WorldWideScience

Sample records for zn ni cu

  1. Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu in the Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saager, Paul M.; Baar, Hein J.W. de; Howland, Robin J.

    1992-01-01

    Vertical profiles of dissolved Cd, Zn, Ni and Cu in the Northwest Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea) exhibit a nutrient type distribution also observed in other oceans. The area is characterized by strong seasonal upwelling and a broad oxygen minimum zone in intermediate waters. However, neither Cd, Zn, Ni

  2. PRECIPITATION BEHAVIOR IN A Cu-Sn-Ni-Zn-P LEAD FRAME MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; C.K. Yan; M.Nemoto

    2003-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out for examining the precipitation behavior in a Cu-Sn-Ni-Zn-P lead frame material. TEM observations revealed that the precipitate is hexagonal Ni5P2 and the orientation relationship between the Cu matrix and Ni5P2 precipitate is (111)fcc//(0001)hcp,[101]fcc//[11-20]hcp, where the suffix fcc denotes the Cu matrix and hcp denotes the hexagonal Ni5P2 precipitate. The NisP2 precipitate is ovoidal in shape at the beginning of aging at lower temperature. By prolonging the aging time or increasing the aging temperature, Ni5P2 precipitate grows and shows a rod-like shape. The Ni added Cu based lead frame material has a comparative mechanical properties with that of TAMAC15 which has been developed and used in electrical industry.

  3. Colloidal synthesis of Cu-ZnO and Cu@CuNi-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with controlled morphologies and multifunctional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deqian; Gong, Pingyun; Chen, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Qinfu; Xie, Qingshui; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2016-06-01

    Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications. The utilization of low-cost non-noble metals to construct novel metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals is important and meaningful for their large-scale applications. In this study, a facile solution approach is developed for the synthesis of Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals with well-controlled morphologies, including nanomultipods, core-shell nanoparticles, nanopyramids and core-shell nanowires. In the synthetic strategy, Cu nanocrystals formed in situ serve as seeds for the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of ZnO, and it eventually forms various Cu-ZnO hetero-nanostructures under different reaction conditions. These hybrid nanocrystals possess well-defined and stable heterostructure junctions. The ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectra reveal morphology-dependent surface plasmon resonance absorption of Cu and the band gap absorption of ZnO. Furthermore, we construct a novel Cu@CuNi-ZnO ternary hetero-nanostructure by incorporating the magnetic metal Ni into the pre-synthesized colloidal Cu nanocrystals. Such hybrid nanocrystals possess a magnetic Cu-Ni intermediate layer between the ZnO shell and the Cu core, and exhibit ferromagnetic/superparamagnetic properties which expand their functionalities. Finally, enhanced photocatalytic activities are observed in the as-prepared non-noble metal-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals. This study not only provides an economical way to prepare high-quality morphology-controlled Cu-ZnO hybrid nanocrystals for potential applications in the fields of photocatalysis and photovoltaic devices, but also opens up new opportunities in designing ternary non-noble metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals with multifunctionalities.Metal-semiconductor hybrid nanocrystals have received extensive attention owing to their multiple functionalities which can find wide technological applications

  4. Decreasing Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn heavy metal magnetite-bentonite nanocomposites and adsorption isotherm study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M.; Zakeri Khatir, M.; Khodadadi Darban, A.; Meshkini, M.

    2018-04-01

    This present study was conducted to investigate the effect of magnetite-bentonite nanocomposite on heavy metal removal from an effluent. For this purpose, magnetite-bentonite nanocomposite was prepared through the chemical method and characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, followed by studying the effect of produced nanocomposite on the removal of Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ heavy metal ions. The results showed that adsorption capacity of magnetite-bentonite nanocomposites for the studied ions is in the order of Zn2+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+. Adsorption isotherms were drawn for Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+ cations and found that cations adsorption on nanocomposite fit into Langmuir model.

  5. HEAVY METALS (Ni, Cu, Zn AND Cd CONTENT IN SERUM OF RAT FED GREEN MUSSELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yudhistira Azis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Green mussel (Perna viridis can playing role as bio-indicator or biomonitoring agent for heavy-metalcontaminations in the sea. In this research, the concentrations of four elements Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in P. viridis and in the serum of rat which orally feed by P. viridis were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS following dry acid digestion. Parameter analysis was evaluated by determining confidence limit for the obtained results. The result showed that there was a sequence of heavy-metal content in green mussels sample and laboratory rats serum, such as Ni < Cd < Cu < Zn. Keywords: heavy metals, green mussels, laboratory rats serum, AAS

  6. Microstructure and magnetic studies of Mg-Ni-Zn-Cu ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachhav, S.G.; Patil, R.S.; Ahirrao, P.B.; Patil, A.M.; Patil, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ni x Mg 0.5-x Cu 0.1 Zn 0.4 Fe 2 O 4 ferrite shows spinel structure. → Lattice parameter, X-ray density, porosity increase with increase in Ni content. → The IR spectra show tetrahedral and octahedral complexes. → Initial permeability remains constant with temperature and drops to zero at certain temperature which is in close agreement with Curie temperature. → The Curie temperature shows increasing trend with Ni content. - Abstract: Soft Mg-Ni-Zn-Cu spinel ferrites having general chemical formula Ni x Mg 0.5-x Cu 0.1 Zn 0.4 Fe 2 O 4 (where x 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were prepared by standard double sintering ceramic method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study revealed that lattice parameter decreases with increase in Ni content, resulting in a reduction in lattice strain. The electrical and magnetic properties of the synthesized ferrites have been investigated as a function of temperature. The variation of initial permeability and AC susceptibility with temperature exhibits normal ferrimagnetic behavior. The variation of initial permeability with frequency is studied. The Curie temperature (T C ) in the present work was determined from initial permeability and AC susceptibility. The Curie temperature increases with Ni content.

  7. Fusion and characterization of an alloy Cu-Zn-Al-Ni of nuclear interest; Fusion y caracterizacion de una aleacion Cu-Zn-Al-Ni de interes nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana M, J.S

    2003-07-01

    The present work is the result of the study of a non ferrous quatenary alloy of Cu-Zn-Al-Ni (Foundry 3), it was chosen of a series of alloys to obtain so much information of its microstructural properties like mechanical, evaluating them and comparing them with the previously obtained ternary alloys of Cu-AI-Ni (Foundry 1) and Cu-Zn-AI (Foundry 2) identified as alloys of memory effect and superalloys. These were carried out starting from the foundry of their pure elements of Cu, Zn, Al, Ni. When physically having the ingot of each alloy, different techniques were used for their characterization. The used techniques were through the metallographic analysis, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical essays and Rockwell hardness. The non ferrous quaternary alloy Cu-Zn-AI-Ni by means of the metallographic analysis didn't show significant differences in their three sections (superficial, longitudinal and transverse) since result an homogeneous alloy at the same that the both ternaries. The grain size of the quaternary alloy is the finest while the ternary alloy of Cu-AI-Ni is the one that obtained the biggest grain size. Through MEB together with the analysis by EDS and the mapping of the elements that constitute each alloy, show that the three foundries were alloyed, moreover the presence of aggregates was also observed in the Foundries 2 and 3. These results by means of the analysis of XRD corroborate that these alloys have more of two elements. Relating the microstructural properties with those mechanical show us that as minor was the grain size, better they were his mechanical properties, in this case that of the quaternary alloy. With regard to the test of Rockwell hardness the Foundry 1 were the softest with the temper treatment, while that the Foundries 2 and 3 were the hardest with this same treatment, being still harder the Foundry 2 but with very little difference, for what great

  8. Levels Of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn And Cd, In Effluent From A Sewage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reports the results of preliminary investigation of heavy metal levels-Ni, Cd, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn; pH; temperature and electrical conductivity in effluents from a sewage treatment oxidation pond and its receiving stream. The heavy metal concentrations were determined with Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass ...

  9. Behaviors of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in soil amended with composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusiatin, Zygmunt Mariusz; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated how amendment with sewage sludge compost of different maturation times (3, 6, 12 months) affected metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) bioavailability, fractionation and redistribution in highly contaminated sandy clay soil. Metal transformations during long-term soil stabilization (35 months) were determined. In the contaminated soil, Cd, Ni and Zn were predominately in the exchangeable and reducible fractions, Pb in the reducible fraction and Cu in the reducible, exchangeable and oxidizable fractions. All composts decreased the bioavailability of Cd, Ni and Zn for up to 24 months, which indicates that cyclic amendment with compost is necessary. The bioavailability of Pb and Cu was not affected by compost amendment. Based on the reduced partition index (IR), metal stability in amended soil after 35 months of stabilization was in the following order: Cu > Ni = Pb > Zn > Cd. All composts were more effective in decreasing Cd, Ni and Zn bioavailability than in redistributing the metals, and increasing Cu redistribution more than that of Pb. Thus, sewage sludge compost of as little as 3 months maturation can be used for cyclic amendment of multi-metal-contaminated soil.

  10. Cofiring behavior and interfacial structure of NiCuZn ferrite/PMN ferroelectrics composites for multilayer LC filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Chunlin; Zhou Ji; Cui Xuemin; Wang Xiaohui; Yue Zhenxing; Li Longtu

    2006-01-01

    The cofiring behavior, interfacial structure and cofiring migration between NiCuZn ferrite and lead magnesium niobate (PMN)-based relaxor ferroelectric materials were investigated via thermomechanical analyzer (TMA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Mismatched sintering shrinkage between NiCuZn ferrite and PMN was modified by adding an appropriate amount of sintering aids, Bi 2 O 3 , into NiCuZn ferrite. Pyrochlore phase appeared in the mixture of NiCuZn ferrite and PMN, which is detrimental to the final electric properties of LC filters. EDS results indicated that the interdiffusion at the heterogeneous interfaces in the composites, such as Fe, Pb, Zn, existed which can strengthen combinations between ferrite layers and ferroelectrics layers

  11. Fabrication and characterization of Pd/Cu doped ZnO/Si and Ni/Cu doped ZnO/Si Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Lucky; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta [Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Chakrabarti, P., E-mail: pchakrabarti.ece@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, fabrication and characterization of copper doped ZnO (Cu doped ZnO) based Schottky devices have been reported. Cu doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on p-Si (100) samples by the sol-gel spin coating method. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies have been done in order to evaluate the structural and morphological properties of the film. The optical properties of the film have been determined by using variable angle ellipsometry. Further, Seebeck measurement of the deposited Cu doped ZnO film leads to positive Seebeck coefficient confirming the p-type conductivity of the sample. The resistivity and acceptor concentration of the film has also been evaluated using four probe measurement system. Pd and Ni metals have been deposited on separate Cu doped ZnO thin film samples using low cost thermal evaporation method to form Schottky contacts. The electrical characterization of the Schottky diode has been performed by semiconductor device analyzer (SDA). Electrical parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor, reverse saturation current and rectification ratio have also been determined for the as-prepared Schottky diode using conventional thermionic emission model and Cheung's method. - Highlights: • Fabrication of sol-gel derived Cu doped ZnO (p-type) Schottky contact proposed. • The p-type Conductivity of the sample confirmed by Seebeck Measurement. • Pd and Ni deposited on Cu doped ZnO film to form Schottky contacts. • Cu doped ZnO expected to emerge as a potential material for thin film solar cells.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of Pd/Cu doped ZnO/Si and Ni/Cu doped ZnO/Si Schottky diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Lucky; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Tripathi, Shweta; Chakrabarti, P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, fabrication and characterization of copper doped ZnO (Cu doped ZnO) based Schottky devices have been reported. Cu doped ZnO thin films have been deposited on p-Si (100) samples by the sol-gel spin coating method. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies have been done in order to evaluate the structural and morphological properties of the film. The optical properties of the film have been determined by using variable angle ellipsometry. Further, Seebeck measurement of the deposited Cu doped ZnO film leads to positive Seebeck coefficient confirming the p-type conductivity of the sample. The resistivity and acceptor concentration of the film has also been evaluated using four probe measurement system. Pd and Ni metals have been deposited on separate Cu doped ZnO thin film samples using low cost thermal evaporation method to form Schottky contacts. The electrical characterization of the Schottky diode has been performed by semiconductor device analyzer (SDA). Electrical parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor, reverse saturation current and rectification ratio have also been determined for the as-prepared Schottky diode using conventional thermionic emission model and Cheung's method. - Highlights: • Fabrication of sol-gel derived Cu doped ZnO (p-type) Schottky contact proposed. • The p-type Conductivity of the sample confirmed by Seebeck Measurement. • Pd and Ni deposited on Cu doped ZnO film to form Schottky contacts. • Cu doped ZnO expected to emerge as a potential material for thin film solar cells.

  13. Ordered Phases in Cu2NiZn: A First-Principles Monte Carlo Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simak, S.I.; Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I.A.

    1998-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations based on effective interactions obtained from first-principles calculations reveal the existence of three ordered phases in ternary Cu2NiZn: (i) "modified"-L1(0) (0-600 K), (ii) L1(2) (600-850 K), and (iii) L1(0) (850-1200 K). This is in contrast to the generally accepted...

  14. Incorporation of trace elements in Portland cement clinker: Thresholds limits for Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gineys, N.; Aouad, G.; Sorrentino, F.; Damidot, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at defining precisely, the threshold limits for several trace elements (Cu, Ni, Sn or Zn) which correspond to the maximum amount that could be incorporated into a standard clinker whilst reaching the limit of solid solution of its four major phases (C 3 S, C 2 S, C 3 A and C 4 AF). These threshold limits were investigated through laboratory synthesised clinkers that were mainly studied by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The reference clinker was close to a typical Portland clinker (65% C 3 S, 18% C 2 S, 8% C 3 A and 8% C 4 AF). The threshold limits for Cu, Ni, Zn and Sn are quite high with respect to the current contents in clinker and were respectively equal to 0.35, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%. It appeared that beyond the defined threshold limits, trace elements had different behaviours. Ni was associated with Mg as a magnesium nickel oxide (MgNiO 2 ) and Sn reacted with lime to form a calcium stannate (Ca 2 SnO 4 ). Cu changed the crystallisation process and affected therefore the formation of C 3 S. Indeed a high content of Cu in clinker led to the decomposition of C 3 S into C 2 S and of free lime. Zn, in turn, affected the formation of C 3 A. Ca 6 Zn 3 Al 4 O 15 was formed whilst a tremendous reduction of C 3 A content was identified. The reactivity of cements made with the clinkers at the threshold limits was followed by calorimetry and compressive strength measurements on cement paste. The results revealed that the doped cements were at least as reactive as the reference cement.

  15. Fusion and characterization of an alloy Cu-Zn-Al-Ni of nuclear interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana M, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    The present work is the result of the study of a non ferrous quatenary alloy of Cu-Zn-Al-Ni (Foundry 3), it was chosen of a series of alloys to obtain so much information of its microstructural properties like mechanical, evaluating them and comparing them with the previously obtained ternary alloys of Cu-AI-Ni (Foundry 1) and Cu-Zn-AI (Foundry 2) identified as alloys of memory effect and superalloys. These were carried out starting from the foundry of their pure elements of Cu, Zn, Al, Ni. When physically having the ingot of each alloy, different techniques were used for their characterization. The used techniques were through the metallographic analysis, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical essays and Rockwell hardness. The non ferrous quaternary alloy Cu-Zn-AI-Ni by means of the metallographic analysis didn't show significant differences in their three sections (superficial, longitudinal and transverse) since result an homogeneous alloy at the same that the both ternaries. The grain size of the quaternary alloy is the finest while the ternary alloy of Cu-AI-Ni is the one that obtained the biggest grain size. Through MEB together with the analysis by EDS and the mapping of the elements that constitute each alloy, show that the three foundries were alloyed, moreover the presence of aggregates was also observed in the Foundries 2 and 3. These results by means of the analysis of XRD corroborate that these alloys have more of two elements. Relating the microstructural properties with those mechanical show us that as minor was the grain size, better they were his mechanical properties, in this case that of the quaternary alloy. With regard to the test of Rockwell hardness the Foundry 1 were the softest with the temper treatment, while that the Foundries 2 and 3 were the hardest with this same treatment, being still harder the Foundry 2 but with very little difference, for what great

  16. Response of Pinus halepensis Mill. seedlings to biosolids enriched with Cu, Ni and Zn in three Mediterranean forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, David; Disante, Karen B.; Valdecantos, Alejandro; Cortina, Jordi; Ramon Vallejo, V.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the response of Pinus halepensis seedlings to the application of biosolids enriched with Cu, Ni and Zn on three Mediterranean forest soils under semiarid conditions. One-year-old seedlings were planted in lysimeters on soils developed from marl, limestone and sandstone which were left unamended, amended with biosolids, or amended with biosolids enriched in Cu, Ni and Zn. Enriched biosolids increased plant heavy metal concentration, but always below phytotoxic levels. Seedlings receiving unenriched biosolids showed a weak reduction in Cu and Zn concentration in needles, negatively affecting physiological status during drought. This effect was alleviated by the application of enriched sludge. Sewage sludge with relatively high levels of Cu, Zn and Ni had minor effects on plant performance on our experimental conditions. Results suggest that micronutrient limitations in these soils may be alleviated by the application of biosolids with a higher Cu, Zn and Ni content than those established by current regulations. - Biosolid-borne Cu, Ni and Zn did not show negative effects on Pinus halepensis seedlings performance after application on three Mediterranean forest soils

  17. Approach to study of Cu, Ni and Zn content in soil for ecotoxicological risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, R.; Marimon, L.; Gil, C.; Roca-Pérez, L.

    2009-04-01

    Current Spanish legislation on contaminated soils defines contaminated soil as "that whose characteristics have been negatively altered by the presence of dangerous human-derived chemical components whose concentration is such that it is an unacceptable risk for human health or the environment and has been expressly declared as such by legal ruling". Regarding heavy metals, the Spanish Autonomous Communities will promote measures to obtain generic reference values to declare a soil to be contaminated. In the Valencian Community, these reference values still do not exist. So if the protection of ecosystems is considered a priority to declare a soil to be contaminated and to assess the level of risk, emergency toxicity tests and seed growth in land plants are resorted to, or tests with aquatic organisms or other experiments with leached soils obtained by standard procedures are carried out. We studied the toxic effects of calcareous contaminated soils by Cu, Ni and Zn on marine bacterium Vibrio fisheri (MicrotoxR test assay) (1) and on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in plate (germination index) (2) and pot (UNE 77301) (3) experiments for the purpose of establishing the Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations in soil which may lead to toxicity in order to observe, therefore, whether there is any likelihood of these pollutants coming into contact with any receptor and if adverse effects exist for living beings and the environment. The results showed significant differences among the three types of tests done but, in all cases, the concentrations needed to reflect toxicity effect on organisms were around 20 -70 (Cu and Ni) to 1000 (Zn) times higher than the levels of the control soils. The sensitivity order of the bio-assay was: (1) < (3) < (2). We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for partial funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  18. Assessment of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr in vegetables grown around Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afshari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted aimed to assess the potential risk of heavy metals on human health resulting from consumption of vegetables. To this end, the vegetables grown around town and industrial center of Zanjan were sampled randomly. Plant samples were digested using hydrochloric acid (HCL 2 M and concentration of elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and Cr were recorded by atomic absorption. Obtained means of heavy metals in all vegetables (N= 32 for Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr is 98.8, 31.9, 19.3, 4.4 and 2.3 mg/kg, respectively. The highest amount of metal pollution index (MPI in the basil and the lowest was observed in the garden cress (respectively 16.46 and 4.88. Daily intake (EDI for zinc, copper and chromium in all age groups was lower than the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI. This amount for nickel was 2, 1.6 and 1.3 %, and for Pb 28.1, 22 and 19 % higher than PTDI in children, adults and seniors, respectively. The potential risk (THQ was calculated in all age groups as Pb>>Cu>Zn>Ni>Cr. The potential risks (THQ of chromium, nickel and zinc were calculated lower than 1, for copper a bit more of 1 and for lead much higher than 1. Health index (HI for children, adults and the elderly was estimated 31.331, 24.58 and 21.14, respectively, with the largest contribution of the lead (89.7%.

  19. Evaluation of structural, morphological and magnetic properties of CuZnNi (Cu_xZn_0_._5_−_xNi_0_._5Fe_2O_4) nanocrystalline ferrites for core, switching and MLCI’s applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Nazir, M.S.; Imran, M.; Ali, A.; Sattar, A.; Murtaza, G.

    2017-01-01

    The influence of Cu substitution on the structural and morphological characteristics of Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites have been discussed in this work. The detailed and systematic magnetic characterizations were also done for Cu substituted Ni–Zn nanoferrites. The nanocrystalline ferrites of Cu substituted Cu_xZn_0_._5_−_xNi_0_._5Fe_2O_4 ferrites (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were synthesized using sol gel self-combustion hybrid method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to investigate the properties of Cu substituted nanocrystalline ferrites. Single phase structure of Cu substituted in Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites were investigated for all the samples. Crystallite size, lattice constant and volume of the cell were found to increase by increasing Cu contents in spinel structure. The better morphology with well-organized nanocrystals of Cu–Zn–Ni ferrites at x=0 and 0.5 were observed from both FESEM and TEM analysis. The average grain size was 35–46 nm for all prepared nanocrystalline samples. Magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation, remanence, magnetic squareness, magneto crystalline anisotropy constant (K) and Bohr magneton were measured from the recorded M–H loops. The magnetic saturation and remanence were increased by the incorporation of Cu contents. However, coercivity follow the Stoner-Wolforth model except for x=0.3 which may be due to the site occupancy and replacement of Cu contents from octahedral site. The squareness ratio confirmed the super paramgnetic behaviour of the Cu substituted in Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites. Furthermore, Cu substituted Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites may be suitable for many industrial and domestic applications such as components of transformers, core, switching, and MLCI’s due to variety of the soft magnetic characteristics. - Highlights: • Cu substituted

  20. Understanding lattice defects to influence ferromagnetic order of ZnO nanoparticles by Ni, Cu, Ce ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand, E-mail: dkuldeep.physics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kotnala, R.K., E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Future spintronics technologies based on diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) will rely heavily on a sound understanding of the microscopic origins of ferromagnetism in such materials. It remains unclear, however, whether the ferromagnetism in DMS is intrinsic - a precondition for spintronics - or due to dopant clustering. For this, we include a simultaneous doping from transition metal (Ni, Cu) and rare earth (Ce) ions in ZnO nanoparticles that increase the antiferromagnetic ordering to achieve high-T{sub c} ferromagnetism. Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns indicate that the dopant ions in ZnO had a wurtzite structure and the dopants, Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions, are highly influenced the lattice constants to induce lattice defects. The Ni, Cu, Ce ions in ZnO have nanoparticles formation than nanorods was observed in pure sample. FTIR involve some organic groups to induce lattice defects and the metal-oxygen bonding of Zn, Ni, Cu, Ce and O atoms to confirm wurtzite structure. Raman analysis evaluates the crystalline quality, structural disorder and defects in ZnO lattice with doping. Photoluminescence spectra have strong near-band-edge emission and visible emission bands responsible for defects due to oxygen vacancies. The energy band gap is calculated using Tauc relation. Room temperature ferromagnetism has been described due to bound magnetic polarons formation with Ni{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 3+} ions in ZnO via oxygen vacancies. The zero field and field cooling SQUID measurement confirm the strength of antiferromagnetism in ZnO. The field cooling magnetization is studied by Curie-Weiss law that include antiferromagnetic interactions up to low temperature. The XPS spectra have involve +3/+4 oxidation states of Ce ions to influence the observed ferromagnetism. - Graphical abstract: The lattice defects/vacancies attributed by Ni and Ce ions in the wurtzite ZnO structure are responsible in high T{sub c} -ferromagnetism due to long-range magnetic

  1. Magnetic nanoparticles of NiCuZn tested in different conditions in catalysis for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, J.; Silva, F.N.; Silva, A.S.; Pereira, K.R.O.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work it was used magnetic nanoparticles Ni_0_,_2Cu_0_,_3Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_4, chemical and thermally stable, under different conditions in catalysis for biodiesel. The magnetic characteristic of such material allows the catalyst recovery after the reactions by applying a permanent magnet. It was proposed to evaluate the performance of the nanomagnetic catalyst Ni_0_,_2Cu_0_,_3Zn_0_,_5Fe_2O_4 in the transesterification, modifying the processing variables (temperature, time, molar ratio of oil:alcohol and catalyst amount). The nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion reaction and characterized by XRD, TG, BET, magnetic measurements and gas chromatography. The results revealed the formation of inverse spinel phase, type B(AB)_2O_4, presenting isotherm profile classified as type V, with hysteresis loop of type 3 (H3). The magnetic hysteresis curve showed a characteristic behavior of soft magnetic material. GC analysis confirmed that nanoparticles were catalytically active, since they were superior to the reaction conducted without the catalyst presence. Besides, the reactions suffered considerable influence due to the changes of the independent variables. (author)

  2. Hydrographic parameters and distribution of dissolved Cu, Ni, Zn and nutrients near Jeddah desalination plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallatah Mohammad M.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of safe desalination plants with low environmental impact is as important an issue as the supply of drinking water. The desalination plant in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia, Red Sea coast produces freshwater from seawater by multi-stage flash distillation (MSFD and reverse osmosis (RO. The process produces brine as by-product, which is dumped into the sea. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of Jeddah desalination plant on the coastal water in the nearby of the plant. Total concentrations of dissolved Cu, Ni, Zn and nutrients in several locations around the plant were analyzed by cathodic stripping voltammetry. The average levels of dissolved Cu, Ni, and Zn on surface in the sampling locations were 15.02, 11.02, and 68.03 nM respectively, whereas the levels at the seafloor near the discharging point were much higher. Distribution of temperature, salinity, nutrients and dissolved oxygen were quite normal both on surface and in depth.

  3. Screening of various types of lignin products for biosorption of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouda, H [Nile Research Inst., National Water Research Center, El Qanater (Egypt)

    2000-07-01

    This paper discussed the need to develop new technologies and approaches to meet strict environmental legislation and standards regarding the discharge of heavy metals to the environment by industry. A study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using different lignin materials for heavy metal removal using the BioElecDetox process. This process uses an unique combination of existing water and wastewater equipment and technology. The heavy metal removal efficiencies of grape stalks, pine bark, larch bark, pine sawdust, broccoli stems, and paper pulp were tested for their biosorption capacity, sedimentation, desorption and recycling for single solutions of copper, nickel and zinc (Cu, Ni and Zn respectively). Results showed that the grape stalk was the best biosorbent among the biomasses examined for Cu, Ni and Zn ions from single solution. The biomass biosorption capacity was determined using the Langmuir equation. Pine bark also gave good results and was considered to be the second best biosorbent. The biosorption for single metal solution was high for all metals. Biomass recycling had no impact on the efficiency of biosorption. It was recommended that future experiments should be conducted for industrial effluent using different biomasses at laboratory scale for the BioElecDetox process. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  4. High temperature dielectric studies of indium-substituted NiCuZn nanoferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd.; Raghasudha, M.; Shah, Jyoti; Shirsath, Sagar E.; Ravinder, D.; Kumar, Shalendra; Meena, Sher Singh; Bhatt, Pramod; Alimuddin; Kumar, Ravi; Kotnala, R. K.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, indium (In3+)-substituted NiCuZn nanostructured ceramic ferrites with a chemical composition of Ni0.5Cu0.25Zn0.25Fe2-xInxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) were prepared by chemical synthesis involving sol-gel chemistry. Single phased cubic spinel structure materials were prepared successfully according to X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses. The dielectric properties of the prepared ferrites were measured using an LCR HiTester at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300 °C at different frequencies from 102 Hz to 5 × 106 Hz. The variations in the dielectric parameters ε‧ and (tanδ) with temperature demonstrated the frequency- and temperature-dependent characteristics due to electron hopping between the ions. The materials had low dielectric loss values in the high frequency range at all temperatures, which makes them suitable for high frequency microwave applications. A qualitative explanation is provided for the dependences of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent on the frequency, temperature, and composition. Mӧssbauer spectroscopy was employed at room temperature to characterize the magnetic behavior.

  5. Assessment of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb levels in beach and dune sands from Havana resorts, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Rizo, Oscar; Buzón González, Fran; Arado López, Juana O

    2015-11-15

    Concentrations of nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in beach and dune sands from thirteen Havana (Cuba) resorts were estimated by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Determined mean metal contents (in mg·kg(-1)) in beach sand samples were 28±12 for Ni, 35±12 for Cu, 31±11 for Zn and 6.0±1.8 for Pb, while for dune sands were 30±15, 38±22, 37±15 and 6.8±2.9, respectively. Metal-to-iron normalization shows moderately severe and severe enrichment by Cu. The comparison with sediment quality guidelines shows that dune sands from various resorts must be considered as heavily polluted by Cu and Ni. Almost in every resort, the Ni and Cu contents exceed their corresponding TEL values and, in some resorts, the Ni PEL value. The comparison with a Havana topsoil study indicates the possible Ni and Cu natural origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni E Co em solos de referência de Pernambuco Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni and Co in benchmark soils of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda Biondi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metais pesados formam um grupo de elementos com particularidades relevantes e de ocorrência natural no ambiente, como elementos acessórios na constituição de rochas. Esses elementos, apesar de associados à toxidez, exigem tratamento diferenciado em relação aos xenobióticos, uma vez que diversos metais possuem essencialidade (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn e Ni e benefício (Co comprovados para as plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os teores naturais dos metais Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu e Co nos solos de referência de Pernambuco. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas três regiões fisiográficas (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão, dos dois primeiros horizontes dos 35 solos de referência do Estado de Pernambuco. A digestão das amostras baseou-se no método 3051A (USEPA, 1998, e a determinação foi efetuada em ICP-OES. Correlações significativas foram estabelecidas entre os metais e entre estes e a fração argila do solo, em ambos os horizontes, indicando a associação comum da maioria dos metais com solos mais argilosos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co menores que os de solos de outras regiões do País, com litologia mais máfica, o que corrobora o fato de que os teores desses elementos são mais diretamente relacionados aos minerais Fe-magnesianos. Os resultados indicam baixo potencial dos solos de Pernambuco em liberar Cu, Co e Ni para plantas, enquanto deficiências de Zn, Fe e Mn são menos prováveis. Os teores naturais de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co determinados podem ser utilizados como base para definição dos Valores de Referência de Qualidade para os solos de Pernambuco, de acordo com o preconizado pela legislação nacional.Heavy metals are a group of elements with specific features and natural occurrence in the environment, representing an accessory in the formation of rocks. These elements, although associated with toxicity, must be treated different from xenobiotics, since many

  7. Influence of cold isostatic pressing on the magnetic properties of Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trong Trung; Valdez-Nava, Zarel; Lebey, Thierry; Mazaleyrat, Frédéric

    2018-04-01

    In power electronics, there is the need to develop solutions to increase the power density of converters. Interleaved multicellular transformers allow interleaving many switching cells and, as a result, a possible increase in the power density. This converter is often composed of a magnetic core having the function of an intercell transformer (ICT) and, depending on the complexity of the designed architecture, its shape could be extremely complex. The switching frequencies (1-10 MHz) for the new wide band gap semiconductors (SiC, GaN) allow to interleave switching cell at higher frequencies than silicon-based semiconductors (materials, but their limit in frequency drive raises the need of higher frequency magnetic materials, such Ni-Zn ferrites. These materials can operate in medium and high power converters up to 10 MHz. We propose to use Ni0,30Zn0,57Cu0,15Fe2O4 ferrite and to compress it by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) into a a green ceramic block and to machine it to obtain the desired ICT of complex shape prior sintering. We compare the magnetic permeability spectra and hysteresis loops the CIP and uniaxially pressed ferrites. The effect of temperature and sintering time as well as high-pressure on properties will be presented in detail. The magnetic properties of the sintered cores are strongly dependent on the microstructure obtained.

  8. Studies of the magnetic properties of Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite and its synthesis by using metal nitrate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Jae Gui

    2004-01-01

    Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite was synthesized by decomposing the metal nitrates Ni(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O, and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O at 200 .deg. C for 20 hours. The ferrite powder was calcined at 400 .deg. C and pulverized for 3, 6, 9, or 12 hours in a steel ball mill. Then, it was sintered from 700 .deg. C to 1000 .deg. C in 100 .deg. C steps for 1 hour at each step. Thus, we could study the effects of the synthesis conditions on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite. We could chemically bond initial specimens in liquid at a low-temperature of 150 .deg. C owing to the low melting points, less than 200 .deg. C, of the metal nitrates instead of mechanical ball-mill pulverization, thus narrowing the distance between the particles a molecular one and lowering the sintering point at least by 200 .deg. C to 300 .deg. C. The initial permeability was 50 to 470, and the maximum magnetic induction and coercive force were 0.2410 T and 39.79 A/m to 95.496 A/m, respectively, which are similar to values for Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite synthesized using a conventional process.

  9. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N RAMAN*, Y PITCHAIKANI RAJA and A KULANDAISAMY. Department of Chemistry, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626 001, India e-mail: ra_man@123india.com.

  10. Comparative study of Ni and Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles: Structural and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Shaveta; Thakur, Samita; Sharma, Jyoti; Kumar, Sanjay

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles of undoped and doped (0.1 M Ni2+ and Cu2+) ZnO are synthesized using chemical precipitation method. The crystallite size, morphology, chemical bonding and optical properties of as prepared nanoparticles are determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-visible spectra. XRD analysis shows that the prepared samples are single phase and have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystallite size of the doped and undoped nanoparticles is determined using Scherrer method. The crystallite size is found to be increased with concentration of nickel and copper. All stretching and vibrational bands are observed at their specific positions through FTIR. The increase in band gap can be attributed to the different chemical nature of dopant and host cation.

  11. Study of interfacial reactions in Sn-3.5Ag-3.0Bi and Sn-8.0Zn-3.0Bi sandwich structure solder joint with Ni(P)/Cu metallization on Cu substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Peng; Andersson, Cristina; Wei, Xicheng; Cheng, Zhaonian; Shangguan, Dongkai; Liu, Johan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the coupling effect in Sn-3.5Ag-3.0Bi and Sn-8.0Zn-3.0Bi solder joint with sandwich structure by long time reflow soldering was studied. It was found that the interfacial compound at the Cu substrate was binary Cu-Sn compound in Sn-Ag-Bi solder joint and Cu 5 Zn 8 phase in Sn-Zn-Bi solder joint. The thickness of the Cu-Zn compound layer formed at the Cu substrate was greater than or equal to that of Cu-Sn compound layer, although the reflow soldering temperature of Sn-Zn-Bi (240 o C) was lower than that of Sn-Ag-Bi (250 o C). The stable Cu-Zn compound was the absolute preferential phase in the interfacial layer between Sn-Zn-Bi and the Cu substrate. The ternary (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 compound was formed at the Sn-Ag-Bi/Ni(P)-Cu metallization interface, and a complex alloy Sn-Ni-Cu-Zn was formed at the Sn-Zn-Bi/Ni(P)-Cu metallization interface. It was noted that Cu atoms could diffuse from the Cu substrate through the solder matrix to the Ni(P)-Cu metallization within 1 min reflow soldering time for both solder systems, indicating that just 30 s was long enough for Cu to go through 250 μm diffusion length in the Sn-Ag-Bi solder joint at 250 o C. The coupling effect between Ni(P)/Cu metallization and Cu substrate was confirmed as the type of IMCs at Ni(P) layer had been changed from Ni-Sn system to Cu-Sn system apparently by the diffusion effect of Cu atoms. The (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 layer at the Ni(P)/Cu metallization grew significantly and its thickness was even greater than that of the Cu-Sn compound on the opposite side, however the growth of the complex alloy including Sn, Ni, Cu and Zn on the Ni(P)/Cu metallization was suppressed

  12. Influence of cold isostatic pressing on the magnetic properties of Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong Trung Le

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In power electronics, there is the need to develop solutions to increase the power density of converters. Interleaved multicellular transformers allow interleaving many switching cells and, as a result, a possible increase in the power density. This converter is often composed of a magnetic core having the function of an intercell transformer (ICT and, depending on the complexity of the designed architecture, its shape could be extremely complex. The switching frequencies (1-10 MHz for the new wide band gap semiconductors (SiC, GaN allow to interleave switching cell at higher frequencies than silicon-based semiconductors (<1 MHz. Intercell transformers must follow this increase in frequency times-fold the number of switching cells. Current applications for ICT transformers use Mn-Zn based materials, but their limit in frequency drive raises the need of higher frequency magnetic materials, such Ni-Zn ferrites. These materials can operate in medium and high power converters up to 10 MHz. We propose to use Ni0,30Zn0,57Cu0,15Fe2O4 ferrite and to compress it by cold isostatic pressing (CIP into a a green ceramic block and to machine it to obtain the desired ICT of complex shape prior sintering. We compare the magnetic permeability spectra and hysteresis loops the CIP and uniaxially pressed ferrites. The effect of temperature and sintering time as well as high-pressure on properties will be presented in detail. The magnetic properties of the sintered cores are strongly dependent on the microstructure obtained.

  13. Coordination Behavior of Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ in Tetrahedral 1-Methylimidazole Complexes: A DFT/CSD Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tetteh, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    The interaction between nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+), and zinc (Zn2+) ions and 1-methylimidazole has been studied by exploring the geometries of eleven crystal structures in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD). The coordination behavior of the respective ions was further investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) methods. The gas-phase complexes were fully optimized using B3LYP/GENECP functionals with 6-31G∗ and LANL2DZ basis sets. The Ni2+ and Cu2+ complexes show distorted ...

  14. Effects of microstructure and CaO addition on the magnetic and mechanical properties of NiCuZn ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sea-Fue, E-mail: sfwang@ntut.edu.tw; Hsu, Yung-Fu; Liu, Yi-Xin; Hsieh, Chung-Kai

    2015-11-15

    In this study, the effects of grain size and the addition of CaCO{sub 3} on the magnetic and mechanical properties of Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics were investigated. The bending strength of the ferrites increased from 66 to 84 MPa as the grain size of the sintered ceramics decreased from 10.25 μm to 7.53 μm, while the change in hardness was insignificant. The addition of various amounts of CaCO{sub 3} densified the Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics at 1075 °C. In the pure Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic, second phase CuO was segregated at the grain boundaries. With the CaCO{sub 3} content ≥1.5 wt%, a small amount of discrete plate-like second phase Fe{sub 2}CaO{sub 4} was observed, together with the disappearance of the second phase CuO. The grain size of the Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic dropped from 7.80 μm to 4.68 μm, and the grain size distribution widened as the CaCO{sub 3} content increased from 0 to 5 wt%. Initially rising to 807 after CaCO{sub 3} addition up to 2.0 wt%, due to a reduced grain size, the Vickers hardness began to drop as the CaCO{sub 3} content increased. The bending strength grew linearly with the CaCO{sub 3} content and reached twice the value for the Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic with an addition of 5.0 wt% CaCO{sub 3}. The initial permeability of the Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic decreased substantially from 402 to 103 as the addition of CaCO{sub 3} in ferrite increased from 0 to 5 wt%, and the quality factor of the Ni{sub 0.5}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic was maximized at 95 for 1.0 wt% CaCO{sub 3} addition. - Highlights: • Effects of grain size and CaCO{sub 3} on the properties of NiCuZn ferrite were studied. • Bending strength increased with grain size of the ferrite but not in the hardness. • Bending strength reached a twice value for

  15. Effect of neodymium substitutions on electromagnetic properties in low temperature sintered NiCuZn ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. P.; Tung, M. J.; Ko, W. S.; Wang, Y. P.; Tong, S. Y.; Yang, M. D.

    2015-11-01

    Nd3+ ions substituted Ni0.37Cu0.14Zn0.52Fe2O4 (Nd3+ ions content=0, 0.01, 0.04, 0.6, 1.5 wt%) were prepared by the usual standard ceramic method at 1030 °C sintering temperature, and the composition dependence of the physical and magnetic properties has been investigated. SEM micrographs and EDX analysis revealed that it is no obvious impurities up to Nd3+ ions content wt%=0.04. For higher Nd3+ ions content samples (0.6 and 1.5 wt%), there are two kind of impurities Cu-rich and Nd-rich iron oxide phase. The saturation magnetization of the 0.01 wt% Nd3+ions content sample is higher as result of that the A-B sites distance and YK-angles are shorter and smaller. The saturation magnetization of 0.04-1.5 wt% Nd3+ ion content sample are reduced, since the total magnetic moments of the AB site are decreased. For the 0.6 wt% sample, the Curie temperature increasing is as result of the Cu-rich iron oxide separating out. The maximum enhancements of permeability μ‧ are improved to 11.2% (0.04 wt%) and 29.2% (0.6 wt%) at the 6.7 and 13.8 MHz, respectively. However, it is notice that small amount substitutions of Nd3+ increase the high frequency electromagnetic characteristics, can be applied to NFC technology and WPT technologies.

