oxalate nanocrystals on AP thermal decomposition using thermal techniques (TG, TG-DSC and ignition delay). ► Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP + CONs using isoconversional and model fitting kinetic approaches. - Abstract: Recent work has described the preparation and characterization of copper oxalate nanocrystals (CONs). It was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron diffraction pattern (ED). The catalytic activity of CONs on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and composite solid propellants (CSPs) has been done by thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ignition delay measurements. Burning rate of CSPs was also found to be enhanced in presence of copper oxalate nanocrystals. Kinetics of thermal decomposition of AP with and without CONs has also been investigated. The model free (isoconversional) and model-fitting kinetic approaches have been applied to data for isothermal TG decomposition.

  15. Stabilizing Agents for Drug Nanocrystals: Effect on Bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Tuomela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug nanocrystals are a versatile option for drug delivery purposes, and while the number of poorly soluble drug materials is all the time increasing, more research in this area is performed. Drug nanocrystals have a simple structure—a solid drug core is surrounded by a layer of stabilizing agent. However, despite the considerably simple structure, the selection of an appropriate stabilizer for a certain drug can be challenging. Mostly, the stabilizer selection is based purely on the requirement of physical stability, e.g., maintaining the nanosized particle size as long as possible after the formation of drug nanocrystals. However, it is also worth taking into account that stabilizer can affect the bioavailability in the final formulation via interactions with cells and cell layers. In addition, formation of nanocrystals is only one process step, and for the final formulation, more excipients are often added to the composition. The role of the stabilizers in the final formulation can be more than only stabilizing the nanocrystal particle size. A good example is the stabilizer’s role as cryoprotectant during freeze drying. In this review, the stabilizing effect, role of stabilizers in final nanocrystalline formulations, challenges in reaching in vitro–in vivo correlation with nanocrystalline products, and stabilizers’ effect on higher bioavailability are discussed.

  16. Nuclear magnetic relaxation studies of semiconductor nanocrystals and solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachleben, Joseph Robert [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-09-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, small biomolecules, and 13C enriched solids were studied through the relaxation in NMR spectra. Surface structure of semiconductor nanocrystals (CdS) was deduced from high resolution 1H and 13C liquid state spectra of thiophenol ligands on the nanocrystal surfaces. The surface coverage by thiophenol was found to be low, being 5.6 and 26% for nanocrystal radii of 11.8 and 19.2 Å. Internal motion is estimated to be slow with a correlation time > 10-8 s-1. The surface thiophenol ligands react to form a dithiophenol when the nanocrystals were subjected to O2 and ultraviolet. A method for measuring 14N-1H J-couplings is demonstrated on pyridine and the peptide oxytocin; selective 2D T1 and T2 experiments are presented for measuring relaxation times in crowded spectra with overlapping peaks in 1D, but relaxation effects interfere. Possibility of carbon-carbon cross relaxation in 13C enriched solids is demonstrated by experiments on zinc acetate and L-alanine.

  17. Performance Parameters and Characterizations of Nanocrystals: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi M. Chogale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor bioavailability of drugs associated with their poor solubility limits the clinical effectiveness of almost 40% of the newly discovered drug moieties. Low solubility, coupled with a high log p value, high melting point and high dose necessitates exploration of alternative formulation strategies for such drugs. One such novel approach is formulation of the drugs as “Nanocrystals”. Nanocrystals are primarily comprised of drug and surfactants/stabilizers and are manufactured by “top-down” or “bottom-up” methods. Nanocrystals aid the clinical efficacy of drugs by various means such as enhancement of bioavailability, lowering of dose requirement, and facilitating sustained release of the drug. This effect is dependent on the various characteristics of nanocrystals (particle size, saturation solubility, dissolution velocity, which have an impact on the improved performance of the nanocrystals. Various sophisticated techniques have been developed to evaluate these characteristics. This article describes in detail the various characterization techniques along with a brief review of the significance of the various parameters on the performance of nanocrystals.

