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Sample records for zn oral bioaccessibility

  1. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic metals in contaminated oysters and relationships with metal internal sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shi; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-12-01

    The Hong Kong oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis are widely farmed in the estuarine waters of Southern China, but they accumulate Cu and Zn to alarmingly high concentrations in the soft tissues. Health risks of seafood consumption are related to contaminants such as toxic metals which are bioaccessible to humans. In the present study, we investigated the oral bioaccessibility of five toxic metals (Ag, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn) in contaminated oysters collected from different locations of a large estuary in southern China. In all oysters, total Zn concentration was the highest whereas total Pb concentration was the lowest. Among the five metals, Ag had the lowest oral bioaccessibility (38.9-60.8%), whereas Cu and Zn had the highest bioaccessibility (72.3-93.1%). Significant negative correlation was observed between metal bioaccessibility and metal concentration in the oysters for Ag, Cd, and Cu. We found that the oral bioaccessibility of the five metals was positively correlated with their trophically available metal fraction (TAM) in the oyster tissues, and negatively correlated with metal distribution in the cellular debris. Thus, metal partitioning in the TAM and cellular debris controlled the oral bioaccessibility to humans. Given the dependence of oral bioaccessibility on tissue metal contamination, bioaccessibility needs to be incorporated in the risk assessments of contaminated shellfish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioaccessibility of Ba, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban garden and orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Meifang; McBride, Murray B.; Li, Kaiming

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of young children to toxic metals in urban environments is largely due to soil and dust ingestion. Soil particle size distribution and concentrations of toxic metals in different particle sizes are important risk factors in addition to bioaccessibility of these metals in the particles. Analysis of particle size distribution and metals concentrations for 13 soils, 12 sampled from urban gardens and 1 from orchard found that fine particles (<105 μm) comprised from 22 to 66% by weight of the tested soils, with Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn generally at higher concentrations in the finer particles. However, metal bioaccessibility was generally lower in finer particles, a trend most pronounced for Ba and Pb. Gastric was higher than gastrointestinal bioaccessibility for all metals except Cu. The lower bioaccessibility of Pb in urban garden soils compared to orchard soil is attributable to the higher organic matter content of the garden soils. - Highlights: • The bioaccessibility of metals in urban garden and orchard soils was measured. • Ba, Cu, Pb, Zn were concentrated in fine particles of the soils. • Bioaccessibilities of Ba and Pb were generally lower in fine particles of soils. • Pb bioaccessibility was generally lower in soils with higher organic matter content. • Pb bioaccessibility was lower in urban garden soils than in an orchard soil. - Pb and other trace metals (Ba, Cu, Zn) were concentrated in fine particles of urban and orchard soils, but the bioaccessibility of Ba and Pb was generally lower in finer particles.

  3. Mineralogy affects geoavailability, bioaccessibility and bioavailability of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, Ramon M.; Schaider, Laurel A.; Donaghey, Thomas C.; Shine, James P.; Brain, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    We correlated mineralogical and particle characteristics of Zn-containing particles with Zn geoavailability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability following gavage and intranasal (IN) administration in rats. We compared samples of Zn/Pb mine waste and five pulverized pure-phase Zn minerals ( 65 Zn. We assessed geoavailability using sequential extractions and bioaccessibility using in vitro extraction tests simulating various pH and biological conditions. Zn in vivo bioavailability and in vitro bioaccessibility decreased as follows: mine waste > hydrozincite > hemimorphite > zincite ≈ smithsonite >> sphalerite. We found significant correlations among geoavailability, bioaccessibility and bioavailability. In particular, Zn bioavailability post-gavage and post-IN was significantly correlated with bioaccessibility in simulated phagolysosomal fluid and gastric fluid. These data indicate that solid phase speciation influences biological uptake of Zn and that in vitro tests can be used to predict Zn bioavailability in exposure assessment and effective remediation design. Highlights: •Zinc particle mineralogy influences bioaccessibility and bioavailability. •Zn bioavailability via gavage was 1.2–1.6 times higher than via intranasal route. •Zn particle geoavailability correlates with bioaccessibility. •In vitro bioaccessibility tests can predict in vivo Zn bioavailability. •Metal speciation and geochemical alterations can impact Zn bioavailability. -- Zinc mineralogy influences in vitro bioaccessibility and in vivo bioavailability and in vitro extraction tests can be used to predict Zn bioavailability from particles

  4. Use of the physiologically-based extraction test to assess the oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown in contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intawongse, Marisa [Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Centre, School of Applied Sciences, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom); Dean, John R. [Biomolecular and Biomedical Research Centre, School of Applied Sciences, University of Northumbria at Newcastle, Ellison Building, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.dean@unn.ac.uk

    2008-03-15

    The oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil was assessed. This was done using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) to simulate the human digestion of plant material. A range of vegetable plants, i.e. carrot, lettuce, radish and spinach, were grown on metal contaminated soil. After reaching maturity the plants were harvested and analysed for their total metal content (i.e. Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant samples were then subsequently extracted using an in vitro gastrointestinal approach or PBET to assess the likelihood of oral bioaccessibility if the material was consumed by humans. - Evaluation of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess the risk to humans of consuming contaminated vegetables.

  5. Use of the physiologically-based extraction test to assess the oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown in contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intawongse, Marisa; Dean, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of metals in vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil was assessed. This was done using the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) to simulate the human digestion of plant material. A range of vegetable plants, i.e. carrot, lettuce, radish and spinach, were grown on metal contaminated soil. After reaching maturity the plants were harvested and analysed for their total metal content (i.e. Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The plant samples were then subsequently extracted using an in vitro gastrointestinal approach or PBET to assess the likelihood of oral bioaccessibility if the material was consumed by humans. - Evaluation of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess the risk to humans of consuming contaminated vegetables

  6. Bioaccessibility and health risk of arsenic, mercury and other metals in urban street dusts from a mega-city, Nanjing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xin; Zhang, Yun; Luo Jun; Wang Tijian; Lian Hongzhen; Ding Zhuhong

    2011-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility and the human health risks of As, Hg and other metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr, Mn, V and Fe) in urban street dusts from different land use districts in Nanjing (a mega-city), China were investigated. Both the total contents and the oral bioaccessibility estimated by the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test (SBET) of the studied elements varied with street dusts from different land use districts. Cd, Zn, Mn, Pb, Hg and As showed high bioaccessibility. SBET-extractable contents of elements were significantly correlated with their total contents and the dust properties (pH, organic matter contents). The carcinogenic risk probability for As and Cr to children and adults were under the acceptable level ( -4 ). Hazard Quotient values for single elements and Hazard Index values for all studied elements suggested potential non-carcinogenic health risk to children, but not to adults. - Highlights: → Spatial variation of elements in street dusts from different land use districts. → Oral bioaccessibility of elements in street dusts from different land use districts. → Human health risks of elements in street dusts from different land use districts. - Bioaccessibility and health risks of trace elements differed with street dusts from different land use districts in Nanjing.

  7. Evaluation of the bioaccessible gastric and intestinal fractions of heavy metals in contaminated soils by means of a simple bioaccessibility extraction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Mendoza, C; Tatiana Garrido, R; Cristian Quilodrán, R; Matías Segovia, C; José Parada, A

    2017-06-01

    A study is made to evaluate the bioaccessibility of heavy metals in contaminated soils through a simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET), applied to the analysis of both the gastric and intestinal phases. Soils with high metal content of the Mapocho, Cachapoal, and Rancagua series were studied; they are located in suburban areas of large cities in the central valley of Chile. The bioaccessible concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were related to the main physicochemical characteristics of the soils and to the chemical forms obtained by sequential extraction. The elements Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn are distributed in the soils between the exchangeable fractions, bound to oxides, to organic matter, and in the residual fraction. On the other hand, Cr and Pb are found mainly in the fractions bound to organic matter and in the residual fraction. The three soils have a high Cu content, (640-2060 mg/kg), in the order Cachapoal > Rancagua > Mapocho. The SBET test allowed establishing a different bioaccessibility for the elements in the soil. Cu was notoriously bioaccessible in both the gastric and intestinal phases in the three soils, reaching more than 50% in the Cachapoal and Rancagua soils. The other elements, regardless of the soil, were bioaccessible only in one of the phases, more frequently in the gastric phase. The multiple correlation study indicates that the metal forms have a higher incidence than the soil's physicochemical factors on the extractability to evaluate the human oral bioaccessibility of the metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic and essential elements in raw and cooked commercial seafood species available in European markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.

    2017-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of several essential and toxic elements was investigated in raw and cooked commercially available seafood species from European markets. Bioaccessibility varied between seafood species and elements. Methylmercury bioaccessibility varied between 10 (octopus) and 60...... % (monkfish). Arsenic (> 64%) was the toxic element showing the highest bioaccessibility. Concerning essential elements bioaccessibility in raw seafood, selenium (73 %) and iodine (71 %) revealed the highest percentages. The bioaccessibility of elements in steamed products increased or decreased according...

  9. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic and essential elements in raw and cooked commercial seafood species available in European markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Kotterman, Michiel; Heuvel, van den Fredericus H.M.; Robbens, Johan; Fernandes, José O.; Romme Rasmussen, Rie; Sloth, Jens J.; Marques, António

    2017-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of several essential and toxic elements was investigated in raw and cooked commercially available seafood species from European markets. Bioaccessibility varied between seafood species and elements. Methylmercury bioaccessibility varied between 10 (octopus) and 60%

  10. Food matrix and cooking process affect mineral bioaccessibility of enteral nutrition formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa

    2014-02-01

    When enteral formulas (EF) are administered orally as a supplement to the normal diet, they are often mixed with conventional foods or included in recipes in order to seek new flavors and textures and avoid monotony. The aims of this work were to study the bioaccessibility of Fe, Zn and Ca from commercial EF and the impact upon their incorporation into sweet preparations. Twenty commercial EF, before and after inclusion in sweet food (rice pudding, RP; banana smoothie, BS; tea, T; chocolate dessert, CD) were evaluated regarding Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability (%DFe , %DZn , %DCa ) as an estimator of mineral bioaccessibility. Fe, Zn and Ca dialyzability from EF was variable and generally low. Heating during EF-sweet food preparation (T and CD) lowered values to 44.1 %DFe , possibly due to degradation of vitamin C, and 52.7 %DZn and 25.3 %DCa , due to the interaction with food components. EF and EF-sweet foods did not represent a good supply of Fe, Zn and Ca as recommended. This study demonstrated how the bioaccessibility of these minerals is affected by the food matrix in which EF is included as well as heating during food preparation. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic and essential elements in raw and cooked commercial seafood species available in European markets

    KAUST Repository

    Alves, Ricardo N.; Maulvault, Ana L.; Barbosa, Vera L.; Fernandez-Tejedor, Margarita; Tediosi, Alice; Kotterman, Michiel; van den Heuvel, Fredericus H.M.; Robbens, Johan; Fernandes, José O.; Romme Rasmussen, Rie; Sloth, Jens J.; Marques, Antó nio

    2017-01-01

    The oral bioaccessibility of several essential and toxic elements was investigated in raw and cooked commercially available seafood species from European markets. Bioaccessibility varied between seafood species and elements. Methylmercury bioaccessibility varied between 10 (octopus) and 60% (monkfish). Arsenic (>64%) was the toxic element showing the highest bioaccessibility. Concerning essential elements bioaccessibility in raw seafood, selenium (73%) and iodine (71%) revealed the highest percentages. The bioaccessibility of elements in steamed products increased or decreased according to species. For example, methylmercury bioaccessibility decreased significantly after steaming in all species, while zinc bioaccessibility increased in fish (tuna and plaice) but decreased in molluscs (mussel and octopus).Together with human exposure assessment and risk characterization, this study could contribute to the establishment of new maximum permissible concentrations for toxic elements in seafood by the European food safety authorities, as well as recommended intakes for essential elements.

  12. Oral bioaccessibility of toxic and essential elements in raw and cooked commercial seafood species available in European markets

    KAUST Repository

    Alves, Ricardo N.

    2017-11-17

    The oral bioaccessibility of several essential and toxic elements was investigated in raw and cooked commercially available seafood species from European markets. Bioaccessibility varied between seafood species and elements. Methylmercury bioaccessibility varied between 10 (octopus) and 60% (monkfish). Arsenic (>64%) was the toxic element showing the highest bioaccessibility. Concerning essential elements bioaccessibility in raw seafood, selenium (73%) and iodine (71%) revealed the highest percentages. The bioaccessibility of elements in steamed products increased or decreased according to species. For example, methylmercury bioaccessibility decreased significantly after steaming in all species, while zinc bioaccessibility increased in fish (tuna and plaice) but decreased in molluscs (mussel and octopus).Together with human exposure assessment and risk characterization, this study could contribute to the establishment of new maximum permissible concentrations for toxic elements in seafood by the European food safety authorities, as well as recommended intakes for essential elements.

  13. Predicting oral relative bioavailability of arsenic in soil from in vitro bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several investigations have been conducted to develop in vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) assays that reliably predict in vivo oral relative bioavailability (RBA) of arsenic (As). This study describes a meta-regression model relating soil As RBA and IVBA that is based upon data comb...

  14. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Dane T.; Ming Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl 2 ) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg -1 , 10.3 to 95 mg kg -1 Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg -1 and 5.2 to 183 mg kg -1 Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg -1 , 312 to 39,000 mg kg -1 Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg -1 and 609 to 12,000 mg kg -1 Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K d ) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  15. Heavy metal (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) partitioning and bioaccessibility in uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Dane T.; Ming Hui; Megharaj, Mallavarapu [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia); Naidu, Ravi, E-mail: ravi.naidu@crccare.com [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, Building X, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), P.O. Box 486, Salisbury, SA 5106 (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    We investigated the pore-water content and speciation of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in a range of uncontaminated and long-term contaminated soils in order to establish their potential bioaccessibility to soil biota, plants and humans. Among the samples, soil pH (0.01 M CaCl{sub 2}) ranged from 4.9 to 8.2. The total metal content of the uncontaminated soils ranged from 3.8 to 93.8 mg Cu kg{sup -1}, 10.3 to 95 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 0.1 to 1.8 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 5.2 to 183 mg kg{sup -1} Pb, while metal content in the contaminated soils ranged from 104 to 6841 mg Cu kg{sup -1}, 312 to 39,000 mg kg{sup -1} Zn, 6 to 302 mg Cd kg{sup -1} and 609 to 12,000 mg kg{sup -1} Pb. Our analysis of pore-water found the Cu concentrations to be much higher in contaminated soils than in uncontaminated soils, with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) correlating significantly with the log of dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Despite the high total metal content of the contaminated soil, Zn, Cd and Pb were not generally found at elevated levels in the pore-water with the exception of a single contaminated soil. A long period of ageing and soil weathering may have led to a substantial reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the pore-water of contaminated soils. On the other hand, Pb bioaccessibility was found to be comparatively high in Pb contaminated soils, where it tended to exceed the total Pb values by more than 80%. We conclude that, despite the extensive ageing of some contaminated soils, the bioaccessibility of Pb remains relatively high.

  16. The effects of lead sources on oral bioaccessibility in soil and implications for contaminated land risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, Sherry; McIlwaine, Rebekka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Cox, Siobhan F.; McKinley, Jennifer M.; Doherty, Rory; Wragg, Joanna; Cave, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a non-threshold toxin capable of inducing toxic effects at any blood level but availability of soil screening criteria for assessing potential health risks is limited. The oral bioaccessibility of Pb in 163 soil samples was attributed to sources through solubility estimation and domain identification. Samples were extracted following the Unified BARGE Method. Urban, mineralisation, peat and granite domains accounted for elevated Pb concentrations compared to rural samples. High Pb solubility explained moderate-high gastric (G) bioaccessible fractions throughout the study area. Higher maximum G concentrations were measured in urban (97.6 mg kg −1 ) and mineralisation (199.8 mg kg −1 ) domains. Higher average G concentrations occurred in mineralisation (36.4 mg kg −1 ) and granite (36.0 mg kg −1 ) domains. Findings suggest diffuse anthropogenic and widespread geogenic contamination could be capable of presenting health risks, having implications for land management decisions in jurisdictions where guidance advises these forms of pollution should not be regarded as contaminated land. - Highlights: • Urban, mineralisation, peat and granite sources accounted for elevated Pb in soil. • Pb solubility was higher in urban and mineralisation domains. • Higher Pb solubility resulted in high oral bioaccessibility compared to rural areas. • Diffuse background and natural Pb contamination could pose human health risks. • Contaminated land policy should not dismiss diffuse or geogenic pollution sources. - Diffuse and widespread Pb sources displayed high oral bioaccessibility, providing implications for contaminated land risk assessment guidance that excludes these forms of pollution

  17. Influence of Matrix Composition on the Bioaccessibility of Copper, Zinc and Nickel in Urban Residential Dust and Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, P.; Beauchemin, S.; Nugent, M.; Dugandzic, R.; Lanouette, M.; Chenier, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines factors affecting oral bioaccessibility of metals in household dust, in particular metal speciation, organic carbon content, and particle size, with the goal of addressing risk assessment information requirements. Investigation of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) speciation in two size fractions of dust (< 36 μ m and 80-150 μ m) using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicates that the two metals are bound to different components of the dust: Cu is predominately associated with the organic phase of the dust, while Zn is predominately associated with the mineral fraction. Total and bioaccessible Cu, nickel (Ni), and Zn were determined (on dry weight basis) in the < 150 μ m size fraction of a set of archived indoor dust samples (n = 63) and corresponding garden soil samples (n = 66) from the City of Ottawa, Canada. The median bioaccessible Cu content is 66 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 5 μ g g-1 in soil; the median bioaccessible Ni content is 16 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 2 μ g g-1 in soil; and the median bioaccessible Zn content is 410 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 18 μ g g-1 in soil. For the same data set, the median total Cu content is 152 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 17 μ g g-1 in soil; the median total Ni content is 41 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 13 μ g g-1 in soil; and the median total Zn content is 626 μ g g-1 in dust compared to 84 μ g g-1 in soil. Organic carbon is elevated in indoor dust (median 28%) compared to soil (median 5%), and is a key factor controlling metal partitioning and therefore bioaccessibility. The results show that house dust and soil have distinct geochemical signatures and should not be treated as identical media in exposure and risk assessments. Separate measurements of the indoor and outdoor environment are essential to improve the accuracy of residential risk assessments.

  18. Bioaccessible nutrients and bioactive components from fortified products prepared using finger millet (Eleusine coracana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghbaei, Morteza; Prakash, Jamuna

    2012-08-30

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), a staple food in semi-arid parts of the world, is a rich source of nutrients and bioactive components comparable to rice and wheat but with higher fibre content. Unprocessed and processed finger millet (whole flour (WFM), sieved flour (SFM), wafers and vermicelli with altered matrices (added Fe or Zn or reduced fibre)) were analysed for chemical composition, bioaccessible Fe, Zn and Ca, in vitro digestible starch (IVSD) and protein (IVPD) and bioactive components (polyphenols and flavonoids). WFM and SFM flours differed significantly in their composition. Sieving decreased the content of both nutrients and antinutrients in WFM but increased their digestibility/bioaccessibility. WFM products with Zn and Fe showed highest IVPD, whereas SFM products with Fe showed highest IVSD. Products with externally added Fe and Zn showed maximum bioaccessibility of Fe and Zn respectively. WFM had the highest levels of total polyphenols and flavonoids, 4.18 and 15.85 g kg⁻¹ respectively; however, bioaccessibility was highest in SFM vermicelli. The availability of nutrients and bioactive components was influenced by both processing methods and compositional alterations of the food matrix in finger millet products, and bioaccessibility of all constituents was higher in vermicelli (wet matrix) than in wafers (dry matrix). Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils: Chemical availability as the central concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Cruz, N.; Coelho, C.; Henriques, B.; Carvalho, L.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, Paul F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO 3 (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl 2 (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral bioaccessible pool). Oral bioaccessibility in urban soils was higher than in samples from rural, industrial and mining areas which is most likely related to sources of metals and parent materials of corresponding soils. The availability and reactivity were described well by non-linear Freundlich-type equations when considering differences in soil properties. The resulting empirical models are able to predict availability and reactivity and can be used to improve the accuracy of risk assessment. Furthermore, a close 1:1 relationship exists between results from the 0.43 M HNO 3 method and the SBET method which substantially facilitates risk assessment procedures and reduces analytical costs. -- Highlights: ► Availability of PTEs in urban soils is described well by non-linear Freundlich-type equations. ► A 1:1 relationship was obtained between the 0.43 M HNO 3 method and the SBET method. ► A single soil extraction indicates reactivity and bioaccessibility of metals in soils. ► The reactive pool is suitable to assess risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils. -- A single analysis of the reactive pool by dilute nitric acid is suitable to assess risks of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils related to leaching to (ground)water and exposure to human beings (bioaccessibility)

  20. Effect of Miscanthus cultivation on metal fractionation and human bioaccessibility in metal-contaminated soils: comparison between greenhouse and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Kleckerová, Andrea; Pourrut, Bertrand; Nsanganwimana, Florien; Douay, Francis; Waterlot, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The in situ stabilization of metals in soils using plants with great biomass value is a promising, cost-effective, and ecologically friendly alternative to manage metal-polluted sites. The goal of phytostabilization is to reduce the bioavailable concentrations of metals in polluted soil and thus reduce the risk to the environment and human health. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating Miscanthus × giganteus efficiency in phytostabilizing metals on three contaminated agricultural sites after short-term exposure under greenhouse conditions and after long-term exposure under field conditions. Particular attention was paid to the influence of Miscanthus cultivation on (i) Cd, Pb, and Zn fractionation using sequential extractions and (ii) metal bioaccessibility using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion test. Data gave evidence of (i) different behaviors between the greenhouse and the field; (ii) metal redistribution in soils induced by Miscanthus culture, more specifically under field conditions; (iii) higher environmental availability for Cd than for Pb and Zn was found in both conditions; and (iv) overall, a higher bioaccessible fraction for Pb (about 80 %) and Cd (65-77 %) than for Zn (36-52 %) was recorded in the gastric phase, with a sharp decrease in the intestinal phase (18-35 % for Cd, 5-30 % for Pb, and 36-52 % for Zn). Compared to soils without culture, the results showed that phytostabilization using Miscanthus culture provided evidence for substantial effects on oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Pb, and Zn.

  1. Bioaccessibility of essential elements from white cheese, bread, fruit and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouzam, Rola Bou; Pohl, Pawel; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2011-10-30

    Bioaccessibility of five essential micronutrients (iron, zinc, copper, manganese and molybdenum) from the Lebanese food basket including bread, different varieties of white cheese, fruit and vegetables was evaluated using the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Only very small fraction of Fe and Zn (ca. 10%) was found bioaccessible from bread, squash and cucumber. Iron in apple was not bioaccessible either (50%) in cheese was found to be bioaccessible but only one type of cheese, double crème, contained readily bioaccessible zinc. More than 50% of copper and molybdenum was found bioaccessible regardless of the investigated food. High bioaccessibility (>50%) was also observed for manganese in fruit and vegetables whereas that from bread and cheese was fair (25-30%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral bioaccessibility of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in settled dust: A review of measurement methods, data and influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffy, Gaëlle; Mercier, Fabien; Glorennec, Philippe; Mandin, Corinne; Le Bot, Barbara

    2018-06-15

    Many semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), suspected of reprotoxic, neurotoxic or carcinogenic effects, were measured in indoor settled dust. Dust ingestion is a non-negligible pathway of exposure to some of these SVOCs, and an accurate knowledge of the real exposure is necessary for a better evaluation of health risks. To this end, the bioaccessibility of SVOCs in dust needs to be considered. In the present work, bioaccessibility measurement methods, SVOCs' oral bioaccessibility data and influencing factors were reviewed. SVOC bioaccessibilities (%) ranged from 11 to 94, 8 to 100, 3 to 92, 1 to 81, 6 to 52, and 2 to 17, for brominated flame retardants, organophosphorus flame retardants, polychlorobiphenyls, phthalates, pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. Measurements method produced varying results depending on the inclusion of food and/or sink in the model. Characteristics of dust, e.g., organic matter content and particle size, also influenced bioaccessibility data. Last, results were influenced by SVOC properties, such as octanol/water partition coefficient and migration pathway into dust. Factors related to dust and SVOCs could be used in prediction models. To this end, more bioaccessibility studies covering more substances should be performed, using methods that are harmonized and validated by comparison to in-vivo studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of cooking and subcellular distribution on the bioaccessibility of trace elements in two marine fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mei; Ke, Cai-Huan; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2010-03-24

    In current human health risk assessment, the maximum acceptable concentrations of contaminants in food are mostly based on the total concentrations. However, the total concentration of contaminants may not always reflect the available amount. Bioaccessibility determination is thus required to improve the risk assessment of contaminants. This study used an in vitro digestion model to assess the bioaccessibility of several trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn) in the muscles of two farmed marine fish species (seabass Lateolabrax japonicus and red seabream Pagrosomus major ) of different body sizes. The total concentrations and subcellular distributions of these trace elements in fish muscles were also determined. Bioaccessibility of these trace elements was generally high (>45%), and the lowest bioaccessibility was observed for Fe. Cooking processes, including boiling, steaming, frying, and grilling, generally decreased the bioaccessibility of these trace elements, especially for Cu and Zn. The influences of frying and grilling were greater than those of boiling and steaming. The relationship of bioaccessibility and total concentration varied with the elements. A positive correlation was found for As and Cu and a negative correlation for Fe, whereas no correlation was found for Cd, Se, and Zn. A significant positive relationship was demonstrated between the bioaccessibility and the elemental partitioning in the heat stable protein fraction and in the trophically available fraction, and a negative correlation was observed between the bioaccessibility and the elemental partitioning in metal-rich granule fraction. Subcellular distribution may thus affect the bioaccessibility of metals and should be considered in the risk assessment for seafood safety.

  4. The effect of cooking and washing rice on the bio-accessibility of As, Cu, Fe, V and Zn using an on-line continuous leaching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nolan S; Beauchemin, Diane

    2013-01-03

    A previously developed method based on continuous on-line leaching with artificial gastro-intestinal fluids was used to determine the bio-accessible fraction of As, Cu, Fe, V and Zn in brown and white rice from California by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Saliva generally accounted for the largest percentage of total element leached in comparison to gastric and intestinal juices. Arsenic speciation analysis was performed on the saliva and gastric juice leachates using ion exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. The four most toxic species of As (As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V)), as well as Cl(-) in the gastric juice leachate, were successfully separated within 5.5min using a simple nitric acid gradient. While cooking rice had relatively little effect on total bio-accessibility, a change in species from As(V) and DMA to As(III) was observed for both types of rice. On the other hand, washing the rice with doubly deionized water prior to cooking removed a large percentage of the total bio-accessible fraction of As, Cu, Fe, V and Zn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of bioaccessible concentration of trace elements in plant based edible materials by INAA and ICPMS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.K.; Maharia, R.S.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    The total metal concentration and bioaccessible concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se in Momordica charantia, Asparagus racemosus, Terminalia arjuna and Syzyzium cumini were measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis (ICP-MS). The bioaccessible concentrations were determined in the gastrointestinal digest obtained after treating dried powdered samples sequentially in gastric and intestinal fluid of porcine origin at physiological conditions. The bioaccessible concentration of Fe was in the range of 58-67 mg kg -1 , Mn was 10.2-14.6 mg kg -1 , Cu was 3.7-4.8 mg kg -1 and Zn was 10.6-18.4 mg kg -1 , were within the safety limits set for vegetable food stuff set by Joint FAO/WHO. The bioaccessibility of Zn, an essential element, was high (40-50 %) in M. charantia and in S. cumini. In addition, the total metal contents and bioaccessible concentration of Ni, Se, Cd and Pb in these samples were measured by ICP-MS. The total Cd content in S. cumini (2.6 ± 0.2 mg kg -1 ) and its bioaccessible concentration (0.6 mg kg -1 ) were strikingly high as compared to the other samples. Though total Hg contents were determined by ICP-MS, but their bioaccessible concentrations were below the detection limit (0.036 mg kg -1 ). (author)

  6. Risk assessment for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in urban soils: chemical availability as the central concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.R.; Cruz, N.; Coelho, C.; Henriques, B.; Carvalho, L.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the geochemical reactivity and oral bioaccessibility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in urban soils from the Porto area, four extractions were performed including Aqua Regia (AR; pseudototal), 0.43 M HNO(3) (reactive), 0.01 M CaCl(2) (available), and 0.4 M glycine at pH = 1.5, SBET method (oral

  7. Bioaccessibility of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in mine waste, urban soil, and road dust in the historical mining village of Kaňk, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahota, Petr; Raus, Karel; Rychlíková, Eva; Rohovec, Jan

    2017-06-15

    Historical mining activities in the village of Kaňk (in the northern part of the Kutná Hora ore district, Czech Republic) produced large amounts of mine wastes which contain significant amounts of metal(loid) contaminants such as As, Cu, Pb, and Zn. Given the proximity of residential communities to these mining residues, we investigated samples of mine waste (n = 5), urban soil (n = 6), and road dust (n = 5) with a special focus on the solid speciation of As, Cu, Pb, and Zn using a combination of methods (XRD, SEM/EDS, oxalate extractions), as well as on in vitro bioaccessibility in simulated gastric and lung fluids to assess the potential exposure risks for humans. Bulk chemical analyses indicated that As is the most important contaminant in the mine wastes (~1.15 wt%), urban soils (~2900 mg/kg) and road dusts (~440 mg/kg). Bioaccessible fractions of As were quite low (4-13%) in both the simulated gastric and lung fluids, while the bioaccessibility of metals ranged between waste materials and highly contaminated urban soil. Based on the risk assessment, arsenic was found to be the element posing the greatest risk.

  8. Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Singh, Nimisha; Richards, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Fragments of antifouling paint and environmental geosolids have been sampled from the island of Malta and analysed for total and bioaccessible metals. Total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were two to three orders of magnitude higher in spent antifouling composites relative to respective values in background soils and road dusts. Paint fragments were visible in geosolids taken from the immediate vicinity of boat maintenance facilities and mass balance calculations, based on Ba as a paint tracer, suggested that the most contaminated soils, road dusts and boatyard dusts contained about 1%, 7% and 9%, respectively, of antifouling particles. Human bioaccessibilities of metals were evaluated in selected samples using a physiologically based extraction technique. Accessibilities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the most contaminated solids were sufficient to be cause for concern for individuals working in the boat repair industry and to the wider, local community. - Geosolids near boat maintenance facilities are contaminated by antifouling paint particles containing high concentrations of bioaccessible metals.

  9. Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Singh, Nimisha; Richards, Jonathan P. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Fragments of antifouling paint and environmental geosolids have been sampled from the island of Malta and analysed for total and bioaccessible metals. Total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were two to three orders of magnitude higher in spent antifouling composites relative to respective values in background soils and road dusts. Paint fragments were visible in geosolids taken from the immediate vicinity of boat maintenance facilities and mass balance calculations, based on Ba as a paint tracer, suggested that the most contaminated soils, road dusts and boatyard dusts contained about 1%, 7% and 9%, respectively, of antifouling particles. Human bioaccessibilities of metals were evaluated in selected samples using a physiologically based extraction technique. Accessibilities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the most contaminated solids were sufficient to be cause for concern for individuals working in the boat repair industry and to the wider, local community. - Geosolids near boat maintenance facilities are contaminated by antifouling paint particles containing high concentrations of bioaccessible metals.

  10. Assessing oral bioaccessibility of trace elements in soils under worst-case scenarios by automated in-line dynamic extraction as a front end to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosende, María [FI-TRACE group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa, km 7.5, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears E-07122 (Spain); Magalhães, Luis M.; Segundo, Marcela A. [REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, R. de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, Porto 4050-313 (Portugal); Miró, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.miro@uib.es [FI-TRACE group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa, km 7.5, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears E-07122 (Spain)

    2014-09-09

    Highlights: • Automatic oral bioaccessibility tests of trace metals under worst-case scenarios. • Use of intricate and realistic digestive fluids (UBM method). • Analysis of large amounts of soils (≥400 mg) in a flow-based configuration. • Smart interface to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. • Comparison of distinct flow systems mimicking physiological conditions. - Abstract: A novel biomimetic extraction procedure that allows for the in-line handing of ≥400 mg solid substrates is herein proposed for automatic ascertainment of trace element (TE) bioaccessibility in soils under worst-case conditions as per recommendations of ISO norms. A unified bioaccessibility/BARGE method (UBM)-like physiological-based extraction test is evaluated for the first time in a dynamic format for accurate assessment of in-vitro bioaccessibility of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in forest and residential-garden soils by on-line coupling of a hybrid flow set-up to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Three biologically relevant operational extraction modes mimicking: (i) gastric juice extraction alone; (ii) saliva and gastric juice composite in unidirectional flow extraction format and (iii) saliva and gastric juice composite in a recirculation mode were thoroughly investigated. The extraction profiles of the three configurations using digestive fluids were proven to fit a first order reaction kinetic model for estimating the maximum TE bioaccessibility, that is, the actual worst-case scenario in human risk assessment protocols. A full factorial design, in which the sample amount (400–800 mg), the extractant flow rate (0.5–1.5 mL min{sup −1}) and the extraction temperature (27–37 °C) were selected as variables for the multivariate optimization studies in order to obtain the maximum TE extractability. Two soils of varied physicochemical properties were analysed and no significant differences were found at the 0.05 significance level

  11. Assessing oral bioaccessibility of trace elements in soils under worst-case scenarios by automated in-line dynamic extraction as a front end to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosende, María; Magalhães, Luis M.; Segundo, Marcela A.; Miró, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Automatic oral bioaccessibility tests of trace metals under worst-case scenarios. • Use of intricate and realistic digestive fluids (UBM method). • Analysis of large amounts of soils (≥400 mg) in a flow-based configuration. • Smart interface to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. • Comparison of distinct flow systems mimicking physiological conditions. - Abstract: A novel biomimetic extraction procedure that allows for the in-line handing of ≥400 mg solid substrates is herein proposed for automatic ascertainment of trace element (TE) bioaccessibility in soils under worst-case conditions as per recommendations of ISO norms. A unified bioaccessibility/BARGE method (UBM)-like physiological-based extraction test is evaluated for the first time in a dynamic format for accurate assessment of in-vitro bioaccessibility of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in forest and residential-garden soils by on-line coupling of a hybrid flow set-up to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Three biologically relevant operational extraction modes mimicking: (i) gastric juice extraction alone; (ii) saliva and gastric juice composite in unidirectional flow extraction format and (iii) saliva and gastric juice composite in a recirculation mode were thoroughly investigated. The extraction profiles of the three configurations using digestive fluids were proven to fit a first order reaction kinetic model for estimating the maximum TE bioaccessibility, that is, the actual worst-case scenario in human risk assessment protocols. A full factorial design, in which the sample amount (400–800 mg), the extractant flow rate (0.5–1.5 mL min −1 ) and the extraction temperature (27–37 °C) were selected as variables for the multivariate optimization studies in order to obtain the maximum TE extractability. Two soils of varied physicochemical properties were analysed and no significant differences were found at the 0.05 significance level

  12. Bioaccessibilities and health implications of heavy metals in exposed-lawn soils from 28 urban parks in the megacity Guangzhou inferred from an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Gao, Yan-Peng

    2018-02-01

    This study focused on characterizing the oral bioaccessibilities and human health risks of eight heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) in surface-exposed lawn soils from 28 urban parks in Guangzhou. The physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) method was used to assess bioavailability (in gastric and intestinal phases) and human health risk was assessed via statistical modelling (carcinogenic risk assessment, hazard quotients and hazard indices). Mean bioaccessibilities of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn from all soil samples were 50.90 ± 17.67%, 5.81 ± 1.67%, 7.12 ± 3.24%, 17.91 ± 18.34%, 11.93 ± 2.88%, 34.33 ± 10.02%, 1.68 ± 0.48%, 26.71 ± 5.06%, respectively. The concentrations of most heavy metals were higher in the gastric phase, except for Cr and Ni which remained higher in the intestinal phase. Principal component analysis revealed that the bioaccessibilities of the heavy metals could be split into three groupings, based on the urban park of soil origin. The carcinogenic risk probabilities for Pb and Cr were under the acceptable level (heavy metal contaminants in urban environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. On-line coupling of physiologically relevant bioaccessibility testing to inductively coupled plasma spectrometry: Proof of concept for fast assessment of gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of micronutrients from soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Mónica Alejandra; Rosende, María; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi; Miró, Manuel

    2016-10-05

    In-vitro physiologically relevant gastrointestinal extraction based on the validated Unified BARGE Method (UBM) is in this work hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry in a batch-flow configuration for real-time monitoring of oral bioaccessibility assays with high temporal resolution. A fully automated flow analyzer is designed to foster in-line filtration of gastrointestinal extracts at predefined times (≤15 min) followed by on-line multi-elemental analysis of bioaccessible micro-nutrients, viz., Cu, Fe and Mn, in well-defined volumes of extracts (300 μL) of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean seeds taken as model samples. The hyphenated flow setup allows for recording of temporal extraction profiles to gain full knowledge of the kinetics of the gastrointestinal digestion processes, including element leaching and concomitant precipitation and complexation reactions hindering bioavailability. Simplification of the overall standard procedure is also feasible by identification of steady-state extraction conditions. Our findings indicate that reliable measurement of oral bioaccessible pools of Cu, Fe and Mn in soybean might be obtained in less than 180 min rather than 240 min as endorsed by UBM. Using a matrix-matched external calibration, limits of detection according to the 3s criteria were 0.5 μg/g for Mn, 0.6 μg/g for Cu and 2.3 μg/g for Fe. Trueness of the automatic bioaccessibility method was confirmed by mass balance validation with recoveries ranging from 87 to 116% regardless of the target element and sample. Cu was the micronutrient with the highest oral bioaccessibility ranging from 73% to 83% (7.5-7.9 μg/g) for non-transgenic and transgenic soybeans, respectively, followed by Mn and Fe within the ranges of 29-31% (10.8-11.4 μg/g) and 11-15% (8-14 μg/g), respectively, regardless of transgenesis. The proposed kinetic method is proven suitable for fast and expedient estimation of the nutritional value of

  14. Bioaccessibility and human health risk assessment of lead in soil from Daye City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Li, F.; Xiao, M. S.; Cai, Y.; Xiong, L.; Huang, J. B.; Fu, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    Lead (Pb) in soil from 4 sampling sites of Daye City was studied. Bioaccessibilities of Pb in soil were determined by the method of simplified bioaccessible extraction test (SBET). Since traditional health risk assessment was built on the basis of metal total content, the risk may be overestimated. Modified human health risk assessment model considering bioaccessibility was built in this study. Health risk of adults and children exposure to Pb based on total contents and bioaccessible contents were evaluated. The results showed that bioaccessible content of Pb in soil was much lower than its total content, and the average bioaccessible factor (BF) was only 25.37%. The hazard indexes (HIs) for adults and children calculated by two methods were all lower than 1. It indicated that there were no no-carcinogenic risks of Pb for human in Daye. By comparing with the results, the average bioaccessible HIs for adults and children were lower than the total one, which was due to the lower hazard quotient (HQ). Proportions of non-carcinogenic risk exposure to Pb via different pathways have also changed. Particularly, the most main risk exposure pathway for adults turned from the oral ingestion to the inhalation.

  15. Effect of sulfur-containing spices on the bioaccessibility of trace minerals from selected cereals and pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Meena; Platel, Kalpana

    2017-07-01

    Garlic and onion, which are rich in organo-sulfur compounds, are reported to enhance the bioaccessibility of Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn; however, there is a lack of similar information on the bioaccessibility of copper, manganese and chromium. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of exogenous garlic and onion on the bioaccessibility of these trace minerals from selected food grains. The effect of two levels of garlic (0.25 and 0.5 g/10 g grain -1 ) and onion (1.5 and 3 g/10 g grain -1 ) on the bioaccessibility of these trace minerals from two representative cereals and pulses was determined by employing an in vitro dialysability procedure. Both garlic and onion significantly improved the bioaccessibility of Cu, especially when added at the higher level, in most of the foods examined. The enhancing effect of garlic on Mn bioaccessibility was found in cooked sorghum and chickpea, whereas onion significantly improved Mn bioaccessibility in cooked rice and chickpea. The addition of both spices did not exert any enhancing effect on Cr bioaccessibility from the cereals and pulses. The bioaccessibility of Cu, as well as Mn to a lesser extent, from vegetarian diets can be significantly improved by incorporating garlic and onion in the diet. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Bioaccessibility, dietary exposure and human risk assessment of heavy metals from market vegetables in Hong Kong revealed with an in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junli; Wu, Fuyong; Wu, Shengchun; Cao, Zhihong; Lin, Xiangui; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-04-01

    A systematic survey of heavy metal (HM) concentrations and bioaccessibilities in market vegetables in Hong Kong were carried out for assessing potential health risk to local inhabitants. The average concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in nine major groups of fresh vegetable varied within 0.007-0.053, 0.05-0.17, 0.05-0.24, 0.26-1.1, 0.62-3.0, and 0.96-4.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, and their average bioaccessibilities varied within 21-96%, 20-68%, 24-62%, 29-64%, 30-77%, and 69-94%, respectively. The bioaccessible estimated daily intakes (BEDIs) of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn from vegetables were far below the tolerable limits. The total bioaccessible target hazard quotient (TBTHQ) of the six HMs was 0.18 and 0.64 for average and high consumers, respectively, with Cd and leafy vegetable being the major risk contributors. Risk assessment of HMs from foods should be modified by taking bioaccessibility into account. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Availability and bio-accessibility of metals in the clay fraction of urban soils of Sevilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, F.; Diaz-Barrientos, E.; Madrid, L.

    2008-01-01

    The availability of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn present in the finest size particles of urban soils is studied by comparing the concentrations in the clay fraction with those extracted from the whole soil by either single-extraction or sequential extraction method. Many metals are preferentially present in the finest particles as compared to coarser fractions. This is true for most metals studied, except Mn and, perhaps, Cd. Those metals present in the clay fraction are often in easily bio-accessible forms, especially Cu, Pb and Zn. The results suggest that bio-accessible forms of these three metals are distributed among the three sequential fractions, and even the fraction considered as 'residual' is also bio-accessible to a significant extent. The statistical analysis shows some distinctions among metals that are compared to the 'urban', 'natural', or intermediate behaviour of the various metals as proposed earlier in the literature. - The recreational use of most urban soils causes that the availability of metals in the finest soil particles must be studied and eventually controlled

  18. Elemental concentrations and bioaccessibilities in beached plastic foam litter, with particular reference to lead in polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Lau, Kwan S

    2016-11-15

    Seventy samples of foamed plastic collected from a high-energy, sandy beach in SW England have been characterised by FTIR and XRF. Most samples were polyurethane (PU; n=39) or polystyrene (PS; n=27) that were associated with variable concentrations of Br-Cl, Fe and Zn, indicative of the presence of halogenated flame retardants, iron oxides and Zn-based additives, respectively. Many samples of rigid PU contained Pb, historically used as a catalyst, at concentrations of up to 16,000μgg -1 . A physiological extraction test that simulates the conditions in the gizzard of plastic-ingesting seabirds was applied to selected samples and results revealed that while Br and Zn were not measurably bioaccessible, Pb mobilisation progressed logarithmically over a period of time with maximum accessibilities after 220h of ~10% of total metal. Foamed PU is a source of bioaccessible Pb in the marine environment that has not previously been documented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the extraction efficiencies of different leaching agents for reliable assessment of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In present study, an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test has been applied for extraction of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter (APM samples collected from different urban sites in Austria and Pakistan using the leaching agents H2O, sodium chloride, ammonium acetate, ammonium citrate, synthetic gastric juice and artificial lung fluids. Obtained extracts were then measured using an ETV-ICP-OES procedure which allowed highly sensitive measurement of dissolved analytes even in the presence of leaching agents. Derived results indicated that the investigated leaching agents extract different amounts of trace metals. In general, leaching agents with organic nature yielded comparatively greater extractable and thus bio-accessible trace metal fractions to that of simple solvents like H2O or aqueous NaCl solution. With water, only 26.3±4.0% of Cd was found to be bio-accessible whereas 88.4±24.8 of Cd was obtained as bio-accessible fraction with the use of synthetic gastric juice. The concentrations of bio-accessible metal fractions varied from 0.4 ng m−3 (Cd to 714 ng m−3 (Zn and 0.3 ng m−3 (Cd to 190 ng m−3 (Zn for PM10 samples collected from Karachi (Pakistan and Graz (Austria respectively.

  20. Estimated Bioaccessibility to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from Frequently Consumed Dried Fruits in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Rahimzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine levels of oral bioaccessibility of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF from frequently consumed dried fruits in Iran. Fifty samples from frequently consumed types of dried fruits were analyzed for moisture, acidity and HMF content before and after in vitro digestion. Besides, bioaccessibility of HMF in dried fruits using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestive model and HMF intake from dried fruits based on consumption of each dried fruit groups wasdetermined. The mean estimated intake of HMF was 72.90 mg/kg and the maximum intake was 240.23 mg/kg for fruit bread. The mean bioaccessibility was 60.26%. There was a correlation between HMF and acid content of fruit bread (r= 0.98, P<0.05. In conclusion, the HMF levels in dried fruits remains high even after the in vitro digestion.

  1. Arsenic speciation in total contents and bioaccessible fractions in atmospheric particles related to human intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Minjuan; Chen, Xunwen; Zhao, Yinge; Yu Chan, Chuen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xuemei; Wong, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Speciation of inorganic trivalent arsenicals (iAs III ), inorganic pentavalent arsenicals (iAs V ), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in total arsenic (As) content and its bioaccessible fractions contained in road dust, household air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM 2.5 was investigated. Inorganic As, especially iAs V , was observed as the dominant species. Physiologically based extraction test (PBET), an in-vitro gastrointestinal method, was used to estimate the oral As bioaccessibility in coarse particles and the species present in the oral bioaccessible fraction. A composite lung simulating serum was used to mimic the pulmonary condition to extract the respiratory bioaccessible As and its species in PM 2.5 . Reduction of iAs V to iAs III occurred in both in-vitro gastrointestinal and lung simulating extraction models. The inorganic As species was the exclusive species for absorption through ingestion and inhalation of atmospheric particles, which was an important exposure route to inorganic As, in addition to drinking water and food consumption. - Highlights: • Inorganic As species was the predominant species in dust and airborne particles. • Existence of iAs III in dust and airborne particles increases human health risks. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred through in-vitro gastrointestinal model. • Reduction from iAs V to iAs III occurred in the simulating pulmonary region. • Atmospheric particles were important exposure sources of inorganic As. - Atmospheric particles are important exposure sources of inorganic As, of which the bioaccessibility is dependent on the extraction phases and models used

  2. Assessment of the bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing using an in vitro test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiangyu; Tang, Lily; Zhu Yongguan; Xing Baoshan; Duan Jing; Zheng Minghui

    2006-01-01

    As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, soil ingestion is of increasing concern for assessing health risk from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. A wide range of total PAH concentrations ranging from 0.112 μg g -1 to 27.8 μg g -1 in soils collected from different public sites, including gas stations, roadsides, bus stops, a kindergarten, primary and middle schools, a university and residential area, was detected. In general, total PAHs concentrations in soils from traffic areas were significantly higher than that from the other sites, indicating a dominant contribution from motor vehicles. Physiologically based in vitro tests were used to evaluate the oral bioaccessibility of PAHs in surface soil under different land uses in Beijing regarding both gastric and small intestinal conditions. It was found that the oral bioaccessibility of total PAHs in small intestinal condition, ranging from 9.2% to 60.5% of total PAHs in soil, was significantly higher than gastric condition, ranging from 3.9% to 54.9%. The bioaccessibility of individual PAHs in soils generally decreased with the increasing ring number of PAHs in both gastric and small intestinal conditions. However, the ratio of bioaccessibility of individual PAHs in gastric condition to that in small intestinal condition, generally increased with increasing ring number, indicating the relatively pronounced effect of bile extract on improving bioaccessibility of PAHs with relatively high ring numbers characterized by their high K ow values. The observation that bile extract at a level higher than critical micelle concentration could reduce the surface tension of digestive juice substantially, which may cause PAHs to be available for intestinal absorption, calls for more careful establishment of reliable soil criteria for PAHs, especially concerning the health of children who may ingest a considerable amount of PAH-contaminated soil via outdoor hand-mouth activities. - Oral

  3. Effects of biochars on the bioaccessibility of phenanthrene/pyrene/zinc/lead and microbial community structure in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ni; Shi, Renyong; Liu, Zongtang; Bian, Yongrong; Wang, Fang; Song, Yang; Jiang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The immobilization of co-contaminants of organic and inorganic pollutants by biochar is an efficient remediation strategy. However, the effect of biochar amendments on the bioaccessibility of the co-contaminants in dry versus flooded soils has rarely been compared. In batch experiments, bamboo-derived biochar (BB) had a higher sorption capacity for phenanthrene (Phe)/pyrene (Pyr)/zinc (Zn) than corn straw-derived biochar (CB), while CB had a higher sorption capacity for lead (Pb) than BB. After 150days of incubation, the amendments of 2% CB, 0.5% BB and 2% BB effectively suppressed the dissipation and reduced the bioaccessibility of Phe/Pyr by 15.65%/18.02%, 17.07%/18.31% and 25.43%/27.11%, respectively, in the aerobic soils. This effectiveness was more significant than that in the anaerobic soils. The accessible Zn/Pb concentrations were also significantly lower in the aerobic soils than in the anaerobic soils, regardless of treatments. The Gram-negative bacterial biomass and the Shannon-Weaver index in the aerobic soil amended with 2% CB were the highest. The soil microbial community structure was jointly affected by changes in the bioaccessibility of the co-contaminants and the soil physiochemical properties caused by biochar amendments under the two conditions. Therefore, dry land farming may be more reliable than paddy soil cultivation at reducing the bioaccessibility of Phe/Pyr/Zn/Pb and enhancing the soil microbial diversity in the short term. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  5. Bioaccessibility of metals and human health risk assessment in community urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, M; De Miguel, E; Ortega, M F; Mingot, J

    2015-09-01

    Pseudo-total (i.e. aqua regia extractable) and gastric-bioaccessible (i.e. glycine+HCl extractable) concentrations of Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in a total of 48 samples collected from six community urban gardens of different characteristics in the city of Madrid (Spain). Calcium carbonate appears to be the soil property that determines the bioaccessibility of a majority of those elements, and the lack of influence of organic matter, pH and texture can be explained by their low levels in the samples (organic matter) or their narrow range of variation (pH and texture). A conservative risk assessment with bioaccessible concentrations in two scenarios, i.e. adult urban farmers and children playing in urban gardens, revealed acceptable levels of risk, but with large differences between urban gardens depending on their history of land use and their proximity to busy areas in the city center. Only in a worst-case scenario in which children who use urban gardens as recreational areas also eat the produce grown in them would the risk exceed the limits of acceptability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of organic matter and ageing on the bioaccessibility of arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, Louise; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated soils may pose a risk to human health. Redevelopment of contaminated sites may involve amending soils with organic matter, which potentially increases arsenic bioaccessibility. The effects of ageing on arsenic-contaminated soils mixed with peat moss were evaluated in a simulated ageing period representing two years, during which arsenic bioaccessibility was periodically measured. Significant increases (p = 0.032) in bioaccessibility were observed for 15 of 31 samples tested, particularly in comparison with samples originally containing >30% bioaccessible arsenic in soils naturally rich in organic matter (>25%). Samples where percent arsenic bioaccessibility was unchanged with age were generally poor in organic matter (average 7.7%) and contained both arsenopyrite and pentavalent arsenic forms that remained unaffected by the organic matter amendments. Results suggest that the addition of organic matter may lead to increases in arsenic bioaccessibility, which warrants caution in the evaluation of risks associated with redevelopment of arsenic-contaminated land. - Highlights: → Adding organic matter to contaminated soils may increase arsenic bioaccessibility. → Ageing soils with >25% organic matter can lead to increased arsenic bioaccessibility. → No changes in arsenic bioaccessibility for soils poor in organic matter (mean 7.7%). → No changes in arsenic bioaccessibility for samples containing arsenopyrite. → Organic matter in soil may favour oxidation of trivalent arsenic to pentavalent form. - Adding organic carbon may increase arsenic bioaccessibility, especially in samples originally containing >30% bioaccessible arsenic in organic carbon-rich soils (>25%).

  7. Bioaccessibility of selected trace metals in urban PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} samples: a model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falta, Thomas; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan [University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Division of Analytical Chemistry, Vienna (Austria); Limbeck, Andreas [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-02-15

    Bioaccessibility of trace metals originating from urban particulate matter was assessed in a worst case scenario to evaluate the uptake and thus the hazardous potential of these metals via gastric juice. Sampling was performed over a period of about two months at the Getreidemarkt in downtown Vienna. Concentrations of the assayed trace metals (Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl and Pb) were determined in PM{sub 2.5} and PM{sub 10} samples by ICP-MS. The metal concentrations in sampled air were in the low picogram to high nanogram per cubic metre range. The concentrations in PM{sub 2.5} samples were generally lower than those in PM{sub 10} samples. The average daily intake of these metals by inhalation for a healthy adult was estimated to be in the range of <1 ng (Tl) to >1,000 ng (Zn). To estimate the accessibility of the inhaled and subsequently ingested metals (i.e. after lung clearance had taken place) in the size range from 2.5- to 10-{mu}m aerodynamic equivalent diameter, a batch-extraction with synthetic gastric juice was performed. The data were used to calculate the bioaccessibility of the investigated trace metals. Extractable fractions ranged from 2.10% (Ti in PM{sub 2.5}) to 91.0% (Cd in PM{sub 2.5}), thus yielding bioaccessible fractions (PM{sub 2.5-10}) from 0.16 ng (Ag) to 178 ng (Cu). (orig.)

  8. Toxic metals in children's toys and jewelry: Coupling bioaccessibility with risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xin-Yi; Li, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Fan, Ying-Ying; Ma, Lena Q.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 45 children's toys and jewelry were tested for total and bioaccessible metal concentrations. Total As, Cd, Sb, Cr, Ni, and Pb concentrations were 0.22–19, 0.01–139, 0.1–189, 0.06–846, 0.14–2894 and 0.08–860,000 mg kg −1 . Metallic products had the highest concentrations, with 3–7 out of 13 samples exceeding the European Union safety limit for Cd, Pb, Cr, or Ni. However, assessment based on hazard index >1 and bioaccessible metal showed different trends. Under saliva mobilization or gastric ingestion, 11 out of 45 samples showed HI >1 for As, Cd, Sb, Cr, or Ni. Pb with the highest total concentration showed HI <1 for all samples while Ni showed the most hazard with HI up to 113. Our data suggest the importance of using bioaccessibility to evaluate health hazard of metals in children's toys and jewelry, and besides Pb and Cd, As, Ni, Cr, and Sb in children's products also deserve attention. - Highlights: • Contamination of toxic metals in children's toys and jewelry (TJ) were studied. • Metals including Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni in some TJ exceeded the EU safety limits. • Hazard index of TJ was assessed based on bioaccessible metals via saliva mobilization and oral ingestion. • Hazard index was >> 1 for Ni, and unacceptable for As, Cd, Cr, and Sb in some TJ. - Assessment of health hazard of children's toys and jewelry based on bioaccessible metals suggested that besides Pb and Cd, As, Ni, Cr, and Sb in children's products deserve attention

  9. On-line monitoring of in-vitro oral bioaccessibility tests as front-end to liquid chromatography for determination of chlorogenic acid isomers in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremr, Daniel; Cocovi-Solberg, David J; Bajerová, Petra; Ventura, Karel; Miró, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    A novel fully automated in-vitro oral dissolution test assay as a front-end to liquid chromatography has been developed and validated for on-line chemical profiling and monitoring of temporal release profiles of three caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) isomers, namely, 3-CQA,4-CQA and 5-CQA, known as chlorogenic acids, in dietary supplements. Tangential-flow filtration is harnessed as a sample processing approach for on-line handling of CQA containing extracts of hard gelatin capsules and introduction of protein-free samples into the liquid chromatograph. Oral bioaccessibility/dissolution test assays were performed at 37.0±0.5°C as per US Pharmacopeia recommendations using pepsin with activity of ca. 749,000 USP units/L in 0.1mol/L HCl as the extraction medium and a paddle apparatus stirred at 50rpm. CQA release rates and steady-state dissolution conditions were determined accurately by fitting the chromatographic datasets, namely, the average cumulative concentrations of bioaccessible pools of every individual isomer monitored during 200min, with temporal resolutions of ≥10min, to a first-order dissolution kinetic model. Distinct solid-to-liquid phase ratios in the mimicry of physiological extraction conditions were assessed. Relative standard deviations for intra-day repeatability and inter-day intermediate precision of 5-CQA within the 5-40µg/mL concentration range were <3.4% and <5.5%, respectively. Trueness of the automatic flow method for determination of 5-CQA released from dietary supplements in gastric fluid surrogate was demonstrated by spike recoveries, spanning from 91.5-104.0%, upon completion of the dissolution process. The proposed hyphenated setup was resorted for evaluating potential differences in dissolution profiles and content of the three most abundant chlorogenic acid isomers in dietary supplements from varied manufacturers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of five in vitro digestion models to in vivo experimental results: Lead bioaccessibility in the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Oomen, A.G.; Wragg, J.; Cave, M.; Minekus, M.; Hack, A.; Cornelis, C.; Rompelberg, C.J.M.; Zwart, L.L. de; Klinck, B.; Wijnen, J. van; Verstraete, W.; Sips, A.J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-laboratory comparison study of in vitro models assessing bioaccessibility of soil-bound lead in the human gastrointestinal tract under simulated fasted and fed conditions. Oral bioavailability data from a previous human in vivo study on the same soil served as a reference

  11. Oral bioaccessibility and human exposure to anthropogenic and geogenic mercury in urban, industrial and mining areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.M.; Coelho, C.; Cruz, N.; Monteiro, R.J.R.; Henriques, B.; Duarte, A.C.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.; Pereira, E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the link between bioaccessibility and fractionation of mercury (Hg) in soils and to provide insight into human exposure to Hg due to inhalation of airborne soil particles and hand-to-mouth ingestion of Hg-bearing soil. Mercury in soils from mining,

  12. Flow-through dynamic microextraction system for automatic in vitro assessment of chyme bioaccessibility in food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lais A; Rosende, María; Korn, Maria Graças A; Miró, Manuel

    2018-10-05

    An automatic flow-through dynamic extraction method is proposed for the first time for in vitro exploration, with high temporal resolution, of the transit of the chyme from the gastric to the duodenal compartment using the Versantvoort's fed-state physiologically relevant extraction test. The flow manifold was coupled on-line to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP OES) for real-time elucidation of the bioaccessible elemental fraction of micronutrients (viz., Cu, Fe and Mn) in food commodities across the gastrointestinal tract. The simulated intestinal and bile biofluid (added to the gastric phase) was successively pumped at 1.0 mL min -1 through a large-bore column (maintained at 37.0 ± 2.0 °C) initially loaded with a weighed amount of linseed (250 mg) using a PVDF filter membrane (5.0 μm pore size) for retaining of the solid sample and in-line filtration of the extracts. The lack of bias (trueness) of the on-line gastrointestinal extraction method coupled to ICP OES was confirmed using mass balance validation following microwave assisted digestion of the residual (non-bioaccessible) elemental fraction. Mass balance validation yielded absolute recoveries spanning from 79 to 121% for the overall analytes and samples. On-line dynamic extraction was critically appraised against batch counterparts for both gastric and gastrointestinal compartments. Due to the lack of consensus in the literature regarding the agitation method for batch oral bioaccessibility testing, several extraction approaches (viz., magnetic stirring, end-over-end rotation and orbital shaking) were evaluated. Improved gastric extractability of Fe along with bioaccessible data comparable to the dynamic counterpart based on the continuous displacement of the extraction equilibrium was obtained with batchwise magnetic stirring, which is deemed most appropriate for ascertaining worst-case/maximum bioaccessibility scenarios. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Lead bioaccessibility in topsoils from lead mineralisation and urban domains, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.; Cave, M.R.; Palumbo-Roe, B.; Wragg, J.