  16. Effect of neodymium substitutions on electromagnetic properties in low temperature sintered NiCuZn ferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.P., E-mail: itria20161@itri.org.tw; Tung, M.J.; Ko, W.S.; Wang, Y.P.; Tong, S.Y.; Yang, M.D.

    2015-11-01

    Nd{sup 3+} ions substituted Ni{sub 0.37}Cu{sub 0.14}Zn{sub 0.52}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (Nd{sup 3+} ions content=0, 0.01, 0.04, 0.6, 1.5 wt%) were prepared by the usual standard ceramic method at 1030 °C sintering temperature, and the composition dependence of the physical and magnetic properties has been investigated. SEM micrographs and EDX analysis revealed that it is no obvious impurities up to Nd{sup 3+} ions content wt%=0.04. For higher Nd{sup 3+} ions content samples (0.6 and 1.5 wt%), there are two kind of impurities Cu-rich and Nd-rich iron oxide phase. The saturation magnetization of the 0.01 wt% Nd{sup 3+}ions content sample is higher as result of that the A–B sites distance and YK-angles are shorter and smaller. The saturation magnetization of 0.04–1.5 wt% Nd{sup 3+} ion content sample are reduced, since the total magnetic moments of the AB site are decreased. For the 0.6 wt% sample, the Curie temperature increasing is as result of the Cu-rich iron oxide separating out. The maximum enhancements of permeability μ′ are improved to 11.2% (0.04 wt%) and 29.2% (0.6 wt%) at the 6.7 and 13.8 MHz, respectively. However, it is notice that small amount substitutions of Nd{sup 3+} increase the high frequency electromagnetic characteristics, can be applied to NFC technology and WPT technologies.

  17. In situ study on reverse polarity effect in Cu/Sn–9Zn/Ni interconnect undergoing liquid–solid electromigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, M.L., E-mail: huang@dlut.edu.cn; Zhang, Z.J.; Zhao, N.; Yang, F.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Abnormal reverse polarity effect in Cu/Sn–9Zn/Ni interconnect during L–S EM was observed. • The reverse polarity effect was resulted from directional diffusion of Zn to cathode. • Positive effective charge number is responsible for directional diffusion of Zn atom. • The effective charge number value of Zn was calculated to be +0.63 based on a model. • This effect is beneficial to EM reliability of micro-bump solder interconnect. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation real-time imaging technology was used to in situ study the interfacial reactions in Cu/Sn–9Zn/Ni solder interconnects undergoing liquid–solid electromigration (L–S EM). The reverse polarity effect, evidenced by the continuous growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) layer at the cathode and the thinning of the IMC layer at the anode, was resulted from the abnormal directional migration of Zn atoms toward the cathode in electric field. This abnormal migration behavior was induced by the positive effective charge number (Z{sup ∗}) of Zn atoms, which was calculated to be +0.63 based on the Cu fluxes and the consumption kinetics of the anode Cu. Irrespective of the flowing direction of electrons, the consumption of Cu film was obvious while that of Ni film was limited. The dissolution of anode Cu followed a linear relationship with time while that of cathode Cu followed a parabolic relationship with time. It is more damaging with electrons flowing from the Ni to the Cu than that from the Cu to the Ni. The simulated Zn concentration distributions gave an explanation on the relationship between abnormal migration behavior of Zn atoms and the dissolution of Cu film under electron wind force. The abnormal directional migration of Zn atoms toward the cathode prevented the dissolution of cathode substrate, which is beneficial to improve the EM reliability of micro-bump solder interconnects.

  18. Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule across a whole solid solution range in a series of gamma-brasses in Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, Cu-Al, Cu-Ga, Ni-Zn and Co-Zn alloy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, U.; Noritake, T.; Ohsuna, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to examine if the Hume-Rothery stabilisation mechanism holds across whole solid solution ranges in a series of gamma-brasses with especial attention to the role of vacancies introduced into the large unit cell. The concentration dependence of the number of atoms in the unit cell, N, for gamma-brasses in the Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, Cu-Al, Cu-Ga, Ni-Zn and Co-Zn alloy systems was determined by measuring the density and lattice constants at room temperature. The number of itinerant electrons in the unit cell, e/uc, is evaluated by taking a product of N and the number of itinerant electrons per atom, e/a, for the transition metal element deduced earlier from the full-potential linearised augmented plane wave (FLAPW)-Fourier analysis. The results are discussed within the rigid-band model using as a host the density of states (DOS) derived earlier from the FLAPW band calculations for the stoichiometric gamma-brasses Cu5Zn8, Cu9Al4 and TM2Zn11 (TM = Co and Ni). A solid solution range of gamma-brasses in Cu-Zn, Cu-Cd, Cu-Al, Cu-Ga and Ni-Zn alloy systems is found to fall inside the existing pseudogap at the Fermi level. This is taken as confirmation of the validity of the Hume-Rothery stability mechanism for a whole solute concentration range of these gamma-brasses. An exception to this behaviour was found in the Co-Zn gamma-brasses, where orbital hybridisation effects are claimed to play a crucial role in stabilisation.

  19. An experimental and thermodynamic equilibrium investigation of the Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni partitioning during sewage sludge incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyong; Fu, Jiewen; Ning, Xun'an; Sun, Shuiyu; Wang, Yujie; Xie, Wuming; Huang, Shaosong; Zhong, Sheng

    2015-09-01

    The effects of different chlorides and operational conditions on the distribution and speciation of six heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni) during sludge incineration were investigated using a simulated laboratory tubular-furnace reactor. A thermodynamic equilibrium investigation using the FactSage software was performed to compare the experimental results. The results indicate that the volatility of the target metals was enhanced as the chlorine concentration increased. Inorganic-Cl influenced the volatilization of heavy metals in the order of Pb>Zn>Cr>Cu>Mn>Ni. However, the effects of organic-Cl on the volatility of Mn, Pb and Cu were greater than the effects on Zn, Cr and Ni. With increasing combustion temperature, the presence of organic-Cl (PVC) and inorganic-Cl (NaCl) improved the transfer of Pb and Zn from bottom ash to fly ash or fuse gas. However, the presence of chloride had no obvious influence on Mn, Cu and Ni. Increased retention time could increase the volatilization rate of heavy metals; however, this effect was insignificant. During the incineration process, Pb readily formed PbSiO4 and remained in the bottom ash. Different Pb compounds, primarily the volatile PbCl2, were found in the gas phase after the addition of NaCl; the dominant Pb compounds in the gas phase after the addition of PVC were PbCl2, Pb(ClO4)2 and PbCl2O4. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Transformation of technogenic compounds of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in different soil types in model experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladonin, D.V.; Smirnova, M.S.; Karpukhin, M.M.; Plyaskina, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    In model experiment fractional distribution of Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in soils artificially polluted with readily and sparingly soluble compounds (nitrates and oxides respectively) of these heavy metals was investigated. It is shown that heavy metals fractional distribution may strongly vary depending on the form in which the metal deposits in the soil. Transformation of heavy metals oxides is controlled by two main factors: solubility of an oxide and characteristics of reactions between dissolution products and the soil components

  1. Sorption of Cu(II, Zn(II and Ni(II from aqueous solution using activated carbon prepared from olive stone waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Sharaf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of olive stone activated carbon (OSAC for sorption of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ ions was investigated via batch technique. OSAC materials were prepared under different physially activation conditions. Olive stone waste was physically activated with N2 gas and steam gas at 900oC at 3.5h hold time (OSAC-3 was choice as the best one for Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ removal. Characterization for OSAC-3 were performed under BET-surface area, SEM, density and FTIR-spectrum. Optimum adsorption conditions were specified as a function of agitation time, initial metal concentration, pH and temperature. Kinetic results were found to be fast and described well by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption capacities are 25.38mg/g (Cu2+, 16.95mg/g (Zn2+ and 14.65mg/g (Ni2+ which followed the sequence Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Ni2+. Spontaneous adsorption for all the studied cations, endothermic nature for both Zn2+ and Ni2+ ions and exothermic nature for Cu2+ ions were obtained. The results showed that OSAC-3 is a good economical material for Cu2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ remediation from weakly acidic contaminated effluents.

  2. Synthesis and electrochemical performances of LiNiCuZn oxides as anode and cathode catalyst for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Y; Qin, H; Liu, Q; Singh, M; Zhu, B

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC, 300-600 degrees C) is developed with advantages compared to conventional SOFC (800-1000 degrees C). The electrodes with good catalytic activity, high electronic and ionic conductivity are required to achieve high power output. In this work, a LiNiCuZn oxides as anode and cathode catalyst is prepared by slurry method. The structure and morphology of the prepared LiNiCuZn oxides are characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The LiNiCuZn oxides prepared by slurry method are nano Li0.28Ni0.72O, ZnO and CuO compound. The nano-crystallites are congregated to form ball-shape particles with diameter of 800-1000 nm. The LiNiCuZn oxides electrodes exhibits high ion conductivity and low polarization resistance to hydrogen oxidation reaction and oxygen reduction reaction at low temperature. The LTSOFC using the LiNiCuZn oxides electrodes demonstrates good cell performance of 1000 mW cm(-2) when it operates at 470 degrees C. It is considered that nano-composite would be an effective way to develop catalyst for LTSOFC.

  3. Teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni E Co em solos de referência de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Miranda Biondi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Metais pesados formam um grupo de elementos com particularidades relevantes e de ocorrência natural no ambiente, como elementos acessórios na constituição de rochas. Esses elementos, apesar de associados à toxidez, exigem tratamento diferenciado em relação aos xenobióticos, uma vez que diversos metais possuem essencialidade (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn e Ni e benefício (Co comprovados para as plantas. Nesse contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os teores naturais dos metais Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu e Co nos solos de referência de Pernambuco. Foram coletadas amostras de solo nas três regiões fisiográficas (Zona da Mata, Agreste e Sertão, dos dois primeiros horizontes dos 35 solos de referência do Estado de Pernambuco. A digestão das amostras baseou-se no método 3051A (USEPA, 1998, e a determinação foi efetuada em ICP-OES. Correlações significativas foram estabelecidas entre os metais e entre estes e a fração argila do solo, em ambos os horizontes, indicando a associação comum da maioria dos metais com solos mais argilosos. A maioria dos solos apresentou teores de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co menores que os de solos de outras regiões do País, com litologia mais máfica, o que corrobora o fato de que os teores desses elementos são mais diretamente relacionados aos minerais Fe-magnesianos. Os resultados indicam baixo potencial dos solos de Pernambuco em liberar Cu, Co e Ni para plantas, enquanto deficiências de Zn, Fe e Mn são menos prováveis. Os teores naturais de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni e Co determinados podem ser utilizados como base para definição dos Valores de Referência de Qualidade para os solos de Pernambuco, de acordo com o preconizado pela legislação nacional.

  4. Evaluation of the SO(2) and NH(3) gas adsorption properties of CuO/ZnO/Mn(3)O(4) and CuO/ZnO/NiO ternary impregnated activated carbon using combinatorial materials science methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Jennifer V; Smith, Jock W H; Sullivan, Braden M; Macdonald, Landan; Croll, Lisa M; Dahn, J R

    2013-02-11

    Impregnated activated carbons (IAC) are widely used materials for the removal of toxic gases in personal respiratory protection applications. The combinatorial method has been employed to prepare IACs containing different types of metal oxides in various proportions and evaluate their adsorption performance for low molecular weight gases, such as SO(2) and NH(3), under dry conditions. Among the metal oxides used for the study, Mn(3)O(4) was found to have the highest capacity for retaining SO(2) gas under dry conditions. NiO and ZnO were found to have similar NH(3) adsorption capacities which are higher than the NH(3) capacities observed for the other metal oxide impregnants used in the study. Although Cu- or Zn-based impregnants and their combinations have been extensively studied and used as gas adsorbents, neither Mn(3)O(4) nor NiO have been incorporated in the formulations used. In this study, ternary libraries of IACs with various combinations of CuO/ZnO/Mn(3)O(4) and CuO/ZnO/NiO were studied and evaluated for their adsorption of SO(2) and NH(3) gases. Combinations of CuO, ZnO, and Mn(3)O(4) were found to have the potential to be multigas adsorbents compared to formulations that contain NiO.

  5. Percolation-induced plasmonic state and double negative electromagnetic properties of Ni-Zn Ferrite/Cu granular composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massango, Herieta; Kono, Koji; Tsutaoka, Takanori; Kasagi, Teruhiro; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Hatakeyama, Kenichi

    2018-05-01

    Complex permeability and permittivity spectra of Ni-Zn Ferrite/Cu hybrid granular composite materials have been studied in the RF to microwave frequency range. The electrical conductivity σ shows insulating properties in the volume fraction of Cu particles below φ = 0.14. A large jump in conductivity was observed between φ = 0.14 and 0.24 indicating that the Cu particles make metallic conduction between this interval. Hence, the percolation threshold φC, was estimated to be 0.14. A percolation-induced low frequency plasmonic state with negative permittivity spectrum was observed from φ = 0.14-0.24. Meanwhile the negative permeability was observed at φ = 0.16, 0.19 and 0.24. Hence the DNG characteristic was realized in these Cu volume content in the frequency range from 105 MHz to 2 GHz.

  6. Swift heavy ion irradiation of Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Ni alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaya, E; Tolley, A; Condo, A M; Schumacher, G

    2009-05-06

    The effects produced by swift heavy ions in the martensitic (18R) and austenitic phase (β) of Cu based shape memory alloys were characterized. Single crystal samples with a surface normal close to [210](18R) and [001](β) were irradiated with 200 MeV of Kr(15+), 230 MeV of Xe(15+), 350 and 600 MeV of Au(26+) and Au(29+). Changes in the microstructure were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). It was found that swift heavy ion irradiation induced nanometer sized defects in the 18R martensitic phase. In contrast, a hexagonal close-packed phase formed on the irradiated surface of β phase samples. HRTEM images of the nanometer sized defects observed in the 18R martensitic phase were compared with computer simulated images in order to interpret the origin of the observed contrast. The best agreement was obtained when the defects were assumed to consist of local composition modulations.

  7. Processing–microstructure–properties relationship in a CuNiZn ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausell, C.; Barba, A.

    2018-01-01

    CuNiZn ferrites are polycrystalline ceramic materials that are used widely in electronic devices for a number of reasons, including their high permeability in the RF frequency region, electrical resistivity, mechanical hardness and chemical stability. One of their main applications is in the production of specimens to prevent possible interferences between electronic devices, thanks to their ability to absorb electromagnetic waves. However, their electromagnetic properties are not solely dependent on their chemical composition, but also on the microstructure of the final piece (relative density or total porosity, grain size distribution, pore size distribution, the nature of the grain boundary, presence of secondary phases, dopants, etc.) and, therefore, on the morphology and size of the starting particles, and the processing method. The microstructure of the sintered specimens was designed in such a way as to optimize the electromagnetic properties of this ferrite. The solid-state sintering stage was also modeled with this optimization in mind. This sintering model enabled to propose the material transport mechanisms that controlled the densification and grain-growth rates, as well as the relative rates of these two simultaneous processes. The established relationships facilitate the design of a thermal cycle suitable for the manufacture of ferrite pieces with maximum relative density and the necessary microstructure. Together with the pre-configured chemical composition, the idea is that this ensures a strong set of final electromagnetic properties. The electromagnetic properties of the sintered ferrites were observed to improve as sintered relative density and average grain size increased, provided there was no evidence of exaggerated grain growth. In this sense, it seems there is a threshold of the grain size as of which the electromagnetic properties of the sintered specimens get worse. A linear relationship was observed between the imaginary part of the

  8. Effect of nano Ni additions on the structure and properties of Sn-9Zn and Sn-Zn-3Bi solders in Au/Ni/Cu ball grid array packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gain, Asit Kumar [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chan, Y.C. [Department of Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: eeycchan@cityu.edu.hk; Yung, Winco K.C. [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-05-25

    The effect of nano Ni additions in Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders on their interfacial microstructures and shear loads with Au/Ni/Cu pad metallization in ball grid array (BGA) applications were investigated. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based lead-free solders, there were no significant changes in the interfacial microstructure. But, in the solder region a very fine Zn-rich phase was observed. Also on the fracture surfaces a fine Zn-Ni compound was found. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based solders, the shear loads were increased due to a refinement of the microstructure and in addition, ductile fracture surfaces were clearly observed. The shear loads of the plain Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders after one reflow cycle were about 1798 g and 2059 g, respectively. After the addition of nano Ni powder, their loads were about 2172 g and 2212 g, respectively, after one reflow cycle and their shear loads after eight reflow cycles were about 2099 g and 2081 g, respectively.

  9. Effect of nano Ni additions on the structure and properties of Sn-9Zn and Sn-Zn-3Bi solders in Au/Ni/Cu ball grid array packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gain, Asit Kumar; Chan, Y.C.; Yung, Winco K.C.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of nano Ni additions in Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders on their interfacial microstructures and shear loads with Au/Ni/Cu pad metallization in ball grid array (BGA) applications were investigated. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based lead-free solders, there were no significant changes in the interfacial microstructure. But, in the solder region a very fine Zn-rich phase was observed. Also on the fracture surfaces a fine Zn-Ni compound was found. After the addition of nano Ni powder in Sn-based solders, the shear loads were increased due to a refinement of the microstructure and in addition, ductile fracture surfaces were clearly observed. The shear loads of the plain Sn-9Zn and Sn-8Zn-3Bi solders after one reflow cycle were about 1798 g and 2059 g, respectively. After the addition of nano Ni powder, their loads were about 2172 g and 2212 g, respectively, after one reflow cycle and their shear loads after eight reflow cycles were about 2099 g and 2081 g, respectively.

  10. Reaction of intermetallic compounds of the ScT composition (T=Ag, Cu, Zn, Ni) with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilkin, S.P.; Volkova, L.S.; Tarasov, B.P.

    1995-01-01

    Reaction of intermetallic compounds of ScT composition (T=Ag, Cu, Zn, Ni), crystallized in CsCl structural type, with hydrogen at 0.2-10 MPa pressure and 293-673 K temperature is studied by chemical, x-ray phase and complex thermogravimetry analysis methods. It is shown that under such conditions hydrogen absorption by ScAg and ScCu is accompanied by the decay of their source matrices into scandium dihydride and metal silver and copper respectively. For ScZn a fine-dispersion mixture of scandium dihydride with zinc and hydride phase of a new zinc-containing intermetallic compound appears to be the finite reaction product. In case of ScNi a hydride phase of ScNiH 2.6 composition is produced, which is crystallized in a rhombic syngony with the lattice periods: a=0.5281±0.0007, b=0.7393±0.0009 and c=0.3327±0.0004 nm. 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. A study of NiZnCu-ferrite/SiO2 nanocomposites with different ferrite contents synthesized by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shifeng; Geng Jianxin; Chen Jianfeng; Yin Li; Zhou Yunchun; Liu Leijing; Zhou Enle

    2005-01-01

    Ni 0.65 Zn 0.35 Cu 0.1 Fe 1.9 O 4 /SiO 2 nanocomposites with different weight percentages of NiZnCu-ferrite dispersed in silica matrix were successfully fabricated by the sol-gel method using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as a precursor of silica, and metal nitrates as precursors of NiZnCu ferrite. The thermal decomposition process of the dried gel was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The obtained Ni 0.65 Zn 0.35 Cu 0.1 Fe 1.9 O 4 /SiO 2 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Mossbauer spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The formation of stoichiometric NiZnCu-ferrite dispersed in silica matrix is confirmed when the weight percentage of ferrite is not more than 30%. Samples with higher ferrite content have small amount of α-Fe 2 O 3 . The transition from the paramagnetic to the ferromagnetic state is observed as the ferrite content increases from 20 to 90wt%. The magnetic properties of the nanocomposites are closely related to the ferrite content. The saturation magnetization increases with the ferrite content, while the coercivity reaches a maximum when the ferrite is 80wt% in the silica matrix

  12. Assessing comparative terrestrial ecotoxicity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn: The influence of aging and emission source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Holm, Peter E.; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    H or soil organic carbon, emission source occasionally has an effect on reactivity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn emitted from various anthropogenic sources followed by aging in the soil from a few years to two centuries. The uncertainties in estimating the age prevent definitive conclusions about...... the influence of aging time on the reactivity of metals from anthropogenic sources in soils. Thus, for calculating comparative toxicity potentials of man-made metal contaminations in soils, we recommend using time-horizon independent accessibility factors derived from source-specific reactive fractions....

  13. Unsaturated b-ketoesters and their Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMED BASHEER UMMATHUR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new series of b-ketoesters in which the keto group is attached to the olefinic linkage were synthesized by the reaction of methyl acetoacetate and aromatic aldehydes under specified conditions. The existence of these compounds predominantly in the intramolecularly hydrogen bonded enol form was well demonstrated from their IR, 1H-NMR and mass spectral data. Details on the formation of their [ML2] complexes with Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II and the nature of the bonding are discussed on the basis of analytical and spectral data.

  14. Room-temperature synthesis of three-dimensional porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid magnetic layers with photoluminescent and photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Miguel; Zhang, Jin; Altube, Ainhoa; García-Lecina, Eva; Roldan, Mònica; Baró, Maria Dolors; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A facile synthetic approach to prepare porous ZnO@CuNi hybrid films is presented. Initially, magnetic CuNi porous layers (consisting of phase separated CuNi alloys) are successfully grown by electrodeposition at different current densities using H2 bubbles as a dynamic template to generate the porosity. The porous CuNi alloys serve as parent scaffolds to be subsequently filled with a solution containing ZnO nanoparticles previously synthesized by sol-gel. The dispersed nanoparticles are deposited dropwise onto the CuNi frameworks and the solvent is left to evaporate while the nanoparticles impregnate the interior of the pores, rendering ZnO-coated CuNi 3D porous structures. No thermal annealing is required to obtain the porous films. The synthesized hybrid porous layers exhibit an interesting combination of tunable ferromagnetic and photoluminescent properties. In addition, the aqueous photocatalytic activity of the composite is studied under UV−visible light irradiation for the degradation of Rhodamine B. The proposed method represents a fast and inexpensive approach towards the implementation of devices based on metal-semiconductor porous systems, avoiding the use of post-synthesis heat treatment steps which could cause deleterious oxidation of the metallic counterpart, as well as collapse of the porous structure and loss of the ferromagnetic properties. PMID:27877868

  15. Magnetic nanoparticles of NiCuZn tested in different conditions in catalysis for biodiesel; Nanoparticulas magneticas de NiCuZn testadas em diferentes condicoes na catalise para biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, J.; Silva, F.N.; Silva, A.S.; Pereira, K.R.O.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: joeldadantas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LabSMaC/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Laboratorio de Sintese de Materiais Ceramicos

    2014-07-01

    In this work it was used magnetic nanoparticles Ni{sub 0,2}Cu{sub 0,3}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, chemical and thermally stable, under different conditions in catalysis for biodiesel. The magnetic characteristic of such material allows the catalyst recovery after the reactions by applying a permanent magnet. It was proposed to evaluate the performance of the nanomagnetic catalyst Ni{sub 0,2}Cu{sub 0,3}Zn{sub 0,5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in the transesterification, modifying the processing variables (temperature, time, molar ratio of oil:alcohol and catalyst amount). The nanoparticles were synthesized by combustion reaction and characterized by XRD, TG, BET, magnetic measurements and gas chromatography. The results revealed the formation of inverse spinel phase, type B(AB){sub 2}O{sub 4}, presenting isotherm profile classified as type V, with hysteresis loop of type 3 (H3). The magnetic hysteresis curve showed a characteristic behavior of soft magnetic material. GC analysis confirmed that nanoparticles were catalytically active, since they were superior to the reaction conducted without the catalyst presence. Besides, the reactions suffered considerable influence due to the changes of the independent variables. (author)

  16. Evidence of ferromagnetism in Zn1-xMxO (M = Ni,Cu) nanocrystals for spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perales-Perez, O; Parra-Palomino, A; Singhal, R; Voyles, P M; Zhu, Y; Jia, W; Tomar, M S

    2007-01-01

    We present the conditions for room-temperature synthesis of bare, Ni-and Cu-doped ZnO nanocrystals in ethanol and their characterization. The formation of a ZnO host structure was delayed when dopant ions co-existed in the starting solutions. After ageing in mother liquors, well-crystallized doped nanocrystals were produced. Monodispersity of the nanocrystals (5-8 nm) was shown by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements also confirmed the nanocrystalline nature and the continuous growth of the crystals when aged at room temperature. Room-temperature SQUID measurements showed weak but noticeable ferromagnetism, which was dependent on synthesis conditions

  17. Ferromagnetic half-metallic characteristic in bulk Ni 0.5M 0.5O (M=Cu, Zn and Cd): A GGAU study

    KAUST Repository

    Mi, Wenbo

    2012-07-01

    Ferromagnetic half metallicity with a high spin polarization of 100% was predicted in the bulk Ni 0.5Cu 0.5O using density-functional theory method. The band gap of majority spin is 3.45 eV for Ni 0.5Cu 0.5O. The density of states of minority spin at the Fermi level are mainly from Cu 3d and O 2p in the Ni 0.5Cu 0.5O. The magnetic moments are from Ni 3d states. Ni 0.5Zn 0.5O and Ni 0.5Cd 0.5O systems are ferromagnetic insulators, but the magnetic moment of Ni 2 ions is enhanced by the Zn and Cd incorporation. Therefore, Ni 0.5Cu 0.5O is the potential candidate for spintronics devices because of the predicted high spin polarization. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ferromagnetic half-metallic characteristic in bulk Ni 0.5M 0.5O (M=Cu, Zn and Cd): A GGAU study

    KAUST Repository

    Mi, Wenbo; Yang, Hua; Cheng, Yingchun; Bai, Haili

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic half metallicity with a high spin polarization of 100% was predicted in the bulk Ni 0.5Cu 0.5O using density-functional theory method. The band gap of majority spin is 3.45 eV for Ni 0.5Cu 0.5O. The density of states of minority spin at the Fermi level are mainly from Cu 3d and O 2p in the Ni 0.5Cu 0.5O. The magnetic moments are from Ni 3d states. Ni 0.5Zn 0.5O and Ni 0.5Cd 0.5O systems are ferromagnetic insulators, but the magnetic moment of Ni 2 ions is enhanced by the Zn and Cd incorporation. Therefore, Ni 0.5Cu 0.5O is the potential candidate for spintronics devices because of the predicted high spin polarization. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Effect of heat treatment on the structure of a Cu-Zn-Al-Ni system dental alloy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastaldi, A C; Adorno, A T; Beatrice, C R; Mondelli, J; Ishikiriama, A; Lacefield, W

    1990-01-01

    This article characterizes the structural phases present in the copper-based metallic alloy system "Cu-Zn-Al-Ni" developed for dental use, and relates those phases to other properties. The characterization was obtained after casting (using the lost wax process), and after heat treatment. In order to obtain better corrosion resistance by changing the microstructure, the castings were submitted to 30, 45 and 60 minutes of heat treatment at the following temperatures: 750 degrees C, 800 degrees C, and 850 degrees C. The various phases were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results after heat treatment showed a phase (probably Cu3Al), that could be responsible for the improvement in the alloy's resistance to corrosion as compared to the as-cast structure.

  20. Influence of particle size on the magnetic spectrum of NiCuZn ferrites for electromagnetic shielding applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaohan; Yan, Shuoqing; Liu, Weihu [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Feng, Zekun, E-mail: fengzekun@mail.hust.edu.cn [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits, and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The effect of ferrite particle size on the magnetic spectra (1 MHz to 1 GHz) of NiCuZn polycrystalline ferrites doped with Co{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were systematically investigated. The experiments indicate that the ferrite particle size tailored by grinding time and corresponding sintering temperatures is crucial to achieving high permeability, high Q-factor and low magnetic loss, at 13.56 MHz for electromagnetic shielding applications especially in the near field communication (NFC) field. It is evident that high-performance NiZnCu ferrite materials are strongly tailored by morphology and microstructure. It is conclusive that fine ferrite particles and relatively low sintering temperatures are favorable to lowering magnetic loss and enhancing permeability. This work has built a foundation for improvement of the ferrite slurry used for fabrication of large area tape-casting ferrite sheets. - Highlights: • Fine particles are favorable to lowering magnetic loss and enhancing permeability.

  1. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Joelda; Santos, Jakeline Raiane D.; Cunha, Rodrigo Bruno L.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M.; Kiminami, Ruth Herta G.A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 °C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w) of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni 0.5 Zn 0.5 Fe 2 O 4 ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 m2 g -1 and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m 2 g -1 and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion. (author)

  2. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Joelda; Santos, Jakeline Raiane D.; Cunha, Rodrigo Bruno L.; Costa, Ana Cristina F.M., E-mail: joeldadantas@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LabSMaC/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais. Lab. de Sintese de Materiais Ceramicos; Kiminami, Ruth Herta G.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenhria de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 Degree-Sign C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w) of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 {sup m2}g{sup -1} and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion. (author)

  3. Use of Ni-Zn ferrites doped with Cu as catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil to methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelda Dantas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to evaluate the performance of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu as a catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel, using methanol. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The reaction was performed for 2 hours at a temperature of 160 °C, using 10 g of soybean oil, a molar ratio of oil: alcohol of 1:20, and 4% (w/w of catalyst. The product of the reaction was characterized by gas chromatography, which confirmed conversion to methyl esters. The diffraction patterns showed the presence only of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite phase with a crystallite size of 29 nm. The samples doped with 0.1 and 0.4 mol of Cu showed a surface area and particle size of 22.17 m²g- 1 and 50.47 nm; and 23.49 m²g- 1 and 47.64 nm, respectively. The morphology of both samples consisted of brittle block-shaped agglomerates with a wide particle size distribution. A comparative analysis of the two catalysts indicated that the catalyst doped with 0.4 mol of Cu showed the better performance, with a conversion rate of 50.25%, while the catalyst doped with 0.1 mol of Cu showed 42.71% conversion.

  4. 3d-metal doping (Fe,Co,Ni,Zn) of the high Tc perovskite YBa2Cu3O(7-y)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarascon, J.M.; Barboux, P.; Greene, L.H.; Hull, G.W.; Bagley, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    The structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of the mixed compounds YBa 2 Cu(3-x)M(x)O(7-y) (M = Ni,Zn,Fe, and Co) are reported. Values of y, determined by titration, are found to be dependent on the nature and amount of the doping. The range of solubility is greater for the Fe and Co compounds (x = 1) than for those with Ni or Zn (x = 0.3). The undoped material is orthorhombic and remains orthorhombic after substitution for Cu by Ni or Zn, whereas a tetragonal phase is observed when Fe, Co are substituted for Cu. DC resistance and AC susceptibility measurements show that Tc is depressed from 90K (x = 0) to 45K (x = 0.2) for both the Ni- and Zn-doped compounds, and Tc is destroyed in the Fe- and Co-doped compounds when x reaches 0.4. It is suggested that a valence of two be assigned to the Ni and Zn and three to the Fe and Co ions. 8 references

  5. Assessment Cu, Ni and Zn Pollution in the Surface Sediments in the Southern Peninsular Malaysia using Cluster Analysis, Ratios of Geochemical Nonresistant to Resistant Fractions, and Geochemical Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap. C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The intertidal sediment samples collected in May 2007 from 12 sampling sites in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia, were determined for the total concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn and their four geochemical fractions. The total concentrations (μg/g dry weight of Cu, Ni and Zn ranged from 9.48 to 115.82, 12.95 to 36.18 and 45.35 to 136.56, respectively. The ratios of nonresistant to resistant fractions based on geochemical analysis revealed that the Pantai Lido and Senibong had > 1.0, indicating > 50% of the total concentrations of Cu, Ni and Cu were contributed by anthropogenic sources. This is well complemented by the cluster analysis in which Pantai Lido and Senibong are clustered together based on the three metals clustering pattern. By using Fe as a normalizing element, Cu found at Pantai Lido and Senibong showed > 1.5 for the enrichment factor (EF, which indicated that the Cu was delivered from non-crustal materials or anthropogenic origins while all sampling sites showed Ni and Zn may be entirely from crustal materials. Based on the geoaccumulation index (Igeo (Müller, 1981, similar pattern was also found for Pantai Lido and Senibong in which again only Cu concentrations ranged from 1-2, indicating 'moderate pollution' (Igeo 1 < 2; Class 2.while other sites can be considered as 'unpolluted' (Igeo < 0; Class 0 by Cu, Ni and Zn. Ratios of NR/R exhibited better in the assessment of polluted sites while EF and Igeo should be revised according to Malaysian sedimentary characteristics. This study should prompt more biochemical and molecular studies on the intertidal molluscs from the Straits of Johore since the identified two sites are located in the Straits of Johore, especially the commercial mussel, Perna viridis.

  6. Determination of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb contents in samples in samples of apple trees by radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumbalova, A.; Havranek, E.; Harangozo, M.

    1982-01-01

    The applicability of the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (RXFA) for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of environmental plant samples is discussed and examples of determination of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb in samples of apple trees are given. The instrumentation, the standard and sample preparation are also presented. (author)

  7. CORRELATION OF THE PARTITIONING OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS WITH THE DESORPTION OF CD, CU, NI, PB AND ZN FROM 18 DUTCH SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighteen Dutch soils were extracted in aqueous solutions at varying pH. Extracts were analyzed for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-AES. Extract dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also concentrated onto a macroreticular resin and fractionation into three operationally defined fract...

  8. The effect of doping with Zn and Ni on the YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 electron subsystem

    CERN Document Server

    Stolbov, S V

    1997-01-01

    The electron structure, Stoner parameters, and exchange-enhanced local contributions to the spin susceptibility have been calculated for pure, Zn-doped, and Ni-doped YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 (YBCO7) within the local density approximation, using a self-consistent T-scattering matrix method. It has been found that the Zn impurity causes a breaking of p-d covalence bonds in its vicinity, and gives rise to an island of reduced spin susceptibility and density of states at the Fermi level. This leads to the destruction of spin fluctuations near the impurity. The influence of Ni doping on the YBCO7 electron subsystem is much smaller than that of Zn doping. On the basis of the present results and the spin-fluctuation model, the effects of Zn and Ni doping on the critical temperature and NMR spectra of YBCO7 have been explained. (author)

  9. Determination of Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn by ICP-OES in mushroom samples from Sakarya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Altıntığ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Russula cyanoxantha, Russula delica, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius deliciosus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, Suillus luteus, Pleurotus spp and Boletus edulis were collected from Sakarya-Turkey respectively. Also canned food in the form of the Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Lactarius salmonicolor mushrooms were used for the examination. Trace metal concentrations found in these mushrooms were determined inductively using coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry microwave processes. The results were obtained for (Cr 0.3-26.65, (Cu 17.38-132.75, (Fe 26.3-225.40, (Ni 2.57-39.28, (Pb 11.52-185.20, and (Zn 22.86-126.84 mg/kg. The accuracy of the method was checked by the standard reference material; tea leaves (INCY-TL-1 and tomato leaves (1573a.

  10. Determination of the impurities Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in nuclear grade uranium by ICP-OES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakazu, Mauricio H.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Pires, Maria Aparecida F., E-mail: mhkakazu@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Uranium compounds are specially produced for use in nuclear reactors and must meet strict physical and chemicals specifications. The current study discusses the separation of Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn from uranium compounds and their quantitative determination using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. To avoid interference effect caused by uranium in the spectroscopic emission lines of elements of interest, the chromatographic behavior of TBP impregnated macroporous Amberlite XAD-4 column was investigated. The break through curves of uranium obtained showed maximum retention of up to 11 grams of uranium and the elution curves for the elements showed reproducible recovery rate of 90% on 50 mL elution. Synthetic samples of nuclear grade uranium prepared with the addition of 250 {mu}g/g of U of the above individual elements were used to verify the performance of the method. The method showed a recovery rate of 80 to 90% for the elements under study. (author)

  11. Removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from polluted water using an iron based sorbent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genc-Fuhrman, Hülya; Wu, P.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-01-01

    In this study fixed-bed sorption filters are filled with an iron based sorbent (ferrosorp plus, FP) and used to remove a range of heavy metals (i.e. As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) from polluted water. It is found that FP is very effective at simultaneous removal of the heavy metals, and the magnitude...... inflow pH of 6.8 and heavy metal concentration of ≈2.8 μM. It is concluded that FP has high affinity to heavy metals and it can be used (e.g. as a filter medium) to treat waters containing a wide range of heavy metals, e.g. stormwater, industrial wastewater....

  12. Determination of the impurities Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in nuclear grade uranium by ICP-OES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, Mauricio H.; Cotrim, Marycel E.B.; Silva, Douglas B. da; Pires, Maria Aparecida F.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium compounds are specially produced for use in nuclear reactors and must meet strict physical and chemicals specifications. The current study discusses the separation of Al, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn from uranium compounds and their quantitative determination using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. To avoid interference effect caused by uranium in the spectroscopic emission lines of elements of interest, the chromatographic behavior of TBP impregnated macroporous Amberlite XAD-4 column was investigated. The break through curves of uranium obtained showed maximum retention of up to 11 grams of uranium and the elution curves for the elements showed reproducible recovery rate of 90% on 50 mL elution. Synthetic samples of nuclear grade uranium prepared with the addition of 250 μg/g of U of the above individual elements were used to verify the performance of the method. The method showed a recovery rate of 80 to 90% for the elements under study. (author)

  13. Temperature dependence of magnetic behaviour in very fine grained, spark plasma sintered NiCuZn ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Zehani, Karim; LoBue, Martino; Loyau, Vincent; Mazaleyrat, Frederic [SATIE, ENS Cachan, CNRS, UniverSud 61, avenue du President Wilson, F-94230 Cachan (France)

    2012-04-01

    Recently, using spark plasma sintering technique, a family of very fine grained, fully dense NiCuZn ferrites have been produced, which show constant permeability up to several 10 MHz. These ferrites can be used for filtering purposes in high frequency applications where a wide frequency band is required. In this paper, we study the magnetization processes taking place in these nano grained materials, in the frequency interval of 100 kHz to 5 MHz. Using a fluxmetric hysteresis graph, permeability, loss, and BH loops are measured at different temperatures, from -5 deg. C to 110 deg. C. Results are compared to the behavior of micrometric grain size ferrites, which are commonly used for power electronic and high frequency applications.

  14. Temperature dependence of magnetic behaviour in very fine grained, spark plasma sintered NiCuZn ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Behzad; Zehani, Karim; LoBue, Martino; Loyau, Vincent; Mazaleyrat, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Recently, using spark plasma sintering technique, a family of very fine grained, fully dense NiCuZn ferrites have been produced, which show constant permeability up to several 10 MHz. These ferrites can be used for filtering purposes in high frequency applications where a wide frequency band is required. In this paper, we study the magnetization processes taking place in these nano grained materials, in the frequency interval of 100 kHz to 5 MHz. Using a fluxmetric hysteresis graph, permeability, loss, and BH loops are measured at different temperatures, from -5 deg. C to 110 deg. C. Results are compared to the behavior of micrometric grain size ferrites, which are commonly used for power electronic and high frequency applications.

  15. Soil Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn sorption and retention models using SVM: Variable selection and competitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Costa, J J; Reigosa, M J; Matías, J M; Covelo, E F

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to model the sorption and retention of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in soils. To that extent, the sorption and retention of these metals were studied and the soil characterization was performed separately. Multiple stepwise regression was used to produce multivariate models with linear techniques and with support vector machines, all of which included 15 explanatory variables characterizing soils. When the R-squared values are represented, two different groups are noticed. Cr, Cu and Pb sorption and retention show a higher R-squared; the most explanatory variables being humified organic matter, Al oxides and, in some cases, cation-exchange capacity (CEC). The other group of metals (Cd, Ni and Zn) shows a lower R-squared, and clays are the most explanatory variables, including a percentage of vermiculite and slime. In some cases, quartz, plagioclase or hematite percentages also show some explanatory capacity. Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression shows that the different models are not as regular as in multiple regression in terms of number of variables, the regression for nickel adsorption being the one with the highest number of variables in its optimal model. On the other hand, there are cases where the most explanatory variables are the same for two metals, as it happens with Cd and Cr adsorption. A similar adsorption mechanism is thus postulated. These patterns of the introduction of variables in the model allow us to create explainability sequences. Those which are the most similar to the selectivity sequences obtained by Covelo (2005) are Mn oxides in multiple regression and change capacity in SVM. Among all the variables, the only one that is explanatory for all the metals after applying the maximum parsimony principle is the percentage of sand in the retention process. In the competitive model arising from the aforementioned sequences, the most intense competitiveness for the adsorption and retention of different metals appears between

  16. Zn and Ni substitutional effects on spin fluctuations in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 by sup 6 sup 3 sup , sup 6 sup 5 Cu NQR

    CERN Document Server

    Han, K S; Mean, B J; Lee, K H; Seo, S W; Lee, M H; Lee, W C

    2000-01-01

    We have prepared Zn- and Ni-substituted YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 (YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 sub - sub x M sub x O sub 7 , M=Zn or Ni, x=0.00 approx 0.09) and performed sup 6 sup 3 sup , sup 6 sup 5 Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements for the plane site at 300 and 100 K. Substitutional effects on the relaxation rates are markedly different. Both the spin-lattice and the spin-spin relaxation rates decrease for Zn-doped YBCO. However, those increase for Ni-doped YBCO. This contrast in local electronic dynamics provides clear microscopic evidence that Zn forms no local moment while Ni develops a local moment. Consequently, the antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation is suppressed by Zn doping whereas it is preserved by Ni doping. This is also confirmed by the ratio of the sup 6 sup 3 sup , sup 6 sup 5 Cu spin-lattice relaxation rates for the plane coppers.