  18. Effect of KrF excimer laser irradiation on the surface changes and photoelectric properties of ZnO single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yong [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of 3D Printing for Digital Medical Health, Beijing International Cooperation Base of 3D Printing for Digital MedicalHealth, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Zhao, Yan [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Jiang, Yijian, E-mail: yjjiang@bjut.edu.cn [Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Beijing Engineering Research Center of 3D Printing for Digital Medical Health, Beijing International Cooperation Base of 3D Printing for Digital MedicalHealth, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2016-06-25

    In this paper, the effect of KrF pulsed excimer laser irradiation on the structural, surface morphology, photoluminescence and electrical properties of ZnO single crystal was investigated. Compared to the as-grown sample, at an irradiation energy density of 257 mJ/cm{sup 2}, the ZnO single crystal exhibits a series of phenomenon: XRD and Raman results show that the crystallization of ZnO quality change slightly, resistivity is decreased by two orders of magnitude, carrier concentration is increased by one order of magnitude. After laser irradiation, the surface shows some strip lines and no cracks. Formula calculation and simulation results show that the stripes are not caused by surface melting. We speculate that these stripes are caused by the precipitation of ZnO material inside to the surface. Due to the reduction of oxygen vacancies, UV emission has been enhanced and visible emission has been declined after irradiation. After the laser irradiation, the visible light of ZnO surface can be regulated. The experimental results show that KrF laser irradiation could effectively improve the optical and electrical properties of ZnO single crystal, which is important for the application of high performance of emitting optoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • After laser irradiation, the surface shows some strip lines and no cracks. • The visible light of as-irradiated ZnO surface can be regulated to four colors. • The electrical properties of as-irradiated ZnO has been improved greatly.

  19. A treatise on first-principles studies of ZnO as diluted magnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Sanjeev Kumar

    2012-04-24

    The scope of the present thesis is to study the properties of ZnO doped with transition metal elements by the density functional theory (DFT).cc In this thesis, there is extensive study of the electronic structure of ZnO beyond the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as exchange-correlation functional (E{sub xc}), which is well known to be associated with some drawback in predicting the semiconducting properties. One of the methods adopted for improvement is by adding extra correlation-energy to GGA (GGA+U) in line with the Hubbard model. We find that with adding U on Zn d-orbitals, the band gap improves with simultaneous shift of the Zn d-bands to lower energies. The band gap nevertheless is still far below the experimental value. Another approach to correct for the E{sub xc} is by the treatment of screened hybrid-functionals proposed by Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE), where the contribution to the exchange energy is through the blend of some percentage of screened Hartree-Fock exchange and rest from the GGA exchange. The correlation energy is derived from GGA. This method also has limitations in describing the electronic structure of ZnO. A simple proposition of mixing the GGA+U and the hybrid-functional treatment may be a solution, which has been investigated in this work. The band structure of ZnO has been compared for various level of theory for E{sub xc}, namely, LDA, GGA, GGA+U, and HSE functionals with different screening lengths ({omega}). A proposal for HSE+U functionals has been been put forward and supported. Using some of the treatments for E{sub xc} as stated above, the magnetic properties of TM(Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni) doped ZnO are studied. Firstly, the electronic structure calculations for TM doped ZnO are done with the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method with the LDA and using the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The exchange integrals are then calculated using the Liechtenstein's formalism, which are then used in the Monte Carlo

  20. Ferromagnetism in Gd doped ZnO nanowires: A first principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravindh, S. Assa; Schwingenschloegl, Udo, E-mail: udo.schwingenschloegl@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: iman.roqan@kaust.edu.sa; Roqan, Iman S., E-mail: udo.schwingenschloegl@kaust.edu.sa, E-mail: iman.roqan@kaust.edu.sa [Physical Sciences and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-21

    In several experimental studies, room temperature ferromagnetism in Gd-doped ZnO nanostructures has been achieved. However, the mechanism and the origin of the ferromagnetism remain controversial. We investigate the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of Zn{sub 48}O{sub 48} nanowires doped with Gd, using density functional theory. Our findings indicate that substitutionally incorporated Gd atoms prefer occupying the surface Zn sites. Moreover, the formation energy increases with the distance between Gd atoms, signifying that no Gd-Gd segregation occurs in the nanowires within the concentration limit of ≤2%. Gd induces ferromagnetism in ZnO nanowires with magnetic coupling energy up to 21 meV in the neutral state, which increases with additional electron and O vacancy, revealing the role of carriers in magnetic exchange. The potential for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism and high T{sub C} in ZnO:Gd nanowires is evident from the large ferromagnetic coupling energy (200 meV) obtained with the O vacancy. Density of states shows that Fermi level overlaps with Gd f states with the introduction of O vacancy, indicating the possibility of s-f coupling. These results will assist in understanding experimental findings in Gd-doped ZnO nanowires.