    2013-01-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling indicates that total Pb is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating Pb bioaccessibility in “mineralisation domains” located in limestone (high pH) and partly peat covered (low pH) shale-sandstone terrains in England. Manganese is a significant minor predictor in the limestone terrain, whilst organic matter and sulphur explain 0.5% and 2% of the variance of bioaccessible Pb in the peat-shale-sandstone terrain, compared with 93% explained by total Pb. Bootstrap resampling shows that LR confidence limits overlap for the two mineralised terrains but the limestone terrain has a significantly lower bioaccessible Pb to total Pb slope than the urban domain. A comparison of the absolute values of stomach and combined stomach-intestine bioaccessibility provides some insight into the geochemical controls on bioaccessibility in the contrasting soil types. -- Highlights: •Total Pb is the only highly significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in lead mineralisation domains. •Manganese is a significant minor predictor in limestone terrain. •Organic matter and sulphur are minor predictors in peat-shale-sandstone terrain. •Results can be used for initial risk assessment in Pb mineralisation domain. -- Total Pb is the major predictor for bioaccessible Pb in topsoils from two lead mineralised areas in England

  14. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2010-01-01

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  15. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.s [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  16. Role of structural barriers in the in vitro bioaccessibility of anthocyanins in comparison with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Celia; Buvé, Carolien; Panozzo, Agnese; Grauwet, Tara; Hendrickx, Marc

    2017-07-15

    Although natural structural barriers are factors limiting nutrient bioaccessibility, their specific role in anthocyanin bioaccessibility is still unknown. To better understand how natural barriers govern bioactive compound bioaccessibility, an experimental approach comparing anthocyanins and carotenoids was designed, using a single plant matrix. Initial results revealed increased anthocyanin bioaccessibility in masticated black carrot. To explain this observation, samples with increasing levels of bioencapsulation (free-compound, homogenized-puree, puree) were examined. While carotenoid bioaccessibility was inversely proportional to the level of bioencapsulation, barrier disruption did not increase anthocyanin bioaccessibility. This means that mechanical processing is of particular importance in the case of carotenoid bioaccessibility. While micelle incorporation is the limiting factor for carotenoid bioaccessibility, anthocyanin degradation under alkaline conditions in the gastrointestinal tract dominates. In the absence of structural barriers, anthocyanin bioaccessibility is greater than that of carotenoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes; Oral biotillgaenglighet av arsenik, antimon och ett urval av metaller i askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Christel; Bendz, David; Jones, Celia

    2008-06-15

    In an earlier study, financed by Varmeforsk, 'Q4-238 Environmental guidelines for reuse of ash in civil engineering applications', the total content of arsenic and lead was shown to determine whether or not reuse of some of the ashes in construction work is feasible. The model used to calculate the guidelines uses the total concentration of metals to evaluate the health risks resulting from exposure to the ashes. The use of total concentration can lead to overly conservative risk assessments if a significant fraction of the total metal content is not bioavailable. Better precision in the risk assessment can be given by the use of the bioavailable fraction of arsenic and lead in the model. As a result, ashes which are rejected on the basis of total metal concentration may be acceptable for use in engineering construction when the assessment is based on the bioavailable fraction. The purpose of the study was to (i) compile information on the oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and a selection of metals in ashes and similar materials, and on in vitro methods for determination of oral bioavailability, and (ii) experimentally estimate oral bioavailability of arsenic, antimony and some metals in a selection of ashes by analysis of the gastrointestinal bioaccessibility of these elements. The investigated elements were antimony, arsenic, lead, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel and zinc. In the literature study performed within the project a number of static and dynamic in vitro methods simulating gastrointestinal processes of contaminants were compiled. The methods include one or several segments, i.e. mouth, stomach and intestine. Among the compiled methods, the RIVM (Rijksinstituut voor volksgesundheid en milieu) in vitro method was used in the experimental part of the project. The advantages with the method was that: the method to a high degree mimicked the human gastrointestinal processes (the method included three segments mouth, stomach, and intestine

  18. An in vivo invertebrate bioassay of Pb, Zn and Cd stabilization in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovic, Metka; Drobne, Damjana; Lestan, Domen

    2013-08-01

    The terrestrial isopod (Porcellio scaber) was used to assess the remediation efficiency of limestone and a mixture of gravel sludge and red mud as stabilizing agents of Pb, Zn and Cd in industrially polluted soil, which contains 800, 540 and 7mgkg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. The aim of our study was to compare and evaluate the results of the biological and non-biological assessment of metal bioavailability after soil remediation. Results of a 14d bioaccumulation test with P. scaber showed that that Pb and Zn stabilization were more successful with gravel sludge and red mud, while Cd was better stabilized and thus less bioavailable following limestone treatment. In vivo bioaccumulation tests confirmed the results of chemical bioaccessibility, however it was more sensitive. Biotesting with isopods is a relevant approach for fast screening of bioavailability of metals in soils which includes temporal and spatial components. Bioavailability assessed by P. scaber is a more relevant and sensitive measure of metal bioavailability than chemical bioaccessibility testing in remediated industrially polluted soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relative Bioavailability and Bioaccessability and Speciation of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Assessment of soil arsenic (As) bioavailability may profoundly affect the extent of remediation required at contaminated sites by improving human exposure estimates. Because small adjustments in soil As bioavailability estimates can significantly alter risk assessments and remediation goals, convenient, rapid, reliable, and inexpensive tools are needed to determine soil As bioavailability. Objectives: We evaluated inexpensive methods for assessing As bioavailability in soil as a means to improve human exposure estimates and potentially reduce remediation costs. Methods: Nine soils from residential sites affected by mining or smelting activity and two National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials were evaluated for As bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and speciation. Arsenic bioavailability was determined using an in vivo mouse model, and As bioaccessibility was determined using the Solubility/Bioavailability Research Consortium in vitro assay. Arsenic speciation in soil and selected soil physicochemical properties were also evaluated to determine whether these parameters could be used as predictors of As bio¬availability and bioaccessibility. Results: In the mouse assay, we compared bioavailabilities of As in soils with that for sodium arsenate. Relative bioavailabilities (RBAs) of soil As ranged from 11% to 53% (mean, 33%). In vitro soil As bioaccessibility values were strongly correlated with soil As RBAs (R

  20. Impact of bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in biological systems upon the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of Triplaris gardneriana seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, José Joaquim Lopes; de Almeida, Thiago Silva; de Medeiros, Jackeline Lima; Vieira, Leonardo Rogério; Moreira, Thaís Borges; Maia, Ana Isabel Vitorino; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Farias, Davi Felipe; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2017-04-01

    The most studied bioactive potential of phenolic compounds corresponds to antioxidant activity, which in turn, is associated with a reduction in the incidence of various human diseases. However, the total quantity of these bioactive substances in foods and medicinal preparations does not reflect the amount absorbed and metabolized by the body. The present study aimed to investigate the bioaccessibility of Triplaris gardneriana seeds ethanolic extract (EETg) by determination of phenolic composition and antioxidant activities before and after in vitro digestion as well as to estimate its bioavailability by chemical analysis of plasma and urine in animal models after oral administration. The bioaccessibility indexes of phenolic compounds in EETg were 48.65 and 69.28% in the presence and absence of enzymes, respectively. Among the identified phenolics classes, flavonoids, represented by galloylated procyanidins type B, proved to be more bioaccessible, 81.48 and 96.29% in the post-intestinal phase with and without enzymes, respectively. The oral administration in Wistar rats resulted in a significant decrease in plasma of the total antioxidant capacity, TAC, by FRAP assay 4h after beginning the experiment. For urine samples, an increase in TAC by DPPH and FRAP was observed from 1 and 4h after administration, respectively. UPLC-QTOF analysis of urine detected 2 metabolites originated from the degradation of phenolic compounds, i.e. hippuric acid and phenylacetil glycine. These results suggest that phenolic compounds in T. gardneriana are unstable under gastrointestinal conditions, being flavonoids the components with higher bioaccessibility; besides that, they showed limited bioavailability due to their rapid biotransformation and urinary elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Fibre fortification of wheat bread: impact on mineral composition and bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita E; Pinto, Edgar; Almeida, Agostinho A; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-05-24

    In this work, wheat bread was fortified with fibre enriched extracts recovered from agroindustry by-products, namely, elderberry skin, pulp and seeds (EE); orange peel (OE); pomegranate peel and interior membranes (PE); and spent yeast (YE). The impact of this fortification on the total and bioaccessible mineral composition of wheat breads, estimated mineral daily intake, and the relationship between bioaccessibility and dietary fibre was evaluated. Fortification with OE, EE, and PE improved the content of essential minerals in bread when compared to control bread. The exception was bread fortified with YE, which presented a mineral content similar to control bread, but its mineral bioaccessibility was significantly higher than in all the other bread formulations. The opposite was observed for PE bread, which presented a significant reduction of bioaccessible minerals. We concluded that the origin of the fibre rich extract must be carefully selected, to avoid potential negative impact on mineral bioaccessibility.

  2. Role of structural barriers for carotenoid bioaccessibility upon high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Paola; Panozzo, Agnese; Colle, Ines; Chigwedere, Claire; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-05-15

    A specific approach to investigate the effect of high pressure homogenization on the carotenoid bioaccessibility in tomato-based products was developed. Six different tomato-based model systems were reconstituted in order to target the specific role of the natural structural barriers (chromoplast substructure/cell wall) and of the phases (soluble/insoluble) in determining the carotenoid bioaccessibility and viscosity changes upon high pressure homogenization. Results indicated that in the absence of natural structural barriers (carotenoid enriched oil), the soluble and insoluble phases determined the carotenoid bioaccessibility upon processing whereas, in their presence, these barriers governed the bioaccessibility. Furthermore, it was shown that the increment of the viscosity upon high pressure homogenization is determined by the presence of insoluble phase, however, this result was related to the initial ratio of the soluble:insoluble phases in the system. In addition, no relationship between the changes in viscosity and carotenoid bioaccessibility upon high pressure homogenization was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. First approach to assess the bioaccessibility of bisphenol A in canned seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Sara C; Alves, Ricardo N; Fernandes, José O; Casal, Susana; Marques, António

    2017-10-01

    Human health risks due to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure through canned food consumption are an emerging safety concern worldwide. In this study, an in vitro digestion model was used to simulate human digestion and evaluate BPA bioaccessibility in canned seafood for the first time. BPA contents of canned tuna and sardine samples and their bioaccessible and non-bioaccessible fractions were determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The 21 samples of canned tuna and sardines, all from the same producer but with different kind of sauces, showed BPA levels ranging from <1µgkg -1 (limit of quantification, LOQ) to 62µgkg -1 , with variable results within and between sample groups. BPA bioaccessibility was evaluated in six positive samples, with values ranging from 80 to 99%. The results suggest that BPA bioaccessibility was slightly lower in samples with higher lipid content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multivariate approach to assess in vitro Fe bioaccessibility in chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Náira da Silva CAMPOS

    Full Text Available Abstract A 32 factorial design was employed to develop an in vitro digestion method for estimation of Fe bioaccessible fractions in cooked chicken meat. The effects of sample size and the in vitro bioaccessible fractions of this essential element were evaluated. A sample preparation method employing a microwave assisted digestion with dilute nitric acid was used prior to total Fe determination. For the bioacessibility studies, the optimized procedure employed 7.5 g of sample and 6% w/v of an acid pepsin solution. This procedure was applied to two kinds of chicken meat samples: breast and liver. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was used to determine total and bioaccessible (chyme or soluble portion levels of iron in the samples. With respect to total Fe content, the bioaccessible fractions of Fe found in these samples were around 23% and 56 %, for breast and chicken liver, respectively. The chicken liver sample showed the highest total (400 ± 10 mg kg-1 and bioaccessible Fe contents (223 ± 18 mg kg-1 and stands out as a good source of this micronutrient.

  5. Are Chinese consumers at risk due to exposure to metals in crayfish? A bioaccessibility-adjusted probabilistic risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qian; Nunes, Luís M; Greenfield, Ben K; Dang, Fei; Zhong, Huan

    2016-03-01

    Freshwater crayfish, the world's third largest crustacean species, has been reported to accumulate high levels of metals, while the current knowledge of potential risk associated with crayfish consumption lags behind that of finfish. We provide the first estimate of human health risk associated with crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) consumption in China, the world's largest producer and consumer of crayfish. We performed Monte Carlo Simulation on a standard risk model parameterized with local data on metal concentrations, bioaccessibility (φ), crayfish consumption rate, and consumer body mass. Bioaccessibility of metals in crayfish was found to be variable (68-95%) and metal-specific, suggesting a potential influence of metal bioaccessibility on effective metal intake. However, sensitivity analysis suggested risk of metals via crayfish consumption was predominantly explained by consumption rate (explaining >92% of total risk estimate variability), rather than metals concentration, bioaccessibility, or body mass. Mean metal concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) in surveyed crayfish samples from 12 provinces in China conformed to national safety standards. However, risk calculation of φ-modified hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) suggested that crayfish metals may pose a health risk for very high rate consumers, with a HI of over 24 for the highest rate consumers. Additionally, the φ-modified increased lifetime risk (ILTR) for carcinogenic effects due to the presence of As was above the acceptable level (10(-5)) for both the median (ILTR=2.5×10(-5)) and 90th percentile (ILTR=1.8×10(-4)), highlighting the relatively high risk of As in crayfish. Our results suggest a need to consider crayfish when assessing human dietary exposure to metals and associated health risks, especially for high crayfish-consuming populations, such as in China, USA and Sweden. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls in different foods using an in vitro digestion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Guanhua; Yang Yu; Chan, Janet Kie Yan Chan; Tao Shu; Wong Minghung

    2008-01-01

    Bioaccessibility of organic pollutants in food is important for exposure estimation and risk assessment. An in vitro enzyme digestion experiment was carried out to analyze the bioaccessibility of PCBs in different foods including freshwater fish (bighead carp and oriental weather fish) and vegetables (spinach and cabbage). The results indicated that the bioaccessibility of PCBs in freshwater fish (3%) was much lower than that in leafy vegetables (25%). Based on field survey, the daily exposure TEQ value from these two types of food was 17.9 pg/kg bw/day. However, when bioaccessibility was taken into consideration, the value decreased to 0.61 pg/kg bw/day. Therefore, the forms of PCBs existing in food strongly influenced the bioavailability for humans, which may have important implications on dietary exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to illustrate the bioaccessibility of PCBs in different foods using an in vitro digestion method. - This paper describes the applicability of an in vitro digestion method for measuring the bioaccessibility of PCBs from freshwater fish and leafy vegetables

  7. Effect of different iron compounds on rheological and technological parameters as well as bioaccessibility of minerals in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellato, Ana Paula; Bussi, Jéssica; Silva, Joyce Grazielle Siqueira; Greiner, Ralf; Steel, Caroline Joy; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of iron compounds used in whole wheat flour (WWF) fortification, both on rheological properties of the dough and on bread technological quality. Furthermore, bioaccessibility of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) in the final breads was determined. Rheological properties (mainly dough development time, stability, mixing tolerance index, resistance to extension and ratio number) of the dough and the technological quality of bread (mainly oven spring and cut opening) were altered. However, producing roll breads fortified with different iron compounds was still possible. NaFeEDTA (ferric sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid) proved to be the most effective iron compound in the fortification of WWF, since it presented the highest levels of solubility (44.80%) and dialysability (46.14%), followed by microencapsulated ferrous fumarate (FFm). On the other hand, the microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (FSm) and reduced iron presented the lowest solubility (5.40 and 18.30%, respectively) and dialysability (33.12 and 31.79%, respectively). Zn dialysis was positively influenced by NaFeEDTA, FSm, and ferrous fumarate. As for Ca, dialysis was positively influenced by FSm and negatively influenced by FFm. The data indicated that there is a competitive interaction for the absorption of these minerals in whole wheat roll breads, but all studied minerals can be considered bioaccessible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors influencing on the bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in size-specific dust from air conditioner filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxin; Yang, Dan; Wang, Xinxin; Huang, Ningbao; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Dongping; Fu, Jiamo

    2013-11-01

    Size-specific concentrations and bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in dust from air conditioner filters were measured, and the factors influencing the PBDE bioaccessibility were determined. Generally, the PBDE concentrations increased with decreasing dust particle size, and BDE209 (deca-BDE) was generally the predominant congener. The bioaccessibility ranged from 20.3% to 50.8% for tri- to hepta-BDEs, and from 5.1% to 13.9% for BDE209 in dust fractions of varied particle size. The bioaccessibility of most PBDE congeners decreased with increasing dust particle size. The way of being of PBDE (adsorbed to dust surface or incorporated into polymers) in dust significantly influenced the bioaccessibility. There was a significant negative correlation between the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and organic matter (OM) contents in dust. Furthermore, tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility increased with increasing polarity of OMs, while with decreasing aromaticity of OMs. The tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility significantly positively correlated with the surface areas and pore volumes of dust. Using multiple linear regression analysis, it was found that the OM contents and pore volumes of dust were the most important factors to influence the tri- to hepta-BDE bioaccessibility and they could be used to estimate the bioaccessibility of tri- to hepta-BDEs according to the following equation: bioaccessibility (%)=45.05-0.49 × OM%+1.79 × pore volume. However, BDE209 bioaccessibility did not correlate to any of these factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity is inhabited by more than 25,000 different bacterial phylotypes; some of them cause systemic infections in addition to dental and periodontal diseases. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance among these bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial agents that are safe, stable, and relatively economic. This review focuses on the significance of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as supplementary antimicrobials for controlling oral infections and biofilm formation. Indeed, the ZnO NPs and TiO 2 NPs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria at concentrations which is not toxic in in vivo toxicity assays. These nanoparticles are being produced at an industrial scale for use in a variety of commercial products including food products. Thus, the application of ZnO and TiO 2 NPs as nanoantibiotics for the development of mouthwashes, dental pastes, and other oral hygiene materials is envisaged. It is also suggested that these NPs could serve as healthier, innocuous, and effective alternative for controlling both the dental biofilms and oral planktonic bacteria with lesser side effects and antibiotic resistance

  10. ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-06-01

    Oral cavity is inhabited by more than 25,000 different bacterial phylotypes; some of them cause systemic infections in addition to dental and periodontal diseases. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance among these bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial agents that are safe, stable, and relatively economic. This review focuses on the significance of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as supplementary antimicrobials for controlling oral infections and biofilm formation. Indeed, the ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria at concentrations which is not toxic in in vivo toxicity assays. These nanoparticles are being produced at an industrial scale for use in a variety of commercial products including food products. Thus, the application of ZnO and TiO2 NPs as nanoantibiotics for the development of mouthwashes, dental pastes, and other oral hygiene materials is envisaged. It is also suggested that these NPs could serve as healthier, innocuous, and effective alternative for controlling both the dental biofilms and oral planktonic bacteria with lesser side effects and antibiotic resistance.

  11. Assessment on the occupational exposure of urban public bus drivers to bioaccessible trace metals through resuspended fraction of settled bus dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peng [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Liu, Sa [Environmental Health Sciences Division, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720-7360 (United States); Ye, Wenyuan [Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Willem de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Lin, Nan; Meng, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Feng, Yujie, E-mail: yujief@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Zhang, Zhaohan; Cui, Fuyi; Lu, Binyu [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, No. 73 Huanghe Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150090 (China); Xing, Baoshan [Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Limited information is available on the bioaccessible fraction of trace metals in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust in order to estimate bus drivers ' occupational exposure. In this study, 45 resuspended fraction of settled dust samples were collected from gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) powered buses and analyzed for trace metals and their fraction concentrations using a three-step sequential extraction procedure. Experimental results showed that zinc (Zn) had the greatest bioaccessible fraction, recorded as an average of 608.53 mg/kg, followed in order of decreasing concentration by 129.80 mg/kg lead (Pb), 56.77 mg/kg copper (Cu), 34.03 mg/kg chromium (Cr), 22.05 mg/kg nickel (Ni), 13.17 mg/kg arsenic (As) and 2.77 mg/kg cadmium (Cd). Among the three settled bus dust exposure pathways, ingestion was the main route. Total exposure hazard index (HIt) for non-carcinogenic effect trace metals was lower than the safety level of 1. The incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) for drivers was estimated for trace metal exposure. Pb and Ni presented relatively high potential risks in the non-carcinogenic and potentially carcinogenic health assessment for all drivers. ILCR was in the range of 1.84E − 05 to 7.37E − 05 and 1.74E − 05 to 6.95E − 05 for gasoline and CNG buses, respectively. - Highlights: • As, Cd and Ni had relatively higher bioaccessibility and mobility in the resuspended fraction of settled bus dust. • Bioaccessible metal concentrations were higher in gasoline-fueled buses than those in CNG-fueled buses. • The carcinogenic risk probabilities to drivers were around the acceptable level.

  12. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.; Cave, M.R.; Wragg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible Pb and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed for the Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea urban areas in order to assess the potential for developing a national urban bioaccessible Pb dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total Pb is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating the bioaccessibility of Pb. Bootstrap resampling shows that the relationship between total Pb and bioaccessible Pb is broadly the same in the four urban areas. The median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38% in Northampton to 68% in London and Swansea. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study. - Highlights: ► Total Pb is the only significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in UK urban topsoils. ► Bootstrap resampling confirms relationship similar in four urban areas. ► Median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38 to 68%. ► Results can be used for initial risk assessment in UK urban areas. - Total Pb is the only significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in topsoils from four urban areas in the UK.

  13. Quantifying statistical relationships between commonly used in vitro models for estimating lead bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kaihong; Dong, Zhaomin; Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-04-01

    Bioaccessibility to assess potential risks resulting from exposure to Pb-contaminated soils is commonly estimated using various in vitro methods. However, existing in vitro methods yield different results depending on the composition of the extractant as well as the contaminated soils. For this reason, the relationships between the five commonly used in vitro methods, the Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure (RBALP), the unified BioAccessibility Research Group Europe (BARGE) method (UBM), the Solubility Bioaccessibility Research Consortium assay (SBRC), a Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET), and the in vitro Digestion Model (RIVM) were quantified statistically using 10 soils from long-term Pb-contaminated mining and smelter sites located in Western Australia and South Australia. For all 10 soils, the measured Pb bioaccessibility regarding all in vitro methods varied from 1.9 to 106% for gastric phase, which is higher than that for intestinal phase: 0.2 ∼ 78.6%. The variations in Pb bioaccessibility depend on the in vitro models being used, suggesting that the method chosen for bioaccessibility assessment must be validated against in vivo studies prior to use for predicting risk. Regression studies between RBALP and SRBC, RBALP and RIVM (0.06) (0.06 g of soil in each tube, S:L ratios for gastric phase and intestinal phase are 1:375 and 1:958, respectively) showed that Pb bioaccessibility based on the three methods were comparable. Meanwhile, the slopes between RBALP and UBM, RBALP and RIVM (0.6) (0.6 g soil in each tube, S:L ratios for gastric phase and intestinal phase are 1:37.5 and 1:96, respectively) were 1.21 and 1.02, respectively. The findings presented in this study could help standardize in vitro bioaccessibility measurements and provide a scientific basis for further relating Pb bioavailability and soil properties.

  14. Studies on tender wheatgrass: estimation of elemental content, bioaccessibility of essential elements and antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Kulkarni, S.D.; Rajurkar, N.S.

    2008-08-01

    Tender wheatgrass is being consumed by human beings in juice form or as it is due to its antioxidant potential and medicinal value. Systematic studies were carried out to (i) estimate elemental profiles as a function of growth period and conditions, bioaccessibility of different elements and the antioxidant potential of the tender wheatgrass, (ii) determine the optimum growth period for obtaining maximum benefit and (iii) examine the possible correlation between antioxidant potential and mineral content. Wheatgrass was grown in four different conditions namely (i) tap water, (ii) tap water with nutrients, (iii) soil and tap water and (iv) soil with nutrient solution. The studies were carried out on the wheatgrass of 5-20 days old. For comparison with laboratory grown wheatgrass, a set of commercially available wheatgrass tablets and wheat seeds were also studied. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for concentration determination of elements in the wheatgrass, wheat seeds and wheatgrass tablets. A total of 15 elements like Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Br, Fe and Zn were determined in the samples of shoots and roots of tender wheatgrass. A comparison with the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of different essential elements with that in tender wheatgrass revealed that wheatgrass is a good source of minerals for health benefits rather than a food supplement. Bioaccessible fractions of various elements were estimated by a chemical NAA method by subjecting the samples to in vitro gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion followed by NAA. The bioaccessibility concentrations by both the measurements were in the range of 9-60%. It was found that bioaccessibility of the elements studied was the highest from fresh wheatgrass and the lowest from wheat seeds. Accuracy of the NAA method was evaluated by analyzing two biological reference materials, SRM 1573a (Tomato leaves) from NIST, USA and ICHTJ CTA-vtl-2 (Tobacco leaves) from INCT, Poland. The antioxidant

  15. Bioaccessibility of metal cations in soil is linearly related to its water exchange rate constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Peak, Derek; Siciliano, Steven D

    2011-05-01

    Site-specific risk assessments often incorporate the concepts of bioaccessibility (i.e., contaminant fraction released into gastrointestinal fluids) or bioavailability (i.e., contaminant fraction absorbed into systemic circulation) into the calculation of ingestion exposure. We evaluated total and bioaccessible metal concentrations for 19 soil samples under simulated stomach and duodenal conditions using an in vitro gastrointestinal model. We demonstrated that the median bioaccessibility of 23 metals ranged between exchange rates of metal cations (k(H₂O)) indicated that desorption kinetics may influence if not control metal bioaccessibility.

  16. Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Kalpana; Eipeson, Sushma W; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2010-07-14

    Malted grains are extensively used in weaning and geriatric foods. Malting generally improves the nutrient content and digestibility of foods. The present investigation examined the influence of malting of finger millet, wheat, and barley on the bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium, copper, and manganese. Malting increased the bioaccessibility of iron by >3-fold from the two varieties of finger millet and by >2-fold from wheat, whereas such a beneficial influence was not seen in barley. The bioaccessibility of zinc from wheat and barley increased to an extent of 234 and 100%, respectively, as a result of malting. However, malting reduced the bioaccessibility of zinc from finger millet. Malting marginally increased the bioaccessibility of calcium from white finger millet and wheat. Whereas malting did not exert any influence on bioaccessibility of copper from finger millet and wheat, it significantly decreased (75%) the same from barley. Malting did increase the bioaccessibility of manganese from brown finger millet (17%) and wheat (42%). Thus, malting could be an appropriate food-based strategy to derive iron and other minerals maximally from food grains.

  17. SBAT: A Tool for Estimating Metal Bioaccessibility in Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuscher, S.A.

    2004-04-21

    Heavy metals such as chromium and arsenic are widespread in the environment due to their usage in many industrial processes. These metals may pose significant health risks to humans, especially children, due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Typically, the health risks associated with the ingestion of soil-bound metals are estimated by assuming that the metals are completely absorbed through the human intestinal tract (100% bioavailable). This assumption potentially overestimates the risk since soils are known to strongly sequester metals thereby potentially lowering their bioavailability. Beginning in 2000, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with funding from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), studied the effect of soil properties on the bioaccessibility of soil-bound arsenic and chromium. Representative A and upper-B horizons from seven major U.S. soil orders were obtained from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Resources Conservation Service and the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. The soils were spiked with known concentrations of arsenic (As(III) and As(V)) and chromium (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)), and the bioaccessibility was measured using a physiologically based extraction test that mimics the gastric activity of children. Linear regression models were then developed to relate the bioaccessibility measurements to the soil properties (Yang et al. 2002; Stewart et al. 2003a). Important results from these publications and other studies include: (1) Cr(VI) and As(III) are more toxic and bioavailable than Cr(III) and As(V) respectively. (2) Several favorable processes can occur in soils that promote the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) and the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), thereby lowering bioaccessibility. Iron and manganese oxides are capable of oxidizing As(III) to As(V), whereas organic matter and Fe(II)-bearing minerals are capable of reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III). (3

  18. The effect of pulsed electric fields on carotenoids bioaccessibility: The role of tomato matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Francesca; Verkerk, Ruud; Mastwijk, Hennie; Anese, Monica; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Capuano, Edoardo

    2018-02-01

    Tomato fractions were subjected to pulsed electric fields treatment combined or not with heating. Results showed that pulsed electric fields and heating applied in combination or individually induced permeabilization of cell membranes in the tomato fractions. However, no changes in β-carotene and lycopene bioaccessibility were found upon combined and individual pulsed electric fields and heating, except in the following cases: (i) in tissue, a significant decrease in lycopene bioaccessibility upon combined pulsed electric fields and heating and heating only was observed; (ii) in chromoplasts, both β-carotene and lycopene bioaccessibility significantly decreased upon combined pulsed electric fields and heating and pulsed electric fields only. The reduction in carotenoids bioaccessibility was attributed to modification in chromoplasts membrane and carotenoids-protein complexes. Differences in the effects of pulsed electric fields on bioaccessibility among different tomato fractions were related to tomato structure complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of biochar on isoproturon partitioning and bioaccessibility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, B.J.; Pickering, F.L.; Freddo, A.; Whelan, M.J.; Coulon, F.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of biochar (5%) on the loss, partitioning and bioaccessibility of 14 C-isoproturon ( 14 C-IPU) was evaluated. Results indicated that biochar had a dramatic effect upon 14 C-IPU partitioning: 14 C-IPU extractability (0.01 M CaCl 2 ) in biochar-amended treatments was reduced to 14 C-IPU extractability in biochar free treatments decreased with ageing from 90% to 40%. A partitioning model was constructed to derive an effective partition coefficient for biochar:water (K BW of 7.82 × 10 4 L kg −1 ). This was two orders of magnitude greater than the apparent K foc value of the soil organic carbon:water (631 L kg −1 ). 14 C-radiorespirometry assays indicated high competence of microorganisms to mineralise 14 C-IPU in the absence of biochar (40.3 ± 0.9%). Where biochar was present 14 C-IPU mineralisation never exceeded 2%. These results indicate reduced herbicide bioaccessibility. Increasing IPU application to ×10 its recommended dose was ineffective at redressing IPU sequestration and its low bioaccessibility. Highlights: •Biochar had a dramatic effect on IPU partitioning. •IPU extractability was reduced to BW ) was 7.82 × 10 4 L kg −1 . •K BW was 124 times greater than the apparent K foc value of the control. •Biochar precluded microbial bioaccessibility – no catabolic response was observed. -- Biochar dramatically reduced 14 C-IPU extractability ( BW being ×123 greater than the apparent K foc . Correspondingly, microbial bioaccessibility of IPU was negligible

  20. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from (post-pyrolytically treated) biochars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilber, Isabel; Mayer, Philipp; Gouliarmou, Varvara

    2017-01-01

    Bioaccessibility data of PAHs from biochar produced under real world conditions is scarce and the influence of feedstock and various post-pyrolysis treatments common in agriculture, such as co-composting or lacto-fermentation to produce silage fodder, on their bioavailability and bioaccessibility...

  1. Influence of heat processing on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron from cereals and pulses consumed in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, Sreeramaiah; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2007-01-01

    Influence of heat processing on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron from food grains consumed in India was evaluated. Cereals - rice (Oryza sativa), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays), and pulses - chickpea (Cicer arietinum) - whole and decorticated, green gram (Phaseolus aureus) - whole and decorticated, decorticated black gram (Phaseolus mungo), decorticated red gram (Cajanus cajan), cowpea (Vigna catjang), and French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were examined for zinc and iron bioaccessibility by employing an in vitro dialysability procedure. Both pressure-cooking and microwave heating were tested for their influence on mineral bioaccessibility. Zinc bioaccessibility from food grains was considerably reduced upon pressure-cooking, especially in pulses. Among cereals, pressure-cooking decreased zinc bioaccessibility by 63% and 57% in finger millet and rice, respectively. All the pressure-cooked cereals showed similar percent zinc bioaccessibility with the exception of finger millet. Bioaccessibility of zinc from pulses was generally lower as a result of pressure-cooking or microwave heating. The decrease in bioaccessibility of zinc caused by microwave heating ranged from 11.4% in chickpea (whole) to 63% in cowpea. Decrease in zinc bioaccessibility was 48% in pressure-cooked whole chickpea, 45% and 55% in pressure-cooked or microwave-heated whole green gram, 32% and 22% in pressure-cooked or microwave-heated decorticated green gram, and 45% in microwave-heated black gram. Iron bioaccessibility, on the other hand, was significantly enhanced generally from all the food grains studied upon heat treatment. Thus, heat treatment of grains produced contrasting effect on zinc and iron bioaccessibility.

  2. Effect of an organic amendment on availability and bio-accessibility of some metals in soils of urban recreational areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florido, Maria del Carmen; Madrid, Fernando [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madrid, Luis, E-mail: madrid@irnase.csic.e [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla, CSIC, Apartado 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    A composted biosolid from wastewater treatment was added to soils of two public parks of Sevilla, and successive samples were taken during one year. In one of the parks, a second addition of biosolid was carried out after the first year. The soil contents in metals (pseudo-total) and their plant-available and oral bio-accessible fractions were significantly altered when the soils were amended with biosolid. Increase of the bio-accessible metal contents represents a deterioration of the environmental quality of recreational areas, where hand-to-mouth transfer of pollutants to children is likely to occur, although part of the metals added might be leached by rainfall or irrigation. The limits established in several countries for metal contents of soils in recreational areas are often exceeded after application of the biosolid. A careful study of the metal contents of recycled wastes is thus recommended before being used for green area maintenance. - Research highlights: Metal bio-accessibility in urban soils is significant for quality of life of citizens. Some metal-rich amendments can alter metal availability in urban soils. Metal contents of amendments in recreational areas must then be kept to a minimum. A case study of a composted biosolid used in urban green areas of Sevilla is given. - Metal-containing amendments can deteriorate the environmental quality of soils of urban recreational areas.

  3. Effect of an organic amendment on availability and bio-accessibility of some metals in soils of urban recreational areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, Maria del Carmen; Madrid, Fernando; Madrid, Luis

    2011-01-01

    A composted biosolid from wastewater treatment was added to soils of two public parks of Sevilla, and successive samples were taken during one year. In one of the parks, a second addition of biosolid was carried out after the first year. The soil contents in metals (pseudo-total) and their plant-available and oral bio-accessible fractions were significantly altered when the soils were amended with biosolid. Increase of the bio-accessible metal contents represents a deterioration of the environmental quality of recreational areas, where hand-to-mouth transfer of pollutants to children is likely to occur, although part of the metals added might be leached by rainfall or irrigation. The limits established in several countries for metal contents of soils in recreational areas are often exceeded after application of the biosolid. A careful study of the metal contents of recycled wastes is thus recommended before being used for green area maintenance. - Research highlights: → Metal bio-accessibility in urban soils is significant for quality of life of citizens. → Some metal-rich amendments can alter metal availability in urban soils. → Metal contents of amendments in recreational areas must then be kept to a minimum. → A case study of a composted biosolid used in urban green areas of Sevilla is given. - Metal-containing amendments can deteriorate the environmental quality of soils of urban recreational areas.

  4. Bioaccessibility of phytoene and phytofluene is superior to other carotenoids from selected fruit and vegetable juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli-Brahm, Paula; Corte-Real, Joana; Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J; Bohn, Torsten

    2017-08-15

    Phytoene and phytofluene are major abundant dietary carotenoids largely ignored in the context of agro-food and health. The bioaccessibility of phytoene and phytofluene in tomato, carrot, blood orange (sanguinello cultivar), and apricot juices was analysed following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion with coffee cream as a lipid source, and compared with that of other main carotenoids from these matrices. The bioaccessibility of phytoene and phytofluene, and also total carotenoid bioaccessibility, followed the order: sanguinello>apricot>tomato>carrot. Phytoene was consistently the carotenoid with the highest bioaccessibility, up to 97%, generally followed by phytofluene. The higher bioaccessibility of these carotenoids could mainly be due to their marked difference in chemical structure and matrix distribution. For most juices, cis-isomers presented a higher bioaccessibility than their all-trans counterparts (P<0.05). The dietary source that provided highest amounts of potentially absorbable phytoene/phytofluene was by far tomato juice (5mg/250mL juice). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relating soil geochemical properties to arsenic bioaccessibility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — soil element total concentration, soil pH and arsenic bioaccessibility values. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: EPA cannot release personally...

  6. ZnO and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles as novel antimicrobial agents for oral hygiene: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shams Tabrez, E-mail: shamsalig75@gmail.com; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A. [King Saud University, Department of Zoology, College of Science (Saudi Arabia); Musarrat, Javed [AMU, Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences (India)

    2015-06-15

    Oral cavity is inhabited by more than 25,000 different bacterial phylotypes; some of them cause systemic infections in addition to dental and periodontal diseases. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance among these bacteria necessitates the development of alternative antimicrobial agents that are safe, stable, and relatively economic. This review focuses on the significance of metal oxide nanoparticles, especially zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as supplementary antimicrobials for controlling oral infections and biofilm formation. Indeed, the ZnO NPs and TiO{sub 2} NPs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against oral bacteria at concentrations which is not toxic in in vivo toxicity assays. These nanoparticles are being produced at an industrial scale for use in a variety of commercial products including food products. Thus, the application of ZnO and TiO{sub 2} NPs as nanoantibiotics for the development of mouthwashes, dental pastes, and other oral hygiene materials is envisaged. It is also suggested that these NPs could serve as healthier, innocuous, and effective alternative for controlling both the dental biofilms and oral planktonic bacteria with lesser side effects and antibiotic resistance.

  7. In vitro digestion with bile acids enhances the bioaccessibility of kale polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Isabelle; Jayaprakasha, Guddarangavvanahally K; Patil, Bhimanagouda

    2018-02-21

    Kale (Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the Brassicaceae family, and kale leaves have large amounts of dietary fiber and polyphenolics. Dietary fiber can bind bile acids, thus potentially decreasing cholesterol levels; however, whether the polyphenols from kale contribute to in vitro bile acid binding capacity remains unclear. In the present study, kale was extracted with hexane, acetone, and MeOH : water and the dried extracts, as well as the fiber-rich residue, were tested for their bile acid binding capacity. The fiber-rich residue bound total bile acids in amounts equivalent to that bound by raw kale. The lyophilized acetone extract bound significantly more glycochenodeoxycholate and glycodeoxycholate and less of other bile acids. To test whether bile acid binding enhanced the bioaccessibility of polyphenolic compounds from kale, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify chemical constituents and measure their bioaccessibility in an in vitro digestion reaction. This identified 36 phenolic compounds in kale, including 18 kaempferol derivatives, 13 quercetin derivatives, 4 sinapoyl derivatives, and one caffeoylquinic acid. The bioaccessibility of these phenolics was significantly higher (69.4%) in digestions with bile acids. Moreover, bile acids enhanced the bioaccessibility of quercetin by 25 times: only 2.7% of quercetin derivatives were bioaccessible in the digestion without bile acids, but with bile acids, their accessibility increased to 69.5%. Bile acids increased the bioaccessibility of kaempferol from 37.7% to 69.2%. The extractability and biostability of total phenolics in the digested residue increased 1.8 fold in the digestions with bile acids. These results demonstrated the potential use of kale to improve human health.

  8. Influence of mercury bioaccessibility on exposure assessment associated with consumption of cooked predatory fish in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Escribano, Silvia; Ruiz, Antonio; Barrios, Laura; Vélez, Dinoraz; Montoro, Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Predatory fish tend to accumulate high levels of mercury (Hg). Food safety assessment of these fish has been carried out on the raw product. However, the evaluation of the risk from Hg concentrations in raw fish might be modified if cooking and bioaccessibility (the contaminant fraction that solubilises from its matrix during gastrointestinal digestion and becomes available for intestinal absorption) were taken into account. Data on Hg bioaccessibility in raw predatory fish sold in Spain are scarce and no research on Hg bioaccessibility in cooked fish is available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hg bioaccessibility in various kinds of cooked predatory fish sold in Spain to estimate their health risk. Both Hg and bioaccessible Hg concentrations were analysed in raw and cooked fish (swordfish, tope shark, bonito and tuna). There were no changes in Hg concentrations during cooking. However, Hg bioaccessibility decreased significantly after cooking (42 ± 26% in raw fish and 26 ± 16% in cooked fish), thus reducing in swordfish and tope shark the Hg concentration to which the human organism would be exposed. In future, cooking and bioaccessibility should be considered in risk assessment of Hg concentrations in predatory fish. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Bioaccessibility and Human Exposure Assessment of Cadmium and Arsenic in Pakchoi Genotypes Grown in Co-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoman; Shohag, Md. Jahidul Islam; Gu, Minghua

    2017-01-01

    In many countries cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) commonly coexist in soils contaminated by mining activities, and can easily enter the human body via consumption of leafy vegetables, like the popularly consumed pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), causing major health concerns. In the present study, bioaccessibility and human exposure of Cd and As were assessed in twenty genotypes of pakchoi cultured at two different levels of co-contamination to identify low health risk genotypes. The bioaccessibilities of Cd and As represent a fraction of the total metals content could be bioaccessible for human, in the present study, significant differences in pakchoi Cd and As bioaccessibility were observed among all tested genotypes and co-contaminated levels. Cd and As bioaccessibility of pakchoi were in the ranges of 24.0–87.6% and 20.1–82.5%, respectively, for in the high level co-contaminated soils, which was significantly higher than for low level co-contaminated soils with 7.9–71.8% for Cd bioaccessibility and 16.1–59.0% for As bioaccessibility. The values of bioaccessible established daily intakes (BEDI) and the total bioaccessible target hazard quotients (TBTHQ) of Cd and As were also considerably higher in high level co-contaminated soils than in low level co-contaminated soils. Two genotypes (Meiguanqinggengcai and Zhenqing60F1) contained relatively low concentrations and bioaccessible Cd and As and, their BEDI and TBTHQ for Cd and As ranged below the tolerable limits set by the FAO/WHO (BEDI of Cd contaminated soils for adults and children. Consequently, these findings suggest identification of safe genotypes in leafy vegetable with low health risk via genotypic screening and breeding methods could be a useful strategy to ensure the safety of food crops grown in those Cd and As co-contaminated fields due to mining activities. PMID:28850097

  10. A water-leach procedure for estimating bioaccessibility of elements in soils from transects across the United States and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Robert G.; Hall, G.E.M.; Vaive, J.E.; Pelchat, P.

    2009-01-01

    An objective of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project is to provide relevant data concerning bioaccessible concentrations of elements in soil to government and other institutions undertaking environmental studies. A protocol was developed that employs a 1-g soil sample agitated overnight with 40 mL of reverse-osmosis de-ionized water for 20 h, and determination of 63 elements following three steps of centrifugation by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry the following day. Statistical summaries are presented for those 48 elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, Zr, and pH) for which d s (L/kg), were determined and their relevance to estimating bioaccessible amounts of elements to soil fauna and flora is discussed. Finally, a possible link between W concentrations in human urine and water-extractable W levels in Nevada soils is discussed.

  11. Food processing strategies to enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability in plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Elez-Martínez, Pedro

    2017-06-13

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of plant-based foods, as their presence is related to protective effects on health. To exert their biological activity, phenolic compounds must be released from the matrix during digestion in an absorbable form (bioaccessible) and finally absorbed and transferred to the bloodstream (bioavailable). Chemical structure and matrix interactions are some food-related factors that hamper phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and that can be counteracted by food processing. It has been shown that food processing can induce chemical or physical modifications in food that enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability. These changes include: (i) chemical modifications into more bioaccessible and bioavailable forms; (ii) cleavage of covalent or hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic forces that attach phenolic compounds to matrix macromolecules; (iii) damaging microstructural barriers such as cell walls that impede the release from the matrix; and (iv) create microstructures that protect phenolic compounds until they are absorbed. Indeed, food processing can produce degradation of phenolic compounds, however, it is possible to counteract it by modulating the operating conditions in favor of increased bioaccessibility and bioavailability. This review compiles the current knowledge on the effects of processing on phenolic compounds bioaccessibility or bioavailability, while suggesting new guidelines in the search of optimal processing conditions as a step forward towards the design of healthier foods.

  12. Bioaccessibility of lead in airborne particulates from car battery repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartey, Emmanuel; Berlinger, Balazs; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ellingsen, Dag G; Odland, Jon Ø; Nartey, Vincent K; Yeboah, Francis A; Weinbruch, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    The bioaccessibility of Pb in air particulate matter from two car battery repair workshops in Kumasi (Ghana) was measured (64 full shift personal aerosol samples). An artificial lung lining fluid simulant (Hatch solution) was applied for leaching the bioaccessible fraction in half of the samples, the other half was leached with synthetic gastric juice. At both locations, the Pb solubility (median) in gastric juice (89% and 92%) is substantially higher than in Hatch solution (4.9% and 5.6%). The high solubility of Pb in gastric juice may be related to the presence of Pb oxides. The low bioaccessibility of Pb in Hatch solution is in good agreement with previous work on mine tailings, urban aerosol, car exhaust, welding fumes and indoor dust. The high bioaccessibility of Pb in the gastrointestinal tract underpins the importance of improving the personal hygienic behavior at the workplace. It is recommended that air monitoring of Pb should include the extrathoracic aerosol fraction using inhalable aerosol samplers, as particles of this size fraction are most likely transferred to the gastrointestinal tract in addition to the non-lung-soluble particles transported from the lung by mucociliary and phagocytosis clearance.

  13. Absorption of orally administered 65Zn by normal human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.L.; Rumble, W.F.; Johnston, G.S.; Markley, E.J.; Henkin, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    Despite studies by several investigators of human gastrointestinal 65Zn absorption, implications of these data for evaluation of functional zinc status are unclear because limited numbers of normal subjects have been studied. To evaluated zinc absorption in normal humans, 75 subjects (31 women, 44 men, ages 18 to 84 yr) were given 10 micro Ci carrier-free 65Zn orally after an overnight fast. Absorption calculated from total body retention measured 7, 14, and 21 days after administration of tracer was 65 +/- 11% (mean +/- 1 SD), range from 40 to 86%. Comparison of these results with those for patients with a variety of diseases indicate that patients exhibit a wider range of absorption and, in four of six studies patients exhibit decreased mean zinc absorption. These results of gastrointestinal zinc absorption in a large number of normal humans offer a basis for a clearer comparison with data from patients who exhibit abnormalities of zinc absorption

  14. Replication of an ivg protocol to estimate bioaccessible arsenic in materials from a gold mining area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Benedito Ono

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tests for bioaccessibility are useful in human health risk assessment. No research data with the objective of determining bioaccessible arsenic (As in areas affected by gold mining and smelting activities have been published so far in Brazil. Samples were collected from four areas: a private natural land reserve of Cerrado; mine tailings; overburden; and refuse from gold smelting of a mining company in Paracatu, Minas Gerais. The total, bioaccessible and Mehlich-1-extractable As levels were determined. Based on the reproducibility and the accuracy/precision of the in vitro gastrointestinal (IVG determination method of bioaccessible As in the reference material NIST 2710, it was concluded that this procedure is adequate to determine bioaccessible As in soil and tailing samples from gold mining areas in Brazil. All samples from the studied mining area contained low percentages of bioaccessible As.

  15. Bioaccessibility of tocopherols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid from milk- and soy-based fruit beverages: influence of food matrix and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Antonio; Alegría, Amparo; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Plaza, Lucía; Clemente, Gonzalo; Lagarda, María J; Barberá, Reyes

    2012-07-25

    A study was made of the effect of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal treatment (TT) on plant bioactive compounds (tocopherols, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid) in 12 fruit juice-milk beverages and of how the food matrix [whole milk (JW), skimmed milk (JS), and soy milk (JSy)] modulates their bioaccessibility (%). HPP (400 MPa/40 °C/5 min) produced a significant decrease in carotenoid and ascorbic acid bioaccessibility in all three beverages and maintained the bioaccessibility of tocopherols in JW and JS while decreasing it in JSy. TT (90 °C/30 s) produced a significant decrease in tocopherol and carotenoid bioaccessibility in all three beverages and increased the bioaccessibility of ascorbic acid. With regard to the food matrix, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was greatest in JW beverages and lowest in JSy beverages, whereas no significant differences were found among the three beverages in terms of carotenoid bioaccessibility. HPP-treated samples showed higher tocopherol and carotenoid bioaccessibility than TT-treated samples, thus indicating that HPP combined with a milk matrix positively modulates the bioaccessibility of certain types of bioactive components of food, mainly those of a lipophilic nature.

  16. Influence of food acidulants and antioxidant spices on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from selected vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veda, Supriya; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2008-09-24

    Four common food acidulants--amchur, lime, tamarind, and kokum--and two antioxidant spices--turmeric and onion--were examined for their influence on the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from two fleshy and two leafy vegetables. Amchur and lime generally enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from these test vegetables in many instances. Such an improved bioaccessibility was evident in both raw and heat-processed vegetables. The effect of lime juice was generally more pronounced than that of amchur. Turmeric significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from all of the vegetables tested, especially when heat-processed. Onion enhanced the bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from pressure-cooked carrot and amaranth leaf and from open-pan-boiled pumpkin and fenugreek leaf. Lime juice and the antioxidant spices turmeric and onion minimized the loss of beta-carotene during heat processing of the vegetables. In the case of antioxidant spices, improved bioaccessibility of beta-carotene from heat-processed vegetables is attributable to their role in minimizing the loss of this provitamin. Lime juice, which enhanced the bioaccessibility of this provitamin from both raw and heat-processed vegetables, probably exerted this effect by some other mechanism in addition to minimizing the loss of beta-carotene. Thus, the presence of food acidulants (lime juice/amchur) and antioxidant spices (turmeric/onion) proved to be advantageous in the context of deriving maximum beta-carotene from the vegetable sources.

  17. Bioaccessibility and Human Exposure Assessment of Cadmium and Arsenic in Pakchoi Genotypes Grown in Co-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Zheng, Xiaoman; Shohag, Md Jahidul Islam; Gu, Minghua

    2017-08-29

    In many countries cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) commonly coexist in soils contaminated by mining activities, and can easily enter the human body via consumption of leafy vegetables, like the popularly consumed pakchoi ( Brassica chinensis L.), causing major health concerns. In the present study, bioaccessibility and human exposure of Cd and As were assessed in twenty genotypes of pakchoi cultured at two different levels of co-contamination to identify low health risk genotypes. The bioaccessibilities of Cd and As represent a fraction of the total metals content could be bioaccessible for human, in the present study, significant differences in pakchoi Cd and As bioaccessibility were observed among all tested genotypes and co-contaminated levels. Cd and As bioaccessibility of pakchoi were in the ranges of 24.0-87.6% and 20.1-82.5%, respectively, for in the high level co-contaminated soils, which was significantly higher than for low level co-contaminated soils with 7.9-71.8% for Cd bioaccessibility and 16.1-59.0% for As bioaccessibility. The values of bioaccessible established daily intakes (BEDI) and the total bioaccessible target hazard quotients (TBTHQ) of Cd and As were also considerably higher in high level co-contaminated soils than in low level co-contaminated soils. Two genotypes (Meiguanqinggengcai and Zhenqing60F1) contained relatively low concentrations and bioaccessible Cd and As and, their BEDI and TBTHQ for Cd and As ranged below the tolerable limits set by the FAO/WHO (BEDI of Cd < 0.83 μg kg -1 bw day -1 , BEDI of As < 3 μg kg -1 bw day -1 ) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (TBTHQ for Cd and As < 1), this applied for both levels of co-contaminated soils for adults and children. Consequently, these findings suggest identification of safe genotypes in leafy vegetable with low health risk via genotypic screening and breeding methods could be a useful strategy to ensure the safety of food crops grown in those Cd and As co

  18. Enzymatic cell wall degradation of high-pressure-homogenized tomato puree and its effect on lycopene bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Paola; Colle, Ines; Lemmens, Lien; Panozzo, Agnese; Nguyen, Tuyen Thi My; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-01-15

    High-pressure homogenization disrupts cell structures, assisting carotenoid release from the matrix and subsequent micellarization. However, lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato puree upon high-pressure homogenization is limited by the formation of a process-induced barrier. In this context, cell wall-degrading enzymes were applied to hydrolyze the formed barrier and enhance lycopene bioaccessibility. The effectiveness of the enzymes in degrading their corresponding substrates was evaluated (consistency, amount of reducing sugars, molar mass distribution and immunolabeling). An in vitro digestion procedure was applied to evaluate the effect of the enzymatic treatments on lycopene bioaccessibility. Enzymatic treatments with pectinases and cellulase were proved to effectively degrade their corresponding cell wall polymers; however, no further significant increase in lycopene bioaccessibility was obtained. A process-induced barrier consisting of cell wall material is not the only factor governing lycopene bioaccessibility upon high-pressure homogenization. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Is there sufficient ‘sink’ in current bioaccessibility determinations of organic pollutants in soils?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.D.; Mosquera-Vazquez, M.; Gomez-Eyles, J.L.; Mayer, P.; Gouliarmou, V.; Blum, F.

    2013-01-01

    Bioaccessibility tests can be used to improve contaminated land risk assessments. For organic pollutants a ‘sink’ is required within these tests to better mimic their desorption under the physiological conditions prevailing in the intestinal tract, where a steep diffusion gradient for the removal of organic pollutants from the soil matrix would exist. This is currently ignored in most PBET systems. By combining the CEPBET bioaccessibility test with an infinite sink, the removal of PAH from spiked solutions was monitored. Less than 10% of spiked PAH remained in the stomach media after 1 h, 10% by 4 h in the small intestine compartment and c.15% after 16 h in the colon. The addition of the infinite sink increased bioaccessibility estimates for field soils by a factor of 1.2–2.8, confirming its importance for robust PBET tests. TOC or BC were not the only factors controlling desorption of the PAH from the soils. -- Highlights: •Inclusion of a ‘contaminant trap’ significantly increases bioaccessibility estimates of PAH in contaminated soils. •The ‘contaminant trap’ operated within realistic physiological timescales. •The inclusion of a colon compartment is important as it increases bioaccessibility of the high molecular weight PAH. •Soil carbon content as TOC or BC was not the only control on the desorption of PAH from field soils. -- The inclusion of a ‘contaminant trap’ within physiologically based extraction tests significantly increases the bioaccessibility estimates of PAHs in contaminated soils

  20. Bioaccessibility of Hg, Cd and As in cooked black scabbard fish and edible crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvault, Ana Luísa; Machado, Raquel; Afonso, Cláudia; Lourenço, Helena Maria; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Coelho, Inês; Langerholc, Tomaz; Marques, António

    2011-11-01

    Regular consumption of seafood has been widely recommended by authorities. Yet, some species accumulate high levels of contaminants like Hg, Cd and As. In addition, the risks associated to the consumption of such seafood may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentration of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. In this study, the bioaccessibility of Hg, Cd and As was assessed with in vitro human digestion of raw and cooked black scabbard fish (Hg; steamed, fried and grilled) and edible crab (Cd and As; steamed and boiled) tissues. Additionally, the toxicological hazards associated with the consumption of these products were also discussed. Generally, Hg, Cd and As bioacessibility increased throughout the digestion process. Cadmium and As revealed high bioaccessibility rates in raw and cooked samples (up to 100%), whereas lower bioaccessible fractions of Hg was observed (up to 40%). Furthermore, this study pointed out the importance of food matrix, elemental chemical properties and cooking practices in the bioaccessibility of Hg, Cd and As. The toxicological hazards revealed that edible crab brown meat (Cd) and grilled black scabbard fish (MeHg) consumption in children should be moderated. In contrast, edible crab muscle (Cd) and fried or steamed black scabbard fish (MeHg) should be consumed to minimize exposure. The use of bioaccessible contaminant data strongly reduced the toxicological risks of MeHg, whereas less risk reduction occurred with Cd and inorganic As. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce mercury bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadán-Piedra, C; Alcántara, C; Monedero, V; Zúñiga, M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2017-08-01

    Mercury in food is present in either inorganic [Hg(II)] or methylmercury (CH 3 Hg) form. Intestinal absorption of mercury is influenced by interactions with other food components. The use of dietary components to reduce mercury bioavailability has been previously proposed. The aim of this work is to explore the use of lactic acid bacteria to reduce the amount of mercury solubilized after gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption (bioaccessibility). Ten strains were tested by addition to aqueous solutions containing Hg(II) or CH 3 Hg, or to food samples, and submission of the mixtures to gastrointestinal digestion. All of the strains assayed reduce the soluble fraction from standards of mercury species under gastrointestinal digestion conditions (72-98%). However their effectiveness is lower in food, and reductions in bioaccessibility are only observed with mushrooms (⩽68%). It is hypothesized that bioaccessible mercury in seafood forms part of complexes that do not interact with lactic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Calendula officinalis Supercritical Extract as Affected by in Vitro Codigestion with Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diana; Navarro Del Hierro, Joaquín; Villanueva Bermejo, David; Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2016-11-23

    Supercritical extracts of marigold (ME) were produced and characterized. The bioaccessibility of terpenes, especially that of pentacyclic triterpenes (PT), the particle-size distribution, and antioxidant activity after the in vitro codigestion of ME with olive oil (OO) were determined. ME produced without cosolvent was richer in taraxasterol, lupeol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin than extracts with cosolvent. All terpenes showed high bioaccessibility without OO (>75%). Significant correlations were found between the molecular properties of compounds (logP and number of rotatable bonds) and their bioaccessibility. Codigestion with OO enhanced the bioaccessibility (around 100% for PT), which could be related to a higher abundance of low-size particles of the digestion medium. The antioxidant activity of the digested ME increased around 50%, regardless of OO. PT-rich extracts from marigold display high bioaccessibility and improved antioxidant activity after in vitro digestion, although complete bioaccessibility of PT can be reached by codigestion with oil, without affecting antioxidant activity.

  3. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G.; Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) , Coke Zero (registered) ) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl 2 -extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) is close to unity (+ 0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke (registered) (+ 0.66) and Coke Zero (registered) (+ 0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic (registered) extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) . Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic (registered) in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for

  4. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: Bernd.Lottermoser@utas.edu.au [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia [Institute for Crop and Soil Science, Federal Institute for Cultivated Plants, Julius Kuehn-Institute (JKI), Bundesallee 50, D-38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) , Coke Zero (registered) ) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) , Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic (registered) is close to unity (+ 0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke (registered) (+ 0.66) and Coke Zero (registered) (+ 0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic (registered) extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke (registered) and Coke Zero (registered) . Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic (registered) in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for

  5. Assessing the human health risk for aluminium, zinc and lead in outdoor dusts collected in recreational sites used by children at an industrial area in the western part of the Bassin Minier de Provence, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A. P.; Patinha, C.; Noack, Y.; Robert, S.; Dias, A. C.; Ferreira da Silva, E.

    2014-11-01

    The Western part of the “Bassin Minier de Provence”, a former coal mining area, is still occupied by old polluting industries such as a coal-fired power plant and an alumina factory. In 2011 a preliminary outdoor dust survey was carried out in the area as the first step to an exposure and health risk assessment study. Dust samples were taken at 19 sites distributed across the study area, depending on the location of recreational areas used by children to play outdoors. Pseudo-total concentrations of Al, Zn and Pb were determined by ICP-MS and bioaccessible concentrations were estimated using the Unified BARGE Method. Exposure was calculated according to a scenario evaluation approach for dust ingestion and dermal contact routes. Estimation of health risk for exposure to Al, Zn and Pb in outdoor dust was based on the summation of individual risks for the oral and dermal routes. Results show that Al occurs in very high concentrations but mainly innon-bioaccessible forms, especially near the alumina plant. Zinc and Pb occur in low-average levels but mainly in bioaccessible forms. The estimated potential risk decreases according to Pb ≫ Al > Zn and is lower for the ingestion route. The preliminary results presented in this study indicate that, for Al and Zn, the outdoor dusts of the BMP represent an acceptable risk to children's health. However, the estimated hazard quotients suggest that there is some health risk associated to environmental Pb.

  6. Lead Speciation and In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Compost-Amended Urban Garden Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attanayake, Chammi P.; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Ma, Qing; Pierzynski, Gary M.; Ransom, Michel D. (NWU); (KSU)

    2017-01-01

    In situ soil amendments can modify the Pb bioavailability by changing soil Pb speciation. Urban soils from three vegetable gardens containing different total Pb concentrations were used. The study evaluated how compost amendment and aging of soil-compost mixture in situ affected the following: (i) soil Pb speciation in the field and (ii) change of soil Pb speciation during an in vitro bioaccessibility extraction mimicking gastric phase dissolution at pH 2.5. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used to determine Pb speciation in amended and nonamended soils and residues left after in vitro bioaccessibility extraction of those soils. Compost amendment and aging of compost in the field had a negligible effect on Pb bioaccessibility in the soils. Major Pb species in the soils were Pb sorbed to Fe oxy(hydr)oxide (Pb-Fh) and to soil organic C (Pb-Org). The fraction of Pb-Org was increased as soil-compost mixture aged in the field. During the in vitro extraction, the fraction of Pb-Fh was decreased, the fraction of Pb-Org was increased, and hydroxypyromorphite was formed in both amended and nonamended soils. Freshly incorporated compost enhanced the dissolution of Pb-Fh during the extraction. As soil-compost mixture aged in the field, the dissolution of Pb-Fh was low, demonstrating more stability of the Pb-Fh during the extraction. Compost amendment showed potential to contribute to reduced bioaccessibility of Pb as compost aged in the soil by increasing Pb-Org fraction in the field and stability of Pb-Fh during the in vitro bioaccessibility extraction.

  7. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp (AP-BL) ) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp (AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp (AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  8. Pollution and Oral Bioaccessibility of Pb in Soils of Villages and Cities with a Long Habitation History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Nikolaj; Bakker, Martine; van Os, Bertil; Klaver, Gerard; Middelburg, Jack Jacobus; Davies, Gareth

    2016-02-17

    The Dutch cities Utrecht and Wijk bij Duurstede were founded by the Romans around 50 B.C. and the village Fijnaart and Graft-De Rijp around 1600 A.D. The soils of these villages are polluted with Pb (up to ~5000 mg/kg). Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the sources of Pb pollution in the urban soils. In ~75% of the urban soils the source of the Pb pollution was a mixture of glazed potsherd, sherds of glazed roof tiles, building remnants (Pb sheets), metal slag, Pb-based paint flakes and coal ashes. These anthropogenic Pb sources most likely entered the urban soils due to historical smelting activities, renovation and demolition of houses, disposal of coal ashes and raising and fertilization of land with city waste. Since many houses still contain Pb-based building materials, careless renovation or demolition can cause new or more extensive Pb pollution in urban soils. In ~25% of the studied urban topsoils, Pb isotope compositions suggest Pb pollution was caused by incinerator ash and/or gasoline Pb suggesting atmospheric deposition as the major source. The bioaccessible Pb fraction of 14 selected urban soils was determined with an in vitro test and varied from 16% to 82% of total Pb. The bioaccessibility appears related to the chemical composition and grain size of the primary Pb phases and pollution age. Risk assessment based on the in vitro test results imply that risk to children may be underestimated in ~90% of the studied sample sites (13 out of 14).

  9. Pollution and Oral Bioaccessibility of Pb in Soils of Villages and Cities with a Long Habitation History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj Walraven

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch cities Utrecht and Wijk bij Duurstede were founded by the Romans around 50 B.C. and the village Fijnaart and Graft-De Rijp around 1600 A.D. The soils of these villages are polluted with Pb (up to ~5000 mg/kg. Lead isotope ratios were used to trace the sources of Pb pollution in the urban soils. In ~75% of the urban soils the source of the Pb pollution was a mixture of glazed potsherd, sherds of glazed roof tiles, building remnants (Pb sheets, metal slag, Pb-based paint flakes and coal ashes. These anthropogenic Pb sources most likely entered the urban soils due to historical smelting activities, renovation and demolition of houses, disposal of coal ashes and raising and fertilization of land with city waste. Since many houses still contain Pb-based building materials, careless renovation or demolition can cause new or more extensive Pb pollution in urban soils. In ~25% of the studied urban topsoils, Pb isotope compositions suggest Pb pollution was caused by incinerator ash and/or gasoline Pb suggesting atmospheric deposition as the major source. The bioaccessible Pb fraction of 14 selected urban soils was determined with an in vitro test and varied from 16% to 82% of total Pb. The bioaccessibility appears related to the chemical composition and grain size of the primary Pb phases and pollution age. Risk assessment based on the in vitro test results imply that risk to children may be underestimated in ~90% of the studied sample sites (13 out of 14.