  17. Structural characterization, morphology and magnetic ferrite Ni_0_,_4Zn_0_,_5Fe_2Cu_0_,_1O_4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, P.T.A.; Fernandes, P.C.; Santos, P.T.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work the system Ni_0_,_4Zn_0_,_5Fe_2Cu_0_,_1O_4 was obtained by combustion reaction using urea as fuel in order to evaluate their structural characteristics, and morphological imaging. The resulting samples were characterized by XRD, BET, SEM / EDS and magnetic measurements. The synthesis by combustion reaction was effective for producing samples of ferrites with crystallite size 13 nm. The X-ray diffraction showed the major phase of the inverse spinel and traces of ZnO second phase. The resulting morphology showed the formation of soft agglomerates with interparticle porosity, and mapping by SEM / EDS indicated a good distribution of elements Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe and O constituent of ferrite. The ferrite showed superparamagnetic behavior with a value of saturation magnetization of 5.60 emu / g. (author)

  18. Solar photocatalytic removal of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Pb(II): Speciation modeling of metal-citric acid complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabra, Kavita; Chaudhary, Rubina; Sawhney, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study is targeted on solar photocatalytic removal of metal ions from wastewater. Photoreductive deposition and dark adsorption of metal ions Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), using solar energy irradiated TiO 2 , has been investigated. Citric acid has been used as a hole scavenger. Modeling of metal species has been performed and speciation is used as a tool for discussing the photodeposition trends. Ninety-seven percent reductive deposition was obtained for copper. The deposition values of other metals were significantly low [nickel (36.4%), zinc (22.2%) and lead (41.4%)], indicating that the photocatalytic treatment process, using solar energy, was more suitable for wastewater containing Cu(II) ions. In absence of citric acid, the decreasing order deposition was Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Pb(II) > Zn(II), which proves the theoretical thermodynamic predictions about the metals

  19. Evaluation of structural, morphological and magnetic properties of CuZnNi (Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 0.5−x}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanocrystalline ferrites for core, switching and MLCI’s applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Majid Niaz, E-mail: majidniazakhtar@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Azhar [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100 Pakistan (Pakistan); Ahmad, Mukhtar [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan (Pakistan); Nazir, M.S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan (Pakistan); Imran, M.; Ali, A.; Sattar, A. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, 54000 Pakistan (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, G.C. University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-01-01

    The influence of Cu substitution on the structural and morphological characteristics of Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites have been discussed in this work. The detailed and systematic magnetic characterizations were also done for Cu substituted Ni–Zn nanoferrites. The nanocrystalline ferrites of Cu substituted Cu{sub x}Zn{sub 0.5−x}Ni{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites (x=0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were synthesized using sol gel self-combustion hybrid method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used to investigate the properties of Cu substituted nanocrystalline ferrites. Single phase structure of Cu substituted in Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites were investigated for all the samples. Crystallite size, lattice constant and volume of the cell were found to increase by increasing Cu contents in spinel structure. The better morphology with well-organized nanocrystals of Cu–Zn–Ni ferrites at x=0 and 0.5 were observed from both FESEM and TEM analysis. The average grain size was 35–46 nm for all prepared nanocrystalline samples. Magnetic properties such as coercivity, saturation, remanence, magnetic squareness, magneto crystalline anisotropy constant (K) and Bohr magneton were measured from the recorded M–H loops. The magnetic saturation and remanence were increased by the incorporation of Cu contents. However, coercivity follow the Stoner-Wolforth model except for x=0.3 which may be due to the site occupancy and replacement of Cu contents from octahedral site. The squareness ratio confirmed the super paramgnetic behaviour of the Cu substituted in Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites. Furthermore, Cu substituted Ni–Zn nanocrystalline ferrites may be suitable for many industrial and domestic applications such as components of transformers, core, switching, and MLCI’s due to variety of the soft magnetic characteristics. - Highlights

  20. Probing the structure, stability and hydrogen adsorption of lithium functionalized isoreticular MOF-5 (Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn) by density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramanan, Natarajan Sathiyamoorthy; Sahara, Ryoji; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2009-04-14

    Li adsorption on isoreticular MOFs with metal Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn was studied using density function theory. Li functionalization shows a considerable structural change associated with a volume change in isoreticular MOF-5 except for the Zn metal center. Hydrogen binding energies on Li functionalized MOFs are seen to be in the range of 0.2 eV, which is the desired value for an ideal reversible storage system. This study has clearly shown that Li doping is possible only in Zn-based MOF-5, which would be better candidate to reversibly store hydrogen.

  1. Probing the Structure, Stability and Hydrogen Adsorption of Lithium Functionalized Isoreticular MOF-5 (Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn by Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Kawazoe

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Li adsorption on isoreticular MOFs with metal Fe, Cu, Co, Ni and Zn was studied using density function theory. Li functionalization shows a considerable structural change associated with a volume change in isoreticular MOF-5 except for the Zn metal center. Hydrogen binding energies on Li functionalized MOFs are seen to be in the range of 0.2 eV, which is the desired value for an ideal reversible storage system. This study has clearly shown that Li doping is possible only in Zn-based MOF-5, which would be better candidate to reversibly store hydrogen.

  2. Doping effect on electronic transport properties of Sr14(Cu1-y M y )24O41 (M=Zn, Ni)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hui; Hu Ni; Wang Lili; Lin Ying; Xiong Rui; Yu Zuxing; Tang Wufeng; Wang Ququan; Shi Jing

    2006-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Sr 14 (Cu 1- y M y ) 24 O 41 (M=Zn/Ni) were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction. The series of samples up to y≤0.05 are identified to be single phase and no regular shift of lattice parameters a, b, c is found. The measurements of electronic transport show that although the doping compounds are still semiconductive as the parent phase, Zn and Ni dopants induce a decrease of electrical resistivity. Furthermore, Zn doping depresses the resistivity more significantly than Ni doping. A crossover temperature T ρ that exhibits in the Arrhenius plot of the resistivity versus temperature is observed in all the samples and goes up with the increase of the dopants. The origin of the decrease in resistivity with doping and the conduction mechanisms both above T ρ and below T ρ are discussed

  3. Mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of as-cast Mg77TM12Zn5Y6 (TM = Cu, Ni) bulk amorphous matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, K.Q.; Hu, N.N.; Zhang, H.B.; Jiang, W.H.; Ren, Y.L.; Liaw, P.K.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative investigations on the microstructures, thermal stability and mechanical properties of Mg 77 Cu 12 Zn 5 Y 6 and Mg 77 Ni 12 Zn 5 Y 6 bulk metallic glass matrix composites were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DSC and compressive tester. The results show that the microstructure of as-cast samples with 3 mm in diameter for Cu-containing alloy is consisted of Mg flakes and dotted Mg 2 Cu phase in the amorphous matrix, while the as-cast Ni-containing alloy with the same diameter is mainly consisted of Mg flakes in the amorphous matrix. The glass transition temperature and supercooled liquid region are 413 K and 27 K for the Cu-containing, 443 K and 32 K for the Ni-containing amorphous matrix composites, respectively. The fracture strength, yield strength and plastic strain are 532 MPa, 390 MPa and 2.4% for the Cu-containing alloy, 667 MPa, 412 MPa and 7% for the Ni-containing alloy, respectively. Furthermore, the fracture mechanism for the amorphous matrix composites was discussed according to both the fracture surfaces and the stress-strain curves.

  4. Dynamic modelling of atmospherically-deposited Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Pennine catchments (northern England)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, E.; Rothwell, J.J.; Shotbolt, L.; Lawlor, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Simulation modelling with CHUM-AM was carried out to investigate the accumulation and release of atmospherically-deposited heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in six moorland catchments, five with organic-rich soils, one with calcareous brown earths, in the Pennine chain of northern England. The model considers two soil layers and a third layer of weathering mineral matter, and operates on a yearly timestep, driven by deposition scenarios covering the period 1400-2010. The principal processes controlling heavy metals are competitive solid-solution partitioning of solutes, chemical interactions in solution, and chemical weathering. Agreement between observed and simulated soil metal pools and surface water concentrations for recent years was generally satisfactory, the results confirming that most contemporary soil metal is from atmospheric pollution. Metals in catchments with organic-rich soils show some mobility, especially under more acid conditions, but the calcareous mineral soils have retained nearly all anthropogenic metal inputs. Complexation by dissolved organic matter and co-transport accounts for up to 80% of the Cu in surface waters. - CHUM-AM is applied to six differing moorland catchments to account for the accumulation and leaching of atmospherically-deposited trace metals over the past several centuries.

  5. Dynamic modelling of atmospherically-deposited Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in Pennine catchments (northern England)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E., E-mail: et@ceh.ac.u [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Rothwell, J.J. [Upland Environments Research Unit, School of Environment and Development, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Shotbolt, L. [Geography Department, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Lawlor, A.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Simulation modelling with CHUM-AM was carried out to investigate the accumulation and release of atmospherically-deposited heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in six moorland catchments, five with organic-rich soils, one with calcareous brown earths, in the Pennine chain of northern England. The model considers two soil layers and a third layer of weathering mineral matter, and operates on a yearly timestep, driven by deposition scenarios covering the period 1400-2010. The principal processes controlling heavy metals are competitive solid-solution partitioning of solutes, chemical interactions in solution, and chemical weathering. Agreement between observed and simulated soil metal pools and surface water concentrations for recent years was generally satisfactory, the results confirming that most contemporary soil metal is from atmospheric pollution. Metals in catchments with organic-rich soils show some mobility, especially under more acid conditions, but the calcareous mineral soils have retained nearly all anthropogenic metal inputs. Complexation by dissolved organic matter and co-transport accounts for up to 80% of the Cu in surface waters. - CHUM-AM is applied to six differing moorland catchments to account for the accumulation and leaching of atmospherically-deposited trace metals over the past several centuries.

  6. Simultaneous determination of Hg, Pb, As, Cu, Zn and Ni in natural waters (with humic material) by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales S, E.A.; Zepeda L, E.

    1988-05-01

    Standardization of a method for simultaneous quantification of Hg, Pb, As, Cu, Zn and Ni in natural waters with humic acid contents was carried out. APDC for complexing free ions and silica gel as adsorber of metallic humates and further filtration were employed. X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed on filters. Good results were found for silica-gel as adsorber. Detection limits of 4 nanograms/milliliter were determined. (author)

  7. Comparison of threshold reaction cross sections for the Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn isotopes from evaluated data libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blokhin, A I; Manokhin, V N; Nasyrova, S M [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    Evaluated excitation functions for various threshold reactions on Ti, V, Cr, Ge, Ni, Cu and Zn isotopes are compared to reveal discrepancies between different nuclear data libraries. The recommended excitation functions for (n,p), (n,np), (N,{alpha}) and (n,2n) reactions, evaluated on the basis of empirical systematics are given for comparison to facilitate selection of a more reliable data. The available experimental data are also plotted. (author) 10 refs, 70 figs

  8. The effect of solution pH on the electrochemical performance of nanocrystalline metal ferrites MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, E. M.; Rashad, M. M.; Khalil, H. F. Y.; Ibrahim, I. A.; Hussein, M. R.; El-Sabbah, M. M. B.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline metal ferrite MFe2O4 (M=Cu, Zn, and Ni) thin films have been synthesized via electrodeposition-anodization process. Electrodeposited (M)Fe2 alloys were obtained from aqueous sulfate bath. The formed alloys were electrochemically oxidized (anodized) in aqueous (1 M KOH) solution, at room temperature, to the corresponding hydroxides. The parameters controlling the current efficiency of the electrodeposition of (M)Fe2 alloys such as the bath composition and the current density were studied and optimized. The anodized (M)Fe2 alloy films were annealed in air at 400 °C for 2 h. The results revealed the formation of three ferrite thin films were formed. The crystallite sizes of the produced films were in the range between 45 and 60 nm. The microstructure of the formed film was ferrite type dependent. The corrosion behavior of ferrite thin films in different pH solutions was investigated using open circuit potential (OCP) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The open circuit potential indicates that the initial potential E im of ZnFe2O4 thin films remained constant for a short time, then sharply increased in the less negative direction in acidic and alkaline medium compared with Ni and Cu ferrite films. The values of the corrosion current density I corr were higher for the ZnFe2O4 films at pH values of 1 and 12 compared with that of NiFe2O4 and CuFe2O4 which were higher only at pH value 1. The corrosion rate was very low for the three ferrite films when immersion in the neutral medium. The surface morphology recommended that Ni and Cu ferrite films were safely used in neutral and alkaline medium, whereas Zn ferrite film was only used in neutral atmospheres.

  9. Effect of Na, Ca and pH on simultaneous uptake of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the water flea Daphnia magna measured using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komjarova, I.; Blust, R.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of Na + , Ca 2+ and pH on the kinetics of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn uptake in Daphnia magna at low exposure concentrations measured using a stable isotope technique. Using experimental data the uptake rate constants were calculated for each metal individually on the basis of total metal concentrations. The copper uptake was not significantly affected by variations in chemical composition of the test medium. Calcium had a suppressing effect on the uptake of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn. Specifically, Cd and Ni uptake rate constants decreased with increases in calcium concentrations from 0.1 to 2.5 mM. The uptake of Zn and Pb was significantly suppressed only at 2.5 mM Ca. The effect of sodium was less clear. There was no effect of varying sodium concentrations on the Ni uptake rate constants. Cd and Pb showed an increase in uptake rate constants at elevated sodium concentrations (2-8 mM Na + for Cd and 8 mM Na + for Pb). A bell-shaped response on increasing Na + concentrations was observed for Zn with a maximum value of uptake rate constant at the middle value (2 mM Na + ). Variation in pH of the medium affected Cd, Ni and Zn uptake processes. When Daphnia were exposed to acidic conditions (pH 6), the Cd and Ni uptake rate constants were the highest, while similarly low values were observed at neutral and basic conditions. In contrast, the uptake rates of Zn were linearly increasing with increasing pH of the medium.

  10. Simultaneous removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from stormwater using high-efficiency industrial sorbents: Effect of pH, contact time and humic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genc-Fuhrman, Hülya; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Ledin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The effect of contact time, solution pH, and the presence of humic acid (HA) on the combined removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn is investigated in batch tests using alumina, granulated activated carbon (GAC), and bauxsol coated sand (BCS) as sorbents. It is found that the equilibrium time for Cd......, Cu, Ni and Zn is about 4 h, while no clear equilibrium is observed for As and Cr. It is also found that increasing the pH until pH ~. 8 enhanced Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn removal, but increasing the pH above this point had no major effect. In the cases of As and Cr, higher pH values (i.e. >. 7) decreased...... that natural organic matter may severely influence the removal efficiency, such that, for most metals the removal was reduced to the half, while for Cr it was increased to the double for alumina and BCS. Consequently, a properly working filter set up may not work properly anymore when receiving high loads...

  11. Structure and magnetic properties of iron-based soft magnetic composite with Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite-silicone insulation coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wangchang; Wang, Wei; Lv, Junjun; Ying, Yao; Yu, Jing; Zheng, Jingwu; Qiao, Liang; Che, Shenglei

    2018-06-01

    This paper investigates the structure and magnetic properties of Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite-silicone coated iron-based soft magnetic composites (SMCs). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with a energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that the Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite and silicone resin were uniformly coated on the surface of iron powders. By controlling the composition of the coating layer, low total core loss of 97.7 mW/cm3 (eddy current loss of 48 mW/cm3, hysteresis loss of 49.7 mW/cm3, measured at 100 kHz and 0.02 T) and relatively high effective permeability of 72.5 (measured at 100 kHz) were achieved. In addition, the as-prepared SMCs displayed higher electrical resistivity, good magnetic characteristics over a wide range of frequencies (20-200 kHz) and ideal the D-C bias properties (more than 75% at H = 50 Oe). Furthermore, higher elastic modulus and hardness of SMCs, which means that the coating layer has good mechanical properties and is not easily damaged during the pressing process, were obtained in this paper. The results of this work indicate that the Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite-silicone coated SMCs have desirable properties which would make them suitable for application in the fields of the electric-magnetic switching devices, such as inductance coils, transformer cores, synchronous electric motors and resonant inductors.

  12. Al/Cu Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding with Ni, Ti, and Zn Foil as the Interlayer for Flow Control, Enhancing Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Prakash Kumar; Pal, Sukhomay; Pal, Surjya K.

    2017-07-01

    This research investigates the effects of Ni, Ti, and Zn foil as interlayer, inserted between the faying edges of Al and Cu plates, for controlled intermetallic compound (IMC) formation. The weld tensile strength with Ti and Zn as interlayer is superior to Al base metal strength. This is due to controlled flow of IMCs by diffused Ti interlayer and thin, continuous, and uniform IMC formation in the case of Zn interlayer. Improved flexural stress was observed with interlayer. Weld microhardness varied with different interlayers and purely depends on IMCs present at the indentation point, flow of IMCs, and interlayer hardness. Specimens with interlayer failed at the interface of the nugget and thermomechanical-affected zone (TMAZ) with complete and broken three-dimensional (3-D) grains, indicating transgranular fracture. Phase analysis revealed that Al/Cu IMCs are impeded by Ni and Ti interlayer. The minor binary and ternary IMC phases form adjacent to the interlayer due to diffusion of the material with Al/Cu. Line scan and elemental mapping indicate thin, continuous, and uniform IMCs with enhanced weld metallurgical and mechanical properties for the joints with Zn interlayer. Macrostructural analysis revealed IMC flow variations with and without interlayer. Variation in grain size at different zones is also observed for different interlayers.

  13. Pollution of soils (Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni) along the ring road of Wrocław (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hołtra, Anna; Zamorska-Wojdyła, Dorota

    2017-11-01

    The concentrations of metallic pollution in soils and plants along the ring road of Wrocław, Poland, have been determined. Environmental samples were collected from the surface layer of the profile within 2-3 m from the edge of the road. The analysis of metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni) has been carried out through FAAS and GFAAS methods. The mineralizates of soils and plants were prepared in HNO3, 65% supra pure, using the Microwave Digestion System. The pH and conductivity of the soil solutions were measured to evaluate their active and exchangeable acidity and the salinity of the soils. The index of the enrichment of soils in metals (Wn) and the bioaccumulation coefficient (WB) have been determined. Also, histograms of the frequency of the occurrence of metals in the environmental samples and the Pearson's correlation coefficients were presented. The results of metal concentrations in soils were compared to the geochemical background in uncontaminated soils of Poland. The assessment of the results in the soils was also made relative to the standard, according to the Polish Ministry of Environment Regulation from September 1st, 2016. During the assessment of the bioaccumulation coefficients of metals in plants a reference was made to the content of undesirable substances in feed in agreement with the Polish Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Regulation from January 23rd, 2007.

  14. Magnetic properties and microwave characteristics of Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite film fabricated by aerosol deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagotani, T. [Departtment of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Aza-Aoba02 Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8597 (Japan)]. E-mail: kagotant@material.tohoku.ac.jp; Kobayashi, R. [Departtment of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Aza-Aoba02 Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8597 (Japan); Sugimoto, S. [Departtment of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Aza-Aoba02 Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8597 (Japan); Inomata, K. [Departtment of Materials Science, Tohoku University, Aza-Aoba02 Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8597 (Japan); Okayama, K. [Sony EMCS Corporation, Shinagawa INTERCITY C Tower, 2-15-3 Konan, Minato-ku Tokyo 106-6201 (Japan); Akedo, J. [Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Namiki 1-2-1, Tsukuba 305-8564 (Japan)

    2005-04-15

    Microwave radiation in the GHz is increasingly being used in telecommunication and data processing. However, this has given rise to electromagnetic wave interference (EMI). Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite film was prepared by aerosol deposition method (ADM) depending on its capability as an absorber or a conducted noise suppressor in the quasi-microwave frequency range. The ADM is a kind of high-speed coating method. The film thickness of 7{mu}m was obtained by the deposition for 4min and the rate was estimated at 2.8{mu}m/min. The saturation magnetization of the film was 6.33x10{sup -5}Wbm/kg and the coercivity was 0.94kA/m. This value was nearly equal to that of sintered sample. The maximum complex permeabilities {mu}' and {mu}'' were 200 and 70. The resonance frequency f{sub r}=200MHz was over Snoek's limit.

  15. Mössbauer and XRD studies of NiCuZn ferrites by Sol-Gel auto-combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Chenglong; Lin Qing; Zhang Hui; He Yun; Huang Haifu

    2013-01-01

    The Ni 0.6 Cu 0.2 Zn 0.2 Ce x Fe 2-x O 4 ferrites (0≤x≤0.85) have been prepared by Sol-Gel auto-combustion method and we have investigated the effect of impurity CeO 2 phase to the microstructure and hyperfine magnetic field in spinel ferrite. The results of XRD patterns confirm the average crystallite size of samples decreases with Ce 3+ substitution increasing and the lattice parameters vary as a function of x content. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectra at room temperature for all samples confirm the [Fe 3+ - O 2- -Fe 3+ ] super exchange interaction decrease due to cerium substitution. For low temperature auto-combustion samples it reveals one normal sextet line and one doublet line x≤0.25, which shows well-resolved ferromagnetic order. Lattice defects are determined and Mössbauer spectrums vary from magnetic sextet to relaxation doublet at x≥0.45 due to a mass of CeO 2 phase. In contrast, the Mössbauer spectra for the samples sintered at 800°C/3h detect the secondary phase α -Fe 2 O 3 where the cation distribution occurs and it collapses to paramagnetic doublet (x≥0.85). Ce 3+ substitution has its maximum limit values of super exchange interaction and high sintering temperature will affect this interaction. (author)

  16. Effect of Dy3+ substitution on structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Ni-Cu-Zn ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabbur, S. M.; Ghodake, U. R.; Nadargi, D. Y.; Kambale, Rahul C.; Suryavanshi, S. S.

    2018-04-01

    Nanocrystalline Ni0.25Cu0.30Zn0.45DyxFe2-xO4 (x = 0.0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 and 0.125 mol.) ferrimagnetic oxides have been synthesized by sol-gel autocombustion route. X-ray diffraction study reveals the formation of spinel cubic structure with an expansion of the unit cell by Dy addition. Bertaut method was employed to propose the site occupancy i.e. cation distribution for elements at A-tetrahedral and B-octahedral sites of spinel lattice. The intrinsic vibrational absorption bands i.e. υ1 (712-719 cm-1) and υ2 (496-506 cm-1) are observed for tetrahedral and octahedral sites respectively. The microstructural aspect confirms the formation of an average grain size (∼7-99 nm) with presence of expected elements. Magnetization studies reveal that the magnetic moments are no longer linear but exhibit canting effect due to spin frustration. The frequency dispersion spectrum of initial permeability has been explained based on grain size, saturation magnetization and anisotropy constant. Thermal hysteresis curve (initial permeability versus temperature) indicates magnetic disordering to paramagnetic state at Néel temperature (TN). High values of TN show that the present ferrite samples are cation-ordered with d-electrons contributing towards the magnetic interaction at the sublattice.

  17. Sinter ageing of equiatomic Al20Co20Cu20Zn20Ni20 high entropy alloy via mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Sutanuka; Gurao, N.P.; Biswas, Krishanu

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation reports for the first time, the sinter ageing of equiatomic Al 20 Co 20 Cu 20 Ni 20 Zn 20 high entropy alloy (HEA), being synthesized by high energy ball milling of elemental powder blend under protective argon atmosphere, followed by consolidation of the milled powder by spark plasma sintering at different temperatures and applied pressure of 50 MPa. The detailed X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies indicate the presence of single phase, FCC β supersaturated solid solution in the ball milled powder. However, the sintering of the as-milled powder reveals the formation of α with ordered FCC (L1 2 ) structure within the grains of FCC γ. The microstructural analysis using TEM shows the precipitation of near cuboidal shaped α phase within the grains of γ. The size and shape of the precipitates depend on the sintering temperature. Hardness measurement of the sintered alloys suggests age hardening of the as-milled powder during sintering. The sinter age hardening of HEA is attributed to the fine scale precipitation of α phase. Detailed variation of the hardness and microstructural evolution are reported here to elucidate this novel finding

  18. The Content of Heavy Metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb in The Soil Near The Arterial Roads in Wroclaw (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals in soils along the motorway bypass of Wroclaw (AOW and the Eastern Ring Road of Wroclaw (WOW, Poland, have been determined. The soil samples were collected from the levels of 0-25 cm within 2 m from the edge of the road. The mineralizates were prepared in HNO3, 60%, using the Microwave Digestion System. The content of Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and Pb in soils were determined using FAAS method. The physicochemical parameters, the conductivity and pH of the soil solutions were measured to evaluate the salinity of the soils and their active and exchangeable acidity. The pollution indexes (WN showing the enrichment of soils in metals have been determined. Excess of metal concentrations in soils compared to the geochemical background in uncontaminated soils of Poland has been observed. Permissible concentrations of heavy metals relative to the standard for soils, according to the Polish Ministry of Environment Regulation from September 1st, 2016, have not been exceeded.

  19. Assessing comparative terrestrial ecotoxicity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn: The influence of aging and emission source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Holm, Peter E.; Fantke, Peter; Christiansen, Karen S.; Borggaard, Ole K.; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Metal exposure to terrestrial organisms is influenced by the reactivity of the solid-phase metal pool. This reactivity is thought to depend on the type of emission source, on aging mechanisms that are active in the soil, and on ambient conditions. Our work shows, that when controlling for soil pH or soil organic carbon, emission source occasionally has an effect on reactivity of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn emitted from various anthropogenic sources followed by aging in the soil from a few years to two centuries. The uncertainties in estimating the age prevent definitive conclusions about the influence of aging time on the reactivity of metals from anthropogenic sources in soils. Thus, for calculating comparative toxicity potentials of man-made metal contaminations in soils, we recommend using time-horizon independent accessibility factors derived from source-specific reactive fractions. - Highlights: • We found an effect of source on reactivity of anthropogenic metals in soils. • The influence of aging on reactivity of anthropogenic metals was not consistent. • We recommend including source and disregarding aging in calculation of CTPs values. - Improving current life cycle inventory (LCI) and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) practice in terrestrial ecotoxicity assessment of metals.

  20. Mechanical alloying in Fe2O3-MO (M: Zn, Ni, Cu, Mg) systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Gerward, Leif; Mørup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    of MFe2O4 ferrites are critically discussed. No significant with respect to ferrite formation rates was observed in open and closed containers used here. In the Fe2O3/ZnO system, a single ferrite phase can be synthesized but in other systems no significant amounts of ferrites are formed by high...

  1. Pine bark as bio-adsorbent for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutillas-Barreiro, L.; Ansias-Manso, L.; Fernandez Calviño, David

    2014-01-01

    to the added concentrations, with Pb always showing the lowest levels. Stirred flow chamber experiments showed strong hysteresis for Pb and Cu, sorption being mostly irreversible. The differences affecting the studied heavy metals are mainly due to different affinity for the adsorption sites. Pine bark can......The objective of this work was to determine the retention of five metals on pine bark using stirred flow and batch-type experiments. Resulting from batch-type kinetic experiments, adsorption was rapid, with no significant differences for the various contact times. Adsorption was between 98 and 99...

  2. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of microgram levels of Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil and sediment extracts containing large amounts of Mn and Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1973-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of seven metal ions in the hydroxylamine extract of soils and sediments. Mn, Fe, and Zn are directly determined in the aqueous extract upon dilution. Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb in a separate aliquot of the extract are chelated with APDC (ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) and extracted into MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone) before determination. Data are presented to show the quantitative recovery of microgram levels of Co, Ni, Cu, and Pb by APDC-MIBK chelation-extraction from synthetic solutions containing as much as 2,000 ug/ml (micrograms per milliliter) Mn or 50 ug/ml Fe. Recovery of known amounts of the metal ions from sample solutions is equally satisfactory. Reproducible results are obtained by replicate analyses of two sediment samples for the seven metals.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni0.15Mg0.1Cu0.3Zn0.45Fe2O4 ferrite prepared by NaOH-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Wei-xiao; Wang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • NiMgCuZn ferrites were successfully prepared by low-temperature sintering. • NiMgCuZn ferrites have the advantages of both NiCuZn and MgCuZn ferrites. • NiMgCuZn ferrites exhibit high Curie temperature & high stability of permeability. - Abstract: The Ni 0.15 Mg 0.1 Cu 0.3 Zn 0.45 Fe 2 O 4 ferrite powders have been prepared by NaOH co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD patterns confirm the single phase spinel structure of synthesized nanoparticles. The average crystallite size of the particles increases from 12 to 36 nm with calcining temperature (T a ) from 500 to 800 °C. The saturation magnetization (M s ) of the superparamagnetic particles was deduced by Langevin theory. Subsequently, the densification characteristics and magnetic properties of the low-temperature 950 °C-sintered ferrite bulk samples were also investigated. The magnetic measurement showed that the sintered bulk sample of T a = 600 °C has the highest initial permeability (μ i ), lowest coercivity (H c ), largest saturation magnetization (M s ) and satisfactory thermal stability of μ i . The microstructures of sintered samples were examined using field emission scanning electric microscope (FESEM). The T a has significant influence on the bulk density, initial permeability, saturation magnetization and coercivity of Ni 0.15 Mg 0.1 Cu 0.3 Zn 0.45 Fe 2 O 4 ferrite

  4. Nanostructure investigation of magnetic nanomaterial Ni0.5Zn0.3Cu0.2Fe2O4 synthesized by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pransisco, Prengki; Shafie, Afza; Guan, Beh Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanomaterial Ni 0.5 Zn 0.3 Cu 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 was successfully prepared by using sol-gel method. Heat treatment on material is always giving defect on properties of material. This paper investigates the effect of heat treatment on nanostructure of magnetic nanomaterial Ni 0.5 Zn 0.3 Cu 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 . According to thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) that after 600°C there is no more weight loss detected and it was decided as minimum calcination temperature. Intensity, crystallite size, structure, lattice parameter and d-spacing of the material were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) was used to examine nanostructure, nanosize, shape and distribution particle of magnetic material Ni 0.5 Zn 0.3 Cu 0.2 Fe 2 O 4 and variable pressure field emission scanning electron microscope (VP-FESEM) was used to investigate the surface morphology and topography of the material. The XRD result shows single-phase cubic spinel structure with average crystallite size in the range of 25.6-95.9 nm, the value of the intensity of the material was increased with increasing temperature, and followed by lattice parameter was increased with increasing calcination temperature, value of d-spacing was relatively decreased with accompanied increasing temperature. From HRTEM result the distribution of particles was tend to be agglomerates with particle size of 7.8-17.68 nm. VP-FESEM result shows that grain size of the material increases with increasing calcination temperature and the surface morphology shows that the material is in hexagonal shape and it was also proved by mapping result which showing the presence each of constituents inside the compound

  5. Simultaneous removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn from stormwater using high-efficiency industrial sorbents: Effect of pH, contact time and humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç-Fuhrman, Hülya; Mikkelsen, Peter S; Ledin, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The effect of contact time, solution pH, and the presence of humic acid (HA) on the combined removal of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn is investigated in batch tests using alumina, granulated activated carbon (GAC), and bauxsol coated sand (BCS) as sorbents. It is found that the equilibrium time for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn is about 4h, while no clear equilibrium is observed for As and Cr. It is also found that increasing the pH until pH~8 enhanced Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn removal, but increasing the pH above this point had no major effect. In the cases of As and Cr, higher pH values (i.e. >7) decreased their removal. The presence of both 20 and 100mg/L HA suppressed the heavy metal removal except for Cr, and the suppression was higher at the higher HA concentration. Geochemical simulations suggest that this is due to the formation of dissolved HA-metal complexes preventing effective metal sorption. In the case of Cr, the presence of HA increased the removal when using alumina or BCS, while hindering the removal when using GAC. The findings show that the pH-value of the stormwater to be treated must be in the range of 6-7 in order to achieve removal of the full spectrum of metals. The results also show that natural organic matter may severely influence the removal efficiency, such that, for most metals the removal was reduced to the half, while for Cr it was increased to the double for alumina and BCS. Consequently, a properly working filter set up may not work properly anymore when receiving high loads of natural organic acids during the pollen season in spring or during defoliation in autumn and early winter, and during mixing of runoff with snowmelt having a low pH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Subcellular metal partitioning in larvae of the insect Chaoborus collected along an environmental metal exposure gradient (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosabal, Maikel; Hare, Landis [Institut national de la Recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Quebec, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Campbell, Peter G.C., E-mail: peter.campbell@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la Recherche scientifique, Centre Eau Terre Environnement (INRS-ETE), 490 de la Couronne, Quebec, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Midge larvae were collected from 12 lakes representing Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn gradients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Along the gradients, the heat-stable protein fractions increased for Cd, Ni and Cu. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer However, this metal detoxification response was incomplete for Cd and Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentrations of these two metals increased in putative metal-sensitive fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal detoxification is Chaoborus is compared to that in other freshwater animals. - Abstract: Larvae of the phantom midge Chaoborus are common and widespread in lakes contaminated by metals derived from mining and smelting activities. To explore how this insect is able to cope with potentially toxic metals, we determined total metal concentrations and subcellular metal partitioning in final-instar Chaoborus punctipennis larvae collected from 12 lakes situated along gradients in aqueous Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations. Concentrations of the non-essential metals Cd and Ni were more responsive to aqueous metal gradients than were larval concentrations of the essential metals Cu and Zn; these latter metals were better regulated and exhibited only 2-3-fold increases between the least and the most contaminated lakes. Metal partitioning was determined by homogenization of larvae followed by differential centrifugation, NaOH digestion and heat denaturation steps so as to separate the metals into operationally defined metal-sensitive fractions (heat-denaturable proteins (HDP), mitochondria, and lysosomes/microsomes) and metal-detoxified fractions (heat stable proteins (HSP) and NaOH-resistant or granule-like fractions). Of these five fractions, the HSP fraction was the dominant metal-binding compartment for Cd, Ni and Cu. The proportions and concentrations of these three metals in this fraction increased along the metal bioaccumulation gradient, which suggests that metallothionein-like proteins

  7. La0⋅ 9Sr0⋅ 1Ga0⋅ 8M0⋅ 2O3–δ (M= Mn, Co, Ni, Cu or Zn ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perovskite oxides of the general formula, La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8M0.2O3– for M = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, have been prepared and investigated. All the oxides exhibit high electrical conductivities ( ∼ 10–2 S/cm at 800°C) comparable to that of the best perovskite oxide ion conductor, La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.85 (LSGM) ( ...

  8. Geographical and pedological drivers of distribution and risks to soil fauna of seven metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in British soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, David J; Rowland, Philip; Ainsworth, Gillian; Rothery, Peter; Long, Sara; Black, Helaina I J

    2008-05-01

    Concentrations of seven metals were measured in over 1000 samples as part of an integrated survey. Sixteen metal pairs were significantly positively correlated. Cluster analysis identified two clusters. Metals from the largest (Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn), but not the smallest (Cd, Pb) cluster were significantly negatively correlated with spatial location and soil pH and organic matter content. Cd and Pb were not correlated with these parameters, due possibly to the masking effect of recent extensive release. Analysis of trends with soil properties in different habitats indicated that general trends may not necessarily be applicable to all areas. A risk assessment indicated that Zn poses the most widespread direct risk to soil fauna and Cd the least. Any risks associated with high metal concentrations are, however, likely to be greatest in habitats such as arable and horticultural, improved grassland and built up areas where soil metal concentrations are more frequently elevated.

  9. Application of Carrier Element-Free Co-precipitation Method for Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) Ions Determination in Water Samples Using Chrysin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layth Imad Abd Ali; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Azli Sulaiman; Mohd Marsin Sanagi

    2015-01-01

    A co-precipitation method was developed to separate and pre-concentrate Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions using an organic co precipitant, chrysin without adding any carrier element termed as carrier element-free co-precipitation (CEFC). Analytes were determined using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The influence of analytical conditions, such as pH of the solution, quantity of co-precipitant, standing time, centrifugation rate and time, sample volume, and interference of concomitant ions were investigated over the recovery yields of the trace metals. The limit of detection, the limit of quantification and linearity range obtained from the FAAS measurements were found to be in the range of 0.64 to 0.86 μg L -1 , 2.13 to 2.86 μg L -1 and 0.9972 to 0.9989 for Ni(II), Cu(III) and Zn(II) ions, respectively. The precision of the method, evaluated as the relative standard deviation (RSD) obtained after analyzing a series of 10 replicates, was between 2.6 % to 3.9 % for the trace metal ions. The proposed procedure was applied and validated by analyzing river water reference material for trace metals (SLRS-5) and spiking trace metal ions in some water samples. The recoveries of the analyte metal ions were between 94.7-101.2 %. (author)

  10. Preconcentration and solid phase extraction method for the determination of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd in environmental and biological samples using activated carbon by FAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, S. V. University, Tirupati 517502, AP (India); Suresh Kumar, K. [Department of Chemistry, S. V. University, Tirupati 517502, AP (India); Suvardhan, K. [Department of Chemistry, S. V. University, Tirupati 517502, AP (India); Janardhanam, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, S. V. University, Tirupati 517502, AP (India)]. E-mail: kandukurijanardhanam@gmail.com; Chiranjeevi, P. [Department of Chemistry, S. V. University, Tirupati 517502, AP (India)

    2007-08-17

    2-{l_brace}[1-(2-Hydroxynaphthyl) methylidene] amino{r_brace} benzoic acid (HNMABA) was synthesized for solid phase extraction (SPE) to the determination of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd in environmental and biological samples by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). These metals were sorbed as HNMABA complexes on activated carbon (AC) at the pH range of 5.0 {+-} 0.2 and eluted with 6 ml of 1 M HNO{sub 3} in acetone. The effects of sample volume, eluent volume and recovery have been investigated to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of proposed method. The effect of interferences on the sorption of metal ions was studied. The concentration of the metal ions detected after preconcentration was in agreement with the added amount. The detection limits for the metals studied were in the range of 0.75-3.82 {mu}g ml{sup -1}. The proposed system produced satisfactory results for the determination of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd metals in environmental and biological samples.

  11. Preconcentration and solid phase extraction method for the determination of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd in environmental and biological samples using activated carbon by FAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, K.; Suresh Kumar, K.; Suvardhan, K.; Janardhanam, K.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    2-{[1-(2-Hydroxynaphthyl) methylidene] amino} benzoic acid (HNMABA) was synthesized for solid phase extraction (SPE) to the determination of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd in environmental and biological samples by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS). These metals were sorbed as HNMABA complexes on activated carbon (AC) at the pH range of 5.0 ± 0.2 and eluted with 6 ml of 1 M HNO 3 in acetone. The effects of sample volume, eluent volume and recovery have been investigated to enhance the sensitivity and selectivity of proposed method. The effect of interferences on the sorption of metal ions was studied. The concentration of the metal ions detected after preconcentration was in agreement with the added amount. The detection limits for the metals studied were in the range of 0.75-3.82 μg ml -1 . The proposed system produced satisfactory results for the determination of Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Cd metals in environmental and biological samples

  12. Removal of Heavy Metals Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Fe3+ from Aqueous Solutions by using Xanthium Pensylvanicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaber SALEHZADEH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The hazardous ill effects of heavy metals on the environment and public health is a matter of serious concern. Biosorption is emerging as a sustainable effective technology. Heavy metals in water resources are one of the most important environmental problems of countries. The intensification of industrial activity and environmental stress greatly contributes to the significant rise of heavy metal pollution in water resources making threats on terrestrial and aquatic life. The toxicity of metal pollution is slow and interminable, as these metal ions are non bio-degradable. The adsorption capacity of Xanthium Pensylvanicum towards metal ions such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Fe3+, was studied. The adsorption capacity was performed by batch experiments as a function of process parameters (such as sorption time and pH. Experimental results showed that the removal percentages increasing of metal ions at pH=4, initial concentration of metal ions 10 mg/L, and after 90 min of shaking was: Zn2+ < Cd2+ < Cu2+ < Pb2+ < Ni2+ < Fe3+ < Co2+.