  1. Ferromagnetism in Gd doped ZnO nanowires: A first principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Aravindh, S. Assa

    2014-12-19

    In several experimental studies, room temperature ferromagnetism in Gd-doped ZnO nanostructures has been achieved. However, the mechanism and the origin of the ferromagnetism remain controversial. We investigate the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of Zn 48O48 nanowires doped with Gd, using density functional theory. Our findings indicate that substitutionally incorporated Gd atoms prefer occupying the surface Zn sites. Moreover, the formation energy increases with the distance between Gd atoms, signifying that no Gd-Gd segregation occurs in the nanowires within the concentration limit of ≤2%. Gd induces ferromagnetism in ZnO nanowires with magnetic coupling energy up to 21 meV in the neutral state, which increases with additional electron and O vacancy, revealing the role of carriers in magnetic exchange. The potential for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism and high TC in ZnO:Gd nanowires is evident from the large ferromagnetic coupling energy (200 meV) obtained with the O vacancy. Density of states shows that Fermi level overlaps with Gd f states with the introduction of O vacancy, indicating the possibility of s-f coupling. These results will assist in understanding experimental findings in Gd-doped ZnO nanowires.

  2. Ferromagnetism in Gd doped ZnO nanowires: A first principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Aravindh, S. Assa; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Roqan, Iman S.

    2014-01-01

    In several experimental studies, room temperature ferromagnetism in Gd-doped ZnO nanostructures has been achieved. However, the mechanism and the origin of the ferromagnetism remain controversial. We investigate the structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of Zn 48O48 nanowires doped with Gd, using density functional theory. Our findings indicate that substitutionally incorporated Gd atoms prefer occupying the surface Zn sites. Moreover, the formation energy increases with the distance between Gd atoms, signifying that no Gd-Gd segregation occurs in the nanowires within the concentration limit of ≤2%. Gd induces ferromagnetism in ZnO nanowires with magnetic coupling energy up to 21 meV in the neutral state, which increases with additional electron and O vacancy, revealing the role of carriers in magnetic exchange. The potential for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism and high TC in ZnO:Gd nanowires is evident from the large ferromagnetic coupling energy (200 meV) obtained with the O vacancy. Density of states shows that Fermi level overlaps with Gd f states with the introduction of O vacancy, indicating the possibility of s-f coupling. These results will assist in understanding experimental findings in Gd-doped ZnO nanowires.

  3. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of new ZnO nano phosphors exposed to beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Grijalva M, H.; Chernov, V.; Bernal, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we report the thermoluminescence (TL) and the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of ZnO nano phosphors obtained by thermal annealing of ZnS powders synthesized by precipitation in a chemical bath deposition reaction. To obtain nanocrystalline ZnO, ZnS pellet-shaped samples were subjected to a sintering process at 700 C during 24 under air atmosphere. Some samples were exposed to beta particles in the 0.15-10.15 kGy dose range and the integrated thermoluminescence as a function of dose increased as dose increased, with no saturation clue for the tested doses. Computerized glow-curve deconvolution of the experimental TL curves in individual peaks revealed a second order kinetics. In order to test the BOSL (Blue Optically Stimulated Luminescence) response, samples were beta irradiated with doses up to 600 Gy, showing an increasing OSL intensity as dose increases. From the experimental results that we have obtained, we conclude that the new ZnO phosphors under investigation are good candidates to be used as dosimetric materials. (Author)