  10. Particulate metal bioaccessibility in physiological fluids and cell culture media: Toxicological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Bérénice; Alleman, Laurent Yves; Perdrix, Esperanza; Riffault, Véronique; Happillon, Mélanie; Strecker, Alain; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Garçon, Guillaume; Coddeville, Patrice

    2017-07-01

    According to the literature, tiny amounts of transition metals in airborne fine particles (PM 2.5 ) may induce proinflammatory cell response through reactive oxygen species production. The solubility of particle-bound metals in physiological fluids, i.e. the metal bioaccessibility is driven by factors such as the solution chemical composition, the contact time with the particles, and the solid-to-liquid phase ratio (S/L). In this work, PM 2.5 -bound metal bioaccessibility was assessed in various physiological-like solutions including cell culture media in order to evidence the potential impact on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) when studying the cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses of PM 2.5 towards the target bronchial compartment. Different fluids (H 2 O, PBS, LHC-9 culture medium, Gamble and human respiratory mucus collected from COPD patients), various S/L conditions (from 1/6000 to 1/100,000) and exposure times (6, 24 and 72h) were tested on urban PM 2.5 samples. In addition, metals' total, soluble and insoluble fractions from PM 2.5 in LHC-9 were deposited on NHBE cells (BEAS-2B) to measure their cytotoxicity and inflammatory potential (i.e., G6PDH activity, secretion of IL-6 and IL-8). The bioaccessibility is solution-dependent. A higher salinity or organic content may increase or inhibit the bioaccessibiliy according to the element, as observed in the complex mucus matrix. Decreasing the S/L ratio also affect the bioaccessibility depending on the solution tested while the exposure time appears less critical. The LHC-9 culture medium appears to be a good physiological proxy as it induces metal bioaccessibilities close to the mucus values and is little affected by S/L ratios or exposure time. Only the insoluble fraction can be linked to the PM 2.5 -induced cytotoxicity. By contrast, both soluble and insoluble fractions can be related to the secretion of cytokines. The metal bioaccessibility in LHC-9 of the total, soluble, and insoluble

  11. Bioaccessibility of metals in fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed harvested in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-08-01

    Fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed are important traditional foods that are essential to the physical and cultural well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. The goal of this study was to measure the concentration and bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Hg, Se, Cu and Mn in 45 commonly consumed traditional foods collected by harvested by the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) from 21 First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada, in 2008-2009. A significant and negative correlation was observed between Hg concentration and Hg bioaccessibility. Metal bioaccessibility tended to be high; median values ranging between 52% (Mn) and 83% (Cu). The notable exceptions were observed for As in wild game organs (7-19%) and rabbit meat (4%) as well as Hg in salmon eggs (10%). Results of Principal Components Analysis confirmed the unique pattern of bioaccessibility of As and Hg in traditional foods, suggesting that, unlike other metals, As and Hg bioaccessibility are not simply controlled by food digestibility under the operating conditions of the in vitro model. These data provide useful information for dietary contaminant risk assessment and intake assessments of essential trace elements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel targeted approach to better understand how natural structural barriers govern carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility in vegetable-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmero, Paola; Lemmens, Lien; Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Sosa, Carola; Met, Kristof; de Dieu Umutoni, Jean; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2013-12-01

    An experimental approach, allowing us to understand the effect of natural structural barriers (cell walls, chromoplast substructures) on carotenoid bioaccessibility, was developed. Different fractions with different levels of carotenoid bio-encapsulation (carotenoid-enriched oil, chromoplasts, small cell clusters, and large cell clusters) were isolated from different types of carrots and tomatoes. An in vitro method was used to determine carotenoid bioaccessibility. In the present work, a significant decrease in carotenoid in vitro bioaccessibility could be observed with an increasing level of bio-encapsulation. Differences in cell wall material and chromoplast substructure between matrices influenced carotenoid release and inclusion in micelles. For carrots, cell walls and chromoplast substructure were important barriers for carotenoid bioaccessibility while, in tomatoes, the chromoplast substructure represented the most important barrier governing bioaccessibility. The highest increase in carotenoid bioaccessibility, for all matrices, was obtained after transferring carotenoids into the oil phase, a system lacking cell walls and chromoplast substructures that could hamper carotenoid release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food matrix and processing influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility and lipophilic antioxidant activity of fruit juice-based beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Roque, María Janeth; de Ancos, Begoña; Sánchez-Vega, Rogelio; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar; Elez-Martínez, Pedro; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The biological activity of carotenoids depends on their bioaccessibility and solubilization in the gastrointestinal tract. These compounds are poorly dispersed in the aqueous media of the digestive tract due to their lipophilic nature. Thus, it is important to analyze the extent to which some factors, such as the food matrix and food processing, may improve their bioaccessibility. Beverages formulated with a blend of fruit juices and water (WB), milk (MB) or soymilk (SB) were treated by high-intensity pulsed electric fields (HIPEF) (35 kV cm(-1) with 4 μs bipolar pulses at 200 Hz for 1800 μs), high-pressure processing (HPP) (400 MPa at 40 °C for 5 min) or thermal treatment (TT) (90 °C for 1 min) in order to evaluate the influence of food matrix and processing on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and on the lipophilic antioxidant activity (LAA). The bioaccessibility of these compounds diminished after applying any treatment (HIPEF, HPP and TT), with the exception of cis-violaxanthin + neoxanthin, which increased by 79% in HIPEF and HPP beverages. The lowest carotenoid bioaccessibility was always obtained in TT beverages (losses up to 63%). MB was the best food matrix for improving the bioaccessibility of carotenoids, as well as the LAA. The results demonstrate that treatment and food matrix modulated the bioaccessibility of carotenoids as well as the lipophilic antioxidant potential of beverages. Additionally, HIPEF and HPP could be considered as promising technologies to obtain highly nutritional and functional beverages.

  14. Bioaccessible trace metals in lip cosmetics and their health risks to female consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Lei, Tingting; Jia, Liming; Yury, Badmatsybenov; Zhang, Zhaohan; Du, Yingqiu; Feng, Yujie; Xing, Baoshan

    2018-07-01

    Females can be exposed to toxic elements in lip cosmetics following ingestion. The bioaccessibility of Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, Sb and Pb in lip cosmetics (n = 32) were assessed via the dilute HCl extraction method, In Vitro Gastrointestinal protocol (IVG) and the United States Pharmacopeia Methodology (USPM), and then health risks were characterized. The total concentrations of trace metals (TMs) in lip cosmetics were in the range of 15.55-111.97 mg/kg (Mean: 60.99 mg/kg). Cu, Pb and Cr were the three major TMs and accounting for >75% of the total concentrations. Except Sb and Pb in 4/32 and 4/32 samples were higher than the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration of the United States) limits, the other TMs were lower than that limits. Only bioaccessible Pb in all samples significantly exceeded the FDA limit 0.1 mg/kg in candy. Using IVG or USPM might be preferable for evaluating the TMs exposure over HCl since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. The estimated average daily intake (ADI) of bioaccessible ∑TMs through lip cosmetics ingestion of career women and female college students were under safety level. The long-term exposure of bioaccessible TMs by lip cosmetics using would inevitably cause non-carcinogenic health risk. This is the first report on the in vitro tests used for evaluating bioaccessible TMs in lip cosmetics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Influence of biochar on isoproturon partitioning and bioaccessibility in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, B J; Pickering, F L; Freddo, A; Whelan, M J; Coulon, F

    2013-10-01

    The influence of biochar (5%) on the loss, partitioning and bioaccessibility of (14)C-isoproturon ((14)C-IPU) was evaluated. Results indicated that biochar had a dramatic effect upon (14)C-IPU partitioning: (14)C-IPU extractability (0.01 M CaCl2) in biochar-amended treatments was reduced to <2% while, (14)C-IPU extractability in biochar free treatments decreased with ageing from 90% to 40%. A partitioning model was constructed to derive an effective partition coefficient for biochar:water (KBW of 7.82 × 10(4) L kg(-1)). This was two orders of magnitude greater than the apparent Kfoc value of the soil organic carbon:water (631 L kg(-1)). (14)C-radiorespirometry assays indicated high competence of microorganisms to mineralise (14)C-IPU in the absence of biochar (40.3 ± 0.9%). Where biochar was present (14)C-IPU mineralisation never exceeded 2%. These results indicate reduced herbicide bioaccessibility. Increasing IPU application to ×10 its recommended dose was ineffective at redressing IPU sequestration and its low bioaccessibility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fat content affects bioaccessibility and efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier, Ana Augusta Odorissi; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Garrido-Fernández, Juan; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Addition of lutein to dairy products is an alternative that widens the range of foods which could be lutein sources. However, bioaccessibility is an essential aspect to be considered during the development of products with added bioactive substances. We evaluated the in vitro bioaccessibility of lutein esters added to milk and yogurt with different fat contents, and determined the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the esters during digestion. Bioaccessibility of lutei...

  17. Bioaccessibility of Pb from ammunition in game meat is affected by cooking treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rafael; Baos, Ana R; Vidal, Dolors; Camarero, Pablo R; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A

    2011-01-14

    The presence of lead (Pb) ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe) can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w.) than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g). The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75%) and wine (4.51%) than in uncooked meat (0.7%). Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA) show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account.

  18. Does the source migration pathway of HBCDs to household dust influence their bio-accessibility?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Alcega, Sonia [Soil Research Centre, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AH (United Kingdom); Rauert, Cassie; Harrad, Stuart [School of Geography Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Collins, Chris D., E-mail: c.d.collins@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the human bioaccessibility of dust contaminated with hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) via two migration pathways a) volatilisation with subsequent partitioning to dust particles, and b) abrasion of treated textile fibres directly to the dust. This was achieved using previously developed experimental chamber designs to generate dust samples contaminated with HBCDs emitted from a HBCD treated textile curtain. The generated dust samples were exposed to an in vitro colon extended physiologically based extraction test (CE-PBET). The bioaccessibility of the HBCDs which were incorporated within dust as a result of volatilisation from the curtain material with subsequent partitioning to dust was higher than in dusts contaminated with HBCDs via abrasion of the curtain (35% and 15% respectively). We propose this occurs due to a stronger binding of HBCDs to treated fabric fibres than that experienced following volatilisation and sorption of HBCDs to dust particles. - Highlights: • Migration pathways via which HBCDs enter dust influences its bioaccessibility. • HBCDs more bioaccessible when incorporated to dust via volatilisation. • Contamination of dusts is more variable via abrasion than volatilisation.

  19. Application of an in vitro digestion model for 210Po bioaccessibility assessment in seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselli, Carla; Desideri, Donatella; Feduzi, Laura; Ugolini, Lucia; Meli, Maria Assunta

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the bioaccessibility of 210 Po in seafood and the impact of food preparation on this radionuclide. Polonium bioaccessibility is the fraction of 210 Po mobilised from food matrices into digestive extractants when applying an in vitro digestion model. The degree of bioaccessibility of 210 Po in food has important implications for estimating ingestion doses from this radionuclide. The simulation of gastrointestinal digestion was divided into three stages through the use of synthetic saliva, gastric and bile-pancreas solutions. Following pre-treatment with a saliva solution, raw and cooked seafood samples underwent one of the following treatments: (a) simulated gastric digestion only or (b) simulated complete gastrointestinal digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas digestion). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in 210 Po mobility was found between samples that underwent gastric digestion compared to those that only underwent gastro-intestinal digestion. However, a significant difference (P 210 Po bioaccessibility was found between raw and cooked seafood undergoing both gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion.

  20. Does the source migration pathway of HBCDs to household dust influence their bio-accessibility?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Alcega, Sonia; Rauert, Cassie; Harrad, Stuart; Collins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the human bioaccessibility of dust contaminated with hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) via two migration pathways a) volatilisation with subsequent partitioning to dust particles, and b) abrasion of treated textile fibres directly to the dust. This was achieved using previously developed experimental chamber designs to generate dust samples contaminated with HBCDs emitted from a HBCD treated textile curtain. The generated dust samples were exposed to an in vitro colon extended physiologically based extraction test (CE-PBET). The bioaccessibility of the HBCDs which were incorporated within dust as a result of volatilisation from the curtain material with subsequent partitioning to dust was higher than in dusts contaminated with HBCDs via abrasion of the curtain (35% and 15% respectively). We propose this occurs due to a stronger binding of HBCDs to treated fabric fibres than that experienced following volatilisation and sorption of HBCDs to dust particles. - Highlights: • Migration pathways via which HBCDs enter dust influences its bioaccessibility. • HBCDs more bioaccessible when incorporated to dust via volatilisation. • Contamination of dusts is more variable via abrasion than volatilisation.

  1. Organoclays reduce arsenic bioavailability and bioaccessibility in contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Binoy; Naidu, Ravi; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Xi, Yunfei [South Australia Univ., Mawson Lakes, SA (AU). Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR); South Australia Univ., Mawson Lakes, SA (AU). Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: Naturally occurring layer silicate clay minerals can be value added by modifying their surface properties to enhance their efficacy in the remediation of environmental contaminants. Silicate clay minerals modified by the introduction of organic molecules into the mineral structure are known as organoclays and show much promise for environmental remediation applications. The present study assesses the extent of decrease in bioavailable and bioaccessible arsenic (As) via enhanced adsorption by soil treated with organoclays. Materials and methods: Organoclays were prepared from hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) and Arquad {sup registered} 2HT-75 (Arquad) at surfactant loadings equivalent to twice the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of an Australian bentonite and characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the adsorption of arsenate onto the organoclays from aqueous solutions. Encouraged by these results, the organoclays were applied to As-spiked soils, at 10% and 20% (w/w) rates, to assess their capacity to stabilise soil As. After 1 month of incubation in the laboratory, bioavailable (1 mM Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} extractable) and bioaccessible (1 M glycine extractable) As from the spiked soils were assessed. Results and discussion: Both the organobentonites effectively removed As from aqueous solutions. The adsorbent prepared with Arquad adsorbed 23% more As from aqueous phase than adsorbent prepared with HDTMA. Adsorption of As was controlled by anion exchange and electrostatic attraction. When applied to As-contaminated soils, the organoclays reduced the bioavailable As by as much as 81%. The extent of reduction of bioaccessible As was only up to 58%. The adsorbents were not as efficient in reducing bioaccessible As in contaminated soils as compared with bioavailable As. It could be attributed to the extreme pH condition (pH = 3) of the extractant used in the physiologically based extraction test method for

  2. Arsenic in cooked rice: Effect of chemical, enzymatic and microbial processes on bioaccessibility and speciation in the human gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Guoxin; Van de Wiele, Tom; Alava, Pradeep; Tack, Filip; Du Laing, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    Rice, used as staple food for half of the world population, can easily accumulate arsenic (As) into its grain, which often leads to As contamination. The health risk induced by presence of As in food depends on its release from the food matrix, i.e., its bioaccessibility. Using an in vitro gastrointestinal simulator, we incubated two types of cooked rice (total As: 0.389 and 0.314 mg/kg). Arsenic bioaccessibility and speciation changes were determined upon gastrointestinal digestion. Washing with deionized water and cooking did not result in changes of As speciation in the rice although the arsenic content dropped by 7.1–20.6%. Arsenic bioaccessibility of the cooked rice in the small intestine ranged between 38 and 57%. Bioaccessibility slightly increased during digestion in the simulated small intestine and decreased with time in the simulated colon. Significant speciation changes were noted in the simulated colon, with trivalent monomethylarsonate (MMA III ) becoming an important species. - Highlights: ► We studied arsenic bioaccessibility and speciation in rice during in vitro digestion. ► Bioaccessibility in cooked rice ranged between 38 and 57%. ► Bioaccessibility increased in the small intestine and dropped in the colon. ► Significant speciation changes were observed in the colon. ► Toxic trivalent monomethylarsonate (MMA III ) was produced in the colon. - Arsenic bioaccessibility and speciation changes were studied upon in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of As-polluted rice with specific attention to the role of colon micro-organisms.

  3. The effect of aging on sequestration and bioaccessibility of oxytetracycline in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxia; Bao, Yanyu; Cai, Zhang; Zhang, Zhenzihao; Cao, Peilin; Li, Xinqian; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-07-01

    Veterinary antibiotics introduced into soil environment may change the composition and functioning of soil microbial communities and promote the spreading of antibiotic resistance. Actual risks depend on the antibiotic's bioaccessibility and sequestration in soils, which may vary with contact time and soil properties. We elucidated changes in the horsebean plant's bioaccessible oxytetracycline with increasing contact time in three different soils (cinnamon, red, and brown soil) and observed discrepancy in oxytetracycline dissipation using sequential extractions with H2O-, 0.01 M CaCl2-, and Mcllvaine- in the same three soils. The results showed lower quantities of oxytetracycline with increasing contact time over 20 days than the level in freshly contaminated soils but hugely discrepant quantities among the three tested soils. In addition, aging largely reduced dissipation of H2O-, 0.01 M CaCl2-, and Mcllvaine- extracted oxytetracycline in soils before planting. However, bioturbation helped increase the H2O-, CaCl2-, and Mcllvaine- extracted oxytetracyline from cinnamon and brown soils with aging. Lastly, correlation analysis indicated that bioaccessibility of oxytetracycline significantly correlates with the total of H2O-, CaCl2-, and Mcllvaine- extracted oxytetracycline (0.676**, p oxytetracycline with aging. Overall, this study provides some basic understanding of the aging effect on sequestration and bioaccessibility of veterinary antibiotics in soils.

  4. Applying no-depletion equilibrium sampling and full-depletion bioaccessibility extraction to 35 historically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartolomé, Nora; Hilber, Isabel; Sosa, Dayana

    2018-01-01

    Assessing the bioaccessibility of organic pollutants in contaminated soils is considered a complement to measurements of total concentrations in risk assessment and legislation. Consequently, methods for its quantification require validation with historically contaminated soils. In this study, 35...... with polyoxymethylene was used to determine freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while sorptive bioaccessibility extraction (SBE) with silicone rods was used to determine the bioaccessible PAH concentrations (Cbioacc) of these soils. The organic carbon partition...... Capacity Ratio (SCR); particularly for soils with very high KD. The source of contamination determined bioaccessible fractions (fbioacc). The smallest fbioacc were obtained with skeet soils (15%), followed by the pyrogenically influenced soils, rural soils, and finally, the petrogenically contaminated soil...

  5. Bioaccessibility of Pb from ammunition in game meat is affected by cooking treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mateo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of lead (Pb ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w. than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g. The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75% and wine (4.51% than in uncooked meat (0.7%. Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account.

  6. Assessing the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Jack C; Juhasz, Albert; Smith, Euan; Naidu, Ravi

    2015-06-01

    Bioavailability (BA) determines the potential harm of a contaminant that exerts on the receptor. However, environmental guidelines for site contamination assessment are often set assuming the contaminant is 100 % bioavailable. This conservative approach to assessing site risk may result in the unnecessary and expensive remediation of a contaminated site. The National Environmental Protection Measures in Australia has undergone a statutory 5-year review that recommended that contaminant bioavailability and bioaccessibility (BAC) measures be adopted as part of the contaminated site risk assessment process by the National Environment Protection Council. We undertook a critical review of the current bioavailability and bioaccessibility approaches, methods and their respective limitations. The 'gold' standard to estimate the portion of a contaminant that reaches the system circulatory system (BA) of its receptor is to determine BA in an in vivo system. Various animal models have been utilised for this purpose. Because of animal ethics issues, and the expenses associated with performing in vivo studies, several in vitro methods have been developed to determine BAC as a surrogate model for the estimation of BA. However, few in vitro BAC studies have been calibrated against a reliable animal model, such as immature swine. In this review, we have identified suitable methods for assessing arsenic and lead BAC and proposed a decision tree for the determination of contaminant bioavailability and bioaccessibility for health risk assessment.

  7. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Elenilda J; Carvalho, Lucia M J; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M; Cardoso, Flávio S N; Carvalho, José L V

    2016-01-01

    The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  8. Fatty acids, mercury, and methylmercury bioaccessibility in salmon (Salmo salar) using an in vitro model: Effect of culinary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sara; Afonso, Cláudia; Cardoso, Carlos; Batista, Irineu; Chaveiro, Nádia; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    2015-10-15

    The effect of culinary treatments on the fatty acid profile, mercury (Hg), and methylmercury (MeHg) levels of salmon was studied. The bioaccessibility of fatty acids, Hg, and MeHg in raw and grilled salmon was determined. The most intense thermal treatment (grilling) did not alter the relative fatty acid (FA) profile. There were bioaccessibility differences between FAs. To the authors' knowledge, for the first time, higher bioaccessibility of the long-chain FAs than the short- and medium-chain FAs was measured. Chemical interaction phenomena seemed to play a role. On the other hand, higher levels of unsaturation decreased bioaccessibility. Two main alternative hypotheses were put forward, either lower polarity led to higher incorporation of FAs with longer hydrophobic aliphatic chain and lower number of double bonds in the emulsion present in the bioaccessible fraction or enzymatic selectivity preferentially hydrolyzed some FAs on the basis of their structure or position in the triacylglycerol molecule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship Between Total and Bioaccessible Lead on Children’s Blood Lead Levels in Urban Residential Philadelphia Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relationships between total soil or bioaccessible lead (Pb), measured using an in vitro bioaccessibility assay, and children’s blood lead levels (BLL) were investigated in an urban neighborhood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, with a history of soil Pb contamination....

  10. Cola soft drinks for evaluating the bioaccessibility of uranium in contaminated mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G; Schnug, Ewald; Haneklaus, Silvia

    2011-08-15

    There is a rising need for scientifically sound and quantitative as well as simple, rapid, cheap and readily available soil testing procedures. The purpose of this study was to explore selected soft drinks (Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke®, Coke Zero®) as indicators of bioaccessible uranium and other trace elements (As, Ce, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Th, Y, Zn) in contaminated soils of the Mary Kathleen uranium mine site, Australia. Data of single extraction tests using Coca-Cola Classic®, Diet Coke® and Coke Zero® demonstrate that extractable arsenic, copper, lanthanum, manganese, nickel, yttrium and zinc concentrations correlate significantly with DTPA- and CaCl₂-extractable metals. Moreover, the correlation between DTPA-extractable uranium and that extracted using Coca-Cola Classic® is close to unity (+0.98), with reduced correlations for Diet Coke® (+0.66) and Coke Zero® (+0.55). Also, Coca-Cola Classic® extracts uranium concentrations near identical to DTPA, whereas distinctly higher uranium fractions were extracted using Diet Coke® and Coke Zero®. Results of this study demonstrate that the use of Coca-Cola Classic® in single extraction tests provided an excellent indication of bioaccessible uranium in the analysed soils and of uranium uptake into leaves and stems of the Sodom apple (Calotropis procera). Moreover, the unconventional reagent is superior in terms of availability, costs, preparation and disposal compared to traditional chemicals. Contaminated site assessments and rehabilitation of uranium mine sites require a solid understanding of the chemical speciation of environmentally significant elements for estimating their translocation in soils and plant uptake. Therefore, Cola soft drinks have potential applications in single extraction tests of uranium contaminated soils and may be used for environmental impact assessments of uranium mine sites, nuclear fuel processing plants and waste storage and disposal facilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  11. Purification of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase from Piper betle leaf and its characterization in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Lee, Miau-Rong; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Yung-Chang; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2015-03-04

    The aim of this study was to purify protein(s) from Piper betle leaf for identification and further characterization. A functionally unknown protein was purified to apparent homogeneity with a molecular mass of 15.7 kDa and identified as Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). The purified SOD appeared to be monomeric and converted to its dimeric form with increased enzymatic activity in betel nut oral extract. This irreversible conversion was mainly induced by slaked lime, resulting from the increase in pH of the oral cavity. Oral extract from chewing areca nut alone also induced SOD dimerization due to the presence of arginine. The enhanced activity of the SOD dimer was responsible for the continuous production of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity. Thus, SOD may contribute to oral carcinogenesis through the continuous formation of hydrogen peroxide in the oral cavity, in spite of its protective role against cancer in vivo.

  12. Enhanced Bioaccessibility of Curcuminoids in Buttermilk Yogurt in Comparison to Curcuminoids in Aqueous Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shishan; Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Luz; Shen, Zhiping; Ng, Ken; Ajlouni, Said

    2016-03-01

    Curcuminoids have low bioavailability due to low aqueous solubility. We compared the bioaccessibility of curcuminoids delivered in buttermilk yogurt to that of curcuminoid powder in an aqueous dispersion. Buttermilk containing added curcuminoids (300 mg/100 g, 0.3% w/w) was used for yogurt manufacture. We measured percentage of curcuminoids remaining in yogurts after manufacture and after exposure to simulated gastrointestinal fluids, and the in vitro bioaccessibility of the curcuminoids. Curcuminoids were stable during yogurt manufacture. At the end of in vitro digestion, approximately 11% of the curcuminoids delivered in yogurt was degraded compared to yogurt was 15-fold more bioaccessible than curcuminoids in aqueous dispersion. The small change in yogurt properties (decrease in total lactic acid bacteria counts of yogurts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolic compounds in bread: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelino, Donato; Cossu, Marta; Marti, Alessandra; Zanoletti, Miriam; Chiavaroli, Laura; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele; Martini, Daniela

    2017-07-19

    Cereal-based products, like breads, are a vehicle for bioactive compounds, including polyphenols. The health effects of polyphenols like phenolic acids (PAs) are dependent on their bioaccessibility and bioavailability. The present review summarizes the current understanding of potential strategies to improve phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability and the main findings of in vitro and in vivo studies investigating these strategies applied to breads, including the use of raw ingredients with greater phenolic content and different pre-processing technologies, such as fermentation and enzymatic treatment of ingredients. There is considerable variability between in vitro studies, mainly resulting from the use of different methodologies, highlighting the need for standardization. Of the few in vivo bioavailability studies identified, acute, single-dose studies demonstrate that modifications to selected raw materials and bioprocessing of bran could increase the bioavailability, but not necessarily the net content, of bread phenolics. The two medium-term identified dietary interventions also demonstrated greater phenolic content, resulting from the modification of the raw materials used. Overall, the findings suggest that several strategies can be used to develop new bread products with greater phenolic bioaccessibility and bioavailability. However, due to the large variability and the few studies available, further investigations are required to determine better the usefulness of these innovative processes.

  14. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenilda J. Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap. is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods: Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results: When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions: Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  15. Bioaccessibility of pistachio polyphenols, xanthophylls, and tocopherols during simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bisignano, Carlo; Filocamo, Angela; Chessa, Simona; Sarò, Mariagiovanna; Torre, Germana; Faulks, Richard M; Dugo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The bioaccessibility of bioactives from pistachios has not been previously evaluated. In the present study we quantified the release of polyphenols, xanthophylls (lutein), and tocopherols from pistachios (raw pistachios, roasted salted pistachios, and muffins made with raw pistachios) during simulated human digestion. A dynamic gastric model of digestion that provides a realistic and predictive simulation of the physical and chemical processing and accurately mimics the residence time and the luminal environment within the human stomach was used for the digestion studies. More than 90% of the polyphenols were released in the gastric compartment, with virtually total release in the duodenal phase. No significant differences were observed between raw shelled and roasted salted pistachio. The presence of a food matrix (muffin) decreased the bioaccessibility of protocatechuic acid (78%) and luteolin (36%). Almost 100% bioaccessibility of lutein and tocopherols was found after duodenal digestion, with no difference among the three samples. The rapid release of the assayed bioactives in the stomach maximizes the potential for absorption in the duodenum and contributes to the beneficial relation between pistachio consumption and health-related outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Total and Bioaccessible Soil Arsenic and Lead Levels and Plant Uptake in Three Urban Community Gardens in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Misenheimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As and lead (Pb are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the region. This study examined total and bioaccessible soil As and Pb concentrations and accumulation in 10 commonly grown garden plants collected from three urban community gardens in Puerto Rico. Bioavailability values were predicted using bioaccessibility data to compare site-specific bioavailability estimates to commonly used default exposure assumptions. Total and bioaccessible As levels in study soils ranged from 2 to 55 mg/kg and 1 to 18 mg/kg, respectively. Total and bioaccessible Pb levels ranged from 19 to 172 mg/kg and 17 to 97 mg/kg, respectively. Measured bioaccessibility values corresponded to 19% to 42% bioaccessible As and 61% to 100% bioaccessible Pb when expressed as a percent of total As and Pb respectively. Predicted relative percent bioavailability of soil As and Pb based on measured bioaccessibility values ranged from 18% to 36% and 51% to 85% for As and Pb respectively. Transfer factors (TFs measuring uptake of As in plants from soil ranged from 0 to 0.073 in the edible flesh (fruit or vegetable of plant tissues analyzed and 0.073 to 0.444 in edible leaves. Pb TFs ranged from 0.002 to 0.012 in flesh and 0.023 to 0.204 in leaves. Consistent with TF values, leaves accumulated higher concentrations of As and Pb than the flesh, with the highest tissue concentrations observed in the culantro leaf (3.2 mg/kg dw of As and 8.9 mg/kg dw of Pb. Leaves showed a general but not statistically-significant (α = 0.05 trend of increased As and Pb concentration with increased soil levels, while no trend was observed for flesh tissues. These findings provide critical data that can improve accuracy and reduce uncertainty when conducting site-specific risk determination of

  17. Bioaccessibility and digestive stability of carotenoids in cooked eggs studied using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Savard, Patricia; Gauthier, Sylvie F; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2015-03-25

    Among dietary carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are known to protect against age-related macular degeneration, a leading cause of irreversible vision loss in the elderly. Egg yolk is rich in lutein and zeaxanthin, however, the effect of cooking and gastrointestinal digestion on yolk carotenoids is poorly understood. An in vitro dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM-1) was used to investigate the digestive stability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from boiled, fried, and scrambled eggs. Bioaccessibility but not digestive stability was significantly affected by the method of cooking. The main egg carotenoids, all-E-lutein and all-E-zeaxanthin, were stable during the digestion with average recoveries of 90 and 88%, respectively. No trans-cis isomerization of carotenoids was observed during digestion. Both all-E-lutein and all-E-zeaxanthin from scrambled eggs showed significantly lower bioaccessibility compared to boiled eggs. The results indicate that the bioaccessibility of egg carotenoids can be affected by different food preparation methods.

  18. Bioaccessible contents of inorganic elements in plant based edible materials by INAA and ICPMS methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2013-01-01

    We report total metal contents and their Bioaccessibility concentrations from Momordica Charantia (karela), Asparagus racemosus (satavari), Terminalia arjuna (arjuna bark) and Syzyzium cumini (jamun). The metal bioaccessibilities were determined by treating the dried powdered samples sequentially in gastric and intestinal fluid of porcine origin and the concentrations of the elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). (author)

  19. A lead isotopic study of the human bioaccessibility of lead in urban soils from Glasgow, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, John G.; Broadway, Andrew; Cave, Mark R.; Wragg, Joanna; Fordyce, Fiona M.; Graham, Margaret C.; Ngwenya, Bryne T.; Bewley, Richard J.F.

    2011-01-01

    The human bioaccessibility of lead (Pb) in Pb-contaminated soils from the Glasgow area was determined by the Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE) Method (UBM), an in vitro physiologically based extraction scheme that mimics the chemical environment of the human gastrointestinal system and contains both stomach and intestine compartments. For 27 soils ranging in total Pb concentration from 126 to 2160 mg kg -1 (median 539 mg kg -1 ), bioaccessibility as determined by the 'stomach' simulation (pH ∼ 1.5) was 46-1580 mg kg -1 , equivalent to 23-77% (mean 52%) of soil total Pb concentration. The corresponding bioaccessibility data for the 'stomach + intestine' simulation (pH ∼ 6.3) were 6-623 mg kg -1 and 2-42% (mean 22%) of soil Pb concentration. The soil 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios ranged from 1.057 to 1.175. Three-isotope plots of 208 Pb/ 206 Pb against 206 Pb/ 207 Pb demonstrated that 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios were intermediate between values for source end-member extremes of imported Australian Pb ore (1.04) - used in the manufacture of alkyl Pb compounds (1.06-1.10) formerly added to petrol - and indigenous Pb ores/coal (1.17-1.19). The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios of the UBM 'stomach' extracts were similar ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio was discernible in the UBM. However, the source of Pb appeared to be less important in determining the extent of UBM-bioaccessible Pb than the overall soil total Pb concentration and the soil phases with which the Pb was associated. The significant phases identified in a subset of samples were carbonates, manganese oxides, iron-aluminium oxyhydroxides and clays. - Highlights: → We determined the human bioaccessibility of Pb in urban soils by in vitro extraction. → We determined the isotopic composition of Pb in soils and simulated stomach extracts. → Soil stable Pb isotope ratios (e.g. 206 Pb/ 207 Pb) indicated a range of sources of Pb. → 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in soils and their simulated stomach extracts were very similar

  20. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bioaccessible Fraction from Eryngium foetidum Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwitcha Dawilai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eryngium foetidum (EF has long been used as a medicinal plant and culinary spice in tropical regions. Phytochemicals in its leaves have been proposed to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The present study used in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2 cells to assess such activities. Caco-2 cells were incubated with aqueous fraction from simulated digestion (bioaccessible fraction of EF leaves with/without bile extract prior to stimulation with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and IL-8 in culture media and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS were measured. Approximately 24% β-carotene and 35% lutein of leaves were present in the aqueous fraction. The transfer of caffeic and chlorogenic acids to the aqueous fraction was 76%–81%, while that of kaempferol was 48%. Prior incubation of Caco-2 cells with the bioaccessible fraction suppressed IL-1β activated IL-8 and MCP-1 by 33%, but the fraction lacking mixed micelles decreased IL-8 and MCP-1 levels only by 11%. The pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with the bioaccessible fraction of EF reduced ROS by 34%; the fraction lacking mixed micelles decreased ROS by 28%. These data suggest that bioactive compounds partitioning in mixed micelles play a significant role to suppress the proinflammatory insult but with a modest antioxidant effect.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their Bioaccessibility in Meat: a Tool for Assessing Human Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Elliyana Nadia; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Selamat, Jinap; Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by PAHs is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. PAHs are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of PAHs is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total PAHs always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of PAHs is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of PAHs in food is the fraction of PAHs mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of PAHs in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of PAHs such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting PAH concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.

  2. Bioaccessibility of Fipronil Sorbed to Soil and House Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide with uses ranging from soil treatment, to the control of household pests and ectoparasites on pets. Soils and house dusts readily sorb fipronil and when these soils and dusts are ingested, the fipronil may become bioaccessible for uptake ...

  3. Positive relationship detected between soil bioaccessible organic pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes at dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Tian, Da; Shen, Fangyuan; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-01-01

    Co-contaminated soils by organic pollutants (OPs), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been becoming an emerging problem. However, it is unclear if an interaction exists between mixed pollutants and ARG abundance. Therefore, the potential relationship between OP contents and ARG and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) abundance was investigated from seven dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China. Phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, associated ARG genes, and intI1 had the highest detection frequencies. Correlation analysis suggested a stronger positive relationship between the ARG abundance and the bioaccessible OP content than the total OP content. Additionally, the significant correlation between the bioaccessible mixed pollutant contents and ARG/intI1 abundance suggested a direct/indirect impact of the bioaccessible mixed pollutants on soil ARG dissemination. This study provided a preliminary understanding of the interaction between mixed pollutants and ARGs in co-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Coexistence of OPs, antibiotics, and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous. • Bioaccessible pollutants exhibited positive correlation with ARG abundance. • ARGs significantly correlated with intI1. • Bioaccessible pollutants demonstrated strong correlation with intI1. • The intI1 gene might serve as a potential proxy for mixed pollution. - Coexistence of mixed OPs and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous; a positive correlation can be found between the bioaccessible OP fractions and ARG/intI1 abundance.

  4. Visualizing and Quantifying Bioaccessible Pores in Field-Aged Petroleum Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Clay Soils Using Synchrotron-based X-ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W.; Kim, J.; Zhu, N.; McBeth, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Microbial hydrocarbon degradation is environmentally significant and applicable to contaminated site remediation practices only when hydrocarbons (substrates) are physically bioaccessible to bacteria in soil matrices. Powerful X-rays are produced by synchrotron radiation, allowing for bioaccessible pores in soil (larger than 4 microns), where bacteria can be accommodated, colonize and remain active, can be visualized at a much higher resolution. This study visualized and quantified such bioaccessible pores in intact field-aged, oil-contaminated unsaturated soil fractions, and examined the relationship between the abundance of bioaccessible pores and hydrocarbon biodegradation. Using synchrotron-based X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) at the Canadian Light Source, a large dataset of soil particle characteristics, such as pore volumes, surface areas, number of pores and pore size distribution, was generated. Duplicate samples of five different soil fractions with different soil aggregate sizes and water contents (13, 18 and 25%) were examined. The method for calculating the number and distribution of bioaccessible pores using CT images was validated using the known porosity of Ottawa sand. This study indicated that the distribution of bioaccessible pore sizes in soil fractions are very closely related to microbial enhancement. A follow-up aerobic biodegradation experiment for the soils at 17 °C (average site temperature) over 90 days confirmed that a notable decrease in hydrocarbon concentrations occurred in soils fractions with abundant bioaccessible pores and with a larger number of pores between 10 and 100 μm. The hydrocarbon degradation in bioactive soil fractions was extended to relatively high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons (C16-C34). This study provides quantitative information about how internal soil pore characteristics can influence bioremediation performance.

  5. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Diffuse pollution of surface soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is problematic in terms of the large areas and volumes of polluted soil. The levels and effects of diffuse PAH pollution at a motorway site were investigated. Surface soil was sampled with increasing distance from...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...

  6. Enhancing the lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato juice synergistically applying thermal and non-thermal processing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathunge, K G L R; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch; Cregenzán-Albertia, Oliver; Grant, Irene R; Lyng, James; Koidis, Anastasios

    2017-04-15

    The influence of moderate intensity pulsed electric field pre-processing on increasing the lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato fruit, and the combined effect of blanching, ultrasonic and high intensity pulsed electric field processing on further enhancement of the lycopene bioaccessibility after juicing were investigated. Maximum total lycopene bioaccessibility (9.6%) of the tomato fruit was achieved by a 4μs pre-processed treatment after 24h holding period and further processing results revealed that all treatments were effective to increase the total lycopene. Most of juice processing treatments decreased the release of lycopene from the tomato matrix during digestion. Only the treatment of blanching followed by high intensity pulsed electric field showed a significant release of trans-(4.01±0.48) and cis-(5.04±0.26μg/g) lycopene, achieving 15.6% total lycopene bioaccessibility. Thus, processing of pre-blanched juice using high intensity pulsed electric field, derived from pre-processed tomato was the best overall process to achieve the highest nutritive value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lowering of cholesterol bioaccessibility and serum concentrations by saponins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinarova, Liliya; Vinarov, Zahari; Atanasov, Vasil; Pantcheva, Ivayla; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Stoyanov, Simeon

    2015-01-01

    Using an in vitro digestion model, we studied the effect of six saponin extracts on the bioaccessibility of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids (SFAs). In the absence of saponins, around 78% of the available cholesterol was solubilized in the simulated intestinal fluids. The addition of two

  8. Biodegradation, bioaccessibility, and genotoxicity of diffuse polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution at a motorway site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, A.R.; de Lipthay, J.R.; Reichenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    the asphalt pavement and tested for total amounts of PAHs, amounts of bioaccessible PAHs, total bacterial populations, PAH degrader populations, the potential for mineralization of C-14-PAHs, and mutagenicity. Elevated PAH concentrations were found in the samples taken 1-8 m from the pavement. Soil sampled...... in the most polluted samples close to the pavement. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin extraction of soil PAHs, as a direct estimate of the bioaccessibility, indicated that only 1-5% of the PAHs were accessible to soil bacteria. This low bioaccessibility is suggested to be due to sorption to traffic soot...... particles. The increased PAH level close to the pavement was reflected in slightly increased mutagenic activity (1 m, 0.32 +/- 0.08 revertants g(-1) soil; background/24 m: 0.08 +/- 0.04), determined by the Salmonella/microsome assay of total extractable PAHs activated by liver enzymes. The potential...

  9. Effect of Cooking on Speciation and In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Hg and As from Rice, Using Ordinary and Pressure Cookers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen; Wang, Guang; Li, Kaiming; Zhao, Wenbo; Wu, Ye

    2018-05-03

    Rice is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, and owing to environmental pollution, it is a major source of human exposure to mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As). We evaluated the impact of cooking on the speciation and bioaccessibility of Hg and As from rice in this study. Results show that the dominant Hg and As species in rice from Guangzhou market in China were their inorganic forms (iHg and iAs), respectively. The cooking process modified the levels of Hg and As. Average Hg and As bioaccessibility in raw rice was 69.74 and 80.32%, respectively. Hg bioaccessibility decreased to 46.22 and 42.37% for pressure- and ordinary-cooked rice, respectively. In contrast, As bioaccessibility remained unchanged except after cooking with a large amount of water. Protein denaturation and the amount of soluble and volatile forms determine the bioaccessibility of Hg and As in cooked rice by being released into the cooking water or into the air. From the bioaccessibility data, the average established daily intake (EDI) values of Hg and As from pressure-cooked rice for children and adults were 0.034 and 0.025 μg kg -1  day -1 (Hg), and 0.735 and 0.559 μg kg -1  day -1 (As), respectively. This study provides novel insights into Hg and As exposure due to rice cooking.

  10. Effect of olive cultivar on bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero-Flórez, Angélica; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Sánchez-Quezada, Cristina; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Gaforio, José J; Jimenez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel

    2017-06-05

    This study aims to characterize the phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity of seven monovarietal virgin olive oils (VOOs) and evaluate their in vitro gastrointestinal stability. 'Picual', 'Blanqueta', 'Sevillana', 'Habichuelero', and 'Chetoui' olive cultivars were selected for VOO extraction. The oils were subjected to in vitro digestion. The recovery index (RI) of phenolic compounds after each digestion step and the bioaccessibility index (BI) were evaluated. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the bioaccessible fraction (BF) of VOOs was determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC assays, as well as by studying the intracellular reactive oxygen species in Caco-2 cells. Differences were found in the composition of phenolic compounds in VOOs depending on cultivars. During the digestive process, important losses of phenolic compounds were observed between the buccal and duodenal steps, unlike HTy and Ty, which presented increased recovery due to the hydrolysis of secoiridoid derivatives. Differences in the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds were found between varieties of VOOs. 'Sevillana' VOO had the highest total bioaccessibility (36%), followed by the 'Picual' (19%), 'Chetoui' (17%), 'Habichuelero' (10%), and 'Blanqueta' (8%) varieties. The BF of all the varieties of VOO showed similar radical ABTS scavenging capacity, 'Chetoui', and 'Blanqueta'-BF having the highest radical DPPH scavenging capacity, and 'Habichuelero' and 'Picual'-BF showing protective effects against the peroxyl radical measured by ORAC FL assay. All VOO-BFs presented decreases in ROS levels in Caco-2 cells. Our results suggest differences in the bioaccessibility of phenolics from diverse VOO varieties, which could lead to different biological properties. Therefore, this study represents a first step toward the development of novel dietary strategies focusing on the phenolic supplementation of different VOOs to preserve human health.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioaccessibility in seafood: Culinary practices effects on dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Fogaça, Fabíola Helena; Soares, Cristina; Oliveira, Marta; Alves, Ricardo N; Maulvault, Ana L; Barbosa, Vera L; Anacleto, Patrícia; Magalhães, João Avelar; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Ramalhosa, Maria João; Morais, Simone; Marques, António

    2018-07-01

    This work aimed to determine the effect of culinary practices on the contamination level and bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in seafood. The selected farmed seafood species (marine shrimp, clams and seaweed) were commercially available in Portugal. The mean concentrations of PAHs varied between 0.23 and 51.8 µg kg -1 , with the lowest value being observed in raw shrimp and the highest in dried seaweed. The number of compounds detected in seaweed and clams (naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(j)fluoranthene) were higher than in shrimp (fluorene and pyrene). Among the PAHs measured, fluorene was the predominant one. There was a significant interaction effect between species and culinary treatment (p < 0.05), thus boiled and dried seaweed samples presented the lowest and the highest levels of fluorene (0.13 and 1.8 µg kg -1 ), respectively. The daily intake of PAHs decreased with bioaccessibility, varying from 22% for benzo(k)fluoranthene (in raw clam) to 84% for phenanthrene (in steamed clam). According to the potency equivalent concentrations, screening values and bioaccessibility of PAHs, the consumption of marine shrimp, clam and seaweed is considered as safe for consumers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioaccessibility of hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acids as affected by the delivery system: simple, double and gelled double emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofrades, Susana; Bou, Ricard; Flaiz, Linda; Garcimartín, Alba; Benedí, Juana; Mateos, Raquel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J; Olivero-David, Raúl; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the influence of different food-grade n-3 PUFA-enriched simple emulsion (SE), double emulsion (DE) and gelled double emulsion (GDE) delivery systems on the extent of lipolysis, antioxidant capacity and the bioaccessibility of hydroxytyrosol (HTy). GDE emulsion offered better protection for HTy (89%) than the other systems (79% in SE and DE). The reducing capacity of the emulsions containing HTy were not altered during oral digestion. However, "in vitro" gastric and intestinal phases significantly reduced the antioxidant activity of all systems. The structural and physical state of GDE entailed a slowing-down of triacylglyceride hydrolysis (36.4%) in comparison with that of SE and DE (22.7 and 24.8% for SE and DE, respectively).

  13. Deposition Form and Bioaccessibility of Keto-carotenoids from Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota), Red Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum), and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Filet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-03-09

    The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed.

  14. A lead isotopic study of the human bioaccessibility of lead in urban soils from Glasgow, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, John G., E-mail: J.G.Farmer@ed.ac.uk [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); Broadway, Andrew [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); Cave, Mark R.; Wragg, Joanna [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, England (United Kingdom); Fordyce, Fiona M. [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh, EH9 3LA, Scotland (United Kingdom); Graham, Margaret C.; Ngwenya, Bryne T. [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bewley, Richard J.F. [URS Corporation Ltd, Manchester, M1 6HS, England (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-01

    The human bioaccessibility of lead (Pb) in Pb-contaminated soils from the Glasgow area was determined by the Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE) Method (UBM), an in vitro physiologically based extraction scheme that mimics the chemical environment of the human gastrointestinal system and contains both stomach and intestine compartments. For 27 soils ranging in total Pb concentration from 126 to 2160 mg kg{sup -1} (median 539 mg kg{sup -1}), bioaccessibility as determined by the 'stomach' simulation (pH {approx} 1.5) was 46-1580 mg kg{sup -1}, equivalent to 23-77% (mean 52%) of soil total Pb concentration. The corresponding bioaccessibility data for the 'stomach + intestine' simulation (pH {approx} 6.3) were 6-623 mg kg{sup -1} and 2-42% (mean 22%) of soil Pb concentration. The soil {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios ranged from 1.057 to 1.175. Three-isotope plots of {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb against {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb demonstrated that {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios were intermediate between values for source end-member extremes of imported Australian Pb ore (1.04) - used in the manufacture of alkyl Pb compounds (1.06-1.10) formerly added to petrol - and indigenous Pb ores/coal (1.17-1.19). The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios of the UBM 'stomach' extracts were similar (< 0.01 difference) to those of the soil for 26 of the 27 samples (r = 0.993, p < 0.001) and lower in 24 of them. A slight preference for lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio was discernible in the UBM. However, the source of Pb appeared to be less important in determining the extent of UBM-bioaccessible Pb than the overall soil total Pb concentration and the soil phases with which the Pb was associated. The significant phases identified in a subset of samples were carbonates, manganese oxides, iron-aluminium oxyhydroxides and clays. - Highlights: {yields} We determined the human bioaccessibility of Pb in urban soils by in vitro extraction. {yields} We

  15. Towards a deeper understanding of fatty acid bioaccessibility and its dependence on culinary treatment and lipid class: a case study of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sara; Afonso, Cláudia; Cardoso, Carlos; Oliveira, Rui; Alves, Francisca; Nunes, Maria L; Bandarra, Narcisa M

    2016-11-08

    The bioaccessibility of total lipids and fatty acids (FA) in raw and grilled gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) was determined using an in vitro digestion model. The particular impact of grilling on the FA profile of seabream was also studied. In addition, the influence of lipid class on the bioaccessibility of each FA was analysed. Grilling did not change the relative FA profile, and only the absolute values were altered. However, the relative FA profile varied across lipid classes, being more dissimilar between TAG and phospholipids. Long-chain SFA and PUFA seemed to be less bioaccessible. Moreover, grilling reduced bioaccessibility of protein, fat and many FA, with the highest reductions found in PUFA such as the DHA. Strong evidence supporting a predominantly regioselective action of lipase during in vitro digestion was found, and the impact of this phenomenon on FA bioaccessibility was assessed.

  16. Use of an in vitro digestion method to estimate human bioaccessibility of Cd in vegetables grown in smelter-impacted soils: the influence of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Waterlot, Christophe; Guerin, Annie; Proix, Nicolas; Richard, Antoine; Douay, Francis

    2015-08-01

    Metal contamination of urban soils and homegrown vegetables has caused major concern. Some studies showed that cadmium (Cd) was among the most significant hazards in kitchen garden soils and prolonged exposure to this metal could cause deleterious health effects in humans. In general, most risk assessment procedures are based on total concentrations of metals in vegetables. The present study assesses human bioaccessibility of Cd in vegetables cultivated in smelter-impacted kitchen garden soils. Seven vegetables (radish, lettuce, French bean, carrot, leek, tomato, and potato) were considered. Using the UBM protocol (unified BARGE bioaccessibility method), the bioaccessibility of Cd was measured in raw/cooked vegetables. A considerable amount of Cd was mobilized from raw vegetables during the digestion process (on average 85% in the gastric phase and 69% in the gastrointestinal phase), which could be attributed to a high uptake of Cd during the growth of the vegetables. Most Cd is accumulated in the vacuoles of plant cells, except what is absorbed by the cell wall, allowing Cd to be released from plant tissues under moderate conditions. Cooking by the steaming process generally increased the bioaccessibility of Cd in French bean, carrot, and leek. For potato, few or no significant differences of Cd bioaccessibility were observed after the steaming process, while the frying process strongly decreased bioaccessibility in both phases. The estimation of metal bioaccessibility in vegetables is helpful for human health risk assessment.

  17. Comparison of the Bioavailability of Waste Laden Soils Using ''In Vivo'' ''In Vitro'' Analytical Methodology and Bioaccessibility of Radionuclides for Refinement of Exposure/Dose Estimates; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. J. Lioy; M. Gallo; P. Georgopoulos; R. Tate; B. Buckley

    1999-01-01

    The bioavailability of soil contaminants can be measured using in vitro or in vivo techniques. Since there was no standard method for intercomparison among laboratories, we compared two techniques for bioavailability estimation: in vitro dissolution and in vivo rat feeding model for a NIST-traceable soil material. Bioaccessibility was measured using a sequential soil extraction in synthetic analogues of human saliva, gastric and intestinal fluids. Bioavailability was measured in Sprague Dawley rats by determining metal levels in the major organs and urine, feces, and blood. Bioaccessibility was found to be a good indicator of relative metal bioavailability. Results are presented from bioaccessible experiments with Cesium in contaminated DOE soils, and total alpha and beta bioaccessibility. The results indicate that the modified methodology for bioaccessibility can be used for specific radionuclide analysis

  18. Geochemical Weathering Increases Lead Bioaccessibility in Semi-Arid Mine Tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sarah M.; Webb, Sam M.; Bargar, John R.; O'Day, Peggy A.; Maier, Raina M.; Chorover, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Mine tailings can host elevated concentrations of toxic metal(loid)s that represent a significant hazard to surrounding communities and ecosystems. Eolian transport, capable of translocating small (micrometer-sized) particles, can be the dominant mechanism of toxic metal dispersion in arid or semi-arid landscapes. Human exposure to metals can then occur via direct inhalation or ingestion of particulates. The fact that measured doses of total lead (Pb) in geomedia correlate poorly with blood Pb levels highlights a need to better resolve the precise distribution of molecularly-speciated metal-bearing phases in the complex particle mixtures. Species distribution controls bioaccessibility, thereby directly impacting health risk. This study seeks to correlate Pb-containing particle size and mineral composition with lability and bioaccessibility in mine tailings subjected to weathering in a semi-arid environment. We employed X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF), coupled with sequential chemical extractions, to study Pb speciation in tailings from the semi-arid Arizona Klondyke State Superfund Site. Representative samples ranging in pH from 2.6 to 5.4 were selected for in-depth study of Pb solid-phase speciation. The principle lead-bearing phase was plumbojarosite (PbFe6(SO4)4(OH)12), but anglesite (PbSO4) and iron oxide-sorbed Pb were also observed. Anglesite, the most bioavailable mineral species of lead identified in this study, was enriched in surficial tailings samples, where Pb concentrations in the clay size fraction were 2–3 times higher by mass relative to bulk. A mobile and bioaccessible Pb phase accumulates in surficial tailings, with a corresponding increase in risk of human exposure to atmospheric particles. PMID:22553941

  19. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of methylmercury from seafood commonly consumed in North America: In vitro and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlikowski, Maia; Bradley, Mark; Kubow, Stan; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2016-08-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global contaminant of concern and human exposures are largely realized via seafood consumption. While it is assumed that 95-100% of the ingested MeHg from seafood reaches systemic circulation, recent in vitro studies have yielded results to suggest otherwise. Of the published studies to have characterized the bioaccessibility or bioavailability of MeHg from seafood, only a handful of seafood species have been characterized, there exists tremendous variability in data within and across species, few species of relevance to North America have been studied, and none of the in vitro studies have adapted results to an epidemiology study. The objective of the current study was two-fold: (a) to characterize in vitro MeHg bioaccessibility and bioavailability from ten commonly consumed types of seafood in North America; and (b) to apply the bioaccessibility and bioavailability data from the in vitro study to an existing human MeHg exposure assessment study. Raw seafood samples (cod, crab, halibut, salmon, scallop, shrimp, tilapia, and three tuna types: canned light, canned white, fresh) were purchased in Montreal and their MeHg concentrations generally overlapped with values reported elsewhere. The bioaccessibility of MeHg from these samples ranged from 50.1±19.2 (canned white tuna) to 100% (shrimp and scallop) of the amount measured in the raw undigested sample. The bioavailability of MeHg from these samples ranged from 29.3±10.4 (crab) to 67.4±9.7% (salmon) of the value measured in the raw undigested sample. There were significant correlations between the initial MeHg concentration in seafood with the percent of that Hg that was bioaccessible (r=-0.476) and bioavailable (r=-0.294). When the in vitro data were applied to an existing MeHg exposure assessment study, the estimated amount of MeHg absorbed into systemic circulation decreased by 25% and 42% when considering bioaccessibility and bioavailability, respectively. When the in vitro data

  20. Comparison of Nitrogen Bioaccessibility from Salmon and Whey Protein Hydrolysates using a Human Gastrointestinal Model (TIM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Framroze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TIM-1 system is a computer-controlled multi-compartmental dynamic model that closely simulates in vivo gastrointestinal tract digestion in humans. During digestion, the compounds released from meal matrix by gastric and intestinal secretions (enzymes are progressively absorbed through semipermeable membranes depending on their molecular weight. These absorbed (dialysed compounds are considered as bioaccessible, which means that they can be theoretically absorbed by the small intestine in the body. Methods: Salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH, whey protein hydrolysates extensively (WPHHigh or weakly (WPH-Low hydrolysed, non-hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI and mixtures of WPI:SPH (90:10, 80:20 were digested in TIM-1 using the conditions for a fast gastrointestinal transit that simulate the digestion of a liquid meal in human adults. During digestion (2 hours, samples were collected in intestinal compartments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and in both jejunal and ileal dialysates to determine their nitrogen content. All the products were compared in terms of kinetics of nitrogen absorption through the semipermeable membranes (bioaccessible nitrogen and nitrogen distribution throughout the intestinal compartments at the end of the 2 hour digestion. Results: After a 2 h-digestion in TIM-1, SPH was the protein substrate from which the highest amount of nitrogen (67.0% becomes available for the small intestine absorption. WPH-High had the second highest amount (56.0% of bioaccessible nitrogen while this amount decreased to 38.5–42.2% for the other protein substrates. The high nitrogen bioaccessibility of SPH is consistent with its richness in low molecular weight peptides (50% < 1000 Da. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that SPH provides a higher proportion of bioaccessible nitrogen to a healthy adult compared to all forms of whey proteins, including extensively hydrolysed whey protein hydrolysate. The substitution of

  1. Stability and bioaccessibility of anthocyanins in bakery products enriched with anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Sibel; Simsek, Sebnem; Eker, Alper Tolga; Pineda-Vadillo, Carlos; Dupont, Didier; Perez, Beatriz; Viadel, Blanca; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Rodriguez, Alberto Guadarrama; Kertész, Zsófia; Hegyi, Adrienn; Bordoni, Alessandra; El, Sedef Nehir

    2016-08-10

    Anthocyanins, water soluble polyphenols, have been associated with several beneficial health effects. The aim of this study was to determine how the baking process and food matrix affect anthocyanin stability and bioaccessibility in bakery products in order to develop functional foods. Three well known regularly consumed bakery products (buns, breadsticks and biscuits) were enriched with anthocyanin (AC) isolated from grape skin alone or in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (AC + DHA) to reveal knowledge on AC as active ingredients in real food systems rather than pure compounds. Anthocyanin amounts added to the formulations of buns, breadsticks and biscuits were 34 mg per 100 g, 40 mg per 100 g and 37 mg per 100 g, respectively. The effect of processing, storage and the food matrix on AC stability and bioaccessibility was investigated. In addition, the sensory properties of bakery products were evaluated. Breadsticks enriched with AC and AC + DHA received the lowest scores in the pre-screening sensory test. Therefore breadsticks were excluded from further analysis. AC retentions, which were monitored by determination of malvidin 3-O-glucoside, in the bun and biscuit after baking were 95.9% (13.6 mg per 100 g) and 98.6% (15.2 mg per 100 g), respectively. Biscuits and buns enriched only with AC showed significantly higher anthocyanin bioaccessibilities (57.26% and 57.30%, respectively) than the same ones enriched with AC + DHA. AC stability in enriched products stored for 21 days was significantly lower than in products stored for 7 days (p products.

  2. Effect of domestic processing on the polyphenol content and bioaccessibility in finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hithamani, Gavirangappa; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2014-12-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) were evaluated for polyphenolic content and their bioaccessibility. Total polyphenols of native finger millet was 10.2mg/g which reduced by 50% after sprouting or pressure-cooking, while 12-19% reduction was seen after open-pan boiling. Total flavonoids of the grain reduced drastically on sprouting, pressure-cooking or open-pan boiling. Concentration of phenolic acids generally increased during sprouting and roasting of finger millet. Pressure cooking, open-pan boiling and microwave-heating reduced the bioaccessible polyphenols by 30-35%, while the same was increased by 67% by sprouting. Significant reduction of total polyphenols was observed in pressure-cooked, open-pan boiled and microwave-heated pearl millet. Concentration of sinapic and salicylic acids were highest phenolic acids of pearl millet. Total polyphenols reduced during sprouting and pressure-cooking. There was a 20% increase in the bioaccessible polyphenols after sprouting of pearl millet. Thus, sprouting and roasting provided more bioaccessible phenolics from these two common millets studied. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Excipient Nanoemulsions for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Salvia-Trujillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral bioavailability of many hydrophobic bioactive compounds found in natural food products (such as vitamins and nutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables is relatively low due to their low bioaccessibility, chemical instability, or poor absorption. Most previous research has therefore focused on the design of delivery systems to incorporate isolated bioactive compounds into food products. However, a more sustainable and cost-effect approach to enhancing the functionality of bioactive compounds is to leave them within their natural environment, but specifically design excipient foods that enhance their bioavailability. Excipient foods typically do not have functionality themselves but they have the capacity to enhance the functionality of nutrients present in natural foods by altering their bioaccessibility, absorption, and/or chemical transformation. In this review article we present the use of excipient nanoemulsions for increasing the bioavailability of bioactive components from fruits and vegetables. Nanoemulsions present several advantages over other food systems for this application, such as the ability to incorporate hydrophilic, amphiphilic, and lipophilic excipient ingredients, high physical stability, and rapid gastrointestinal digestibility. The design, fabrication, and application of nanoemulsions as excipient foods will therefore be described in this article.

  4. The Solid Phase Distribution and Bioaccessibility of Arsenic, Chromium, and Nickel in Natural Ironstone Soils in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wragg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty soil samples (12 residential gardens and 18 allotments were collected from the Cherwell District of north Oxfordshire in south-central England. The underlying parent geology of the area is dominated by Jurassic ironstone. The samples were analysed for their total contents of As, Cr, and Ni by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and for the bioaccessible fractions of these elements using a physiologically based extraction test. Four soils (two residential soils and two allotment soils were chosen for further determination of their element solid phase distribution. The study showed that whilst total concentrations of As, Cr, and Ni are elevated due to the soil parent material, the bioaccessibility test showed that only a small proportion of the total concentration is available for absorption into the human body (<15%. The sequential extraction test showed that the nonmobile forms of the elements are strongly sorbed on to iron oxides. Parent material geology has a significant effect on the total element concentrations and the bioaccessibility of potentially harmful element (PHE. Land use does not show such a large effect but the allotment bioaccessibility data show a bigger spread and possibly higher values for As and Cr which may be due to agronomic (cultivation practices such as addition of fertilisers and organic matter.

  5. Health impact of bioaccessible metal in lip cosmetics to female college students and career women, northeast of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Sa; Zhang, Zhaohan; Meng, Ping; Lin, Nan; Lu, Binyu; Cui, Fuyi; Feng, Yujie; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-01-01

    Actual measure-based studies have estimated ingestion rate of moderate and high daily use to female college students and career women in northeast of China. Sequential extraction analyses showed that total bioaccessible metals concentration in lipstick ranged from 2.103 to 31.103 μg/g and in lip balm ranged from 0.100 to 3.716 μg/g. The relationship between total bioaccessible metal concentrations and the cost of lip cosmetics showed a negative correlation. Lead was detected in all 30 products (100%), with an average concentration of 0.346 for lip balm and 0.407 μg/g for lipstick. With the exception of chromium content in three lipsticks, the estimated exposure in female college students and career women to target metals via lipstick and lip balm ingestion (calculated for moderate and high use) were much lower than the acceptable reference limits. The findings strongly emphasize the need to focus on the health risk of lip balm. - Highlights: • Lip cosmetics are one of non-dietary exposure source for metals. • Binding force of trace metals was possibly weaker in lip balm, not lipstick. • Bioaccessible metal intakes from lip cosmetics are below reference dose values. - Bioaccessible Metal in Lip Cosmetics and Exposure Assessment

  6. Influence of Organic Matter - Mineral Interfacial Reactions on Metal(loid) Speciation and Bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorover, J.; Kong, S.; Root, R. A.; Thomas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaccessibility of contaminant metals in geomedia is often measured on the basis of kinetic release to solution during in vitro reaction with biofluid simulants. We postulate that development of a predictive-mechanistic understanding of bioaccessibility requires knowledge of metal(loid) molecular speciation upon sample introduction, as well as its change over the course of the in vitro reaction. Our results - including data from batch, column, mesocosm and field studies pertaining to arsenic, lead, and zinc contaminated materials - indicate the strong influence of organic matter and associated biological activity on metal(loid) speciation in mine tailings and related model systems. Furthermore, presence/absence of organic matter during bioassays affects the kinetics of metal(loid) release into biofluid simulants through multiple mechanisms.