  13. Effects of sintering atmosphere and temperature on structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Cu-Zn ferrite nano-particles: Magnetic enhancement by a reducing atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholizadeh, Ahmad, E-mail: gholizadeh@du.ac.ir; Jafari, Elahe, E-mail: ah_gh1359@yahoo.com

    2017-01-15

    In this work, effects of sintering atmosphere and temperature on structural and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles prepared by citrate precursor method have been studied. The structural characterization of the samples by X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy is evidence for formation of a cubic structure with no presence of impurity phase. Calculated values of crystallite size and unit cell parameter show an increase with sintering temperature under different atmospheres. Variation of saturation magnetization with sintering temperature and atmosphere can be attributed to change of three factors: magnetic core size, inversion parameter and the change of Fe{sup 3+}-ion concentration due to the presence of Fe{sup 4+} and Fe{sup 2+} ions. The saturation magnetization gradually grows with sintering temperature due to increase of magnetic core size and a maximum 63 emu/g was achieved at 600 °C under carbon monoxide-ambient atmosphere. - Highlights: • Different sintering atmosphere and temperature cause substantial differences in Ni{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • The saturation magnetization gradually grows. • A maximum 63 emu/g was achieved at 600 °C under a reducing atmosphere.

  14. Short-term influence of Cu, Zn, Ni and Cd excess on metabolism, ultrastructure and distribution of elements in lichen Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovár, J; Weidinger, M; Bačkor, M; Bačkorová, M; Lichtscheidl, I

    2017-11-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms that are very sensitive to heavy metal pollution. However, there is little evidence of how heavy metal pollution affects the physiological status, ultrastructural changes and distribution of elements in the layers of lichen thalli. For this purpose we simulated metal pollution to lichens and studied its impact on Xanthoria parietina. Thalli were treated with the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Ni, Cd in the form of sulfates at concentrations of 100µM and 500µM during 24, 48 and 72h. Untreated lichens served as controls. We assessed the status of physiological parameters (fluorescence and integrity of chlorophyll a, content of soluble proteins and ergosterol), ultrastructural changes, especially to the photobiont, and the distribution of elements in the layers of thalli in relation to treatment with heavy metals. We found positive correlations between the content of all tested heavy metals and the physiological response. We assessed the toxicity of the selected metals as follows: Cd >= Cu >= Ni > Zn, based on the effects on the photobiont layer in the lichen thallus and physiological measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface monitoring for pitting evolution into uniform corrosion on Cu-Ni-Zn ternary alloy in alkaline chloride solution: ex-situ LCM and in-situ SECM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Decheng; Dong, Chaofang; Zheng, Zhaoran; Mao, Feixiong; Xu, Aoni; Ni, Xiaoqing; Man, Cheng; Yao, Jizheng; Xiao, Kui; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-05-01

    The evolution of the corrosion process on Cu-Ni-Zn alloy in alkaline chloride solution was investigated by in-situ scanning electrochemical microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ex-situ laser confocal microscopy, and the effects of ambient temperature and polarization time were also discussed. The results demonstrated a higher pitting nucleation rate and lower pit growth rate at low temperature. The ratio of pit depth to mouth diameter decreased with increasing pit volume and temperature, indicating that pits preferentially propagate in the horizontal direction rather than the vertical direction owing to the presence of corrosion products and deposited copper. The surface current was uniform and stabilized at approximately 2.2 nA during the passive stage, whereas the current increased after the pits were formed with the maximum approaching 3 nA. Increasing the temperature led to an increase in porous corrosion products (CuO, Zn(OH)2, and Ni(OH)2) and significantly increased the rate of transition from pitting to uniform corrosion. Dezincification corrosion was detected by energy dispersive spectrometry, and a mechanism for pitting transition into uniform corrosion induced by dezincification at the grain boundaries is proposed.

  16. The behaviour of the elements Ni, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Ag, Mo, Sn, W and U in the magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary and weathering environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    In the last two decades much has been published on the behaviour of certain elements in the magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary and weathering environments, but the information is scattered throughout the literature. This situation prompted the present study on the elements Ni, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Ag, Mo, Sn, W and U. The behaviour of the elements Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Au, Sn, W and U has been studied experimentally in some depth. Ag has been moderately studied, but there is very little information about Co and Mo. Studies on the complexes formed by the elements within the hydrothermal and aqueous environment are often inconclusive and controversial, but conclusions are drawn as to the more likely complexes formed. A genetic classification of ore deposits is used as a framework for the discussion. The source of the elements is regarded as being the mantle, and therefore discussion on other possible sources is beyond the scope of this dissertation. The crystal chemistry and geochemistry of the elements are presented and the essay concludes with a discussion on the elements within their depositional environments

  17. Investigation of phase stability of novel equiatomic FeCoNiCuZn based-high entropy alloy prepared by mechanical alloying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Vinay Kumar; Sanyal, S.; Sinha, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    The present work reports the structural and phase stability analysis of equiatomic FeCoNiCuZn High entropy alloy (HEA) systems prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) method. In this research effort some 1287 alloy combinations were extensively studied to arrive at most favourable combination. FeCoNiCuZn based alloy system was selected on the basis of physiochemical parameters such as enthalpy of mixing (ΔHmix), entropy of mixing (ΔSmix), atomic size difference (ΔX) and valence electron concentration (VEC) such that it fulfils the formation criteria of stable multi component high entropy alloy system. In this context, we have investigated the effect of novel alloying addition in view of microstructure and phase formation aspect. XRD plots of the MA samples shows the formation of stable solid solution with FCC (Face Cantered Cubic) after 20 hr of milling time and no indication of any amorphous or intermetallic phase formation. Our results are in good agreement with calculation and analysis done on the basis of physiochemical parameters during selection of constituent elements of HEA.

  18. Effect of Cu insertion on structural, local electronic/atomic structure and photocatalyst properties of TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} nanostructures: XANES-EXAFS study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Aditya; Varshney, Mayora [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun Joon, E-mail: shj001@postech.ac.kr [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (POSTECH), Pohang, 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeong-Hyeon [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Keun Hwa, E-mail: khchae@kist.re.kr [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Sung Ok, E-mail: sowon@kist.re.kr [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, 02792 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    We report detailed investigations on the synthesis, structural, morphology, electronic/atomic structure and photocatalyst properties of Cu doped TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} nanostructures. All of the samples were synthesized by using the chemical precipitation method. Samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and photocatalyst measurements. XRD studies revealed single phase nature of the samples and omitted the presence of trivial metallic or binary oxide phases. TiO{sub 2} set of samples have shown nanorod kind of morphology, however TEM images of ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} set of samples depicted the spherical morphology of particles. XANES spectra at the Cu K-edge and Cu L-edge, along with the atomic multiplet calculations, revealed the predominance of Cu{sup 2+} ions in all of the samples, within the entire doping range. Ti L-edge and Ti K-edge XANES confirmed the existence of Ti{sup 4+} ions in the pure and Cu doped TiO{sub 2} samples with anatase local structure. Zn L-edge XANES results confirmed the divalent character of Zn ions in the pure and Cu doped ZnO, which is further validated by the Zn K-edge XANES. Ni L-edge and Ni K-edge XANES conveyed the +2 valence state of Ni ions in the pure and Cu doped Ni (OH){sub 2} samples. EXAFS analysis at the Cu K-edge nullifies the formation of Cu metallic clusters and other trivial phases, suggesting random distribution of Cu atoms in the oxide materials. Though, local atomic arrangement of Cu ions is disparate in the different oxide compounds. As an application of the pure and Cu doped TiO{sub 2}, ZnO and Ni(OH){sub 2} nanostructures, towards the degradation of water pollutant dyes, we demonstrate that all of the samples can serve as effective photocatalyst materials towards the degradation of methyl orange aqueous pollutant dye under the UV-light irradiation

  19. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric investigations of the complexation behavior of macrocyclic thiacrown ethers with bivalent transitional metals (Cu, Co, Ni and Zn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsybizova, Alexandra; Tarábek, Ján; Buchta, Michal; Holý, Petr; Schröder, Detlef

    2012-10-15

    Heavy metals are both a problem for the environment and an important resource for industry. Their selective extraction by means of organic ligands therefore is an attractive topic. The coordination of three thiacrown ethers to late 3d-metal ions was investigated by a combination of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The mass spectrometric experiments were carried out in an ion trap mass spectrometer with an ESI source. Absolute binding constants were estimated by comparison with data for 18-crown-6/Na(+). EPR spectroscopy was used as a complementary method for investigating the Cu(I) /Cu(II) redox couple. The study found that thiacrown ethers preferentially bind traces of copper even at an excess of other metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II)). The absolute association constants of the Cu(I) complexes were about 10(8) M(-1), and about two orders of magnitude lower for the other 3d-metal cations. The EPR spectra demonstrated that the reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I) upon formation of the [(thiacrown)Cu](+) species takes place in solution. ESI-MS demonstrated that the three thiacrown ligands examined had high binding constants as well as good selectivities for copper(I) at low concentrations, and in the presence of other metal ions. By a combination of ESI-MS and EPR spectrometry it was shown that the reduction from Cu(II) to Cu(I) occurred in solution. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. In situ neutron diffraction study of the plastic deformation mechanisms of B2 ordered intermetallic alloys: NiAl, CuZn, and CeAg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollmershauser, J.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400745, 116 Engineer' s Way, Charlottesville, VA 22904-04745 (United States); Kabra, S. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Agnew, S.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400745, 116 Engineer' s Way, Charlottesville, VA 22904-04745 (United States)], E-mail: sra4p@virginia.edu

    2009-01-15

    The internal stress developments of B2 compounds NiAl, CuZn, and CeAg are examined using in situ neutron diffraction. CeAg is a representative of a newly discovered class of fully ordered and ductile B2 compounds. Using polycrystal plasticity modeling to interpret the results, it is revealed that the internal stress evolution of CeAg is nearly identical to that of NiAl, indicating that they share a common primary mechanism of plastic deformation, i.e., <1 0 0>{l_brace}0 1 1{r_brace} 'cube' slip. This result reinforces the dilemma previously observed for rare-earth alloys CuY, AgY, and CuDy, since cube slip provides insufficient independent slip systems to accommodate large-scale homogenous polycrystalline deformation. There is no evidence in the diffraction data of either mechanical twinning or stress-induced phase transformation. The activity of bcc-type <1 1 1>{l_brace}11-bar0{r_brace} slip at high stresses is confirmed and a lower bound for the critical resolved shear stress is quantified.

  1. 3d-metal doping (Fe,Co,Ni,Zn) of the high T/sub c/ perovskite YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-y/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarascon, J.M.; Barboux, P.; Greene, L.H.; Hull, G.W.; Bagley, B.G.

    1988-01-01

    The structural, magnetic and superconducting properties of the mixed compounds YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3-x/M/sub x/O/sub 7-y/ (M = Ni, Zn, Fe and Co) are reported. Values of y, determined by titration, are found to be dependent on the nature and amount of the doping. The range of solubility is greater for the Fe and Co compounds (chi = 1) than for those with Ni or Zn (chi = 0.3). The undoped material is orthorhombic and remains orthorhombic after substitution for Cu by Ni or Zn, whereas a tetragonal phase is observed when Fe, Co are substituted for Cu. DC resistance and AC susceptibility measurements show that T/sub c/ is depressed from 90K (chi = 0) to 45K (chi = 0.2) for both the Ni and Zn doped compounds and T/sub c/ is destroyed in the Fe and Co doped compounds when chi reaches 0.4. The authors suggest that a valance of 2 be assigned to the Ni and Zn and 3 to the Fe and Co ions

  2. Determination of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As in the Rimac River waters by x-ray fluorescence in total reflection; Determinacion de Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn y As en aguas del Rio Rimac por fluorescencia de rayos-x en reflexion total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiznado, W [Universidad Nacional Federico Villarreal, Lima (Peru). Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matematicas, EP Quimica; Olivera, P [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru). Departamento de Quimica

    2002-07-01

    Samples from thirteen stations of the Rimac River has been analyzed. Samples were performed during one-year-period (september 1998-august 1999), with a frequency of one sample per month. The X-ray fluorescence analysis in total reflection technique has been used in order to determine the Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and As elements on its dissolved phase. The results obtained show: relation of the presence of mining stations with the metal concentration level, specially in the Zn and Fe; As is present in concentrations above those of permissible maximum levels in some of the sampled stations; moreover, Ni and Cr, toxic elements, are found in very low concentrations. On the other hand, it has been proved that the analysis method used is useful as a monitoring tool of superficial water-quality due to its low detection limits and because of the fastness the analysis are made.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of heterobimetallic complexes of the type [Cu(pn2][MCl4] where M = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II, and Hg(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Yadav

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of new bimetallic transition metal complexes of the type [Cu(pn2] [MCl4] have been synthesized (where M = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Hg(II, pn = 1,3-diaminopropane and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, TGA, IR and electronic spectra. All the compounds are 1:1 electrolyte in DMF. The Cu(II ion is square-planar while metal ions in the anionic moiety acquire their usual tetrahedral arrangement. On the basis of these studies it is concluded that anionic moiety is electrically stabilized by its cationic counterpart.

  4. Method for determination of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in sea water using X-ray fluorescence analysis, after concentration step of these elements by coprecipitation with APDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.; Estevez Alvarez, J.R.; Pupo Gonzalez, I.; Ramirez, M.; Rivera, N.

    1998-01-01

    In this work an analytical procedure has been applied to the to the determination of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn y Pb in seawater, that includes a coprecipitation step applied of these metals with APDC. The final analysis is carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis thin layer absolute method

  5. Effect of metal Ions (Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+) and water coordination on the structure of L-phenylalanine, L-tyrosine, L-tryptophan and their zwitterionic forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remko, Milan; Fitz, Daniel; Broer, Ria; Rode, Bernd Michael

    2011-01-01

    Methods of quantum chemistry have been applied to double-charged complexes involving the transition metals Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ with the aromatic amino acids (AAA) phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. The effect of hydration on the relative stability and geometry of the individual species studied

  6. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  7. Anthropogenic impacts in North Poland over the last 1300 years - A record of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni and S in an ombrotrophic peat bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vleeschouwer, Francois; Fagel, Nathalie; Cheburkin, Andriy; Pazdur, Anna; Sikorski, Jaroslaw; Mattielli, Nadine; Renson, Virginie; Fialkiewicz, Barbara; Piotrowska, Natalia; Le Roux, Gael

    2009-01-01

    Lead pollution history over Northern Poland was reconstructed for the last ca. 1300 years using the elemental and Pb isotope geochemistry of a dated Polish peat bog. The data show that Polish Pb-Zn ores and coal were the main sources of Pb, other heavy metals and S over Northern Poland up until the industrial revolution. After review of the potential mobility of each element, most of the historical interpretation was based on Pb and Pb isotopes, the other chemical elements (Zn, Cu, Ni, S) being considered secondary indicators of pollution. During the last century, leaded gasoline also contributed to anthropogenic Pb pollution over Poland. Coal and Pb-Zn ores, however, remained important sources of pollution in Eastern European countries during the last 50 years, as demonstrated by a high 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio (1.153) relative to that of Western Europe (ca. 1.10). The Pb data for the last century were also in good agreement with modelled Pb inventories over Poland and the Baltic region.

  8. Effect on the Inhibitory Activity of Potential Microbes on the Complexation of Methyl Anthranilate Derived Hydrazide with Cu, Ni and Zn (II) Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, M.; Rehman, S.; Khan, K.

    2013-01-01

    The hydrazide ligand 2-amino-(N-aminobezoyl)benzohydrazide (ABH) have been synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, ES+-MS, elemental analyses and infrared studies. The ligand was complexed with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) metal ions and were characterized by analytical and spectroscopic methods including elemental analyses, ES+-MS, conductance, infrared, UV-Visible and magnetic susceptibilities studies. Infrared spectra show that the ligand form complexes through -NH2 and carbonyl moieties, the elemental studies suggested the M(ABH)X2 composition of the coordination compounds. The synthesized complexes were studied for their biological activities against gram negative bacteria including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gram positive bacterial strains like Staphylococcus aureus and fungus like Candida albican. These activities show that the metal complexes are more active to the tested microbes as compared to neat ligand. (author)

  9. Cr(III,Mn(II,Fe(III,Co(II,Ni(II,Cu(II and Zn(II Complexes with Diisobutyldithiocarbamato Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tarique

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of sulphur and nitrogen containing dithiocarbamato ligand derived from diisobutylamine as well as its coordination compounds with 3d series transition metals is presented. These synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, conductometric measurements and IR spectral studies. The analytical data showed the stoichiometry 1:2 and 1:3 for the compounds of the types ML2 {M=Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II} and M'L3{M'=Cr(III and Fe(III} respectively. The conductometric measurements proved the non-electrolytic behaviour of all the compounds. The bidentate nature of dithiocarbamato moiety was confirmed on the basis of IR spectral data.

  10. Evaluation of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) in water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from Jose Antonio Alzate dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila P, P.

    1995-01-01

    Water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from the Jose Antonio Alzate Dam were analyzed in order to determine concentrations of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury. Mercury, lead, chromium and iron were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water, and in high concentrations in sediments. Cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc never were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in water lily were found in the root. Accumulation factors decreased in the following order: Zn> Cr> Fe> Ni> Cu> Pb> Hg and Cd. Statistical differences (α < 0.5) between the collection samples dates was observed. High correlations between metals concentrations in superficial water, sediment and water hyacinth were also observed. These correlations could indicate that the heavy metals studied here, are originated from a natural source such as sediments or from an industrial source. (Author)

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II Complexes with Salicylidene Thiosemicarbazones: Antibacterial, Antifungal and in Vitro Antileukemia Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Rosu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two new Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes (1–32 with salicylidene thiosemicarbazones (H2L1–H2L10 were synthesized. Salicylidene thiosemicarbazones, of general formula (XN-NH-C(S-NH(Y, were prepared through the condensation reaction of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and its derivatives (X with thiosemicarbazide or 4-phenylthiosemicarbazide (Y = H, C6H5. The characterization of the new formed compounds was done by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetochemical, thermoanalytical and molar conductance measurements. In addition, the structure of the complex 5 has been determined by X-ray diffraction method. All ligands and metal complexes were tested as inhibitors of human leukemia (HL-60 cells growth and antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  12. Associations between standardized school performance tests and mixtures of Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, and V in community soils of New Orleans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, Sammy; Mielke, Howard W.; Weiler, Stephan; Hempel, Lynn; Berry, Kenneth J.; Gonzales, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    In New Orleans a strong inverse association was previously identified between community soil lead and 4th grade school performance. This study extends the association to zinc, cadmium, nickel, manganese, copper, chromium, cobalt, and vanadium in community soil and their comparative effects on 4th grade school performance. Adjusting for poverty, food security, racial composition, and teacher-student ratios, regression results show that soil metals variously reduce and compress student scores. Soil metals account for 22%–24% while food insecurity accounts for 29%–37% of variation in school performance. The impact on grade point averages were Ni > Co > Mn > Cu ∼Cr ∼ Cd > Zn > Pb, but metals are mixtures in soils. The quantities of soil metal mixtures vary widely across the city with the largest totals in the inner city and smallest totals in the outer city. School grade point averages are lowest where the soil metal mixtures and food insecurity are highest. - Highlights: ► Mixtures of metals vary; largest totals in the inner city and lowest in the outer city. ► An inverse association between soil Pb and 4th grade school performance is known. ► Assuming the same exposure pathway, multiple metals are compared to performance. ► Soil metals account for 22%–24% of variation in school test performance. ► Soil metal plus food insecurity accounts for 54% of explained variance. - Controlling for potential confounding variables, the accumulation of metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cu, Cr, and Co) in neighborhood soils is significantly negatively associated with 4th grade school performance on standardized tests in New Orleans.

  13. Doping effect on the structural properties of Cu{sub 1−x}(Ni, Zn, Al and Fe){sub x}O samples (0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, J.B. [Faculdade Estácio de Sergipe, 49020-530 Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Araujo, R.M. [Coordenação de Química, IPISE/PIC, Faculdade Pio Décimo, 49095-000 Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Pedra, P.P. [CETEC, Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, 44380-000 Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Meneses, C.T.; Duque, J.G.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Rezende, M.V. dos S, E-mail: mvsrezende@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Prof. Alberto Carvalho, 49500-000 Itabaiana, SE (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, the effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu{sub 1−x}TM{sub x}O samples (0Ni and Zn-doped samples show a small amount of spurious phases for concentrations above x=0.05. Based on these results, a defect disorder study for using atomistic computational simulations which is based on the lattice energy minimization technique is employed to predict the location of the dopant ions in the structure. In agreement with XRD data, our computational results indicate that the trivalent (Al and Fe ions) are more favorable to be incorporated into CuO matrix than the divalent (Ni and Zn ions). - Graphical Abstract: The effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu{sub 1−x}TM{sub x}O samples (0

  14. Mechanical properties and fracture mechanism of as-cast Mg{sub 77}TM{sub 12}Zn{sub 5}Y{sub 6} (TM = Cu, Ni) bulk amorphous matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, K.Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China)], E-mail: kqqiu@yahoo.com.cn; Hu, N.N.; Zhang, H.B. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China); Jiang, W.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37990 (United States); Ren, Y.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University of Technology, Shenyang 110178 (China); Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37990 (United States)

    2009-06-10

    Comparative investigations on the microstructures, thermal stability and mechanical properties of Mg{sub 77}Cu{sub 12}Zn{sub 5}Y{sub 6} and Mg{sub 77}Ni{sub 12}Zn{sub 5}Y{sub 6} bulk metallic glass matrix composites were carried out by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DSC and compressive tester. The results show that the microstructure of as-cast samples with 3 mm in diameter for Cu-containing alloy is consisted of Mg flakes and dotted Mg{sub 2}Cu phase in the amorphous matrix, while the as-cast Ni-containing alloy with the same diameter is mainly consisted of Mg flakes in the amorphous matrix. The glass transition temperature and supercooled liquid region are 413 K and 27 K for the Cu-containing, 443 K and 32 K for the Ni-containing amorphous matrix composites, respectively. The fracture strength, yield strength and plastic strain are 532 MPa, 390 MPa and 2.4% for the Cu-containing alloy, 667 MPa, 412 MPa and 7% for the Ni-containing alloy, respectively. Furthermore, the fracture mechanism for the amorphous matrix composites was discussed according to both the fracture surfaces and the stress-strain curves.

  15. Geographical and pedological drivers of distribution and risks to soil fauna of seven metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in British soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, David J.; Rowland, Philip; Ainsworth, Gillian; Rothery, Peter; Long, Sara; Black, Helaina I.J.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of seven metals were measured in over 1000 samples as part of an integrated survey. Sixteen metal pairs were significantly positively correlated. Cluster analysis identified two clusters. Metals from the largest (Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn), but not the smallest (Cd, Pb) cluster were significantly negatively correlated with spatial location and soil pH and organic matter content. Cd and Pb were not correlated with these parameters, due possibly to the masking effect of recent extensive release. Analysis of trends with soil properties in different habitats indicated that general trends may not necessarily be applicable to all areas. A risk assessment indicated that Zn poses the most widespread direct risk to soil fauna and Cd the least. Any risks associated with high metal concentrations are, however, likely to be greatest in habitats such as arable and horticultural, improved grassland and built up areas where soil metal concentrations are more frequently elevated. - Metal distributions and risks explained by balance of sources and soil property effects on fate

  16. An investigation of the evolution of evolution of distribution and accumulation of heavy metals(Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb) in Anzali wetland's sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartaj, M.; Fatollahi, F.; Filizadeh, Y.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the precipitation of heavy metals in Anzali wetland and evaluate its refining performance this study was carried out on the wetland. Monthly samples of sediments from 15 stations including inlets, outlets and some internal locations in the wetland were collected and analyzed over a period of six months (July - December 2002). Sediment samples were analyzed for six metals of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. Wet digestion method was employed for extraction of metals in samples by and through a solution containing HN03 and HCL. Atomic Adsorption spectrophotometry was employed for measurement of the heavy metals. Statistical methods, including analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation and Cluster analysis were used for analysis of the data. The results indicated that concentration of heavy metals present in sediments (collected from different stations and at different times) here significantly different. Among the metals studied, Zn was of the highest concentration Heavy metal concentrations in stations 1 1, 12 and 13 were lower than in other stations. Sediments in station 5 contained the highest concentrations of heavy metals among all sediments. It can be stated that concentration of heavy metals decreases with an increase in the distance from delta of rivers entering the wetland.2. This is due to the role and performance of wetland chemical contents in reduction of pollutants, the self-purification action of wetland as well as precipitation of heavy metals at the beginning of the entries into the wetland

  17. Succulent species differ substantially in their tolerance and phytoextraction potential when grown in the presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengjun; Sale, Peter W G; Clark, Gary J; Liu, Wuxing; Doronila, Augustine I; Kolev, Spas D; Tang, Caixian

    2015-12-01

    Plants for the phytoextraction of heavy metals should have the ability to accumulate high concentrations of such metals and exhibit multiple tolerance traits to cope with adverse conditions such as coexistence of multiple heavy metals, high salinity, and drought which are the characteristics of many contaminated soils. This study compared 14 succulent species for their phytoextraction potential of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. There were species variations in metal tolerance and accumulation. Among the 14 succulent species, an Australian native halophyte Carpobrotus rossii exhibited the highest relative growth rate (20.6-26.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)) and highest tolerance index (78-93%), whilst Sedum "Autumn Joy" had the lowest relative growth rate (8.3-13.6 mg plant(-1) day(-1)), and Crassula multicava showed the lowest tolerance indices (phytoextraction of these heavy metals than other species. These findings suggest that Carpobrotus rossii is a promising candidate for phytoextraction of multiple heavy metals, and the aquatic or semiterrestrial Crassula helmsii is suitable for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from polluted waters or wetlands.

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of nano-sized NiCuZn ferrites synthesized by co-precipitation method with ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harzali, Hassen, E-mail: harzali@mines-albi.fr [Laboratory of Applied Mineral Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Tunis ElManar, Campus University, Farhat Hached El-Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Saida, Fairouz; Marzouki, Arij; Megriche, Adel [Laboratory of Applied Mineral Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Tunis ElManar, Campus University, Farhat Hached El-Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Baillon, Fabien; Espitalier, Fabienne [Université de Toulouse, Mines Albi, CNRS, Centre RAPSODEE, Campus Jarlard, F-81013 Albi CT cedex 09 (France); Mgaidi, Arbi [Laboratory of Applied Mineral Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Tunis ElManar, Campus University, Farhat Hached El-Manar, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Taibah University, Faculty of Sciences & art, Al Ula (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-12-01

    Sonochemically assisted co-precipitation has been used to prepare nano-sized Ni–Cu–Zn-ferrite powders. A suspension of constituent hydroxides was ultrasonically irradiated for various times at different temperatures with high intensity ultrasound radiation using a direct immersion titanium horn. Structural and magnetic properties were investigated using X-diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Nitrogen adsorption at 77 K (BET) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Preliminary experimental results relative to optimal parameters showed that reaction time t=2 h, temperature θ=90 °C and dissipated Power P{sub diss}=46.27 W. At these conditions, this work shows the formation of nanocrystalline single-phase structure with particle size 10–25 nm. Also, ours magnetic measurements proved that the sonochemistry method has a great influence on enhancing the magnetic properties of the ferrite. - Highlights: • Coprecipitation experiments were carried out with ultrasound. • The spinel ferrite NiCuZn was perfectly synthesized by ultrasound. • The saturation magnetization and crystals size are found to be correlated as the dissipated power was varied.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of nano-sized NiCuZn ferrites synthesized by co-precipitation method with ultrasound irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harzali, Hassen; Saida, Fairouz; Marzouki, Arij; Megriche, Adel; Baillon, Fabien; Espitalier, Fabienne; Mgaidi, Arbi

    2016-01-01

    Sonochemically assisted co-precipitation has been used to prepare nano-sized Ni–Cu–Zn-ferrite powders. A suspension of constituent hydroxides was ultrasonically irradiated for various times at different temperatures with high intensity ultrasound radiation using a direct immersion titanium horn. Structural and magnetic properties were investigated using X-diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Nitrogen adsorption at 77 K (BET) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Preliminary experimental results relative to optimal parameters showed that reaction time t=2 h, temperature θ=90 °C and dissipated Power P_d_i_s_s=46.27 W. At these conditions, this work shows the formation of nanocrystalline single-phase structure with particle size 10–25 nm. Also, ours magnetic measurements proved that the sonochemistry method has a great influence on enhancing the magnetic properties of the ferrite. - Highlights: • Coprecipitation experiments were carried out with ultrasound. • The spinel ferrite NiCuZn was perfectly synthesized by ultrasound. • The saturation magnetization and crystals size are found to be correlated as the dissipated power was varied.

  20. The Survey and Measurement of Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd and V Content in Green Vegetables of South Area of Tehran Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemzadeh Khoyi, J.; Noori, A. S.; Pourang, N.; Alizadeh, M.; Ghoreishi, H.; Padash, A.

    2013-01-01

    Oil pollution is one of the most critical soil and water pollutant. Areas which are subjected to oil industry may have this kind of pollution by different ways such as extraction, transformation and refining. The example of these areas is south east of Tehran refinery which is surrounded by agricultural fields and are subjected by pollution via Tehran refinery, oil transforming lines, waste water and industrial activities. Since the crops from this area is providing the needs of neighbor cities like Tehran, to realize their oil pollution, the content of some heavy metals like Ni, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb and Mn has been measured. The results analyzed by analytical method include SPSS and MVSP. Finally the relation between elements and pollution has been recognized. The result of this survey showed the high heavy metal content in most plants which were higher than similar research. Onion had the highest amount of most heavy metals. Ni and Pd content were high in plants which are indicator of oil pollution.

  1. Speciation of heavy metals Cu, Ni and Zn by modified BCR sequential extraction procedure in sediments from Banten Bay, Banten Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari; Budiyanto, F.; Hindarti, D.

    2018-02-01

    Banten Bay is categorized as a marine area that is busy with marine tourism activities, settlements and also industries. One potential impact of the condition is the occurrence of pollution from both industrial and domestic sources, erosion and sedimentation in the coastal environment. Samples were collected from 25 representative stations in April 2016. Chemical speciation of three heavy metals (Cu, Ni, and Zn) was studied using a modified sequential extraction procedure proposed by the European Standard, Measurements and Testing (SM&T) program, formerly the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR). The aims of this study are to determine geochemical speciation of 4 bounds of metal: acid-soluble, reducible, oxidizable and residual, and to assess their impacts in the sediments of Banten Bay, Indonesia. The result shows that the percentage of Copper (45.90-83.75%), Nickel (18.28-65.66%), and Zinc (30.45-79.51%) were mostly accumulated in residual fraction of the total concentrations. The Risk Assessment Code (RAC) reveals that about 0-7.07% of Copper and 1.11-24.35 % of Zinc at sites exist in exchangeable fraction and therefore, they are in low risk category. While 7.34-34.90 of Ni at sites exists in exchangeable fraction and therefore, it is in medium risk category to aquatic environment.

  2. Study of environmental contamination in growth tree rings of Copaifera Langsdorfii by SR-TXRF: evaluation of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Bruna Fernanda; Moreira, Silvana; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de

    2009-01-01

    Some arboreal species present annual cycles of growth and sleeping, registered in the log by different anatomical structures - the growth rings. With the objective of verifying the industrial activity in the city of Bauru, SP samples were submitted to a quantitative analysis in order to verify the bio-accumulation of metals. For that Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence was used. Samples of Copaifera Langsdorfii (Copaiba) were collected close to Municipal Forest of Bauru, SP located at 200m of distance of a disabled company of energy accumulators (batteries) known by receiving several penalties of CETESB due disagreement with the environmental legislation. Through the quantification of the elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in the annual growth rings were possible to verify the influence of the battery industry in the local pollution. The temporal variation of Pb showed that after the interdiction of the battery industry the concentrations are close to the reference value, but in the periods previous to the industry interdiction the Pb concentrations were above the reference value. For Cr, 46% of the samples presented superior concentration to the reference value. Zinc presented larger concentration in the period from 1996 to 1998, reaching 1383 μg g -1 . For Cu the concentrations were higher than the reference value in almost all periods analyzed, that is, from 1969 to 2004. On the other hand Ni presented great oscillation in its concentration, and the highest values were observed in the period from 1969 to 1971 and from 1999 to 2001, reaching 87 μg g -1 . (author)

  3. Study of environmental contamination in growth tree rings of Copaifera Langsdorfii by SR-TXRF: evaluation of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Bruna Fernanda; Moreira, Silvana, E-mail: bffaria@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Dept. de Saneamento e Ambiente; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de, E-mail: aesvives@unimep.b [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo

    2009-07-01

    Some arboreal species present annual cycles of growth and sleeping, registered in the log by different anatomical structures - the growth rings. With the objective of verifying the industrial activity in the city of Bauru, SP samples were submitted to a quantitative analysis in order to verify the bio-accumulation of metals. For that Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence was used. Samples of Copaifera Langsdorfii (Copaiba) were collected close to Municipal Forest of Bauru, SP located at 200m of distance of a disabled company of energy accumulators (batteries) known by receiving several penalties of CETESB due disagreement with the environmental legislation. Through the quantification of the elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in the annual growth rings were possible to verify the influence of the battery industry in the local pollution. The temporal variation of Pb showed that after the interdiction of the battery industry the concentrations are close to the reference value, but in the periods previous to the industry interdiction the Pb concentrations were above the reference value. For Cr, 46% of the samples presented superior concentration to the reference value. Zinc presented larger concentration in the period from 1996 to 1998, reaching 1383 mug g{sup -1}. For Cu the concentrations were higher than the reference value in almost all periods analyzed, that is, from 1969 to 2004. On the other hand Ni presented great oscillation in its concentration, and the highest values were observed in the period from 1969 to 1971 and from 1999 to 2001, reaching 87 mug g{sup -1}. (author)

  4. The Effect of (Ag, Ni, Zn)-Addition on the Thermoelectric Properties of Copper Aluminate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanagiya, Shun-ichi; Van Nong, Ngo; Xu, Jianxiao Jackie

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline bulk copper aluminate Cu1-x-yAgxByAlO2 with B = Ni or Zn were prepared by spark plasma sintering and subsequent thermal treatment. The influence of partial substitution of Ag, Ni and Zn for Cu-sites in CuAlO2 on the high temperature thermoelectric properties has been studied......, indicating a significant improvement compared with the non-doped CuAlO2 sample...

  5. Influencia de la adición de estaño en el proceso de precipitación en una aleación de Cu-Ni-Zn

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso, Eduardo C.; Diánez, Mª Jesús; Criado, José M.; Espinoza, Rodrigo; Mosquera, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    The influence of 1.1 wt% tin additions on the precipitation hardening of Cu-11 wt% Ni-20 wt% Zn alloy was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), microhardeness measurements and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The calorimetric curves, in the range of temperatures analyzed, show the presence of two exothermic reactions in the ternary alloy, associated to the short-range-order development assisted by migration of excess vacancies. On the other hand, one exo...

  6. Evaluation of heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg) in water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from Jose Antonio Alzate dam; Evaluacion de metales pesados Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb y Hg en agua, sedimento y lirio acuatico (Eichhornia crassipes) de la Presa Jose Antonio Alzate, Estado de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila P, P

    1996-12-31

    Water, sediments and water lily (Eichornia crassipes) from the Jose Antonio Alzate Dam were analyzed in order to determine concentrations of chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and mercury. Mercury, lead, chromium and iron were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water, and in high concentrations in sediments. Cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc never were found in concentrations above permissible limits in water. The highest concentrations of heavy metals in water lily were found in the root. Accumulation factors decreased in the following order: Zn> Cr> Fe> Ni> Cu> Pb> Hg and Cd. Statistical differences ({alpha} < 0.5) between the collection samples dates was observed. High correlations between metals concentrations in superficial water, sediment and water hyacinth were also observed. These correlations could indicate that the heavy metals studied here, are originated from a natural source such as sediments or from an industrial source. (Author).

  7. Bioavailability of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr in the sediments of the Tessa River: A mining area in the North-West Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Abdelaziz; Helali, Mohamed Amine; Oueslati, Walid; Abdelmalek-Babbou, Chiraz; Chaabani, Fredj

    2018-01-01

    Tessa River is seen as one of the important rivers in Tunisia. Its catchment is known for its agricultural and mining activities, especially the Bougrine and Fedj Lahdhoum mines. Eighteen (18) surface sediments and five (5) water samples were collected from the Tessa River, near these two mining sites. Sediments are essentially sandy (>80%), the most important mineral is quartz (20-73%), then calcite (41%) and dolomites (4%). Heavy metal contents are relatively high near the mining sites, 356 μg g-1 for Pb, 3000 μg g-1 for Zn, and 5 μg g-1 for Cd. These values are lower downstream due to watercourse dilution effects. Other heavy metals: Cu, Ni and Cr, are low, and values are relatively constant in all the studied samples, even near the mining sites. The metals originate from natural sources and not from mining activities. This trend is confirmed by the enrichment factor (EF) where EFNi, EFCu and EFCr are lower or equal to 1, unlike EFPb, EFZn or EFCd where values are much higher (>20). Chemical speciation of these metals does not show any spatial variation. Except for cadmium which is bound to the residual fraction and in the carbonates; all other heavy metals are bound to the five sediment chemical fractions: the residual fraction (>52%), followed by the oxyhydroxides fraction (21%) and carbonates (16%), and finally bound to the organic matter and to the exchangeable fraction (bioavailable fraction of the studied heavy metals exceeds 45%, which present risk of toxicity.

  8. The Adsorption of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd by Modified Ligand in a Single Component Aqueous Solution: Equilibrium, Kinetic, Thermodynamic, and Desorption Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Igberase

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, an amino functionalized adsorbent was developed by grafting 4-aminobenzoic acid onto the backbone of cross-linked chitosan beads. The 3 sets of beads including chitosan (CX, glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan (CCX, and 4-aminobenzoic acid grafted cross-linked chitosan (FGCX were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and TGA. The water content and amine concentration of FGCX were determined. The effect of adsorption parameters was studied and the optimum was used for further studies. Equilibrium data was obtained from the adsorption experiment carried out at different initial concentration; the data were applied in isotherm, thermodynamics, and kinetic studies. The Langmuir and Dubinin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR models were successful in describing the isotherm data for the considered metal ions while the Freundlich and Temkin model fit some of the considered metal ions. Pseudo-second-order and intraparticle model described the kinetic data quite well. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibb’s free energy change (ΔGo, enthalpy change (ΔHo, and entropy change (ΔSo were calculated and the results showed that the adsorption of Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Cd ions onto FGCX is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Regeneration of the spent adsorbent was efficient for the considered metal ions.

  9. The evaluation of growth and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita on soil contaminated simultaneously with Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocoń, Anna; Jurga, Beata

    2017-02-01

    One of the cheapest, environmentally friendly methods for cleaning an environment polluted by heavy metals is phytoextraction. It builds on the uptake of pollutants from the soil by the plants, which are able to grow under conditions of high concentrations of toxic metals. The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of growing and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita cultivated on two different soils contaminated with five heavy metals simultaneously: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. A 3-year microplot experiment with two perennial energy crops, M. x giganteus and S. hermaphrodita, was conducted in the experimental station of IUNG-PIB in Poland (5° 25' N, 21° 58 'E), in the years of 2008-2010. Miscanthus was found more tolerant to concomitant soil contamination with heavy metals and produced almost double biomass than Sida in all three tested years, independent of soil type. Miscanthus collected greater amount of heavy metals (except for cadmium) in the biomass than Sida. Both energy crops absorb high levels of zinc, lower levels of lead, copper, and nickel, and absorbed cadmium at least, generally more metals were taken from the sandy soil, where plants also yielded better. Photosynthesis net rate of Miscanthus was on average 40% higher compared to Sida. Obtained results indicate that M. x giganteus and S. hermaphrodita can successfully be grown on moderately contaminated soil with heavy metals.

  10. Micellar effect on metal-ligand complexes of Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with citric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageswara Rao Gollapalli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of citric acid complexes of Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II was investigated pH-metrically in 0.0-2.5% anionic, cationic and neutral micellar media. The primary alkalimetric data were pruned with SCPHD program. The existence of different binary species was established from modeling studies using the computer program MINIQUAD75. Alkalimetric titrations were carried out in different relative concentrations (M:L:X = 1:2:5, 1:3:5, 1:5:3 of metal (M to citric acid. The selection of best chemical models was based on statistical parameters and residual analysis. The species detected were MLH, ML2, ML2H and ML2H2. The trend in variation of stability constants with change in mole fraction of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces. Distributions of the species with pH at different compositions of micellar media are also presented.

  11. Effects of sintering temperature on properties of toroid cores using NiZnCu ferrites for power applications at >1 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junchang; Mei, Yunhui; Liu, Wen; Li, Xin; Hou, Feng; Lu, Guo-Quan

    2018-05-01

    The microstructures, magnetic and electronic performance of NiZnCu ferrites have been investigated at temperature from 850 °C to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that only single phase with spinel structure existed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that grain size increased with enhancement of sintering temperature and the most homogeneous, compact microstructure was obtained at 950 °C. Magnetic properties measurements revealed that both complex permeability and saturation magnetization increased with increasing of sintering temperature. The initial permeability was approximately linear within the scope of 850-1000 °C as well as the resonance frequency decreased from 70 MHz to 30 MHz. Power loss density tests demonstrated that the core sintered at 950 °C instead of the one sintered at 1000 °C had the lower power loss density at both 5 mT and 10 mT and the higher inductance under a certain exciting direct current at 1 MHz. Also the inductance of the sample sintered at the higher temperature dropped faster than that at the lower temperature. The results showed that the core sintered at 950 °C had better electrical performance and was suitable for wide usage.