  4. Optical Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Capped with Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Noguchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles capped with polymers were investigated. Polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP were used as capping reagents. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Fluorescence and absorption spectra were measured. When we varied the timing of the addition of the polymer to the ZnO nanoparticle solution, the optical properties were drastically changed. When PEG was added to the solution before the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, the fluorescence intensity increased. At the same time, the total particle size increased, which indicated that PEG molecules had capped the ZnO nanoparticles. The capping led to surface passivation, which increased fluorescence intensity. However, when PEG was added to the solution after the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, the fluorescence and particle size did not change. When PVP was added to the solution before the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, aggregation of nanoparticles occurred. When PVP was added to the solution after the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, fluorescence and particle size increased. This improvement of optical properties is advantageous to the practical usage of ZnO nanoparticles, such as bioimaging

  5. Nanostructured ZnO films for potential use in LPG gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, V. M.; Berestok, T. O.; Opanasyuk, A. S.; Kornyushchenko, A. S.; Perekrestov, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the work was to obtain ZnO nanostructures with heightened surface area and to study relationship between formation method and gas sensor properties towards propane-butane mixture (LPG). In order to synthesize ZnO nanostructures chemical and physical formation methods have been utilized. The first one was chemical bath deposition technology and the second one magnetron sputtering of Zn followed by oxidation. Optimal method and technological parameters corresponding to formation of material with the highest sensor response have been determined experimentally. Dynamical gas sensor response at different temperature values and dependencies of the sensor sensitivity on the temperature at different LPG concentrations in air have been investigated. It has been found, that sensor response depends on the sample morphology and has the highest value for the structure consisting of thin nanowires. The factors that lead to the decrease in the gas sensor operating temperature have been determined.

  6. ZnO nanowires: Synthesis and charge transfer mechanism in the detection of ammonia vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Anna Anasthasiya, A.; Ramya, S.; Rai, P. K.; Jeyaprakash, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    ZnO nanowires with hexagonal wurtzite structure were grown on the glass substrate using Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method. Both experimental and theoretical studies demonstrated that NH3 chemisorbed and transferred the charge to the surface of the nanowire via its nitrogen site to the zinc site of ZnO nanowires, leading to the detection of NH3 vapour. The adsorbed ammonia dissociated into NH2 and H due to steric repulsion, and then into N2 and H2 gas. The formation of the N2 gas during the desorption process confirmed by observing peak at 14 and 28 m/z in the GC-MS spectrum.

  7. Photoluminescence study of novel phosphorus-doped ZnO nanotetrapods synthesized by chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dongqi; Hu Lizhong; Qiao Shuangshuang; Zhang Heqiu; Fu Qiang; Chen Xi; Sun Kaitong; Len, Song-En Andy; Len, L K

    2009-01-01

    Novel phosphorus-doped and undoped single crystal ZnO nanotetrapods were fabricated on sapphire by a simple chemical vapour deposition method, using phosphorus pentoxide (P 2 O 5 ) as the dopant source. The optical properties of the samples were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Low-temperature PL measurements of phosphorus-doped and undoped samples were compared, and the results indicated a decrease in deep level defects due to the incorporation of a phosphorus acceptor dopant. The PL spectrum of the phosphorus-doped sample at 10 K exhibited several acceptor-bound exciton related emission peaks. The effect of phosphorus doping on the optical characteristics of the samples was investigated by excitation intensity and temperature dependent PL spectra. The acceptor-binding energies of the phosphorus dopant were estimated to be about 120 meV, in good agreement with the corresponding theoretical and experimental values in phosphorus-doped ZnO films and nanowires.

  8. Evolution of native point defects in ZnO bulk probed by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Xiao; Wang, Ke-Fan; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Feng-Li; Weng, Hui-Min; Ye, Bang-Jiao

    2009-05-01

    This paper studies the evolution of native point defects with temperature in ZnO single crystals by positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopy, combined with the calculated results of positron lifetime and electron momentum distribution. The calculated and experimental results of the positron lifetime in ZnO bulk ensure the presence of zinc monovacancy, and zinc monovacancy concentration begins to decrease above 600 °C annealing treatment. CDB is an effective method to distinguish the elemental species, here we combine this technique with calculated electron momentum distribution to determine the oxygen vacancies, which do not trap positrons due to their positive charge. The CDB spectra show that oxygen vacancies do not appear until 600 °C annealing treatment, and increase with the incre