  7. Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribnicky, David M; Roopchand, Diana E; Oren, Andrew; Grace, Mary; Poulev, Alexander; Lila, Mary Ann; Havenaar, Robert; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    The TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract was used to compare intestinal absorption/bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins under different digestive conditions. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract was delivered to TIM-1 in the absence or presence of a high-fat meal. HPLC analysis of seventeen anthocyanins showed that delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible in fed state, whilst delphinidin-3-(6″-acetoyl)-glucoside and malvidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible under fasted conditions, suggesting lipid-rich matrices selectively effect anthocyanin bioaccessibility. TIM-1 was fed blueberry juice (BBJ) or blueberry polyphenol-enriched defatted soybean flour (BB-DSF) containing equivalent amounts of free or DSF-sorbed anthocyanins, respectively. Anthocyanin bioaccessibility from BB-DSF (36.0±10.4) was numerically, but not significantly, greater than that from BBJ (26.3±10.3). Ileal efflux samples collected after digestion of BB-DSF contained 2.8-fold more anthocyanins than same from BBJ, suggesting that protein-rich DSF protects anthocyanins during transit through upper digestive tract for subsequent colonic delivery/metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of cooking and delivery modes of thymol and carvacrol on retention and bioaccessibility in starchy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, Gabriela; García, Olga; Muñoz, Ociel; Pérez-Correa, José R; Parada, Javier

    2016-04-01

    Oregano and thyme possess beneficial properties for human health, mainly attributable to monoterpenes such as thymol and carvacrol. The main objective of this research was to assess, on starchy food, the impact of cooking (boiling and baking) and delivery (ground leaves and essential oil) modes on retention and bioaccessibility of thymol and carvacrol. Retention was assessed after cooking, while bioaccessibility was estimated in cooked samples using an in vitro digestion model. Our results indicate that bioaccessibility was weakly dependent on cooking and delivery modes (27-33%). Boil cooking presented 20% more retention than baking for both compounds. When essential oil was added to the food matrix, thymol was retained almost 25% more when compared with ground leaves' addition. Conversely, carvacrol was retained 39% more when ground leaves were added. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-13

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  10. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Dall’Asta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  11. Comparison of a static and a dynamic in vitro model to estimate the bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Pb and Hg from food reference materials Fucus sp. (IAEA-140/TM) and Lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Escribano, Silvia [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Denis, Sylvain; Blanquet-Diot, Stephanie [Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Auvergne, ERT 18, Conception ingenierie et developpement de l' aliment et du medicament, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Calatayud, Marta [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Barrios, Laura [Departamento de Informatica Cientifica (SGAI-CSIC), C/ Pinar 19, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velez, Dinoraz, E-mail: deni@iata.csic.es [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Alric, Monique [Clermont Universite, Universite d' Auvergne, Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Auvergne, ERT 18, Conception ingenierie et developpement de l' aliment et du medicament, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Montoro, Rosa [Instituto de Agroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos (IATA-CSIC), Apdo. 73, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccessibility, the fraction of an element solubilized during gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption, is a factor that should be considered when evaluating the health risk of contaminants from food. Static and dynamic models that mimic human physiological conditions have been used to evaluate bioaccessibility. This preliminary study compares the bioaccessibility of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in two food certified reference materials (CRMs) (seaweed: Fucus sp., IAEA-140/TM; Lobster hepatopancreas: TORT-2), using two in vitro gastrointestinal digestion methods: a static method (SM) and a dynamic multicompartment method (TIM-1). There are significant differences (p < 0.05) between the bioaccessible values of As, Cd, Pb and Hg obtained by SM and TIM-1 in the two CRMs. The specific form in which the elements studied are present in the CRM may help to explain the bioaccessibility values obtained. - Research Highlights: {yields}Data are reported for As, Cd, Pb and Hg bioaccessibility from food CRMs. {yields}The static and TIM-1 methods give significantly different bioaccessibility values. {yields}The possible influence of speciation on bioaccessibility is discussed. {yields}To improve bioaccessibility quality data, food reference materials are needed.

  12. Comparison of a static and a dynamic in vitro model to estimate the bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Pb and Hg from food reference materials Fucus sp. (IAEA-140/TM) and Lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Escribano, Silvia; Denis, Sylvain; Blanquet-Diot, Stephanie; Calatayud, Marta; Barrios, Laura; Velez, Dinoraz; Alric, Monique; Montoro, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Bioaccessibility, the fraction of an element solubilized during gastrointestinal digestion and available for absorption, is a factor that should be considered when evaluating the health risk of contaminants from food. Static and dynamic models that mimic human physiological conditions have been used to evaluate bioaccessibility. This preliminary study compares the bioaccessibility of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in two food certified reference materials (CRMs) (seaweed: Fucus sp., IAEA-140/TM; Lobster hepatopancreas: TORT-2), using two in vitro gastrointestinal digestion methods: a static method (SM) and a dynamic multicompartment method (TIM-1). There are significant differences (p < 0.05) between the bioaccessible values of As, Cd, Pb and Hg obtained by SM and TIM-1 in the two CRMs. The specific form in which the elements studied are present in the CRM may help to explain the bioaccessibility values obtained. - Research Highlights: →Data are reported for As, Cd, Pb and Hg bioaccessibility from food CRMs. →The static and TIM-1 methods give significantly different bioaccessibility values. →The possible influence of speciation on bioaccessibility is discussed. →To improve bioaccessibility quality data, food reference materials are needed.

  13. Bioaccessibility of Fukushima-Accident-Derived Cs in Soils and the Contribution of Soil Ingestion to Radiation Doses in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Shogo; Ikegami, Maiko; Yoneda, Minoru; Kondo, Hitoshi; Ishizaki, Azusa; Iijima, Masashi; Shimada, Yoko; Matsui, Yasuto

    2017-07-01

    Ingestion of contaminated soil is one potential internal exposure pathway in areas contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Doses from this pathway can be overestimated if the availability of radioactive nuclides in soils for the gastrointestinal tract is not considered. The concept of bioaccessibility has been adopted to evaluate this availability based on in vitro tests. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of radioactive cesium from soils via the physiologically-based extraction test (PBET) and the extractability of those via an extraction test with 1 mol/L of hydrochloric acid (HCl). The bioaccessibility obtained in the PBET was 5.3% ± 1%, and the extractability in the tests with HCl was 16% ± 3%. The bioaccessibility was strongly correlated with the extractability. This result indicates the possibility that the extractability in HCl can be used as a good predictor of the bioaccessibility with PBET. In addition, we assessed the doses to children from the ingestion of soil via hand-to-mouth activity based on our PBET results using a probabilistic approach considering the spatial distribution of radioactive cesium in Date City in Fukushima Prefecture and the interindividual differences in the surveyed amounts of soil ingestion in Japan. The results of this assessment indicate that even if children were to routinely ingest a large amount of soil with relatively high contamination, the radiation doses from this pathway are negligible compared with doses from external exposure owing to deposited radionuclides in Fukushima Prefecture. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J.; Cullen, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested

  15. Importance of chemical binding type between As and iron-oxide on bioaccessibility in soil: Test with synthesized two line ferrihydrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seulki [Seoul Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, 6-7, Inchon-ro 22-gil, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02855 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Kyung [Division of Public Infrastructure Assessment, Environmental Assessment Group, Korea Environmental Institute, Sejong 30147 (Korea, Republic of); Jho, Eun Hea [Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, 81 Oedae-ro, Mohyeonmyeon, Cheoin-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17035 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kyoungphile, E-mail: kpnam@snu.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro 1, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Arsenic (As)-adsorbed and As-coprecipiated two-line ferrihydrites were synthesized. • Bioaccessibility was closely related to chemical binding type of As in Fe oxide. • Chemical binding type needs to be considered to characterize the risk of As in soil. - Abstract: Bioaccessible concentrations of As associated with Fe oxide as different chemical binding types were determined in soils using the in vitro Physiologically Based Extraction Test (PBET). When compared to the five-step sequential extraction data, most of the As extracted by in vitro PBET originated from the amorphous Fe oxide-bound fraction, and more importantly, the bioaccessibility of As ranged from 0 to 58.8% in 24 soil samples. Two batches of ferrihydrite were synthesized separately. For one batch, As was adsorbed onto the ferrihydrite after synthesis; for the other one, As was added while synthesizing ferrihydrite to co-precipitate. The bioaccessible concentration of As determined by in vitro PBET of the former was 415 mg of As/kg of ferrihydrite and that of the latter was 67 mg of As/kg of ferrihydrite. X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) analysis indicated that As–O–Fe bonds were evident in As-associated ferrihydrite sample and especially, As was found within the Fe oxide lattice in the co-precipitated sample. Our data suggest that binding type between As and Fe oxide should be considered when determining the bioaccessibility of As in soil, which, in turn, greatly influences the realistic risk of As present in soil.

  16. Toxic metals in children's toys and jewelry: coupling bioaccessibility with risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin-Yi; Li, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Fan, Ying-Ying; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-05-01

    A total of 45 children's toys and jewelry were tested for total and bioaccessible metal concentrations. Total As, Cd, Sb, Cr, Ni, and Pb concentrations were 0.22-19, 0.01-139, 0.1-189, 0.06-846, 0.14-2894 and 0.08-860,000 mg kg(-1). Metallic products had the highest concentrations, with 3-7 out of 13 samples exceeding the European Union safety limit for Cd, Pb, Cr, or Ni. However, assessment based on hazard index >1 and bioaccessible metal showed different trends. Under saliva mobilization or gastric ingestion, 11 out of 45 samples showed HI >1 for As, Cd, Sb, Cr, or Ni. Pb with the highest total concentration showed HI toys and jewelry, and besides Pb and Cd, As, Ni, Cr, and Sb in children's products also deserve attention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Lycopene bioaccessibility and starch digestibility for extruded snacks enriched with tomato derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Shoar, Zeinab; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Hardacre, Allan K; Reynolds, Gordon W; Brennan, Charles S

    2011-11-23

    To improve the nutritional value of energy-dense extruded snacks, corn grits were replaced with tomato paste and/or tomato skin powder at ratios of 5, 10, and 20% and extruded to make expanded snack foodlike products. Using a model digestion system, lycopene bioaccessibility and uptake from the snacks into Caco-2 cells were determined. The digestibility of the starch, the main nutrient component of the snacks, was also investigated. While extrusion cooking reduced the lycopene content of the snacks, the proportion of bioaccessible lycopene increased. Lycopene uptake by the Caco-2 cells from the extruded snacks exceeded that of the control in which the lycopene was not extruded, by 5% (p snacks varied depending on the type of tomato derivative and its concentration. Optimization of the extrusion cooking process and the ingredients can yield functional extruded snack products that contain bioavailable lycopene.

  18. In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioaccessibility of copper azole following simulated dermal transfer from pressure-treated wood. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  19. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kweku Amagloh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05 and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001, and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein. Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05 iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001. This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana, the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A.

  20. Enhancing Nutraceutical Bioavailability from Raw and Cooked Vegetables Using Excipient Emulsions: Influence of Lipid Type on Carotenoid Bioaccessibility from Carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruojie; Zhang, Zipei; Zou, Liqiang; Xiao, Hang; Zhang, Guodong; Decker, Eric Andrew; McClements, David Julian

    2015-12-09

    The influence of the nature of the lipid phase in excipient emulsions on the bioaccessibility and transformation of carotenoid from carrots was investigated using a gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model. Excipient emulsions were fabricated using whey protein as an emulsifier and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), fish oil, or corn oil as the oil phase. Changes in particle size, charge, and microstructure were measured as the carrot-emulsion mixtures were passed through simulated mouth, stomach, and small intestine regions. Carotenoid bioaccessibility depended on the type of lipids used to form the excipient emulsions (corn oil > fish oil ≫ MCT), which was attributed to differences in the solubilization capacity of mixed micelles formed from different lipid digestion products. The transformation of carotenoids was greater for fish oil and corn oil than for MCT, which may have been due to greater oxidation or isomerization. The bioaccessibility of the carotenoids was higher from boiled than raw carrots, which was attributed to greater disruption of the plant tissue facilitating carotenoid release. In conclusion, excipient emulsions are highly effective at increasing carotenoid bioaccessibility from carrots, but lipid type must be optimized to ensure high efficacy.

  1. In vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids from persimmon (Diospyros kaki, cv. Rojo Brillante) used as an ingredient in a model dairy food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cayuela, Tomás; Nuño-Escobar, Beatriz; Welti-Chanes, Jorge; Cano, M Pilar

    2017-12-11

    Addition of persimmon fruit, which is highly rich in carotenoids, to dairy products represents an alternative to obtain functional foods. However, carotenoid bioaccessibility is strongly influenced by fat content and food composition. That is why in vitro bioaccessibility of individual carotenoids was evaluated in persimmon-based dairy products formulated with whole (3.6% fat) or skimmed milk (0.25% fat) and different freeze-dried persimmon tissues. Unambiguous identification of seven xanthophylls (neoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, lutein epoxide and β-cryptoxanthin) and three hydrocarbon carotenes (α-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene) was achieved using high-performance liquid chromatography with a reverse-phase C-30 column. Total carotenoid content declined up 71% through the digestion process. In vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids was significantly higher in dairy products formulated with whole milk than those with skimmed milk, representing a difference of more than 21% (in the formulation using persimmon whole fruit as ingredient). Furthermore, addition of whole milk to any type of persimmon tissue significantly improved the bioaccessibility of total provitamin A carotenoids, reaching the highest values (38%) with whole fruit and whole milk. The higher fat content in whole milk exerted a significant influence on carotenoid bioaccessibility, especially when using freeze-dried persimmon whole fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Influence of pollution control on lead inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5: A case study of 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Wei; Li, Hong-Bo; Luo, Jun; Li, Hui-Ming; Qian, Xin; Liu, Miao-Miao; Bi, Jun; Cui, Xin-Yi; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-09-01

    Pollution controls were implemented to improve the air quality for the 2014 Youth Olympic Games (YOG) in Nanjing. To investigate the influence of pollution control on Pb inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5, samples were collected before, during, and after YOG. The objectives were to identify Pb sources in PM2.5 using stable isotope fingerprinting technique and compare Pb inhalation bioaccessibility in PM2.5 using two simulated lung fluids. While artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) simulates interstitial fluid at pH 7.4, Gamble's solution simulates fluid in alveolar macrophages at pH 4.5. The Pb concentration in PM2.5 samples during YOG (88.2ngm(-3)) was 44-48% lower than that in non-YOG samples. Based on stable Pb isotope ratios, Pb in YOG samples was mainly from coal combustion while Pb in non-YOG samples was from coal combustion and smelting activities. While Pb bioaccessibility in YOG samples was lower than those in non-YOG samples (59-79% vs. 55-87%) by ALF, it was higher than those in non-YOG samples (11-29% vs. 5.3-21%) based on Gamble's solution, attributing to the lower pH and organic acids in ALF. Different Pb bioaccessibility in PM2.5 between samples resulted from changes in Pb species due to pollution control. PbSO4 was the main Pb species in PM2.5 from coal combustion, which was less soluble in ALF than PbO from smelting activities, but more soluble in Gamble's solution. This study showed it is important to consider Pb bioaccessibility during pollution control as source control not only reduced Pb contamination in PM2.5 but also influenced Pb bioaccessibility. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Metal availability and bio-accessibility in water-logged soils: in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florido, M. C.; Madrid, F.; Madrid, L.; Ajmone-Marsan, F.

    2010-05-01

    Reducing conditions of submerged soils were simulated in vitro by keeping various soil samples for various times of reaction (between 1 and 15 days) in sealed flasks and N2 atmosphere under an aqueous solution, 0.01 M CaCl2 containing 1 g/l glucose. Surface samples of soils from urban green areas of Ljubljana (LJU), Torino (TOR) and Sevilla, were chosen. In the latter case, two samples of the same soil were included, before (SE-0) and after (SE-8) receiving a composted biosolid (two yearly doses of 80000 kg/ha) obtained from sewage sludge, often used as amendment by the Parks & Gardens Service of the local Government. A fifth soil (QUE) was chosen from the area affected by an accident where 2 million m3 of metal-rich mine tailings were spilled over the Guadiamar river (SW Spain) and its riparian areas. This highly polluted soil was included for comparison. Values of Eh, pH and several metal concentrations were determined in the solution after each time, and metal availability and bio-accessibility were estimated in the soils after treatment. The metals studied were Fe, Mn and some of those called 'urban' metals, namely Cu, Pb and Zn. The solution pH for LJU, TOR and SE-0 was slightly acidified in the first days and increased steadily afterwards. In contrast, QUE and SE-8 show pH increases from the beginning and a constant pH after 4-8 days. This agrees with the expected H+ consumption during reduction. Most soils show strong initial Eh decreases, subsequent slower increases up to 5-8 days and slow decreases afterwards. Solution Fe and Mn showed significant increases throughout the experiment, and Pb showed slight increases only up to 4 days. In contrast, other metals showed non-significant changes, and very low amounts were dissolved during the treatment. However, the amounts of available and, especially, bio-accessible urban metals in the solid phases were significantly increased by the treatment. Such increases may cause a greater leaching of metals to the water

  4. Bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb in toys and low-cost jewelry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-01-21

    Children can be exposed to toxic elements in toys and jewelry following ingestion. As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Sb bioavailability was assessed (n = 24) via the in vitro gastrointestinal protocol (IVG), the physiologically based extraction test (PBET), and the European Toy Safety Standard protocol (EN 71-3), and health risks were characterized. Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were mobilized from 19 metallic toys and jewelry (MJ) and one crayon set. Bioaccessible Cd, Ni, or Pb exceeded EU migratable concentration limits in four to six MJ, depending on the protocol. Using two-phase (gastric + intestinal) IVG or PBET might be preferable over EN 71-3 since they better represent gastrointestinal physiology. Bioaccessible and total metal concentrations were different and not always correlated, indicating that bioaccessibility measurement may provide more accurate risk characterization. More information on impacts of multiple factors affecting metals mobilization from toys and jewelry is needed before recommending specific tests. Hazard index (HI) for Cd, Ni, or Pb were >1 for all six MJ exceeding the EU limits. For infants (6-12 mo old), 10 MJ had HI > 1 for Cd, Cu, Ni, or Pb (up to 75 for Cd and 43 for Pb). Research on prolonged exposure to MJ and comprehensive risk characterization for toys and jewelry exposure is recommended.

  5. Comparison of Two Static in Vitro Digestion Methods for Screening the Bioaccessibility of Carotenoids in Fruits, Vegetables, and Animal Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Daniele B; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Mariutti, Lilian R B; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Failla, Mark L

    2017-12-27

    In vitro digestion methods are routinely used to assess the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and other dietary lipophilic compounds. Here, we compared the recovery of carotenoids and their efficiency of micellarization in digested fruits, vegetables, egg yolk, and salmon and also in mixed-vegetable salads with and without either egg yolk or salmon using the static INFOGEST method22 and the procedure of Failla et al.16 Carotenoid stability during the simulated digestion was ≥70%. The efficiencies of the partitioning of carotenoids into mixed micelles were similar when individual plant foods and salad meals were digested using the two static methods. Furthermore, the addition of cooked egg or salmon to vegetable salads increased the bioaccessibility of some carotenoids. Our findings showed that the two methods of in vitro digestion generated similar estimates of carotenoid retention and bioaccessibility for diverse foods.

  6. Saponins from soy and chickpea: stability during beadmaking and in vitro bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the stability of saponins during the making and simulated digestion of soy and soy-chickpea breads and the bioaccessibility of saponins in digested breads. Recovery of saponins in soy bread exceeded that in soy-chickpea breads, and recovery of type A and B saponins was great...

  7. Bioaccessibility of calcium, iron and magnesium in residues of citrus and characterization of macronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joyce Grazielle Siqueira; Rebellato, Ana Paula; Greiner, Ralf; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate bioaccessibility of Ca, Fe and Mg in residues of orange, lime, and their mixture, in order to evaluate the effects of cooking in water on mineral bioaccessibility and also to determine the composition of macronutrients and myo-inositol phosphate content. The citrus samples contained on average 9.53g/100 g moisture, 6.09g/100 g protein, 3.23g/100g ash, 3.15g/100g lipids, 34.26g/100g insoluble fiber, 27.88g/100g soluble fiber and 25.64g/100g carbohydrates. The percentage of soluble and dialyzable minerals ranged from 19.36 to 77.33% and from 5.59 to 69.06% for Fe, from 33.34 to 60.84% and 14.71 to -26.13% for Ca, and from 29.95 to 94.20% and 34.42 to 62.51%, for Mg, respectively. It was verified that cooking influenced the minerals bioaccessibility and increased the dialyzable fraction of Fe and Mg, but decreased the fraction of Ca dialysate, except to orange. No myoinositol phosphate esters were detected. The Principal Component Analysis allowed the separation of different types of citrus residues, but did not discriminate the raw and cooked samples. This study pointed the potential of citrus residue to be used for human consumption and contribute to the necessary dietary minerals and macronutrients, with high content of soluble and insoluble fibers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of the Bioavailability of Waste Laden Soils Using ''In Vivo'' ''In Vitro'' Analytical Methodology and Bioaccessibility of Radionuclides for Refinement of Exposure/Dose Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. J. Lioy; M. Gallo; P. Georgopoulos; R. Tate; B. Buckley

    1999-09-15

    The bioavailability of soil contaminants can be measured using in vitro or in vivo techniques. Since there was no standard method for intercomparison among laboratories, we compared two techniques for bioavailability estimation: in vitro dissolution and in vivo rat feeding model for a NIST-traceable soil material. Bioaccessibility was measured using a sequential soil extraction in synthetic analogues of human saliva, gastric and intestinal fluids. Bioavailability was measured in Sprague Dawley rats by determining metal levels in the major organs and urine, feces, and blood. Bioaccessibility was found to be a good indicator of relative metal bioavailability. Results are presented from bioaccessible experiments with Cesium in contaminated DOE soils, and total alpha and beta bioaccessibility. The results indicate that the modified methodology for bioaccessibility can be used for specific radionuclide analysis.

  9. Food Matrix Effects of Polyphenol Bioaccessibility from Almond Skin during Simulated Human Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Vardakou, Maria; Faulks, Richard; Bisignano, Carlo; Martorana, Maria; Smeriglio, Antonella; Trombetta, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from natural (NS) and blanched (BS) almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT) or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB), crisp-bread (CB) and full-fat milk (FM). Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68.5% release from NS and 64.7% from BS). WT increased the release of flavan-3-ols (p digestion, whereas CB and HB were better vehicles for BS. FM lowered the % recovery of polyphenols, the free total phenols and the antioxidant status in the digestion medium, indicating that phenolic compounds could bind protein present in the food matrix. The release of bioactives from almond skins could explain the beneficial effects associated with almond consumption. PMID:27649239

  10. Bioaccessibility and risk assessment of essential and non-essential elements in vegetables commonly consumed in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnisi, Robert Londi; Ndibewu, Peter P; Mafu, Lihle D; Bwembya, Gabriel C

    2017-10-01

    The green leafy vegetables (Mormodica involucrate, Bidens pilosa and Amaranthus spinosus) are economic; seasonal; locally grown and easily available; easy to propagate and store; highly nutritious food substances that form an important component of diets. This study applies a physiology based extraction technique (PBET) to mimic digestion of these vegetables to determine the fraction of essential (Fe and Zn) and non-essential elements (Cd, Cr and Pb) that are made available for absorption after ingestion. Prior to the application of the PBET, the vegetables were cooked adopting indigenous Swazi cooking methods. Cooking mobilized most of the metals out of the vegetable mass, and the final substrate concentrations are: raw > cooked > supernatant for all the metals, and the order of average metal leaching was: Pb (82.2%) >Cr (70.6%) >Zn (67.5%) >Fe (60.2%) >Cd (53.6%). This meant that the bioavailable concentrations are significantly lower than in the original vegetable mass, if only the solid mass is consumed. Bioaccessibility was higher in the gastric tract than in the intestinal phases of the PBET for all the metals in all the vegetables. Risk assessment protocols employed on the non-essential elements (Cr, Cd and Pb) showed that the associated risks of ingesting metal contaminated vegetables are higher for children, than they are for adults, based on the target hazard quotient (THQ) index. However, the overall health risk associated with ingestion of these metals is low, for both children and adults, based on the HR index. Conclusively, this study expounds on the nutritional and risk benefits associated with ingesting naturally grown vegetables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of curcuminoid bioaccessibility from turmeric by a nanostructured lipid carrier system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Jin; Garcia, Coralia V; Shin, Gye Hwa; Kim, Jun Tae

    2018-06-15

    Turmeric contains curcumin and its analogues, which show anticancer and antiinflammatory effects; however, curcuminoids are lipophilic and are poorly absorbed by the human body. Nanostructured lipid carriers for encapsulating whole turmeric powder were successfully produced by ultrasonication, and their physicochemical properties and stability in simulated gastric and intestinal media were evaluated. The turmeric nanostructured lipid carriers (TNLCs) exhibited a round shape, small diameter (282 ± 7.19 nm), adequate zeta potential (-22.75 ± 1.20 mV), and high encapsulation efficiency (93.3 ± 0.01%). The TNLCs were able to protect the encapsulated curcuminoids under acidic gastric conditions, and effectively released 95 ± 2.51% of the curcuminoids in the simulated intestinal medium, demonstrating their suitability for controlled release. The in vitro bioaccessibility of the encapsulated curcuminoids was 75 ± 1.24%, representing more than a fourfold increase compared to that of free turmeric. Therefore, the proposed TNLCs are a promising delivery system for increasing the bioaccessibility of curcuminoids from turmeric. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterization of a laboratory scale selenomethionine-enriched bread. Selenium bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Caímara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    This study focuses on the preparation at lab scale of selenomethionine-enriched white and wholemeal bread. Selenium was supplemented either by adding selenite directly to the dough or by using lab-made selenium-enriched yeast. The best results were obtained when using fresh selenium-enriched yeast. The optimum incubation time for selenomethionine-enriched yeast preparation, while keeping formation of selenium byproducts to a minimum, was 96 h. Selenium content measured by isotope dilution analysis (IDA)-ICP-MS in Se-white and Se-wholemeal bread was 1.28 ± 0.02 μg g–1 and 1.16 ± 0.02 μg g–1 (expressed as mean ± SE, 3 replicates), respectively. HPLC postcolumn IDA-ICP-MS measurements revealed that selenomethionine was the main Se species found in Se-enriched bread, which accounted for ca. 80% of total selenium. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion assay provided selenium bioaccessibility values of 100 ± 3% and 40 ± 1% for white and wholemeal Se-enriched bread, respectively, being selenomethionine the main bioaccessible Se species in white bread, while in wholemeal bread this compound was undetectable.

  13. Bioprocessing of wheat bran improves in vitro bioaccessibility and colonic metabolism of phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.; Selinheimo, E.; Havenaar, R.; Aura, A.-M.; Mattila, I.; Lehtinen, P.; Bast, A.; Poutanen, K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) is the most abundant phenolic compound in wheat grain, mainly located in the bran. However, its bioaccessibility from the bran matrix is extremely low. Different bioprocessing techniques involving fermentation or enzymatic and fermentation treatments of wheat bran were developed

  14. Development of a simulated earthworm gut for determining bioaccessible arsenic, copper, and zinc from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wai K; Smith, Ben A; Stephenson, Gladys L; Siciliano, Steven D

    2009-07-01

    Soil physicochemical characteristics and contamination levels alter the bioavailability of metals to terrestrial invertebrates. Current laboratory-derived benchmark concentrations used to estimate risk do not take into account site-specific conditions, such as contaminant sequestration, and site-specific risk assessment requires a battery of time-consuming and costly toxicity tests. The development of an in vitro simulator for earthworm bioaccessibility would significantly shorten analytical time and enable site managers to focus on areas of greatest concern. The simulated earthworm gut (SEG) was developed to measure the bioaccessibility of metals in soil to earthworms by mimicking the gastrointestinal fluid composition of earthworms. Three formulations of the SEG (enzymes, microbial culture, enzymes and microbial culture) were developed and used to digest field soils from a former industrial site with varying physicochemical characteristics and contamination levels. Formulations containing enzymes released between two to 10 times more arsenic, copper, and zinc from contaminated soils compared with control and 0.01 M CaCl2 extractions. Metal concentrations in extracts from SEG formulation with microbial culture alone were not different from values for chemical extractions. The mechanism for greater bioaccessible metal concentrations from enzyme-treated soils is uncertain, but it is postulated that enzymatic digestion of soil organic matter might release sequestered metal. The relevance of these SEG results will need validation through further comparison and correlation with bioaccumulation tests, alternative chemical extraction tests, and a battery of chronic toxicity tests with invertebrates and plants.

  15. A water-leach procedure for estimating bioaccessibility of elements in soils from transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robert G.; Hall, G.E.M.; Vaive, J.E.; Pelchat, P.

    2009-01-01

    An objective of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project is to provide relevant data concerning bioaccessible concentrations of elements in soil to government and other institutions undertaking environmental studies. A protocol was developed that employs a 1-g soil sample agitated overnight with 40 mL of reverse-osmosis de-ionized water for 20 h, and determination of 63 elements following three steps of centrifugation by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry the following day. Statistical summaries are presented for those 48 elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, Zr, and pH) for which Ca, Cu, and Pb) along the two transects is discussed in this paper both as absolute amounts liberated by the leach and expressed as a percentage of the total, or near-total, amounts determined for the elements. The Ca data reflect broad trends in soil parent materials, their weathering, and subsequent soil development. Calcium concentrations are generally found to be lower in the older soils of the eastern USA. The Cu data are higher in the eastern half of the USA, correlating with soil organic C, with which it is sequestered. The Pb data exhibit little regional variability due to natural sources, but are influenced by anthropogenic sources. Based on the Pb results, the percentage water-extractable data demonstrate promise as a tool for identifying anthropogenic components. The soil–water partition (distribution) coefficients, Kds (L/kg), were determined and their relevance to estimating bioaccessible amounts of elements to soil fauna and flora is discussed. Finally, a possible link between W concentrations in human urine and water-extractable W levels in Nevada soils is discussed.

  16. Culinary practices mimicking a polysaccharide-rich recipe enhance the bioaccessibility of fat-soluble micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie; Servent, Adrien; Descalzo, Adriana; Mouquet-Rivier, Claire; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Achir, Nawel

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to assess the impact of heat processing of a complex emulsion on the behavior of fat soluble micronutrients (FSM) in a traditional Tunisian dish. A simplified recipe involved, dried mucilage-rich jute leaves, tomato paste and olive oil, followed by a cooking treatment (150min). Hydrothermal pattern and viscosity were monitored along with the changes of FSM content and the bioaccessibility (called micellarization, using an in vitro digestion model). Partitioning of carotenoids differed according to their lipophilicity: lycopene, β-carotene and lutein diffused to the oil phase (100%, 70% and 10% respectively). In contrast with the poor carotenes/tocopherol bioaccessibility (0.9-1%), the highest micellarization was observed for lutein (57%) and it increased with heating time and viscosity change. Domestic culinary cooking practices probably increase the bioavailability of carotenes mainly by their diffusion to the oil phase, facilitating their in vivo transfer into micelles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of Organogel-Derived Capsaicin Nanoemulsion with Improved Bioaccessibility and Reduced Gastric Mucosa Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Muwen; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-06-15

    Capsaicin (CAP) is the major active component in chili peppers with health-promoting benefits. However, the low bioavailability and irritating quality of CAP greatly limit its applications in functional foods. The objective of this study was to develop a food-grade nanoemulsion to increase the dissolution and bioaccessibility of CAP and to alleviate its irritating effects. To achieve this goal, CAP was first dissolved in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT), followed by the addition of sucrose stearate S-370 as organogelator to develop CAP-loaded organogel. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion was formed using organogel as the oil phase and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. After ultrasonication treatment, droplet sizes of emulsion were decreased to 168 nm with enhanced dissolution rate and bioaccessibility. In vivo study further confirmed the reduced rat gastric mucosa irritation caused by CAP. The organogel-derived nanoemulsion was proved to be an effective delivery system for CAP-based functional food products.

  18. Bioaccessible Antioxidants in Milk Fermented by Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Mérilie; Savard, Patricia; Rivière, Audrey; LaPointe, Gisèle

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum is among the dominant species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and could thus have potential as probiotics. New targets such as antioxidant properties have interest for beneficial effects on health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of antioxidants in milk fermented by selected B. longum subsp. longum strains during in vitro dynamic digestion. The antioxidant capacity of cell extracts from 38 strains, of which 32 belong to B. longum subsp. longum, was evaluated with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) method. On the basis of screening and gene sequence typing by multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA), five strains were chosen for fermenting reconstituted skim milk. Antioxidant capacity varied among the strains tested (P = 0.0009). Two strains of B. longum subsp. longum (CUETM 172 and 171) showed significantly higher ORAC values than the other bifidobacteria strains. However, there does not appear to be a relationship between gene sequence types and antioxidant capacity. The milk fermented by each of the five strains selected (CUETM 268, 172, 245, 247, or PRO 16-10) did not have higher initial ORAC values compared to the nonfermented milk samples. However, higher bioaccessibility of antioxidants in fermented milk (175–358%) was observed during digestion. PMID:25802836

  19. Food Matrix Effects of Polyphenol Bioaccessibility from Almond Skin during Simulated Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mandalari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT from natural (NS and blanched (BS almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB, crisp-bread (CB and full-fat milk (FM. Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68.5% release from NS and 64.7% from BS. WT increased the release of flavan-3-ols (p < 0.05 and flavonols (p < 0.05 from NS after gastric plus duodenal digestion, whereas CB and HB were better vehicles for BS. FM lowered the % recovery of polyphenols, the free total phenols and the antioxidant status in the digestion medium, indicating that phenolic compounds could bind protein present in the food matrix. The release of bioactives from almond skins could explain the beneficial effects associated with almond consumption.

  20. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein is greater from human milk than from infant formula despite similar bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Banavara, Dattatreya; Shah, Bhavini; Morrow, Ardythe L; McMahon, Robert J; Jouni, Zeina E; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2014-10-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that the bioavailability of lutein is lower from infant formula than from human milk. The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics of human milk and lutein-fortified infant formula that may impact carotenoid delivery. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and intestinal absorption were modeled by in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2 human intestinal cell culture. Twelve human milk samples were assessed from 1-6 months postpartum, and 10 lutein-fortified infant formula samples from three lutein sources in both ready-to-use and reconstituted powder forms. The relative bioaccessibility of lutein was not different (p > 0.05) between human milk (29 ± 2%) and infant formula (36 ± 4%). However, lutein delivery was 4.5 times greater from human milk than infant formula when including Caco-2 accumulation efficiency. Caco-2 accumulation of lutein was increasingly efficient with decreasing concentration of lutein from milk. Carotenoid bioaccessibility and Caco-2 accumulation were not affected by lactation stage, total lipid content, lutein source, or form of infant formula (powder vs. liquid). These data suggest that the bioavailability of carotenoids is greater from human milk than infant formula primarily due to intestinal absorptive processes, and that absorption of lutein is potentiated by factors from human milk especially at low lutein concentration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Bioaccessibility of nutrients and micronutrients from dispersed food systems: impact of the multiscale bulk and interfacial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marze, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Many food systems are dispersed systems, that is, they possess at least two immiscible phases. This is generally due to the coexistence of domains with different physicochemical properties separated by many interfaces which control the apparent thermodynamic equilibrium. This feature was and is still largely studied to design pharmaceutical delivery systems. In food science, the recent intensification of in vitro digestion tests to complement the in vivo ones holds promises in the identification of the key parameters controlling the bioaccessibility of nutrients and micronutrients. In this review, we present the developments of in vitro digestion tests for dispersed food systems (mainly emulsions, dispersions and gels). We especially highlight the evidences detailing the roles of the constituting multiscale structures. In a perspective section, we show the potential of structured interfaces to allow controlled bioaccessibility.

  2. Phosphorus Amendment Efficacy for In Situ Remediation of Soil Lead Depends on the Bioaccessible Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A validated method is needed to measure reductions of in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb in urban soil remediated with amendments. This study evaluated the effect of in vitro extraction solution pH and glycine buffer on bioaccesible Pb in P-treated soils. Two Pb-contaminated soils...

  3. Iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum and millets from five locations in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaza, Molly; Shumoy, Habtu; Muchuweti, Maud; Vandamme, Peter; Raes, Katleen

    2018-01-01

    The present study is an evaluation of iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet from five different locations in Zimbabwe. Iron and zinc contents ranged between 3.22 and 49.7 and 1.25-4.39mg/100gdm, respectively. Fermentation caused a reduction of between 20 and 88% of phytic acid (PA) while a general increase in soluble phenolic compounds (PC) and a decrease of the bound (PC) was observed. Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc ranged between 2.77 and 26.1% and 0.45-12.8%, respectively. The contribution of the fermented cereals towards iron and zinc absolute requirements ranged between 25 and 411% and 0.5-23% with higher contribution of iron coming from cereals that were contaminated with extrinsic iron. Populations subsisting on cereals could be more at risk of zinc rather than iron deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute and Cumulative Effects of Unmodified 50-nm Nano-ZnO on Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tao; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Hao, Xue-Qin; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Cai; Yang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Wang, Jie

    2018-01-02

    Nanometer zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) is widely used in diverse industrial and agricultural fields. Due to the extensive contact humans have with these particles, it is crucial to understand the potential effects that nano-ZnO have on human health. Currently, information related to the toxicity and mechanisms of nano-ZnO is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate acute and cumulative toxic effects of 50-nm unmodified ZnO in mice. This investigation will seek to establish median lethal dose (LD50), a cumulative coefficient, and target organs. The acute and cumulative toxicity was investigated by Karber's method and via a dose-increasing method, respectively. During the experiment, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weight, and histopathology were examined. The LD50 was 5177-mg/kg·bw; the 95% confidence limits for the LD50 were 5116-5238-mg/kg·bw. It could be concluded that the liver, kidney, lung, and gastrointestinal tract were target organs for the 50-nm nano-ZnO acute oral treatment. The cumulative coefficient (K) was 1.9 which indicated that the cumulative toxicity was apparent. The results also indicated that the liver, kidney, lung, and pancrea were target organs for 50-nm nano-ZnO cumulative oral exposure and might be target organs for subchronic and chronic toxicity of oral administered 50-nm ZnO.

  5. Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene. The bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated β-carotene based on the results of bioaccessibility and cellular uptake showed the same order with the results of cellular uptake being SCN > TW80 > WPI. An inconsistency between the results of bioaccessibility and bioavailability was observed, indicating that the cellular uptake assay is necessary for a reliable evaluation of the bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated compounds. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding of the correlation between emulsion structure and the digestive fate of emulsion-encapsulated nutrients, which make it possible to achieve controlled or potential targeted delivery of nutrients by designing the structure of emulsion-based carriers.

  6. Impact of Different Types of Activated Carbon on the Bioaccessibility of 14C-phenanthrene in Sterile and Non-Sterile Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodeji Oyelami

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the impact of three different types of activated carbon (AC on the bioaccessibility of 14C-phenanthrene in non-sterile and sterile soils was investigated. A single dose (1% of each of the different AC (CB4, CP1 and AQ5000 was blended with soil spiked with 50 mg·kg−1 of 12C/14C-phenanthrene. The mineralisation of the 14C-phenanthrene was monitored over a 14 day incubation period by indigenous soil microflora and an enriched inoculum of Pseudomonas sp., while uptake in earthworms, Eisenia fetida, was measured after incubation for 10 days at 1, 25, 50 and 100 d. Bioaccessibility was assessed using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD solution. Results showed that the presence of AC had a significant effect upon the extents of mineralisation, earthworm uptake and HPCD extraction, when compared to the control. Aquasorb CB4 was the least effective amongst the different AC used. The characteristics of the different AC used was also seen to have a major influence on how each AC would have an effect on its use in soil remediation in reducing bioaccessibility, mobility and risk.

  7. Effect of mastication on lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Myriam M L; Grassby, Terri; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Waldron, Keith W; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah E E; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The particle size and structure of masticated almonds have a significant impact on nutrient release (bioaccessibility) and digestion kinetics. The goals of this study were to quantify the effects of mastication on the bioaccessibility of intracellular lipid of almond tissue and examine microstructural characteristics of masticated almonds. In a randomized, subject-blind, crossover trial, 17 healthy subjects chewed natural almonds (NAs) or roasted almonds (RAs) in 4 separate mastication sessions. Particle size distributions (PSDs) of the expectorated boluses were measured by using mechanical sieving and laser diffraction (primary outcome). The microstructure of masticated almonds, including the structural integrity of the cell walls (i.e., dietary fiber), was examined with microscopy. Lipid bioaccessibility was predicted by using a theoretical model, based on almond particle size and cell dimensions, and then compared with empirically derived release data. Intersubject variations (n = 15; 2 subjects withdrew) in PSDs of both NA and RA samples were small (e.g., laser diffraction; CV: 12% and 9%, respectively). Significant differences in PSDs were found between these 2 almond forms (P masticated particles, as predicted by using the mathematical model (8.5% and 11.3% for NAs and RAs, respectively). This low percentage of lipid bioaccessibility is attributable to the high proportion (35-40%) of large particles (>500 μm) in masticated almonds. Microstructural examination of the almonds indicated that most intracellular lipid remained undisturbed in intact cells after mastication. No adverse events were recorded. Following mastication, most of the almond cells remained intact with lipid encapsulated by cell walls. Thus, most of the lipid in masticated almonds is not immediately bioaccessible and remains unavailable for early stages of digestion. The lipid encapsulation mechanism provides a convincing explanation for why almonds have a low metabolizable energy content and

  8. Bioaccessibility of the Bioactive Peptide Carnosine during in Vitro Digestion of Cured Beef Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolini, Elena; Babini, Elena; Bordoni, Alessandra; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Laghi, Luca; Maczó, Anita; Picone, Gianfranco; Szerdahelyi, Emoke; Valli, Veronica; Capozzi, Francesco

    2015-05-27

    A bioactive compound is a food component that may have an impact on health. Its bioaccessibility, defined as the fraction released from the food matrix into the gastrointestinal tract during digestion, depends on compound stability, interactions with other food components, and supramolecular organization of food. In this study, the effect of pH on the bioaccessibility of the bioactive dipeptide carnosine was evaluated in two commercial samples of the Italian cured beef meat bresaola at two key points of digestion: before the gastric and after the duodenal phases. The digestion process was simulated using an in vitro static system, whereas capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used for quantitative analysis. The gap between the total carnosine content, measured by CZE, and its free diffusible fraction observable by NMR spectroscopy, was 11 and 19% for two independent bresaola products, where such percentages represent the fraction of carnosine not accessible for intestinal absorption because it was adsorbed to the food matrix dispersed in the digestion fluid.

  9. Bioavailability of coated and uncoated ZnO nanoparticles to cucumber in soil with or without organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Sahar; Fotovat, Amir; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Karimzadeh, F; Khazaei, Hamid Reza; Khorassani, Reza

    2017-10-01

    There is a gap of knowledge for the fate, effects and bioavailability of coated and uncoated ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) in soil. Moreover, little is known about the effects of soil properties on effects of NPs on plants. In this study, the availability ZnO NPs in two soils with different organic matter content (one treated with cow manure (CM) and the other as untreated) was compared with their bulk particles. Results showed that coated and uncoated ZnO NPs can be more bioaccessible than their bulk counterpart and despite their more positive effects at low concentration (soil untreated with CM. The concentration of 1000mgkg -1 of ZnO NPs, decreased shoot dry biomass (52%) in the soil untreated with CM but increased shoot dry biomass (35%) in CM-treated soil compared to their bulk counterpart. In general, plants in the CM-treated soil showed higher Zn concentration in their tissues compared with those in untreated soil. The difference in shoot Zn concentration between CM-treated and untreated soil for NPs treatments was more than bulk particles treatment. This different percentage at 100mgkg -1 of bulk particles was 20.6% and for coated and uncoated NPs were 37% and 32%, respectively. Generally, the distribution of ZnO among Zn fractions in soil (exchangeable, the metal bound to carbonates, Fe-Mn oxides, organic matter and silicate minerals and the residual fraction) changed based on applied Zn concentration, Zn source and soil organic matter content. The root tip deformation under high concentration of NPs (1000mgkg -1 treatment ) was observed by light microscopy in plants at the soil untreated with CM. It seems that root tip deformation is one of the specific effects of NPs which in turn inhibits plant growth and nutrients uptake by root. The transmission electron microcopy image showed the aggregation of NPs inside the plant cytoplasm and their accumulation adjacent to the cell membrane. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Iron mineralogy and bioaccessibility of dust generated from soils as determined by reflectance spectroscopy and magnetic and chemical properties--Nellis Dunes recreational area, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Morman, Suzette A.; Moskowitz, Bruce; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Flagg, Cody; Till, Jessica; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust exerts many important effects on the Earth system, such as atmospheric temperatures, marine productivity, and melting of snow and ice. Mineral dust also can have detrimental effects on human health through respiration of very small particles and the leaching of metals in various organs. These effects can be better understood through characterization of the physical and chemical properties of dust, including certain iron oxide minerals, for their extraordinary radiative properties and possible effects on lung inflammation. Studies of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area near Las Vegas, Nevada, focus on characteristics of radiative properties (capacity of dust to absorb solar radiation), iron oxide mineral type and size, chemistry, and bioaccessibility of metals in fluids that simulate human gastric, lung, and phagolysosomal fluids. In samples of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area with median grain sizes of 2.4, 3.1, and 4.3 micrometers, the ferric oxide minerals goethite and hematite, at least some of it nanosized, were identified. In one sample, in vitro bioaccessibility experiments revealed high bioaccessibility of arsenic in all three biofluids and higher leachate concentration and bioaccessibility for copper, uranium, and vanadium in the simulated lung fluid than in the phagolysosomal fluid. The combination of methods used here to characterize mineral dust at the Nellis Dunes recreation area can be applied to global dust and broad issues of public health.

  11. An inter-laboratory trial of the unified BARGE bioaccessibility method for arsenic, cadmium and lead in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wragg, Joanna; Cave, Mark; Basta, Nick; Brandon, Esther; Casteel, Stan; Denys, Sebastien; Gron, Christian; Oomen, Agnes; Reimer, Kenneth; Tack, Karine; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE) has carried out an inter-laboratory trial of a proposed harmonised in vitro physiologically based ingestion bioaccessibility procedure for soils, called the Unified BARGE Method (UBM). The UBM includes an initial saliva phase and simulated stomach and intestine compartments. The trial involved the participation of seven laboratories (five European and two North American) providing bioaccessibility data for As (11 samples), Cd (9 samples) and Pb (13 samples) using soils with in vivo relative bioavailability data measured using a swine model. The results of the study were compared with benchmark criteria for assessing the suitability of the UBM to provide data for human health risk assessments. Mine waste and slag soils containing high concentrations of As caused problems of poor repeatability and reproducibility which were alleviated when the samples were run at lower soil to solution ratios. The study showed that the UBM met the benchmark criteria for both the stomach and stomach and intestine phase for As. For Cd, three out of four criteria were met for the stomach phase but only one for the stomach and intestine phase. For Pb two, out of four criteria were met for the stomach phase and none for the stomach and intestine phase. However, the study recommends tighter control of pH in the stomach phase extraction to improve between-laboratory variability, more reproducible in vivo validation data and that a follow up inter-laboratory trial should be carried out.

  12. An inter-laboratory trial of the unified BARGE bioaccessibility method for arsenic, cadmium and lead in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wragg, Joanna [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cave, Mark, E-mail: mrca@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Basta, Nick [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210-1085 (United States); Brandon, Esther [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Casteel, Stan [College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, 65205 (United States); Denys, Sebastien [INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Gron, Christian [DHI Water Environment Health, Horsholm (Denmark); Oomen, Agnes [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Reimer, Kenneth [Environmental Sciences Group, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Tack, Karine [INERIS, Parc Technologique Alata, Verneuil-en-Halatte (France); Van de Wiele, Tom [Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology, University of Ghent, Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-09-01

    The Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE) has carried out an inter-laboratory trial of a proposed harmonised in vitro physiologically based ingestion bioaccessibility procedure for soils, called the Unified BARGE Method (UBM). The UBM includes an initial saliva phase and simulated stomach and intestine compartments. The trial involved the participation of seven laboratories (five European and two North American) providing bioaccessibility data for As (11 samples), Cd (9 samples) and Pb (13 samples) using soils with in vivo relative bioavailability data measured using a swine model. The results of the study were compared with benchmark criteria for assessing the suitability of the UBM to provide data for human health risk assessments. Mine waste and slag soils containing high concentrations of As caused problems of poor repeatability and reproducibility which were alleviated when the samples were run at lower soil to solution ratios. The study showed that the UBM met the benchmark criteria for both the stomach and stomach and intestine phase for As. For Cd, three out of four criteria were met for the stomach phase but only one for the stomach and intestine phase. For Pb two, out of four criteria were met for the stomach phase and none for the stomach and intestine phase. However, the study recommends tighter control of pH in the stomach phase extraction to improve between-laboratory variability, more reproducible in vivo validation data and that a follow up inter-laboratory trial should be carried out.

  13. Interactions Between Flavonoid-Rich Extracts and Sodium Caseinate Modulate Protein Functionality and Flavonoid Bioaccessibility in Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Jennifer L; Li, Min; Jones, Owen G; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2018-05-01

    With growing interest in formulating new food products with added protein and flavonoid-rich ingredients for health benefits, direct interactions between these ingredient classes becomes critical in so much as they may impact protein functionality, product quality, and flavonoids bioavailability. In this study, sodium caseinate (SCN)-based model products (foams and emulsions) were formulated with grape seed extract (GSE, rich in galloylated flavonoids) and green tea extract (GTE, rich in nongalloylated flavonoids), respectively, to assess changes in functional properties of SCN and impacts on flavonoid bioaccessibility. Experiments with pure flavonoids suggested that galloylated flavonoids reduced air-water interfacial tension of 0.01% SCN dispersions more significantly than nongalloylated flavonoids at high concentrations (>50 μg/mL). This observation was supported by changes in stability of 5% SCN foam, which showed that foam stability was increased at high levels of GSE (≥50 μg/mL, P < 0.05) but was not affected by GTE. However, flavonoid extracts had modest effects on SCN emulsion. In addition, galloylated flavonoids had higher bioaccessibility in both SCN foam and emulsion. These results suggest that SCN-flavonoid binding interactions can modulate protein functionality leading to difference in performance and flavonoid bioaccessibility of protein-based products. As information on the beneficial health effects of flavonoids expands, it is likely that usage of these ingredients in consumer foods will increase. However, the necessary levels to provide such benefits may exceed those that begin to impact functionality of the macronutrients such as proteins. Flavonoid inclusion within protein matrices may modulate protein functionality in a food system and modify critical consumer traits or delivery of these beneficial plant-derived components. The product matrices utilized in this study offer relevant model systems to evaluate how fortification with flavonoid

  14. Impact of Redox Condition on Fractionation and Bioaccessibility of Arsenic in Arsenic-Contaminated Soils Remediated by Iron Amendments: A Long-Term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron-bearing amendments, such as iron grit, are proved to be effective amendments for the remediation of arsenic- (As- contaminated soils. In present study, the effect of redox condition on As fractions in As-contaminated soils remediated by iron grit was investigated, and the bioaccessibility of As in soils under anoxic condition was evaluated. Results showed that the labile fractions of As in soils decreased significantly after the addition of iron grit, while the unlabile fractions of As increased rapidly, and the bioaccessibility of As was negligible after 180 d incubation. More labile fractions of As in iron-amended soils were transformed into less mobilizable or unlabile fractions with the contact time. Correspondingly, the bioaccessibility of As in iron-amended soils under the aerobic condition was lower than that under the anoxic condition after 180 d incubation. The redistribution of loosely adsorbed fraction of As in soils occurred under the anoxic condition, which is likely ascribed to the reduction of As(V to As(III and the reductive dissolution of Fe-(hydroxides. The stabilization processes of As in iron-amended soils under the anoxic and aerobic conditions were characterized by two stages. The increase of crystallization of Fe oxides, decomposition of organic matter, molecular diffusion, and the occlusion within Fe-(hydroxides cocontrolled the transformation of As fractions and the stabilization process of As in iron-amended soils under different redox conditions. In terms of As bioaccessibility, the stabilization process of As in iron-amended soils was shortened under the aerobic condition in comparison with the anoxic condition.

  15. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day -1 to 22, 53, and 77 g day -1 for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  16. Oral zinc supplementation for children with acute diarrhoea: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfa, Rola Abu; El Aish, Khaled I Abu; El Raai, Mohamed; El Gazaly, Nermeen; Shatat, Ahmed

    2018-02-21

    Diarrhoea causes 15% of under-5 mortality in developing countries. Zinc (Zn) stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Zn given with standard treatment to children with acute or moderate diarrhoea. In this quasi-unmasked, parallel-group study, we enrolled children with diarrhoea at El-Dorra Paediatric Hospital, Gaza Strip, occupied Palestinian territory. Inclusion criteria were children with more than three unformed stools in the preceding 24 h, duration of diarrhoea up to 72 h, and ability to accept oral fluids or feeds. Recruited children were assigned equally to either oral rehydration salts (control group) or oral rehydration salts plus Zn sulphate (Zn group; 10 mg for children younger than 6 months; 20 mg for children aged 6 months and older). All treatments were taken orally for 14 days. Primary outcomes were duration and frequency of diarrhoea. Secondary outcomes included changes in bodyweight, drugs side-effects, and episodes of any or severe dehydration. Data were analysed with SPSS. Outcome measures were compared with the Mann-Whitney U-test, student's t test, odds ratio, or χ 2 test. The study was approved by the ministry of health and the Helsinki Committee in the Gaza Strip. Parents of the children provided verbally informed consent before participation. We enrolled 140 children (aged 1-120 months). Duration of diarrhoea in the Zn group was shorter than in the control group (2·34 days in the Zn group vs 7·20 days in the control group; pZinc supplementation added to standard treatment with oral rehydration salts was effective and resulted in good treatment of diarrhoea. None. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Emulsification Method and Particle Size on the Rate of in vivo Oral Bioavailability of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Ai Mun; Tan, Chin Ping; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2018-05-26

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions stabilized by complexation of beta-cyclodextrin with sodium caseinate and Tween 20 have been shown to have higher bioaccessibility of vitamin E and total phenolic content than nonemulsified kenaf seed oil in the previous in vitro gastrointestinal digestion study. However, its oral bioavailability was unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of in vivo oral bioavailability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions in comparison with nonemulsified kenaf seed oil and kenaf seed oil macroemulsions during the 180 min of gastrointestinal digestion. Kenaf seed oil macroemulsions were produced by using conventional method. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions had shown improvement in the rate of absorption. At 180 min of digestion time, the total α-tocopherol bioavailability of kenaf seed oil nanoemulsions was increased by 1.7- and 1.4-fold, compared to kenaf seed oil and macroemulsion, respectively. Kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions were stable in considerably wide range of pH (>5 and oil-in-water nanoemulsions had provided a delivery system to encapsulate the kenaf seed oil, as well as enhanced the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of kenaf seed oil. Therefore, kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions exhibit a great potential application in nutraceutical fields. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Wheat bread enriched with green coffee - In vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara

    2017-04-15

    The potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics, caffeine and antioxidant activity of wheat bread enriched with green coffee were studied. Supplementation enhanced nutraceutical potential by improving phenolic content and lipid protecting capacity. The simulated-digestion-released phenolics (mainly caffeic acid, syringic acid and vanillic acid) from bread, also caused significant qualitative changes (chlorogenic acids were cleaved and significant amounts of caffeic acid and ferulic acid were determined). Compared to the control, for the bread with 1% and 5% of the functional component the contents of phenolics were 1.6 and 3.33 times higher. Also, an approximately 2.3-fold increase in antioxidant activity was found in bread containing 5% of the supplement. The compounds responsible for antioxidant potential have high bioaccessibility but poor bioavailability. The qualitative composition of the phenolic fraction has a key role in developing the antioxidant potential of bread; however, caffeine and synergism between antioxidants are also important considerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Two mechanisms of oral malodor inhibition by zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Hanioka, Takashi

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanisms by which zinc ions inhibit oral malodor. The direct binding of zinc ions to gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was assessed in comparison with other metal ions. Nine metal chlorides and six metal acetates were examined. To understand the strength of H2S volatilization inhibition, the minimum concentration needed to inhibit H2S volatilization was determined using serial dilution methods. Subsequently, the inhibitory activities of zinc ions on the growth of six oral bacterial strains related to volatile sulfur compound (VSC) production and three strains not related to VSC production were evaluated. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl2, CdCl2, CuCl2, (CH3COO)2Zn, (CH3COO)2Cd, (CH3COO)2Cu, and CH3COOAg inhibited H2S volatilization almost entirely. The strengths of H2S volatilization inhibition were in the order Ag+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+. The effect of zinc ions on the growth of oral bacteria was strain-dependent. Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586 was the most sensitive, as it was suppressed by medium containing 0.001% zinc ions. Zinc ions have an inhibitory effect on oral malodor involving the two mechanisms of direct binding with gaseous H2S and suppressing the growth of VSC-producing oral bacteria.

  20. A method to simultaneously determining the reduction in PAH dissolved concentrations and bioaccessibility in carbon amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, Geoffrey; Smith, Kilian E. C.; Rein, Arno

    In order to investigate the potential of different soil amendments (activated charcoal (AC), charcoal (biochar), compost) to sorb PAHs and their effect on bioaccessibility and biodegradation of PAHs in soil, a method was developed that can determine simultaneously the changes in PAH dissolved...

  1. Food matrix effects on bioaccessibility of B-Carotene can be measured in a vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, van C.A.; Naber, T.H.J.; Minekus, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since the food matrix determines ß-carotene availability for intestinal absorption, food matrix effects on the bioaccessibility of ß-carotene from two diets were investigated in vitro and compared with in vivo data. The “mixed diet” consisted of ß-carotene-rich vegetables, and the “oil diet”

  2. A study of the bio-accessibility of welding fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinger, Balázs; Ellingsen, Dag G; Náray, Miklós; Záray, Gyula; Thomassen, Yngvar

    2008-12-01

    The respiratory bio-accessibility of a substance is the fraction that is soluble in the respiratory environment and is available for absorption. In the case of respiratory exposure the amount of absorbed substance plays a main role in the biological effects. Extensive bio-accessibility studies have always been an essential requirement for a better understanding of the biological effects of different workplace aerosols, such as welding fumes. Fumes generated using three different welding techniques, manual metal arc (MMA) welding, metal inert gas (MIG) welding, and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding were investigated in the present study. Each technique was used for stainless steel welding. Welding fumes were collected on PVC membrane filters in batches of 114 using a multiport air sampler. Three different fluids were applied for the solubility study: deionised water and two kinds of lung fluid simulants: lung epithelial lining fluid simulant (Gamble's solution) and artificial lung lining fluid simulant (Hatch's solution). In order to obtain sufficient data to study the tendencies in solubility change with time, seven different leaching periods were used (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 h), each of them with three replicates. The effect of dissolution temperature was also studied. The total amounts of selected metals in the three different welding fumes were determined after microwave-assisted digestion with the mixture of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid. The most obvious observation yielded by the results is that the solubility of individual metals varies greatly depending on the welding technique, the composition of the leaching fluid and leaching time. This study shows that the most reasonable choice as a media for the bio-assessment of solubility might be Hatch's solution by a dissolution time of 24 h.

  3. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Basta, Nicholas T; Chaney, Rufus L.; Henry, Paula F.; Mosby, David; Rattner, Barnett A.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Sprague, Dan; Weber, John

    2016-01-01

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with phosphorus significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. Bioaccessibility of Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter (24%), or present as Pb sulfate (18%). Additional Pb was associated with P (chloropyromorphite, hydroxypyromorphite and tertiary Pb phosphate), and with Pb carbonates, leadhillite (a lead sulfate carbonate hydroxide), and Pb sulfide. The formation of chloropyromorphite reduced the bioavailability of Pb and the amendment of Pb-contaminated soils with P may be a thermodynamically favored means to sequester Pb.

  4. Processing black mulberry into jam: effects on antioxidant potential and in vitro bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Beekwilder, Jules; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-08-01

    Black mulberries (Morus nigra) were processed into jam on an industrialised scale, including the major steps of: selection of frozen black mulberries, adding glucose-fructose syrup and water, cooking, adding citric acid and apple pectin, removing seeds, and pasteurisation. Qualitative and quantitative determinations of antioxidants in black mulberry samples were performed using spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC- and LC-QTOF-MS-based measurements. These analyses included the determination of total polyphenolic content, % polymeric colour, total and individual anthocyanin contents, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro bioaccessibility in processing samples. Jam processing led to a significant reduction in total phenolics (88%), total flavonoids (89%), anthocyanins (97%), and antioxidant capacity (88-93%) (P < 0.05). Individual anthocyanin contents, determined using HPLC analysis, also showed a significant decrease (∼99% loss). In contrast, % recovery of bioaccessible total phenolics, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity (ABTS assay) increased after jam processing (16%, 12%, and 37%, respectively). Fruit processing resulted in losses of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant capacity of black mulberry jam. Optimisation of food processing could help to protect the phenolic compounds in fruits which might be helpful for the food industry to minimise the antioxidant loss and improve the final product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The impact of soil organic matter and soil sterilisation on the bioaccessibility of {sup 14}C-azoxystrobin determined by desorption kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, Helen; Riding, Matthew J. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Oliver, Robin [Syngenta, Jealotts Hill Research Station, Bracknell RG42 6ET (United Kingdom); Jones, Kevin C. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Semple, Kirk T., E-mail: k.semple@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Desorption of azoxystrobin from soils occurs in a bi-phasic manner. • Soil organic matter, indigenous microorganisms and contact time reduce desorption. • Choice of extractant is important in determining predicting the bioaccessible fraction. - Abstract: As soils represent a major sink for most pesticides, factors influencing pesticide degradation are essential in identifying their potential environmental risk. Desorption of {sup 14}C-azoxystrobin was investigated over time in two soils under sterile and non-sterile conditions using exhaustive (solvent) and non-exhaustive (aqueous) methods. Desorption data were fitted to a two-compartment model, differentiating between fast and slow desorbing fractions. With increased ageing, rapid desorption (F{sub rap}) (bioaccessibility) decreased with corresponding increases in slowly desorbing fractions (F{sub slow}). The rapid desorption rate constant (k{sub fast}) was not affected by ageing, sterility or extraction solvent. The non-exhaustive extractions had similar desorption profiles; whereas exhaustive extractions in aged soils had the highest F{sub rap}. In non-sterile soil, F{sub rap} was lower resulting in higher F{sub slow}, while desorption rates remained unaffected. Organic matter (OM) reduces F{sub rap}; but not desorption rates. Microorganisms and OM enhanced ageing effects, reducing the fraction of fast desorbing chemicals and potentially the bioaccessibility of pesticides in soil.

  6. Food matrix effects on bioaccessibility of β-carotene can be measured in an in vitro gastrointestinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loo-Bouwman, C.A. van; Naber, T.H.J.; Minekus, M.; Breemen, R.B. van; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since the food matrix determines β-carotene availability for intestinal absorption, food matrix effects on the bioaccessibility of β-carotene from two diets were investigated in vitro and compared with in vivo data. The "mixed diet" consisted of β-carotene-rich vegetables, and the "oil diet"

  7. Grain Size Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Metals in Outdoor Dust in Chengdu, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengqin; Pi, Lu; Luo, Yan; Geng, Meng; Hu, Wenli; Li, Zhi; Su, Shijun; Gan, Zhiwei; Ding, Sanglan

    2016-04-01

    A total of 27 outdoor dust samples from roads, parks, and high spots were collected and analyzed to investigate the contamination of 11 metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb) in Chengdu, China. The results showed that the samples from the high spots exhibited the highest heavy metal level compared with those from the roads and the parks, except for Ni, Cu, and Pb. The dust was classified into five grain size fractions. The mean loads of each grain size fraction of 11 determined metals displayed similar distribution, and the contribution of median size (63-125, 125-250, 250-500 μm) fractions accounted for more than 70% of overall heavy metal loads. The health risk posed by the determined metals to human via dust ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation was investigated. Oral and respiratory bioaccessible parts of the metals in dust were extracted using simulated stomach solution and composite lung serum. The mean bioaccessibilities of 11 investigated metals in the gastric solution were much higher than those in the composite lung serum, especially Zn, Cd, and Pb. Ingestion was the most important exposure pathway with percentage greater than 70% for both children and adults. Risk evaluation results illustrated that children in Chengdu might suffer noncarcinogenic risk when exposed to outdoor dust. Given that the cancer risk values of Pb and Cr larger than 1 × 10(-4), potential carcinogenic risk might occur for Chengdu residents through outdoor dust intake.