  12. Elemental composition study of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Zn) in riverbank soil by electrokinetic-assisted phyto remediation using XRF and SEM/EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhailly Jamari; Zaidi Embong; Zaidi Embong; Ismail Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Electrokinetic (EK)-assisted phyto remediation is one of the methods that have a big potential in enhancing the ability of plant uptake in soils remediation process. This research was conducted to investigate the difference in elemental composition concentration of riverbank soil and the change of pH between pre- and post-phyto remediation under the following condition: 1) control or as-receive sample; 2) Dieffenbachia spp plant with EK system (a pair of EK electrodes connected to a direct current (DC) power supply). After the electrodes were connected to a magnitude of 6 V/ cm -1 electric field for 4 hours/ day, the soil and plant samples were analyzed using and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope/ Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/ EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis showed that concentration of elemental composition (Ni, Cu and Zn) in post-phyto remediation plant powder samples had increase while elemental concentrations in the post-hydrotreatment soil samples were decreased. XRF analysis presented a variation in soil elemental composition concentration from anode to cathode where the concentration near anode region increased while decreased near the cathode region. A significant changes in soil pH were obtained where the soil pH increase in cathode region while decrease in anode region. The results reveal that the assistance of EK in phyto remediation process has increase the efficiency of plant uptake. (author)

  13. Elemental composition study of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Zn) in riverbank soil by electrokinetic-assisted phytoremediation using XRF and SEM/EDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamari, Suhailly; Embong, Zaidi; Bakar, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Electrokinetic (EK)-assisted phytoremediation is one of the methods that have a big potential in enhancing the ability of plant uptake in soils remediation process. This research was conducted to investigate the difference in elemental composition concentration of riverbank soil and the change of pH between pre- and post-phytoremediation under the following condition: 1) control or as-receive sample; 2) Dieffenbachia spp plant with EK system (a pair of EK electrodes connected to a direct current (DC) power supply). After the electrodes were connected to a magnitude of 6V/cm −1 electric field for 4 hours/day, the soil and plant samples were analyzed using and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis showed that concentration of elemental composition (Ni, Cu and Zn) in post-phytoremediation plant powder samples had increase while elemental concentrations in the post-phytoremediation soil samples were decreased. XRF analysis presented a variation in soil elemental composition concentration from anode to cathode where the concentration near anode region increased while decreased near the cathode region. A significant changes in soil pH were obtained where the soil pH increase in cathode region while decrease in anode region. The results reveal that the assistance of EK in phytoremediation process has increase the efficiency of plant uptake

  14. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Trace Metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Coastal Waters off the West Coast of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Tung Jiann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water samples were collected along the west coast of Taiwan during two expedition cruises which represent periods of different regional climatic patterns. Information on hydrochemical parameters such as salinity, nutrients, suspended particulate matter (SPM, and Chlorophyll a concentrations were obtained, and dissolved and particulate trace metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were determined. Spatial variations were observed and the differences were attributed to (1 influence of varying extents of terrestrial inputs from the mountainous rivers of Taiwan to the coast, and (2 urbanization and industrialization in different parts of the island. Geochemical processes such as desorption (Cd and adsorption to sinking particles (Pb also contributed to the variability of trace metal distributions in coastal waters. Results showed temporal variations in chemical characteristics in coastal waters as a consequence of prevailing monsoons. During the wet season when river discharges were higher, the transport of particulate metals was elevated due to increased sediment loads. During the dry season, lower river discharges resulted in a lesser extent of estuarine dilution effect for chemicals of anthropogenic sources, indicated by higher dissolved concentrations present in coastal waters associated with slightly higher salinity.

  15. Structural, dielectric and gas sensing behavior of Mn substituted spinel MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co) ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjith Kumar, E., E-mail: ranjueaswar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641048, Tamil Nadu (India); Siva Prasada Reddy, P.; Sarala Devi, G. [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, Indian Institute Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 500607 (India); Sathiyaraj, S. [Department of Chemistry, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641048, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-01-15

    Spinel ferrite (MnZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnCuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MnNiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MnCoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles have been prepared by evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important role on changing particle size of the spinel ferrite nanoparticles was found out by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The role of manganese substitution in the spinel ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in dielectric properties have been measured in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 5 MHz. These spinel ferrites are decomposed to α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} after annealing above 550 °C in air. Through the characterization of the prepared powder, the effect of annealing temperature, chemical composition and preparation technique on the microstructure, particle size and dielectric properties of the Mn substituted spinel ferrite nanoparticles are discussed. Furthermore, Conductance response of Mn substituted MFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite nanoparticles were measured by exposing the materials to reducing gas like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). - Highlights: • The egg white support to achieve sample with shorter reaction time. • Manganese plays a significant role in sensor response. • Nature of the ferrites was affected with increasing annealing temperature.

  16. Antibacterial Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes with biacetyl-derived Schiff bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD IMRAN

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The condensation reactions of biacetyl with ortho-hydroxyaniline and 2-aminobenzoic acid to form bidendate NO donor Schiff bases were studied. The prepared Schiff base ligands were further utilized for the formation of metal chelates having the general formula [ML2(H2O2] where M = Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II and L = HL1 and HL2. These new compounds were characterized by conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, elemental analysis, and IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and electronic spectroscopy. Both Schiff base ligands were found to have a mono-anionic bidentate nature and octahedral geometry was assigned to all metal complexes. All the complexes contained coordinated water which was lost at 141–160 °C. These compounds were also screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against four bacterial species, namely: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The metal complexes were found to have greater antibacterial activity than the uncomplexed Schiff base ligands.

  17. Defective graphene supported MPd12 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd) nanoparticles as potential oxygen reduction electrocatalysts: A first-principles study

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xin

    2013-01-24

    We studied the electronic structure of MPd12 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pd) nanoparticles deposited on graphene substrates and their reactivity toward O adsorption, which are directly related to the catalytic performance of these composites in oxygen reduction reaction, by first-principles-based calculations. We found that the alloying between M and Pd can enhance the stability of nanoparticles and promote their oxygen reduction activity to be comparable with that of Pt(111). The defective graphene substrate can provide anchoring sites for these nanoparticles by forming strong metal-substrate interaction. The interfacial interaction can contribute to additional stability and further tune the averaged d-band center of the deposited alloy nanoparticles, resulting in strong interference on the O adsorption. As the O adsorption on these composites is weakened, the oxygen reduction reaction kinetics over these composites will also be promoted. These composites are thus expected to exhibit both high stability and superior catalytic performance in oxygen reduction reaction. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  18. Comparative toxicity of VO3-, CrO42-, Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+ to lettuce seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    Lettuce seeds imbibed, germinated, and grown in a 0.1-strength modified Hoagland culture solution were subjected to a series of increasing concentrations of individual heavy metals up to and exceeding lethal levels. After an exposure of 5 days, seedlings were harvested, examined, and measured to determine toxic effects. A log--log plot of root length (yield) vs. heavy metal concentration was made for each metal to produce a dose response curve. The curves showed a growth plateau at low concentrations of the respective metals which was equivalent to the growth of the control. All metals inhibited root growth and caused lethal toxicity in the sub- and low-milliequivalent range. When concentrations of the tested metals exceeded their thresholds of acute toxicity, root growth was inhibited. In the zone of inhibition, between the acute toxic threshold and complete inhibition, the log--log dose response curves were approximately linear or were a series of linear steps. The threshold toxicity and the response slope were characteristic for each metal. Seedling lettuce showed a monophasic response to VO 3 - , Cu 2+ , and Zn 2+ ; a biphasic response to CrO 4 2 -, Mn 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Cd 2+ ; and a quadraphasic response to Co 2+ . The acute toxicity threshold on an equivalent basis increased according to the following sequence: Cd 2+ much less than VO 3 - 2+ 2+ 2+ 4 2- 2+ much less than Mn 2+ . On this basis, Cd 2+ is the most toxic of the trace elements tested

  19. Structural, dielectric and gas sensing behavior of Mn substituted spinel MFe2O4 (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, and Co) ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith Kumar, E.; Siva Prasada Reddy, P.; Sarala Devi, G.; Sathiyaraj, S.

    2016-01-01

    Spinel ferrite (MnZnFe2O4, MnCuFe2O4, MnNiFe2O4 and MnCoFe2O4) nanoparticles have been prepared by evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important role on changing particle size of the spinel ferrite nanoparticles was found out by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The role of manganese substitution in the spinel ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in dielectric properties have been measured in the frequency range of 100 kHz to 5 MHz. These spinel ferrites are decomposed to α-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. Through the characterization of the prepared powder, the effect of annealing temperature, chemical composition and preparation technique on the microstructure, particle size and dielectric properties of the Mn substituted spinel ferrite nanoparticles are discussed. Furthermore, Conductance response of Mn substituted MFe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles were measured by exposing the materials to reducing gas like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG).

  20. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of metal complexes of Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Zn (II) with sulphadimidine-benzylidene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahira, F.; Imran, M.; Iqbal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Some novel complexes of Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), and Zn (II) have been synthesized with a Schiff base ligand derived from sulphadimidine and benzaldehyde. The structural features of the complexes have been determined by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, conductance measurement, UV/ Vis. and infrared spectroscopy. IR studies revealed that the Schiff base ligand Sulphadimidine-benzylidene has monoanionic bidendate nature and coordinate with metal ions through nitrogen atom of azomethine (>C = N) and deprotonated -NH group. All the complexes were assigned octahedral geometry on the basis of magnetic moment and electronic spectroscopic data. Low value of conductance supports their non-electrolytic nature. The ligand, as well as its complexes were checked for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against two gram positive bacterial strains, Bacillus subtillus. Staphylococcus aureus and one gram negative Salmonella typhae and five fungal strains, Nigrospora oryzae, Curvularia lunata, Drechslera rostrata, Aspergillus niger and Candida olbicans by disc diffusion method and agar plate technique, respectively. Both the antibacterial and antitungal activities of the synthesized metal complexes were found to be more as compared to parent drug and uncomplexed ligand. All the complexes contain coordinated water, which is lost at 141-160 degree C. (author)

  1. Elemental composition study of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Zn) in riverbank soil by electrokinetic-assisted phytoremediation using XRF and SEM/EDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamari, Suhailly [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) (Malaysia); Embong, Zaidi [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Research Center for Soft Soils (RECESS), Office of Research, Innovation, Commercialization and Consultancy Management - ORRIC, Universiti Tun Hussein (Malaysia); Bakar, Ismail [Research Center for Soft Soils (RECESS), Office of Research, Innovation, Commercialization and Consultancy Management (ORRIC), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia -UTHM, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    Electrokinetic (EK)-assisted phytoremediation is one of the methods that have a big potential in enhancing the ability of plant uptake in soils remediation process. This research was conducted to investigate the difference in elemental composition concentration of riverbank soil and the change of pH between pre- and post-phytoremediation under the following condition: 1) control or as-receive sample; 2) Dieffenbachia spp plant with EK system (a pair of EK electrodes connected to a direct current (DC) power supply). After the electrodes were connected to a magnitude of 6V/cm{sup −1} electric field for 4 hours/day, the soil and plant samples were analyzed using and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis showed that concentration of elemental composition (Ni, Cu and Zn) in post-phytoremediation plant powder samples had increase while elemental concentrations in the post-phytoremediation soil samples were decreased. XRF analysis presented a variation in soil elemental composition concentration from anode to cathode where the concentration near anode region increased while decreased near the cathode region. A significant changes in soil pH were obtained where the soil pH increase in cathode region while decrease in anode region. The results reveal that the assistance of EK in phytoremediation process has increase the efficiency of plant uptake.

  2. Synthesis, spectral characterization thermal stability, antimicrobial studies and biodegradation of starch–thiourea based biodegradable polymeric ligand and its coordination complexes with [Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II)] metals

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Nishat; Ashraf Malik

    2016-01-01

    A biodegradable polymer was synthesized by the modification reaction of polymeric starch with thiourea which is further modified by transition metals, Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). All the polymeric compounds were characterized by (FT-IR) spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectra, magnetic moment measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and antibacterial activities. Polymer complexes of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) show octahedral geometry, wh...

  3. Doping effect on the structural properties of Cu1-x(Ni, Zn, Al and Fe)xO samples (0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, J. B.; Araujo, R. M.; Pedra, P. P.; Meneses, C. T.; Duque, J. G. S.; dos S. Rezende, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the effect of insertion of transition metal, TM (=Ni, Zn, Al and Fe), ions in Cu1-xTMxO samples (0Ni and Zn-doped samples show a small amount of spurious phases for concentrations above x=0.05. Based on these results, a defect disorder study for using atomistic computational simulations which is based on the lattice energy minimization technique is employed to predict the location of the dopant ions in the structure. In agreement with XRD data, our computational results indicate that the trivalent (Al and Fe ions) are more favorable to be incorporated into CuO matrix than the divalent (Ni and Zn ions).

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II Complexes of N-Thiophenoyl-N′-Phenylthiocarbohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, and Cd(II complex of N-thiophenoyl -N′-phenylthiocarbohydrazide (H2 TPTH have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, infrared, NMR, electronic, and ESR spectral studies. The complexes were found to have compositions [Mn(H TPTH2], [Co(TPTH (H2O2], [Ni(TPTH (H2O2], [Cu(TPTH], [Zn(H TPTH], [Cd(H TPTH2], and [Fe(H TPTH2(EtOH]. The magnetic and electronic spectral studies suggest square planar geometry for [Cu(TPTH], tetrahedral geometry for [Zn(TPTH] and [Cd(H TPTH2], and octahedral geometry for rest of the complexes. The infrared spectral studies of the 1 : 1 deprotonated complexes suggest bonding through enolic oxygen, thiolato sulfur, and both the hydrazinic nitrogens. Thus, H2TPTH acts as a binegative tetradentate ligand. H2 TPTH and its metal complexes have been screened against several bacteria and fungi.

  5. Qualitative aspects of biomonitoring: Sphagnum auriculatum response vs. aerosol metal concentrations (Pb, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) in the Porto urban atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teresa, M.; Vasconcelos, S.D.; Tavares Laquipai, H.M.F.

    2000-01-01

    and Zn were also biomonitored and monitored in parallel. For all the heavy metals, the rate of metal uptake by moss was significantly correlated with the metal concentration in atmospheric aerosols. The results indicated that moss bags of S. auriculatum can provide quantitative estimation of the concentration of different heavy metals in urban atmosphere since the present methodology is used. S. auriculatum showed not to be a good quantitative bioindicator for Ca. The mean aerosol metal concentrations found in Porto atmosphere were similar to those observed in other urban atmospheres in different countries. The relative order of the mean metal concentrations was Fe (1.8 μg/m 3 ) > Ca > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni (20 μg/m 3 ). (author)

  6. Bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in suspended cultures of blue mussels exposed to different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maar, Marie; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj

    2015-01-01

    corresponding to Good Ecological Status (GES) in the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) and in future climate change scenarios (higher metal concentrations and higher temperatures). For this purpose, GES is interpreted as good chemical status for the metals using the Environmental Quality Standards...... targets for Cd, Ni and Pb are not protective with respect to marine mussel production and probably should be reduced for marine waters. Climate changes may increase the metal contamination of mussels, but not to any critical level at the relatively unpolluted study sites. In conclusion, WFD targets should...

  7. Radionuclides (40K, 232Th and 238U) and Heavy Metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Pb) Distribution Assessment at Renggam Landfill, Simpang Renggam, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, E.; FahrulRazi, MJ; Azhar, ATS; Hazreek, ZAM; Shakila, A.; Norshuhaila, MS; Omeje, M.

    2017-08-01

    The assessment of radioactivity levels and the distribution of heavy metals in soil samples at CEP Farm landfill, Renggam in Johor State was to determine the activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides and heavy metal concentrations of this landfill. The background radiation was monitored to estimate the exposure level. The activity concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples were determined using HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy whereas the heavy metal concentration was measured using X-RF analysis. The mean exposure rate at the landfill site was 36.2±2.4 μR hr-1 and the annual effective dose rate at the landfill site was 3.19 ± 0.22 mSv yr-1. However, residential area has lower mean exposure dose rate of about 16.33±0.72 μR hr-1 and has an annual effective dose rate of 1.43±0.06 mSv yr-1 compared to landfill sites. The mean activity concentration of 40K, 238U and 232Th at landfill site were 239.95±15.89 Bq kg-1, 20.90±2.49 Bq kg-1 and 40.61±4.59 Bq kg-1, respectively. For heavy metal compositions, Cr, Ni and Cu have mean concentration of 232±10 ppm, 23±2 ppm, and 46±19 ppm, respectively. Whereas, Zn has concentration of 64±9 ppm and concentration of 12±1 ppm and 71±2 ppm was estimated for As and Pb respectively. The higher activity concentration of 40K down the slope through leaching process whereas the higher activity level of 238U content at the landfill site may be attributed to the soil disruption to local equilibrium.

  8. A comparative study of the effects of CuO, NiO, ZrO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2} coupling on the photocatalytic activity and characteristics of ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherly, Eluvathingal Devassy; Vijaya, John Judith [Loyola College, Chennai (India); Kennedy, Lourdusamy John [Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) University, Chennai (India); Meenakshisundaram, Arunachalam; Lavanya, Melcureraj [Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited, Manali (India)

    2016-04-15

    ZnO nanoparticles were coupled with CuO, NiO, ZrO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2} in 2 : 1 molar ratio by a microwave assisted one pot solution combustion synthesis. Structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnO and coupled oxides were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Brunauer- Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. XRD data revealed the presence of two phases in the coupled oxides. Photocatalytic activity of pure ZnO and ZnO coupled oxides was compared for the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4- DCP) under near UV light (365 nm) irradiation and the rate constant (k) values were calculated from the kinetic studies. The coupled oxide, Zn{sub 2}Ce with ZnO and CeO{sub 2} in 2 : 1 molar ratio showed maximum degradation efficiency due to the efficient interparticle electron transfer between ZnO and CeO{sub 2}.

  9. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 0.15}Mg{sub 0.1}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite prepared by NaOH-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Wei-xiao; Wang, Zhi, E-mail: zhiwang@tju.edu.cn

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • NiMgCuZn ferrites were successfully prepared by low-temperature sintering. • NiMgCuZn ferrites have the advantages of both NiCuZn and MgCuZn ferrites. • NiMgCuZn ferrites exhibit high Curie temperature & high stability of permeability. - Abstract: The Ni{sub 0.15}Mg{sub 0.1}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite powders have been prepared by NaOH co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD patterns confirm the single phase spinel structure of synthesized nanoparticles. The average crystallite size of the particles increases from 12 to 36 nm with calcining temperature (T{sub a}) from 500 to 800 °C. The saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of the superparamagnetic particles was deduced by Langevin theory. Subsequently, the densification characteristics and magnetic properties of the low-temperature 950 °C-sintered ferrite bulk samples were also investigated. The magnetic measurement showed that the sintered bulk sample of T{sub a} = 600 °C has the highest initial permeability (μ{sub i}), lowest coercivity (H{sub c}), largest saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and satisfactory thermal stability of μ{sub i}. The microstructures of sintered samples were examined using field emission scanning electric microscope (FESEM). The T{sub a} has significant influence on the bulk density, initial permeability, saturation magnetization and coercivity of Ni{sub 0.15}Mg{sub 0.1}Cu{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrite.

  10. Bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in suspended cultures of blue mussels exposed to different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marie; Larsen, Martin Mørk; Tørring, Ditte; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2018-02-01

    Farming of suspended mussels is important for generating high protein food and animal feed or for removing nutrients in eutrophic systems. However, the harvested mussels must not be severely contaminated by pollutants posing a potential health risk for the consumers. The present study estimated the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in suspended blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) in the Limfjorden, Denmark, based on observations and modelling. Modelling was used to assess the suitability of suspended blue mussels as animal feed and food products at sea water metal concentrations corresponding to Good Ecological Status (GES) in the European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) and in future climate change scenarios (higher metal concentrations and higher temperatures). For this purpose, GES is interpreted as good chemical status for the metals using the Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) defined in the WFD priority substance daughter directives. Observations showed that suspended mussels were healthy with respect to metal pollution and generally less polluted than benthic mussels due to the smaller contact with the contaminated sediment. The model results showed that the WFD targets for Cd, Ni and Pb are not protective with respect to marine mussel production and probably should be reduced for marine waters. Climate changes may increase the metal contamination of mussels, but not to any critical level at the relatively unpolluted study sites. In conclusion, WFD targets should be revised to assure that the corresponding body burdens of metals in mussels are below the safety limits according to the EU Directives and the Norwegian classification for animal feed and food production.

  11. TXRF and XRF techniques for the determination of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in some plant species and their infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuder, A [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-02-15

    The content of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr elements in some medicinal plants, including: A. herba-alba, T. officinale, M. officinalis, T. syeriacus, T. vulgaris, A. officinalis, R. officinalis, M. piperita, M. aquatica, Zea mays, G. glabra, A. vulgare, U. urens, C. aronica, H. officinalis, M. aurea, C. cyminum, was determined using TXRF technique. Concentrations of Pb upper the detection limits of TXRF method was determined only in A. herba-alba leaves with a mean value of 3.6 ppm. The accuracy and the precision of TXRF method were verified using Apple leaves, Peach leaves, and Hay Powder Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for the analysis of plant samples. The previously mentioned elements were accurately determined by TXRF, except Br. Errors obtained by Br determination may be obtained by the partial losses of element content during evaporation of sample on quartz carrier proposed for TXRF measurements. TXRF results for Ca, Mn, and Sr elements agreed well with these obtained by XRF method with standard relative error (SR) better than 10 %, while, these obtained for rest elements, except Br, were with SR ranging between 11 %-20 %. Br was not included in the determination of elements by TXRF. Transfer of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr from A. herba-alba, A. vulgare, Zea mays, M. aquatica, M. piperita, C. cyminum, G. glabra, M. officinalis, and R. officinalis plant materials to infusions at different temperatures were studied using XRF method. Data analyses were verified by Peach and Apple leaves of Standard Reference Materials. Potassium represented the dominant element in all studied plants, particularly, in roots of U. dioica plant with concentrations in the range of 59.3 g/Kg-90.8 g/Kg. Independently of brewing 5 temperature, potassium with a high ratio was transferred from plants to infusions. K transfer ratio was in a range from 57.2 % for A. vulgare leaves at 25 .C to 91 % for G. glabra at 55 .C. Although, Fe content in dry plant

  12. TXRF and XRF techniques for the determination of K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb in some plant species and their infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuder, A.

    2009-02-01

    The content of K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr elements in some medicinal plants, including: A. herba-alba, T. officinale, M. officinalis, T. syeriacus, T. vulgaris, A. officinalis, R. officinalis, M. piperita, M. aquatica, Zea mays, G. glabra, A. vulgare, U. urens, C. aronica, H. officinalis, M. aurea, C. cyminum, was determined using TXRF technique. Concentrations of Pb upper the detection limits of TXRF method was determined only in A. herba-alba leaves with a mean value of 3.6 ppm. The accuracy and the precision of TXRF method were verified using Apple leaves, Peach leaves, and Hay Powder Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for the analysis of plant samples. The previously mentioned elements were accurately determined by TXRF, except Br. Errors obtained by Br determination may be obtained by the partial losses of element content during evaporation of sample on quartz carrier proposed for TXRF measurements. TXRF results for Ca, Mn, and Sr elements agreed well with these obtained by XRF method with standard relative error (SR) better than 10 %, while, these obtained for rest elements, except Br, were with SR ranging between 11 %-20 %. Br was not included in the determination of elements by TXRF. Transfer of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, and Sr from A. herba-alba, A. vulgare, Zea mays, M. aquatica, M. piperita, C. cyminum, G. glabra, M. officinalis, and R. officinalis plant materials to infusions at different temperatures were studied using XRF method. Data analyses were verified by Peach and Apple leaves of Standard Reference Materials. Potassium represented the dominant element in all studied plants, particularly, in roots of U. dioica plant with concentrations in the range of 59.3 g/Kg-90.8 g/Kg. Independently of brewing 5 temperature, potassium with a high ratio was transferred from plants to infusions. K transfer ratio was in a range from 57.2 % for A. vulgare leaves at 25 .C to 91 % for G. glabra at 55 .C. Although, Fe content in dry plant

  13. Synthesis, spectral characterization thermal stability, antimicrobial studies and biodegradation of starch–thiourea based biodegradable polymeric ligand and its coordination complexes with [Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, and Zn(II] metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Nishat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A biodegradable polymer was synthesized by the modification reaction of polymeric starch with thiourea which is further modified by transition metals, Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II. All the polymeric compounds were characterized by (FT-IR spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, UV–visible spectra, magnetic moment measurements, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and antibacterial activities. Polymer complexes of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II show octahedral geometry, while polymer complexes of Cu(II and Zn(II show square planar and tetrahedral geometry, respectively. The TGA revealed that all the polymer metal complexes are more thermally stable than their parental ligand. In addition, biodegradable studies of all the polymeric compounds were also carried out through ASTM-D-5338-93 standards of biodegradable polymers by CO2 evolution method which says that coordination decreases biodegradability. The antibacterial activity was screened with the agar well diffusion method against some selected microorganisms. Among all the complexes, the antibacterial activity of the Cu(II polymer–metal complex showed the highest zone of inhibition because of its higher stability constant.

  14. Nanostructure investigation of magnetic nanomaterial Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} synthesized by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pransisco, Prengki, E-mail: prengkipransisco@gmail.com [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Badan Lingkungan Hidup Derah Kabupaten Empat Lawang South of Sumatera (Indonesia); Shafie, Afza, E-mail: afza@petronas.com.my; Guan, Beh Hoe, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Magnetic nanomaterial Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was successfully prepared by using sol-gel method. Heat treatment on material is always giving defect on properties of material. This paper investigates the effect of heat treatment on nanostructure of magnetic nanomaterial Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. According to thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) that after 600°C there is no more weight loss detected and it was decided as minimum calcination temperature. Intensity, crystallite size, structure, lattice parameter and d-spacing of the material were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) was used to examine nanostructure, nanosize, shape and distribution particle of magnetic material Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Cu{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and variable pressure field emission scanning electron microscope (VP-FESEM) was used to investigate the surface morphology and topography of the material. The XRD result shows single-phase cubic spinel structure with average crystallite size in the range of 25.6-95.9 nm, the value of the intensity of the material was increased with increasing temperature, and followed by lattice parameter was increased with increasing calcination temperature, value of d-spacing was relatively decreased with accompanied increasing temperature. From HRTEM result the distribution of particles was tend to be agglomerates with particle size of 7.8-17.68 nm. VP-FESEM result shows that grain size of the material increases with increasing calcination temperature and the surface morphology shows that the material is in hexagonal shape and it was also proved by mapping result which showing the presence each of constituents inside the compound.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of 2-(4-nitro phenylaminocarbonyl)benzoic acid and its complexes with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqeel Ashraf, M.; Jamil Maah, M.; Yusuf, I.

    2012-01-01

    Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) salts of 2-(4-nitro phenylaminocarbonyl)benzoic acid were characterized by physical, analytical and spectroscopic studies and checked for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity against three bacterial strains, Mycobacterium smegmatis (Gram +ve), Escherichia coli (Gram -ve), Pseudomonas aeuroginosa (Gram -ve) and three fungal strains, Nigrospora oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial activities of the metal complexes - were found to be greater than those of 2-(4-nitro phenylaminocarbonyl)benzoic acid alone.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of polychelates of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), oxovanadium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) with 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde-urea-formaldehyde polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, G.C.; Pancholi, H.B.; Patel, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    Polychelates of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Zn(II), oxovandium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) with 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,4-DB)-urea(U)-formaldehyde(F) polymer (2,4-DBUF) have been prepared. Elemental analyses of the polychelates indicate a metal:ligand ratio of 1:2. The structures of the polychelates have been assigned on the basis of their elemental analyses, IR, reflectance spectra, magnetic moment, thermal data and their electrical conductivity behaviour. (author). 1 tab., 18 refs

  17. Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of traces of heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ta, Pb, U) in mineral waters after separation on the cellulose-exchanger Hyphan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, P.; Lieser, K.H.

    1979-01-01

    Trace elements in mineral water are separated in small columns on the cellulose-exchanger Hyphan, eluted by diluted hydrochloric acid, bound on 100 mg of Hyphan by shaking and determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The following heavy metals can be analysed quantitatively if present in water in concentrations >= 1 ppb: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ta, Pb and U. Several commercial mineral waters, a sodium chloride spring and seawater were analyzed for trace elements. The results obtained by X-ray fluorescence and by atomic absorption agree within the limits of error. (orig.) [de

  18. Characterisation of a Zn / Ni Plating Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-03

    accelerated corrosion in the first stages which is then slowed down by its own product of corrosion, Zn(OH)212. Zinc hydroxide dehydrates in time to form ZnO ... Electrochemistry , 1991, 21, 642 [5] – Alfantasi, A.M., A study on the synthesis, characterization ans properties of pulse-plated ultrafine- grained Zn-Ni alloy

  19. PM2.5 particulates and metallic elements (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) study in a mixed area of summer season in Shalu, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Xiao, You-Fu; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie; Cho, Meng-Hsien; Huang, Chao-Yang; Tsai, Kai-Hsiang

    2017-08-01

    PM 2.5 has become an important environmental issue in Taiwan during the past few years. Moreover, electricity increased significantly during the summertime and TTPP generated by coal burning base is the main electricity provider in central Taiwan. Therefore, summer season has become the main research target in this study. The ambient air concentrations of particulate matter PM 2.5 and PM 10 collected by using VAPS at a mixed characteristic sampling site were studied in central Taiwan. The results indicated that the average daytime PM 2.5 and PM 10 particulate concentrations were occurred in May and they were 44.75 and 57.77 µg/m 3 in this study. The results also indicated that the average nighttime PM 2.5 and PM 10 particulate concentrations were occurred in June and they were 38.19 and 45.79 µg/m 3 in this study. The average PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratios were 0.7 for daytime, nighttime and 24-h sampling periods in the summer for this study. This value was ranked as the lowest ratios when compared to the other seasons in previous study. Noteworthy, the results further indicated that the metallic element Pb has the mean highest concentrations for 24-h, daytime and nighttime sampling periods when compared to those of the other metallic elements (Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd). The average mean highest metallic Pb concentrations in PM10 were 110.7, 203.0 and 207.2 ng/m 3 for 24-h, daytime and nighttime sampling periods in this study. And there were 59.53, 105.2 and 106.6 ng/m 3 for Pb in PM2.5 for 24-h, daytime and nighttime sampling periods, respectively. Moreover, the results further indicated that mean metallic element Pb concentrations on PM 2.5 and PM 10 were all higher than those of the other elements for 24 h, day and nighttime.

  20. The Effect of (Ag, Ni, Zn-Addition on the Thermoelectric Properties of Copper Aluminate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiao Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline bulk copper aluminate Cu1-x-yAgxByAlO2 with B = Ni or Zn were prepared by spark plasma sintering and subsequent thermal treatment. The influence of partial substitution of Ag, Ni and Zn for Cu-sites in CuAlO2 on the high temperature thermoelectric properties has been studied. The addition of Ag and Zn was found to enhance the formation of CuAlO2 phase and to increase the electrical conductivity. The addition of Ag or Ag and Ni on the other hand decreases the electrical conductivity. The highest power factor of 1.26 × 10-4 W/mK2 was obtained for the addition of Ag and Zn at 1,060 K, indicating a significant improvement compared with the non-doped CuAlO2 sample.

  1. Measurements of labile Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn levels at a northeastern Brazilian coastal area under the influence of oil production with diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, João M; Menegário, Amauri A; de Araújo Júnior, Marcus A G; Francioni, Eleine

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the ability of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) was evaluated for monitoring the concentrations, and estimating the availability, of metals at a northeastern Brazilian coastal area under the influence of oil production. Three sites with an average distance between 0m (EM-1), 100 m (EM-2), and 1,000 m (EM-3) of a submarine outfall-I (Guamaré-RN, Brazil) and another site (GA-1) with an average distance of 12,000 m east of Outfall I, near the city of Galinhos, were studied. DGT units were deployed at the same sites in three campaigns from July, 2010 to June, 2011. Effects on the accuracy of analytical results regarding the deployment time, gel porosity, and thickness were evaluated. There was no difference between the measurements obtained with two sets of DGT devices, those assembled with open or restrictive pore gel, respectively, showing that organic metallic species are not present near the submarine outlet. After 21 day deployments in a region (near Submarine Outfall I) that receives produced waters that have been treated, there was evidence of biofilm formation on DGT membranes. However, it was demonstrated that the biofilm interference with DGT measurements was negligible. Data found in this work show that total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in seawater samples collected at sites GA-1 and EM-1 in two campaigns were below 0.33, 1.67, 0.47, 0.70, 2.86 ng mL(-1) respectively. For the first time, labile levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in an area under the influence of oil production were determined. DGT measurements allowed the verification of the effects of temporal variation on levels of Zn and Ni. There were no effects of spatial variations on levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn at the four studied sites, suggesting no contamination of these metals at the northeastern Brazilian coastal area investigated in this work. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Hexagonal perovskites with cationic vacancies. 23. Rhombohedral 12 L stacking polytypes of type Ba/sub 3/LaBsup(II)Resup(VII)Wsup(VI)vacantO/sub 12/ with Bsup(II) = Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, M; Kemmler-Sack, S [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Chemie 2

    1980-11-01

    The rhombohedral 12 L pervoskites with cationic vacancies of type Ba/sub 3/LaBsup(II)ReWvacantO/sub 12/ with Bsup(II) = Mg, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn are isotypic. According to intensity calculations on powder patterns of Ba/sub 3/LaZnReWvacantO/sub 12/ the series crystallize in the space group R-3m with the sequence (hhcc)/sub 3/; the refined, intensity related R' value is 5.7%. The octahedral net consists of blocks of three face connected octahedra with central void (ReWvacantO/sub 12/ units), which are linked via common corners through single octahedra, occupied by zinc.

  3. Soldabilidad de fundiciones grises con materiales de aporte tipo RbCuZn-A, ErCuAl-A2 y ErNiFe-CI-A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimy Unfried Silgado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación, a través de una propuesta experimental que incluye el diseño de un cuerpo de ensayo y por la selección de procedimientos de soldadura adecuados, se estudió la influencia de los materiales de aporte tipo: RBCuZn–A, ERNiFe-CI-A y ERCuAl-A2, aplicados sobre una fundición gris no aleada clasificada dentro de la especificación ASTM A-48. Dicha influencia se estudió a través de la extracción de probetas de ensayo que se usaron para la evaluación de propiedades mecánicas: tracción, dureza, microdureza y doblez; así como, a través de observaciones metalográficas de las uniones soldadas. Con esto se logró determinar la existencia o no de diferentes zonas y regiones en las juntas soldadas y la influencia de esta presencia sobre la Soldabilidad en el metal de base escogido.

  4. Synthesis, investigation and spectroscopic characterization of piroxicam ternary complexes of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with glycine and DL-phenylalanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.

    2004-11-01

    The ternary piroxicam (Pir; 4-hydroxy-2-methyl- N-(2-pyridyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide) complexes of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with various amino acids (AA) such as glycine (Gly) or DL-phenylalanine (PhA) were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment, diffuse reflectance and X-ray powder diffraction. The UV-Vis spectra of Pir and the effect of metal chelation on the different interligand transitions are discussed in detailed manner. IR and UV-Vis spectra confirm that Pir behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine- N and carbonyl group of the amide moiety. Gly molecule acted as a uninegatively monodentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its carboxylic group, in addition PhA acted as a uninegatively bidentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its carboxylic and amino groups. All the chelates have octahedral geometrical structures while Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-ternary chelates with PhA have square planar geometrical structures. The molar conductance data reveal that most of these chelates are non electrolytes, while Fe(III)-Pir-Gly, Co(II)-, Ni(II)-, Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-Pir-PhA cheletes were 1:1 electrolytes. X-ray powder diffraction is used as a new tool to estimate the crystallinity of chelates as well as to elucidate their geometrical structures.

  5. The influence of metal speciation in combustion waste on the efficiency of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cr bioleaching in a mixed culture of sulfur-oxidizing and biosurfactant-producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Ewa; Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Andrzejewska, Dorota

    2015-12-15

    Metal leachability from ash and combustion slag is related to the physico-chemical properties, including their speciation in the waste. Metals speciation is an important factor that influences the efficiency of metal bioleaching from combustion wastes in a mixed culture of acidophilic and biosurfactant-producing bacteria. It was observed that individual metals tended to occur in different fractions, which reflects their susceptibility to bioleaching. Cr and Ni were readily removed from wastes when present with a high fraction bound to carbonates. Cd and Pb where not effectively bioleached when present in high amounts in a fraction bound to organic matter. The best bioleaching results were obtained for power plant slag, which had a high metal content in the exchangeable, bound to carbonates and bound to Fe and Mg oxides fractions- the metal recovery percentage for Zn, Cu and Ni from this waste exceeded 90%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fe (III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of schiff bases based-on glycine and phenylalanine: Synthesis, magnetic/thermal properties and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevgi, Fatih; Bagkesici, Ugur; Kursunlu, Ahmed Nuri; Guler, Ersin

    2018-02-01

    Zinc (II), copper (II), nickel (II), cobalt (II) and iron (III) complexes of Schiff bases (LG, LP) derived from 2-hydroxynaphthaldehyde with glycine and phenylalanine were reported and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analyses, melting point, FT-IR, magnetic susceptibility and thermal analyses (TGA). TGA data show that iron and cobalt include to the coordinated water and metal:ligand ratio is 1:2 while the complex stoichiometry for Ni (II), Cu (II) and Zn (II) complexes is 1:1. As expected, Ni (II) and Zn (II) complexes are diamagnetic; Cu (II), Co (II) and Fe (III) complexes are paramagnetic character due to a strong ligand of LG and LP. The LG, LP and their metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activities against five Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis) and three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one fungi (Candida albicans) by using broth microdilution techniques. The activity data show that ligands and their metal complexes exhibited moderate to good activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi.

  7. Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and As(V) on bacterially produced metal sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2004-07-01

    The adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II) and As(V) onto bacterially produced metal sulfide (BPMS) material was investigated using a batch equilibrium method. It was found that the sulfide material had adsorptive properties comparable with those of other adsorbents with respect to the specific uptake of a range of metals and, the levels to which dissolved metal concentrations in solution can be reduced. The percentage of adsorption increased with increasing pH and adsorbent dose, but decreased with increasing initial dissolved metal concentration. The pH of the solution was the most important parameter controlling adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and As(V) by BPMS. The adsorption data were successfully modeled using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Desorption experiments showed that the reversibility of adsorption was low, suggesting high-affinity adsorption governed by chemisorption. The mechanism of adsorption for the divalent metals was thought to be the formation of strong, inner-sphere complexes involving surface hydroxyl groups. However, the mechanism for the adsorption of As(V) by BPMS appears to be distinct from that of surface hydroxyl exchange. These results have important implications to the management of metal sulfide sludge produced by bacterial sulfate reduction.

  8. Transfer of Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu and 99mTc to plant biomass of Raphanus sativus L. Role of 125I-fulvic acid and the influence of different treatments on urban soil in Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana Romero, Jorge Luis; Diaz Velazquez, Alberto; Garcia Cespedes, Damaris; Lima Cazorla, Lazaro; Saborit Sanchez, Israel; Olivares Rieumont, Susana; Rivas, Edgar; Manduca, Michel

    2011-01-01

    The importance of studying the transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant biomass is a current scientific topic. The global economic changes have caused accelerated environmental degradation processes in urban soils, in which important amount of agricultural production is obtained. The application of 'ecological' techniques on these soils, including the use of vermicompost, is be-coming more and more extensive and common. The question is: Is always safe and pertinent to apply vermicompost to urban soils?. Hence the importance of studying the heavy metal mobility and bioavailability to plant biomass in these conditions. In the present work, using different analytical techniques, a sample of Havana urban soil is characterized by determination of ph, electrical conductivity, organic material content and the total and EDTA extractable Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu levels. Fulvic acid was extracted from vermicompost and chemically characterized as well as its ability to chelate metals. The conditional stability constant, K of the fulvic acid-copper complex at different ph values was determined (log K cond = 7.39) using size-exclusion chromatography method. The Ni, Cr, Zn and Cu transfer study was conducted using biomass of Raphanus sativus L. The result shows significative statistical agreement with proposed experimental design 2 4-1 and allowed us to recognize the significant positive influence of factors such as the addition of Cu as possible pollutant in soil, ph, addition of fulvic acid and the time of addition of fulvic acid (vermicompost) at different physiological stages of plant development in increasing the bioavailability of Cu into plant biomass studied. The application of radiochemical methods with the use of fulvic acid labeled with 99mTc and 125I respectively allowed to ratify the influence of the factors studied on the transfer of heavy metals into biomass in terms of urban soil. It was possible to determine that the fulvic acid acts as a heavy metals transporter in

  9. Estudo de metais pesados (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn na Bacia do Tarumã-Açu Manaus (AM Heavy metal (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn study in the Tarumã-Açu Basin Manaus (AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genilson Pereira Santana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos gerados em domicílios incluem diversos produtos, como pesticidas, produtos farmacêuticos, detergentes, óleos de cozinha, metais pesados contidos em baterias e outros utensílios. Esses resíduos são lançados continuamente em aterro sanitário ou lixões em cidades como Manaus. O chorume produzido nesses aterros, quando não tratados, contamina recursos hídricos superficiais e subterrâneos. Neste estudo foi feita uma avaliação das conseqüências da liberação do chorume no sistema hídrico da bacia do Tarumã-Açu. Amostras de água e sedimento foram coletadas nos igarapés Matrinxã, Acará, Bolívia, bacia do Tarumã-Açu e dentro do aterro sanitário (Manaus - Amazonas - Brasil em março 2001. As amostras de água foram filtradas em filtro Milipore (0,45 mm de poro e, em seguida, tratadas com HNO3 concentrado. As amostras de sedimento foram peneiradas em malha de 0,053 mm e digeridas com HCl:HNO3 (1:3 a 150ºC. As concentrações de alguns metais pesados (Co, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Pb e Zn foram determinadas nas amostras de água e sedimento por espectrometria de absorção atômica de chama. Os resultados revelaram que a concentração dos metais pesados é muito acima dos permitidos pela resolução 357/2005 do CONAMA em praticamente todos os locais amostrados, mostrando que o Aterro Sanitário é um dos principais responsáveis pelo impacto ambiental observado nos corpos hídricos estudados. As análises dos componentes principais (PCA e hierárquica de cluster (HCA, revelam que os pontos de coleta localizados dentro do aterro sanitário apresentam características diferentes dos outros locais amostrados. Além disso, o HCA e PCA mostraram que existe uma similaridade entre os pontos de coleta localizados fora do aterro o que permite afirmar que o chorume do aterro se dissolve por todo corpo hídrico estudado.Domestic sewage involves several products, such as pesticides, pharmaceutics products, detergents, soybean oil

  10. Concentración de metales pesados (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb en la biota y sedimentos de una playa artificial, en la bahía San Jorge 23°S, norte de Chile Heavy metals concentration (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb, in biota and sediments of an artificial beach, in San Jorge bay 23°S, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Castro

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el contenido de metales pesados (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb en la biota y el sedimento de una playa artificial (Paraíso y una playa natural (El Lenguado, ubicadas en la bahía San Jorge, norte de Chile. Los resultados fueron utilizados para comparar ambos sistemas, el grado de cumplimiento de la normativa ambiental nacional e internacional, y el efecto de la construcción de la playa artificial sobre el nivel de contaminación por metales existentes históricamente en esa zona. En cada playa se ubicaron estaciones equidistantes que abarcaron desde el intermareal hasta el submareal de las cuales fueron extraídos los organismos. Se tomaron muestras de sedimento en cada playa y se determinaron las pendientes con el método de Emery. El análisis granulométrico evidenció el predominio de arena media en playa El Lenguado, y arena media y fina en playa Paraíso. El contenido de materia orgánica fue mayor en El Lenguado. En playa Paraíso se determinaron cinco phylum/superclase agrupados en 19 taxa, mientras que en El Lenguado se encontraron cuatro phylum/superclase agrupados en cc taxa. El contenido de metales en sedimentos y en la mayoría de organismos presentó valores mayores en playa Paraíso. Estos resultados, junto a las normas de calidad chilenas y norteamericanas, sugieren un evidente deterioro en la calidad ambiental de playa Paraíso lo que se demostró por un incremento en las concentraciones de estos metales desde su construcción, los que sobrepasan los límites establecidos por ambas normas.It was evaluated the heavy metal content (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Pb in biota and sediment of an artificial beach (Paraíso and a natural beach (El Lenguado, both located in San Jorge bay, northern Chile. The results were used to compare both systems, the degree of fulfillment of national and international environmental regulations, and the effect of the construction of the artificial beach on the level of metal contamination historically existing in

  11. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity response to environmentally relevant complex metal mixture (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd) accumulated in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Part I: importance of exposure time and tissue dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevičiūtė, Milda; Sauliutė, Gintarė; Svecevičius, Gintaras; Kazlauskienė, Nijolė; Baršienė, Janina

    2017-10-01

    Health impact of metal mixture at environment realistic concentrations are difficult to predict especially for long-term effects where cause-and-effect relationships may not be directly obvious. This study was aimed to evaluate metal mixture (Zn-0.1, Cu-0.01, Ni-0.01, Cr-0.01, Pb-0.005 and Cd-0.005 mg/L, respectively for 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days at concentrations accepted for the inland waters in EU) genotoxicity (micronuclei, nuclear buds, nuclear buds on filament), cytotoxicity (8-shaped nuclei, fragmented-apoptotic erythrocytes), bioaccumulation, steady-state and the reference level of geno-cytotoxicity in hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon tissues. Metals accumulated mostly in gills and kidneys, to the lesser extent in the muscle. Uptake of metals from an entire mixture in the fish for 14 days is sufficient to reach steady-state Cr, Pb concentrations in all tissues; Zn, Cu-in kidneys and muscle, Ni-in liver, kidneys, muscle and Cd-in muscle. Treatment with metal mixture significantly increased summed genotoxicity levels at 7 days of exposure in peripheral blood and liver erythrocytes, at 14 days of exposure in gills and kidney erythrocytes. Significant elevation of cytotoxicity was detected after 2 and 14 days of exposure in gills erythrocytes and after 28 days-in peripheral blood erythrocytes. The amount of Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd accumulated in tissues was dependent upon duration of exposure; nuclear buds, 8-shaped nuclei frequencies also were dependent upon duration of exposure. This study indicates that metals at low levels when existing in mixture causes significant geno-cytotoxicity responses and metals bioaccumulation in salmon.

  12. Structural and dielectric properties of Zr and Cu co-substituted Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalaiah, K., E-mail: kjalu4u@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Chandra mouli, K. [Department of Engineering Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Subba Rao, P.S.V. [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530 003 (India); Sreedhar, B. [IICT, Hyderabad (India)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The porosity was increased with increasing dopant concentration of Zr and Cu from the 10.57% to 20.11%. • The force constant and wave numbers in octahedral and tetrahedral site is increased with increasing the dopant concentration of Zr and Cu. • The compositional dielectric constant at 100 kHz is increased from the 9.85 to 86.53, with increasing dopant concentration of Zr and Cu. - Abstract: Zr and Cu Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites have been prepared by the sol-gel auto combustion method using the nitrates. The ethylene glycol and citric acid were mixed as the combustion agents. The synthesized powders were calcinate at 800 °C for 3 h and they are pressed in desired shaped and sintered at 1200 °C for 2 h in air atmosphere. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the single phase cubic spinel structure. The SEM pictures revels that the substitution of higher valence ions results fine grained intragranular pore free microstructure. The dielectric properties of substituted ferrites exhibits decreasing trend at lower frequencies up to 1000 Hz beyond which it should in stable response. All the results are explained in terms of compositional and frequency variation.

  13. Fatigue crack behavior on a Cu-Zn-Al SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Cocco

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, mechanical property of many SMA has improved in order to introduce these alloys in specific field of industry. Main examples of these alloys are the NiTi, Cu-Zn-Al and Cu-Al-Ni which are used in many fields of engineering such as aerospace or mechanical systems. Cu-Zn-Al alloys are characterized by good shape memory properties due to a bcc disordered structure stable at high temperature called β-phase, which is able to change by means of a reversible transition to a B2 structure after appropriate cooling, and reversible transition from B2 secondary to DO3 order, under other types of cooling. In β-Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys, the martensitic transformation is not in equilibrium at room temperature. It is therefore often necessary to obtain the martensitic structure, using a thermal treatment at high temperature followed by quenching. The martensitic phases can be either thermally-induced spontaneous transformation, or stressinduced, or cooling, or stressing the β- phase. Direct quenching from high temperatures to the martensite phase is the most effective because of the non-diffusive character of the transformation. The martensite inherits the atomic order from the β-phase. Precipitation of many kinds of intermetallic phases is the main problem of treatment on cu-based shape memory alloy. For instance, a precipitation of α-phase occurs in many low aluminum copper based SMA alloy and presence of α-phase implies a strong degradation of shape recovery. However, Cu-Zn-Al SMA alloys characterized by aluminum contents less than 5% cover a good cold machining and cost is lower than traditional NiTi SMA alloys. In order to improve the SMA performance, it is always necessary to identify the microstructural changing in mechanical and thermal conditions, using X-Ray analyses. In this work a Cu-Zn-Al SMA alloy obtained in laboratory has been microstructurally and metallographically characterized by means of X-Ray diffraction and Light

  14. Study on the behavior of the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and 137Cs in an estuarine ecosystem using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: the case of Thermaikos gulf, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique; Florou, H.

    2006-01-01

    Mussels are worldwide recognized as pollution bioindicators and used in Mussel Watch programs, because they accumulate pollutants in their tissues at elevated levels in relation to pollutant biological availability in the marine environment. The present study deals with the use of Mytilus galloprovincialis as a local bioindicator of heavy metal and 137 Cs contamination in an estuarine ecosystem (Thermaikos gulf, Greece in Eastern Mediterranean). M. galloprovincialis samples were collected monthly from two aquaculture farms during the period April to October 2000. Analyses for the heavy metals Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and 137 Cs showed that the concentrations measured were low and similar to those from other non-polluted Mediterranean areas. In terms of the two sampling stations, there were no statistically significant differences between them. On the contrary, the seasonal evolution of either heavy metals or 137 Cs levels presented high variation. The levels were found to increase during the cold period of the year, especially for Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr which are essential for life. Stable metals were positively inter-related and moreover, metals more involved in biochemical activities seem to present more correlations than others with less significant role in the metabolism of the organisms

  15. Thermal, spectral, magnetic and biological studies of thiosemicarbazones complexes with metal ions: Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Fe(III), Zn(II), Mn(II) and UO2(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashaly, M.M.; Seleem, H.S.; El-Behairy, M.A.; Habib, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazones ligands, isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone(HIT) and N-acetylisatin-3-thiosemicarbazone (HAIT), which have tridentate ONN coordinating sites were prepared. The complexes of both ligands with Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Fe(III), Zn(II), Mn(II) and UO 2 (VI) ions were isolated. The ligands and their metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-Vis and mass spectra, also by conductance, magnetic moment and TG-DSC measurements. All the transition metal complexes have octahedral configurations, except Cu-complexes which have planar geometry and the UO 2 (VI) complexes which have coordination number 8 and may acquire the distorted dodecahedral geometry. Thermal studies explored the possibility of obtaining new complexes. Inversion from octahedral to square-planar configuration occurred upon heating the parent Ni-HIAT complex to form the corresponding pyrolytic product. The antifungal activity against the tested organisms showed that some metal complexes enhanced the activity with respect to the parent ligands. (author)

  16. Studies on coordination chemistry and bioactivity of complexes of a bidentate oxygen-oxygen donor ligand, 1,2-dibenzoylhydrazine, with Cr3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarafder, M.T.H.; Lai Wee Wong; Crouse, Karen A.; Ali, A.M.; Yamin, B.M.; Fun, H.-K.

    2003-08-01

    A new bidentate ligand, 1,2-dibenzoylhydrazine (DBHz), with OO donor sequences, was prepared. Several complexes of DBHz containing Cr(JJI), Fe(UI), Co(U), Ni(JJ), Cu(II) and Zn(TJ) ions have been synthesized and characterized by CHN analyses, IR, molar conductivity and UV/Visible spectroscopic studies. All of the compounds were tested for their antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer properties. DBHz was very effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis mutant and Bacillus subtilis wild type bacteria. It was also effective against Saccaromyces cereiviceae, Candida albicans, Candida albicans lypolytica and Aspergillus ochraceous fungi. The free ligand, DBHz, in particular, was strongly active against colon cancer cell lines (HT-29), with a CD 50 value of 2.5 /μg/ml. (author)

  17. Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II binary complexes of l-methionine in 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Padma Latha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, MLH, ML2, ML2H, ML2H2 and MLOH. Models containing different numbers of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD 75. The best-fit chemical models were arrived at based on statistical parameters. The trend in variation of complex stability constants with change in the dielectric constant of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces.

  18. Coordination chemistry and bioactivity of Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ complexes containing a bidentate NS ligand, β-N-phenyldithiocarbazic acid, and the crystal structure of β-hydroxy-β-phenylmethylene α-phenylimine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarafder, M.T.H.; Ahmed Faizal Shamsuddin; Grouse, Karen A.; Yamin, B.M.; Ali, A.M.; Fun, H.-K.

    2003-07-01

    A bidentate ligand (PhDTCH) with NS donor sequence was prepared from the reaction between carbon disulfide and phenylhydrazine in ethanol. Complexes of this ligand with Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, and various physicochemical techniques. The metal complexes were all four coordinated. In an attempt to resolve the crystal structure of PhDTCH, an ethanolic solution, after leaving for a few days gave bright crystals of PhD6, β-hydroxy-β-phenylmethylene α-phenylimine, the crystal structure of which has been resolved. The crystal packing indicated that it is monoclinic with a space group of P21/n. All of the compounds were tested against different bacteria and fungi, and also against leukemic cell lines. All of the compounds showed weak biological properties compared to standard drugs. (author)

  19. Preparation of Schiff s base complexes of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) and their spectroscopic, magnetic, thermal, and antifungal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, H.M.; Patel, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The potassium salt of salicylidene-DL-alanine (KHL), bis(benzylidene)ethylenediamine (A 1 ), thiophene-o-carboxaldene-p-toluidine (A 2 ), and its metal complexes of the formula [(M II (L)(A)(H 2 O)] (M=Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II); A = A 1 or A 2 ) are prepared. They are characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and infrared and electronic spectral studies. The electronic spectral and magnetic moment data suggest an octahedral geometry for the complexes. All of these complexes, metal nitrates, fungicides (bavistin and emcarb), and ligands are screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus flavus using a plate poison technique. The complexes show higher activity than those of the free ligands, metal nitrate, and the control (DMSO) and moderate activity against bavistin and emcarb [ru

  20. The synthesis and characterization of 1,2-dihydroxyimino-3,6-di-aza-8,9-O-iso-butylidene nonane and its complexes with Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canpolat, E.; Kaya, M.; Gorgulu, A.O.

    2002-01-01

    1,2-dihydroxyimino-3,6-di-aza-8,9-O-iso-butylidene nonane (H 2 L) was synthesized starting from 1,2-O-iso-butylidene-4-aza-6-amino hexane (RNH 2 ) and antichloroglyoxime. Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of H 2 L have a metal:ligand ratio 1:2 and the ligand coordinates through two N atoms, as do most of the vic-dioximes. However, Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes of H 2 L have a metal: ligand ratio 1:1 and one chloride ion and one water molecule are also coordinated to the metal ion. Structures of the ligand and its transition-metal complexes are proposed, according to elemental analysis, IR, 13 C and 1 H NMR spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). (author)

  1. Synthesis, characterization and biological studies of 2-(4-nitrophenylamino-carbonyl)benzoic acid and its complexes with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M; Nazir, S.; Latif, S.; Mahmood, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of 2-(4-Nitrophenyl aminocarbonyl)benzoic acid were synthesized and characterized on the basis of physical, analytical and spectroscopic data. The ligands, as well as its metal complexes were checked for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity against three bacterial strains, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, and three fungal strains, Nigrospora oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Disc diffusion method and Tube diffusion test were used for antibacterial and antifungal activities, respectively. The synthesized complexes only show significant antifungal activity but inactive for antibacterial, however, in general, the metal complexes were found to be more active against antimicrobial activities as compared to their un complexed ligand. (author)

  2. Physico - chemical investigation on Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), UO2+2 and VO+2 ions-O-(-N-3,5-dichloro-α-pyridone imino)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Praveen; Trivedi, Pradeep; Mehta, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    Studies on the interaction of newly synthesised ligand, O-(N-3, 5-dichloro-α-pyridone imino) benzene sulphonic acid (H 2 PB) with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), UO 2 +2 and VO +2 have been carried out potentiometrically. Many physico-chemical studies on thermodynamics, elemental analysis, molecular weight, magnetic moment, conductance, electronic and IR spectra have also been made on the solid chelates and their adducts. The dissociation constants of H 2 PB and stabilities of its bivalent chelates have been evaluated potentiometrically at 25deg, 35deg and 45degC in aqueous medium (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M NaClO 4 ) by Bjerrum's method. The stability sequence is in agreement with the Irving-William's rule. (author)

  3. Soil solution dynamics of Cu and Zn in a Cu- and Zn-polluted soil as influenced by gamma-irradiation and Cu-Zn interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y M; Yan, W D; Christie, P

    2001-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study soil solution dynamics of Cu and Zn in a Cu/Zn-polluted soil as influenced by gamma-irradiation and Cu-Zn interaction. A slightly acid sandy loam was amended with Cu and Zn (as nitrates) either singly or in combination (100 mg Cu and 150 mg Zn kg(-1) soil) and was then gamma-irradiated (10 kGy). Unamended and unirradiated controls were included, and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Forrester) was grown for 50 days. Soil solution samples obtained using soil moisture samplers immediately before transplantation and every ten days thereafter were used directly for determination of Cu, Zn, pH and absorbance at 360 nm (A360). Cu and Zn concentrations in the solution of metal-polluted soil changed with time and were affected by gamma-irradiation and metal interaction. gamma-Irradiation raised soil solution Cu substantially but generally decreased soil solution Zn. These trends were consistent with increased dissolved organic matter (A360) and solution pH after gamma-irradiation. Combined addition of Cu and Zn usually gave higher soil solution concentrations of Cu or Zn compared with single addition of Cu or Zn in gamma-irradiated and non-irradiated soils, indicating an interaction between Cu and Zn. Cu would have been organically complexed and consequently maintained a relatively high concentration in the soil solution under higher pH conditions. Zn tends to occur mainly as free ion forms in the soil solution and is therefore sensitive to changes in pH. The extent to which gamma-irradiation and metal interaction affected solubility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn was a function of time during plant growth. Studies on soil solution metal dynamics provide very useful information for understanding metal mobility and bioavailability.

  4. Ordered mesoporous MFe(2)O(4) (M = Co, Cu, Mg, Ni, Zn) thin films with nanocrystalline walls, uniform 16 nm diameter pores and high thermal stability: template-directed synthesis and characterization of redox active trevorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haetge, Jan; Suchomski, Christian; Brezesinski, Torsten

    2010-12-20

    In this paper, we report on ordered mesoporous NiFe(2)O(4) thin films synthesized via co-assembly of hydrated ferric nitrate and nickel chloride with an amphiphilic diblock copolymer, referred to as KLE. We establish that the NiFe(2)O(4) samples are highly crystalline after calcination at 600 °C, and that the conversion of the amorphous inorganic framework comes at little cost to the ordering of the high quality cubic network of pores averaging 16 nm in diameter. We further show that the synthesis method employed in this work can be readily extended to other ferrites, such as CoFe(2)O(4), CuFe(2)O(4), MgFe(2)O(4), and ZnFe(2)O(4), which could pave the way for innovative device design. While this article focuses on the self-assembly and characterization of these materials using various state-of-the-art techniques, including electron microscopy, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy, we also examine the electrochemical properties and show the benefits of combining a continuous mesoporosity with nanocrystalline films. KLE-templated NiFe(2)O(4) electrodes exhibit reasonable levels of lithium ion storage at short charging times which stem from facile pseudocapacitance.

  5. Cu(II) AND Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SYNTHESIS OF 2,2-DIMETHYL-4-PHENYL-[1,3]-DIOXOLANE USING ZEOLITE. ENCAPSULATED Co(II), Cu(II) AND Zn(II) COMPLEXES. B.P. Nethravathi1, K. Rama Krishna Reddy2 and K.N. Mahendra1*. 1Department of Chemistry, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560001, India. 2Department of Chemistry, Government ...

  6. Synthesis and magnetic properties of multilayer Ni/Cu and NiFe/Cu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The diameter of wires can be easily varied by pore size of alumina, ranging ... saturated HgCl2 solution to remove the remaining Al, and then dipped in 5 wt% ... for NiFe alloy it is 1.3 V, that is higher than for Ni/Cu nanowires to diminish Cu.

  7. Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction using diethyldithiocarbamate as a chelating agent and the dried-spot technique for the determination of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocot, Karina; Zawisza, Beata; Sitko, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) using sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) as a chelating agent was investigated for the simultaneous determination of iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, selenium and lead ions in water samples. The procedure was performed using 5 mL of the sample, 100 μL of a 0.5% solution of DDTC, 30 μL of carbon tetrachloride (extraction phase) and 500 μL of methanol (disperser solvent). The experiments showed that Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb can be simultaneously extracted at a pH of 5 and that Se can be extracted at a pH of 2–3. The results were compared with those obtained using ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate as a chelating agent. For all analytes, a linear range was observed up to 0.4 μg mL −1 . If Fe and Zn are present in concentrations 10 times higher than those of the other analytes, then the linearity is observed up to 0.2 μg mL −1 . In the present study, the organic phase that contained preconcentrated elements was deposited onto a Millipore filter and measured using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The obtained detection limits were 2.9, 1.5, 2.0, 2.3, 2.5, 2.0 and 3.9 ng mL −1 for Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se and Pb, respectively. This combination of DLLME and the dried-spot technique is promising for multielement analyses using other spectroscopy techniques, such as laser ablation‐inductively coupled plasma‐mass spectrometry, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy or total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. - Highlights: ► Multielement trace analysis using dried-spot technique and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. ► Possibility of combination of LPME with EDXRF, LIBS or LA-ICP-MS. ► Comparison of APDC and DDTC as chelating agents.

  8. Energetic co-ordination compounds: synthesis, characterization and thermolysis studies on bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2)tetraammine cobalt(III) perchlorate (BNCP) and its new transition metal (Ni/Cu/Zn) perchlorate analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talawar, M.B.; Agrawal, A.P.; Asthana, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N 2 )tetraammine[cobalt(III)/nickel(III)] perchlorates (BNCP/BNNP) and mono-(5-nitro-H-tetrazolato-N)triammine [copper(II)/zinc(II)] perchlorates (MNCuP/MNZnP) have been synthesized during this work. The synthesis was carried out by addition of carbonato tetraammine metal [Co/Ni/Cu/Zn] nitrate [CTCN/CTNN/CTCuN/CTZnN] to the aqueous solution of sodium salt of 5-nitrotetrazole followed by reaction with perchloric acid. The precursors were synthesized by the reaction of aqueous solution of their respective nitrates with ammonium carbonate at 70 deg. C. The complexes and their precursors were characterized by determining metal and perchlorate content as well as infrared (IR), electron spectra for chemical analysis (ESCA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The TG profiles indicated that BNCP, BNNP and MNCuP are thermally stable up to the temperature of 260-278 deg. C unlike MNZnP (150 deg. C). Sudden exothermic decomposition was observed in case of bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N 2 )tetraammine cobalt(III) perchlorate, bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N 2 )tetraammine nickel(III) perchlorate and mono-(5-nitro-H-tetrazolato-N)triammine zinc(II) perchlorate resulting in the severe damage of the sample cup. Sensitivity data indicated that the Co/Ni/Cu complexes are more friction sensitive (3-4.8 kg) than mono-(5-nitro-H-tetrazolato-N)triammine zinc(II) perchlorate (14 kg). The impact sensitivity results of the complexes corresponded to h 50% of 30-36 cm

  9. Morphology and chemical composition of Cu/Sn/Cu and Cu(5 at-%Ni)/Sn/Cu(5 at-%Ni) interconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierzbicka-Miernik, A.; Wojewoda-Budka, J.; Litynska-Dobrzynska, L.; Kodentsov, A.; Zieba, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, scanning and transmission electron microscopies as well as energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy investigations were performed to describe the morphology and chemical composition of the intermetallic phases growing in Cu/Sn/Cu and Cu(Ni)/Sn/Cu(Ni) interconnections during the

  10. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knyazev, A.V., E-mail: knyazevav@gmail.com [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Zakharchuk, I.; Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, P.O. Box 20, FI-53851 Lappeenranta (Finland); Baidakov, K.V.; Knyazeva, S.S. [N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, Gagarin Prospekt 23/2, 603950 Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation); Ladenkov, I.V. [Joint-stock Company “Research and Production Company “Salut”, Nizhni Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders were prepared by the solid-state reaction at 1073 K. • The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. • The temperature dependences of magnetization exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior. - Abstract: Ni-Zn and Ni-Zn-Co ferrite powders with nominal compositions Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were prepared by the solid-state reaction synthesis with periodic regrinding during the calcination at 1073 K. The structure of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was refined assuming space group F d-3m. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the average sizes of the crystalline ferrite particles are 130–630 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 140–350 nm for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The room temperature saturation magnetizations are 59.7 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and 57.1 emu/g for Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The coercivity of the samples is found to be much larger than that of bulk ferrites and increases with Co introduction. The Curie temperature tends to increase upon Zn substitution by Co, as well. The temperature dependences of magnetization measured using zero-field cooled and field cooled protocols exhibit large spin frustration and spin-glass-like behavior.

  11. Extraction studies of Cd(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) using N, N', N, N' -Bis((2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl) (2-pyridylmethyl)) -ethylenediamine as a novel ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laus, R.; Anjos, A.D.; Naves, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the use of N,N',N,N'-bis((2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl) (2- pyridylmethyl))-ethylenediamine (H2L) as ligand was evaluated in the liquid-liquid (water- chloroform) extraction of Cd(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). Experiments were carried out to determine the pH for maximum extraction for each metal ion by ligand, maximum extraction capacity, extraction kinetics and extraction selectivity. The results revealed that the extraction of metal ions is dependent on the pH: maximum extraction maximum was obtained in the pH range of 4.5 - 6.0 for Cu(II) and 8.0 - 9.0 for Zn(II). Cd(II) and Mn(II) were best extracted at pH 9.0 and Ni(II) at 10.0. The ligand H2L was effective for the extraction of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) (extraction efficient, %E equal 100%), whereas %E of 76% and 23.5% were observed for Mn(II) and Ni(II), respectively. The ligand presented high selectivity for the extraction of Cu(II) at pH 4.0. (author)

  12. Electrodeposition and properties of Zn, Cu, and Cu{sub 1−x} Zn{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özdemir, Rasim [Kilis Vocational High School, Kilis 7 Aralık University, 79000 Kilis (Turkey); Karahan, İsmail Hakkı, E-mail: ihkarahan@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, 31040 Hatay (Turkey)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn and Cu–Zn deposits successfully deposited from the non-cyanide sulphate electrolyte. • The effect of alloying element was investigated on the electrical resistivity and the structure of Cu–Zn alloy. • The average crystallite size of the samples varied from 66 to 161 nm and decreased when the Zn and Cu combined in Cu–Zn. • Microstrain has been decreased with increasing crystallite size. • Electrical resistivity of alloy was obtained between the Zn and Cu films. - Abstract: The electrodeposition of Cu, Zn and Cu–Zn deposits from the non-cyanide Zn sulphate and Cu sulphate reduced by citrate at constant stirring speed has been investigated. The composition of the Cu–Zn bath was shown to influence the morphology, electrical resistivity, phase composition, and Cu and Zn content of the Cu–Zn deposits. Their structural and electrical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), cyclic voltammeter (CV) and current–voltage measurements against the temperature for electrical resistivity, respectively. XRD shows that Cu–Zn samples are polycrystalline phase. Resistivity results show that the copper film exhibits bigger residual resistivity than both the zinc and the Cu–Zn alloy. Theoretical calculations of the XRD peaks demonstrate that the average crystallite size of the Cu–Zn alloy decreased and microstrain increased when the Cu alloyed with zinc.

  13. Solvent extraction of Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, UO22+, Mn2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ into nitrobenzene using strontium dicarbol-lylcobaltate and tetra-tert-butyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetraacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. MAKRLÍK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The exchange extraction constants corresponding to the general equilibrium M2+(aq + SrL2+(nb D ML2+ (nb + Sr2+ (aq occurring in the two-phase water–nitrobenzene system (M2+ = Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, UO22+, Mn2+, Co2+ or Ni2+; L = tetra-tert-butyl p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene tetraacetate; aq = aqueous phase; nb = nitrobenzene phase were evaluated from extraction experiments and -activity measurements. Furthermore, the stability constants of the ML2+ complexes in water saturated nitrobenzene were calculated; they were found to increase in the cation order Ba2+ < Mn2+ < Pb2+, Co2+ < Cu2+, Zn2+ < Cd2+, Ni2+ < UO22+ < Ca2+.

  14. Excitations of the isobaric analog states T=0, 1, 2 and 2 in isobars 60Zn (Tz=0), 60Cu (Tz=1) and 60Ni (Tz=2) by the two-nucleon (2p, pn, 2n) stripping transfer reactions of 16O ions on 58Ni nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Yasuhiko

    1992-01-01

    The isobaric analog states (IAS's) T=0, 1, 2 and 2 in isobars 60 Zn (Tz=0), 60 Cu (Tz=1) and 60 Ni (Tz=2) were studied by the three types of two-nucleon (2p, pn, 2n) stripping transfer reactions induced by the same beams 16 O and targets 58 Ni at an incident energy 80 MeV. The excitation energies of observed IAS's are in good fits with those calculated theoretically. The g'nd state 2 + , T=1 in 60 Cu may not be populated vy the ( 16 O, 14 N) reaction. The mutual excitation ( 16 O, 14 N * ) may be considered in the present population in 50 Cu. The isospin aspects of these reactions are quite prominent. All angular distributions of these IAS's have a forward peaked shape. Those of the O + states show a strongly oscillated pattern. Those of the 2 + states have no evidences of the clear oscillations. The similarities are observed between the angular distributions of IAS's. The EFR-DWBA calculations, in which the direct one-step cluster transferrs of two nucleons are assumed, reproduce reasonably the data points. The similarities between the heavy and the light ion induced two-nucleon stripping transfer reactions appear in both the reaction mechanisms and the spectroscopies of residual nuclei. The excitations of these IAS's will be an appearances of the single particle properties of transferred two-nucleons. (author)

  15. Fabrication and tensile properties of rapidly solidified Cu-10wt. %Ni alloy. [Cu-10Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baril, D; Angers, R; Baril, J [Dept. of Mining and Metallurgy, Laval Univ., Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada)

    1992-10-15

    Cu-10wt.%Ni ribbons were produced by melt spinning and cut into small particles with a blade cutter mill. The powders were then hot consolidated to full density by hot pressing followed by hot extrusion. Tensile properties of the resulting pieces were measured. Cu-10wt.%Ni cast ingots were also hot extruded and mechanically tested to compare with the rapidly solidified alloy and to evaluate the possible benefits brought by the rapid solidification process.

  16. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Cu doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nasir; Singh, Budhi; Khan, Zaheer Ahmed; Ghosh, Subhasis

    2018-05-01

    We report the room temperature ferromagnetism in 2% Cu doped ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to ascertain the oxidation states of Cu in ZnO. The presence of defects within Cu-doped ZnO films can be revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance. It has been observed that saturated magnetic moment increase as we increase the zinc vacancies during deposition.

  17. Effect of citric acid on formation of oxides of Cu and Zn in modified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tions such as sensors, catalysts, lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors ... Metal Oxides (TMO), NiO (nickel oxide), CuO (copper oxide) and ZnO (zinc oxide) are ..... Bulletin 1452 241. 24. Ellingham H J T 1944 J. Soc. Chem. Ind. (London). 63 125.

  18. VALIDACIÓN DE LA METODOLOGÍA PARA LA DETERMINACIÓN DE SB, AS, CD, CU, CR, HG, NI, PB Y ZN EN SEDIMENTOS POR ICO-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermógenes Rosas Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos en la validación de la técnica ICP-MS utilizada para la determinación de nueve elementos en sedimentos: Sb, As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb y Zn. Para ello se llevó a cabo el estudio de los siguientes parámetros de fiabilidad: precisión, exactitud y límites de detección y cuantificación. Para el análisis de estos elementos se utilizó un ICP-MS ELAN 6000 de Perkin Elmer®. El estudio de los distintos parámetros de validación fue muy satisfactorio para la mayoría de los analitos, alcanzándose límites de detección y de cuantificación muy bajos (inferiores a 1microg/l e incluso de 1 ng/l para el Cd. El método ICP-MS es exacto y preciso, obteniéndose para la mayoría de los elementos coeficientes de variación en torno al 2% y porcentajes de recuperación del 100%.

  19. Effect on the structural, DC resistivity and magnetic properties of Zr and Cu co-SubstitutedNi0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4using sol-gel auto-combustion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaiah, K.; Vijaya Babu, K.; Chandra mouli, K.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.

    2018-04-01

    The Zr and Cu co-substituted Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 ferrite nanoparticles have been synthesized by the sol-gel auto combustion method. The XRD patterns confirmed single phase cubic spinel structure for present ferrite systems. The substitution of co-dopants in the spinel structure initially decreases the lattice parameter from x = 0.00 to 0.08 and thereafter increases and the same tendency reflecting in cell volume. The DC resistivity was initially increased later followed the decreasing trend; however the drift mobility of all ferrite samples appears to be in opposite phenomenon to DC resistivity. The saturation magnetization and net magnetic moments of all ferrite samples are decreasing with increasing dopant concentration. The coercive field and Y-K angles are increased with dopant concentration. The initial permeability of all samples is decreased with increasing dopant concentration. The Q-Factor for all samples shows the narrow frequency band with increasing frequency.

  20. The role of annealing temperature and bio template (egg white) on the structural, morphological and magnetic properties of manganese substituted MFe2O4 (M=Zn, Cu, Ni, Co) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith Kumar, E.; Jayaprakash, R.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Manganese substituted ferrites (ZnFe2O4, CuFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4) have been prepared in the bio template medium by using a simple evaporation method. The annealing temperature plays an important position on changing particle size and morphology of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were found out by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. The role of manganese substitution in the mixed ferrite nanoparticles were also analyzed for different annealing temperature. The substitution of Mn also creates a vital change in magnetic properties which is studied by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). These spinel ferrites are decomposed to α-Fe2O3 after annealing above 550 °C in air. However, α-Fe2O3 phase was slowly vanished after ferrites annealing above 900 °C. The effect of this secondary phase on the structural change and magnetic properties of the mixed ferrite nanoparticles is discussed.

  1. Influence of Al3+ substitution on the electrical resistivity and dielectric behavior of Ni0.25Cu0.20Zn0.55AlxFe2-xO4 ferrites synthesized by solid state reaction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K. R.; Chowdhury, F.-U.-Z.; Khan, M. N. I.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the effect of Al3+ substitution on the electrical and dielectric properties of Ni0.25Cu0.20Zn0.55AlxFe2-xO4 ferrites with x = 0.0, 0.05. 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20, synthesized by solid state reaction has been reported. Using two probe method, the DC resistivity has been investigated in the temperature range from 30 °C to 300 °C. Activation energy was calculated from the Arrhenius plot. The electrical conduction is explained on the basis of the hopping mechanism. The frequency dependent dielectric properties of these spinel ferrites have been studied at room temperature by measuring AC resistivity, conductivity (σac), dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent (tan δ) in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 120 MHz. The study of dielectric properties showed that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss increased with increasing non-magnetic Al ions. The dependence of dielectric constant with frequency has been explained by Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization. Cole-Cole plots show semicircular arc(s) for the samples, and equivalent RC circuits have been proposed to clarify the phenomena involved therein. The analysis of complex impedance spectroscopy has been used to distinguish between the grain and grain boundary contribution to the total resistance.

  2. Syntheses, spectroscopic and thermal analyses of cyanide bridged heteronuclear polymeric complexes: [M(L)2Ni(CN)4]n (Ldbnd N-methylethylenediamine or N-ethylethylenediamine; Mdbnd Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) or Cd(II))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaağaç, Dursun; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla

    2016-02-01

    Polymeric tetracyanonickelate(II) complexes of the type [M(L)2Ni(CN)4]n (Ldbnd N-methylethylenediamine (men) or N-ethylethylenediamine (neen); Mdbnd Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) or Cd(II)) have been prepared and characterized by FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, thermal and elemental analysis techniques. Additionally, FT-IR and Raman spectral analyses of men and neen have experimentally and theoretically investigated in the range of 4000-250 cm-1. The corresponding vibration assignments of men and neen are performed by using B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) method together with 6-31 G(d) basis set. The spectral features of the complexes suggest that the coordination environment of the M(II) ions are surrounded by the two symmetry related men and neen ligands and the two symmetry related N atom of cyanide groups, whereas the Ni(II) atoms are coordinated with a square-planar to four C atoms of the cyanide groups. Polymeric structures of the complexes consist of one dimensional alternative chains of [M(L)2]2+ and [Ni(CN)4]2- moieties. The thermal decompositions in the temperature range 30-700 °C of the complexes were investigated in the static air atmosphere.

  3. Emprego da amostragem de suspensão na determinação de Cu e Zn em lapa antártica e Ni em sedimento de rio por espectrometria de absorção atômica com chama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Flávia de Lima

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to demonstrate the feasibility of slurry sampling for environmental studies, different methodologies were developed for Cu and Zn in antarctic limpets and Ni in river sediment with FAAS detection. Studies focusing particle size, acid concentration, slurry stability, selectivity, among others were carried out in order to define the better conditions for slurry analysis. A study related to the depth profile for Ni in the Atibaia River sediment was made after optimization conditions for this element. For accuracy check, certified reference material was used as well as decomposition with microwave oven.

  4. Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings - Part 2: Corrosion and protection mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadormanesh, Behrouz; Ghorbani, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    The Ni-P/Zn-Ni compositionally modulated multilayer coatings CMMCs were electrodeposited from a single bath by switching the deposition current density. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied and compared with that of monolayers of Ni-P and Zn-Ni alloys via Tafel polarization, EIS and salt spray tests. Characterization of corrosion products by means of EDS and XRD revealed more details from the corrosion mechanism of the monolayers and multilayers. The corrosion current density of Ni-P/Zn-Ni CMMCs were around one tenth of Zn-Ni monolayer. The CMMC with incomplete layers performed lower polarization resistance and higher corrosion current density compared to the CMMC with complete layers. The electrical circuit that was proposed for modeling the corrosion process based on the EIS spectrum, proved that layering reduces the porosity and consequently improves the barrier properties. Although, layering of Zn-Ni layers with Ni-P deposits increased the time to red rust in salt spray test, the time for white rust formation decreased. The corrosion mechanism of both Zn-Ni and Ni-P (containing small amount of Zn) was preferential dissolution of Zn and the corrosion products were comprised of mainly Zn hydroxychloride and Zn hydroxycarbonate. Also, Ni and P did not take part in the corrosion products. Based on the electrochemical character of the layers and the morphology of the corroded surface, the corrosion mechanism of multilayers was discussed.

  5. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  6. Theoretical study of the magnetic behavior of hexanuclear Cu(II) and Ni(II) polysiloxanolato complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eliseo; Cano, Joan; Alvarez, Santiago; Caneschi, Andrea; Gatteschi, Dante

    2003-06-04

    A theoretical density functional study of the exchange coupling in hexanuclear polysiloxanolato-bridged complexes of Cu(II) and Ni(II) is presented. By calculating the energies of three different spin configurations, we can obtain estimates of the first-, second-, and third-neighbor exchange coupling constants. The study has been carried out for the complete structures of the Cu pristine cluster and of the chloroenclathrated Ni complex as well as for the hypotethical pristine Ni compound and for magnetically dinuclear analogues M(2)Zn(4) (M = Cu, Ni).

  7. Nanostructure analysis of friction welded Pd-Ni-P/Pd-Cu-Ni-P metallic glass interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, T.; Shoji, S.; Kawamura, Y.; Hono, K.