  8. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Parker, Mary L.; Bisignano, Carlo; Raciti, Roberto; Baer, David J.; Wilde, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA), roasted almonds (RA), roasted diced almonds (DA) and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB). Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB) was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm). Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut. PMID:29443942

  9. Understanding the Effect of Particle Size and Processing on Almond Lipid Bioaccessibility through Microstructural Analysis: From Mastication to Faecal Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Mandalari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported on the low lipid bioaccessibility from almond seeds during digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT. In the present study, we quantified the lipid released during artificial mastication from four almond meals: natural raw almonds (NA, roasted almonds (RA, roasted diced almonds (DA and almond butter from roasted almonds (AB. Lipid release after mastication (8.9% from NA, 11.8% from RA, 12.4% from DA and 6.2% from AB was used to validate our theoretical mathematical model of lipid bioaccessibility. The total lipid potentially available for digestion in AB was 94.0%, which included the freely available lipid resulting from the initial sample processing and the further small amount of lipid released from the intact almond particles during mastication. Particle size distributions measured after mastication in NA, RA and DA showed most of the particles had a size of 1000 µm and above, whereas AB bolus mainly contained small particles (<850 µm. Microstructural analysis of faecal samples from volunteers consuming NA, RA, DA and AB confirmed that some lipid in NA, RA and DA remained encapsulated within the plant tissue throughout digestion, whereas almost complete digestion was observed in the AB sample. We conclude that the structure and particle size of the almond meals are the main factors in regulating lipid bioaccessibility in the gut.

  10. Microencapsulation structures based on protein-coated liposomes obtained through electrospraying for the stabilization and improved bioaccessibility of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; Casagrande Sipoli, Caroline; de La Torre, Lucimara Gaziola; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2017-10-15

    Novel food-grade hybrid encapsulation structures based on the entrapment of phosphatidylcholine liposomes, within a WPC matrix through electrospraying, were developed and used as delivery vehicles for curcumin. The loading capacity and encapsulation efficiency of the proposed system was studied, and the suitability of the approach to stabilize curcumin and increase its bioaccessibility was assessed. Results showed that the maximum loading capacity of the liposomes was around 1.5% of curcumin, although the loading capacity of the hybrid microencapsulation structures increased with the curcumin content by incorporation of curcumin microcrystals upon electrospraying. Microencapsulation of curcumin within the proposed hybrid structures significantly increased its bioaccessibility (∼1.7-fold) compared to the free compound, and could successfully stabilize it against degradation in PBS (pH=7.4). The proposed approach thus proved to be a promising alternative to produce powder-like functional ingredients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of mastication on lipid bioaccessibility of almonds in a randomized human study and its implications for digestion kinetics, metabolizable energy, and postprandial lipemia1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Myriam ML; Grassby, Terri; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Waldron, Keith W; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah EE

    2015-01-01

    Background: The particle size and structure of masticated almonds have a significant impact on nutrient release (bioaccessibility) and digestion kinetics. Objectives: The goals of this study were to quantify the effects of mastication on the bioaccessibility of intracellular lipid of almond tissue and examine microstructural characteristics of masticated almonds. Design: In a randomized, subject-blind, crossover trial, 17 healthy subjects chewed natural almonds (NAs) or roasted almonds (RAs) in 4 separate mastication sessions. Particle size distributions (PSDs) of the expectorated boluses were measured by using mechanical sieving and laser diffraction (primary outcome). The microstructure of masticated almonds, including the structural integrity of the cell walls (i.e., dietary fiber), was examined with microscopy. Lipid bioaccessibility was predicted by using a theoretical model, based on almond particle size and cell dimensions, and then compared with empirically derived release data. Results: Intersubject variations (n = 15; 2 subjects withdrew) in PSDs of both NA and RA samples were small (e.g., laser diffraction; CV: 12% and 9%, respectively). Significant differences in PSDs were found between these 2 almond forms (P masticated particles, as predicted by using the mathematical model (8.5% and 11.3% for NAs and RAs, respectively). This low percentage of lipid bioaccessibility is attributable to the high proportion (35–40%) of large particles (>500 μm) in masticated almonds. Microstructural examination of the almonds indicated that most intracellular lipid remained undisturbed in intact cells after mastication. No adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: Following mastication, most of the almond cells remained intact with lipid encapsulated by cell walls. Thus, most of the lipid in masticated almonds is not immediately bioaccessible and remains unavailable for early stages of digestion. The lipid encapsulation mechanism provides a convincing explanation for

  12. A simple method using on-line continuous leaching and ion exchange chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the speciation analysis of bio-accessible arsenic in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Nolan S; Beauchemin, Diane

    2012-03-02

    A simple method for the speciation analysis of bio-accessible arsenic (As) in rice was developed using a continuous on-line leaching method to release the bio-accessible fraction. The continuous on-line leaching method has several advantages over commonly used batch methods including quicker and easier sample preparation, reduced risk of contamination and access to real time leaching data. The bio-accessibility of As in the samples was monitored using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results from a certified reference material as well as cooked and uncooked white rice showed that the majority of As was leached by saliva. Results obtained using the continuous on-line leaching method were comparable to those obtained using a batch method. Speciation analysis of the saliva leachate was performed using ion exchange chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. The four most toxic forms of As (As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and As(V)) were clearly separated within 5 min in a single chromatographic run. Over 92% of bio-accessible As in the certified reference material and uncooked white rice sample was in the form of DMA and As(V), whereas it was present as DMA and As(III) in the cooked white rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigation on reusing water treatment residuals to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals in Baiyin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Changhui; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fe/Al water treatment residuals (FARs) can stabilize As, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cu. ► FARs cannot stabilize Ba and Cd. ► The properties of FARs and soil affect the FARs’ ability of stabilizing metals. - Abstract: In this work, the remediation of soils contaminated with multiple metals using ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) in Baiyin, China, was investigated. The results of metals fractionation indicated that after the soil was treated with FARs, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) could be transformed into more stable forms, i.e., As bound in crystalline Fe/Al oxides and other metals in the oxidable and residual forms. However, the forms of chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) were unaffected. Interestingly, due to the effect of FARs, barium (Ba) was predominantly transformed into more mobile forms. The bioaccessibility extraction test demonstrated that the FARs reduced the bioaccessibility of As by 25%, followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb. The bioaccessibility of Cd and Ba were increased; in particular, there was an increase of 41% for Ba at the end of the test. In conclusion, the FARs can be used to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals, but comprehensive studies are needed before practical applications of this work.

  14. The Nutraceutical Bioavailability Classification Scheme: Classifying Nutraceuticals According to Factors Limiting their Oral Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements, David Julian; Li, Fang; Xiao, Hang

    2015-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of a health-promoting dietary component (nutraceutical) may be limited by various physicochemical and physiological phenomena: liberation from food matrices, solubility in gastrointestinal fluids, interaction with gastrointestinal components, chemical degradation or metabolism, and epithelium cell permeability. Nutraceutical bioavailability can therefore be improved by designing food matrices that control their bioaccessibility (B*), absorption (A*), and transformation (T*) within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This article reviews the major factors influencing the gastrointestinal fate of nutraceuticals, and then uses this information to develop a new scheme to classify the major factors limiting nutraceutical bioavailability: the nutraceutical bioavailability classification scheme (NuBACS). This new scheme is analogous to the biopharmaceutical classification scheme (BCS) used by the pharmaceutical industry to classify drug bioavailability, but it contains additional factors important for understanding nutraceutical bioavailability in foods. The article also highlights potential strategies for increasing the oral bioavailability of nutraceuticals based on their NuBACS designation (B*A*T*).

  15. Long-term efficiency of soil stabilization with apatite and Slovakite: the impact of two earthworm species (Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta) on lead bioaccessibility and soil functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tica, D; Udovic, M; Lestan, D

    2013-03-01

    Remediation soil is exposed to various environmental factors over time that can affect the final success of the operation. In the present study, we assessed Pb bioaccessibility and microbial activity in industrially polluted soil (Arnoldstein, Austria) stabilized with 5% (w/w) of Slovakite and 5% (w/w) of apatite soil after exposure to two earthworm species, Lumbricus terrestris and Dendrobaena veneta, used as model environmental biotic soil factors. Stabilization resulted in reduced Pb bioaccessibility, as assessed with one-step extraction tests and six-step sequential extraction, and improved soil functioning, mirrored in reduced β-glucosidase activity in soil. Both earthworm species increased Pb bioaccessibility, thus decreasing the initial stabilization efficacy and indicating the importance of considering the long-term fate of remediated soil. The earthworm species had different effects on soil enzyme activity, which can be attributed to species-specific microbial populations in earthworm gut acting on the ingested soil. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Digestive recovery of sulfur-methyl-L-methionine and its bioaccessibility in Kimchi cabbages using a simulated in vitro digestion model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-Rim; Cho, Sun-Duk; Lee, Woon Kyu; Kim, Gun-Hee; Shim, Soon-Mi

    2014-01-15

    Sulfur-methyl-L-methionine (SMM) has been known to provide various biological functions such as radical scavenging effect, inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, and prevention of gastric mucosal damage. Kimchi cabbages are known to be a major food source providing SMM but its bioaccessibility has not been studied. The objective of current study was to determine both the digestive stability of SMM and the amount released from Kimchi cabbages under a simulated in vitro digestion model system. The in vitro digestion model system simulating a human gastrointestinal tract was carried out for measuring digestive recovery and bioaccessibility of SMM. SMM was quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Recovery of an SMM standard after digestion was 0.68 and 0.65% for fasted and fed conditions, respectively, indicating that the digestive stability of the SMM standard was not affected by dietary energy or co-ingested food matrix. The SMM standard was also significantly stable in acidic pH (P < 0.05). The bioaccessibility of SMM from Kimchi cabbages was measured under a fasted condition, resulted in 8.83, 14.71 and 10.88%, for salivary, gastric and small intestinal phases, respectively. Results from our study suggest that SMM from Kimchi cabbages, a component of food sources, is more bioavailable than SMM by itself. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Sulforaphane formation and bioaccessibility are more affected by steaming time than meal composition during in vitro digestion of broccoli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarvan-Kruse, Irmela; Kramer, E.; Bouwmeester, Hans; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, R.

    2017-01-01

    Broccoli is a rich source of the glucosinolate glucoraphanin (GR). After hydrolysis of GR by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase, sulforaphane (SF) or sulforaphane nitrile (SFN) are produced, depending on environmental conditions. How the conversion of GR and bioaccessibility of released breakdown

  18. Consumption of oral hospital diets and percent adequacy of minerals in oncology patients as an indicative for the use of oral supplements.

    OpenAIRE

    Sá, Júlia Sommerlatte Manzoli de; Moreira, Daniele Caroline Faria; Silva, Karine Aparecida Louvera; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Quintaes, Késia Diego

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims: Deficiencies in the consumption of foods and nutrients favor malnutrition in patients. Considering the recommendations for the ingestion of minerals, the content, consumption and percent adequacy of the minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, K, P, Na, Zn and Se) were evaluated amongst oncology patients who received oral diets isolated or associated with an oral food complement (OFC), evaluating the need and composition of an oral supplement. Methods: The mineral composition as deter...

  19. Optical imaging to trace near infrared fluorescent zinc oxide nanoparticles following oral exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Chang-Moon Lee,1–4,* Hwan-Jeong Jeong,1–4,* Kuk-No Yun,1–3 Dong Wook Kim,1–4 Myung-Hee Sohn,1–4 Jong Kwon Lee,5 Jayoung Jeong,5 Seok Tae Lim1–4 *These authors contributed equally to this work.1Department of Nuclear Medicine; 2Cyclotron Research Center; 3Research Institute of Clinical Medicine; 4Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, Republic of Korea; 5Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Osong-Eup, Chungchungbuk-Do, Republic of KoreaBackground: Understanding how nanomaterials are distributed in the body after exposure is important for assessing whether they are safe. In this study, we investigated the behavior and accumulation of nanoscaled and submicron-scaled zinc oxide (ZnO particles in the body using optical imaging following oral exposure.Methods: To trace these nanoparticles in the body, ZnO nanoparticles were conjugated with a monoreactive hydroxysuccinimide ester of Cy5.5 (Cy5.5-NHS, and the conjugation-stabilizing effect of Cy5.5 on the nanoparticles was evaluated in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2 for 7 hours. To compare the distribution of Cy5.5-NHS and Cy5.5-conjugated ZnO nanoparticles, Cy5.5-NHS 0.5 mg/kg and Cy5.5-conjugated ZnO nanoparticles 250 mg/kg were administered orally to healthy rats. We collected blood from the rats at predesignated time points for 7 hours after administration, and optical imaging studies were performed at 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 hours after dosing. To investigate the extent of nanoparticle accumulation in the organs and tissues, the mice were sacrificed at 23 hours after administration, and the organs were removed and imaged.Results: Cy5.5-conjugated ZnO nanoparticles were stable in simulated gastric fluid for 7 hours. The signal intensity of Cy5.5-NHS in blood was highest 3 hours after oral administration, and Cy5.5-conjugated ZnO nanoparticles showed the highest signal

  20. Methodological Aspects of In Vitro Assessment of Bio-accessible Risk Element Pool in Urban Particulate Matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Száková, J.; Tremlová, J.; Kašparovská, Kateřina; Kotlík, B.; Tlustoš, P.; Svoboda, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 2 (2014), s. 216-222 ISSN 0163-4984 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA521/09/1150; GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/12/0682 Program:GA; GA Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : risk elements * urban particulate matter * in vitro tests * bio-accessibility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.748, year: 2014

  1. Carnauba wax p-methoxycinnamic diesters: Characterisation, antioxidant activity and simulated gastrointestinal digestion followed by in vitro bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Claisa Andréa Silva; Vieira, Ícaro Gusmão Pinto; Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; Muniz, Celli Rodrigues; Gonzaga, Maria Leônia da Costa; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo

    2016-04-01

    The beneficial biological effects of cinnamic acid derivatives and the lack of studies on the antioxidant activity and bioavailability of cinnamic esters from carnauba wax, diesters were extracted from carnauba wax powder. Their structural, physical and morphological characteristics, antioxidant activity and in vitro bioaccessibility were measured. p-Methoxycinnamic diester (PCO-C) was identified, which has a crystalline, apolar structure and exhibited significant antioxidant activity (107.27 ± 3.92 μM Trolox/g of dry weight) before and after simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and 32.46% bioaccessibility. In human cells, PCO-C (250 μg/mL) inhibited the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, with an effect similar to that of Trolox (80 μM). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PCO-C had high thermal stability and high UV absorption between 250 and 350 nm. These results indicate that this compound is promising as an antioxidant for pharmaceutical and food industry applications, such as the development of active packaging and functional foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low bioaccessibility of vitamin D2 from yeast-fortified bread compared to crystalline D2 bread and D3 from fluid milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkie, Tristan E; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Weaver, Connie M

    2016-11-09

    The assessment of the efficacy of dietary and supplemental vitamin D tends to be confounded by differences in the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response between vitamin D 2 and vitamin D 3 . Serum response differences from these vitamers may be due to differences in bioavailability. To address this specifically, the bioaccessibility was assessed for vitamin D 2 from breads fortified with UV-treated yeast, and a benchmark against staple vitamin D 3 fortified foods including bovine milks and infant formula, as well as crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread. Fortified foods were subjected to a three-stage static in vitro digestion model, and vitamin D was analyzed by HPLC-MS. Vitamin D bioaccessibility was significantly greater from bovine milks and infant formula (71-85%) than from yeast-fortified sandwich breads (6-7%). Bioaccessibility was not different between whole wheat and white wheat bread (p > 0.05), but was ∼4× lower from yeast-fortified bread than from crystalline vitamin D 2 fortified bread (p yeast cells were observed in the digesta of yeast fortified bread. These results indicate that the low bioavailability of yeast D 2 in comparison to other vitamin D 2 sources is likely due to entrapment within a less digestible yeast matrix and not only to metabolic differences between vitamins D 2 and D 3 .

  3. Enhanced Bioaccessibility of Crocetin Sugar Esters from Saffron in Infusions Rich in Natural Phenolic Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella A. Ordoudi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine whether and to what extent the bioaccessibility of the major saffron apocarotenoids, namely crocetin sugar esters (CRTSEs, is affected by the presence of strong water-soluble antioxidants, ingredients of the herbs found in commercial tea blends with saffron. An in vitro digestion model was applied to infusions from these products to investigate the possible changes. All of the studied infusions were rich in total phenols (9.9–22.5 mg caffeic acid equivalents/100 mg dry infusion and presented strong DPPH radical scavenging activity regardless of the composition of the corresponding herbal blends. RP-HPLC-DAD and LC-MS analysis enabled the grouping of the infusions into hydroxycinnamic acid-rich and in flavan-3-ol-rich ones. CRTSEs in herbal tea infusions were found to be significantly more bioaccessible (66.3%–88.6% than those in the reference saffron infusion (60.9%. The positive role of strong phenolic antioxidants (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid on the stability of CRTSEs was also evidenced in model binary mixtures. On the contrary, cinnamic acid, exerting no antioxidant activity, did not have such an effect. Our findings suggest that strong radical scavengers may protect the crocetin sugar esters from oxidation during digestion when present in excess.

  4. Enhanced Bioaccessibility of Crocetin Sugar Esters from Saffron in Infusions Rich in Natural Phenolic Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoudi, Stella A; Kyriakoudi, Anastasia; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2015-09-25

    The present study aims to examine whether and to what extent the bioaccessibility of the major saffron apocarotenoids, namely crocetin sugar esters (CRTSEs), is affected by the presence of strong water-soluble antioxidants, ingredients of the herbs found in commercial tea blends with saffron. An in vitro digestion model was applied to infusions from these products to investigate the possible changes. All of the studied infusions were rich in total phenols (9.9-22.5 mg caffeic acid equivalents/100 mg dry infusion) and presented strong DPPH radical scavenging activity regardless of the composition of the corresponding herbal blends. RP-HPLC-DAD and LC-MS analysis enabled the grouping of the infusions into hydroxycinnamic acid-rich and in flavan-3-ol-rich ones. CRTSEs in herbal tea infusions were found to be significantly more bioaccessible (66.3%-88.6%) than those in the reference saffron infusion (60.9%). The positive role of strong phenolic antioxidants (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid) on the stability of CRTSEs was also evidenced in model binary mixtures. On the contrary, cinnamic acid, exerting no antioxidant activity, did not have such an effect. Our findings suggest that strong radical scavengers may protect the crocetin sugar esters from oxidation during digestion when present in excess.

  5. Assessment of the solubility and bioaccessibility of arsenic in realgar wine using a simulated gastrointestinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Nan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Huang, Qing; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-05-15

    Consumption of arsenic (As) wine is a traditional activity during the classic Chinese festival of Duanwu, colloquially known worldwide as the Dragon Boat Day. Arsenic wine is drunk on the morning of the fifth day of the fifth lunar calendar month to commemorate the death of Qu Yuan, a famed Chinese poet who drowned himself in protest of a corrupt government, and to protect against ill fortune. Although realgar minerals are characteristically composed of sparingly soluble tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfides (As(4)S(4)), purity does vary with up to 10% of As being present as non-sulfur bound species, such as arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)). Despite, the renewed interest in As speciation and the bioaccessibility of the active As components in realgar based Chinese medicines, little is known about the safety surrounding the cultural practice of drinking As wine. In a series of experiments the speciation and solubility of As in a range of wines were investigated. Furthermore, a simulated gastrointestinal system was employed to predict the impact of digestive processes on As bioavailability. The predominant soluble As species found in all the wines were As(III) and As(V). Based on typical As wine recipes employing 0.1 g realgar mL(-1) wine, the concentration of dissolved As ranged from ca. 100 to 400 mg L(-1) depending on the ethanol content of the preparation: with the As solubility found to be higher in wines with a lower proportion of ethanol. Based on a common 100 mL measure of wine with a concentration of 400 mg As L(-1), the amount of soluble As would equate to around half of the acute minimal lethal dose for adults. This is likely an underestimate of the bioaccessible concentration, as a three-fold increase in bioaccessibility could be observed in the intestinal phase based on the results from the stimulated gastrointestinal system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Total and Bioaccessible Soil Arsenic and Lead Levels and Plant Uptake in Three Urban Community Gardens in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid) bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the regio...

  7. Investigation on reusing water treatment residuals to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals in Baiyin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Changhui; Zhao, Yuanyuan [The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Pei, Yuansheng, E-mail: yspei@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2012-10-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe/Al water treatment residuals (FARs) can stabilize As, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cu. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FARs cannot stabilize Ba and Cd. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of FARs and soil affect the FARs' ability of stabilizing metals. - Abstract: In this work, the remediation of soils contaminated with multiple metals using ferric and alum water treatment residuals (FARs) in Baiyin, China, was investigated. The results of metals fractionation indicated that after the soil was treated with FARs, arsenic (As), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) could be transformed into more stable forms, i.e., As bound in crystalline Fe/Al oxides and other metals in the oxidable and residual forms. However, the forms of chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) were unaffected. Interestingly, due to the effect of FARs, barium (Ba) was predominantly transformed into more mobile forms. The bioaccessibility extraction test demonstrated that the FARs reduced the bioaccessibility of As by 25%, followed by Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni and Pb. The bioaccessibility of Cd and Ba were increased; in particular, there was an increase of 41% for Ba at the end of the test. In conclusion, the FARs can be used to remedy soil contaminated with multiple metals, but comprehensive studies are needed before practical applications of this work.

  8. Remediation and reclamation of soils heavily contaminated with toxic metals as a substrate for greening with ornamental plants and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelusic, Masa; Lestan, Domen

    2015-11-01

    Soils highly contaminated with toxic metals are currently treated as waste despite their potential inherent fertility. We applied EDTA washing technology featuring chelant and process water recovery for remediation of soil with 4037, 2527, and 26 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively in a pilot scale. A high EDTA dose (120 mmol kg(-1) of soil) removed 70%, 15%, and 58% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, and reduced human oral bioaccessibility of Pb below the limit of quantification and that of Zn and Cd 3.4 and 3.2 times. In a lysimeters experiment, the contaminated and remediated soils were laid into two garden beds (4×1×0.15 m) equipped with lysimeters, and subjected to cultivation of ornamental plants: Impatiens walleriana, Tagetes erecta, Pelargonium×peltatum, and Verbena×hybrida and grasses: Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Festuca pratensis. Plants grown on remediated soil demonstrated the same or greater biomass yield and reduced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd up to 10, 2.5 and 9.5 times, respectively, compared to plants cultivated on the original soil. The results suggest that EDTA remediation produced soil suitable for greening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Using paired soil and house dust samples in an in vitro assay to assess the post ingestion bioaccessibility of sorbed fipronil

    Science.gov (United States)

    For children, ingestion of soils and house dusts can be an important exposure pathway for regulated organic compounds. Following ingestion, the extent to which compounds desorb and become bioaccessible is a critical determinant of systemic adsorption.We characterized the physicoc...

  10. Automatic flow-through dynamic extraction: A fast tool to evaluate char-based remediation of multi-element contaminated mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosende, María; Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Miró, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    An automatic in-vitro bioaccessibility test based upon dynamic microcolumn extraction in a programmable flow setup is herein proposed as a screening tool to evaluate bio-char based remediation of mine soils contaminated with trace elements as a compelling alternative to conventional phyto-availability tests. The feasibility of the proposed system was evaluated by extracting the readily bioaccessible pools of As, Pb and Zn in two contaminated mine soils before and after the addition of two biochars (9% (w:w)) of diverse source origin (pine and olive). Bioaccessible fractions under worst-case scenarios were measured using 0.001 mol L(-1) CaCl2 as extractant for mimicking plant uptake, and analysis of the extracts by inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry. The t-test of comparison of means revealed an efficient metal (mostly Pb and Zn) immobilization by the action of olive pruning-based biochar against the bare (control) soil at the 0.05 significance level. In-vitro flow-through bioaccessibility tests are compared for the first time with in-vivo phyto-toxicity assays in a microcosm soil study. By assessing seed germination and shoot elongation of Lolium perenne in contaminated soils with and without biochar amendments the dynamic flow-based bioaccessibility data proved to be in good agreement with the phyto-availability tests. Experimental results indicate that the dynamic extraction method is a viable and economical in-vitro tool in risk assessment explorations to evaluate the feasibility of a given biochar amendment for revegetation and remediation of metal contaminated soils in a mere 10 min against 4 days in case of phyto-toxicity assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cadmium bioaccumulation and gastric bioaccessibility in cacao: A field study in areas impacted by oil activities in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraza, F.; Schreck, E.; Lévêque, T.; Uzu, G.; López, F.; Ruales, J.; Prunier, J.; Marquet, A.; Maurice, L.

    2017-01-01

    Cacao from South America is especially used to produce premium quality chocolate. Although the European Food Safety Authority has not established a limit for cadmium (Cd) in chocolate raw material, recent studies demonstrate that Cd concentrations in cacao beans can reach levels higher than the legal limits for dark chocolate (0.8 mg kg −1 , effective January 1st, 2019). Despite the fact that the presence of Cd in agricultural soils is related to contamination by fertilizers, other potential sources must be considered in Ecuador. This field study was conducted to investigate Cd content in soils and cacao cultivated on Ecuadorian farms in areas impacted by oil activities. Soils, cacao leaves, and pod husks were collected from 31 farms in the northern Amazon and Pacific coastal regions exposed to oil production and refining and compared to two control areas. Human gastric bioaccessibility was determined in raw cacao beans and cacao liquor samples in order to assess potential health risks involved. Our results show that topsoils (0–20 cm) have higher Cd concentrations than deeper layers, exceeding the Ecuadorian legislation limit in 39% of the sampling sites. Cacao leaves accumulate more Cd than pod husks or beans but, nevertheless, 50% of the sampled beans have Cd contents above 0.8 mg kg −1 . Root-to-cacao transfer seems to be the main pathway of Cd uptake, which is not only regulated by physico-chemical soil properties but also agricultural practices. Additionally, natural Cd enrichment by volcanic inputs must not be neglected. Finally, Cd in cacao trees cannot be considered as a tracer of oil activities. Assuming that total Cd content and its bioaccessible fraction (up to 90%) in cacao beans and liquor is directly linked to those in chocolate, the health risk associated with Cd exposure varies from low to moderate. - Highlights: • Cd in cacao beans is enriched 4 times compared to soils contents. • Cd bioaccumulates in beans mainly through root

  12. The impact of steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains on phytate hydrolysis and the distribution, speciation and bio-accessibility of iron and zinc elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Elien; De Brier, Niels; Spiers, Kathryn M; Ryan, Chris; Garrevoet, Jan; Falkenberg, Gerald; Goos, Peter; Smolders, Erik; Delcour, Jan A

    2018-10-30

    Chelation of iron and zinc in wheat as phytates lowers their bio-accessibility. Steeping and germination (15 °C, 120 h) lowered phytate content from 0.96% to only 0.81% of initial dry matter. A multifactorial experiment in which (steeped/germinated) wheat was subjected to different time (2-24 h), temperature (20-80 °C) and pH (2.0-8.0) conditions showed that hydrothermal processing of germinated (15 °C, 120 h) wheat at 50 °C and pH 3.8 for 24 h reduced phytate content by 95%. X-ray absorption near-edge structure imaging showed that it indeed abolished chelation of iron to phytate. It also proved that iron was oxidized during steeping, germination and hydrothermal processing. It was further shown that zinc and iron bio-accessibility were respectively 3 and 5% in wheat and 27 and 37% in hydrothermally processed wheat. Thus, hydrothermal processing of (germinated) wheat paves the way for increasing elemental bio-accessibility in whole grain-based products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of in situ immobilization of Lead (Pb) and Arsenic (As) in contaminated soils with phosphate and iron: solubility and bioaccessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Y.S.; Du, X.; Weng, L.P.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of in situ immobilization of lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) in soil with respectively phosphate and iron is well recognized. However, studies on combined Pb and As-contaminated soil are fewer, and assessment of the effectiveness of the immobilization on mobility and bioaccessibility is also

  14. Ecological and human health risks from metal(loid)s in peri-urban soil in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhuhong; Hu, Xin

    2014-06-01

    In order to investigate the ecological and human health risks of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, Mn, Cr, and As) in peri-urban soils, 43 surface soil samples were collected from the peri-urban area around Nanjing, a megacity in China. The average contents were 1.19, 67.8, 37.6, 105, 167, 44.6, 722, and 50.8 mg kg(-1) for Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, and As, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As (p urban soil samples. Potential ecological risk indices show that the metal(loid)s in the soil could result in higher ecological risks. Cd is the main contributor to the risk, followed by As. The levels of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, and As in stomach and intestinal phases show a positive linear correlation with their total contents. Mn, Zn, Ni, Cd, and Pb in stomach phase showed higher bioaccessibility, while in intestinal phase, Cu, Cr, and As had the higher bioaccessibility. The carcinogenic risk in children and adults posed by As, Pb, and Cr via ingestion was deemed acceptable. The non-carcinogenic risks posed by these metal(loid)s via ingestion to children are higher than to adults and mainly result from As.

  15. A review on factors influencing bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshani, A M B

    2017-05-24

    Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent deficiency disorders in the world. As shown by many studies plant food based approaches have a real potential on prevention of vitamin A deficiency in a sustainable way. Carotenoids are important as precursors of vitamin A as well as for prevention of cancers, coronary heart diseases, age-related macular degeneration, cataract etc. Bioaccessibility and bioefficacy of carotenoids are known to be influenced by numerous factors including dietary factors such as fat, fiber, dosage of carotenoid, location of carotenoid in the plant tissue, heat treatment, particle size of food, carotenoid species, interactions among carotenoids, isomeric form and molecular linkage and subject characteristics. Therefore even when carotenoids are found in high quantities in plant foods their utilization may be unsatisfactory because some factors are known to interfere as negative effectors.

  16. The impact of soil organic matter and soil sterilisation on the bioaccessibility of 14C-azoxystrobin determined by desorption kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Helen; Riding, Matthew J; Oliver, Robin; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T

    2014-08-15

    As soils represent a major sink for most pesticides, factors influencing pesticide degradation are essential in identifying their potential environmental risk. Desorption of (14)C-azoxystrobin was investigated over time in two soils under sterile and non-sterile conditions using exhaustive (solvent) and non-exhaustive (aqueous) methods. Desorption data were fitted to a two-compartment model, differentiating between fast and slow desorbing fractions. With increased ageing, rapid desorption (Frap) (bioaccessibility) decreased with corresponding increases in slowly desorbing fractions (F(slow)). The rapid desorption rate constant (k(fast)) was not affected by ageing, sterility or extraction solvent. The non-exhaustive extractions had similar desorption profiles; whereas exhaustive extractions in aged soils had the highest F(rap). In non-sterile soil, F(rap) was lower resulting in higher F(slow), while desorption rates remained unaffected. Organic matter (OM) reduces F(rap); but not desorption rates. Microorganisms and OM enhanced ageing effects, reducing the fraction of fast desorbing chemicals and potentially the bioaccessibility of pesticides in soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of the bio-accessible fraction of Cr, As, Cd and Pb in locally available bread using on-line continuous leaching method coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Ram P; Beauchemin, Diane

    2015-03-31

    A previously developed, efficient and simple on-line leaching method was used to assess the maximum bio-accessible fraction (assuming no synergistic effect from other food and beverage) of potentially toxic elements (Cr, As, Cd and Pb) in whole wheat brown and white bread samples. Artificial saliva, gastric juice and intestinal juice were successively pumped into a mini-column, packed with bread (maintained at 37 °C) connected on-line to the nebulizer of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) instrument equipped with a collision-reaction interface (CRI) using hydrogen as reaction gas to minimize carbon- and chlorine-based polyatomic interferences. In contrast to the conventional batch method to which it was compared, this approach provides real-time monitoring of potentially toxic elements that are continuously released during leaching. Mass balance for both methods was verified at the 95% confidence level. Results obtained from the whole wheat brown and white bread showed that the majority of Cr, Cd and Pb was leached by gastric juice but, in contrast, the majority of As was leached by saliva. While there was higher total content for elements in whole wheat bread than in white bread, a higher percentage of elements were bio-accessible in white bread than in whole wheat bread. Both the on-line and batch methods indicate that 40-98% of toxic elements in bread samples are bio-accessible. While comparison of total analyte concentrations with provisional tolerable daily intake values may indicate some serious health concern for children, when accounting for the bio-accessibility of these elements, bread consumption is found to be safe for all ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of heterobinuclear (La-Zn, Pr-Zn, Nd-Zn, Sm-Zn, Eu-Zn, Gd-Zn, Tb-Zn, Dy-Zn) azine-bridged complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Bachcha; Srivastav, A.K.; Singh, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    Zinc(II) complex of 2-acetylpyridine salicyl aldazine (Haps) of the type Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 has been synthesised. The reaction of Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 with lanthanide chlorides, LnCl 3 (where Ln=La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb and Dy) yields azine-bridged heterobinuclear complexes of the formulae LnCl 3 Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 . These complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight, conductance (solid and solution) and magnetic susceptibility measurements, mass, IR and electronic spectral data. X-ray powder diffraction data indicate the tetragonal unit lattice for Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 and PrCl 3 Zn(aps) 2 (H 2 O) 2 . (author)

  19. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliński, Robert; Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo- inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo- inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo- inositol transport through enterocyte- -like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo- inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technique. The concentration of myo- inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 µg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 µg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 µg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo- inositol release of 64.04 µg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo- inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modified rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo - -inositol.

  20. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Katarzyna Cielecka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26 and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2 were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol transport through enterocyte-like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo-inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD technique. The concentration of myo-inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 μg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 μg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 μg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo-inositol release of 64.04 μg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo-inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modifi ed rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo-inositol.

  1. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Summary Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol transport through enterocyte- -like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo-inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technique. The concentration of myo-inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 µg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 µg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 µg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo-inositol release of 64.04 µg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo-inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modified rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo- -inositol. PMID:27904333

  2. Application of CE-ICP-MS and CE-ESI-MS/MS for identification of Zn-binding ligands in Goji berries extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzik, Lena; Kwiatkowski, Piotr

    2018-06-01

    The identification of groups of ligands binding metals is a crucial issue for the better understanding of their bioaccessibility. In the current study, we have intended an approach for identification of Zn-binding ligands based on using capillary electrophoresis combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS) and tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS/MS). The approach, which featured the use of the coupling of capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry allows to separate and observe zinc ions present in complexes with respect to their size and charge and to identify nine compounds with zinc isotopic profile. CE-ICP-MS provides us with information about presence of zinc species and elemental information about zinc distribution. CE-ESI-MS/MS provide us with information about the most favorable Zn binding ligands: amino acids, flavonols, stilbenoids, fenolic acids and carotenoids. The presented work is the continuation of previous studies based on using LC-ESI-MS/MS, though, now we presented a new solutions with the possibility of changing detectors without changing the separation techniques, what is important without re-optimizing the method. The new presented method allows to identify the zinc-binding ligands in shorter time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Operationally defined species characterization and bioaccessibility evaluation of cobalt, copper and selenium in Cape gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L.) by SEC-ICP MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Ruzik, Lena

    2016-03-01

    Physalis peruviana could attract great interest because of its nutritional and industrial properties. It is an excellent source of vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and carotenoids. Physalis Peruviana is also known to have a positive impact on human health. Unfortunately, still little is known about trace elements present in Physalis Peruviana and their forms available for the human body. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate bioaccessibility and characterization of species of cobalt, copper and selenium in Physalis Peruviana fruits. Total and extractable contents of elements were determined by mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS). In order to separate the different types of metal complexes Physalis peruviana fruits were treated with the following solvents: Tris-HCl (pH 7.4), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (pH 7.4) and ammonium acetate (pH 5.5). The best efficiency of extraction of: cobalt was obtained for ammonium acetate (56%) and Tris-HCl (60%); for copper was obtained for SDS (66%), for selenium the best extraction efficiency was obtained after extraction with SDS (48%). To obtain information about bioaccessibility of investigated elements, enzymatic extraction based on in vitro simulation of gastric (pepsin) and intestinal (pancreatin) digestion was performed. For copper and selenium the simulation of gastric digestion leads to the extraction yield above 90%, while both steps of digestion method were necessary to obtain satisfactory extraction yield in the case of cobalt. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled to on-line ICP MS detection was used to investigate collected metal species. The main fraction of metal compounds was found in the 17 kDa region. Cobalt and copper create complexes mostly with compounds extracted by means of ammonium acetate and SDS, respectively. Cobalt, copper and selenium were found to be highly bioaccessible from Physalis Peruviana. Investigation of available standards of cobalt and selenium

  4. Assessment of the solubility and bioaccessibility of arsenic in realgar wine using a simulated gastrointestinal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingnan; Sun Guoxin; Williams, Paul N.; Huang Qing; Zhu Yongguan

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic (As) wine is a traditional activity during the classic Chinese festival of Duanwu, colloquially known worldwide as the Dragon Boat Day. Arsenic wine is drunk on the morning of the fifth day of the fifth lunar calendar month to commemorate the death of Qu Yuan, a famed Chinese poet who drowned himself in protest of a corrupt government, and to protect against ill fortune. Although realgar minerals are characteristically composed of sparingly soluble tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfides (As 4 S 4 ), purity does vary with up to 10% of As being present as non-sulfur bound species, such as arsenate (As V ) and arsenite (As III ). Despite, the renewed interest in As speciation and the bioaccessibility of the active As components in realgar based Chinese medicines, little is known about the safety surrounding the cultural practice of drinking As wine. In a series of experiments the speciation and solubility of As in a range of wines were investigated. Furthermore, a simulated gastrointestinal system was employed to predict the impact of digestive processes on As bioavailability. The predominant soluble As species found in all the wines were As III and As V . Based on typical As wine recipes employing 0.1 g realgar mL -1 wine, the concentration of dissolved As ranged from ca. 100 to 400 mg L -1 depending on the ethanol content of the preparation: with the As solubility found to be higher in wines with a lower proportion of ethanol. Based on a common 100 mL measure of wine with a concentration of 400 mg As L -1 , the amount of soluble As would equate to around half of the acute minimal lethal dose for adults. This is likely an underestimate of the bioaccessible concentration, as a three-fold increase in bioaccessibility could be observed in the intestinal phase based on the results from the stimulated gastrointestinal system. - Research highlights: → Drinking realgar wine is a traditional activity during the classic Chinese festival of Duanwu for more than

  5. Effect of type of TAG fatty acids on lutein and zeaxanthin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleize, Béatrice; Tourniaire, Franck; Depezay, Laurence; Bott, Romain; Nowicki, Marion; Albino, Lionel; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Borel, Patrick

    2013-07-14

    The xanthophylls lutein and zeaxanthin probably play a role in visual function and may participate in the prevention of age-related eye diseases. Although a minimum amount of TAG is required for an optimal bioavailability of these carotenoids, the effect of the type of TAG fatty acids (FA) is less clear. The aim was to assess the effect of the type of TAG FA on bioavailability of these xanthophylls. A total of three complementary models were used: an in vitro digestion model to study bioaccessibility, Caco-2 cells to study uptake efficiency and orally administered rats to study in vivo bioavailability. Results showed that lutein and zeaxanthin bioaccessibility was greater (about 20-30 %, Pxanthophyll uptake by Caco-2 cells, but some compounds present in natural oils significantly affected xanthophyll uptake. Oral administration of rats with spinach and butter over 3 d led to a higher fasting plasma lutein concentration than oral administration with olive or fish oils. In conclusion, dietary fats rich in SFA lead to a higher bioavailability of lutein and zeaxanthin, as compared with fats rich in MUFA and PUFA. This is due partly to the higher bioaccessibility of these xanthophylls in the smaller mixed micelles produced when SFA are incorporated into mixed micelles.

  6. In vitro and in vivo approaches for the measurement of oral bioavailability of lead (Pb) in contaminated soils: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Munir Hussain, E-mail: MunirZia@gmail.com [Technical Services Department, Fauji Fertilizer Company Limited, Lahore (Pakistan); USDA-ARS, Environmental Management and By-products Utilization Laboratory, Bldg. 007, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States); Codling, Eton E. [USDA-ARS, Environmental Management and By-products Utilization Laboratory, Bldg. 007, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G. [US-Environmental Protection Agency, National Risk Management Research Laboratory Land Remediation and Pollution Control Division, 5995 Center Hill Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45224-1702 (United States); Chaney, Rufus L. [USDA-ARS, Environmental Management and By-products Utilization Laboratory, Bldg. 007, BARC-West, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We reviewed the published evidence of lead (Pb) contamination of urban soils, soil Pb risk to children through hand-to-mouth activity, reduction of soil Pb bioavailability due to soil amendments, and methods to assess bioaccessibility which correlate with bioavailability of soil Pb. Feeding tests have shown that urban soils may have much lower Pb bioavailability than previously assumed. Hence bioavailability of soil Pb is the important measure for protection of public health, not total soil Pb. Chemical extraction tests (Pb bioaccessibility) have been developed which are well correlated with the results of bioavailability tests; application of these tests can save money and time compared with feeding tests. Recent findings have revealed that fractional bioaccessibility (bioaccessible compared to total) of Pb in urban soils is only 5-10% of total soil Pb, far lower than the 60% as bioavailable as food-Pb presumed by U.S.-EPA (30% absolute bioavailability used in IEUBK model). - Highlights: > Among direct exposure pathways for Pb in urban environments, inadvertent ingestion of soil is considered the major concern. > The concentration of lead in house dusts is significantly related to that in garden soil, and is highest at older homes. > In modeling risks from diet/water/soil Pb, US-EPA presumes that soil-Pb is 60% as bioavailable as other dietary Pb. > Joplin study proved that RBALP method seriously underestimated the ability of phosphate treatments to reduce soil Pb bioavailability. > Zia et al. method has revealed that urban soils have only 5-10% bioaccessible Pb of total Pb level. - Improved risk evaluation and recommendations for Pb contaminated soils should be based on bioavailability-correlated bioaccessible soil Pb rather than total soil Pb.

  7. Bioaccessible peptides released by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fermented goat milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Jauregi, Paula; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Olalla-Herrera, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Amigo, Lourdes; Miralles, Beatriz

    2018-06-01

    In this study, ultrafiltered goat milks fermented with the classical starter bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subsp. thermophilus or with the classical starter plus the Lactobacillus plantarum C4 probiotic strain were analyzed using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) and/or high performance liquid chromatography-ion trap (HPLC-IT-MS/MS). Partial overlapping of the identified sequences with regard to fermentation culture was observed. Evaluation of the cleavage specificity suggested a lower proteolytic activity of the probiotic strain. Some of the potentially identified peptides had been previously reported as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antioxidant, and antibacterial and might account for the in vitro activity previously reported for these fermented milks. Simulated digestion of the products was conducted in the presence of a dialysis membrane to retrieve the bioaccessible peptide fraction. Some sequences with reported physiological activity resisted digestion but were found in the non-dialyzable fraction. However, new forms released by digestion, such as the antioxidant α s1 -casein 144 YFYPQL 149 , the antihypertensive α s2 -casein 90 YQKFPQY 96 , and the antibacterial α s2 -casein 165 LKKISQ 170 , were found in the dialyzable fraction of both fermented milks. Moreover, in the fermented milk including the probiotic strain, the k-casein dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor (DPP-IV) 51 INNQFLPYPY 60 as well as additional ACE inhibitory or antioxidant sequences could be identified. With the aim of anticipating further biological outcomes, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was applied to the bioaccessible fragments and led to potential ACE inhibitory sequences being proposed. Graphical abstract Ultrafiltered goat milks were fermented with the classical starter bacteria (St) and with St plus the

  8. Evaluation of the impact of food matrix change on the in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) slices during two drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongyuan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Yixiang; Wei, Qiuyu; Liu, Chunju; Nie, Meimei; Li, Dajing; Xiao, Yadong; Liu, Chunquan; Xu, Lang; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Ning

    2017-12-13

    The food matrix is a limiting factor in determining the bioaccessibility of carotenoids. The impact of food matrix change on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids during drying processes is still unknown. The effect of intermittent microwave vacuum-assisted drying (IMVD) and hot air drying (HAD) on the in vitro liberation and micellization of carotenoids in pumpkin slices was studied. This variable depended on the changes of the matrix driven by the drying process. Different changes in the cell morphology and carotenoid distribution of pumpkin slices during the two processing methods were observed. For IMVD, cell wall degradation and complete chromoplast organelle disruption contributed to the improvement in the liberation and micellization of carotenoids. In the HAD-dried sample, large pigment aggregates hindered the liberation of carotenoids. The carotenoid level in the micellar fraction appeared to be lower than that in the aqueous supernatant during the two processes, suggesting that the new obstacles formed during processing and/or digestion hindered the incorporation of carotenoids in mixed micelles.

  9. Two-dimensional electron gases in MgZnO/ZnO and ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures grown by dual ion beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Arif Khan, Md; Sharma, Pankaj; Than Htay, Myo; Kranti, Abhinav; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-04-01

    This work reports on the formation of high-density (~1013-1014 cm-2) two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in ZnO-based heterostructures, grown by a dual ion beam sputtering system. We probe 2DEG in bilayer MgZnO/ZnO and capped ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures utilizing MgZnO barrier layers with varying thickness and Mg content. The effect of the ZnO cap layer thickness on the ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructure is also studied. Hall measurements demonstrate that the addition of a 5 nm ZnO cap layer results in an enhancement of the 2DEG density by about 1.5 times compared to 1.11 × 1014 cm-2 for the uncapped bilayer heterostructure with the same 30 nm barrier thickness and 30 at.% Mg composition in the barrier layer. From the low-temperature Hall measurement, the sheet carrier concentration and mobility are both found to be independent of the temperature. The capacitance-voltage measurement suggests a carrier density of ~1020 cm-3, confined in 2DEG at the MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface. The results presented are significant for the optimization of 2DEG for the eventual realization of cost-effective and large-area MgZnO/ZnO-based high-electron-mobility transistors.

  10. Comparison of the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of corn protein hydrolysate and sodium caseinate stabilized curcumin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Yang; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Jin-Mei; Guo, Jian; Lin, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this work were to construct corn protein hydrolysate (CPH)-based curcumin nanoparticles (Cur NPs) and to compare the colloidal stability, bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity of the Cur NPs stabilized CPH and sodium caseinate (NaCas) respectively. The results indicated that Cur solubility could be considerably improved after the Cur NPs fabrication. The spectroscopy results demonstrated that the solubilization of Cur should be attributed to its complexation with CPH or NaCas. The Cur NPs exhibited good colloidal stability after 1 week's storage but showed smaller (40 nm) size in CPH than in NaCas (100 nm). After lyophilization, the Cur NPs powders showed good rehydration properties and chemical stability, and compared with NaCas, the size of Cur NPs stabilized by CPH was still smaller. Additionally, the Cur NPs exhibited higher chemical stability against the temperature compared with free Cur, and the CPH could protect Cur from degradation more efficiently. Comparing with NaCas, the Cur NPs stabilized by CPH exhibited better bioaccessibility and antioxidant activity. This study demonstrated that CPH may be better than NaCas in Cur NPs fabrication and it opens up the possibility of using hydrophobic protein hydrolysate to construct the NPs delivery system.

  11. Bioaccessibility, Cellular Uptake, and Transport of Astaxanthin Isomers and their Antioxidative Effects in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Ronghua; Zhu, Honghui; Zhang, Lianfu; Tsao, Rong

    2017-11-29

    The bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and antioxidative activities of three astaxanthin geometric isomers were investigated using an in vitro digestion model and human intestinal Caco-2 cells. This study demonstrated that the trans-cis isomerization of all-E-astaxanthin and the cis-trans isomerization of Z-astaxanthins could happen both during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and cellular uptake processes. 13Z-Astaxanthin showed higher bioaccessibility than 9Z- and all-E-astaxanthins during in vitro digestion, and 9Z-astaxanthin exhibited higher transport efficiency than all-E- and 13Z-astaxanthins. These might explain why 13Z- and 9Z-astaxanthins are found at higher concentrations in human plasma than all-E-astaxanthin in reported studies. All three astaxanthin isomers were effective in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis as seen in the antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD) activities ; 9Z- and 13Z- astaxanthins exhibited a higher protective effect than all-E-astaxanthin against oxidative stress as demonstrated by the lower cellular uptake of Z-astaxanthins and lower secretion and gene expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in Caco-2 cells treated with H 2 O 2 . We conclude, for the first time, that Z-astaxanthin isomers may play a more important role in preventing oxidative stress induced intestinal diseases.

  12. In vitro and in vivo approaches for the measurement of oral bioavailability of lead (Pb) in contaminated soils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Munir Hussain; Codling, Eton E.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Chaney, Rufus L.

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed the published evidence of lead (Pb) contamination of urban soils, soil Pb risk to children through hand-to-mouth activity, reduction of soil Pb bioavailability due to soil amendments, and methods to assess bioaccessibility which correlate with bioavailability of soil Pb. Feeding tests have shown that urban soils may have much lower Pb bioavailability than previously assumed. Hence bioavailability of soil Pb is the important measure for protection of public health, not total soil Pb. Chemical extraction tests (Pb bioaccessibility) have been developed which are well correlated with the results of bioavailability tests; application of these tests can save money and time compared with feeding tests. Recent findings have revealed that fractional bioaccessibility (bioaccessible compared to total) of Pb in urban soils is only 5-10% of total soil Pb, far lower than the 60% as bioavailable as food-Pb presumed by U.S.-EPA (30% absolute bioavailability used in IEUBK model). - Highlights: → Among direct exposure pathways for Pb in urban environments, inadvertent ingestion of soil is considered the major concern. → The concentration of lead in house dusts is significantly related to that in garden soil, and is highest at older homes. → In modeling risks from diet/water/soil Pb, US-EPA presumes that soil-Pb is 60% as bioavailable as other dietary Pb. → Joplin study proved that RBALP method seriously underestimated the ability of phosphate treatments to reduce soil Pb bioavailability. → Zia et al. method has revealed that urban soils have only 5-10% bioaccessible Pb of total Pb level. - Improved risk evaluation and recommendations for Pb contaminated soils should be based on bioavailability-correlated bioaccessible soil Pb rather than total soil Pb.

  13. Bioavailability of ginsenosides from white and red ginsengs in the simulated digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ok; Cha, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Eun Ha; Kim, Sang Min; Choi, Sang Won; Pan, Cheol-Ho; Um, Byung-Hun

    2014-10-15

    This study aims to investigate the bioavailability of ginsenosides during simulated digestion of white (WG) and red (RG) ginseng powders. Stability, bioaccessibility, and permeability of ginsenosides present in WG and RG were studied in a Caco-2 cell culture model coupled with oral, gastric, and small intestinal simulated digestion. Most ginsenosides in WG and RG were stable (>90%) during the simulated digestion. Bioaccessibilities of total ginsenosides during in vitro digestion of WG and RG were similar at approximately 85%. However, the bioaccessibility of protopanaxatriol type ginsenosides in the early food phase was greater than that of the protopanaxadiol type. The less polar RG ginsenosides were released later following the jejunum phase. Ginsenosides had low permeability (digestion and that ginsenosides are poorly absorbed in humans.

  14. Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Herting, Gunilla; Latvala, Siiri; Elihn, Karine; Karlsson, Hanna L; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2016-11-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5-7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10-12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential value of phosphate compounds in enhancing immobilization and reducing bioavailability of mixed heavy metal contaminants in shooting range soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, B; Bolan, N S; Choppala, G; Kunhikrishnan, A; Sanderson, P; Wang, H; Currie, L D; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Y S; Kim, G

    2017-10-01

    Shooting range soils contain mixed heavy metal contaminants including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn). Phosphate (P) compounds have been used to immobilize these metals, particularly Pb, thereby reducing their bioavailability. However, research on immobilization of Pb's co-contaminants showed the relative importance of soluble and insoluble P compounds, which is critical in evaluating the overall success of in situ stabilization practice in the sustainable remediation of mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Soluble synthetic P fertilizer (diammonium phosphate; DAP) and reactive (Sechura; SPR) and unreactive (Christmas Island; CPR) natural phosphate rocks (PR) were tested for Cd, Pb and Zn immobilization and later their mobility and bioavailability in a shooting range soil. The addition of P compounds resulted in the immobilization of Cd, Pb and Zn by 1.56-76.2%, 3.21-83.56%, and 2.31-74.6%, respectively. The reactive SPR significantly reduced Cd, Pb and Zn leaching while soluble DAP increased their leachate concentrations. The SPR reduced the bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in earthworms by 7.13-23.4% and 14.3-54.6% in comparison with earthworms in the DAP and control treatment, respectively. Bioaccessible Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations as determined using a simplified bioaccessibility extraction test showed higher long-term stability of P-immobilized Pb and Zn than Cd. The differential effect of P-induced immobilization between P compounds and metals is due to the variation in the solubility characteristics of P compounds and nature of metal phosphate compounds formed. Therefore, Pb and Zn immobilization by P compounds is an effective long-term remediation strategy for mixed heavy metal contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols associated with dietary fiber and in vitro kinetics release of polyphenols in Mexican 'Ataulfo' mango (Mangifera indica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancas-Benitez, Francisco J; Mercado-Mercado, Gilberto; Quirós-Sauceda, Ana E; Montalvo-González, Efigenia; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G

    2015-03-01

    The biological properties of polyphenol (PP) depend on its bioaccessibility and bioavailability. Therefore, part of PP released from the food matrix in the gastrointestinal tract through enzymatic hydrolysis is at least partially absorbed. The aim of this study is to determine the bioaccessibility of PP associated with dietary fiber (DF) and the kinetics release of PP in mango (Mangifera indica L.) 'Ataulfo' by-products by an in vitro model. Soluble and insoluble DF values were 7.99 and 18.56% in the mango paste and 6.98 and 22.78% in the mango peel, respectively. PP associated with soluble and insoluble DF was 6.0 and 3.73 g GAE per 100 g in the paste and 4.72 and 4.50 g GAE per 100 g in the peel. The bioaccessibility of PP was 38.67% in the pulp paste and 40.53% in the peel. A kinetics study shows a release rate of 2.66 and 3.27 g PP min(-1) in the paste and peel, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the paste increased as digestion reached a value of 2.87 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The antioxidant capacity of the peel had its maximum (28.94 mmol TE min(-1)) between 90 and 120 min of digestion; it started with a value of 2.58 mmol TE min(-1), and thereafter increased to 4.20 mmol TE min(-1) at 180 min. The major PPs released during the digestion of paste were gallic and hydroxybenzoic acids, while in the peel, they were hydroxycinnamic and vanillic acids. It was concluded that these phenolic compounds are readily available for absorption in the small intestine and exert different potential health benefits.

  17. High spin levels in 62Zn, 64Zn, 66Zn, and 68Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruandet, J.-F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigation by in-beam gamma spectroscopy of high-spin states in the even zinc isotopes has been made using the Ni(α,2nγ)Zn reactions at Esub(α) approximately equal to 30MeV for 62 Zn, 64 Zn and 66 Zn, and the 65 Cu(α,pγ) reaction at Esub(α) approximately equal to 18MeV for 68 Zn. The high-spin states feeding by varying the incident particles: p, 3 He,α, 12 C is discussed. It is pointed out that the gsub(9/2) orbital plays an important role in the structure of the high-spin states. The variation of the inertia momentum throughout the yrast line shows a backbending behavior and a shape transition associated to the occurence, for J>6, of rotational states is speculated [fr

  18. Assessment of the solubility and bioaccessibility of arsenic in realgar wine using a simulated gastrointestinal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yingnan; Sun Guoxin [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Williams, Paul N. [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Huang Qing [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhu Yongguan, E-mail: ygzhu@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361003 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Consumption of arsenic (As) wine is a traditional activity during the classic Chinese festival of Duanwu, colloquially known worldwide as the Dragon Boat Day. Arsenic wine is drunk on the morning of the fifth day of the fifth lunar calendar month to commemorate the death of Qu Yuan, a famed Chinese poet who drowned himself in protest of a corrupt government, and to protect against ill fortune. Although realgar minerals are characteristically composed of sparingly soluble tetra-arsenic tetra-sulfides (As{sub 4}S{sub 4}), purity does vary with up to 10% of As being present as non-sulfur bound species, such as arsenate (As{sup V}) and arsenite (As{sup III}). Despite, the renewed interest in As speciation and the bioaccessibility of the active As components in realgar based Chinese medicines, little is known about the safety surrounding the cultural practice of drinking As wine. In a series of experiments the speciation and solubility of As in a range of wines were investigated. Furthermore, a simulated gastrointestinal system was employed to predict the impact of digestive processes on As bioavailability. The predominant soluble As species found in all the wines were As{sup III} and As{sup V}. Based on typical As wine recipes employing 0.1 g realgar mL{sup -1} wine, the concentration of dissolved As ranged from ca. 100 to 400 mg L{sup -1} depending on the ethanol content of the preparation: with the As solubility found to be higher in wines with a lower proportion of ethanol. Based on a common 100 mL measure of wine with a concentration of 400 mg As L{sup -1}, the amount of soluble As would equate to around half of the acute minimal lethal dose for adults. This is likely an underestimate of the bioaccessible concentration, as a three-fold increase in bioaccessibility could be observed in the intestinal phase based on the results from the stimulated gastrointestinal system. - Research highlights: {yields} Drinking realgar wine is a traditional activity during the

  19. ZnSe/ZnSeTe Superlattice Nanotips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young SJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The authors report the growth of ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips on oxidized Si(100 substrate. It was found the nanotips exhibit mixture of cubic zinc-blende and hexagonal wurtzite structures. It was also found that photoluminescence intensities observed from the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips were much larger than that observed from the homogeneous ZnSeTe nanotips. Furthermore, it was found that activation energies for the ZnSe/ZnSeTe superlattice nanotips with well widths of 16, 20, and 24 nm were 76, 46, and 19 meV, respectively.

  20. Resonant Raman scattering of ZnS, ZnO, and ZnS/ZnO core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milekhin, A.G. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Yeryukov, N.A.; Sveshnikova, L.L.; Duda, T.A. [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Himcinschi, C. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freiberg (Germany); Zenkevich, E.I. [Belarussian National Technical University, Minsk (Belarus); Zahn, D.R.T. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Semiconductor Physics, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Resonant Raman scattering by optical phonon modes as well as their overtones was investigated in ZnS and ZnO quantum dots grown by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The in situ formation of ZnS/ZnO core/shell quantum dots was monitored by Raman spectroscopy during laser illumination. (orig.)

  1. Release of Zn from maternal tissues in pregnant rats deficient in Zn or Zn and Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, L.S.; Masters, D.G.; Lonnerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that diets that increase tissue catabolism reduce the teratogenic effects of Zn deficiency. The hypothesis that Zn may be released from body tissues when the metabolic state is altered was further tested. Nonpregnant Sprague Dawley females were injected with Zn-65; after equilibration, the two major pools of Zn, bone and muscle, had different specific activities (SA), muscle being much higher. Females were mated and fed diets adequate in Zn and Ca (C) or deficient in Zn (ZnD) or deficient in both Zn and Ca (ZnCaD). Calculations using weight loss in ZnD and ZnCaD rats, Zn content of maternal bone and muscle, and total fetal Zn at term indicated that in ZnCaD rats a relatively small amount of Zn from bone early in pregnancy was sufficient to prevent abnormal organogenesis, but most fetal Zn came from breakdown of maternal muscle in the last 3 days of pregnancy. Isotope data supported this conclusion. SA of Zn in ZnD fetuses was equal and high, indicating that most Zn came from the same maternal tissue. High muscle SA prior to mating, and increased SA in tibia and liver during pregnancy suggest that muscle provided Zn for other maternal tissues as well as fetuses. In contrast, SA in C fetuses was less than 30% of that of the D groups, consistent with the earlier hypothesis that most fetal Zn in C rats is accrued directly from the diet

  2. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W.

    2010-01-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  3. Bioavailability and bioaccessibility of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated site soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, G.; Angell, R.; Strive, E.; Ma, W. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Although the bioavailability and/or bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil can be measured by various ecological receptors, the methods that are suitable for metals do not necessarily work well for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs). In this study, several biological and chemical methods were used at various PHC contaminated sites to find the most fitting method for different soil types in terms of predicting the biological responses of organisms as measured by standard single species toxicity tests. Organisms such as plants, earthworms, and collembolan were exposed to soils with different PHC concentrations. Multiple endpoints were then measured to evaluate the biological responses. The exposure concentrations for the 4 CCME hydrocarbon fractions were measured using hexane:acetone extraction as well as extractions with cyclodextrin, and a mixture of enzymes to simulate the gastro-intestinal fluid of an earthworm. The estimated exposure concentrations depended on the extraction method. The study showed that existing methodologies must be modified in order to better estimate the biological effect of PHCs in soil. Comparative data was presented and discussed along with proposed methodological modifications.

  4. Bioaccessibility of micron-sized powder particles of molybdenum metal, iron metal, molybdenum oxides and ferromolybdenum--Importance of surface oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörsdorf, Alexander; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Hedberg, Yolanda

    2015-08-01

    The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, that are manufactured, imported or used in different products (substances or articles) are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Metals and alloys need hence to be investigated on their extent of released metals (bioaccessibility) in biologically relevant environments. Read-across from available studies may be used for similar materials. This study investigates the release of molybdenum and iron from powder particles of molybdenum metal (Mo), a ferromolybdenum alloy (FeMo), an iron metal powder (Fe), MoO2, and MoO3 in different synthetic body fluids of pH ranging from 1.5 to 7.4 and of different composition. Spectroscopic tools and cyclic voltammetry have been employed to characterize surface oxides, microscopy, light scattering and nitrogen absorption for particle characterization, and atomic absorption spectroscopy to quantify released amounts of metals. The release of molybdenum from the Mo powder generally increased with pH and was influenced by the fluid composition. The mixed iron and molybdenum surface oxide of the FeMo powder acted as a barrier both at acidic and weakly alkaline conditions. These findings underline the importance of the surface oxide characteristics for the bioaccessibility of metal alloys. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Testing single extraction methods and in vitro tests to assess the geochemical reactivity and human bioaccessibility of silver in urban soils amended with silver nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, N.; Rodrigues, S.M.; Tavares, D.; Monteiro, R.J.R.; Carvalho, L.; Trindade, T.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, E.; Romkens, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To assess if the geochemical reactivity and human bioaccessibility of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in soils can be determined by routine soil tests commonly applied to other metals in soil, colloidal Ag was introduced to five pots containing urban soils (equivalent to 6.8mgAgkg-1

  6. The use of a physiologically-based extraction test to assess relationships between bioaccessible metals in urban soil and neurodevelopmental conditions in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jie; Wang, Yinding; McDermott, Suzanne; Cai, Bo; Aelion, C. Marjorie; Lead, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) and cerebral palsy (CP) are serious neurodevelopment conditions and low birth weight (LBW) is correlated with both ID and CP. The actual causes and mechanisms for each of these child outcomes are not well understood. In this study, the relationship between bioaccessible metal concentrations in urban soil and these child conditions were investigated. A physiologically based extraction test (PBET) mimicking gastric and intestinal processes was applied to measure the bio-accessibility of four metals (cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb)) in urban soil, and a Bayesian Kriging method was used to estimate metal concentrations in geocoded maternal residential sites. The results showed that bioaccessible metal concentrations of Cd, Ni, and Pb in the intestinal phase were statistically significantly associated with the child outcomes. Lead and nickel were associated with ID, lead and cadmium was associated with LBW, and cadmium was associated with CP. The total concentrations and stomach concentrations were not correlated to significant effects in any of the analyses. For lead, an estimated threshold value was found that was statistically significant in predicting low birth weight. The change point test was statistically significant (p value = 0.045) at an intestine threshold level of 9.2 mg/kg (95% confidence interval 8.9–9.4, p value = 0.0016), which corresponds to 130.6 mg/kg of total Pb concentration in the soil. This is a narrow confidence interval for an important relationship. - Highlights: • Correlation between bioavailable metals and child development were investigated. • Cd, Ni, and Pb in the intestinal phase significantly affect neurodevelopment. • Pb has a threshold value 130.6 mg/kg (of whole soil) for low birth weight. - Based on physiologically based extraction test, the 130.6 mg/kg of total Pb concentration in the soil may cause low birth weight of baby.