    2005-01-01

    Friction welded Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 /Pd 40 Cu 30 Ni 10 P 20 metallic glass interface has been characterized by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy. The interface is fully amorphous with a gradual compositional change of Cu and Ni in the range of 30 nm. By annealing above T g , the interdiffusion of Cu and Ni progressed in the supercooled liquid region, and the crystallization occurred from the Pd 40 Ni 40 P 20 glass

  8. Copperton - Areachap Cu-Zn mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theart, H.F.J.

    1985-05-01

    Stratiform massive sulfide deposit at the Prieska Cu-Zn and Areachap mines are situated close to the eastern margin of the Namaqua Province, South Africa, within the Copperton and Jannelsepan Formations. The investigation of the petrology and geochemistry of the Prieska Cu-Zn deposits forms the basis of this study. Borehole core and surface samples were investigated petrographically. Knowledge gained during this investigation was used to select suitable samples for geochemical analysis. Suites of samples were analysed for their major element and some trace element concentrations by wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Concentrations of some elements in the lanthanide group were determined using the inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. Samples were also submitted for analysis by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Determinations of concentrations of U and Pb and isotopic compositions of Pb were done for both whole rock samples and sulfide mineral separates. Major and trace element abundances within different rock types of the Copperton Formation are discussed and compared with those of the Jannelsepan and Hartebeest Pan Formations. The petrogenetic implications of these, the U-Pb isotope systematics and S isotope ratios are used to reconstruct the geological environment of mineralization. 187 refs., 106 figs., 68 tabs

  9. CO2 activation on bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Austin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic, and CO2 adsorption properties of 55-atom bimetallic CuNi nanoparticles (NPs in core-shell and decorated architectures, as well as of their monometallic counterparts. Our results revealed that with respect to the monometallic Cu55 and Ni55 parents, the formation of decorated Cu12Ni43 and core-shell Cu42Ni13 are energetically favorable. We found that CO2 chemisorbs on monometallic Ni55, core-shell Cu13Ni42, and decorated Cu12Ni43 and Cu43Ni12, whereas, it physisorbs on monometallic Cu55 and core-shell Cu42Ni13. The presence of surface Ni on the NPs is key in strongly adsorbing and activating the CO2 molecule (linear to bent transition and elongation of C˭O bonds. This activation occurs through a charge transfer from the NPs to the CO2 molecule, where the local metal d-orbital density localization on surface Ni plays a pivotal role. This work identifies insightful structure-property relationships for CO2 activation and highlights the importance of keeping a balance between NP stability and CO2 adsorption behavior in designing catalytic bimetallic NPs that activate CO2.

  10. NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu shape memory thin film heterostructures for vibration damping in MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navjot; Kaur, Davinder, E-mail: dkaurfph@iitr.ernet.in

    2014-03-25

    Highlights: • Fabrication of NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure using dc/rf magnetron sputtering. • Exhibits highest hardness (38 GPa) and elastic modulus (187 GPa). • Enhanced dissipation of mechanical energy (E{sub d} = 5.7 N J). • High damping capacity (0.052) and figure of merit (∼0.62). • Can be applied for vibration damping in MEMS. -- Abstract: Shape memory alloy (NiTiCu) thin films coupled with piezoelectric AlN layer produce an intelligent material for vibration damping. In the present study pure NiTiCu, NiTiCu/AlN and NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructures have been deposited on Si substrate using magnetron sputtering technique. By the use of the interfaces and shape memory effect provided by NiTiCu layers, the damping capacity can be increased along with increase in stiffness and mechanical hardness. The heterostructures were characterized in terms of structural, electrical, morphological and mechanical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), four probe resistivity method, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. The NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure exhibit enhanced mechanical and damping properties as compared to NiTiCu/AlN and pure NiTiCu. This enhancement in hardness and damping of the heterostructure could be attributed to the shape memory effect of NiTiCu, intrinsic piezoelectricity of AlN and increased number of interfaces in heterostructure that help in dissipation of mechanical vibrations. The findings of this work provide additional impetus for the application of these heterostructures in emerging fields of nanotechnology and microelectro mechanical (MEMS) devices.

  11. NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu shape memory thin film heterostructures for vibration damping in MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Navjot; Kaur, Davinder

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabrication of NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure using dc/rf magnetron sputtering. • Exhibits highest hardness (38 GPa) and elastic modulus (187 GPa). • Enhanced dissipation of mechanical energy (E d = 5.7 N J). • High damping capacity (0.052) and figure of merit (∼0.62). • Can be applied for vibration damping in MEMS. -- Abstract: Shape memory alloy (NiTiCu) thin films coupled with piezoelectric AlN layer produce an intelligent material for vibration damping. In the present study pure NiTiCu, NiTiCu/AlN and NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructures have been deposited on Si substrate using magnetron sputtering technique. By the use of the interfaces and shape memory effect provided by NiTiCu layers, the damping capacity can be increased along with increase in stiffness and mechanical hardness. The heterostructures were characterized in terms of structural, electrical, morphological and mechanical properties by X-ray diffraction (XRD), four probe resistivity method, atomic force microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. The NiTiCu/AlN/NiTiCu heterostructure exhibit enhanced mechanical and damping properties as compared to NiTiCu/AlN and pure NiTiCu. This enhancement in hardness and damping of the heterostructure could be attributed to the shape memory effect of NiTiCu, intrinsic piezoelectricity of AlN and increased number of interfaces in heterostructure that help in dissipation of mechanical vibrations. The findings of this work provide additional impetus for the application of these heterostructures in emerging fields of nanotechnology and microelectro mechanical (MEMS) devices

  12. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M [Institute of Physics, Czestochowa University of Technology, Al. Armii Krajowej 19, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d{sub Cu} = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm {<=} d{sub Ni} {<=} 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent.

  13. Influence of ni thickness on oscillation coupling in Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagorowska, B; Dus-Sitek, M

    2007-01-01

    The results of investigation of magnetic properties of [Cu/Ni]x100 were presented. Samples were deposited by face-to-face sputtering method onto the silicon substrate, the thickness of Cu layer was constant (d Cu = 2 nm) and the thickness of Ni layer - variable (1 nm ≤ d Ni ≤ 6 nm). In Cu/Ni multilayers, for the thickness of Ni layer bigger than 2 nm antiferromagnetic coupling (A-F) were observed, for the thickness of Ni smaller than 2 nm A-F coupling is absent

  14. Comparative study on structure, corrosion properties and tribological behavior of pure Zn and different Zn-Ni alloy coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafreshi, M. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Allahkaram, S.R., E-mail: akaram@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O.Box: 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farhangi, H. [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O.Box: 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Zn and Zn-Ni alloy coatings were electrodeposited from sulfate based electrolytes. The effect of alloys Ni content on morphology, microstructure, corrosion properties, microhardness and tribological behavior of these coatings were investigated and the results were compared with Zn film. According to X-ray diffraction patterns, different intermediate phases (η-Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 22}, γ-Ni{sub 5}Zn{sub 21}, β-Zn-Ni) were formed by increasing the coatings Ni content from 11 to 17 wt%. Polarization and EIS results revealed that all the alloy coatings had better corrosion resistance than the Zn film. Zn-14 wt%Ni coating had the least corrosion current density and maximum polarization resistance between all the samples. Microhardness of the coatings was improved by increasing their Ni percentage to 17%. However, Zn-14 wt%Ni coating had the lowest wear loss and friction coefficient, while Zn film had the worst wear resistance between all the coatings. - Highlights: • Effect of Ni alloying element on morphology and structure of Zn electrodeposits. • Comparing corrosion behavior of Zn and Zn-Ni coatings. • Influence of Ni content on hardness of Zn-Ni films. • A comparison of tribological behavior of Zn and different Zn-Ni electrodeposits.

  15. The Magnetoelectric Effect of a Ni0.3Zn0.62Cu0.08Fe2O4 - PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3 Multilayer Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzdek P.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic materials has been widely studied for its fundamental interest and practical applications. The magnetoelectric effect observed for single phase materials like Cr2O3, BiFeO3, and Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5O3 is usually small. A much larger effect can be obtained in composites consisting of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases. This paper investigates the magnetoelectric effect of a multilayer (laminated structure consisting of 6 nickel ferrite and 7 PFN relaxor layers. It describes the synthesis and tape casting process for Ni0.3Zn0.62Cu0.08Fe2O4 ferrite and relaxor PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3 (PFN. Magnetic hysteresis, ZFC - FC curves and dependencies of magnetization versus temperature for PFN relaxor and magnetoelectric composite were measured with a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM in an applied magnetic field up to 85 kOe at a temperature range of 10 – 400 K. Magnetoelectric effect at room temperature was investigated as a function of a static magnetic field (0.3 - 6.5 kOe and the frequency of sinusoidal magnetic field (0.01 - 6.5 kHz. At lower magnetic field, the magnetoelectric coefficient increases slightly before reaching a maximum and then decreases. The magnetoelectric coefficient aME increases continuously as the frequency is raised, although this increase is less pronounced in the 1-6.5 kHz range. Maximum values of the magnetoelectric coefficient attained for the layered composites exceed about 50 mV/(Oe cm.

  16. Ternary systems Sr-{Ni,Cu}-Si: Phase equilibria and crystal structure of ternary phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Navida; Melnychenko-Koblyuk, Nataliya; Grytsiv, Andriy; Rogl, Peter; Giester, Gerald; Wosik, Jaroslaw; Nauer, Gerhard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phase relations were established in the Sr-poor part of the ternary systems Sr-Ni-Si (900 deg. C) and Sr-Cu-Si (800 deg. C) by light optical microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction on as cast and annealed alloys. Two new ternary compounds SrNiSi 3 (BaNiSn 3 -type) and SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type) were found in the Sr-Ni-Si system along with previously reported Sr(Ni x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type). The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type. At higher Si-content X-ray Rietveld refinements reveal the formation of a vacant site (□) corresponding to a formula SrNi 5.5 Si 6.5 □ 1.0 . Phase equilibria in the Sr-Cu-Si system are characterized by the compounds SrCu 2-x Si 2+x (ThCr 2 Si 2 -type), Sr(Cu x Si 1-x ) 2 (AlB 2 -type), SrCu 9-x Si 4+x (0≤x≤1.0; CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type) and SrCu 13-x Si x (4≤x≤1.8; NaZn 13 -type). The latter two structure types appear within a continuous solid solution. Neither a type-I nor a type-IX clathrate compound was encountered in the Sr-{Cu,Ni}-Si systems. Structural details are furthermore given for about 14 new ternary compounds from related alloy systems with Ba. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structure of SrNi 9-x Si 4+x (own-type, x=2.7, a=0.78998(3), c=1.1337(2) nm; space group P4/nbm) was determined from X-ray single crystal counter to be a low symmetry derivative of the cubic, parent NaZn 13 -type and is related to CeNi 8.5 Si 4.5 -type.

  17. Re-evaluation of microscopic and integral cross-section data for important dosimetry reactions. Re-evaluation of the excitation functions for the 24Mg(n,p)24Na, 32S(n,p)32P, 60Ni(n,p)60m+gCo, 63Cu(n,2n)62Cu, 65Cu(n,2n)64Cu, 64Zn(n,p)64Cu, 115In(n,2n)114mIn, 127I(n,2n)126I, 197Au(n,2n)196Au and 199Hg(n,n')199mHg reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, K.I.

    2008-08-01

    Re-evaluations of cross sections and their associated covariance matrices have been carried out for ten dosimetry reactions: - excitation functions for the 63 Cu(n,2n) 62 Cu, 65 Cu(n,2n) 64 Cu, 64 Zn(n,p) 64 Cu, 115 In(n,2n) 114m In and 199 Hg(n,n') 199m Hg reactions were re-evaluated over the neutron energy range from threshold to 20 MeV; - excitation functions for the 24 Mg(n,p) 24 Na, 32 S(n,p) 32 P and 60 Ni(n,p) 60m+g Co were reevaluated in the energy range from threshold to 21 MeV; - excitation functions for the 127 I(n,2n) 126 I and 197 Au(n,2n) 196 Au reactions were reevaluated in the energy range from threshold to 32 and 40 MeV, respectively. Benchmark calculations performed for 235 U thermal fission and 252 Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectra show that the integral cross sections derived from the newly evaluated excitation functions exhibit improved agreement with related experimental data when compared with the equivalent data from the IRDF-2002 library. (author)

  18. Formation of Ti--Zr--Cu--Ni bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.H.; Johnson, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    Formation of bulk metallic glass in quaternary Ti--Zr--Cu--Ni alloys by relatively slow cooling from the melt is reported. Thick strips of metallic glass were obtained by the method of metal mold casting. The glass forming ability of the quaternary alloys exceeds that of binary or ternary alloys containing the same elements due to the complexity of the system. The best glass forming alloys such as Ti 34 Zr 11 Cu 47 Ni 8 can be cast to at least 4-mm-thick amorphous strips. The critical cooling rate for glass formation is of the order of 250 K/s or less, at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the best ternary alloys. The glass transition, crystallization, and melting behavior of the alloys were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The amorphous alloys exhibit a significant undercooled liquid region between the glass transition and first crystallization event. The glass forming ability of these alloys, as determined by the critical cooling rate, exceeds what is expected based on the reduced glass transition temperature. It is also found that the glass forming ability for alloys of similar reduced glass transition temperature can differ by two orders of magnitude as defined by critical cooling rates. The origins of the difference in glass forming ability of the alloys are discussed. It is found that when large composition redistribution accompanies crystallization, glass formation is enhanced. The excellent glass forming ability of alloys such as Ti 34 Zr 11 Cu 47 Ni 8 is a result of simultaneously minimizing the nucleation rate of the competing crystalline phases. The ternary/quaternary Laves phase (MgZn 2 type) shows the greatest ease of nucleation and plays a key role in determining the optimum compositions for glass formation. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. DO22-(Cu,Ni)3Sn intermetallic compound nanolayer formed in Cu/Sn-nanolayer/Ni structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lilin; Huang, Haiyou; Fu Ran; Liu Deming; Zhang Tongyi

    2009-01-01

    The present work conducts crystal characterization by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) on Cu/Sn-nanolayer/Ni sandwich structures associated with the use of Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The results show that DO 22 -(Cu,Ni) 3 Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) ordered structure is formed in the sandwich structures at the as-electrodeposited state. The formed DO 22 -(Cu,Ni) 3 Sn IMC is a homogeneous layer with a thickness about 10 nm. The DO 22 -(Cu,Ni) 3 Sn IMC nanolayer is stable during annealing at 250 deg. C for 810 min. The formation and stabilization of the metastable DO 22 -(Cu,Ni) 3 Sn IMC nanolayer are attributed to the less strain energy induced by lattice mismatch between the DO 22 IMC and fcc Cu crystals in comparison with that between the equilibrium DO 3 IMC and fcc Cu crystals.

  20. Complex impedance spectra of chip inductor using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Naoe, Masayuki; Yamada, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    A multi-layer chip inductor (MCI) was fabricated using polycrystalline Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite and the green-sheet technique, and its complex impedance spectrum was evaluated with the help of numerical calculations. The complex impedance spectra of the MCI component using Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite, which have been widely used for this application, were very sensitive to the residual stress and deviated much from the calculated values; however, it was found that the complex impedance spectrum of the MCI component using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite is quite well reproduced by calculation, where the complex permittivity and permeability of the polycrystalline ferrite as well as the MCI dimensions, were used. It implied that the magneto-striction effect was negligible in case of MCI using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite, and that the difference was related to magneto-strictive coefficient of the polycrystalline ferrite. Consequently, utilization of Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite enabled us to easily design the complex impedance of MCI component

  1. Minority anion substitution by Ni in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Silva, Daniel José; David-Bosne, Eric; Decoster, Stefan; da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André

    2013-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the $\\beta$− emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  2. Electrodeposition and properties of Zn-Ni-CNT composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen, B.M.; Venkatesha, T.V.

    2009-01-01

    Zn-Ni-CNT composite coatings were prepared by electrodeposition from a sulphate bath. The effect of CNTs on the corrosion behavior, wear resistance and hardness of the composite coatings was investigated. Their corrosion properties were evaluated by polarization, impedance, weight loss and salt spray tests. The CNT particles inclusion improved the corrosion resistance, hardness and wear resistance of the coating. The grain size of the composite coating was smaller than that of a pure Zn-Ni coating with the same Zn/Ni ratio. Scanning electron microscope images and X-ray diffraction patterns of coating revealed its fine-grain nature.

  3. Determination of Fe, Cu and Zn in sugar-cane spirits commercialized in Southeastern Brazil by TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha e Silva, R.M.; Almeida, E.; Valencia, E.P.E.; Nascimento Filho, V.F.

    2004-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine simultaneously the concentration of Cu, Fe and Zn in seven sugar-cane spirit samples ('aguardente'), a processed alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation and distillation of sugar-cane juice. The limits of detection ranged from 35 to 8 ng x ml -1 for V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Se. Excluding Fe, Cu and Zn, the concentrations were below their limits. Two samples showed Cu concentrations higher than the value allowed by Brazilian legislation (5 μg x ml -1 ), and concerning Fe and Zn, no sample were above the limits permitted by WHO for drinking water (2 and 3 μg x ml -1 , respectively). (author)

  4. Enthalpy of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Sommer, F.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr system is a basis for the production of bulk amorphous materials by rapid solidification techniques from the liquid state, it is of great scientific interest to determine the partial and the integral thermodynamic functions of liquid and undercooled liquid alloys. Such data, as was pointed out previously, are important in order to understand their extremely good glass-forming ability in multicomponent metallic systems as well as for processing improvements. In order to measure the thermodynamic properties of the Al-Cu-Ni-Zr quaternary, it is necessary to have reliable thermochemical data for its constituent canaries and ternaries first. In a series of articles, the authors have reported in detail the thermodynamic properties of liquid Al-Cu, Al-Ni, Cu-Ni, Cu-Zr, Al-Zr, Al-Cu-Ni, and Al-Cu-Zr alloys. This article deals with the direct calorimetric measurements of the partial and the integral enthalpies of mixing of liquid Ni-Zr and Cu-Ni-Zr alloys and the heat capacity of liquid Ni 26 Zr 74 . In a subsequent article, the authors will present similar data for the liquid ternary Al-Ni-Zr and for the liquid quaternary Al-Cu-Ni-Zr alloys

  5. The activation energy for loop growth in Cu and Cu-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.; Leffers, T.; Singh, B.N.

    1978-08-01

    The apparent activation energy for the growth of interstitial dislocation loops in copper, Cu-1%Ni, Cu-2%Ni, and Cu-5%Ni during high voltage electron microscope irradiation was determined. The apparent activation energy for loop growth in all these materials can be taken to be 0.34eV+-0.02eV. This value together with the corresponding value of 0.44eV+-0.02eV determined earlier for Cu-10%Ni is discussed with reference to the void growth rates observed in these materials. The apparent activation energy for loop growth in copper (and in Cu-1%Ni that has a void growth rate similar to that in pure copper) is interpreted as twice the vacancy migration energy (indicating that divacancies do not play any significant role). For the materials with higher Ni content (in which the void growth rate is much lower than that in Cu and Cu-1%Ni) the measured apparent activation energy is interpreted to be characteristic of loops positioned fairly close to the foil surface and not of loops in ''bulk material''. From the present results in combination with the earlier results for Cu-10%Ni it is concluded that interstitial trapping is the most likely explanation of the reduced void growth rate in Cu-Ni alloys. (author)

  6. Electrodeposition of Zn and Cu–Zn alloy from ZnO/CuO precursors in deep eutectic solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Xueliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zou, Xingli, E-mail: xinglizou@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Xionggang, E-mail: luxg@shu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Lu, Changyuan; Cheng, Hongwei; Xu, Qian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhou, Zhongfu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Special Steel & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Advanced Ferrometallurgy & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Institute of Mathematics and Physics, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: Micro/nanostructured Zn and Cu–Zn alloy films have been electrodeposited directly from ZnO/CuO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES, the typical nucleation-growth mechanism and the micro/nanostructures-formation process are determined. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Micro/nanostructured Zn films have been electrodeposited directly from ZnO precursor in deep eutectic solvent (DES). • The morphology of the Zn electrodeposits depends on the cathodic potential and temperature. • The electrodeposited Zn films exhibit homogeneous morphologies with controllable particle sizes and improved corrosion resistance. • Cu–Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from their metal oxides precursors in DES. - Abstract: The electrodeposition of Zn and Cu–Zn alloy has been investigated in choline chloride (ChCl)/urea (1:2 molar ratio) based deep eutectic solvent (DES). Cyclic voltammetry study demonstrates that the reduction of Zn(II) to Zn is a diffusion-controlled quasi-reversible, one-step, two electrons transfer process. Chronoamperometric investigation indicates that the electrodeposition of Zn on a Cu electrode typically involves three-dimensional instantaneous nucleation with diffusion-controlled growth process. Micro/nanostructured Zn films can be obtained by controlling the electrodeposition potential and temperature. The electrodeposited Zn crystals preferentially orient parallel to the (101) plane. The Zn films electrodeposited under more positive potentials and low temperatures exhibit improved corrosion resistance in 3 wt% NaCl solution. In addition, Cu–Zn alloy films have also been electrodeposited directly from CuO–ZnO precursors in ChCl/urea-based DES. The XRD analysis indicates that the phase composition of the electrodeposited Cu–Zn alloy depends on the electrodeposition potential.

  7. Problems of increasing of thermostability of highly permeable Ni-Zn ferrites and relative materials for telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonchar, A. E-mail: letyuk@mail.ru; Andreev, V.; Letyuk, L.; Shishkanov, A.; Maiorov, V

    2003-01-01

    The work considers ways of increasing of thermostability of ferrites of the basic systems NiO-ZnO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO-ZnO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and relative materials for telecommunication. Sufficient results in increasing of the thermostability were achieved by doping Cu ions and controlling rejection of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content from equimolar composition. These results allow to increase the Curie temperature to 130-140 deg. C for Ni-Zn ferrites with initial permeability 2000.

  8. Peletização do lodo de esgoto e adição de CaCO3 na produção de matéria seca e absorção de Zn, Cu e Ni pelo milho em três latossolos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Berton

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento de casa de vegetação, realizado em Campinas (SP, no período de janeiro a maio de 1980, estudaram-se os efeitos da peletização do lodo de esgoto, nas doses 0, 1 e 5% (v/v do material seco, na produção de matéria seca e na absorção de Zn, Cu e Ni pela parte aérea do milho (Zea mays L., em latossolo roxo (LR, latossolo vermelho-escuro (LE e latossolo vermelho-amarelo (LV, que receberam ou não adição de CaCO3 suficiente para elevação do pH em água para 6,0. O experimento foi realizado em vasos com dois litros de capacidade, delineados em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, e os tratamentos arranjados num esquema fatorial. Após 200 dias de incubação dos solos com o lodo e CaCO3, cultivaram-se quatro plantas de milho em cada vaso. A parte aérea foi quantificada 56 dias após a germinação, sendo cortada, seca, pesada e analisada para os elementos Zn, Cu e Ni. Amostras de terra de cada tratamento foram retiradas e tiveram os metais extraídos pelo DTPA. A peletização do lodo de esgoto resultou em diminuição significativa na produção de matéria seca pela parte aérea do milho, nos três solos estudados, em comparação com o lodo não peletizado. A adição de CaCO3 proporcionou aumento significativo na produção de matéria seca do milho apenas nos dois solos mais ácidos (LE e LV e diminuiu o acúmulo de Zn na parte aérea desse vegetal cultivado no LE, sem distinção quanto ao tipo de lodo aplicado, não se observando diferenças significativas na absorção de Ni, em todos os solos analisados. A incorporação do lodo peletizado , que continha 19% menos Zn e Ni que o não peletizado, resultou em menor absorção de Zn, Cu e Ni nos três solos, exceto para o Ni no LR. Para todos os solos investigados, o método do DTPA mostrou-se mais adequado em prognosticar as quantidades disponíveis de Zn e de Cu para o milho, independentemente do tipo de lodo de esgoto aplicado e da elevação ou não do pH do

  9. Assessment of the Bioavailability of Cu, Pb, and Zn through Petunia axillaris in Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Bondareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are potentially toxic to human life and the environment. Metal toxicity depends on chemical associations in soils. For this reason, determining the chemical form of a metal in soils is important to evaluate its mobility and the potential accumulation. The aim of this examination is to evaluate the accumulation potential of Petunia x hybrida as a flower crop for three metals, namely, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and nickel (Ni. Trace metals (Zn, Cu, and Pb in the soils were partitioned by a sequential extraction procedure into H2O extractable (F1, 1 M CH3COONa extractable (F2. Chemical fractionation showed that F1 and F2 fraction of the metals were near 1% and residue was the dominant form for Zn, Cu, and Pb in all samples. Using fluorescence method allowed us to estimate condition of the plants by adding metals. As result of plant and soil analysis, we can conclude that Petunia has Cu, Zn, and Ni tolerance and accumulation. Therefore, Petunia has the potential to serve as a model species for developing herbaceous, ornamental plants for phytoremediation.

  10. Growth of intermetallics between Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horváth, Barbara; Illés, Balázs; Shinohara, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Intermetallic growth mechanisms and rates are investigated in Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layer systems. An 8–10 μm thick Sn surface finish layer was electroplated onto a Cu substrate with a 1.5–2 μm thick Ni or Ag barrier layer. In order to induce intermetallic layer growth, the samples were aged in elevated temperatures: 50 °C and 125 °C. Intermetallic layer growth was checked by focused ion beam–scanning ion microscope. The microstructures and chemical compositions of the intermetallic layers were observed with a transmission electron microscope. It has been found that Ni barrier layers can effectively block the development of Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallics. The intermetallic growth characteristics in the Sn/Cu and Sn/Ni/Cu systems are very similar. The intermetallic layer grows towards the Sn layer and forms a discrete layer. Differences were observed only in the growth gradients and surface roughness of the intermetallic layer which may explain the different tin whiskering properties. It was observed that the intermetallic layer growth mechanisms are completely different in the Ag barrier layers compared to the Ni layers. In the case of Sn/Ag/Cu systems, the Sn and Cu diffused through the Ag layer, formed Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallics mainly at the Sn/Ag interface and consumed the Ag barrier layer. - Highlights: • Intermetallic growth was characterised in Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layer systems. • Intermetallic growth rates and roughness are similar in the Sn/Cu and Sn/Ni/Cu systems. • Sn/Ni/Cu system contains the following intermetallic layer structure Sn–Ni3Sn4–Ni3Sn2–Ni3Sn–Ni. • In the case of Sn/Ag/Cu systems the Sn and Cu diffusion consumes the Ag barrier layer. • When Cu reaches the Sn/Ag interface a large amount of Cu 6 Sn 5 forms above the Ag layer

  11. Zn-Ni sulfide selective precipitation: The role of supersaturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampaio, R.M.M.; Timmers, R.A.; Kocks, N.; Andre, V.; Duarte, M.T.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Farges, F.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2010-01-01

    The selective removal of Zn with Na2S from a mixture of Zn and Ni was studied in a continuously stirred tank reactor. At pH 5 and pS 18 the selectivity was improved from 61% to 99% by reducing the supersaturation at the dosing points by means of the reduction of the influent concentrations. The

  12. Synthesis, spectroscopic and DNA binding ability of CoII, NiII, CuII and ZnII complexes of Schiff base ligand (E)-1-(((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methylimino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol. X-ray crystal structure determination of cobalt (II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkandi, Naeema H; El-Ghamry, Hoda A; Gaber, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    A novel Schiff base ligand, (E)-1-(((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methylimino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol (HL), has been designed and synthesized in addition to its metal chelates [Co(L) 2 ]·l2H 2 O, [Ni(L)Cl·(H 2 O) 2 ].5H 2 O, [Cu(L)Cl] and [Zn(L)(CH 3 COO)]. The structures of the isolated compounds have been confirmed and identified by means of different spectral and physicochemical techniques including CHN analysis, 1 H & 13 C NMR, mass spectral analysis, molar conductivity measurement, UV-Vis, infrared, magnetic moment in addition to TGA technique. The infrared spectral results ascertained that the ligand acts as monobasic tridentate binding to the metal centers via deprotonated hydroxyl oxygen, azomethine and imidazole nitrogen atoms. The UV-Vis, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity data implied octahedral geometry for Co(II) & Ni(II) complexes, tetrahedral for Zn(II) complex and square planar for Cu(II) complex. X-ray structural analysis of Co(II) complex 1 has been reported and discussed. Moreover, the type of interaction between the ligand & its complexes towards salmon sperm DNA (SS-DNA) has been examined by the measurement of absorption spectra and viscosity which confirmed that the ligand and its complexes interact with DNA via intercalation interaction as concluded from the values of binding constants (K b ). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-Ni-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Chihiro

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of 0.1 wt.% Mg-added and Mg-free Cu-2.0 wt.% Ni-0.5 wt.% Si alloys aged at 400 deg. C have been examined. The addition of Mg promotes the formation of disk-shaped Ni 2 Si precipitates. The Cu-Ni-Si-Mg alloy exhibits higher strength and resistance to stress relaxation than the Cu-Ni-Si alloy. The higher strength or stress relaxation resistance is attributable to the reduction in inter-precipitate spacing by the Mg addition or the drag effect of Mg atoms on dislocation motion. The Cu-Ni-Si alloy with a large grain size of 150 μm shows higher stress relaxation resistance than the alloy with a small grain size of 10 μm because of a lower density of mobile dislocations in the former alloy

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Cu-Ni-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzen, Ryoichi [Division of Innovative Technology and Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanzawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)], E-mail: monzen@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp; Watanabe, Chihiro [Division of Innovative Technology and Science, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanzawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of 0.1 wt.% Mg-added and Mg-free Cu-2.0 wt.% Ni-0.5 wt.% Si alloys aged at 400 deg. C have been examined. The addition of Mg promotes the formation of disk-shaped Ni{sub 2}Si precipitates. The Cu-Ni-Si-Mg alloy exhibits higher strength and resistance to stress relaxation than the Cu-Ni-Si alloy. The higher strength or stress relaxation resistance is attributable to the reduction in inter-precipitate spacing by the Mg addition or the drag effect of Mg atoms on dislocation motion. The Cu-Ni-Si alloy with a large grain size of 150 {mu}m shows higher stress relaxation resistance than the alloy with a small grain size of 10 {mu}m because of a lower density of mobile dislocations in the former alloy.

  15. Cyclotron production of {sup 61}Cu using natural Zn and enriched {sup 64}Zn targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asad, A. H.; Smith, S. V.; Chan, S.; Jeffery, C. M.; Morandeau, L.; Price, R. I. [RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia, Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, Australia, and Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Australian National University, Can (Australia); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States) and Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia); Center of Excellence in Anti-matter Matter Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia, and Chemistry, University of Western Australia, Pe (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth (Australia); RAPID PET Labs, Medical Technology and Physics, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia and Physics, University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia)

    2012-12-19

    Copper-61 ({sup 61}Cu) shares with {sup 64}Cu certain advantages for PET diagnostic imaging, but has a shorter half-life (3.4hr vs. 12.7hr) and a greater probability of positron production per disintegration (61% vs. 17.9%). One important application is for in vivo imaging of hypoxic tissue. In this study {sup 61}Cu was produced using the {sup 64}Zn(p,{alpha}){sup 61}Cu reaction on natural Zn or enriched {sup 64}Zn targets. The enriched {sup 64}Zn (99.82%) was electroplated onto high purity gold or silver foils or onto thin Al discs. A typical target bombardment used 30{mu}A; at 11.7, 14.5 or 17.6MeV over 30-60min. The {sup 61}Cu (radiochemical purity of >95%) was separated using a combination of cation and anion exchange columns. The {sup 64}Zn target material was recovered after each run, for re-use. In a direct comparison with enriched {sup 64}Zn-target results, {sup 61}Cu production using the cheaper {sup nat}Zn target proved to be an effective alternative.

  16. RF and microwave noise suppression in a transmission line using Fe-Si-Al/Ni-Zn magnetic composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Hong, Y. K.; Kim, K.; Joo, J.; Yoon, Y. W.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, Y. B.; Kim, K. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) and microwave noise suppression by using magnetic composite films on a microstrip line (MSL) was studied in the frequency range from 50 MHz to 13.5 GHz. The MSL was composed of a Cu transmission line, dielectric materials, and a Cu substrate. The Fe-Si-Al/Ni-Zn magnetic composite films were placed on the MSL, and the reflection and the transmission characteristics were investigated. We observed that RF and microwave noise suppression caused by the Fe-Si-Al/Ni-Zn magnetic composite films varied with the concentration ratio of the sendust (Fe-Si-Al) and the Ni-Zn ferrite. The frequency dependence of the power loss due to the composite films on the MSL was measured and the power loss increased at higher frequencies with increasing concentration of the sendust in the composites. The electromagnetic interference shielding efficiencies of the magnetic composite films in the far-field region are also discussed.

  17. Ni(ii)/Cu(ii)/Zn(ii) 5,5-diethylbarbiturate complexes with 1,10-phenanthroline and 2,2'-dipyridylamine: synthesis, structures, DNA/BSA binding, nuclease activity, molecular docking, cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and the mode of cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Veysel T; Icsel, Ceyda; Suyunova, Feruza; Aygun, Muhittin; Aztopal, Nazlihan; Ulukaya, Engin

    2016-06-21

    New 5,5-diethylbarbiturate (barb) complexes of Ni(ii), Cu(ii) and Zn(ii) with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) and 2,2'-dipyridylamine (dpya), namely [Ni(phen-κN,N')3]Cl(barb)·7H2O (), [Cu(barb-κN)(barb-κ(2)N,O)(phen-κN,N')]·H2O (), [Cu(barb-κN)2(phen-κN,N')] (), [Zn(barb-κN)2(phen-κN,N')]·H2O (), [Ni(barb-κ(2)N,O)(dpya-κN,N')2]Cl·2H2O (), [Cu(barb-κ(2)N,O)2(dpya-κN,N')]·2H2O () and [Zn(barb-κN)2(dpya-κN,N')] (), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, UV-vis, FT-IR and ESI-MS. The structures of the complexes were determined by X-ray crystallography. Notably, and were fluorescent in MeOH : H2O at rt. The interaction of the complexes with fish sperm (FS) DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated in detail by various techniques. The complexes exhibited groove binding along with a partial intercalative interaction with DNA, while the hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions played a major role in binding to BSA. It is noteworthy that exhibited the highest affinity towards DNA and BSA. Enzyme inhibition assay showed that show a preference for both A/T and G/C rich sequences in pUC19 DNA, while and display a binding specificity to the G/C and A/T rich regions, respectively. These findings were further supported by molecular docking. The cellular uptake studies suggested that was deposited mostly in the membrane fraction of the cells. Among the present complexes, exhibited a very strong cytotoxic effect on A549, MCF-7, HT-29 and DU-145 cancer cells, being more potent than cisplatin. Moreover, induces cell death through the apoptotic mode obtained by flow cytometry.

  18. Exploring the activated state of Cu/ZnO-Zn, a model catalyst for methanol synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batyrev, E.D.; Shiju, N.R.; Rothenberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of Cu clusters with ZnO(0001)-Zn terminated crystal faces is studied after reduction at high temperatures by a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermal desorption spectroscopy. We find that tiny

  19. Punicalagin Green Functionalized Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO Nanocomposite for Potential Electrochemical Transducer and Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuku, X.; Kaviyarasu, K.; Matinise, N.; Maaza, M.

    2016-09-01

    A novel ternary Punica granatum L-Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanocomposite was successfully synthesised via green route. In this work, we demonstrate that the green synthesis of metal oxides is more viable and facile compare to other methods, i.e., physical and chemical routes while presenting a potential electrode for energy applications. The prepared nanocomposite was characterised by both microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques revealed different transitional phases with an average nanocrystallite size of 29-20 mm. It was observed that the nanocomposites changed from amorphous-slightly crystalline Cu/Cu2O to polycrystalline Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO at different calcination temperatures (room temperature-RT- 600 °C). The Cu/Cu2O/ZnO/CuO metal oxides proved to be highly crystalline and showed irregularly distributed particles with different sizes. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the purity while together with ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy proved the proposed mechanism of the synthesised nanocomposite. UV-Vis showed improved catalytic activity of the prepared metal oxides, evident by narrow band gap energy. The redox and electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite were achieved by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD). The maximum specific capacitance ( C s) was calculated to be 241 F g-1 at 50 mV s-1 for Cu/Cu2O/CuO/ZnO nanoplatelets structured electrode. Moreover, all the CuO nanostructures reveal better power performance, excellent rate as well as long term cycling stability. Such a study will encourages a new design for a wide spectrum of materials for smart electronic device applications.

  20. Molecular characterization of two CuZn-superoxide dismutases in a sea anemone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantivaux, Amandine; Furla, Paola; Zoccola, Didier; Garello, Ginette; Forcioli, Didier; Richier, Sophie; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Tambutté, Eric; Tambutté, Sylvie; Allemand, Denis

    2004-10-15

    Cnidarians living in symbiosis with photosynthetic cells--called zooxanthellae--are submitted to high oxygen levels generated by photosynthesis. To cope with this hyperoxic state, symbiotic cnidarians present a high diversity of superoxide dismutases (SOD) isoforms. To understand better the mechanism of resistance of cnidarian hosts to hyperoxia, we studied copper- and zinc-containing SOD (CuZnSOD) from Anemonia viridis, a temperate symbiotic sea anemone. We cloned two CuZnSOD genes that we call AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb. Their molecular analysis suggests that the AvCuZnSODa transcript encodes an extracellular form of CuZnSOD, whereas the AvCuZnSODb transcript encodes an intracellular form. Using in situ hybridization, we showed that both AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb transcripts are expressed in the endodermal and ectodermal cells of the sea anemone, but not in the zooxanthellae. The genomic flanking sequences of AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb revealed different putative binding sites for transcription factors, suggesting different modes of regulation for the two genes. This study represents a first step in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of host animal resistance to permanent hyperoxia status resulting from the photosynthetic symbiosis. Moreover, AvCuZnSODa and AvCuZnSODb are the first SODs cloned from a diploblastic animal, contributing to the evolutionary understanding of SODs.

  1. Corrosion Resistance Of Electroless Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P Multilayer Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao G.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P multilayer coatings were prepared by deposition of Cu layer between two Ni–P layers. The Cu layer was deposited by metal displacement reaction between Cu2+ and Fe atoms. Corrosion behavior of single-layer Ni-P coatings, double-layer Ni-P/Cu coatings, and three-layer Ni-P/Cu/Ni-P coatings were investigated by electrochemical tests in 3.5% NaCl solution. The three-layer coatings exhibited more positive Ecorr and decreased Icorr compared with conventional single-layer Ni-P coatings, which indicated an improved corrosion resistance. The polarization curves of the three-layer coatings were characterized by two passive regions. The improved corrosion resistance was not only attributed to the function of the blocked pores of Cu. The Cu interlayer also acted as a sacrificial layer instead of a barrier in the coatings, which altered the corrosion mechanism and further improved the corrosion resistance of the coatings.

  2. ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films: Structure optimization and investigation on photoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoyu; Li Yingai; Liu Shi; Wu Honglin; Cui Haining

    2012-01-01

    A series of ZnO/Cu/ZnO multilayer films has been fabricated from zinc and copper metallic targets by simultaneous RF and DC magnetron sputtering. Numerical simulation of the optical properties of the multilayer films has been carried out in order to guide the experimental work. The influences of the ZnO and Cu layer thicknesses, and of O 2 /Ar ratio on the photoelectric and structural properties of the films were investigated. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayers were studied by optical spectrometry and four point probe measurements, respectively. The structural properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction. The performance of the multilayers as transparent conducting coatings was compared using a figure of merit. In experiments, the thickness of the ZnO layers was varied between 4 and 70 nm and those of Cu were between 8 and 37 nm. The O 2 /Ar ratios range from 1:5 to 2:1. Low sheet resistance and high transmittance were obtained when the film was prepared using an O 2 /Ar ratio of 1:4 and a thickness of ZnO (60 nm)/Cu (15 nm)/ZnO (60 nm). - Highlights: ► ZnO/Cu/ZnO films were fabricated from zinc and copper targets by sputtering. ► Transmittance reaches maximum when top and bottom ZnO thicknesses are nearly equal. ► Sheet resistance increases with increasing ZnO layer thickness. ► Variation in sheet resistance with oxygen/argon ratio is due to interface effect.

  3. Elastocaloric effect in CuAlZn and CuAlMn shape memory alloys under compression

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Suxin; Geng, Yunlong; Wang, Yi; Pillsbury, Thomas E.; Hada, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Fujimoto, Kenjiro; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Cui, Jun; Yuki, Yoji; Toyotake, Koutaro; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the elastocaloric effect of two Cu-based shape memory alloys: Cu68Al16Zn16 (CuAlZn) and Cu73Al15Mn12 (CuAlMn), under compression at ambient temperature. The compression tests were conducted at two different rates to approach isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Upon unloading at a strain rate of 0.1 s−1 (adiabatic condition) from 4% strain, the highest adiabatic temperature changes (ΔTad) of 4.0 K for CuAlZn and 3.9 K for CuAlMn were obtained. The maximum stress and hystere...

  4. Solvothermal synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ZnO, ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO, mixed oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslani, Alireza; Arefi, Mohammad Reza; Babapoor, Aziz; Amiri, Asghar; Beyki-Shuraki, Khalil

    2011-01-01

    ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO mixed oxides nanoparticles were produced from a solution containing Zinc acetate, Mg and Ni nitrate by Solvothermal method. The calcination process of the ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO composites nanoparticles brought forth polycrystalline two-phase ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles of 40-80 nm in diameters. ZnO, MgO and NiO were crystallized into wuertzite and rock salt structures, respectively. The optical properties of ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles were obtained by solid state UV and solid state florescent. The XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopies of these nanoparticles were analyzed.