  7. Atomic absorption photometry of excess Zn in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, K.; Shinkarenko, S.; Tuern, L. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Kirsanova, T.; Grebennik, A.; Vishnjakov, A. [Department of Physical Chemistry, D. Mendelejev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya Sq. 9, 125047 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-02-01

    Zn excess in ZnO is built up automatically at high temperatures. Excess Zn in hydrothermally grown ZnO single crystals were investigated by the atomic absorption photometry (AAP) method. To determine the excess zinc in ZnO samples, the AAP of zinc vapour was used in the conditions of solid-vapour equilibrium. Zn AAP allowed to eliminate excess Zn connected differentially in ZnO samples. To fix Zn non-stoichiometry, all the ZnO samples tested were previously heat treated at temperature interval from 850 to 900 C and at fixed Zn vapour pressures from 0.1 to 0.9 of saturated zinc vapour pressure at given treatment temperature. The analysis of temperature dependence of zinc vapour pressure indicated that the impurity metals take active role in the determination of non-stoichiometric zinc. The impurities Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu form oxides which will reduce during annealing in Zn vapor up to metals form. During AAP measurement in optical cuvette, these metals react with ZnO and give additional Zn vapor pressure. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. ZnMgO-ZnO quantum wells embedded in ZnO nanopillars: Towards realisation of nano-LEDs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakin, A.; El-Shaer, A.; Mofor, A.C.; Al-Suleiman, M.; Schlenker, E.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Braunschweig Technical University, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    ZnO thin films, ZnMgO/ZnO heterostructures and ZnO nanostructures were fabricated using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), vapour phase transport (VPT) and an aqueous chemical growth approach (ACG). The possibility to employ several fabrication techniques is of special importance for the realization of unique device structures. MBE was implemented for ZnO-based layer and heterostructure growth. Pronounced RHEED oscillations were used for growth control and optimisation, resulting in high quality ZnO and Zn{sub 1-x}Mg{sub x}O epilayers and heterostructures, as well as ZnMgO/ZnO quantum wells on sapphire and SiC substrates. A novel advanced VPT approach is developed and sapphire, SiC, ZnO epitaxial layers, and even plastic and glass were implemented as substrates for ZnO growth. The VPT fabrication of ZnO nanopillars, leading to well aligned, c-axis oriented nanopillars with excellent quality and purity is demonstrated. Successful steps were made towards device fabrication on ZnO basis. The nanopillar fabrication technique is combined with MBE technology: MBE-grown ZnMgO/ZnO quantum well structures were grown on ZnO nanopillars presenting significant progress towards nano-LEDs realization. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Impact of fatty acyl composition and quantity of triglycerides on bioaccessibility of dietary carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Tianyao; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Schwartz, Steven J; Failla, Mark L

    2007-10-31

    A carotenoid-rich salad meal with varying amounts and types of triglycerides (TG) was digested using simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions. Xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) and carotenes (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene) in chyme and micelle fraction were quantified to determine digestive stability and efficiency of micellarization (bioaccessibility). Micellarization of lutein (+zeaxanthin) exceeded that of alpha- and beta-carotenes, which was greater than that of lycopene for all test conditions. Micellarization of carotenes, but not lutein (+zeaxanthin), was enhanced (P structured TG (c18:1 > c8:0 > c4:0). The degree of unsaturation of c18 fatty acyl chains in TG added to the salad purée did not significantly alter the efficiency of micellarization of carotenoids. Relatively low amounts of triolein and canola oil (0.5-1%) were required for maximum micellarization of carotenes, but more oil (approximately 2.5%) was required when TG with medium chain saturated fatty acyl groups (e.g., trioctanoin and coconut oil) was added to the salad. Uptake of lutein and beta-carotene by Caco-2 cells also was examined by exposing cells to micelles generated during the simulated digestion of salad purée with either triolein or trioctanoin. Cell accumulation of beta-carotene was independent of fatty acyl composition of micelles, whereas lutein uptake was slightly, but significantly, increased from samples with digested triolein compared to trioctanoin. The results show that the in vitro transfer of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lycopene from chyme to mixed micelles during digestion requires minimal (0.5-1%) lipid content in the meal and is affected by the length of fatty acyl chains but not the degree of unsaturation in TG. In contrast, fatty acyl chain length has limited if any impact on carotenoid uptake by small intestinal epithelial cells. These data suggest that the amount of TG in a typical meal does not limit the bioaccessibility of

  10. Electrodeposition of Zn and Cu–Zn alloy from ZnO/CuO precursors in deep eutectic solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xueliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zou, Xingli, E-mail: xinglizou@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Xionggang, E-mail: luxg@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Changyuan; Cheng, Hongwei; Xu, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhou, Zhongfu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: Micro/nanostructured Zn and Cu–Zn alloy films have been electrodeposited directly from ZnO/CuO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES, the typical nucleation-growth mechanism and the micro/nanostructures-formation process are determined. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Micro/nanostructured Zn films have been electrodeposited directly from ZnO precursor in deep eutectic solvent (DES). • The morphology of the Zn electrodeposits depends on the cathodic potential and temperature. • The electrodeposited Zn films exhibit homogeneous morphologies with controllable particle sizes and improved corrosion resistance. • Cu–Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from their metal oxides precursors in DES. - Abstract: The electrodeposition of Zn and Cu–Zn alloy has been investigated in choline chloride (ChCl)/urea (1:2 molar ratio) based deep eutectic solvent (DES). Cyclic voltammetry study demonstrates that the reduction of Zn(II) to Zn is a diffusion-controlled quasi-reversible, one-step, two electrons transfer process. Chronoamperometric investigation indicates that the electrodeposition of Zn on a Cu electrode typically involves three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth process. Micro/nanostructured Zn films can be obtained by controlling the electrodeposition potential and temperature. The electrodeposited Zn crystals preferentially orient parallel to the (101) plane. The Zn films electrodeposited under more positive potentials and low temperatures exhibit improved corrosion resistance in 3 wt% NaCl solution. In addition, Cu–Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from CuO–ZnO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES. The XRD analysis indicates that the phase composition of the electrodeposited Cu–Zn alloy depends on the electrodeposition potential.

  11. Luminescent, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO-ZnS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raleaooa, Pule V. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa); Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Roodt, Andreas [Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 (South Africa); Mhlongo, Gugu G.; Motaung, David E. [DST/CSIR Nanotechnology Innovation Center, National Center for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, P.O. Box 395, ZA 0001 Pretoria (South Africa); Kroon, Robin E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, ZA 9300 Bloemfontein (South Africa); Ntwaeaborwa, Odireleng M., E-mail: ntwaeab@gmail.com [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, ZA 2050 (South Africa)

    2017-02-15

    The structure, particle morphology, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO, ZnS and ZnO-ZnS nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel method are reported. ZnO and ZnS were combined at room temperature by an ex situ synthetic route to prepare ZnO-ZnS nanocomposites. The nanocomposites exhibited particle morphology different from that of ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles. The ZnO and ZnS nanoparticles exhibited quantum confinement as inferred from the widening of their respective bandgap energies. The electron paramagnetic resonance data provided evidence for the existence of magnetic clusters near the surface, electron to nuclei interactions and defect states. The ZnO-ZnS nanocomposites exhibited tunable emission that was dependent on the ratio of ZnO to ZnS. These composites were evaluated for application in different types of light emitting devices.

  12. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: Assessment of threat scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goix, Sylvaine [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Lévêque, Thibaut [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); ADEME (French Agency for Environment and Energy Management), 20 Avenue du Grésillé, BP 90406, 49004 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Xiong, Tian-Tian [Université de Toulouse, INP-ENSAT, Av. Agrobiopôle, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); UMR 5245 CNRS-INP-UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire d' écologie fonctionnelle), Avenue de l' Agrobiopôle, BP 32607, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Schreck, Eva [Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); and others

    2014-08-15

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO{sub 4}, Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management. - Highlights: • Seven micro- and nano- monometallic characterized particles were studied as references. • Bioaccessibility, eco and cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential assays were performed. • According to calculated threat scores: CdCl{sub 2}∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO{sub 4}>Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  13. Comparison of the extraction efficiencies of different leaching agents for reliable assessment of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar A.; Limbeck A.

    2013-01-01

    In present study, an in-vitro physiologically based extraction test has been applied for extraction of bio-accessible trace metal fractions in airborne particulate matter (APM) samples collected from different urban sites in Austria and Pakistan using the leaching agents H2O, sodium chloride, ammonium acetate, ammonium citrate, synthetic gastric juice and artificial lung fluids. Obtained extracts were then measured using an ETV-ICP-OES procedure which allowed highly sensitive measurement of d...

  14. Thermoelectric ZnO and ZnAl2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    ZnO har vist sig at være et lovende termoelektrisk materiale. Den høje termiske ledningsevne kræver at man forsker i at finde en måde at sænke den. Tilstedeværelsen af både ZnAl2O4 og ZnO har vist sig at sænke den termiske ledningsevne for ZnO. Berardan et al. [5] har vist at når ZnAl2O4...... is tilstede på baggrund af en for høj aluminium doping koncentration under syntese af ZnO, så medfører tilstedeværelsen af ZnAl2O4 at zT sænkes. Modsat, så har Jood et al. vist at tildstedeværelsen af ZnAl2O4 kan medføre en aftagende termisk ledningsevne. På trods af en samtidig sænkning af den elektriske...... ledningsevne giver det overordnet en øget zT. Baillieul [29] har [20] syntetiseret ZnAl2O4 og ZnO separat, hvorefter krystalliterne er presset sammen. Det viser sig at medføre en øget elektrisk ledningsevne kombineret med aftagende termiske ledningsevne. Disse resultater viser at tilstedeværelsen af ZnAl2O4...

  15. Luminescent, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO-ZnS nanocomposites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raleaooa, PV

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The structure, particle morphology, optical and magnetic properties of ZnO, ZnS and ZnO-ZnS nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel method are reported. ZnO and ZnS were combined at room temperature by an ex situ synthetic route to prepare Zn...

  16. Effects of synthetic Zn chelates on flax response and soil Zn status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, D.; Almendros, P.; Alvarez, J.M.

    2016-11-01

    Throughout the world, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is often grown in Zn-deficient soils, but appropriate fertilizer management can optimize both crop yield and micronutrient content. A greenhouse experiment was conducted on Typic Haploxeralf (pH 6.1) and Typic Calcixerept (pH 8.1) soils to study the relative efficiency of chelated Zn using two application rates of three different Zn sources [Zn-EDDHSA, ethylenediamine-di-(2-hydroxy-5-sulfophenylacetate of Zn); Zn-HEDTA, N-2-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediaminetriacetate of Zn; and Zn-EDTA, ethylenediaminetetraacetate of Zn]. Dry matter /DM) yield, Zn concentration, chlorophyll content, crude fiber and tensile properties were monitored and the soil-Zn status (available-Zn, Zn-fractions and total-Zn) was assessed. Zinc chelate applications increased the most labile forms of Zn in soils and Zn concentrations in plants. The low rate of Zn generally had a beneficial effect on DM yield and tensile properties. The exception was Zn-EDTA in the weakly acidic soil, where the highest Zn concentrations were observed in leaves and whole shoots; this coincided with the largest concentrations of labile Zn in soil. The most efficient fertilizers were Zn-EDDHSA (in both soils) and Zn-EDTA (in the calcareous soil). The relatively large amounts of labile and available Zn present in both of the soils fertilized with Zn-EDTA points to the applying this chelate at lower rate than 5 mg Zn/kg; this should, in turn, reduce the cost of Zn fertilization and minimize environmental pollution risk. (Author)

  17. The chemistry of chicken manure labelled with 65Zn in the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G.; L'Annunziata, M.F.; Ortega, M.L.; Alvarado, R.

    1979-01-01

    The radioactive tracer 65 Zn was used to obtain labelled chicken manure with a view to studying various aspects of the chemical behaviour of zinc in this form of manure, together with some of the transformations occurring after the manure has been incorporated into a sandy soil. During the first stage of the study we obtained the labelled manure from 24 chickens to which 65 Zn with known activity had been orally administered. The manure was collected every 24 hours, with a total of 13 samplings. Having determined the specific activity in each manure sample, we found that roughly 75% of the total activity administered was recovered during the first sampling. Seven different treatments were then tried out, using acrylic columns, including the application of 65 Zn, formaldehyde, sucrose and NH 4 NO 3 , together with labelled and non-labelled chicken manure. These treatments were studied at 45 days of degradation so as to obtain fractions from each of the columns. In the fractions we measured (a) the available 65 Zn; (b) the organic 65 Zn; and (c) the fixed 65 Zn. The data obtained show the virtually zero mobility of the zinc in this soil. The same fractions were used to obtain extracts for the identification and measurement of some of the organic complexes of the zinc, using the following techniques: paper electrophoresis, electrodialysis, filtration using G-10 and G-25 Sephadex gel, and paper chromatography. (author)

  18. Integrated in vitro approaches to assess the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of silicon-biofortified leafy vegetables and preliminary effects on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Brunetti, Giacomina; Gigante, Isabella; Serio, Francesco; Santamaria, Pietro; Cardinali, Angela; Colucci, Silvia; Minervini, Fiorenza

    2017-03-01

    Food industries are increasingly oriented toward new foods to improve nutritional status and/or to combat nutritional deficiency diseases. In this context, silicon biofortification could be an innovative tool for obtaining new foods with possible positive effects on bone mineralization. In this paper, an alternative and quick in vitro approach was applied in order to evaluate the potential health-promoting effects of five silicon-biofortified leafy vegetables (tatsoi, mizuna, purslane, Swiss chard and chicory) on bone mineralization compared with a commercial silicon supplement. The silicon bioaccessibility and bioavailability of the five leafy vegetables (biofortified or not) and of the supplement were assessed by applying a protocol consisting of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion coupled with a Caco-2 cell model. Silicon bioaccessibility ranged from 0.89 to 8.18 mg/L and bioavailability ranged from 111 to 206 μg/L of Si for both vegetables and supplement. Furthermore, the bioavailable fractions were tested on a human osteoblast cell model following the expression of type 1 collagen and alkaline phosphatase. The results obtained highlighted that the bioavailable fraction of biofortified purslane and Swiss chard improved the expression of both osteoblast markers compared with the supplement and other vegetables. These results underline the potentially beneficial effect of biofortified leafy vegetables and also indicate the usefulness of in vitro approaches for selecting the best vegetable with positive bone effects for further in vivo research.

  19. Concentration and transportation of heavy metals in vegetables and risk assessment of human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil near a waste-incinerator site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Kang, Yuan; Pan, Weijian; Zeng, Lixuan; Zhang, Qiuyun; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-07-15

    There is limited study focusing on the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and human exposure to bioaccessible heavy metals in soil. In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd) were measured in five types of vegetables, soil, root, and settled air particle samples from two sites (at a domestic waste incinerator and at 20km away from the incinerator) in Guangzhou, South China. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were greater than those in aerial parts of vegetables and roots, which indicated that vegetables bioaccumulated low amount of heavy metals from soil. The similar pattern of heavy metal (Cr, Cd) was found in the settled air particle samples and aerial parts of vegetables from two sites, which may suggest that foliar uptake may be an important pathway of heavy metal from the environment to vegetables. The highest levels of heavy metals were found in leaf lettuce (125.52μg/g, dry weight) and bitter lettuce (71.2μg/g) for sites A and B, respectively, followed by bitter lettuce and leaf lettuce for sites A and B, respectively. Swamp morning glory accumulated the lowest amount of heavy metals (81.02μg/g for site A and 53.2μg/g for site B) at both sites. The bioaccessibility of heavy metals in soil ranged from Cr (2%) to Cu (71.78%). Risk assessment showed that Cd and Pb in soil samples resulted in the highest non-cancer risk and Cd would result in unacceptable cancer risk for children and risk. The non-dietary intake of soil was the most important exposure pathway, when the bioaccessibility of heavy metals was taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Luminescence properties of Ag-, Ga-doped ZnO and ZnO-ZnS thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnirenko, V.I.; Khomchenko, V.S.; Zavyalova, L.V. [V. Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics, NAS of Ukraine, Pr. Nauki 45, 03028 Kiev (Ukraine); Zashivailo, T.V. [National Technical University of Ukraine ' ' KPI' ' , Pr. Pobedy 37, 03056 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2012-08-15

    Thin films of ZnS were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method under atmospheric pressure onto glass substrates. ZnO-ZnS:[Ag, Ga] and ZnO:[Ag, Ga] thin films were prepared by oxidation and Ag, Ga doping of ZnS films at temperatures of 700-775 C for 0.5-1 h. Crystalline quality and luminescent properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and photoluminescence. It is found that the doped films have a polycrystalline structure without preferred orientation and consist of small grains gathered into conglomerates. The shape of photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the films depends strongly on the preparation conditions. The ZnO-ZnS:[Ag, Ga] films exhibited the blue and green emission connected with the presence of silver and oxygen, respectively. The ZnO:[Ag, Ga] films revealed the white emission originated from different defect-related transitions. The possible origin of radiative centers is discussed (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Multifunctions of dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium on osteogenesis, angiogenesis and bacteria inhibition for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yiqiang; Jin, Guodong; Xue, Yang; Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xuanyong; Sun, Jiao

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the osseointegration and long-term survival of dental implants, it is urgent to develop a multifunctional titanium surface which would simultaneously have osteogeneic, angiogeneic and antibacterial properties. In this study, a potential dental implant material-dual Zn/Mg ion co-implanted titanium (Zn/Mg-PIII) was developed via plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The Zn/Mg-PIII surfaces were found to promote initial adhesion and spreading of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) via the upregulation of the gene expression of integrin α1 and integrin β1. More importantly, it was revealed that Zn/Mg-PIII could increase Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ concentrations in rBMSCs by promoting the influx of Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ and inhibiting the outflow of Zn 2+ , and then could enhance the transcription of Runx2 and the expression of ALP and OCN. Meanwhile, Mg 2+ ions from Zn/Mg-PIII increased Mg 2+ influx by upregulating the expression of MagT1 transporter in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and then stimulated the transcription of VEGF and KDR via activation of hypoxia inducing factor (HIF)-1α, thus inducing angiogenesis. In addition to this, it was discovered that zinc in Zn/Mg-PIII had certain inhibitory effects on oral anaerobic bacteria (Pg, Fn and Sm). Finally, the Zn/Mg-PIII implants were implanted in rabbit femurs for 4 and 12weeks with Zn-PIII, Mg-PIII and pure titanium as controls. Micro-CT evaluation, sequential fluorescent labeling, histological analysis and push-out test consistently demonstrated that Zn/Mg-PIII implants exhibit superior capacities for enhancing bone formation, angiogenesis and osseointegration, while consequently increasing the bonding strength at bone-implant interfaces. All these results suggest that due to the multiple functions co-produced by zinc and magnesium, rapid osseointegration and sustained biomechanical stability are enhanced by the novel Zn/Mg-PIII implants, which have the potential

  2. Optical and structural investigation of ZnO@ZnS core–shell nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Efracio Mamani; Raubach, Cristiane W.; Gouvea, Rogério [CCAF, Instituto de Física e Matemática (IFM), Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Capão do Leão PO Box 354, CEP: 96010970, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Longo, Elson [INCTMN-UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, P.O. Box 355, Araraquara 14801-907, SP (Brazil); Cava, Sergio [CCAF, Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Rua Félix da Cunha 809, Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Moreira, Mário L., E-mail: mlucio3001@gmail.com [CCAF, Instituto de Física e Matemática (IFM), Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Campus Capão do Leão PO Box 354, CEP: 96010970, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    In the present work, are reported the experimental study of ZnO@ZnS core–shell synthesised by a microwave-assisted solvothermal (MAS) method. Some synthesis parameters such as, time, precursor concentration and temperature were fixed. In order to investigate the effect of growing shell on the structural and optical properties, the samples were grown with two different solvent (water or ethylene glycol). The characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction, absorption spectroscopy in the UV–vis range, scanning electron microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The results show that both ZnO and ZnS diffractions are present for all samples, however the crystallinity degree of ZnS shell are too low. The better decorations of ZnS (shell) on the ZnO (core) are obtained for ethylene glycol (EG) solvent, which is verified through FE-SEM images of ZnO@ZnS (EG). On the other hand, non morphological solvent dependence was observed for ZnO multi-wires. Also the luminescent emission for decorated system in water were more intense and leads to form a type-II band alignment for ZnO@ZnS core–shell system. - Highlights: • Obtation of ZnO@ZnS decorated systens using different solvents by MAS methodology. • Growth solvent dependence of hexagonal and cubic phases for ZnS. • Potential application of ZnO@ZnS decorated nanostructures as replacement material for solar cells. • Control over band alignment between ZnO and ZnS.

  3. Studies on the relationship between trace element (selenium, zinc) accumulation in hair and metabolism in body of rabbit by using 75Se and 65Zn tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xuelin; Song Xuehua; Wu Suqiong

    1999-01-01

    In the study, the rabbit was used as experimental animal. After 2 months of feeding the diet with different levels of Se or Zn, five animals from each group were given an oral dose of Na 2 75 SeO 3 or 65 ZnSO 4 solution, respectively. The process of absorption, exertion, accumulation and transfer of isotopes to the hair were determined, and the tissues retention of 75 Se or 65 Zn were also examined at the end of the experiments. The results obtained from the measurement of radioactive change of back hair in each group animal after the oral intake of 75 Se or 65 Zn showed that the 75 Se or 65 Zn transfer to hair were fast. At the seventh and fifth day after dosing, the 75 Se or 65 Zn were determined in the down-end section and upper-end section of back hair, and the radioactivity increased with time. At the first, the radioactivity in down-end section was higher than that of the upper-end section. However, at the end of experiment the upper-end section was higher than the down-end section. The data obtained from the different measuring point indicated that the accumulation, distribution of trace element in hair was not even. there was extended process from the down-end to the upper-end of hair and accumulation in upper-end section. The content of 75 Se or 65 Zn in hair was related to the level of Se or Zn in diet. However, there were difference among the different trace elements

  4. An in vitro assessment of bioaccessibility of arsenicals in rice and the use of this estimate within a probabilistic exposure model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenary, Heather R; Creed, Patricia A; Young, Andrea R; Mantha, Madhavi; Schwegel, Carol A; Xue, Jianping; Kohan, Michael J; Herbin-Davis, Karen; Thomas, David J; Caruso, Joseph A; Creed, John T

    2012-07-01

    In this study, an in vitro synthetic gastrointestinal extraction protocol was used to estimate bioaccessibility of different arsenicals present in 17 rice samples of various grain types that were collected across the United States. The across matrix average for total arsenic was 209 ng/g±153 (\\[xmacr]±2σ). The bioaccessibility estimate produced an across matrix average of 61%±19 (\\[xmacr]±2σ). The across matrix average concentrations of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were 81 ng/g±67.7 and 41 ng/g±58.1 (\\[xmacr]±2σ), respectively. This distribution of iAs concentrations in rice was combined with the distribution of consumption patterns (from WWEIA) in a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulator model to estimate population-based exposures. The mean consumption rate for the population as a whole was 15.7 g per day resulting in a 0.98 μg iAs per day exposure. The mean consumption rate for children 1-2 years old was 7 g per day resulting in a 0.48 μg iAs per day exposure. Presystemic biotransformation of DMA in rice was examined using an in vitro assay containing the anaerobic microbiota of mouse cecum. This assay indicated that DMA extracted from the rice was converted to dimethylthioarsinic acid, although a second oxygen-sulfur exchange to produce DMDTA was not observed.

  5. ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Based Downconversion Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs were fabricated using blue GaN chips and red-, yellow-, and green-emitting ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs. The power efficiencies were measured as 14.0 lm/W for red, 47.1 lm/W for yellow, and 62.4 lm/W for green LEDs at 2.6 V. The temperature effect of ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs on these LEDs was investigated using CIE chromaticity coordinates, spectral wavelength, full width at half maximum (FWHM, and power efficiency (PE. The thermal quenching induced by the increased surface temperature of the device was confirmed to be one of the important factors to decrease power efficiencies while the CIE chromaticity coordinates changed little due to the low emission temperature coefficients of 0.022, 0.050, and 0.068 nm/°C for red-, yellow-, and green-emitting ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs. These indicate that ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs are more suitable for downconversion LEDs compared to CdSe QDs.

  6. Observation of Zn vacancies in ZnO grown by chemical vapor transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, F.; Saarinen, K. [Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 1100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Grasza, K.; Mycielski, A. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-03-15

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the vacancy defects in ZnO crystals grown by both the conventional and contactless chemical vapor transport (CVT and CCVT). Our results show that Zn vacancies or Zn vacancy related defects are present in as-grown ZnO, irrespective of the growth method. Zn vacancies are observed in CVT-grown undoped ZnO and (Zn,Mn)O. The Zn vacancies present in undoped CCVT-ZnO are the dominant negatively charged point defect in the material. Doping the material with As introduces also Zn vacancy-related defect complexes with larger open volume. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Interface charge transfer process in ZnO:Mn/ZnS nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, M.; Toloman, D., E-mail: dana.toloman@itim-cj.ro; Popa, A. [National Institute for R & D of Isotopic and Molecular Technology (Romania); Mesaros, A. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science Center – C4S (Romania); Vasile, O. R. [University “Politehnica” from Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science (Romania); Leostean, C.; Pana, O. [National Institute for R & D of Isotopic and Molecular Technology (Romania)

    2016-03-15

    ZnO:Mn/ZnS nanocomposites were prepared by seed-mediated growth of ZnS QDs onto the preformed ZnO:Mn nanoparticles. The formation of the nanocomposite structure has been evidenced by XRD, HRTEM, and XPS. The architecture of the nanocomposite with outer ZnS QDs around ZnO:Mn cores is sustained by the sulfur and oxygen depth profiles resulted from XPS. When the two components are brought together, the band gap of ZnS component decreases while that of ZnO:Mn increases. It is the result of interface charge transfer from ZnO:Mn to ZnS QDs. Here ZnO:Mn valence states are extended through the interface into unoccupied gap states of ZnS. The energy band setup is modified from a type II into a type I band alignment. The process is accompanied by enhancement of composite UV emission of PL spectra as compared to its counterparts. The charge transfer from valence band also determines the increase of the core-polarization effect of sshell electrons at Mn{sup 2+} nucleus, thus determining the increase of the hyperfine field through the reduction of the covalency degree of Zn(Mn)–O bonds. The quantum confinement in ZnS QDs promotes the ferromagnetic coupling of singly occupied states due to Zn vacancies determining a superparamagnetic behavior of the ensemble. When the nanocomposites are formed, due to interface charge transfer effects, an increased number of filled cation vacancies in ZnS QDs develop, thus disrupting the pre-existing ferromagnetic coupling between spins resulting in a significant reduction of the overall saturation magnetization. The possibility to modulate nanocomposite properties by controlling the interface interactions may be foreseen in these types of materials.

  8. HEAVY METALS (Ni, Cu, Zn AND Cd CONTENT IN SERUM OF RAT FED GREEN MUSSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yudhistira Azis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis can playing role as bio-indicator or biomonitoring agent for heavy-metalcontaminations in the sea. In this research, the concentrations of four elements Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in P. viridis and in the serum of rat which orally feed by P. viridis were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS following dry acid digestion. Parameter analysis was evaluated by determining confidence limit for the obtained results. The result showed that there was a sequence of heavy-metal content in green mussels sample and laboratory rats serum, such as Ni < Cd < Cu < Zn. Keywords: heavy metals, green mussels, laboratory rats serum, AAS

  9. Properties of the ZnSe/ZnTe heterojunction prepared by a multi-source evaporation of ZnTe:Sb on ZnSe single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, N [Parma Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; First, F [Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Seuret, D [Universidad de La Habana, (Cuba). Facultad de Fisica-Matematica

    1979-07-16

    A new method of preparation is described of a ZnSe/ZnTe heterojunction in which Sb-doped ZnTe is deposited by a multi-source apparatus on ZnSe monocrystals. The properties of the heterojunction was studied, esp. the I-U characteristic, the 1/C/sup 2/ plot as a function of applied voltage, the photocurrent spectrum, and the electroluminescence spectrum.

  10. Synthesis of highly luminescent Mn:ZnSe/ZnS nanocrystals in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zheng; Wu Ping; Zhong Xinhua; Yang Yongji

    2010-01-01

    High-quality water-dispersible Mn 2+ -doped ZnSe core/ZnS shell (Mn:ZnSe/ZnS) nanocrystals have been synthesized directly in aqueous media. Overcoating a high bandgap ZnS shell around the Mn:ZnSe cores can bring forward an efficient energy transfer from the ZnSe host nanocrystals to the dopant Mn. The quantum yields of the dopant Mn photoluminescence in the as-prepared water-soluble Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals can be up to 35 ± 5%. The optical features and structure of the obtained Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals have been characterized by UV-vis, PL spectroscopy, TEM, XRD and ICP elementary analysis. The influences of various experimental variables, including the Mn concentration, the Se/Zn molar ratio as well as the kind and amount of capping ligand used in the core production and shell deposition process, on the luminescent properties of the obtained Mn:ZnSe/ZnS nanocrystals have been systematically investigated.

  11. The foodomics approach for the evaluation of protein bioaccessibility in processed meat upon in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Laghi, Luca; Babini, Elena; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Picone, Gianfranco; Ciampa, Alessandra; Valli, Veronica; Danesi, Francesca; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes a foodomics protocol coupling an in vitro static simulation of digestion to a combination of omics techniques, to grant an overview of the protein digestibility of a meat-based food, namely Bresaola. The proteolytic activity mediated by the digestive enzymes is evaluated through Bradford and SDS-PAGE assays, combined to NMR relaxometry and spectroscopy, to obtain information ranging from the microscopic to the molecular level, respectively. The simple proteomics tool adopted here points out that a clear increase of bioaccessible proteins occurs in the gastric phase, rapidly disappearing during the following duodenal digestion. However, SDS-PAGE and the Bradford assay cannot follow the fate of the digested proteins when the products are sized meat matrix. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin; Zhu, Jianguo, E-mail: yanglin_1028@163.com; Xiao, Dingquan

    2014-04-15

    High-quality ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystals were prepared via a hydrothermal microemulsion technique. Effective surface passivation of monodisperse ZnSe:Fe nanocrystals is achieved by overcoating them with a ZnSe shell. The samples were characterized by means of XRD, EDX, TEM, PSD, XPS, photoluminescence, and Raman spectrum. The results show that the as-synthesized nanocrystals are cubic zinc blende ZnSe structure with high purity and the average particle size of ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell nanocrystal is larger than that of ZnSe:Fe core. The growth of ZnSe shell causes a small red shift in PL spectra, and then the PL quantum yield (QY) increases from 16% before shell growth to the maximum of 37% after increasing shell thickness up to 1.2 monolayers (ML). Moreover, both transverse optic (TO) and longitudinal optic (LO) phonon modes of ZnSe are shifted toward lower frequency as compared with the reported ones. -- Highlights: • ZnSe:Fe/ZnSe core/shell QDs were prepared by a hydrothermal microemulsion method. • ZnSe shell efficiently passivates surface defects by serving as a physical barrier. • The particle size and PL properties can be turned with the growth of ZnSe shell. • The luminescence efficiency and stability of QDs could be improved in this manner.

  13. Evaluation of protective effect of different dietary fibers on polyphenolic profile stability of maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz) during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Lucas-Gonzalez, Raquel; Ballester-Costa, Carmen; Pérez-Álvarez, José A; Muñoz, Loreto A; Fernández-López, Juana

    2018-01-24

    The aim of this work was to determine the protective effect of different dietary fibers on (i) the recovery and bioaccessibility indexes, and (ii) the stability of polyphenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids and anthocyanins) of maqui berry powder subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion (GID). The extracts obtained in each phase (oral, gastric and intestinal) of GID were used to analyze the stability of polyphenolic compounds by HPLC, and the bioaccessibility of these compounds was also determined. At the end of the GID process, the mixture of maqui berry with the different fibers increased the bioaccessibility index of the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all cases. The results obtained suggest that the anthocyanins and phenolic acids and flavonoid compounds present in maqui are stabilized through dietary fiber interactions, which might provide sufficient levels for absorption during gastrointestinal digestion. The gums sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, xanthan gum and guar gum provided the best protective effect.

  14. Dispersion of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility in ZnTe, ZnSe, and ZnS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Hans Peter; Kühnelt, M.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    1998-01-01

    We have measured the absolute values of the second-harmonic generation (SHG) coefficient \\d\\ for the zinc-blende II-VI semiconductors ZnTe, ZnSe, and ZnS at room temperature. The investigated spectral region of the fundamental radiation lambda(F) ranges from 520 to 1321 nm using various pulsed...

  15. Solvothermal synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ZnO, ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO, mixed oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Alireza; Arefi, Mohammad Reza; Babapoor, Aziz; Amiri, Asghar; Beyki-Shuraki, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO mixed oxides nanoparticles were produced from a solution containing Zinc acetate, Mg and Ni nitrate by Solvothermal method. The calcination process of the ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO composites nanoparticles brought forth polycrystalline two-phase ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles of 40-80 nm in diameters. ZnO, MgO and NiO were crystallized into wuertzite and rock salt structures, respectively. The optical properties of ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles were obtained by solid state UV and solid state florescent. The XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopies of these nanoparticles were analyzed.

  16. Solvothermal synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ZnO, ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO, mixed oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Alireza; Arefi, Mohammad Reza; Babapoor, Aziz; Amiri, Asghar; Beyki-Shuraki, Khalil

    2011-03-01

    ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO mixed oxides nanoparticles were produced from a solution containing Zinc acetate, Mg and Ni nitrate by Solvothermal method. The calcination process of the ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO composites nanoparticles brought forth polycrystalline two-phase ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles of 40-80 nm in diameters. ZnO, MgO and NiO were crystallized into würtzite and rock salt structures, respectively. The optical properties of ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles were obtained by solid state UV and solid state florescent. The XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopies of these nanoparticles were analyzed.

  17. Solvothermal synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ZnO, ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO, mixed oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslani, Alireza, E-mail: a.aslani@vru.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, PO Box: 77176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arefi, Mohammad Reza [Islamic Azad University, Yazd Brunch, Young researchers Club, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babapoor, Aziz [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, PO Box: 54516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, Asghar; Beyki-Shuraki, Khalil [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, PO Box: 77176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO mixed oxides nanoparticles were produced from a solution containing Zinc acetate, Mg and Ni nitrate by Solvothermal method. The calcination process of the ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO composites nanoparticles brought forth polycrystalline two-phase ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles of 40-80 nm in diameters. ZnO, MgO and NiO were crystallized into wuertzite and rock salt structures, respectively. The optical properties of ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles were obtained by solid state UV and solid state florescent. The XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopies of these nanoparticles were analyzed.

  18. Zn nanoparticle formation in FIB irradiated single crystal ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea, M.; Barucca, G.; Notargiacomo, A.; Di Gaspare, L.; Mussi, V.

    2018-03-01

    We report on the formation of Zn nanoparticles induced by Ga+ focused ion beam on single crystal ZnO. The irradiated materials have been studied as a function of the ion dose by means of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, evidencing the presence of Zn nanoparticles with size of the order of 5-30 nm. The nanoparticles are found to be embedded in a shallow amorphous ZnO matrix few tens of nanometers thick. Results reveal that ion beam induced Zn clustering occurs producing crystalline particles with the same hexagonal lattice and orientation of the substrate, and could explain the alteration of optical and electrical properties found for FIB fabricated and processed ZnO based devices.

  19. Novel Zinc(II Complexes [Zn(atc-Et2] and [Zn(atc-Ph2]: In Vitro and in Vivo Antiproliferative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica de O. Lopes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin and its derivatives are the main metallodrugs used in cancer therapy. However, low selectivity, toxicity and drug resistance are associated with their use. The zinc(II (ZnII thiosemicarbazone complexes [Zn(atc-Et2] (1 and [Zn(atc-Ph2] (2 (atc-R: monovalent anion of 2-acetylpyridine N4-R-thiosemicarbazone were synthesized and fully characterized in the solid state and in solution via elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy, conductometry and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of these complexes was evaluated in the HepG2, HeLa, MDA-MB-231, K-562, DU 145 and MRC-5 cancer cell lines. The strongest antiproliferative results were observed in MDA-MB-231 and HepG2 cells, in which these complexes displayed significant selective toxicity (3.1 and 3.6, respectively compared with their effects on normal MRC-5 cells. In vivo studies were performed using an alternative model (Artemia salina L. to assure the safety of these complexes, and the results were confirmed using a conventional model (BALB/c mice. Finally, tests of oral bioavailability showed maximum plasma concentrations of 3029.50 µg/L and 1191.95 µg/L for complexes 1 and 2, respectively. According to all obtained results, both compounds could be considered as prospective antiproliferative agents that warrant further research.

  20. Subsurface hydrogen bonds at the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001) surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Matti; Beinik, Igor; Broqvist, Peter

    2016-01-01

    techniques, we find that the polar Zn-terminated ZnO(0001) surface becomes excessively Zn deficient during high-temperature annealing (780 K) in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The Zn vacancies align themselves into rows parallel to the [10-10] direction, and the remaining surface Zn ions alternately occupy wurtzite...

  1. Electron confinement at diffuse ZnMgO/ZnO interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison L. Coke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abrupt interfaces between ZnMgO and ZnO are strained due to lattice mismatch. This strain is relaxed if there is a gradual incorporation of Mg during growth, resulting in a diffuse interface. This strain relaxation is however accompanied by reduced confinement and enhanced Mg-ion scattering of the confined electrons at the interface. Here we experimentally study the electronic transport properties of the diffuse heteroepitaxial interface between single-crystal ZnO and ZnMgO films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The spatial extent of the interface region is controlled during growth by varying the zinc flux. We show that, as the spatial extent of the graded interface is reduced, the enhancement of electron mobility due to electron confinement more than compensates for any suppression of mobility due to increased strain. Furthermore, we determine the extent to which scattering of impurities in the ZnO substrate limits the electron mobility in diffuse ZnMgO–ZnO interfaces.

  2. Electron confinement at diffuse ZnMgO/ZnO interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Maddison L.; Kennedy, Oscar W.; Sagar, James T.; Warburton, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Abrupt interfaces between ZnMgO and ZnO are strained due to lattice mismatch. This strain is relaxed if there is a gradual incorporation of Mg during growth, resulting in a diffuse interface. This strain relaxation is however accompanied by reduced confinement and enhanced Mg-ion scattering of the confined electrons at the interface. Here we experimentally study the electronic transport properties of the diffuse heteroepitaxial interface between single-crystal ZnO and ZnMgO films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The spatial extent of the interface region is controlled during growth by varying the zinc flux. We show that, as the spatial extent of the graded interface is reduced, the enhancement of electron mobility due to electron confinement more than compensates for any suppression of mobility due to increased strain. Furthermore, we determine the extent to which scattering of impurities in the ZnO substrate limits the electron mobility in diffuse ZnMgO-ZnO interfaces.

  3. Orientation of Zn3P2 films via phosphidation of Zn precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsube, Ryoji; Nose, Yoshitaro

    2017-02-01

    Orientation of solar absorber is an important factor to achieve high efficiency of thin film solar cells. In the case of Zn3P2 which is a promising absorber of low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells, (110)/(001) orientation was only reported in previous studies. We have successfully prepared (101)-oriented Zn3P2 films by phosphidation of (0001)-oriented Zn films at 350 °C. The phosphidation mechanism of Zn is discussed through STEM observations on the partially-reacted sample and the consideration of the relationship between the crystal structures of Zn and Zn3P2 . We revealed that (0001)-oriented Zn led to nucleation of (101)-oriented Zn3P2 due to the similarity in atomic arrangement between Zn and Zn3P2 . The electrical resistivity of the (101)-oriented Zn3P2 film was lower than those of (110)/(001)-oriented films, which is an advantage of the phosphidation technique to the growth processes in previous works. The results in this study demonstrated that well-conductive Zn3P2 films could be obtained by controlling orientations of crystal grains, and provide a guiding principle for microstructure control in absorber materials.

  4. Catalyst-free combined synthesis of Zn/ZnO core/shell hollow microspheres and metallic Zn microparticles by thermal evaporation and condensation route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Waheed S. [Research Centre of Materials Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Cao Chuanbao, E-mail: cbcao@bit.edu.c [Research Centre of Materials Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Nabi, Ghulam; Yao Ruimin; Bhatti, Sajjad H. [Research Centre of Materials Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Catalyst-free combined synthesis of metal/semiconductor Zn/ZnO core/shell microspheres with hollow interiors on Si substrate and metallic Zn polygonal microparticles on glass substrate in a single experiment via thermal evaporation and condensation technique was reported. The Zn/ZnO hollow microspheres were observed to have dimensions in the range of 70-80 {mu}m whereas metallic Zn microparticles with polygonal cross section and oblate spherical shape were found to be of 8-10 {mu}m. Some of the Zn/ZnO core/shell hollow spheres were also observed to have single crystalline ZnO pointed rods in extremely low density grown on the outer shell. A vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process based growth mechanism was proposed for the formation of Zn/ZnO core/shell microspheres with hollow interior. The optical properties of Zn/ZnO core/shell microspheres were investigated by measuring the photoluminescence (PL) spectra at room temperature (RT). Two very strong emission bands were observed at 373 and 469 nm in the ultraviolet and visible regions respectively under excitation wavelength of 325 nm. Also the effect of the various excitation wavelengths on the PL behaviour was studied at room temperature. PL studies of Zn/ZnO core/shell microspheres show the promise of the material for applications in UV and blue light optical devices. - Abstract: Here we report catalyst-free combined synthesis of metal/semiconductor Zn/ZnO core/shell microspheres with hollow interiors on Si substrate and metallic Zn polygonal microparticles on glass substrate in a single experiment via thermal evaporation and condensation technique using nitrogen (N{sub 2}) as carrier agent at 800 {sup o}C for 120 min. The Zn/ZnO hollow microspheres were observed to have dimensions in the range of 70-80 {mu}m whereas metallic Zn microparticles with polygonal cross section and oblate spherical shape were found to be of 8-10 {mu}m. Some of the Zn/ZnO core/shell hollow spheres were also

  5. The bioaccessibility of iodine in the biofortified vegetables throughout cooking and simulated digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, De-Wang; Yan, Ai-Lan; Hong, Chun-Lai; Liu, Hui-Ping; Pan, Le-Hua; Song, Ming-Yi; Dai, Zhi-Xi; Ye, Ming-Li; Weng, Huan-Xin

    2018-01-01

    Biofortification of crops with exogenous iodine is a novel strategy to control iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). The bioaccessibility of iodine (BI) in the biofortified vegetables in the course of soaking, cooking and digestion, were examined. Under hydroponics, the concentration of iodine in leafstalks of the celery and pakchoi increased with increasing exogenous iodine concentration, 54.8-63.9% of the iodine absorbed by pakchoi was stored in the soluble cellular substance. Being soaked in water within 8 h, the iodine loss rate of the biofortified celery was 3.5-10.4% only. More than 80% of the iodine in the biofortified celery was retained after cooking under high temperature. The highest BI of the biofortified vegetables after digestion in simulated gastric and intestinal juice amounted to 74.08 and 68.28%, respectively. Factors influencing BI included pH, digestion duration, and liquid-to-solid ratio. The high BI of the biofortified vegetables provided a sound reference for the promotion of iodine biofortification as a tool to eliminate the IDD.

  6. Effects of BCL oral administation and herbal acupuncture at BL18, BL19 on Liver function changes induced by Alcohol in the mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa-Hyun Park

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation was designed to evaluate the effect of BCL(refinded Bambusae Caulis in Liqua-men oral administration and herbal acupuncture on alcohol metabolism and liver function. For this study. mice were damaged by a large quantity of alcohol and received treatment of either BCL 1 mg/kg in oral or BCL 250㎍/kg in herbal acupuncture-BL18 . BL19 bilateral. and then such parameters as GOT. GPT. catalase and superoxide dismustase(CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD were measured. The results of the experiments were summarized as follows. 1. Compared with control group, the proper degree of alcohol in serum was not significantly differ from oral administration group and herbal acupuncture group. 2. Compared with control group. the activity of GOT in serum was significantly reduced both oral administration and herbal acupuncture group. 3. Compared with control group. the activity of GPT in serum was significantly reduced both oral administration and herbal acupuncture group. 4. The activity of catalase in liver cell tissue, compared with control group. was not sigificantly affected either by oral administration and herbal acupuncture group. 5. The activity of CuZn-SOD in liver cell tissue was not significantly change in herbal acupuncture and oral administration group. The activity of Mn-SOD was significantly increased in oral administration group. while it was not the case in acupuncture group. In conclusion. we consider that BCL oral administration and herbal acupuncture is highly effetive in recovering alcohol metabolism and liver disfunction induced by alcohol.

  7. Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl2 to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kool, Pauline L.; Diez Ortiz, Maria; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2011-01-01

    The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl 2 were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants K f of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl 2 respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl 2 , respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size. - Highlights: → ZnO nanoparticles and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to Folsomia candida in soil. → Pore water from soil spiked with ZnO nanoparticles showed saturation with zinc suggesting aggregation. → Pore water based EC50 values for ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl 2 were similar. → ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in soil was most probably due to Zn dissolution from the nanoparticles. - ZnO nanoparticle toxicity to springtails in soil can be explained from Zn dissolution but not from particle size.

  8. The effect of ZnS segregation on Zn-rich CZTS thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Jian; Yan, Chang; Hao, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Secondary phase segregation in CZTS based solar cells has been studied by TEM. • A “Zn layer exchange” behaviour was found in sulphurisation of Zn/SnCu stacked layers. • XAS reveals a large spike-like CBO (>0.86 eV) between CZTS and ZnS. • Larger ZnS secondary phase proportion increases solar cell’s V oc but limits J sc . - Abstract: Analysis of ZnS segregation behaviour and its influence on the device performance has been made on the Zn-rich Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 thin film solar cells. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images reveal that ZnS is the main secondary phase in the Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 layer obtained from a sulphurised Zn/CuSn metallic stack. The excess Zn diffuses from back contact region to top surface of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 layer accumulating in the form of ZnS. The solar cell with a higher Zn concentration shows a large quantity of isolated ZnS grains at Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 top surface which is close to CdS/Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 heterojunction interface. Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicates a large spike-like conduction band offset between Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 and ZnS. Consequently, such much ZnS precipitates would increase series resistance and generate lower short-circuit current and external quantum efficiency. However, appropriate amount of ZnS at the space charge region of the solar cell has beneficial effects by reducing the heterojunction interface recombination. Therefore, an improved open-circuit voltage and a higher shunt resistance are achieved. This paper provides a possible method to intentionally segregate ZnS at the space charge region by depositing the Zn layer at the bottom of co-sputtered CuSn layer. Although it is difficult to synthesis a pure phase Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 absorber, we can utilise the ZnS secondary phase to improve the Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 solar performance by controlling the Zn-excess amount

  9. Photoluminescence study of ZnS and ZnS:Pb nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virpal,; Hastir, Anita; Kaur, Jasmeet; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Ravi Chand

    2015-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) study of pure and 5wt. % lead doped ZnS prepared by co-precipitation method was conducted at room temperature. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, Photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy. XRD patterns confirm cubic structure of ZnS and PbS in doped sample. The band gap energy value increased in case of Pb doped ZnS nanoparticles. The PL spectrum of pure ZnS was de-convoluted into two peaks centered at 399nm and 441nm which were attributed to defect states of ZnS. In doped sample, a shoulder peak at 389nm and a broad peak centered at 505nm were observed. This broad green emission peak originated due to Pb activated ZnS states

  10. Green synthesis of ZnSe and core–shell ZnSe@ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) using a new, rapid and room temperature photochemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molaei, M.; Bahador, A.R.; Karimipour, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, ZnSe and core–shell ZnSe@ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized using a one-pot, rapid and room temperature photochemical method. UV illumination provided the required energy for the chemical reactions. Synthesized NCs were characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD pattern indicated cubic zinc blende structure for ZnSe NCs and the TEM image indicated round-shaped particles, most of which had a diameter of about 3 nm. Band gap of ZnSe NCs was obtained as about 3.6 eV, which was decreased by increasing the illumination time. Synthesized NCs indicated intensive and narrow emission in the UV-blue area (370 nm) related to the excitonic recombination and a broad band emission with a peak located at about 490 nm originated from the DAP (donor–acceptor pairs) recombination. ZnS shell was grown on ZnSe cores using a reaction based on the photo-sensitivity of Na 2 S 2 O 3 . For ZnSe@ZnS core–shell NCs, XRD diffraction peaks shifted to higher angles. TEM image indicated a shell around cores and most of the ZnSe@ZnS NCs have a diameter of about 5 nm. After the ZnS growth, ZnSe excitonic emission shifted to the longer wavelength and PL intensity was increased considerably. PL QY was obtained about 11% and 17% for ZnSe and ZnSe@ZnS core–shell QDs respectively. - Highlights: • A green photochemical approach was reported for synthesis of ZnSe NCs. • ZnS shell was grown around ZnSe using a new method. • Synthesis method was rapid, simple and at room temperature. • ZnSe NCs indicated a narrow UV-blue and a broad DAP emissions. • PL intensity was increased considerably by ZnS shell growth

  11. Bioavailability of Zn in ZnO nanoparticle-spiked soil and the implications to maize plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xueqin; Wang, Fayuan; Shi, Zhaoyong; Tong, Ruijian; Shi, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between Zn bioavailability in ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-spiked soil and the implications to crops. The present pot culture experiment studied Zn bioavailability in soil spiked with different doses of ZnO NPs, using the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction method, as well as the toxicity and Zn accumulation in maize plants. Results showed that ZnO NPs exerted dose-dependent effects on maize growth and nutrition, photosynthetic pigments, and root activity (dehydrogenase), ranging from stimulatory (100–200 mg/kg) through to neutral (400 mg/kg) and toxic effect (800–3200 mg/kg). Both Zn concentration in shoots and roots correlated positively (P < 0.01) with ZnO NPs dose and soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentration. The BCF of Zn in shoots and roots ranged from 1.02 to 3.83 when ZnO NPs were added. In most cases, the toxic effects on plants elicited by ZnO NPs were overall similar to those caused by bulk ZnO and soluble Zn (ZnSO 4 ) at the same doses, irrespective of some significant differences suggesting a higher toxicity of ZnO NPs. Oxidative stress in plants via superoxide free radical production was induced by ZnO NPs at 800 mg/kg and above, and was more severe than the same doses of bulk ZnO and ZnSO 4 . Although significantly lower compared to bulk ZnO and ZnSO 4 , at least 16 % of the Zn from ZnO NPs was converted into DTPA-extractable (bioavailable) forms. The dissolved Zn 2+ from ZnO NPs may make a dominant contribution to their phytotoxicity. Although low amounts of ZnO NPs exhibited some beneficial effects, the accumulation of Zn from ZnO NPs into maize tissues could pose potential health risks for both plants and human

  12. Labile Zn ions on octacalcium phosphate-derived Zn-containing hydroxyapatite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Anada, Takahisa; Morimoto, Shinji [Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering (CFE), Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu, E-mail: suzuki-o@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering (CFE), Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    We previously synthesized and characterized zinc-containing octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and its hydrolyzed Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (HA). In the present report, we attempted to define the state of Zn in the OCP-derived Zn-calcium phosphates (CaPs) in relation to the presence of specific amino acids. Zn-containing OCPs were prepared in solutions that included Zn ions up to a concentration of 3.5 mM, and their hydrolyzates [hydrolyzed (hy)-Zn-CaP] were obtained in hot water. The materials were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The concentration of Ca and Zn ions at room temperature was determined by analyzing the supernatant after incubating the materials in α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM) and HEPES buffer including cysteine, histidine, lysine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid. Zn ions were more dissolved in α-MEM than HEPES buffer in the absence of amino acids. The inclusion of the amino acids enhanced Zn dissolution by several hundred fold, even in HEPES buffer. Among the amino acids, both cysteine and histidine enhanced the release of Zn. The effect was particularly remarkable with cysteine even in the presence of the other amino acids tested. These results indicate that Zn ions are present as a surface labile pool, which tends to be preferentially desorbed by cysteine, a ubiquitous molecule present in serum.

  13. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2014-04-30

    Contamination problem in jewelry and toys and children's exposure possibility have been previously demonstrated. For this study, risk from oral exposure has been characterized for highly contaminated metallic toys and jewelry ((MJ), n=16) considering three scenarios. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were high in selected MJ. First scenario (ingestion of parts or pieces) caused unacceptable risk for eight items for Cd, Ni, and/or Pb (hazard index (HI)>1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Morphology engineering of ZnO nanostructures for high performance supercapacitors: enhanced electrochemistry of ZnO nanocones compared to ZnO nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoli; Yoo, Joung Eun; Lee, Min Ho; Bae, Joonho

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the morphology of ZnO nanostructures is engineered to demonstrate enhanced supercapacitor characteristics of ZnO nanocones (NCs) compared to ZnO nanowires (NWs). ZnO NCs are obtained by chemically etching ZnO NWs. Electrochemical characteristics of ZnO NCs and NWs are extensively investigated to demonstrate morphology dependent capacitive performance of one dimensional ZnO nanostructures. Cyclic voltammetry measurements on these two kinds of electrodes in a three-electrode cell confirms that ZnO NCs exhibit a high specific capacitance of 378.5 F g-1 at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1, which is almost twice that of ZnO NWs (191.5 F g-1). The charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements also clearly result in enhanced capacitive performance of NCs as evidenced by higher specific capacitances and lower internal resistance. Asymmetric supercapacitors are fabricated using activated carbon (AC) as the negative electrode and ZnO NWs and NCs as positive electrodes. The ZnO NC⫽AC can deliver a maximum specific capacitance of 126 F g-1 at a current density of 1.33 A g-1 with an energy density of 25.2 W h kg-1 at the power density of 896.44 W kg-1. In contrast, ZnO NW⫽AC displays 63% of the capacitance obtained from the ZnO NC⫽AC supercapacitor. The enhanced performance of NCs is attributed to the higher surface area of ZnO nanostructures after the morphology is altered from NWs to NCs.

  15. Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in particulate matter from an abandoned uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Geoffrey; Foulkes, Michael; Henderson, Sam; Blake, William

    2016-04-01

    Currently, there are approximately 150 uranium mines in Europe at various stages of either operation, development, decommissioning, restoration or abandonment (wise-uranium.com). The particulate matter comprising the mounds of waste rock and mill tailings poses a risk to human health through the inadvertent ingestion of particles contaminated with uranium and thorium, and their decay products, which exposes recipients to the dual toxicity of heavy elements and their radioactive emissions. We investigated the bioaccessibility of 238U, 232Th and 206,214,210Pb in particulate samples taken from a contaminated, abandoned uranium mine in South West England. Sampling included a mine shaft, dressing floor and waste heap, as well as soils from a field used for grazing. The contaminants were extracted using the in-vitro Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe Method (UBM) in order to mimic the digestion processes in the human stomach (STOM) and the combined stomach and gastrointestinal tract (STOM+INT). Analyses of concentrations of U, Th and Pb in the extracts were by ICP-MS and the activity concentrations of radionuclides were determined on the same particles, before and after extraction, using gamma spectroscopy. 'Total' concentrations of U, Th and Pb for all samples were in the range 57 to 16,200, 0.28 to 3.8 and 69 to 4750 mg kg-1, respectively. For U and Pb the concentrations in the STOM fraction were lower than the total and STOM+INT fractions were even lower. However, for Th the STOM+INT fractions were higher than the STOM due to the presence of Th carbonate species within the gastrointestinal fluid. Activity concentrations for 214Pb and 210Pb, including total, STOM and STOM+INT, were in the range 180 to samples were 39% and 8% in the STOM and STOM+INT, respectively, whereas the respective BAFs for 232Th were 3% and 9%. For stable 206Pb the STOM and STOM+INT BAFs were 16% and 3% for the most contaminated samples, whereas those from the field had 44% in the

  16. Bioaccessibility and Speciation of Potential Toxicants in Some Geogenic Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, S. A.; Wolf, R. E.; Plumlee, G.; Reynolds, R. L.

    2008-12-01

    The correlation of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and increased morbidity and mortality was established in the 1970's. Research focused on elucidating mechanisms of action (i.e. particle size, composition, and biodurability), has generally examined anthropogenic sources such as solid or liquid combustion byproducts of fossil fuels, byproducts from the smelting of metal ores, and commercial/industrial mineral dusts (asbestos, crystalline silica. metal dusts). While many studies exist on agricultural exposures to inorganic dust, far fewer have examined health issues related to particulate matter contributions from rural, non-agricultural dusts or other geogenic sources. Geogenic PM (produced by natural processes such as volcanic ash, volcanic fog (vog), dusts from dry lakes or glacial deposits, smoke and windborne ash from wildfires, and dusts containing various soil pathogens) and geoanthropogenic PM (produced from natural sources by processes that are modified or enhanced by human activities such as dusts from lakebeds dried by human removal of water, dusts produced from areas that have undergone desertification as a result of human practices etc.) are increasingly recognized as potential agents of toxicity and disease, via both environmental and occupational exposures. Surface sediment on some dry lake beds may contribute significant amounts of mineral dusts to the atmospheric load. For example, Owens Lake (a dry lake in southern California) has been a major source of PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 micrometers) dust in the United States. Dusts from dry and drying saline lakes may contain high concentrations of metals, such as arsenic, with known human health toxicity. Wildfires, consuming over nine million acres in 2007, also contribute significant amounts of particulate matter in addition to their other hazards. Designed to estimate the bioaccessibility of metals in soils, dusts and other environmental materials by measuring the reactivity of the

  17. Bioavailability of Zn in ZnO nanoparticle-spiked soil and the implications to maize plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xueqin [Southwest University, College of Resources and Environment (China); Wang, Fayuan, E-mail: wfy1975@163.com; Shi, Zhaoyong [Henan University of Science and Technology, Agricultural College (China); Tong, Ruijian [Luoyang Normal University, Life Science Department (China); Shi, Xiaojun, E-mail: shixj@swu.edu.cn [Southwest University, College of Resources and Environment (China)

    2015-04-15

    Little is known about the relationships between Zn bioavailability in ZnO nanoparticle (NP)-spiked soil and the implications to crops. The present pot culture experiment studied Zn bioavailability in soil spiked with different doses of ZnO NPs, using the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction method, as well as the toxicity and Zn accumulation in maize plants. Results showed that ZnO NPs exerted dose-dependent effects on maize growth and nutrition, photosynthetic pigments, and root activity (dehydrogenase), ranging from stimulatory (100–200 mg/kg) through to neutral (400 mg/kg) and toxic effect (800–3200 mg/kg). Both Zn concentration in shoots and roots correlated positively (P < 0.01) with ZnO NPs dose and soil DTPA-extractable Zn concentration. The BCF of Zn in shoots and roots ranged from 1.02 to 3.83 when ZnO NPs were added. In most cases, the toxic effects on plants elicited by ZnO NPs were overall similar to those caused by bulk ZnO and soluble Zn (ZnSO{sub 4}) at the same doses, irrespective of some significant differences suggesting a higher toxicity of ZnO NPs. Oxidative stress in plants via superoxide free radical production was induced by ZnO NPs at 800 mg/kg and above, and was more severe than the same doses of bulk ZnO and ZnSO{sub 4}. Although significantly lower compared to bulk ZnO and ZnSO{sub 4}, at least 16 % of the Zn from ZnO NPs was converted into DTPA-extractable (bioavailable) forms. The dissolved Zn{sup 2+} from ZnO NPs may make a dominant contribution to their phytotoxicity. Although low amounts of ZnO NPs exhibited some beneficial effects, the accumulation of Zn from ZnO NPs into maize tissues could pose potential health risks for both plants and human.

  18. Implementation of ZnO/ZnMgO strained-layer superlattice for ZnO heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Vladimir; Bakin, Andrey; Tsiaoussis, Ioannis; Rothman, Johan; Ivanov, Sergey; Stoemenos, John; Waag, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    The main challenge in fabrication of ZnO-based devices is the absence of reliable p-type material. This is mostly caused by insufficient crystalline quality of the material and not well-enough-developed native point defect control of ZnO. At present high-quality ZnO wafers are still expensive and ZnO heteroepitaxial layers on sapphire are the most reasonable alternative to homoepitaxial layers. But it is still necessary to improve the crystalline quality of the heteroepitaxial layers. One of the approaches to reduce defect density in heteroepitaxial layers is to introduce a strained-layer superlattice (SL) that could stop dislocation propagation from the substrate-layer interface. In the present paper we have employed fifteen periods of a highly strained SL structure. The structure was grown on a conventional double buffer layer comprising of high-temperature MgO/low-temperature ZnO on sapphire. The influence of the SLs on the properties of the heteroepitaxial ZnO layers is investigated. Electrical measurements of the structure with SL revealed very high values of the carrier mobility up to 210 cm2/Vs at room temperature. Structural characterization of the obtained samples showed that the dislocation density in the following ZnO layer was not reduced. The high mobility signal appears to come from the SL structure or the SL/ZnO interface.

  19. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: Characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J., E-mail: gerald.zagury@polymtl.ca

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Risk for children up to 3 years-old was characterized considering oral exposure. • Saliva mobilization, ingestion of parts and of scraped-off material were considered. • Ingestion of parts caused hazard index (HI) values >>for Cd, Ni, and Pb exposure. • HI were lower (but > for saliva mobilization and <1 for scraped material ingestion. • Comprehensive approach aims to deal with drawbacks of current toy safety approaches. - Abstract: Contamination problem in jewelry and toys and children's exposure possibility have been previously demonstrated. For this study, risk from oral exposure has been characterized for highly contaminated metallic toys and jewelry ((MJ), n = 16) considering three scenarios. Total and bioaccessible concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb were high in selected MJ. First scenario (ingestion of parts or pieces) caused unacceptable risk for eight items for Cd, Ni, and/or Pb (hazard index (HI) > 1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always <1. Finally, saliva mobilization scenario caused HI > 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ.

  20. Green synthesis of ZnSe and core–shell ZnSe@ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) using a new, rapid and room temperature photochemical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molaei, M., E-mail: m.molaei@vru.ac.ir; Bahador, A.R.; Karimipour, M.

    2015-10-15

    In this work, ZnSe and core–shell ZnSe@ZnS nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized using a one-pot, rapid and room temperature photochemical method. UV illumination provided the required energy for the chemical reactions. Synthesized NCs were characterized using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. XRD pattern indicated cubic zinc blende structure for ZnSe NCs and the TEM image indicated round-shaped particles, most of which had a diameter of about 3 nm. Band gap of ZnSe NCs was obtained as about 3.6 eV, which was decreased by increasing the illumination time. Synthesized NCs indicated intensive and narrow emission in the UV-blue area (370 nm) related to the excitonic recombination and a broad band emission with a peak located at about 490 nm originated from the DAP (donor–acceptor pairs) recombination. ZnS shell was grown on ZnSe cores using a reaction based on the photo-sensitivity of Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. For ZnSe@ZnS core–shell NCs, XRD diffraction peaks shifted to higher angles. TEM image indicated a shell around cores and most of the ZnSe@ZnS NCs have a diameter of about 5 nm. After the ZnS growth, ZnSe excitonic emission shifted to the longer wavelength and PL intensity was increased considerably. PL QY was obtained about 11% and 17% for ZnSe and ZnSe@ZnS core–shell QDs respectively. - Highlights: • A green photochemical approach was reported for synthesis of ZnSe NCs. • ZnS shell was grown around ZnSe using a new method. • Synthesis method was rapid, simple and at room temperature. • ZnSe NCs indicated a narrow UV-blue and a broad DAP emissions. • PL intensity was increased considerably by ZnS shell growth.

  1. Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of type-II ZnO–ZnS core–shell nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookhakian, M., E-mail: m.sokhakian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Amin, Y.M. [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Basirun, W.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NanoCat), Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tajabadi, M.T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Kamarulzaman, N. [Centre for Nanomaterials Research Institute of Science, Level 3 Block C (Old Engineering Building), Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    We demonstrate a facile one-step method for the preparation of ZnO–ZnS core–shell type-II nanostructures, pure ZnS quantum dots and pure ZnO nanoparticles with different experimental conditions. Treatment with sodium hydroxide as a capping agent is investigated systematically during the synthesis of ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The thickness of the ZnS shell is controlled by the concentration of the sodium sulphide during the synthesis of ZnO–ZnS core–shell nanostructures. The morphology and structure of samples are verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The UV–vis absorption spectra of the pure ZnS QDs exhibit a blue shift in the absorption edge due to the quantum confinement effect. The PL emission spectra of the ZnO–ZnS core–shell nanostructure are compared with the ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO–ZnS core–shell nanostructures show decrease in the UV and green emissions with the appearance of a blue emission, which are not found in the ZnO nanoparticles. -- Highlights: • It has synthesised ZnO–ZnS core–shell type II in one-step for the first time. • The as-synthesised samples were characterised by using XRD, UV–vis. • The photoluminescence properties of ZnO–ZnS core–shell was compared with ZnO. • The UV and green emission in the PL spectrum of ZnO–ZnS core–shell decreased. • The blue emission in the PL spectrum of ZnO–ZnS core–shell appeared.

  2. Synthesis, structural, and optical properties of type-II ZnO–ZnS core–shell nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sookhakian, M.; Amin, Y.M.; Basirun, W.J.; Tajabadi, M.T.; Kamarulzaman, N.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a facile one-step method for the preparation of ZnO–ZnS core–shell type-II nanostructures, pure ZnS quantum dots and pure ZnO nanoparticles with different experimental conditions. Treatment with sodium hydroxide as a capping agent is investigated systematically during the synthesis of ZnS quantum dots (QDs). The thickness of the ZnS shell is controlled by the concentration of the sodium sulphide during the synthesis of ZnO–ZnS core–shell nanostructures. The morphology and structure of samples are verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The UV–vis absorption spectra of the pure ZnS QDs exhibit a blue shift in the absorption edge due to the quantum confinement effect. The PL emission spectra of the ZnO–ZnS core–shell nanostructure are compared with the ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO–ZnS core–shell nanostructures show decrease in the UV and green emissions with the appearance of a blue emission, which are not found in the ZnO nanoparticles. -- Highlights: • It has synthesised ZnO–ZnS core–shell type II in one-step for the first time. • The as-synthesised samples were characterised by using XRD, UV–vis. • The photoluminescence properties of ZnO–ZnS core–shell was compared with ZnO. • The UV and green emission in the PL spectrum of ZnO–ZnS core–shell decreased. • The blue emission in the PL spectrum of ZnO–ZnS core–shell appeared

  3. Chronic toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} to Folsomia candida (Collembola) in relation to bioavailability in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kool, Pauline L., E-mail: pauline.kool@falw.vu.nl [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Diez Ortiz, Maria [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pole de Recherche ROVALTAIN en Toxicologie Environnementale et Ecotoxicologie, Batiment Rhovalparc, BP 15173, 26958 Valence Cedex 9 (France); Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The chronic toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) to Folsomia candida was determined in natural soil. To unravel the contribution of particle size and free zinc to NP toxicity, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} were also tested. Zinc concentrations in pore water increased with increasing soil concentrations, with Freundlich sorption constants K{sub f} of 61.7, 106 and 96.4 l/kg (n = 1.50, 1.34 and 0.42) for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2} respectively. Survival of F. candida was not affected by ZnO-NP and non-nano ZnO at concentrations up to 6400 mg Zn/kg d.w. Reproduction was dose-dependently reduced with 28-d EC50s of 1964, 1591 and 298 mg Zn/kg d.w. for ZnO-NP, non-nano ZnO and ZnCl{sub 2}, respectively. The difference in EC50s based on measured pore water concentrations was small (7.94-16.8 mg Zn/l). We conclude that zinc ions released from NP determine the observed toxic effects rather than ZnO particle size. - Highlights: > ZnO nanoparticles and non-nano ZnO were equally toxic to Folsomia candida in soil. > Pore water from soil spiked with ZnO nanoparticles showed saturation with zinc suggesting aggregation. > Pore water based EC50 values for ZnO nanoparticles and ZnCl{sub 2} were similar. > ZnO nanoparticle toxicity in soil was most probably due to Zn dissolution from the nanoparticles. - ZnO nanoparticle toxicity to springtails in soil can be explained from Zn dissolution but not from particle size.

  4. Highly Efficient Defect Emission from ZnO:Zn and ZnO:S Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Bulk Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is a wide band gap semiconductor with an ultraviolet direct band gap energy of 3.4 eV and a broad, defect-related visible wavelength emission band centered near 2 eV. We have shown that the external quantum efficiency can exceed 50% for this nearly white emission band that closely matches the human dark-adapted visual response. To explore the potential of ZnO as a rare earth-free white light phosphor, we investigated the mechanism of efficient defect emission in three types of ZnO powders: unannealed, annealed, and sulfur-doped. Annealing and sulfur-doping of ZnO greatly increase the strength of defect emission while suppressing the UV band edge emission. Continuous wave and ultrafast one- and two-photon excitation spectroscopy are used to examine the defect emission mechanism. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) and PL excitation (PLE) spectra were measured for all three compounds, and it was found that bound excitons mediate the defect emission. Temperature-dependent PLE spectra for the defect and band edge emission were measured to estimate trapping and activation energies of the bound excitons and clarify the role they play in the defect emission. Time-resolved techniques were used to ascertain the role of exciton diffusion, the effects of reabsorption, and the spatial distributions of radiative and non-radiative traps. In unannealed ZnO we find that defect emission is suppressed and UV band edge emission is inefficient (reduced, and a high density of defects responsible for the broad visible emission are created near the surface. Interestingly, nearly identical PLE spectra are found for both the band edge and the defect emission, one of many indications that the defect emission is deeply connected to bound excitons. Quantum efficiency, also measured as a function of excitation wavelength, closely mirrors the PLE spectra for both emission bands. Sulfur-doped ZnO exhibits additional PLE and X-ray features indicative of a ZnS-rich surface

  5. Construction and evaluation of multi-component Zn-Al based bearing alloys (Zn-Al-Si, Zn-Al-Cu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahmiri, M.; Shahin, K.

    2001-01-01

    Zn-Al based alloys, with excellent mechanical properties, are finding increasing applications in various industries, especially bearing and bushing fields. Observed dimensional instabilities, in their multicomponent systems, (e. g. Zn-Al-Si and, Zn-Al Si-Cu), is believed to be as the result of some kinds of phase transformation, due to the temperature variations, while in service. Profound understanding of the phase transformations due to the temperature variation, requires detailed evaluations of the isothermal sections of the multi-components phase diagrams of Zn-Al-Si and, Zn-Al-Si-Cu alloy systems. In the present article, the isothermal sections of the aforementioned ternary and quaternary systems in the solid state regions have been investigated and observed phase transitions have been critically evaluated

  6. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO/ZnSe NWs/PbS QDs solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, M.; Zapien, J. A.

    2017-04-01

    The capture of solar energy has gained the attention for the next generation solar cell. ZnO/ZnSe NW arrays were synthesized on an FTO glass substrate using a simple and facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange approaches. The lead sulfide (PbS) QDs was infiltrated into ZnO/ZnSe NWs via SILAR method for making inorganic quantum dot sensitized ZnO/ZnSe/PbS QDs solar cell. The surface morphology, structural, optical, and J-V characteristics have been investigated. The ZnO/ZnSe NW is a core-shell like structure, and the absorption edge shifted from the UV region (ZnO NWs) to the near infrared region for ZnO/ZnSe NWs/PbS QDs. For PbS QDs-sensitized solar cell, the obtained value of η = 1.1%, J sc = 20.60 mA/cm2, V oc = 155 mV, and FF = 34.7%, respectively. The photovoltaic performance of the device in this study is still inferior. However, it is the first report regarding to ZnO/ZnZe NWs/PbS QDs solar cell. The achieving high absorption and large short circuit current density may interest in further improvement of the device performance by suppressing surface defects, optimizing the quality of ZnO/ZnSe NWs and PbS QDs.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO/ZnSe NWs/PbS QDs solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamruzzaman, M, E-mail: kzaman.phy11@gmail.com; Zapien, J A, E-mail: apjazs@cityu.edu.hk [City University of Hong Kong, Department of Physics and Materials Science and Center Of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) (China)

    2017-04-15

    The capture of solar energy has gained the attention for the next generation solar cell. ZnO/ZnSe NW arrays were synthesized on an FTO glass substrate using a simple and facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange approaches. The lead sulfide (PbS) QDs was infiltrated into ZnO/ZnSe NWs via SILAR method for making inorganic quantum dot sensitized ZnO/ZnSe/PbS QDs solar cell. The surface morphology, structural, optical, and J-V characteristics have been investigated. The ZnO/ZnSe NW is a core–shell like structure, and the absorption edge shifted from the UV region (ZnO NWs) to the near infrared region for ZnO/ZnSe NWs/PbS QDs. For PbS QDs-sensitized solar cell, the obtained value of η = 1.1%, J{sub sc} = 20.60 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc} = 155 mV, and FF = 34.7%, respectively. The photovoltaic performance of the device in this study is still inferior. However, it is the first report regarding to ZnO/ZnZe NWs/PbS QDs solar cell. The achieving high absorption and large short circuit current density may interest in further improvement of the device performance by suppressing surface defects, optimizing the quality of ZnO/ZnSe NWs and PbS QDs.

  8. Aqueous Synthesis of ZnSe/ZnS-2-R-Benzothiazole Nanocrystals with White Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Fan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We prepared water-soluble white light-emitting ZnSe/ZnS-2-R-benzothiazole nanocrystals (NCs, R = 2-hydroxy-5-(2,5-dimethyl-thienyl-phenyl. The penicillamine (Pen capped ZnSe/ZnS NCs were firstly prepared with high photoluminescence quantum yields (PL QY of 40%. Then they bond to 2-R-benzothiazole molecules, resulting in white light-emitting ZnSe/ZnS-2-R-benzothiazole NCs with QY of 75% over a 375 to 650 nm range of emission, which can be applied to white light-emitting diodes. The ZnSe/ZnS-2-R-benzothiazole NCs with two emission bands at around 451 and 557 nm were discussed and the possible mechanism of the interaction of ZnSe/ZnS NCs with 2-R-benzothiazole was also proposed.

  9. Effects of annealing atmosphere on ZnO{sup -} ions-implanted silica glass: synthesis of Zn and ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiri, P K [Department of Physics, Achhruram Memorial College, P.O. Jhalda, Purulia 723202 (India); Mahapatra, D P, E-mail: kuiripk@gmail.co [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India)

    2010-10-06

    The effects of annealing atmosphere (argon or oxygen) on Zn nanoparticles (NPs), embedded in silica glass, synthesized by implanting 50 keV ZnO{sup -} ions to a fluence of 7 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} have been studied. Optical absorption (OA) measurements carried out on the as-implanted samples have been found to result in a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band centred at {approx}255 nm due to the presence of Zn NPs in the silica glass. An increase in SPR peak intensity with a corresponding reduction of its full width at half maximum have been seen in the OA spectrum taken from the as-implanted sample following annealing in Ar ambient at 700 {sup 0}C for 2 h, indicating a growth in the size of Zn NPs. However, annealing the as-implanted sample in O{sub 2} gas at 700 {sup 0}C for 2 h has been found to result in a steep absorption edge at {approx}364 nm in the OA spectrum which indicates the formation of ZnO NPs. These ZnO NPs show quantum confinement effects due to their small sizes. No observable photoluminescence (PL) emission has been seen from Zn NPs, whereas an excitonic band at {approx}368 nm and three deep-level PL emission bands at {approx}453 nm, {approx}521 nm and {approx}650 nm, respectively, have been seen from ZnO NPs. It was argued that the deep-level PLs were due to the singly ionized oxygen vacancies located at ZnO NPs' surfaces. These observations suggest that ZnO NPs were formed due to oxidation of Zn NPs via interaction with the indiffusing O{sub 2} molecules during annealing in O{sub 2} ambient, but not with the interaction of the implanted oxygen in silica glass.

  10. Polytypism in ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe: First-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Boutaiba, F.

    2014-06-23

    We report results of first-principles calculations based on the projector augmented wave (PAW) method to explore the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of cubic (3C) and hexagonal (6H, 4H, and 2H) polytypes of II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe. We find that the different bond stacking in II-VI polytypes remarkably influences the resulting physical properties. Furthermore, the degree of hexagonality is found to be useful to understand both the ground-state properties and the electronic structure of these compounds. The resulting lattice parameters, energetic stability, and characteristic band energies are in good agreement with available experimental data. Trends with hexagonality of the polytype are investigated.

  11. Polytypism in ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe: First-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Boutaiba, F.; Belabbes, Abderrezak; Ferhat, M.; Bechstedt, F.

    2014-01-01

    We report results of first-principles calculations based on the projector augmented wave (PAW) method to explore the structural, thermodynamic, and electronic properties of cubic (3C) and hexagonal (6H, 4H, and 2H) polytypes of II-VI compounds: ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe. We find that the different bond stacking in II-VI polytypes remarkably influences the resulting physical properties. Furthermore, the degree of hexagonality is found to be useful to understand both the ground-state properties and the electronic structure of these compounds. The resulting lattice parameters, energetic stability, and characteristic band energies are in good agreement with available experimental data. Trends with hexagonality of the polytype are investigated.

  12. Magnetic properties of ZnO nanowires with Li dopants and Zn vacancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Xinhong; Cai, Ningning [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Yang, Chuanghua [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, Shanxi University of Technology (SNUT), Hanzhong 723001, Shanxi (China); Chen, Jun [Beijing Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: photon.bupt@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), Ministry of Education, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2016-04-30

    The electronic and magnetic properties of ZnO nanowire with Li dopants and vacancies have been investigated using first-principles density functional theory. It is found that the Zn vacancy can induce magnetism while increasing the formation energy of the system. However, the calculated results indicate that the introduction of Li-dopants will reduce the formation energy of system. We also have studied the magnetic couplings with vacancies as well as their corresponding configurations with Li-dopants for four configurations of ZnO nanowires. The results show that ferromagnetic properties can be improved/reversed after the introduction of Li-dopants. Ferromagnetic mechanism is originated from the fierce p–p hybridization of O near the Fermi level. We find that ferromagnetism of Li-doped ZnO nanowires with Zn vacancies can be realized at room temperature and they are promising spintronic materials. - Highlights: • Li-dopants will reduce the formation energy of ZnO nanowires with Zn vacancy. • The fierce p–p hybridization of O near Fermi level is responsible for FM properties. • Li-doped ZnO–V{sub Zn} nanowire is a promising FM semiconductor material.

  13. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures converted from ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Prayas Chandra; Ghosh, Surajit; Srivastava, P.C., E-mail: pcsrivastava50@gmail.com

    2016-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. - Highlights: • Phase change of cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO via heat treatment. • Band gap was found to decrease with increasing calcinations temperature. • ZnO samples have higher magnetic moment than ZnS. • Blocking Temperature of the samples is well above room temperature. • Maximum negative%MR with saturation value ∼38% was found for sample calcined at 600° C. - Abstract: The present work concentrates on the synthesis of cubic ZnS and hexagonal ZnO semiconducting nanoparticle from same precursor via co-precipitation method. The phase conversion of ZnS to highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO was done by heat treatment. From the analysis of influence of calcination temperature on the structural, optical and vibrational properties of the samples, an optimum temperature was found for the total conversion of ZnS nanoparticles to ZnO. Role of quantum confinement due to finite size is evident from the blue shift of the fundamental absorption in UV–vis spectra only in the ZnS nanoparticles. The semiconducting nature of the prepared samples is confirmed from the UV–vis, PL study and transport study. From the magnetic and transport studies, pure ZnO phase was found to be more prone to magnetic field.

  14. Photoemission studies of zinc-noble metal alloys: Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au films on Ru(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Hrbek, J.

    1993-01-01

    Zn and the noble metals alloy when coadsorbed on Ru(001). The properties of Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au alloys have been studied using core- and valence-level photoemission and temperature programmed desorption. Alloy formation induces only small shifts (-0.2 to -0.3 eV) in the position of the Zn 2p, 3s, and 3d levels. In contrast, the core and valence levels of the noble metals show large shifts toward higher binding energy. For small amounts of Cu, Ag, and Au dissolved in Zn multilayers, the shifts in the core levels of the nobel metals follow the sequence: Cu(2p 3/2 ), 0.8 eV∼Ag(3d 5/2 ), 0.8 eV 7/2 ), 1.4 eV. The magnitude of the shift increases as the Pauling electronegativity of the noble metal increases. However, the sign of the shifts for the Cu(2p 3/2 ), Ag(3d 5/2 ), or Au(4f 7/2 ) levels is not directly determined by the direction of charge transfer within the corresponding Zn-noble metal bond

  15. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and a non-absorbed marker, /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with /sup 65/Zn and /sup 51/Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption.

  16. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi 65 ZnCl 2 and a non-absorbed marker, 51 CrCl 3 , dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with 65 Zn and 51 Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption

  17. Studies on intrinsic defects related to Zn vacancy in ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.; Das, D.; Rath, Chandana

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Williamson–Hall analysis of ZnO indicates strain in the lattice and size is of 20 nm. ► PL shows a broad emission peak in visible range due to native defects. ► Raman active modes corresponding to P6 3 mc and a few additional modes are observed. ► FTIR detects few local vibrational modes of hydrogen attached to zinc vacancies. ► V Zn -H and Zn + O divacancies are confirmed by PAS. -- Abstract: ZnO being a well known optoelectronic semiconductor, investigations related to the defects are very promising. In this report, we have attempted to detect the defects in ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the conventional coprecipitation route using various spectroscopic techniques. The broad emission peak observed in photoluminescence spectrum and the non zero slope in Williamson–Hall analysis indicate the defects induced strain in the ZnO lattice. A few additional modes observed in Raman spectrum could be due to the breakdown of the translation symmetry of the lattice caused by defects and/or impurities. The presence of impurities can be ruled out as XRD pattern shows pure wurtzite structure. The presence of the vibrational band related to the Zn vacancies (V Zn ), unintentional hydrogen dopants and their complex defects confirm the defects in ZnO lattice. Positron life time components τ 1 and τ 2 additionally support V Zn attached to hydrogen and to a cluster of Zn and O di-vacancies respectively.

  18. Estimation of total as well as bioaccessible levels and average daily dietary intake of iodine from Japanese edible seaweeds by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    An epi-thermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with Compton suppression spectrometry (EINAA-CSS) was used for the determination of total iodine in eight different species of edible seaweeds from Japan. This method gave an absolute detection limit of about 2 μg. The accuracy of the method was evaluated using various reference materials and found to be generally in agreement within ±6% of the certified values. The longitudinal distributions of iodine at different growing stages in Japanese sea mustard and tangle seaweeds were investigated. For a 150-cm-high tangle, the highest concentration (5,360 mg/kg) of iodine was found at the root, then decreased slowly to 780 mg/kg in the middle portion (60-75 cm), and increased to 2,300 mg/kg at the apex. On the other hand, for a 190-cm-high sea mustard the highest levels of iodine were found both at the roots (164 mg/kg) and apex (152 mg/kg) with lower values (98 mg/kg) in the middle section. In order to estimate the bioaccessible fraction of iodine, seaweeds were digested by an in vitro enzymolysis method, dietary fibre separated from residue, and both fractions analyzed by EINAA-CSS. The average daily dietary intakes of total (0.14 mg) as well as bioaccessible fraction (0.12 mg) of iodine from the consumption of sea mustards were estimated. (author)

  19. Formation of Zn-rich phyllosilicate, Zn-layered double hydroxide and hydrozincite in contaminated calcareous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquat, Olivier; Voegelin, Andreas; Villard, Andre; Marcus, Matthew A.; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2007-10-15

    Recent studies demonstrated that Zn-phyllosilicate- and Zn-layered double hydroxide-type (Zn-LDH) precipitates may form in contaminated soils. However, the influence of soil properties and Zn content on the quantity and type of precipitate forming has not been studied in detail so far. In this work, we determined the speciation of Zn in six carbonate-rich surface soils (pH 6.2 to 7.5) contaminated by aqueous Zn in the runoff from galvanized power line towers (1322 to 30090 mg/kg Zn). Based on 12 bulk and 23 microfocused extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra, the number, type and proportion of Zn species were derived using principal component analysis, target testing, and linear combination fitting. Nearly pure Zn-rich phyllosilicate and Zn-LDH were identified at different locations within a single soil horizon, suggesting that the local availabilities of Al and Si controlled the type of precipitate forming. Hydrozincite was identified on the surfaces of limestone particles that were not in direct contact with the soil clay matrix. With increasing Zn loading of the soils, the percentage of precipitated Zn increased from {approx}20% to {approx}80%, while the precipitate type shifted from Zn-phyllosilicate and/or Zn-LDH at the lowest studied soil Zn contents over predominantly Zn-LDH at intermediate loadings to hydrozincite in extremely contaminated soils. These trends were in agreement with the solubility of Zn in equilibrium with these phases. Sequential extractions showed that large fractions of soil Zn ({approx}30% to {approx}80%) as well as of synthetic Zn-kerolite, Zn-LDH, and hydrozincite spiked into uncontaminated soil were readily extracted by 1 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} followed by 1 M NH{sub 4}-acetate at pH 6.0. Even though the formation of Zn precipitates allows for the retention of Zn in excess to the adsorption capacity of calcareous soils, the long-term immobilization potential of these precipitates is limited.

  20. Bioaccessibility of pro-vitamin A carotenoids is minimally affected by non pro-vitamin a xanthophylls in maize (Zea mays sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Sagar K; Failla, Mark L

    2008-12-10

    The absorption of some carotenoids has been reported to be decreased by coingestion of relatively high concentrations of other carotenoids. It is unclear if such interactions occur among carotenoids during the digestion of plant foods. Current varieties of maize contain limited amounts of the pro-vitamin A (pro-VA) carotenoids beta-carotene (BC) and beta-cryptoxanthin (BCX) and relatively higher levels of their oxygenated metabolites lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA). Here, we examined if LUT and ZEA attenuate the bioaccessibility of pro-VA carotenoids at amounts and ratios present in maize. BC incorporation into bile salt mixed micelles during chemical preparation and during simulated small intestinal digestion of carotenoid-enriched oil was slightly increased when the concentration of LUT was sixfold or more greater than BC. Likewise, the efficiency of BC micellarization was slightly increased during simulated small intestinal digestion of white maize porridge supplemented with oil containing ninefold molar excess of LUT to BC. Mean efficiencies of micellarization of BC, BCX, LUT, and ZEA were 16.7, 27.7, 30.3, and 27.9%, respectively, and independent of the ratio of LUT plus ZEA to pro-VA carotenoids during simulated digestion of maize porridge prepared from flours containing 0.4-11.3 microg/g endogenous pro-VA carotenoids. LUT attenuated uptake of BC by differentiated cultures of Caco-2 human cells from medium-containing micelles in a dose-dependent manner with inhibition reaching 35% when the molar ratio of LUT to BC was 13. Taken together, these results suggest that the bioaccessibility of pro-VA carotenoids in maize is likely to be minimally affected by the relative levels of xanthophylls lacking pro-VA activity present in cultivars of maize.

  1. High-Efficiency Photochemical Water Splitting of CdZnS/CdZnSe Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-I Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have prepared and employed TiO2/CdZnS/CdZnSe electrodes for photochemical water splitting. The TiO2/CdZnS/CdZnSe electrodes consisting of sheet-like CdZnS/CdZnSe nanostructures (8–10 μm in length and 5–8 nm in width were prepared through chemical bath deposition on TiO2 substrates. The TiO2/CdZnS/CdZnSe electrodes have light absorption over the wavelength 400–700 nm and a band gap of 1.87 eV. Upon one sun illumination of 100 mW cm−2, the TiO2/CdZnS/CdZnSe electrodes provide a significant photocurrent density of 9.7 mA cm−2 at −0.9 V versus a saturated calomel electrode (SCE. Incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE spectrum of the electrodes displays a maximum IPCE value of 80% at 500 nm. Moreover, the TiO2/CdZnS/CdZnSe electrodes prepared from three different batches provide a remarkable photon-to-hydrogen efficiency of 7.3 ± 0.1% (the rate of the photocatalytically produced H2 by water splitting is about 172.8 mmol·h−1·g−1, which is the most efficient quantum-dots-based photocatalysts used in solar water splitting.

  2. Cadmium bioaccumulation and gastric bioaccessibility in cacao: A field study in areas impacted by oil activities in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, F; Schreck, E; Lévêque, T; Uzu, G; López, F; Ruales, J; Prunier, J; Marquet, A; Maurice, L

    2017-10-01

    Cacao from South America is especially used to produce premium quality chocolate. Although the European Food Safety Authority has not established a limit for cadmium (Cd) in chocolate raw material, recent studies demonstrate that Cd concentrations in cacao beans can reach levels higher than the legal limits for dark chocolate (0.8 mg kg -1 , effective January 1st, 2019). Despite the fact that the presence of Cd in agricultural soils is related to contamination by fertilizers, other potential sources must be considered in Ecuador. This field study was conducted to investigate Cd content in soils and cacao cultivated on Ecuadorian farms in areas impacted by oil activities. Soils, cacao leaves, and pod husks were collected from 31 farms in the northern Amazon and Pacific coastal regions exposed to oil production and refining and compared to two control areas. Human gastric bioaccessibility was determined in raw cacao beans and cacao liquor samples in order to assess potential health risks involved. Our results show that topsoils (0-20 cm) have higher Cd concentrations than deeper layers, exceeding the Ecuadorian legislation limit in 39% of the sampling sites. Cacao leaves accumulate more Cd than pod husks or beans but, nevertheless, 50% of the sampled beans have Cd contents above 0.8 mg kg -1 . Root-to-cacao transfer seems to be the main pathway of Cd uptake, which is not only regulated by physico-chemical soil properties but also agricultural practices. Additionally, natural Cd enrichment by volcanic inputs must not be neglected. Finally, Cd in cacao trees cannot be considered as a tracer of oil activities. Assuming that total Cd content and its bioaccessible fraction (up to 90%) in cacao beans and liquor is directly linked to those in chocolate, the health risk associated with Cd exposure varies from low to moderate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, A.V., E-mail: knyazevav@gmail.com [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zakharchuk, I.; Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Baidakov, K.V.; Knyazeva, S.S. [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ladenkov, I.V. [Joint-stock Company “Research and Production Company “Salut”, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders were prepared by the solid-state reaction at 1073 K. • The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. • The temperature dependences of magnetization exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior. - Abstract: Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders with nominal compositions Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by the solid-state reaction synthesis with periodic regrinding during the calcination at 1073 K. The structure of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was refined assuming space group F d-3m. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the average sizes of the crystalline ferrite particles are 130–630 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 140–350 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. The Curie temperature tends to increase upon Zn substitution by Co, as well. The temperature dependences of magnetization measured using zero-field cooled and field cooled protocols exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior.

  4. Growth of vertically aligned ZnO nanorods using textured ZnO films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meléndrez Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hydrothermal method to grow vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays on ZnO films obtained by atomic layer deposition (ALD is presented. The growth of ZnO nanorods is studied as function of the crystallographic orientation of the ZnO films deposited on silicon (100 substrates. Different thicknesses of ZnO films around 40 to 180 nm were obtained and characterized before carrying out the growth process by hydrothermal methods. A textured ZnO layer with preferential direction in the normal c-axes is formed on substrates by the decomposition of diethylzinc to provide nucleation sites for vertical nanorod growth. Crystallographic orientation of the ZnO nanorods and ZnO-ALD films was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Composition, morphologies, length, size, and diameter of the nanorods were studied using a scanning electron microscope and energy dispersed x-ray spectroscopy analyses. In this work, it is demonstrated that crystallinity of the ZnO-ALD films plays an important role in the vertical-aligned ZnO nanorod growth. The nanorod arrays synthesized in solution had a diameter, length, density, and orientation desirable for a potential application as photosensitive materials in the manufacture of semiconductor-polymer solar cells. PACS 61.46.Hk, Nanocrystals; 61.46.Km, Structure of nanowires and nanorods; 81.07.Gf, Nanowires; 81.15.Gh, Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.

  5. Structural Properties of Zn-ZnO Core-Shell Microspheres Grown by Hot-Filament CVD Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD growth of Zn-ZnO core-shell microspheres in the temperature range of 350–650°C only using ZnO pellets as raw material. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. SEM micrographs showed the presence of solid microspheres and a Zn-ZnO layer in all samples. The observed heterogeneous morphology on each sample suggested two different growth mechanisms. On the one hand, solid microspheres were formed by means of gas phase nucleation of Zn atoms. The Zn-ZnO layer was formed on the substrate as result of surface reactions. It is possible that Zn microspheres condensed during the natural cooling of the HFCVD reactor as they were observed on the Zn-ZnO layer.

  6. Structural characteristics and corrosion behavior of biodegradable Mg-Zn, Mg-Zn-Gd alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubásek, J; Vojtěch, D

    2013-07-01

    In this research, binary Mg-Zn (up to 3 wt% Zn) and ternary Mg-Zn-Gd (up to 3 wt% Gd, 3 wt% Zn) alloys were prepared by induction melting in an argon atmosphere. The structures of these alloys were characterized using light and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. In addition, Brinell hardness measurements were taken to supplement these studies. Corrosion behavior was evaluated by immersion tests and potentiodynamic measurements in a physiological solution (9 g/l NaCl). Depending on the composition, structures of the as-cast alloys contained α-Mg dendrites, MgZn, Mg5Gd and Mg3Gd2Zn3 phases. Compared to pure Mg, zinc improved the corrosion resistance of binary Mg-Zn. Gadolinium also improved the corrosion resistance in the case of Mg-1Zn-3Gd alloy. The highest corrosion rate was observed for Mg-3Zn-3Gd alloy. Our results improve the understanding of the relationships between the structure and corrosion behavior of our studied alloy systems.

  7. Structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline ZnS and ZnS:Al films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurma, T.

    2018-06-01

    ZnS and ZnS:Al films have been deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method. Three different atomic ratios of aluminium were used as the dopant element. The effects of aluminum incorporation on structural and optical properties of the ZnS films have been investigated. The XRD analysis showed that the cubic structure of the ZnS was not much affected by Al doping. The crystal size of the films decreased, as the Al ratio increased. Al incorporation caused an increase in the intensity of ZnS films' peaks observed in Raman spectra and nearly symmetrical peaks were observed. Al doping caused a small decrease in optical band gap of the ZnS film. The coating of ZnS:Al films on the surface was quite good and there were not any deformation in their crystallization levels. Reflectance values of films are about 5% in the visible region but a little decrease is seen with aluminum doping. We can say that Al doping tends to improve the optical properties of the ZnS:Al films when compared with the undoped ZnS.

  8. Thermodynamic modeling of the Ce-Zn and Pr-Zn systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.P.; Chen, X.; Liu, X.J.; Pan, F.S.; Ishida, K.

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop the thermodynamic database of phase equilibria in the Mg-Zn-Re (Re: rare earth element) base alloys, the thermodynamic assessments of the Ce-Zn and Pr-Zn systems were carried out by using the calculation of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method on the basis of the experimental data including thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria. Based on the available experimental data, Gibbs free energies of the solution phases (liquid, bcc, fcc, hcp and dhcp) were modeled by the subregular solution model with the Redlich-Kister formula, and those of the intermetallic compounds were described by the sublattice model. A consistent set of thermodynamic parameters has been derived for describing the Gibbs free energies of each solution phase and intermetallic compound in the Ce-Zn and Pr-Zn binary systems. An agreement between the present calculated results and experimental data is obtained

  9. Children's exposure to harmful elements in toys and low-cost jewelry: Characterizing risks and developing a comprehensive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Risk for children up to 3 years-old was characterized considering oral exposure. • Saliva mobilization, ingestion of parts and of scraped-off material were considered. • Ingestion of parts caused hazard index (HI) values >>for Cd, Ni, and Pb exposure. • HI were lower (but > for saliva mobilization and 1, up to 75, 5.8, and 43, respectively). HI for ingestion of scraped-off material scenario was always 1 in three samples (two for Cd, one for Ni). Risk characterization identified different potentially hazardous items compared to United States, Canadian, and European Union approaches. A comprehensive approach was also developed to deal with complexity and drawbacks caused by various toy/jewelry definitions, test methods, exposure scenarios, and elements considered in different regulatory approaches. It includes bioaccessible limits for eight priority elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Sb). Research is recommended on metals bioaccessibility determination in toys/jewelry, in vitro bioaccessibility test development, estimation of material ingestion rates and frequency, presence of hexavalent Cr and organic Sn, and assessment of prolonged exposure to MJ

  10. Polyphenol Bioaccessibility and Sugar Reducing Capacity of Black, Green, and White Teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Coe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea (Camellia sinensis is a widely consumed beverage and recognised for its potential enhancing effect on human health due to its rich polyphenol content. While a number of studies have investigated the quantity and type of polyphenols present in different tea samples, no study has reported the potential effect of digestive enzymes on the availability of tea polyphenols for human absorption or the subsequent impact on glycaemic response. The objectives of the present study were to assess the total polyphenol content of different teas, to assess the bioaccessibility of polyphenols in whole and bagged teas, and to determine the effect of black, white, and green tea infusions on sugar release. All of the teas were a significant source of polyphenols (10–116 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g. There was an overall increase in the release of polyphenols from both the bagged and the whole teas following in vitro digestion. Bagged green tea significantly ( reduced rapidly digestible starch from white bread samples compared to control and black and white bagged teas. The present study confirms that tea is a rich source of polyphenols and highlights the potential benefits it may have on modulating glycaemic response in humans.

  11. Changes in soil solution Zn and pH and uptake of Zn by arbuscular mycorrhizal red clover in Zn-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Christie, P

    2001-01-01

    Red clover plants inoculated with Glomus mosseae were grown in a sterile pasture soil containing 50 mg Zn kg(-1) in 'Plexiglas' (acrylic) containers with nylon net partitions (30 microm mesh) designed to separate the soil into a central root zone and two outer zones for hyphal growth with no root penetration. Two porous plastic soil moisture samplers were installed in each pot, one in the root compartment and the other in one of the hyphal compartments. The soil in the outer compartments was amended with one of the four application rates of Zn (as ZnSO4) ranging from 0 to 1000 mg kg(-1). Non-mycorrhizal controls were included, and there were five replicates of each treatment in a randomised block in a glasshouse. Uninoculated plants received supplementary P to avoid yield limitation due to low soil P status. Plants grew in the central compartment for nine weeks. Soil moisture samples were collected 4, 24 and 62 days after sowing to monitor changes in the Zn concentration and pH of the soil solution. At harvest, the mean mycorrhizal infection rate of inoculated plants ranged from 29% to 34% of total root length and was little affected by Zn application. Root and shoot yields were not affected by mycorrhizal infection. Plant Zn concentration and uptake were lower in mycorrhizal plants than non-mycorrhizal controls, and this effect was more pronounced with increasing Zn application rate to the soil. Soil solution Zn concentrations were lower and pH values were higher in mycorrhizal treatments than non-mycorrhizal controls and the mycorrhiza effect was more pronounced at higher Zn application rates. The protective effect of mycorrhiza against plant Zn uptake may have been associated with changes in Zn solubility mediated by changes in the soil solution pH, or by immobilisation of Zn in the extraradical mycelium.

  12. Identification of Zn vacancies in ZnTe doped with Cl and I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka-Kumar, Palakkal; Alatalo, Matti; Wang, Wen

    1997-03-01

    The doping difficulties of II-VI semiconductors are well known. For example, ZnTe can be doped easily to have p-type conductivity but not n-type. We examined Cl and I doped ZnTe using positron annihilation spectroscopy to understand the role of vacancies in the compensation mechanism. The annihilation line shapes from inner-shell electrons can be used for elemental identification[1]. Results from ZnTe:Cl and ZnTe:I show an enhancement of annihilations with Te electrons compared to undoped samples, and is explained as arising due to first neighbor of a Zn vacancy. Theoretical calculations of the annihilation line shapes from bulk ZnTe and Zn and Te vacancies will also be presented. This work was supported in part by the US DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-76CH00016. [1] P. Asoka-Kumar, M. Alatalo, V.J. Ghosh, A.C. Kruseman, B. Nielsen, and K.G. Lynn, Phys. Rev. Lett. Vol. 77, 2097 (1996).

  13. Nanostructured Zn and ZnO nanowire thin films for mechanical and self-cleaning applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Ummar Pasha [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar, E-mail: ddebarun@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Nagaland, Chumukedima, Dimapur 797103 (India); Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Prof. C R Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Madhurima, V. [Department of Physics, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur 610004 (India)

    2015-03-01

    Highlights: • Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on various substrates. • Upon annealing Zn there is transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires. • ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic and exhibit wetting transition on UV exposure. • ZnO will be useful in self-cleaning, mechanical and oxidation resistance surfaces. - Abstract: Nanostructured Zn metal films were deposited by thermal evaporation, on borosilicate glass, Quartz, sapphire, lanthanum aluminate and yttria stabilized zirconia substrates. The as-deposited films are nanocrystalline and show a morphology that consists of triangular nanosheets. The films are hydrophobic with contact angles between 102° and 120° with hardness and Young's modulus between 0.15–0.8 GPa and 18–300 GPa, respectively. Thermal annealing of the films at 500 °C results only in partial oxidation of Zn to ZnO, which indicates good oxidation resistance. Annealing also causes transformation of the Zn nanosheets into ZnO nanowires that are polycrystalline in nature. The ZnO nanowires are superhydrophobic with contact angles between 159° and 162°, contact angle hysteresis between 5° and 10° and exhibit a reversible superhydrophobic–hydrophilic transition under UV irradiation. The nanowires are much softer than the as-deposited Zn metal films, with hardness between 0.02 and 0.4 GPa and Young's modulus between 3 and 35 GPa. The current study thus demonstrates a simple process for fabrication of nanostructured Zn metal films followed by a one-step transformation to nanowires with properties that will be very attractive for mechanical and self-cleaning applications.

  14. Soil solution dynamics of Cu and Zn in a Cu- and Zn-polluted soil as influenced by gamma-irradiation and Cu-Zn interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y M; Yan, W D; Christie, P

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study soil solution dynamics of Cu and Zn in a Cu/Zn-polluted soil as influenced by gamma-irradiation and Cu-Zn interaction. A slightly acid sandy loam was amended with Cu and Zn (as nitrates) either singly or in combination (100 mg Cu and 150 mg Zn kg(-1) soil) and was then gamma-irradiated (10 kGy). Unamended and unirradiated controls were included, and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Forrester) was grown for 50 days. Soil solution samples obtained using soil moisture samplers immediately before transplantation and every ten days thereafter were used directly for determination of Cu, Zn, pH and absorbance at 360 nm (A360). Cu and Zn concentrations in the solution of metal-polluted soil changed with time and were affected by gamma-irradiation and metal interaction. gamma-Irradiation raised soil solution Cu substantially but generally decreased soil solution Zn. These trends were consistent with increased dissolved organic matter (A360) and solution pH after gamma-irradiation. Combined addition of Cu and Zn usually gave higher soil solution concentrations of Cu or Zn compared with single addition of Cu or Zn in gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated soils, indicating an interaction between Cu and Zn. Cu would have been organically complexed and consequently maintained a relatively high concentration in the soil solution under higher pH conditions. Zn tends to occur mainly as free ion forms in the soil solution and is therefore sensitive to changes in pH. The extent to which gamma-irradiation and metal interaction affected solubility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn was a function of time during plant growth. Studies on soil solution metal dynamics provide very useful information for understanding metal mobility and bioavailability.

  15. Phase transformation from cubic ZnS to hexagonal ZnO by thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, K.; Asghar, M.; Amin, N.; Ali, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the mechanism of phase transformation from ZnS to hexagonal ZnO by high-temperature thermal annealing. The ZnS thin films were grown on Si (001) substrate by thermal evaporation system using ZnS powder as source material. The grown films were annealed at different temperatures and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), four-point probe, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDX). The results demonstrated that as-deposited ZnS film has mixed phases but high-temperature annealing leads to transition from ZnS to ZnO. The observed result can be explained as a two-step process: (1) high-energy O atoms replaced S atoms in lattice during annealing process, and (2) S atoms diffused into substrate and/or diffused out of the sample. The dissociation energy of ZnS calculated from the Arrhenius plot of 1000/T versus log (resistivity) was found to be 3.1 eV. PL spectra of as-grown sample exhibits a characteristic green emission at 2.4 eV of ZnS but annealed samples consist of band-to-band and defect emission of ZnO at 3.29 eV and 2.5 eV respectively. SEM and EDX measurements were additionally performed to strengthen the argument.

  16. Resistive switching in ZnO/ZnO:In nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakhulin, D. A.; Vakulov, Z. E.; Smirnov, V. A.; Tominov, R. V.; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Ageev, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    A lot of effort nowadays is put into development of new approaches to processing and storage of information in integrated circuits due to limitations in miniaturisation. Our research is dedicated to one of actively developed concepts - oxide based resistive memory devices. A material that draws interest due to its promising technological properties is ZnO but pure ZnO lacks in performance in comparison with some other transition metal oxides. Thus our work is focused on improvement of resistive switching parameters in ZnO films by creation of complex nanocomposites. In this work we report characterisation of a nanocomposite based on PLD grown ZnO films with inclusions of In. Such solution allows us to achieve improvements of main parameters that are critical for ReRAM device: RHRS/RLRS ratio, endurance and retention.

  17. Effect of past and current dietary Zn intake on Zn absorption and endogenous excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Hunt, J.R.; Ralston, N.V.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of previous dietary Zn (or body Zn stores) and current dietary Zn intake on absorption and endogenous excretion of Zn were studied by using radioisotope dilution. Rats were fed diets containing 1.5, 12.6 or 50.3 mg Zn/kg for 19 d (dietary period I). Total body Zn in the three groups was 1870 +/- 340, 3953 +/- 698 and 4126 +/- 844 micrograms Zn/rat. Each group was divided into four subgroups fed 3.6, 12.6, 20.5 or 50.3 mg Zn/kg diet for 3 wk (dietary period II). Rats were injected intramuscularly with 65Zn after 7 d of dietary period II. True absorption and endogenous excretion were calculated by isotope dilution. Zinc intake, urinary and fecal excretion, balance and percent Zn absorption were significantly affected only by dietary Zn in dietary period II (P less than 0.01). Endogenous excretion was affected by both past dietary Zn deficiency (body Zn stores) and by dietary Zn in dietary period II (P = 0.0001). Total body Zn at the end of the experiment was significantly affected by both periods of dietary treatment (P less than 0.001), but total body Zn concentration was affected only by the final dietary treatment (P less than 0.05). These results show that Zn absorption is affected by the current diet, but that turnover of Zn (endogenous excretion) is regulated by both current Zn intake and past Zn intake, probably through an effect on body Zn stores

  18. Zn2+ chelation by serum albumin improves hexameric Zn2+-insulin dissociation into monomers after exocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A G Pertusa

    Full Text Available β-cells release hexameric Zn2+-insulin into the extracellular space, but monomeric Zn2+-free insulin appears to be the only biologically active form. The mechanisms implicated in dissociation of the hexamer remain unclear, but they seem to be Zn2+ concentration-dependent. In this study, we investigate the influence of albumin binding to Zn2+ on Zn2+-insulin dissociation into Zn2+-free insulin and its physiological, methodological and therapeutic relevance. Glucose and K+-induced insulin release were analyzed in isolated mouse islets by static incubation and perifusion experiments in the presence and absence of albumin and Zn2+ chelators. Insulin tolerance tests were performed in rats using different insulin solutions with and without Zn2+ and/or albumin. Albumin-free buffer does not alter quantification by RIA of Zn2+-free insulin but strongly affects RIA measurements of Zn2+-insulin. In contrast, accurate determination of Zn2+-insulin was obtained only when bovine serum albumin or Zn2+ chelators were present in the assay buffer solution. Albumin and Zn2+ chelators do not modify insulin release but do affect insulin determination. Preincubation with albumin or Zn2+ chelators promotes the conversion of "slow" Zn2+-insulin into "fast" insulin. Consequently, insulin diffusion from large islets is ameliorated in the presence of Zn2+ chelators. These observations support the notion that the Zn2+-binding properties of albumin improve the dissociation of Zn2+-insulin into subunits after exocytosis, which may be useful in insulin determination, insulin pharmacokinetic assays and islet transplantation.

  19. Studying Selective Transparency in ZnS/ Cu/ ZnS Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksibe, A.; Howari, H.; Diab, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dielectric/ Metal/ Dielectric (DMD) thin films deposited on glass offer of significant energy saving in buildings and can find other applications of advanced materials design. In an effort to reduce the complexity and cost production of DMD films, physical vapor deposition was used for the laboratory manufacture of ZnS/ Cu/ ZnS films on glass. ZnS was used because of its high refractive index, ease of deposition and low cost; Cu was used because of its low absorption in the visible spectrum and its thermal stability. The films produced were of good quality, with transmittance as high as 85%. The ZnS layers were found not only to antireflect the Ag layer, but also to stabilize the ZnS/ Cu/ ZnS films, improve its adherence on glass and increase the film thermal resistance up to 240 C. The influence of annealing on the optical properties was investigated. The experimental results show that the properties of the multilayers are improved with annealing in air. the change of maximum transmission indicates that, with the increase of annealing temperature, maximum transmittance was change. Multilayer films annealed at after 200 C, show a decrease in the maximum transmittance witch might be due to the diffused Cu atoms onto ZnS layer. (author)

  20. Tunable zinc interstitial related defects in ZnMgO and ZnCdO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wanjun; Qin, Guoping; Fang, Liang; Ye, Lijuan; Wu, Fang; Ruan, Haibo; Zhang, Hong; Kong, Chunyang; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    We report tunable band gap of ZnO thin films grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The zinc interstitial (Zn i ) defects in ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, Auger spectra, first-principle calculations, and Hall measurement. Undoped ZnO film exhibits an anomalous Raman mode at 275 cm −1 . We first report that 275 cm −1 mode also can be observed in ZnO films alloyed with Mg and Cd, whose Raman intensities, interestingly, decrease and increase with increasing Mg and Cd alloying content, respectively. Combined with the previous investigations, it is deduced that 275 cm −1 mode is attributed to Zn i related defects, which is demonstrated by our further experiment and theoretical calculation. Consequently, the concentration of Zn i related defects in ZnO can be tuned by alloying Mg and Cd impurity, which gives rise to different conductivity in ZnO films. These investigations help to further understand the controversial origin of the additional Raman mode at 275 cm −1 and also the natural n-type conductivity in ZnO

  1. Tunable zinc interstitial related defects in ZnMgO and ZnCdO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wanjun; Qin, Guoping [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Functional Materials of Chongqing, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing, Chongqing 401331 (China); Fang, Liang, E-mail: lfang@cqu.edu.cn, E-mail: kchy@163.com; Ye, Lijuan; Wu, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission, College of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Ruan, Haibo [Research Center for Materials Interdisciplinary Sciences, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing 402160 (China); Zhang, Hong; Kong, Chunyang, E-mail: lfang@cqu.edu.cn, E-mail: kchy@163.com; Zhang, Ping [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Functional Materials of Chongqing, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing, Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2015-04-14

    We report tunable band gap of ZnO thin films grown on quartz substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The zinc interstitial (Zn{sub i}) defects in ZnO films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, Auger spectra, first-principle calculations, and Hall measurement. Undoped ZnO film exhibits an anomalous Raman mode at 275 cm{sup −1}. We first report that 275 cm{sup −1} mode also can be observed in ZnO films alloyed with Mg and Cd, whose Raman intensities, interestingly, decrease and increase with increasing Mg and Cd alloying content, respectively. Combined with the previous investigations, it is deduced that 275 cm{sup −1} mode is attributed to Zn{sub i} related defects, which is demonstrated by our further experiment and theoretical calculation. Consequently, the concentration of Zn{sub i} related defects in ZnO can be tuned by alloying Mg and Cd impurity, which gives rise to different conductivity in ZnO films. These investigations help to further understand the controversial origin of the additional Raman mode at 275 cm{sup −1} and also the natural n-type conductivity in ZnO.

  2. Hybrid ZnO:polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells from a ZnO precursor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Slooff, L.H.; Wienk, M.M.; Kroon, J.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kafafi, Z.H.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a simple and new method to create hybrid bulk heterojunction solar cells consisting of ZnO and conjugated polymers. A gel-forming ZnO precursor, blended with conjugated polymers, is converted into crystalline ZnO at temperatures as low as 110 °C. In-situ formation of ZnO in MDMO-PPV

  3. Elastic properties of Na 2 O–ZnO–ZnF 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elastic properties of Na2O–ZnO–ZnF2–B2O3 oxyfluoride glasses with different ZnF2 concentrations have been investigated using ultrasonic velocity measurements at room temperature, at a frequency of 10 MHz. Glasses prepared by melt quenching method were suitably polished for the ultrasonic velocity measurements ...

  4. A novel π–conjugated Zn⟵S→Zn unit interface in the ZnS/Zn(S){sub 2}L inorganic/orgainc hybrids for significant photoelectric response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yuanhao, E-mail: gyh-2007@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province and Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Zhang, Xiaofei; Wang, Peipei [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000 (China); Lei, Yan, E-mail: leiyan361@163.com [Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province and Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Yang, Xiaognag; Fa, Wenjun [Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province and Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Niu, Helin [Department of Chemistry, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); Zheng, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Micro–Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province and Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • ZnS/Zn(S){sub 2}L is synthesized by using ZnS nanocrystals and Zn(S){sub 2}L complex. • There is a novel Zn⟵S→Zn unit interface in ZnS/Zn(S){sub 2}L hybrid system. • Luminescence quantum efficiency of ZnS/Zn(S){sub 2}L is up to 69%. • The π–conjugated Zn⟵S→Zn bridge enhanced the electron transfer effectively. - Abstract: By using a novel Zn(S){sub 2}L complex (L = N–hexyl–3–{2–(4–(2,2′:6′,2′′–terpyridin–4′–yl)phenyl)ethenyl}carbazole) as a surface stabilizing agent, the self–assembled microspheres of Zn(S){sub 2}L–capped ZnS nanocrystals are obtained in a simple ethanol solvothermal process. Because of the strong π character of the two terminal sulfur atoms (S{sup 1–} valence state) in the Zn(S){sub 2}L complex, the Zn(S){sub 2}L complex could incorporate ZnS nanocrystals together by a homologous Zn⟵S→Zn unit interface. In the work, the homologous Zn⟵S→Zn unit interface is proposed to function as a π–conjugated bridge for effective electron–transfer transition from Zn(S){sub 2}L moiety to ZnS nanocrystal to significantly improve the photoelectric response performance, such as the long lifetime of photogenerated charge carriers from 8 × 10{sup −8} s to 4 × 10{sup −5} s and the high recombination luminescence quantum efficiency (QE) up to 69%, which are confirmed by the systematically investigation with Raman spectra, XPS spectra, Uv–vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra and transient photovoltage (TPV) technique. The ZnS/Zn(S){sub 2}L used as extra electron donor in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cell device could increase performance up to about 30%.

  5. Effects of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn"2"+ on fluvial biofilms and the related toxicity mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Chao; Hou, Jun; Dai, Shanshan; Wang, Peifang; Miao, Lingzhan; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. The health hazard of ZnO NPs and the contribution of dissolved Zn"2"+ in toxicity of ZnO NPs has attracted extensive worldwide attention. In this study, the toxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and the effects of dissolved Zn"2"+ on fluvial biofilms were investigated. At the end of the exposure time (21 days), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and bioaccumulation experiments revealed that large quantities of ZnO NPs were adsorbed on the biofilm. The algal biomasses were significantly decreased by six- and eleven-fold compared with the control (1.43 μg/L) by exposure to concentrations of 100 mg/L ZnO NPs and 7.85 mg/L Zn"2"+, respectively. Moreover, under the same exposure conditions, the quantum yields presented contents of 53.33 and 33.33% relative to the control, and a shift in the community composition that manifested as a strong reduction in diatoms was observed from 7 days and reached 15.63 and 6.25% of the control after 21 days of exposure, respectively. The reductions in bacteria viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were noticeably enhanced following exposure to 100 mg/L ZnO NPs and 7.85 mg/L Zn"2"+, respectively. Additionally, the acute and rapid toxicity of Zn"2"+ and the increasing toxicity of the ZnO NPs with increased bioaccumulation were noted in the exposure experiment. - Highlights: • Fluvial biofilm was exposed to ZnO NPs and the dissolved Zn"2"+. • Chl-a and Φ_M decreased at high doses (100 and 7.85 mg/L of ZnO NPs and Zn"2"+). • A shift in the algae community composition was observed at high dosage levels. • The enhanced production of ROS declined the bacteria viability. • Zn"2"+ was more toxic than that of the ZnO-NPs.

  6. Vacancy-type defects in electron and proton irradiated ZnO and ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, S.; Puff, W.; Logar, B.; Baumann, H.

    1997-01-01

    A study aimed at investigating basic properties of radiation induced effects in ZnO and ZnS has been presented. Positron annihilation experiments (both lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements) were performed on polycrystalline samples. For ZnO it was found that both electron and proton irradiation caused significant changes in the positron annihilation characteristics and several annealing stages were observed, related to the annealing of variously sized vacancy complexes. The lifetime in defected, proton irradiated polycrystalline ZnS samples, grown by chemical vapour deposition, indicates the formation of large defect complexes. The annealing of proton irradiated ZnS in air at temperatures between 650 C and 750 C leads to significant oxidation and transformation into ZnO. 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  7. Vacancy-type defects in electron and proton irradiated ZnO and ZnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, S.; Puff, W.; Logar, B. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Mascher, P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Balogh, A.G. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany); Baumann, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    1997-10-01

    A study aimed at investigating basic properties of radiation induced effects in ZnO and ZnS has been presented. Positron annihilation experiments (both lifetime and Doppler-broadening measurements) were performed on polycrystalline samples. For ZnO it was found that both electron and proton irradiation caused significant changes in the positron annihilation characteristics and several annealing stages were observed, related to the annealing of variously sized vacancy complexes. The lifetime in defected, proton irradiated polycrystalline ZnS samples, grown by chemical vapour deposition, indicates the formation of large defect complexes. The annealing of proton irradiated ZnS in air at temperatures between 650 C and 750 C leads to significant oxidation and transformation into ZnO. 10 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Amplified spontaneous emission from ZnO in n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ying Tsang; Wu, Mong Kai; Li, Wei Chih; Kuan, Hon; Yang, Jer Ren; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin Jang

    2009-04-22

    This study demonstrates amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of the ultraviolet (UV) electroluminescence (EL) from ZnO at lambda~380 nm in the n-ZnO/ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite/p- Al(0.12)Ga(0.88)N heterojunction light-emitting diode. A SiO(2) layer embedded with ZnO nanodots was prepared on the p-type Al(0.12)Ga(0.88)N using spin-on coating of SiO(2) nanoparticles followed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO. An n-type Al-doped ZnO layer was deposited upon the ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite layer also by the ALD technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) reveals that the ZnO nanodots embedded in the SiO(2) matrix have diameters of 3-8 nm and the wurtzite crystal structure, which allows the transport of carriers through the thick ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite layer. The high quality of the n-ZnO layer was manifested by the well crystallized lattice image in the HRTEM picture and the low-threshold optically pumped stimulated emission. The low refractive index of the ZnO nanodots-SiO(2) composite layer results in the increase in the light extraction efficiency from n-ZnO and the internal optical feedback of UV EL into n-ZnO layer. Consequently, significant enhancement of the UV EL intensity and super-linear increase in the EL intensity, as well as the spectral narrowing, with injection current were observed owing to ASE in the n-ZnO layer.

  9. Catalytic Decomposition of N2O over Cu–Zn/ZnAl2O4 Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic decomposition of N2O was investigated over Cu-Zn/ZnAl2O4 catalysts in the temperature range of 400–650 °C Catalytic samples have been prepared by wet impregnation method. Prepared catalysts were characterized using several techniques like BET surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The Cu-Zn/ZnAl2O4 showed higher catalytic performance along with long term stability during N2O decomposition. The Cu-Zn/ZnAl2O4 catalysts yielded 100% N2O conversion at 650 °C. The Cu-Zn/ZnAl2O4 catalysts are promising for decrease this strong greenhouse gas in the chemical industry.

  10. Transfer of hydrophobic contaminants in urban runoff particles to benthic organisms estimated by an in vitro bioaccessibility test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakajima, F.; Saito, K.; Isozaki, Y.

    2006-01-01

    An in vitro bioaccessibility test was applied for assessing the transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in road dust, into benthic organisms living in a receiving water body. The road dust is supposed to be urban runoff particles under wet weather conditions. Sodium dodecyl...... sulfate (SDS) solution was used as a hypothetical gut fluid. Pyrene, fluoranthene and phenanthrene were the main PAH species in the SIDS extractable fraction of road dust, as well as the whole extract. Benzo(ghi)perylene showed relatively low concentrations in the SIDS extract in spite of a high...... concentration in the original dust. The PAH composition in benthic organisms (polychaetes) did not correspond with that of the surrounding sediment and the PAHs detected were also detected in high concentrations in the SDS extract of road dust. When testing the toxicity of the extracted contaminants...

  11. Genetic diversity for grain Zn concentration in finger millet genotypes: Potential for improving human Zn nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramegowda Yamunarani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half of the world population suffers from micronutrient malnutrition, particularly Zn deficiency. It is important to understand genetic variation for uptake and translocation behaviors of Zn in relevant crop species to increase Zn concentration in edible parts. In the present study, genetic variation in grain Zn concentration of 319 finger millet genotypes was assessed. Large genetic variation was found among the genotypes, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 86 μg g− 1 grain. Uptake and translocation studies with Zn/65Zn application in 12 selected low-Zn genotypes showed wide variation in root uptake and shoot translocation, with genotypes GEC331 and GEC164 showing greater uptake and translocation. Genotypes GEC164 and GEC543 showed increased grain Zn concentration. Genotypes GEC331 and GEC164 also showed improved yield under Zn treatment. Appreciable variation in grain Zn concentration among finger millet genotypes found in this study offers opportunities to improve Zn nutrition through breeding.

  12. In situ Zn/ZnO mapping elucidating for "shape change" of zinc electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akiyoshi; Arai, Hajime; Murayama, Haruno; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Yamane, Tomokazu; Hirai, Toshiro; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2018-04-01

    For the use of the zinc anode in secondary batteries, it is necessary to solve the "shape change" deterioration issue in that zinc species agglomerate in the center of the electrode to fade the available capacity. The local chemical compositions of the zinc electrodes during "shape change" were precisely analyzed using the synchrotron X-ray diffraction mapping analysis of practical zinc-nickel cells in a non-destructive manner. The in situ Zn/ZnO mapping shows that metallic Zn deposition chiefly occurs in the periphery of ZnO while ZnO are left in the center of electrode like a hill on charging. On discharging, the ZnO hill grows to the perpendicular direction on the electrode while metallic zinc is oxidized and dissolved. These findings allow us to propose a mechanism for the shape change; thus dissolved zincate species are decomposed on the ZnO hill during discharging to be accumulated in the center of the electrode. It is suggested that suppressing zincate dissolution and non-uniform zinc deposition slow the growth rate of the ZnO hill to enhance the cyclability of zinc-based secondary batteries.

  13. Investigation of omnidirectional reflection band in ZnTe/ZnSe distributed Bragg reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying-Shin [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Hu, Sheng-Yao [Department of Digital Technology Design, Tungfang Design University, Kaohsiung 82941, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yueh-Chien, E-mail: jacklee@mail.tnu.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, Tungnan University, New Taipei City 22202, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chung-Cheng; Tiong, Kwong-Kau [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan (China); Shen, Ji-Lin [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    We report the characteristics of reflectance spectra of the 15- and 20-period ZnTe/ZnSe distributed Bragg reflector grown on GaAs (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The reflectance spectra measured at various incident angles and polarizations were investigated by the theoretical curves simulated using transfer matrix method. The wavelength variation of the refractive indices described by Sellmeier equation and random thickness model were also considered for the interpretation of the experimentally observed curves. An omnidirectional reflection range defined from the edge of incident-angle-dependent reflection band with TE and TM polarizations is about 15 nm, and is consistent with the observed experimental curves. The results showed that the selected ZnTe and ZnSe materials are suitable for constructing multilayer structures having omnidirectional reflection band. - Highlights: • ZnTe/ZnSe distributed Bragg reflector grown by molecular beam epitaxy. • The reflectance spectra are measured at various incidence angles and polarizations. • The theoretical curves are considered by Sellmeier and random thickness models. • An observed omnidirectional reflection range in ZnTe/ZnSe DBR is about 15 nm.

  14. Structure and properties of ZnSxSe1-x thin films deposited by thermal evaporation of ZnS and ZnSe powder mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeev, R. G.; Romanov, E. A.; Vorobiev, V. L.; Mukhgalin, V. V.; Kriventsov, V. V.; Chukavin, A. I.; Robouch, B. V.

    2015-02-01

    Interest to ZnSxSe1-x alloys is due to their band-gap tunability varying S and Se content. Films of ZnSxSe1-x were grown evaporating ZnS and ZnSe powder mixtures onto SiO2, NaCl, Si and ITO substrates using an original low-cost method. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectroscopy, show that the lattice structure of these films is cubic ZnSe-like, as S atoms replace Se and film compositions have their initial S/Se ratio. Optical absorption spectra show that band gap values increase from 2.25 to 3 eV as x increases, in agreement with the literature. Because S atomic radii are smaller than Se, EXAFS spectra confirm that bond distances and Se coordination numbers decrease as the Se content decreases. The strong deviation from linearity of ZnSe coordination numbers in the ZnSxSe1-x indicate that within this ordered crystal structure strong site occupation preferences occur in the distribution of Se and S ions. The behavior is quantitatively confirmed by the strong deviation from the random Bernoulli distribution of the three sight occupation preference coefficients of the strained tetrahedron model. Actually, the ternary ZnSxSe1-x system is a bi-binary (ZnS+ZnSe) alloy with evanescent formation of ternary configurations throughout the x-range.

  15. Optical and structural properties of ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Su, Jing; Chen, Yulin; Zheng, Gaige; Pei, Shixin; Sun, Tingting; Wang, Junfeng; Lai, Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnMgO thin film and ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin film have been prepared by sol–gel method. ► The intensity of ultraviolet emission of ZnMgO thin film is enhanced two times compared with that of pure ZnO thin film. ► Compared with ZnMgO thin film, ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin film shows better crystallization and optical properties. ► ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel method have potential applications in many optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: In this study, pure ZnO thin film, Mg-doped ZnO (ZnMgO) thin film, ZnO/ZnMgO and ZnMgO/ZnO composite thin films were prepared by sol–gel technique. The structural and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and photoluminescence spectra, respectively. The results showed that the incorporation of Mg increased the strain, broadened the optical bandgap, and improved the intensity of ultraviolet emission of ZnO thin film. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ultraviolet emission peak was also increased due to Mg-doping at the same time. Compared with pure ZnO and ZnMgO thin films, the ZnO/ZnMgO thin film showed better crystalline quality and ultraviolet emission performance, smaller strains and higher transmittance in the visible range.

  16. Nanostructured ‘Anastacia’ flowers for Zn coating by electrodepositing ZnO at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Marta M., E-mail: martamalves@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [ICEMS Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal); Santos, Catarina F.; Carmezim, Maria J. [ICEMS Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal); EST Setúbal, DEM, Instituto Politécnico de Setúbal, Campus IPS, 2910 Setúbal (Portugal); Montemor, Maria F. [ICEMS Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Functional coating of Zn with ZnO ‘Anastacia’ flowers. • Flowers are composed by nano-hexagonal units of single-crystal wurtzite ZnO. • The growth mechanism of these flowers is discussed. • Room temperature yield cost-effective electrodeposited ZnO ‘Anastacia’ flowers. - Abstract: Functional coatings composed of ZnO, a new flowered structured denominated as ‘Anastacia’ flowers, were successfully obtained through a facile and green one-step electrodeposition approach on Zn substrate. Electrodeposition was performed at constant cathodic potential, in Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} aqueous solution, at pH 6 and at room temperature. The resulting ZnO thin uniform layer, with an average thickness of 300 nm, bearing top 3D hierarchical nanostructures that compose ‘Anastacia’ flowers, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman. The results reveal a nano-architecture structure composed by nano-hexagonal units of single-crystal wurtzite ZnO structure with a [0 0 0 1] growth direction along the longitudinal particles axis. Other morphological features, sphere-like, rod-like and random distributed hexagons were also obtained by varying the electrodeposition time as observed by SEM. The Raman spectroscopy revealed the typical peak of ZnO wurtzite for all the obtained morphologies. Coatings wettability was studied and the different morphologies display distinct water contact angles with the ‘Anastacia’ flowers coating showing a wettability of 110°. These results pave the way for simple and low-cost routes for the production of novel functionalized coatings of ZnO over Zn, with potential for biomedical devices.

  17. Nanostructured ‘Anastacia’ flowers for Zn coating by electrodepositing ZnO at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Marta M.; Santos, Catarina F.; Carmezim, Maria J.; Montemor, Maria F.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Functional coating of Zn with ZnO ‘Anastacia’ flowers. • Flowers are composed by nano-hexagonal units of single-crystal wurtzite ZnO. • The growth mechanism of these flowers is discussed. • Room temperature yield cost-effective electrodeposited ZnO ‘Anastacia’ flowers. - Abstract: Functional coatings composed of ZnO, a new flowered structured denominated as ‘Anastacia’ flowers, were successfully obtained through a facile and green one-step electrodeposition approach on Zn substrate. Electrodeposition was performed at constant cathodic potential, in Zn(NO 3 ) 2 aqueous solution, at pH 6 and at room temperature. The resulting ZnO thin uniform layer, with an average thickness of 300 nm, bearing top 3D hierarchical nanostructures that compose ‘Anastacia’ flowers, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman. The results reveal a nano-architecture structure composed by nano-hexagonal units of single-crystal wurtzite ZnO structure with a [0 0 0 1] growth direction along the longitudinal particles axis. Other morphological features, sphere-like, rod-like and random distributed hexagons were also obtained by varying the electrodeposition time as observed by SEM. The Raman spectroscopy revealed the typical peak of ZnO wurtzite for all the obtained morphologies. Coatings wettability was studied and the different morphologies display distinct water contact angles with the ‘Anastacia’ flowers coating showing a wettability of 110°. These results pave the way for simple and low-cost routes for the production of novel functionalized coatings of ZnO over Zn, with potential for biomedical devices

  18. Evidence of the Zn vacancy acting as the dominant acceptor in n-type ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, F; Ranki, V; Saarinen, K; Look, D C

    2003-11-14

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to determine the nature and the concentrations of the open volume defects in as-grown and electron irradiated (E(el)=2 MeV, fluence 6 x 10(17) cm(-2)) ZnO samples. The Zn vacancies are identified at concentrations of [V(Zn)] approximately 2 x 10(15) cm(-3) in the as-grown material and [V(Zn)] approximately 2 x 10(16) cm(-3) in the irradiated ZnO. These concentrations are in very good agreement with the total acceptor density determined by temperature dependent Hall experiments. Thus, the Zn vacancies are dominant acceptors in both as-grown and irradiated ZnO.

  19. Evidence of the Zn vacancy acting as the dominant acceptor in n-type ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, F.; Ranki, V.; Saarinen, K.; Look, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to determine the nature and the concentrations of the open volume defects in as-grown and electron irradiated (E el =2 MeV, fluence 6x10 17 cm -2 ) ZnO samples. The Zn vacancies are identified at concentrations of [V Zn ]≅2x10 15 cm -3 in the as-grown material and [V Zn ]≅2x10 16 cm -3 in the irradiated ZnO. These concentrations are in very good agreement with the total acceptor density determined by temperature dependent Hall experiments. Thus, the Zn vacancies are dominant acceptors in both as-grown and irradiated ZnO

  20. Investigation of Zn Use Efficiency and Zn Fertilization Efficiency in Some Genotypes of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Keshavarz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: World cereal demand is growing at the present in accordance with the global expansion of human populations.Bread wheat is the most widely grown cereal grain with 65% (6.5 million hectares of the total crop cultivated area in Iran. Deficiency of micronutrients in cereal cropping is one of the major worldwide problems. Zinc (Zn is an essential micronutrient for plants. It plays a key role as a structural constituent or regulatory co-factor of a wide range of different enzymes and proteins in many important biochemical pathways. Nearly half of the world’s cereal-growing areas are affected by soil zinc deficiency, particularly in calcareous soils of arid and semiarid regions. High pH levels and bicarbonate anion concentration in these soils are the major factors resulting in low availability of Zn. About 40% of the soils, used for wheat production in Iran are Zn-deficient, which results in a decrease in growth and wheat grain yield under field conditions. Although application of zinc fertilizers is a common practice to correct Zn deficiency, growing varieties with high Zn efficiency has been reported to be a more sustainable approach. There is significant genetic variation both within and between plant species in their ability to maintain significant growth and yield under Zn deficiency conditions. Plant response to Zn deficiency and Zn fertilization are two distinct concepts. Knowing about these variations, can be very essential and useful for making correct fertilizer recommendation. Materials and Methods: In order to investigate Zn efficiency in various wheat genotypes, a factorial experiment as a randomized complete block design was carried out with three replications in agricultural research center of Khorasan razavi (Torough Station, during 2009-2011. Treatments consisted of two levels of Zn fertilizer (0 and 40 kg/h as ZnSO4 and six genotyps of wheat including: three cultivars and one line of bread wheat (Alvand, Falat, Toos

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic reduction of CO2 to methanol by ZnO nanoparticles deposited on ZnSe nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangfang; Yin, Xiaohong; Zheng, Yinan

    2018-02-01

    In this work ZnO/ZnSe composites were successfully synthesized via solvothermal method and characterized by a series of experiments for investigating into their compositions, morphologies, microstructures and the activities of photocatalytic reduction of CO2. The methanol rates of bare ZnO and ZnSe respectively were 763.9 μmol/gcat/h and 503.88 μmol/gcat/h. However, the sample of 3 wt% ZnO/ZnSe performed better photocatalytic activity up 1581.82 μmol/gcat/h compared to bare ZnO and ZnSe. In the as-prepared photocatalyst the nanosheet of ZnSe benefited the light harvest; suitable deposition of ZnO on the ZnSe nanosheet constructed a type II heterojunction for transferring the photo-generated electron to reduce CO2.

  2. Ab Initio factorized LCAO calculations of the electronic band structure of ZnSe, ZnS, and the (ZnSe)1(ZnS)1 strained-layer superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.S.; Wilson, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors report on the results of electronic band structure calculations of bulk ZnSe, bulk ZnS and the (ZnSe) 1 (ZnS) 1 , strained-layer superlattice (SLS) using the ab initio factorized linear combination of atomic orbitals method. The bulk calculations were done using the standard primitive nonrectangular 2-atom zinc blende unit cell, while the SLS calculation was done using a primitive tetragonal 4-atom unit cell modeled from the CuAu I structure. The analytic fit to the SLS crystalline potential was determined by using the nonlinear coefficients from the bulk fits. The CPU time saved by factorizing the energy matrix integrals and using a rectangular unit cell is discussed

  3. Preparation and characterization of water-soluble ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Cao, Lixin, E-mail: caolixin@ouc.edu.cn; Su, Ge; Liu, Wei; Xia, Chenghui; Zhou, Huajian

    2013-09-01

    The synthesis and luminescent properties of water-soluble ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with different shell thickness are reported in this paper. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies present that the ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell QDs with different shell thickness have a cubic zinc-blende structure. The tests of transmission electron microscope (TEM) pictures exhibit that the QDs obtained are spherical-shaped particles and the average grain size increased from 2.7 to 3.8 nm with the growth of ZnS shell. The emission peak position of QDs has a small redshift from 461 to 475 nm with the growth of ZnS shell within the blue spectral window. The photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity and stability of the ZnSe:Cu core d-dots are both enhanced by coating ZnS shell on the surface of core d-dots. The largest PL intensity of the core/shell QDs is almost 3 times larger than that of Cu doped ZnSe quantum dots (ZnSe:Cu d-dots). The redshift of core/shell QDs compared with the core QDs are observed in both the absorption and the photoluminescence excitation spectra.

  4. Pyrolysis and auto-gasification of black liquor in presence of ZnO: An integrated process for Zn/ZnO nanostructure production and bioenergy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.V.; Job, A.E.; Mussel, W.N.; Pasa, V.M.D.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a new process for valorisation of black liquor into gases that are used to reduce ZnO and promote zinc nanosheet synthesis, besides energy generation. During the black liquor pyrolysis and auto-gasification, gases evolve, especially carbon monoxide, and promote ZnO reduction with Zn (v) release. The metal is condensed yielding zinc nanosheets, with partial surface re-oxidation in presence of carbon dioxide. The process was investigated at the micro scale using thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The process was also studied in laboratory scale using a tubular electric furnace. The black liquor/ZnO mixture was placed at the quartz tube and the sample was heated to 900 °C at 10 °C/min, and the temperature was held at 900 °C for 1 h. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction or a template, at temperatures lower than those required in the classical carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of Zn/ZnO nanosheets that are crystalline. This green and innovative process has potential use at the industry due to its operational conditions, low costs and technological importance of Zn and ZnO nanostructures. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Black liquor and ZnO mixture were submitted to a heat treatment until 900 °C. ► The black liquor suffered pyrolysis and auto-gasification. ► ZnO is reduced by CO yielding Zn v , that is condensed generating Zn/ZnO nanosheets. ► The nanostructures are characterized and a mechanism of reactions is presented. ► The new process can produce energy and nanostructures in large scale.

  5. InP/ZnSe/ZnS core-multishell quantum dots for improved luminescence efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Tonino; Ippen, Christian; Wedel, Armin

    2012-04-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) exhibit unique optical properties like size-tunable emission color, narrow emission peak, and high luminescence efficiency. QDs are therefore investigated towards their application in light-emitting devices (QLEDs), solar cells, and for bio-imaging purposes. In most cases QDs made from cadmium compounds like CdS, CdSe or CdTe are studied because of their facile and reliable synthesis. However, due to the toxicity of Cd compounds and the corresponding regulation (e.g. RoHS directive in Europe) these materials are not feasible for customer applications. Indium phosphide is considered to be the most promising alternative because of the similar band gap (InP 1.35 eV, CdSe 1.73 eV). InP QDs do not yet reach the quality of CdSe QDs, especially in terms of photoluminescence quantum yield and peak width. Typically, QDs are coated with another semiconductor material of wider band gap, often ZnS, to passivate surface defects and thus improve luminescence efficiency. Concerning CdSe QDs, multishell coatings like CdSe/CdS/ZnS or CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS have been shown to be advantageous due to the improved compatibility of lattice constants. Here we present a method to improve the luminescence efficiency of InP QDs by coating a ZnSe/ZnS multishell instead of a ZnS single shell. ZnSe exhibits an intermediate lattice constant of 5.67 Å between those of InP (5.87 Å) and ZnS (5.41 Å) and thus acts as a wetting layer. As a result, InP/ZnSe/ZnS is introduced as a new core-shell quantum dot material which shows improved photoluminescence quantum yield (up to 75 %) compared to the conventional InP/ZnS system.

  6. Enhancement of Two-Dimensional Electron-Gas Properties by Zn Polar ZnMgO/MgO/ZnO Structure Grown by Radical-Source Laser Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Zn polar ZnMgO/MgO/ZnO structure with low Mg composition Zn1-xMgxO layer (x = 0.05 grown on a-plane (11–20 sapphire by radical-source laser molecular beam epitaxy was reported. The insertion of a thin (1 nm MgO layer between ZnMgO and ZnO layers in the ZnMgO/ZnO 2DEG structures results in an increase of 2DEG sheet density and affects electron mobility slightly. The carrier concentration reached a value as high as 1.1 × 1013 cm−2, which was confirmed by C-V measurements. A high Hall mobility of 3090 cm2/Vs at 10 K and 332 cm2/Vs at RT was observed from Zn0.95Mg0.05O/MgO/ZnO heterostructure. The choice of the thickness of MgO was discussed. The dependence of carrier sheet density of 2DEG on ZnMgO layer thickness was calculated in theory and the theoretical prediction and experimental results agreed well.

  7. ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N [Littleton, CO

    2009-11-03

    The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

  8. A boron and gallium co-doped ZnO intermediate layer for ZnO/Si heterojunction diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuanxi; Huang, Jian; Li, Bing; Tang, Ke; Ma, Yuncheng; Cao, Meng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Linjun

    2018-01-01

    ZnO (Zinc oxide)/Si (Silicon) heterojunctions were prepared by depositing n-type ZnO films on p-type single crystal Si substrates using magnetron sputtering. A boron and gallium co-doped ZnO (BGZO) high conductivity intermediate layer was deposited between aurum (Au) electrodes and ZnO films. The influence of the BGZO layer on the properties of Au/ZnO contacts and the performance of ZnO/Si heterojunctions was investigated. The results show an improvement in contact resistance by introducing the BGZO layer. Compared with the ZnO/Si heterojunction, the BGZO/ZnO/Si heterojunction exhibits a larger forward current, a smaller turn-on voltage and higher ratio of ultraviolet (UV) photo current/dark current.

  9. Electrodeposition and properties of Zn, Cu, and Cu{sub 1−x} Zn{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özdemir, Rasim [Kilis Vocational High School, Kilis 7 Aralık University, 79000 Kilis (Turkey); Karahan, İsmail Hakkı, E-mail: ihkarahan@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, 31040 Hatay (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn and Cu–Zn deposits successfully deposited from the non-cyanide sulphate electrolyte. • The effect of alloying element was investigated on the electrical resistivity and the structure of Cu–Zn alloy. • The average crystallite size of the samples varied from 66 to 161 nm and decreased when the Zn and Cu combined in Cu–Zn. • Microstrain has been decreased with increasing crystallite size. • Electrical resistivity of alloy was obtained between the Zn and Cu films. - Abstract: The electrodeposition of Cu, Zn and Cu–Zn deposits from the non-cyanide Zn sulphate and Cu sulphate reduced by citrate at constant stirring speed has been investigated. The composition of the Cu–Zn bath was shown to influence the morphology, electrical resistivity, phase composition, and Cu and Zn content of the Cu–Zn deposits. Their structural and electrical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), cyclic voltammeter (CV) and current–voltage measurements against the temperature for electrical resistivity, respectively. XRD shows that Cu–Zn samples are polycrystalline phase. Resistivity results show that the copper film exhibits bigger residual resistivity than both the zinc and the Cu–Zn alloy. Theoretical calculations of the XRD peaks demonstrate that the average crystallite size of the Cu–Zn alloy decreased and microstrain increased when the Cu alloyed with zinc.

  10. Crystallographic study of the intermediate compounds SbZn, Sb3Zn4 and Sb2Zn3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjadj, Fouzia; Belbacha, El-djemai; Bouharkat, Malek; Kerboub, Abdellah

    2006-01-01

    The processes of development of semiconductor ceramics made up of bismuth, antimony and zinc often require during their preparation to know the nature of the involved phases. For that, it is always essential to refer to the diagrams of balance between phases of the binary systems or ternary. We presented in this work the study by X-rays diffraction relating to the intermediate compounds SbZn, Sb 3 Zn 4 and Sb 2 Zn 3 . The analysis by X-rays is often useful to give supplement the results of the other experimental methods

  11. Effects of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn{sup 2+} on fluvial biofilms and the related toxicity mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Hou, Jun, E-mail: hhuhjyhj@126.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Dai, Shanshan [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Wang, Peifang, E-mail: pfwang2005@hhu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); Miao, Lingzhan; Lv, Bowen; Yang, Yangyang; You, Guoxiang [Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development on Shallow Lakes, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. The health hazard of ZnO NPs and the contribution of dissolved Zn{sup 2+} in toxicity of ZnO NPs has attracted extensive worldwide attention. In this study, the toxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and the effects of dissolved Zn{sup 2+} on fluvial biofilms were investigated. At the end of the exposure time (21 days), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and bioaccumulation experiments revealed that large quantities of ZnO NPs were adsorbed on the biofilm. The algal biomasses were significantly decreased by six- and eleven-fold compared with the control (1.43 μg/L) by exposure to concentrations of 100 mg/L ZnO NPs and 7.85 mg/L Zn{sup 2+}, respectively. Moreover, under the same exposure conditions, the quantum yields presented contents of 53.33 and 33.33% relative to the control, and a shift in the community composition that manifested as a strong reduction in diatoms was observed from 7 days and reached 15.63 and 6.25% of the control after 21 days of exposure, respectively. The reductions in bacteria viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were noticeably enhanced following exposure to 100 mg/L ZnO NPs and 7.85 mg/L Zn{sup 2+}, respectively. Additionally, the acute and rapid toxicity of Zn{sup 2+} and the increasing toxicity of the ZnO NPs with increased bioaccumulation were noted in the exposure experiment. - Highlights: • Fluvial biofilm was exposed to ZnO NPs and the dissolved Zn{sup 2+}. • Chl-a and Φ{sub M} decreased at high doses (100 and 7.85 mg/L of ZnO NPs and Zn{sup 2+}). • A shift in the algae community composition was observed at high dosage levels. • The enhanced production of ROS declined the bacteria viability. • Zn{sup 2+} was more toxic than that of the ZnO-NPs.

  12. Superhydrophobic ZnAl double hydroxide nanostructures and ZnO films on Al and glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Debasis, E-mail: debasis.de@bcrec.ac.in [Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering Department, Dr. B C Roy Engineering College, Durgapur, West Bengal 713206 (India); Sarkar, D.K. [Centre Universitaire de Recherche sur l' Aluminium (CURAL), L' Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, 555 Blvd. Université, Chicoutimi, Saguenay, Québec G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic nanostructured ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and ZnO films have been fabricated on Al and glass substrates, respectively, by a simple and cost effective chemical bath deposition technique. Randomly oriented hexagonal patterned of ZnAl: LDHs thin nanoplates are clearly observed on Al-substrate in the scanning electron microscopic images. The average size of these hexagonal plates is ∼4 μm side and ∼30 nm of thickness. While on the glass substrate, a oriented hexagonal patterned ZnO nanorods (height ∼5 μm and 1 μm diameter) are observed and each rod is further decorated throughout the top few nanometers with several nanosteps. At the top of the nanorod, a perfectly hexagonal patterned ZnO surface with ∼250 nm sides is observed. The tendency to form hexagonal morphological features is due to the hexagonal crystal structure of ZnO confirmed from X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy image. The ZnAl: LDHs and/or ZnO coated substrates have been passivated by using stearic acid (SA) molecules. Infrared spectra of passivated ZnAl: LDHs coated substrates confirm the presence of SA. X-ray diffraction pattern also corroborates the results of infrared spectrum. The contact angle of the as prepared samples is zero. The superhydrophobicity is achieved by observing contact angle of ∼161° with a hysteresis of ∼4° for Al-substrate. On the glass substrate, a higher contact angle of ∼168° with a lower hysteresis of ∼3° is observed. A lower surface roughness of ∼4.93 μm is measured on ZnAl: LDHs surface layer on the Al substrate as compare to a higher surface roughness of 6.87 μm measured on ZnO layer on glass substrate. The superhydrophobicity of passivated nanostructured films on two different substrates is observed due to high surface roughness and low surface energy. - Highlights: • ZnAl: layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanoplates are fabricated on Al substrate. • ZnO nanorods are fabricated on

  13. Influence of substrate temperature and Zn-precursors on atomic layer deposition of polycrystalline ZnO films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hisao; Miyake, Aki; Yamada, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    Influence of substrate temperature and Zn-precursors on growth rate, crystal structure, and electrical property of undoped ZnO thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been studied. Differences between dimethylzinc (DMeZn) and diethylzinc (DEtZn) used as Zn-precursors were examined. The ZnO films grown using DMeZn showed higher electrical resistivity compared to that grown using DEtZn. However, the higher resistivity in the case of DMeZn was owing to much amount of residual impurities incorporated during the ALD growth

  14. ZnO quantum dots–decorated ZnO nanowires for the enhancement of antibacterial and photocatalytic performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jyh Ming; Tsay, Li-Yi

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate highly antibacterial activities for killing off Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli using ZnO nanowires decorated with ZnO quantum dots (so-called ZnO QDs/NWs) under visible-light irradiation and dark conditions. The average size of the ZnO QDs is in the range of 3–5 nm; these were uniformly dispersed on the ZnO nanowires’ surface to form the ZnO QDs/NWs. A significant blue-shift effect was observed using photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The size of the ZnO QDs is strongly dependent on the material’s synthesis time. The ZnO QDs/NWs exhibited an excellent photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. The ZnO QDs’ active sites (i.e. the O–H bond and Zn"2"+) accelerate the photogenerated-carrier migration from the QDs to the NWs. As a consequence, the electrons reacted with the dissolved oxygen to form oxygen ions and produced hydroperoxyl radicals to enhance photocatalytic activity. The antibacterial activities (as indicated by R-factor-inhibiting activity) of the ZnO QDs/NWs for killing off Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli is around 4.9 and 5.5 under visible-light irradiation and dark conditions, respectively. The hydroxyl radicals served as an efficient oxidized agent for decomposing the organic dye and microorganism species. The antibacterial activities of the ZnO QDs/NWs in the dark may be attributed to the Zn"2"+ ions that were released from the ZnO QDs and infused into the microbial solution against the growth of bacteria thus disrupting the microorganism. The highly antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of the ZnO QDs/NWs can be well implanted on a screen window, thus offering a promising solution to inhibit the spread of germs under visible-light and dark conditions. (paper)

  15. Comparative study on structure, corrosion properties and tribological behavior of pure Zn and different Zn-Ni alloy coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafreshi, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahkaram, S.R., E-mail: akaram@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O.Box: 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farhangi, H. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O.Box: 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Zn and Zn-Ni alloy coatings were electrodeposited from sulfate based electrolytes. The effect of alloys Ni content on morphology, microstructure, corrosion properties, microhardness and tribological behavior of these coatings were investigated and the results were compared with Zn film. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, different intermediate phases (η-Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 22}, γ-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21}, β-Zn-Ni) were formed by increasing the coatings Ni content from 11 to 17 wt%. Polarization and EIS results revealed that all the alloy coatings had better corrosion resistance than the Zn film. Zn-14 wt%Ni coating had the least corrosion current density and maximum polarization resistance between all the samples. Microhardness of the coatings was improved by increasing their Ni percentage to 17%. However, Zn-14 wt%Ni coating had the lowest wear loss and friction coefficient, while Zn film had the worst wear resistance between all the coatings. - Highlights: • Effect of Ni alloying element on morphology and structure of Zn electrodeposits. • Comparing corrosion behavior of Zn and Zn-Ni coatings. • Influence of Ni content on hardness of Zn-Ni films. • A comparison of tribological behavior of Zn and different Zn-Ni electrodeposits.

  16. Luminescence of one dimensional ZnO, GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanostructure through thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge powder mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Vuong-Hung, E-mail: vuong.phamhung@hust.edu.vn; Kien, Vu Trung; Tam, Phuong Dinh; Huy, Pham Thanh

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ZnO and GeO{sub 2}–ZnGeO{sub 4} nanowires were fabricated by thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge powder mixture. • Morphology of specimens were observed to have a nanowire structure to rod-like morphology. • Strong NBE emission band with suppressed visible green emission band were observed on the dominant ZnO nanowires. • Strong emission of ∼530 nm were observed on the GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires. - Abstract: This paper reports the first attempt for fabrication of thermal evaporated Zn–Ge powder mixture to achieve near-band-edge (NBE) emission of ZnO and visible emission of GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires with controllable intensities. The nanowires were fabricated by thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge powder mixture, particularly, by using different Zn:Ge ratio, temperature and evaporated times. The morphology of nanowires was depended on the Zn and Ge ratio that was observed to have a nanowire structure to rod-like morphology. The thermal evaporation of Zn:Ge powder mixture resulted in formation of dominant ZnO or GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires as a function of evaporated parameters. These results suggest that the application of thermal evaporation of Zn and Ge mixture for potential application in synthesis of ZnO or GeO{sub 2}–Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4} nanowires for optoelectronic field.

  17. Isotopic exchange of 65Zn with stable Zn adsorbed on reference clay minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, A.C.M.; Filby, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    For reference clays of low organic content, Zn adsorbed on the clay minerals is in kinetic equilibrium with 65 Zn in solution. Thus the specific activity approach applied to the transport of 65 Zn(II) at the water-reference clay interface is intrinsically valid. (author)

  18. Bioaccessible Porosity: A new approach to assess residual contamination after bioremediation of hydrophobic organic compounds in sub-surface microporous environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, A.; Ghoshal, S.

    2016-12-01

    We define a new parameter, "bioaccessible porosity", the fraction of aggregate volume accessible to soil bacteria, towards a priori assessment of hydrocarbon bioremediation end points. Microbial uptake of poorly soluble hydrocarbons occurs through direct uptake or micellar solubilzation/emulsification associated with biosurfactant production, and requires close proximity of bacteria and hydrocarbon phase. In subsurface microporous environments, bioremediation rates are attenuated when residual hydrophobic contamination is entrapped in sterically restrictive environments which is not accessible to soil bacteria. This study presents new approaches for characterization of the microstructure of porous media and as well, the ability of indigenous hydrocarbon degraders to access to a range of pore sizes. Bacterial access to poorly soluble hydrocarbons in soil micro pores were simulated with bioreactors with membranes with different pore sizes containing the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria, Dietzia maris. D. maris is Gram-positive, and nonmotile that we isolated as the major hydrocarbon degrader from a fine-grained, weathered, hydrocarbon-contaminated site soil. Under nutritional stress, planktonic D. maris cells were aggregated and accessed 5 µm but not 3 µm and smaller pores. However, when hexadecane was available at the pore mouth, D. maris colonized the pore mouth, and accessed pores as small as 0.4 µm. This suggests bacterial accessibility to different pore sizes is regulated by nutritional conditions. A combination of X-ray micro-CT scanning, gas adsorption and mercury intrusion porosimetry was used to characterize the range of pore sizes of soil aggregates. In case of the studied contaminated soil, the bioaccessible porosity were determined as 25% , 27% and 29% (assuming 4, 1, 0.4 µm respectively as accessibility criteria), and about 2.7% of aggregate volume was attributed to 0.006-0.4 µm pores. The 2% aggregate volume at an assumed saturation of 10% could

  19. The effects of carbon coating on the electrochemical performances of ZnO in Ni–Zn secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Wei; Yang, Zhanhong; Fan, Xinming; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Jing, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The ZnO samples coated with carbon are successfully synthesized by using a high energy ball milling method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) spectra of the carbon-coated ZnO and pure ZnO show that the carbon-coated ZnO (carbon source: glucose, citric acid) samples and the untreated ZnO sample have similar particle size and crystal form. The particles have prismatic microstructure whose sizes are about 100–200 nm. However, the carbon-coated ZnO (carbon source: sucrose) sample has become agglomeration after calcination whose size has been increased to 2–6 μm. The uncoated ZnO powders have more complete crystal shape and they are glazed quadrangular materials, while the carbon coated ZnO particles has a rough surface, which resulted from the growth of carbon coating on ZnO particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the carbon-coated ZnO and the pure ZnO show carbon formed on the surface of ZnO is amorphous. Tafel plot, cyclic voltammetry (CV), AC impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge–discharge measurement are utilized to examine the electrochemical performances of the carbon-coated ZnO. The carbon-coated ZnO (carbon source: glucose) have the most positive steady-state potential and lowest corrosion current density in the zinc electrodes which indicates that it has a good anticorrosion ability. A lower charge platform and a higher discharge platform of carbon-coated ZnO indicate that it have a better charge/discharge performance as anodic material for Ni/Zn cells. A smaller ohmic resistance and charge-transfer resistance imply that the carbon film upon ZnO could greatly decrease the impedance of the reaction process. Meanwhile, the carbon-coated ZnO also showed more excellent cycling performance than pure ZnO. The reason of improvement about electrochemical performance can be ascribed as the unique structure of amorphous carbon layer

  20. Zinc bioaccumulation in a terrestrial invertebrate fed a diet treated with particulate ZnO or ZnCl2 solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipan-Tkalec, Ziva; Drobne, Damjana; Jemec, Anita; Romih, Tea; Zidar, Primoz; Bele, Marjan

    2010-03-10

    A number of reports on potential toxicity of nanoparticles are available, but there is still a lack of knowledge concerning bioaccumulation. The aim of this work was to investigate how different sources of zinc, such as uncoated and unmodified ZnO nanoparticles, ZnCl(2) in solution, and macropowder ZnO influence the bioaccumulation of this metal in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. After exposure to different sources of Zn in the diet, the amount of assimilated Zn in whole body, the efficiency of zinc assimilation, and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were assessed. The bioaccumulation potential of Zn was found to be the same regardless of Zn source. The amount of assimilated Zn and BAF were dose-dependent, and Zn assimilation efficiency was independent of exposure concentrations. The Zn assimilation capacity was found to be up to 16% of ingested Zn. It is known that as much as approximately 20% of Zn can be accreted from ZnO particles by dissolution. We conclude that bioaccumulation of Zn in isopods exposed to particulate ZnO depends most probably on Zn dissolution from ZnO particles and not on bioaccumulation of particulate ZnO.

  1. Chemical composition and Zn bioavailability of the soil solution extracted from Zn amended variable charge soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Adamo, Paola

    2010-01-01

    A study on variable charge soils (volcanic Italian and podzolic Scottish soils) was performed to investigate the influence of soil properties on the chemical composition of soil solution. Zinc speciation, bioavailability and toxicity in the soil solution were examined. The soils were spiked with increasing amounts of Zn (0, 100, 200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg) and the soil solutions were extracted using rhizon soil moisture samplers. The pH, total organic carbon (TOC), base cations, anions, total Zn and free Zn2+ in soil solution were analysed. A rapid bioassay with the luminescent bacterium Escherichia coli HB101 pUCD607 was performed to assess Zn toxicity. The influence of soil type and Zn treatments on the chemical composition of soil solution and on Zn toxicity was considered and discussed. Different trends of total and free Zn concentrations, base cations desorption and luminescence of E. coli HB101 pUCD607 were observed. The soil solution extracted from the volcanic soils had very low total and free Zn concentrations and showed specific Zn2+/Ca2+ exchange. The soil solution from the podzolic soil had much higher total and free Zn concentrations and showed no evidence of specific Zn2+/Ca2+ exchange. In comparison with the subalkaline volcanic soils, the acidic podzol showed enhanced levels of toxic free Zn2+ and consequently stronger effects on E. coli viability.

  2. Non-destructive soil amendment application techniques on heavy metal-contaminated grassland: Success and long-term immobilising efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Platzer, Klaus; Riesing, Johann; Horak, Othmar; Waldner, Georg; Watzinger, Andrea; Gerzabek, Martin H

    2017-01-15

    Extensive contamination of grassland with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) is a typical problem close to Pb/Zn smelter sites. The entry of Cd or Pb into the food chain is very likely, as are toxicity effects of Zn in plants. Previous promising results from pot and field experiments showed the high potential of using amendments for immobilisation to reduce metal input into the food chain via crops grown on smelter-contaminated soils at Arnoldstein (Austria) (Friesl et al., 2006). The aim of this study was to find a practical solution for large-scale contaminations in hilly regions that avoids erosion. Field application of amendments without destroying the vegetation cover (grassland) involved two approaches: (a) slurrying (Slu) the amendments into cut gaps in the vegetation cover and (b) injecting (Inj) the amendments through the vegetation cover. Here, we investigate the immobilising and long-term efficiency of treatments [gravel sludge (2.5%) + red mud (0.5%) (GS + RM)]. Risk assessment was based on soil, plant and water samples taken over a period of 10 years. Ammonium-nitrate-extractable Cd was reduced up to 50%, Pb up to 90%, and Zn over 90%. Plant uptake into the grass mixture and narrow leaf plantain was significantly reduced for Cd, Pb, and Zn. Harvesting early in vegetation period can further reduce uptake and meet the threshold for fodder crops. The reduction of these elements in the seepage water in 24 samplings within these 10 years reached 40%, 45% and 50%, respectively. Immobilisation increased microbial biomass and decreased human bioaccessibility for Pb. Our investigation of the long-term efficiency of GS + RM in all treatments shows that the Slu and Inj amendment application techniques have promising potential as a realistic and practical method for extensively contaminated hilly land. Slurrying performed best. We conclude that grassland remediation methods involving tillage are counterproductive from the viewpoint of bioaccessibility

  3. ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films: Structure optimization and investigation on photoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoyu; Li Yingai; Liu Shi; Wu Honglin; Cui Haining

    2012-01-01

    A series of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films has been fabricated from zinc and copper metallic targets by simultaneous RF and DC magnetron sputtering. Numerical simulation of the optical properties of the multilayer films has been carried out in order to guide the experimental work. The influences of the ZnO and Cu layer thicknesses, and of O 2 /Ar ratio on the photoelectric and structural properties of the films were investigated. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayers were studied by optical spectrometry and four point probe measurements, respectively. The structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction. The performance of the multilayers as transparent conducting coatings was compared using a figure of merit. In experiments, the thickness of the ZnO layers was varied between 4 and 70 nm and those of Cu were between 8 and 37 nm. The O 2 /Ar ratios range from 1:5 to 2:1. Low sheet resistance and high transmittance were obtained when the film was prepared using an O 2 /Ar ratio of 1:4 and a thickness of ZnO (60 nm)/Cu (15 nm)/ZnO (60 nm). - Highlights: ► ZnO/Cu/ZnO films were fabricated from zinc and copper targets by sputtering. ► Transmittance reaches maximum when top and bottom ZnO thicknesses are nearly equal. ► Sheet resistance increases with increasing ZnO layer thickness. ► Variation in sheet resistance with oxygen/argon ratio is due to interface effect.

  4. Catalyst growth of single crystal aligned ZnO nanorods on ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dongxu; Andreazza, Caroline; Andreazza, Pascal [Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisee, CNRS-Universite d' Orleans, 1b rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France)

    2005-02-01

    One dimensional ZnO nanorods were successfully fabricated on Si substrates via a simple physical vapor-phase transport method at 950 C. A ZnO shell covered Au/Zn alloy is assumed as the nucleation site, then ZnO nanorods grow following a vapor-solid (VS) process. In order to guide the nanorod growth a c-axis oriented ZnO thin film and Au catalyst were first deposited on Si (100) surface. SEM images show nanorods grown on this substrate are vertical to the substrate surface. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Structural and optical properties of ZnMgO nanostructures formed by Mg in-diffused ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, C.-J.; Hsu, H.-C.; Cheng, H.-M.; Wu, C.-Y.; Hsieh, W.-F.

    2007-01-01

    ZnMgO nanostructures with wurtzite phase were prepared by thermal diffusion of Mg into the ZnO nanowires. As ZnO light-emitting devices have been operated by using ZnMgO layers as energy barrier layers to confine the carriers, it is essential to realize the characterization of ZnMgO particularly. In this work, the Mg content in Zn 1 -x Mg x O alloy determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescence (PL) shows a good coincidence. The variation of lattice constant and the blueshift of near-band-edge emission indicate that Zn 2+ ions are successfully substituted by Mg 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice. In Raman-scattering studies, the change of E 2 (high) phonon line shape in ZnO:Mg nanostructures reveals the microscopic substitutional disorder. In addition to the host phonons of ZnO, two additional bands around 383 and 510 cm -1 are presumably attributed to the Mg-related vibrational modes. - Graphical abstract: We reported the synthesis of the ZnMgO nanostructures prepared by a simple vapor transport method. Magnesium-related anomalous modes are observed by Raman spectra for the first time in ZnMgO system

  6. In-situ anion exchange fabrication of porous ZnO/ZnSe heterostructural microspheres with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hairui, E-mail: liuhairui1@126.com [College of Physics & Electrics Engineering, Henan Normal University, Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030024 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Hu, Yanchun [College of Physics & Electrics Engineering, Henan Normal University, Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Xinxiang 453007 (China); He, Xia [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030024 (China); Jia, Husheng, E-mail: jia_husheng@126.com [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030024 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030024 (China); Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, Shanxi, 030024 (China)

    2015-11-25

    Porous ZnO microspheres were fabricated by an ultrasonic irradiation technique. Subsequently, through a facile in-situ anion exchange reaction between the ZnO microsphere and sodium selenite, spherical ZnO/ZnSe heterostructures with different ratios of the two components were fabricated. The as-obtained products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV–vis spectrometry. The results reveal that the secondary ZnSe nanoparticles are grown on the surface of pre-grown ZnO microspheres. Compared with pure ZnO microspheres, the ZnO/ZnSe hetero-microspheres show enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue (MB) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The enhanced photocatalytic performance is attributed to fast separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes derived from the coupling effect of ZnSe and ZnO heterostructure. Photoluminescent spectra further indicate that the ZnO/ZnSe heterostructures greatly suppress the charge recombination of photogenerated electron–hole pairs, which would be beneficial to improve their photocatalytic activity. Finally, the photocatalytic mechanism of the ZnO/ZnSe heterostructures is proposed. - Graphical abstract: Porous ZnO/ZnSe heterostructures with different ratios of the two components were fabricated and present enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue (MB) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP). The enhanced photocatalytic performance is attributed to fast separation and transport of photogenerated electrons and holes derived from the coupling effect of ZnSe and ZnO heterostructure. - Highlights: • Spherical ZnO/ZnSe porous composites were fabricated by in-situ anion exchange. • ZnO/ZnSe composites exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity. • The matching band gap improves the separation of

  7. Magnetically separable core–shell ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles for visible light photodegradation of methyl orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Suresh D.; Kumbar, Sagar; Menon, Samvit G.; Choudhari, K.S.; Santhosh, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase pure, magnetic ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles synthesized with excellent yield. • ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO displayed higher UV photocatalytic efficiency than ZnO nanoparticles. • First report on visible light photodegradation of methyl orange by ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO. • Excellent reusability of ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles observed for azo dye removal. - Abstract: Visible light photodegradation of aqueous methyl orange using magnetically separable core–shell ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles is reported. A combination of low temperature (190 °C) microwave synthesis and hydrothermal method were used to prepare phase pure material with excellent yield (95%). The magnetic separability, surface area of 41 m"2/g and visible light absorption make ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles a good solar photocatalyst. ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO displayed greater UV photocatalytic efficiency than ZnO owing to the generation of large number of electron-hole pairs. Visible light photodegradation of MO using ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO nanoparticles is reported for the first time. Higher first order rate constants under both UV and visible light for core-shell nanoparticles suggested their superiority over its individual oxides. The ZnFe_2O_4@ZnO showed excellent reusability with high photocatalytic efficiencies suggesting its suitability for solar photocatalytic applications.

  8. Al-doped ZnO seed layer-dependent crystallographic control of ZnO nanorods by using electrochemical deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung [Department of Nano-Optical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung 429-793 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Bo [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Inha Technical College, Incheon 402-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moojin [Department of Renewable Energy, Jungwon University, Goesan-gun, Chungbuk 367-805 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung-Nam, E-mail: snlee@kpu.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Optical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, Siheung 429-793 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Polar and semipolar ZnO NRs were successfully achieved by hydrothermal synthesis. • Semipolar and polar ZnO NRs were grown on ZnO and AZO/m-sapphire, respectively. • Al % of AZO/m-sapphire enhanced the lateral growth rate of polar ZnO NRs. - Abstract: We investigated the effect of an Al-doped ZnO film on the crystallographic direction of ZnO nanorods (NRs) using electrochemical deposition. From high-solution X-ray diffraction measurements, the crystallographic plane of ZnO NRs grown on (1 0 0) ZnO/m-plane sapphire was (1 0 1). The surface grain size of the (100) Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film decreased with increasing Al content in the ZnO seed layer, implying that the Al dopant accelerated the three-dimensional (3D) growth of the AZO film. In addition, it was found that with increasing Al doping concentration of the AZO seed layer, the crystal orientation of the ZnO NRs grown on the AZO seed layer changed from [1 0 1] to [0 0 1]. With increasing Al content of the nonpolar (1 0 0) AZO seed layer, the small surface grains with a few crystallographic planes of the AZO film changed from semipolar (1 0 1) ZnO NRs to polar (0 0 1) ZnO NRs due to the increase of the vertical [0 0 1] growth rate of the ZnO NRs owing to excellent electrical properties.

  9. ZnSe MSM photodetectors prepared on GaAs and ZnSe substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, T.K.; Chang, S.J.; Su, Y.K.; Chiou, Y.Z.; Wang, C.K.; Chang, S.P.; Chang, C.M.; Tang, J.J.; Huang, B.R.

    2005-01-01

    Homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial ZnSe metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors were both fabricated and characterized. It was found that homoepitaxial ZnSe MSM photodetector could provide us smaller dark current and large photocurrent. With an incident wavelength of 448 nm, it was found that the maximum responsivities for the homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial ZnSe photodetectors were 0.128 and 0.045 A/W, which corresponds to a quantum efficiency of 36 and 12%, respectively. Furthermore, it was found that we achieved the minimum noise equivalent power (NEP) of 7.6 x 10 -13 W and the maximum normalized detectivity (D *) of 9.3 x 10 11 cm Hz 0.5 W -1 from our homoepitaxial ZnSe photodetector. In contrast, NEP and D * of the heteroepitaxial ZnSe photodetector were 2.9 x 10 -12 W and 2.44 x 10 11 cm Hz 0.5 W -1 , respectively

  10. ZnO synthesized in air by fs laser irradiation on metallic Zn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda-Barrón, Y.; Herrera, M.; Camacho-López, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present results on rapid femtosecond laser synthesis of nanostructured ZnO. We used metallic Zn thin films to laser scan along straight tracks, until forming nanostructured ZnO. The synthesis dependence on laser irradiation parameters such as the per pulse fluence, integrated fluence, laser scan speed, and number of scans were explored carefully. SEM characterization showed that the morphology of the obtained ZnO is dictated by the integrated fluence and the laser scan speed; micro Raman and XRD results allowed to identify optimal laser processing conditions for getting good quality ZnO; and cathodoluminescence measurements demonstrated that a single laser scan at high per pulse laser fluence, but a medium integrated laser fluence and a medium laser scan speed favors a low density of point-defects in the lattice. Electrical measurements showed a correlation between resistivity of the laser produced ZnO and point-defects created during the synthesis. Transmittance measurements showed that, the synthesized ZnO can reach down to the supporting fused silica substrate under the right laser irradiation conditions. The physical mechanism for the formation of ZnO, under ultrashort pulse laser irradiation, is discussed in view of the distinct times scales given by the laser pulse duration and the laser pulse repetition rate.

  11. The leguminous species Anthyllis vulneraria as a Zn-hyperaccumulator and eco-Zn catalyst resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Mazel, Marine; Sellini, Amandine; Escande, Vincent; Biton, Jacques; Grison, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Anthyllis vulneraria was highlighted here as a Zn-hyperaccumulator for the development of a pilot phytoextraction process in the mine site of Les Avinières in the district of Saint-Laurent-Le-Minier. A. vulneraria appeared to hyperaccumulate the highest concentration of Zn in shoots with a better metal selectivity relative to Cd and Pb than the reference Zn-hyperaccumulator Noccea caerulescens. A bigger biomass production associated to a higher Zn concentration conducted A. vulneraria to the highest total zinc gain per hectare per year. As a legume, A. vulneraria was infected by rhizobia symbionts. Inoculation of A. vulneraria seeds showed a positive impact on Zn hyperaccumulation. A large-scale culture process of symbiotic rhizobia of A. vulneraria was investigated and optimized to allow large-scale inoculation process. Contaminated shoots of A. vulneraria were not considered as wastes and were recovered as Eco-Zn catalyst in particular, examples of organic synthesis, electrophilic aromatic substitution. Eco-Zn catalyst was much more efficient than conventional catalysts and allowed greener chemical processes.

  12. Acceptors in ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, Matthew D., E-mail: mattmcc@wsu.edu; Corolewski, Caleb D.; Lv, Jinpeng; Tarun, Marianne C.; Teklemichael, Samuel T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Norton, M. Grant; Harrison, Kale W. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2920 (United States); Ha, Su [Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-6515 (United States)

    2015-03-21

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) has potential for a range of applications in the area of optoelectronics. The quest for p-type ZnO has focused much attention on acceptors. In this paper, Cu, N, and Li acceptor impurities are discussed. Experimental evidence indicates these point defects have acceptor levels 3.2, 1.4, and 0.8 eV above the valence-band maximum, respectively. The levels are deep because the ZnO valence band is quite low compared to conventional, non-oxide semiconductors. Using MoO{sub 2} contacts, the electrical resistivity of ZnO:Li was measured and showed behavior consistent with bulk hole conduction for temperatures above 400 K. A photoluminescence peak in ZnO nanocrystals is attributed to an acceptor, which may involve a Zn vacancy. High field (W-band) electron paramagnetic resonance measurements on the nanocrystals revealed an axial center with g{sub ⊥} = 2.0015 and g{sub //} = 2.0056, along with an isotropic center at g = 2.0035.

  13. Electrochemistry of Zn(II)/Zn on Mg alloy from the N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Ming-Jay, E-mail: martinez730523@yahoo.com.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lin, Pei-Chiung [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chang, Jeng-Kuei, E-mail: jkchang@ncu.edu.tw [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jin-Ming; Lu, Kueih-Tzu [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > Electrodeposition of Zn was successfully demonstrnated in the water- and air-stable BMP-DCA ionic liquid. While ZnCl{sub 2} is insoluble in the BMP-TFSI ionic liquid, it dissolves easily in the BMP-DCA. > Amperometric titration experiments indicated that Zn(II) probably complexed as [Zn(DCA){sub 3}]- with DCA- anion. > Chronoamperometric experiments showed that the electrodeposition of Zn on GC and Mg alloy substrates involved 3D-instantaneous nucleation/growth process. > A lower deposition rate would bring out a more uniform and compact Zn coating layer (which is also thicker) and, consequently, this coating revealed a protection capability for the Mg substrate against corrosion. - Abstract: Electrochemical reaction of Zn(II)/Zn on glassy carbon electrode(GC) and Mg alloy substrates was investigated in the room-temperature ionic liquid, N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium dicyanamide (BMP-DCA) containing ZnCl{sub 2} at 323 K. Amperometric titration experiments suggest that Zn(II) reacted with DCA anions forming [Zn(DCA){sub 3}]{sup -} complex anion, which also could be reduced to Zn metal via a single-step electron transfer process. By chronoamperometric measurements, the electrodeposition of Zn on GC and Mg alloy substrates involved three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation under diffusion control at 323 K. The Zn deposits are also systematically characterized by the techniques of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Zn layer deposited at a lower current density on Mg alloy substrates was more compact and uniform when compared to that deposited at a higher current density; consequently, this coating revealed a protection capability for the Mg substrate against corrosion.

  14. Temperature dependence of carrier transfer and exciton localization in ZnO/MgZnO heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Dongxu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China)]. E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.cn; Li Binghui [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Center for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Material Research, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Wu Chunxia [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Lu Youming [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Shen Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhang Jiying [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Fan Xiwu [Key Laboratory of Excited State Process, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2006-07-15

    MgZnO/ZnO heterostructure was fabricated on sapphire substrate by plasma assistant molecular beam epitaxy. The micro-photoluminescence spectra of sample are reported, which shows that different emission peaks would appear when the laser beam focuses different deepness in the film. A carrier tunneling process from the MgZnO capping layer to ZnO layer was observed by the measured temperature dependence of photoluminescence spectra. This induces the emission intensity of the ZnO grew monotonically from 81 to 103 K.

  15. Dynamical properties and their strain-dependence of ZnSe(ZnSe:N: Zinc-blende and wurtzite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The lattice dynamical properties of ZnSe and ZnSe with substitutional N incorporation(ZnSe:N are investigated in both the zinc-blend(ZB and wurtzite(WZ structures using first-principles calculations. The optical phonon modes of ZB-ZnSe at the Γ-point locate at 250 cm−1 for LO and 213 cm−1 for TO. The characteristic E2 phonon modes at about 50 cm−1 and the E1 and another E2 phonon modes around 200 cm−1 of WZ-ZnSe are suggested to be the fingerprint for distinguishing the two polytypes of ZnSe. For substitutional N incorporated ZnSe, the N incorporation introduces three new high energy modes above 500 cm−1, and the splitting of them is much larger in the WZ phase than that in ZB phase. The strain dependence of phonon frequency which could be useful for corresponding spectroscopic strain characterization are also studied. The simple linear dependence is determined for ZB-ZnSe, while the situation for WZ-ZnSe looks more complicated.

  16. One-pot synthesis of stable water soluble Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hao; Gao Xue; Liu Siyu; Su Xingguang, E-mail: suxg@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (China)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell-doped quantum dots (d-dots) with 3-mercaptopropionic acid as the stabilizer are successfully synthesized through a simple one-pot synthesis procedure in aqueous solution. The average diameter of Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell d-dots is about 2.9 nm, which is lager than that of Mn:ZnSe cores (about 1.9 nm). The optical features and structure of the obtained Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots have been characterized by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photostability against UV irradiation and chemical stability against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} etching have been studied, and the results showed that the prepared Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell d-dots are more stable than CdTe quantum dots prepared in aqueous solution. Finally, the resulting core/shell quantum dots are used as fluorescent label in human osteoblast-like HepG2 cell imaging.

  17. Optically stimulated luminescence of ZnO obtained by thermal treatment of ZnS chemically synthesized; Luminiscencia opticamente estimulada de ZnO obtenido por tratamiento termico de ZnS sintetizado quimicamente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz V, C.; Burruel I, S.E.; Orante B, V.R.; Grijalva M, H.; Perez S, R.; Bernal, R. [Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 130, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    In this work, we report the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimetry of new nano phosphors of ZnO obtained by thermal annealing of chemically synthesized ZnS powder. The synthesized ZnS nano powder was compressed in order to form pellet shaped pellets, which were afterwards subjected to a thermal annealing at 700 C during 24 h under air atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and energy-disperse X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses confirmed the transformation of ZnS to ZnO. Samples were exposed to several doses of beta radiation up to 600 Gy, and the optically stimulated luminescence with 470 nm wavelength light was recorded as a function of dose. The intensity of the OSL signal increases by increasing dose, for what it is concluded that these new phosphor materials are suitable to be used in optically stimulated luminescence dosimetry. (Author)

  18. Photoluminescent properties of ZnS nanoparticles prepared by electro-explosion of Zn wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Navendu; Sen, P.

    2007-01-01

    We study the photoluminescent properties of ZnS nanoparticles without the influence of dopants or magnetic impurities. The ZnS nanoparticles reported in this case were synthesized by a novel method of electro-explosion of wire (EEW). The nanoparticles were prepared employing electro-explosion of pure zinc wires in a cell filled with sulfide ions to produce a free-standing compound ZnS semiconductor. To investigate the structural and optical properties, these nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Consistent with the enhancement of the PL intensity of the 443 nm peak due to deep blue emission of ZnS particles, the XRD of the nanoparticles reveals a hexagonal phase of ZnS nanocrystallites prepared by our novel synthesis technique

  19. Formation mechanisms of metallic Zn nanodots by using ZnO thin films deposited on n-Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuk, J. M.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y.; No, Y. S.; Kim, T. W.; Choi, W. K.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy results showed that metallic Zn nanodots (NDs) were fabricated through transformation of ZnO thin films by deposition of SiO x on ZnO/n-Si (100) heterostructures. The Zn NDs with various sizes and densities were formed due to the occurrence of the mass diffusion of atoms along the grain boundaries in the ZnO thin films. The fabrication mechanisms of metallic Zn NDs through transformation of ZnO thin films deposited on n-Si substrates are described on the basis of the experimental results.

  20. Ultra-long Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}-ZnO microwires based gas sensor for hydrogen detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hong [School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Xu, Shucong [School of Material Science & Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Cao, Xianmin; Liu, Daoxi; Yin, Yaoyu; Hao, Haiyong; Wei, Dezhou [School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Shen, Yanbai, E-mail: shenyanbai@mail.neu.edu.cn [School of Resources and Civil Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Ultra-long Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}-ZnO microwires with excellent crystallinity and high yield were obtained. • The maximal length-to-diameter ratio of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}-ZnO microwires is approximately 1500. • Ultra-long Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}-ZnO microwires show outstanding H{sub 2} sensing properties. - Abstract: Ultra-long Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}-ZnO microwires were synthesized by thermal evaporation of the mixture of SnO{sub 2}, ZnO and C powders. Microstructural characterization by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed that Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}-ZnO microwires with excellent crystallinity were 2.8–3.2 μm in diameter and 4.0–4.2 mm in length. The maximal length-to-diameter ratio of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}-ZnO microwires is approximately 1500. H{sub 2} sensing properties showed that Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}-ZnO microwires exhibited not only excellent reversibility to H{sub 2}, but also a good linear relationship between the sensor response and H{sub 2} concentration. The response time and recovery time decreased as the operating temperature increased. The highest sensor response of 9.6 to 1000 ppm H{sub 2} was achieved at an operating temperature of 300 °C. The electron depletion theory was used for explaining H{sub 2} sensing mechanism by the chemical adsorption and reaction of H{sub 2} molecules on the surface of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}-ZnO microwires.

  1. Direct evidence for As as a Zn-site impurity in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Ulrich; Correia, J G; Lourenço-Santana-Marques, Ana Claudia; Alves, E; Carvalho-Soares, José

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic has been reported in the literature as one of the few p-type dopants in the technologically promising II-VI semiconductor ZnO. However, there is an ongoing debate whether the p-type character is due to As simply replacing O atoms or to the formation of more complicated defect complexes, possibly involving As on Zn sites. We have determined the lattice location of implanted As in ZnO by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive $^{73}$As. In contrast to what one might expect from its nature as a group V element, we find that As does not occupy substitutional O sites but in its large majority substitutional Zn sites. Arsenic in ZnO (and probably also in GaN) is thus an interesting example for an impurity in a semiconductor where the major impurity lattice site is determined by atomic size and electronegativity rather than its position in the periodic system.

  2. Optical properties of Mn doped ZnO films and wires synthesized by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, M.; Mihut, L.; Vasile, E.; Sima, Ma.; Logofatu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Mn doped ZnO films and wires, having different manganese concentrations were synthesized by thermal oxidation of the corresponding ZnMn alloy films and wires electrodeposited on a gold substrate. Structural and optical properties were addressed with scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). To estimate the manganese concentration in Mn doped ZnO films, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used. XRD patterns indicate that the incorporation of Mn 2+ ions into the Zn 2+ site of ZnO lattice takes place. Quenching of the ZnO PL appears due to Mn 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice. Moreover, a significant decrease in the green emission of ZnO is reported in the case of the Mn doped ZnO wire array with a Mn concentration of 1.45%. The wurtzite ZnO has a total of 12 phonon modes, namely, one longitudinal acoustic (LA), two transverse acoustic (TA), three longitudinal optical (LO), and six transverse optical branches. Compared to the undoped ZnO, a gradual up-shift of the Raman lines assigned to the 2LA and A 1 (LO) vibrational modes, from 482 and 567 cm −1 to 532 and 580 cm −1 , respectively, takes place for the Mn doped ZnO films having a Mn concentration between 2 and 15%. Additionally, in the case of the Mn doped ZnO films with 7 and 15% Mn concentration, Raman spectra show the appearance and increase in the relative intensity of the ZnO Raman line assigned to the TA + LO vibrational mode in the 600–750 cm −1 spectral range. For the Mn-doped ZnO wires, the presence of the Raman line peaking at 527 cm −1 confirms the insertion of Mn 2+ ions in ZnO lattice. - Highlights: • Mn doped ZnO films and wires grown by thermal oxidation of ZnMn alloy • Incorporation of Mn 2+ ions into Zn 2+ site of ZnO lattice • Appearance of a strong Raman line in the spectral range 600–800 cm −1 at high Mn concentration • Compensation of the oxygen vacancy at higher Mn concentration in ZnO lattice

  3. Synthesis of core/shell ZnO/ZnSe nanowires using novel low cost two-steps electrochemical deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoul, M., E-mail: ghoulmed2009@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie Technopole BorjCedria, Bp 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); Braiek, Z. [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie Technopole BorjCedria, Bp 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); Brayek, A. [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie Technopole BorjCedria, Bp 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); ITODYS, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR – 7086, 75205 Paris (France); Ben Assaker, I.; Khalifa, N.; Ben Naceur, J.; Souissi, A.; Lamouchi, A. [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie Technopole BorjCedria, Bp 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia); Ammar, S. [ITODYS, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS UMR – 7086, 75205 Paris (France); Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie Technopole BorjCedria, Bp 95, Hammammlif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-10-25

    This work highlights the original use of a two-step electrochemical deposition protocol to grow ZnO/ZnSe core/shell nanowires on a Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO)/glass substrate. The good alignment of the nanowires is verified by the scanning electron microscopy characterization technique in addition to the surface roughness after the ZnSe electrodeposition on the ZnO nanowires lateral facets. The X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra allow estimating that ZnO has grown along the wurtzite (W) structure c-axis. The presence of the type-II interfacial transition between the valence band of ZnSe and the conduction band of ZnO was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. It was proved that the absorbed energy of the developed nanostructures is extended to the near infrared which is well recommended for the photovoltaic applications. - Graphical abstract: Fabrication of the ZnO–ZnSe core–shell nanowires through a solution based all-electrochemical approach, and their application as photoanodes in photoelectrochemical water splitting cells. - Highlights: • Deposition of ZnO/ZnSe nanowires by two steps electrodeposition method. • The morphology studies show the formation of ZnO/ZnSe core/Shell nanowires. • XRD and Raman spectroscopy confirm the presence of the wurtzite ZnO and blende ZnSe junction. • Optical properties demonstrate the evidence type-II interfacial transition between the two semiconductors.

  4. Comparative effect of ZnO NPs, ZnO bulk and ZnSO4 in the antioxidant defences of two plant species growing in two agricultural soils under greenhouse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gómez, Concepción; Obrador, Ana; González, Demetrio; Babín, Mar; Fernández, María Dolores

    2017-07-01

    The present study has investigated the toxicity of ZnO NPs to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon) crops grown to maturity under greenhouse conditions using an acidic (soil pH5.4) and a calcareous soil (soil pH8.3). The potentially available Zn in the soils and the Zn accumulation in the leaves from NPs applied to the soil (3, 20 and 225mgZnkg -1 ) and changes in the chlorophylls, carotenoids and oxidative stress biomarkers were measured at 15, 30, 60 and 90days and compared with those caused by bulk ZnO and ZnSO 4 . The available Zn in the soil and the leaf Zn content did not differ among the Zn chemical species, except in the acidic soil at the highest concentration of Zn applied as Zn ions, where the highest values of the two variables were found. The ZnO NPs showed comparable Zn toxicity or biostimulation to their bulk counterparts and Zn salts, irrespective of certain significant differences suggesting a higher activity of the Zn ion. The treatments altered the photosynthetic pigment concentration and induced oxidative stress in plants. ROS formation was observed at Zn plant concentrations ranging from 590 to 760mgkg -1 , but the effects on the rest of the parameters were highly dependent on the plant species, exposure time and especially soil type. In general, the effects were higher in the acidic soil than in the calcareous soil for the bean and the opposite for the tomato. The similar uptakes and toxicities of the different Zn forms suggest that the Zn ions derived from the ZnO NPs exerted a preferential toxicity in plants. However, several results obtained in soils treated with NPs at 3mgZnkg -1 soil indicated that may exist other