  5. Solvothermal synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ZnO, ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO, mixed oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Alireza; Arefi, Mohammad Reza; Babapoor, Aziz; Amiri, Asghar; Beyki-Shuraki, Khalil

    2011-03-01

    ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO mixed oxides nanoparticles were produced from a solution containing Zinc acetate, Mg and Ni nitrate by Solvothermal method. The calcination process of the ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO composites nanoparticles brought forth polycrystalline two-phase ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles of 40-80 nm in diameters. ZnO, MgO and NiO were crystallized into würtzite and rock salt structures, respectively. The optical properties of ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles were obtained by solid state UV and solid state florescent. The XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopies of these nanoparticles were analyzed.

  6. Solvothermal synthesis, characterization and optical properties of ZnO, ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO, mixed oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslani, Alireza, E-mail: a.aslani@vru.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, PO Box: 77176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arefi, Mohammad Reza [Islamic Azad University, Yazd Brunch, Young researchers Club, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Babapoor, Aziz [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahar, PO Box: 54516 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, Asghar; Beyki-Shuraki, Khalil [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Vali-E-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, PO Box: 77176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO mixed oxides nanoparticles were produced from a solution containing Zinc acetate, Mg and Ni nitrate by Solvothermal method. The calcination process of the ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO composites nanoparticles brought forth polycrystalline two-phase ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles of 40-80 nm in diameters. ZnO, MgO and NiO were crystallized into wuertzite and rock salt structures, respectively. The optical properties of ZnO-MgO and ZnO-NiO nanoparticles were obtained by solid state UV and solid state florescent. The XRD, SEM and Raman spectroscopies of these nanoparticles were analyzed.

  7. Studying Selective Transparency in ZnS/ Cu/ ZnS Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksibe, A.; Howari, H.; Diab, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dielectric/ Metal/ Dielectric (DMD) thin films deposited on glass offer of significant energy saving in buildings and can find other applications of advanced materials design. In an effort to reduce the complexity and cost production of DMD films, physical vapor deposition was used for the laboratory manufacture of ZnS/ Cu/ ZnS films on glass. ZnS was used because of its high refractive index, ease of deposition and low cost; Cu was used because of its low absorption in the visible spectrum and its thermal stability. The films produced were of good quality, with transmittance as high as 85%. The ZnS layers were found not only to antireflect the Ag layer, but also to stabilize the ZnS/ Cu/ ZnS films, improve its adherence on glass and increase the film thermal resistance up to 240 C. The influence of annealing on the optical properties was investigated. The experimental results show that the properties of the multilayers are improved with annealing in air. the change of maximum transmission indicates that, with the increase of annealing temperature, maximum transmittance was change. Multilayer films annealed at after 200 C, show a decrease in the maximum transmittance witch might be due to the diffused Cu atoms onto ZnS layer. (author)

  8. Facile synthesis of Cu/tetrapod-like ZnO whisker compounds with enhanced photocatalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Liu, Huarong; Fan, Ximei

    2017-09-01

    Cu/tetrapod-like ZnO whisker (T-ZnOw) compounds were successfully synthesized using N2H4 \\cdot H2O as a reducing agent by a simple reduction method without any insert gas at room temperature. The crystal phase composition and morphology of the as-prepared samples were investigated by XRD, SEM and FESEM tests. The photocatalytic property of the as-prepared samples was detected by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution under UV irradiation. It can be found that Cu nanoparticles (CuNPs) dispersed on the surface of T-ZnOw increased with the increasing of Cu/Zn molar ratios (Cu/Zn MRs), and an octahedral structure of CuNPs was obtained when the sample was prepared with less than and equal to 7.30% Cu/Zn MR, but tended to a spherical or nanorod structure of CuNPs densely arranged on the surface of T-ZnOw, which is prepared by Cu/Zn MRs up to 22.00%. All the compounds exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity in decomposing of MO than T-ZnOw, the photocatalytic property of the samples increased with the increasing of Cu/Zn MRs up to 7.30%, while it decreases when further increasing the Cu/Zn MRs. The Schottky barrier of the Cu/T-ZnOw compound can effectively capture photoinduced electrons from the interface and enhanced the photocatalytic property of T-ZnOw.

  9. Synthesis, spectroscopic and DNA binding ability of Co{sup II}, Ni{sup II}, Cu{sup II} and Zn{sup II} complexes of Schiff base ligand (E)-1-(((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methylimino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol. X-ray crystal structure determination of cobalt (II) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarkandi, Naeema H. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al–Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia); El-Ghamry, Hoda A., E-mail: helghamrymo@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Applied Science, Umm Al–Qura University, Makkah (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Gaber, Mohamed [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt)

    2017-06-01

    A novel Schiff base ligand, (E)-1-(((1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methylimino)methyl)naphthalen-2-ol (HL), has been designed and synthesized in addition to its metal chelates [Co(L){sub 2}]·l2H{sub 2}O, [Ni(L)Cl·(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}].5H{sub 2}O, [Cu(L)Cl] and [Zn(L)(CH{sub 3}COO)]. The structures of the isolated compounds have been confirmed and identified by means of different spectral and physicochemical techniques including CHN analysis, {sup 1}H &{sup 13}C NMR, mass spectral analysis, molar conductivity measurement, UV–Vis, infrared, magnetic moment in addition to TGA technique. The infrared spectral results ascertained that the ligand acts as monobasic tridentate binding to the metal centers via deprotonated hydroxyl oxygen, azomethine and imidazole nitrogen atoms. The UV–Vis, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity data implied octahedral geometry for Co(II) & Ni(II) complexes, tetrahedral for Zn(II) complex and square planar for Cu(II) complex. X-ray structural analysis of Co(II) complex 1 has been reported and discussed. Moreover, the type of interaction between the ligand & its complexes towards salmon sperm DNA (SS-DNA) has been examined by the measurement of absorption spectra and viscosity which confirmed that the ligand and its complexes interact with DNA via intercalation interaction as concluded from the values of binding constants (K{sub b}). - Highlights: • Synthesis of Co{sup II}, Ni{sup II}, Cu{sup II} and Zn{sup II} complexes of the Schiff base ligand based on 2-(aminomethyl)benzimidazole moiety. • The constitutions and structures of the ligand and complexes were elucidated. • Molecular structure of Co{sup II} complex was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction method. • The ligand and its complexes interact with SS-DNA via intercalation mods.

  10. Minor-alloyed Cu-Ni-Si alloys with high hardness and electric conductivity designed by a cluster formula approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cu-Ni-Si alloys are widely used due to their good electrical conductivities in combination with high strength and hardness. In the present work, minor-alloying with M = (Cr, Fe, Mo, Zr was conducted for the objective of further improving their hardness while maintaining their conductivity level. A cluster-plus-glue-atom model was introduced to design the compositions of M-alloyed Cu-Ni-Si alloys, in which an ideal composition formula [(Ni,Si,M-Cu12]Cu3 (molar proportion was proposed. To guarantee the complete precipitation of solute elements in fine δ-Ni2Si precipitates, the atomic ratio of (Ni,M/Si was set as 2/1. Thus the designed alloy series of Cu93.75(Ni/Zr3.75Si2.08(Cr/Fe/Mo0.42 (at% were arc-melted into ingots under argon atmosphere, and solid-solutioned at 950 °C for 1 h plus water quenching and then aged at 450 °C for different hours. The experimental results showed that these designed alloys exhibit high hardness (HV > 1.7 GPa and good electrical conductivities (≥ 35% IACS. Specifically, the quinary Cu93.75Ni3.54Si2.08(Cr/Fe0.42Zr0.21 alloys (Cu-3.32Ni-0.93Si-0.37(Cr/Fe−0.30Zr wt% possess both a high hardness with HV = 2.5–2.7 GPa, comparable to the high-strength KLFA85 alloy (Cu-3.2Ni-0.7Si-1.1Zn wt%, HV = 2.548 GPa, and a good electrical conductivity (35–36% IACS.

  11. Magnetron sputtered Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu shape memory thin film heterostructures for MEMS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Navjot; Choudhary, Nitin [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology (India); Goyal, Rajendra N. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Department of Chemistry (India); Viladkar, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology (India); Matai, I.; Gopinath, P. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, Centre for Nanotechnology (India); Chockalingam, S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, Department of Biotechnology (India); Kaur, Davinder, E-mail: dkaurfph@iitr.ernet.in [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Functional Nanomaterials Research Lab, Department of Physics and Centre of Nanotechnology (India)

    2013-03-15

    In the present study, for the first time, Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu/Si heterostructures were successfully grown using magnetron sputtering technique. Nanocrystalline copper nitride (Cu{sub 3}N with thickness {approx}200 nm) thin films and copper nanodots were subsequently deposited on the surface of 2-{mu}m-thick NiTiCu shape memory thin films in order to improve the surface corrosion and nickel release properties of NiTiCu thin films. Interestingly, the phase transformation from martensite phase to austenite phase has been observed in Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu heterostructures with corresponding change in texture and surface morphology of top Cu{sub 3}N films. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope images of the heterostructures reveals the formation of 20-nm-sized copper nanodots on NiTiCu surface at higher deposition temperature (450 Degree-Sign C) of Cu{sub 3}N. Cu{sub 3}N passivated NiTiCu films possess low corrosion current density with higher corrosion potential and, therefore, better corrosion resistance as compared to pure NiTiCu films. The concentration of Ni released from the Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu samples was observed to be much less than that of pure NiTiCu film. It can be reduced to the factor of about one-ninth after the surface passivation resulting in smooth, homogeneous and highly corrosion resistant surface. The antibacterial and cytotoxicity of pure and Cu{sub 3}N coated NiTiCu thin films were investigated through green fluorescent protein expressing E. coli bacteria and human embryonic kidney cells. The results show the strong antibacterial property and non cytotoxicity of Cu{sub 3}N/NiTiCu heterostructure. This work is of immense technological importance due to variety of BioMEMS applications.

  12. Cu(II), Zn(II)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the kinetic parameters as order of decomposition reaction, activation energy and ..... Cu as anode material, K - alpha [Å] = 1.54060 and the generator settings 30 .... Calculated quantum chemical parameters for ligand and its metal complexes.

  13. Mechanical properties of highly textured Cu/Ni multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Bufford, D.; Wang, H.; Sun, C.; Zhang, X.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of highly (1 1 1) and (1 0 0) textured Cu/Ni multilayers with individual layer thicknesses, h, varying from 1 to 200 nm. When, h, decreases to 5 nm or less, X-ray diffraction spectra show epitaxial growth of Cu/Ni multilayers. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show the coexistence of nanotwins and coherent layer interfaces in highly (1 1 1) textured Cu/Ni multilayers with smaller h. Hardnesses of multilayer films increase with decreasing h, approach a maximum at h of a few nanometers, and show softening thereafter at smaller h. The influence of layer interfaces as well as twin interfaces on strengthening mechanisms of multilayers and the formation of twins in Ni in multilayers are discussed.

  14. Giant magnetoimpedance effect in sputtered single layered NiFe film and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Zhou, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhou, Z.M.; Ding, W.

    2010-01-01

    Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect on NiFe thin film is very promising due to its application in developing the magnetic field sensors with highly sensitivity and low cost. In this paper, the single layered NiFe thin film and NiFe/Cu/NiFe thin film with a meander structure are prepared by the MEMS technology. The influences of sputtering parameters, film structure and conductor layer width on GMI effect in NiFe single layer and meander NiFe/Cu/NiFe film are investigated. Maximum of the GMI ratio in single layer and sandwich film is 5% and 64%, respectively. The results obtained are useful for developing the high-performance magnetic sensors based on NiFe thin film.

  15. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb) in the soft tissues of the gastropods Tympanotonus fuscatus fuscatus and Tf radula collected in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire): Evidence of the risks linked to linked to lead and.

  16. Electrodeposited Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Valdes, M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cu(sub2)ZnSnS(sub4)(CZTS) thin films have been prepared using Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (EC-ALD)and also by one-step conventional constant potential electrodeposition. Optimal deposition conditionswere investigated using cyclic...

  17. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Chemical analysis of the trace elements in the soft tissues. The trace elements of interest (Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were then determined in the digested solutions, using Thermoelemental type. M6 brand of an atomic absorption Spectrometer equipped with a flame operated atomisation system and a deuterium ...

  18. CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2014-01-01

    , especially when the electronic energy is derived from renewable energies, such as solar, wind, geo-thermal and tidal. To achieve this goal, the development of an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction is essential. In this thesis, studies on CuZn alloys

  19. Tuning the emission of aqueous Cu:ZnSe quantum dots to yellow light window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chunlei; Hu, Zhiyang; Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Yanbin; Zhao, Zengxia; Wang, Zhuyuan; Cui, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of internally doped Cu:ZnSe QDs in an aqueous solution still suffers from narrow tunable emissions from the blue to green light window. In this work, we extended the emission window of aqueous Cu:ZnSe QDs to the yellow light window. Our results show that high solution pH, multiple injections of Zn precursors, and nucleation doping strategy are three key factors for preparing yellow emitted Cu:ZnSe QDs. All these factors can depress the reactivity of CuSe nuclei and Zn monomers, promoting ZnSe growth outside CuSe nuclei rather than form ZnSe nuclei separately. With increased ZnSe QD size, the conduction band and nearby trap state energy levels shift to higher energy sites, causing Cu:ZnSe QDs to have a much longer emission. (paper)

  20. Mass attenuation coefficients in the range 3.8⩽E⩽11 keV, K fluorescence yield and Kβ/Kα relative X-ray emission rate for Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn measured with a tunable monochromatic X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménesguen, Y.; Lépy, M.-C.

    2010-08-01

    This work presents new measurements of mass attenuation coefficients in the range 3.8⩽E⩽11 keV, K-absorption jump-ratios, Kα and Kβ fluorescence yields for Ti, V, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn. We use the experimental facility SOLEX, a tunable monochromatic X-ray source combined with an energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector. The results are compared with theoretical values as well as with other experimental data and show a relatively good agreement. However, the derived K-jump-ratios appear larger than those widely used in the XCOM database. The Kα and Kβ fluorescence yields and the corresponding relative emission rates Kβ/Kα are also derived, which was made possible by the use of energy-dispersive detectors with good spectral resolution.

  1. Crystal structure and phase transition studies in perovskite-type oxides using powder-diffraction techniques and symmetry-mode analysis : SrLnMRuO6 (Ln=La,Pr,Nd; M=Zn,Co,Mg,Ni,Fe) and ALn2CuTi2O9 (A=Ca,Ba; Ln=La,Pr,Nd,Sm)

    OpenAIRE

    Iturbe Zabalo, Edurne

    2013-01-01

    La tesis se ha centrado en la síntesis y caracterización estructural de materiales tipo perovskita: SrLnMRuO6 (Ln=La,Pr,Nd; M=Zn,Co,Mg,Ni,Fe) y ALn2CuTi2O9 (A=Ca,Ba; Ln=La,Pr,Nd,Sm). El estudio de las estructuras de los materiales se ha realizado mediante el análisis de los patrones de difracción en polvo de rayos-X, sincrotrón y/o neutrones. En el refinamiento por el método de Rietveld de las estructuras se han sustituido las coordenadas atómicas (el método más común), por coordenadas colect...

  2. The complex transfer reaction (14C, 15O) on Ni, Zn and Ge targets: existence and mass of 69Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessagne, P.; Bernas, M.; Langevin, M.; Pougheon, F.; Roussel, P.; Morrison, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The ( 14 C, 15 O) complex transfer reaction has been studied at 72 MeV incident energy on 58 Ni, 60 Ni, 62 Ni, 64 Ni, 68 Zn, 70 Zn and 74 Ge, 76 Ge targets. Spectra and differential cross sections have been measured in a 5 0 angular range centred around a laboratory angle of 6 0 . The nucleus 69 Ni has been observed and its mass determined for the first time

  3. CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2014-06-01

    ABSTRACT CuZn Alloy- Based Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction Amira Alazmi Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major greenhouse gases and its emission is a significant threat to global economy and sustainability. Efficient CO2 conversion leads to utilization of CO2 as a carbon feedstock, but activating the most stable carbon-based molecule, CO2, is a challenging task. Electrochemical conversion of CO2 is considered to be the beneficial approach to generate carbon-containing fuels directly from CO2, especially when the electronic energy is derived from renewable energies, such as solar, wind, geo-thermal and tidal. To achieve this goal, the development of an efficient electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction is essential. In this thesis, studies on CuZn alloys with heat treatments at different temperatures have been evaluated as electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction. It was found that the catalytic activity of these electrodes was strongly dependent on the thermal oxidation temperature before their use for electrochemical measurements. The polycrystalline CuZn electrode without thermal treatment shows the Faradaic efficiency for CO formation of only 30% at applied potential ~−1.0 V vs. RHE with current density of ~−2.55 mA cm−2. In contrast, the reduction of oxide-based CuZn alloy electrode exhibits 65% Faradaic efficiency for CO at lower applied potential about −1.0 V vs. RHE with current density of −2.55 mA cm−2. Furthermore, stable activity was achieved over several hours of the reduction reaction at the modified electrodes. Based on electrokinetic studies, this improvement could be attributed to further stabilization of the CO2•− on the oxide-based Cu-Zn alloy surface.

  4. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites of ZnO/CuO/chitosan with improved properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xingfa, E-mail: xingfamazju@aliyun.com [School of Environmental and Material Engineering, Center of Advanced Functional Materials, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005 (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Zhang, Bo; Cong, Qin; He, Xiaochun; Gao, Mingjun [School of Environmental and Material Engineering, Center of Advanced Functional Materials, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005 (China); Li, Guang [National Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2016-08-01

    To extend the visible light response of ZnO, ZnO/CuO heterostructured nanocomposite was synthesized by a hydrothermal approach. At the same time, chitosan (Ch) is considered as a very promising natural polymer. It holds not only abundant resource and low cost, but also has excellent adsorption properties to a broad range of organic pollutants and some heavy metal ions. To improve the adsorption properties of ZnO/CuO nanocomposite, ZnO/CuO/chitosan organic-inorganic composites were prepared with precipitation method. The as-prepared nanocomposites were characterized by TEM (Transmission electron microscopy), SAED pattern (Selected Area Electron Diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), UV–Vis (Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy), PL (Photoluminescence), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TGA (Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra (FTIR) et al. To examine the surface and interface properties of nanocomposites, chemical prototype sensor arrays were constructed based on ZnO, ZnO/CuO, ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O, ZnO/CuO/chitosan, ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O/chitosan nanocomposites and QCM (quartz crystal microbalance) arrays devices. The adsorption response behaviors of the sensor arrays to some typical volatile compounds were examined under similar conditions. The results indicated that with comparison to ZnO nanostructure, the ZnO/CuO nanocomposite exhibited enhanced adsorption properties to some typical volatile compounds greatly, and the adsorption properties of ZnO/CuO/chitosan are much better than that of ZnO/CuO nanocomposite. The adsorption of ZnO/CuO system is super to that of ZnO/Cu{sub 2}O. Therefore, ZnO/CuO/chitosan nanocomposite not only showed broadening visible light response, but also possessed of excellent adsorption properties, and has good potential applications in photocatalysts, chemical sensors, biosensors, self-cleaning coating fields et al. - Highlights: • ZnO/CuO nanocomposites exhibited good response in near whole visible

  5. First-principles study of defect formation in a photovoltaic semiconductor Cu2ZnGeSe4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Hironori; Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2018-02-01

    The formation energies of neutral Cu, Zn, Ge, and Se vacancies in kesterite-type Cu2ZnGeSe4 were evaluated by first-principles pseudopotential calculations using plane-wave basis functions. The calculations were performed at typical points in Cu-(Zn1/2Ge1/2)-Se and Cu3Se2-ZnSe-GeSe2 pseudoternary phase diagrams for Cu2ZnGeSe4. The results were compared with those for Cu2ZnSnSe4, Cu2ZnGeS4, and Cu2ZnSnS4 calculated using the same version of the CASTEP program code. The results indicate that Cu vacancies are easily formed in Cu2ZnGeSe4 under the Cu-poor condition as in the above compounds and CuInSe2, suggesting that Cu2ZnGeSe4 is also a preferable p-type absorber material for thin-film solar cells. The formation energies of possible antisite defects, such as CuZn and CuGe, and of possible complex defects, such as CuZn+ZnCu, were also calculated and compared within the above materials. The antisite defect of CuZn, which has the smallest formation energy within the possible defects, is concluded to be the most hardly formed in Cu2ZnGeSe4 among the compounds.

  6. Quenching of the surface-state-related photoluminescence in Ni-coated ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Yang [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhao Dongxu, E-mail: dxzhao2000@yahoo.com.c [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhang Jiying; Shen Dezhen [Key Laboratory of Excited State Processes, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 16 East Nan-Hu Road, Open Economic Zone, Changchun 130033 (China)

    2010-11-01

    Nickel-coated ZnO nanowires (NWs) were fabricated by electrodepositing Ni particles on ZnO NW arrays. The morphological, magnetic, and photoluminescent properties of the Ni-coated ZnO NWs were investigated. The Ni particles were deposited on the ZnO NWs' surface along its length to form a Ni/ZnO shell-core structure. The Ni-coated ZnO NWs exhibited more isotropic characteristic than the electrodeposited Ni films owing to the isotropic sphere structure of the Ni particles. A strong ultraviolet emission can be obtained from the Ni-coated ZnO NWs, while the green emission related to surface states was quenched by the passivated layer.

  7. Quenching of the surface-state-related photoluminescence in Ni-coated ZnO nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yang; Zhao Dongxu; Zhang Jiying; Shen Dezhen

    2010-01-01

    Nickel-coated ZnO nanowires (NWs) were fabricated by electrodepositing Ni particles on ZnO NW arrays. The morphological, magnetic, and photoluminescent properties of the Ni-coated ZnO NWs were investigated. The Ni particles were deposited on the ZnO NWs' surface along its length to form a Ni/ZnO shell-core structure. The Ni-coated ZnO NWs exhibited more isotropic characteristic than the electrodeposited Ni films owing to the isotropic sphere structure of the Ni particles. A strong ultraviolet emission can be obtained from the Ni-coated ZnO NWs, while the green emission related to surface states was quenched by the passivated layer.

  8. Effect of interface intermixing on giant magnetoresistance in NiFe/Cu and Co/NiFe/Co/Cu multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, L.C.C.M.; Biondo, A.; Pereira, L.G.; Mello, A.; Schmidt, J.E.; Chimendes, T.W.; Cunha, J.B.M.; Saitovitch, E.B.

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the important influence of the spontaneously built-in paramagnetic interfacial layers on the magnetic and magnetoresistive properties of NiFe/Cu and Co/NiFe/Co/Cu multilayers grown by magnetron sputtering. A computational simulation, based on a semiclassical model, has been used to reproduce the variations of the resistivity and of the magnetoresistance (MR) amplitude with the thickness of the NiFe, Cu, and Co layers. We showed that the compositionally intermixed layers at NiFe/Cu interfaces, which are paramagnetic, reduce the flow of polarized electrons and produce a masking on the estimated mean-free path of both types of electrons due to the reduction of their effective values, mainly for small NiFe thickness. Moreover, the transmission coefficients for the electrons decrease when Fe buffer layers are replaced by NiFe ones. This result is interpreted in terms of the variations of the interfacial intermixing and roughness at the interfaces, leading to an increase of the paramagnetic interfacial layer thickness. The effect provoked by Co deposition at the NiFe 16 A/Cu interfaces has also been investigated. The maximum of the MR amplitudes was found at 5 A of Co, resulting in the quadruplication of the MR amplitude. This result is partially attributed to the interfacial spin-dependent scattering due to the increase of the magnetic order at interfaces. Another effect observed here was the increase of the spin-dependent scattering events in the bulk NiFe due to a larger effective NiFe thickness, since the paramagnetic interfacial layer thickness is decreased

  9. Electroplating of Uranium -Foil Target With Ni And Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husna AI Hasa, Muhammad; Suripto, Asmedi

    2001-01-01

    The uranium foil target, which was produced by rolling, was subjected to preparation treatment prior to the electroplating. The electroplating produced certain plate thickness on the foil surface. The electroplating was applied to the uranium foil of 71 mm long and 46 mm wide using plating materials of Ni and Zn. The plating is intended to serve as barrier for fission fragment recoils, which are produced during irradiation. The plate thickness produced by the electroplating was measured by a micrometer and an analytical balance. The electroplating with Ni produced plate-thickness of 8,9 mm when measured by the micrometer, or 11.4 mm when measured by the analytical balance, while the Zn electroplating produced greater plate-thickness, i.e. 16.2 mm by the micrometer measurement or 13.7 mm by the analytical balance measurement. The current efficiency of the electroplating was 62 % for Ni and 80 % for Zn. It was observed that the optimum condition for the electroplating depended on the plating materials, plating time, and current density. The plate-thickness produced under the optimum condition was 7-15 mm at 15 mA/cm 2 for Ni and ]0 mA/cm 2 for Zn with plating time of 60 minutes

  10. Simultaneous adsorption and degradation of Zn(2+) and Cu (2+) from wastewaters using nanoscale zero-valent iron impregnated with clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Na; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-06-01

    Clays such as kaolin, bentonite and zeolite were evaluated as support material for nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) to simultaneously remove Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) from aqueous solution. Of the three supported nZVIs, bentonite-supported nZVI (B-nZVI) was most effective in the simultaneous removal of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) from a aqueous solution containing a 100 mg/l of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), where 92.9 % Cu(2+) and 58.3 % Zn(2+) were removed. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) revealed that the aggregation of nZVI decreased as the proportion of bentonite increased due to the good dispersion of nZVI, while energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) demonstrated the deposition of copper and zinc on B-nZVI after B-nZVI reacted with Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). A kinetics study indicated that removing Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) with B-nZVI accorded with the pseudo first-order model. These suggest that simultaneous adsorption of Cu(2+)and Zn(2+) on bentonite and the degradation of Cu(2+)and Zn(2+) by nZVI on the bentonite. However, Cu(2+) removal by B-nZVI was reduced rather than adsorption, while Zn(2+) removal was main adsorption. Finally, Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+) and total Cr from various wastewaters were removed by B-nZVI, and reusability of B-nZVI with different treatment was tested, which demonstrates that B-nZVI is a potential material for the removal of heavy metals from wastewaters.

  11. Calculation of Gibbs energy of Zr-Al-Ni, Zr-Al-Cu, Al-Ni-Cu and Zr-Al-Ni-Cu liquid alloys based on quasiregular solution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.Q.; Yang, Y.S.; Tong, W.H.; Wang, Z.Y.

    2007-01-01

    With the effects of electronic structure and atomic size being introduced, the mixing enthalpy as well as the Gibbs energy of the ternary Zr-Al-Cu, Ni-Al-Cu, Zr-Ni-Al and quaternary Zr-Al-Ni-Cu systems are calculated based on quasiregular solution model. The computed results agree well with the experimental data. The sequence of Gibbs energies of different systems is: G Zr-Al-Ni-Cu Zr-Al-Ni Zr-Al-Cu Cu-Al-Ni . To Zr-Al-Cu, Ni-Al-Cu and Zr-Ni-Al, the lowest Gibbs energy locates in the composition range of X Zr 0.39-0.61, X Al = 0.38-0.61; X Ni = 0.39-0.61, X Al = 0.38-0.60 and X Zr = 0.32-0.67, X Al = 0.32-0.66, respectively. And to the Zr-Ni-Al-Cu system with 66.67% Zr, the lowest Gibbs energy is obtained in the region of X Al = 0.63-0.80, X Ni = 0.14-0.24

  12. Intercalation of vanadate in Ni, Zn layered hydroxyacetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, Ricardo; Barriga, Cristobalina; Ulibarri, M.A.; Rives, Vicente

    2004-01-01

    Interlayer acetate anions in layered double hydroxyacetates of Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ have been exchanged by oxovanadates following three synthetic routes (at 60 deg. C, under hydrothermal conditions and after preswelling with caprylate anions) and different pH; direct exchange at room temperature was not successful. Complete exchange was achieved under adequated conditions, and the precise nature of the interlayer anion depends on the pH during exchange: at low pH (4.5), the presence of α-VO 3 chains, with anchoring (grafting) of the species to the hydroxide layers, is proposed. At higher pH (9.5) V 2 O 7 4- species are present in the interlayer. Thermal decomposition of these vanadate-intercalated products leads to formation of orthorhombic Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ vanadates, together with NiO

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance in Cu-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, R.; Acosta-Humánez, F.; Almanza, O.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, ZnO and Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles (Zn1-xCuxO, x = 3%), with a calcination temperature of 500∘C were synthesized using the sol-gel method. The particles were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band, measurement in a temperature range from 90 K to room temperature. AAS confirmed a good correspondence between the experimental doping concentration and the theoretical value. XRD reveals the presence of ZnO phase in hexagonal wurtzite structure and a nanoparticle size for the samples synthesized. EPR spectroscopy shows the presence of point defects in both samples with g-values of g = 1.959 for shallow donors and g = 2.004 for ionized vacancies. It is important when these materials are required have been used as catalysts, as suggested that it is not necessary prepare them at higher temperature. A simulation of the Cu EPR signal using an anisotropic spin Hamiltonian was performed and showed good coincidence with the experimental spectra. It was shown that Cu2+ ions enter interstitial octahedral sites of orthorhombic symmetry in the wurtzite crystal structure. Temperature dependence of the EPR linewidth and signal intensity shows a paramagnetic behavior of the sample in the measurement range. A Néel temperature TN = 78 ± 19 K was determined.

  14. Influence of Ni Solute segregation on the intrinsic growth stresses in Cu(Ni) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaub, T.M.; Felfer, P.; Cairney, J.M.; Thompson, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Using intrinsic solute segregation in alloys, the compressive stress in a series of Cu(Ni) thin films has been studied. The highest compressive stress was noted in the 5 at.% Ni alloy, with increasing Ni concentration resulting in a subsequent reduction of stress. Atom probe tomography quantified Ni's Gibbsian interfacial excess in the grain boundaries and confirmed that once grain boundary saturation is achieved, the compressive stress was reduced. This letter provides experimental support in elucidating how interfacial segregation of excess adatoms contributes to the post-coalescence compressive stress generation mechanism in thin films. - Graphical abstract: Cu(Ni) film stress relationship with Ni additions. Atom probe characterization confirms solute enrichment in the boundaries, which was linked to stress response.

  15. Comment on "Active sites for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol on Cu/ZnO catalysts"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakamura, Junji; Fujitani, Tadahiro; Kuld, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Kattel et al (Reports, 24 March 2017, p. 1296) report that a zinc on copper (Zn/Cu) surface undergoes oxidation to zinc oxide/copper (ZnO/Cu) during carbon dioxide (CO2) hydrogenation to methanol and conclude that the Cu-ZnO interface is the active site for methanol synthesis. Similar experiments...... conducted two decades ago by Fujitani and Nakamura et al demonstrated that Zn is attached to formate rather than being fully oxidized....

  16. High Pressure Properties of a Ba-Cu-Zn-P Clathrate-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juli-Anna Dolyniuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure properties of the novel tetrel-free clathrate, Ba8Cu13.1Zn3.3P29.6, were investigated using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. The pressure was applied using a diamond anvil cell. No structural transitions or decomposition were detected in the studied pressure range of 0.1–7 GPa. The calculated bulk modulus for Ba8Cu13.1Zn3.3P29.6 using a third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state is 65(6 GPa at 300 K. This bulk modulus is comparable to the bulk moduli of Ge- and Sn-based clathrates, like A8Ga16Ge30 (A = Sr, Ba and Sn19.3Cu4.7P22I8, but lower than those for the transition metal-containing silicon-based clathrates, Ba8TxSi46−x, T = Ni, Cu; 3 ≤ x ≤ 5.

  17. Study on accumulation of Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cd in Nerita lineata and Thais bitubercularis from Tanjung Harapan and Teluk Kemang, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Sn were attributed to metal industries. Cu contamination was associated with piggery industry. Shipping activities contribute to elevated levels of Pb, Cu and As. Elevated levels of metals in the sediments are attributed to anthropogenic activities. Samples were collected in April 2012 and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Fe is the most abundant metal in the tissue and shell compared to the rest of the metals. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soft tissues of Nerita lineata taken from Tanjung Harapan follow this order: Fe > Zn > Ni > Cu > Cd while in Thais bitubercularis, the metal concentrations were higher following the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. The samples taken from Teluk Kemang were higher and exhibited different trend for both organisms. Results from this study are useful for further exploration of Thais bitubercularis as accumulators of Cu, Cd, and Zn. For recommendation, more studies on monitoring the concentration level of heavy metals in marine environment should be done regularly and increase numbers of samples use to biomonitor the heavy metals in marine environment as it is important to have information or data regarding the quality of marine environment in order to control pollution such as water pollution from being contaminated with heavy metals. This is essential as the pollutants emit in the marine environment may affect marine lives as well as human’s health

  18. In situ observation of Cu-Ni alloy nanoparticle formation by X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy: Influence of Cu/Ni ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Chiarello, Gian Luca

    2014-01-01

    Silica-supported, bimetallic Cu-Ni nanomaterials were prepared with different ratios of Cu to Ni by incipient wetness impregnation without a specific calcination step before reduction. Different in situ characterization techniques, in particular transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray...... diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were applied to follow the reduction and alloying process of Cu-Ni nanoparticles on silica. In situ reduction of Cu-Ni samples with structural characterization by combined synchrotron XRD and XAS reveals a strong interaction between Cu and Ni species......, which results in improved reducibility of the Ni species compared with monometallic Ni. At high Ni concentrations silica-supported Cu-Ni alloys form a homogeneous solid solution of Cu and Ni, whereas at lower Ni contents Cu and Ni are partly segregated and form metallic Cu and Cu-Ni alloy phases. Under...

  19. A secondary, coplanar design Ni/MCM-41/Zn microbattery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskon, S. R.; Othman, R.; Ani, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    A secondary Ni/Zn microbattery (∼200 µm thick) has been developed in a coplanar electrode configuration. The cell is essentially of a circular shape (∼30 mm in diameter) consisting of a fine circular ring (cathode) and a circle (anode) split apart (~800 µm). Unlike the stacking cell architecture, coplanar configuration offers simple design, ease of fabrication and eventually cost saving. The use of MCM-41 mesoporous silica as the membrane separator cum electrolyte reservoir enables the successful implementation of coplanar configuration. The fabrication of Ni/Zn microbattery first begins with electrodeposition of zinc (Zn) and nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) thin films onto patterned FR4 printed circuit board, followed by deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) slurry onto the zinc active layer, and finally ends by multiple drop-coating procedures of MCM-41 from its precursor solution at ambient temperature. Once a potassium hydroxide (6 M KOH)/MCM-41 electrolyte-separator mixture is incorporated, the cell is sealed with an acrylic sheet and epoxy adhesive. The fabricated microbatteries were capable to sustain around 130 deep charge-discharge cycles. When rated at 0.1 mA, the energy density of the microbattery was around 3.82 Wh l-1 which is suitable for low rate applications and storage for micro energy harvesters such as piezoelectric generators.

  20. An Ultrastable and High-Performance Flexible Fiber-Shaped Ni-Zn Battery based on a Ni-NiO Heterostructured Nanosheet Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yinxiang; Meng, Yue; Lai, Zhengzhe; Zhang, Xiyue; Yu, Minghao; Fang, Pingping; Wu, Mingmei; Tong, Yexiang; Lu, Xihong

    2017-11-01

    Currently, the main bottleneck for the widespread application of Ni-Zn batteries is their poor cycling stability as a result of the irreversibility of the Ni-based cathode and dendrite formation of the Zn anode during the charging-discharging processes. Herein, a highly rechargeable, flexible, fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive electrochemical performance is rationally demonstrated by employing Ni-NiO heterostructured nanosheets as the cathode. Benefiting from the improved conductivity and enhanced electroactivity of the Ni-NiO heterojunction nanosheet cathode, the as-fabricated fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery displays high capacity and admirable rate capability. More importantly, this Ni-NiO//Zn battery shows unprecedented cyclic durability both in aqueous (96.6% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles) and polymer (almost no capacity attenuation after 10 000 cycles at 22.2 A g -1 ) electrolytes. Moreover, a peak energy density of 6.6 µWh cm -2 , together with a remarkable power density of 20.2 mW cm -2 , is achieved by the flexible quasi-solid-state fiber-shaped Ni-NiO//Zn battery, outperforming most reported fiber-shaped energy-storage devices. Such a novel concept of a fiber-shaped Ni-Zn battery with impressive stability will greatly enrich the flexible energy-storage technologies for future portable/wearable electronic applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Promising Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy for first wall ITER applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.; Abramov, V.; Rodin, M.

    1996-01-01

    Precipitation-hardened Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy, a promising material for ITER applications, is considered. Available commercial products, chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties are presented. Embrittlement of Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy at 250-300 C is observed. Mechanical properties of Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy neutron irradiated to a dose of ∝0.2 dpa at 293 C are investigated. Embrittlement of Cu-Ni-Cr-Si alloy can be avoided by annealing. (orig.)

  2. FABRICATION OF Cu-Al-Ni SHAPE MEMORY THIN FILM BY THERMAL EVOPRATION

    OpenAIRE

    Özkul, İskender; Canbay, Canan Aksu; Tekataş, Ayşe

    2017-01-01

    Among the functional, materials shape memory alloysare important because of their unique properties. So, these materials haveattracted more attention to be used in micro/nano electronic andelectromechanic systems. In this work, thermal evaporation method has been usedto produce CuAlNi shape memory alloy thin film. The produced CuAlNi thin filmhas been characterized and the presence of the martensite phase wasinvestigated and compared with the CuAlNi alloy sample. CuAlNi shape memoryalloy thin...

  3. Massive spalling of Cu-Zn and Cu-Al intermetallic compounds at the interface between solders and Cu substrate during liquid state reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotadia, H. R.; Panneerselvam, A.; Mokhtari, O.; Green, M. A.; Mannan, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    The interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) formation between Cu substrate and Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu-X (wt.%) solder alloys has been studied, where X consists of 0-5% Zn or 0-2% Al. The study has focused on the effect of solder volume as well as the Zn or Al concentration. With low solder volume, when the Zn and Al concentrations in the solder are also low, the initial Cu-Zn and Al-Cu IMC layers, which form at the solder/substrate interface, are not stable and spall off, displaced by a Cu6Sn5 IMC layer. As the total Zn or Al content in the system increases by increasing solder volume, stable CuZn or Al2Cu IMCs form on the substrate and are not displaced. Increasing concentration of Zn has a similar effect of stabilizing the Cu-Zn IMC layer and also of forming a stable Cu5Zn8 layer, but increasing Al concentration alone does not prevent spalling of Al2Cu. These results are explained using a combination of thermodynamic- and kinetics-based arguments.

  4. Design, synthesis, characterization and antibacterial and antifungal activity of a new 2-{(E-[(4-aminophenylimino]-methyl}-4,6-dichlorophenol and its complexes with Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II: An experimental and DFT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakirdere Emine Gulhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the complexes of Co (II, Ni (II, Cu (II and Zn (II with 2-(E-(4-aminophenyliminomethyl-4,6-dichlorophenol were prepared and characterized by physical, spectral and analytical data. The metal: ligand stoichiometric ratio is 1:2 in all the complexes. The results suggested that the Schiff bases are coordinated to the metal ions through the phenolic oxygens and azomethine nitrogen to give mononuclear complexes. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra, UV-VIS, magnetic susceptibility measurements and thermogravimetric analyses. Both the antibacterial and antifungal activities and MIC values of compounds were reported. Among the tested compounds, the most effective compound providing a MIC value of 64 μg/mL is Zn(L2 against C. tropicalis and B. subtilis. The theoretically optimized geometries of complexes have tetrahedral structures. The computed stretching frequencies of C=N, C-O and N-H bonds were found to be in good agreement with experimental data. All calculated frequencies fall within about 5% of the experimental frequency regions.

  5. Dynamic Behavior of CuZn Nanoparticles under Oxidizing and Reducing Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holse, Christian; Elkjær, Christian Fink; Nierhoff, Anders Ulrik Fregerslev

    2015-01-01

    migrate to the Cu surface forming a Cu–Zn surface alloy. The oxidation and reduction dynamics of the CuZn nanoparticles is of great importance to industrial methanol synthesis for which the direct interaction of Cu and ZnO nanocrystals synergistically boosts the catalytic activity. Thus, the present......The oxidation and reduction of CuZn nanoparticles was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). CuZn nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were produced with a gas-aggregation cluster source in conjunction with mass......-filtration. A direct comparison between the spatially averaged XPS information and the local TEM observations was thus made possible. Upon oxidation in O2, the as-deposited metal clusters transform into a polycrystalline cluster consisting of separate CuO and ZnO nanocrystals. Specifically, the CuO is observed...

  6. Adsorption of Cu, As, Pb and Zn by Banana Trunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurzulaifa Shaheera Erne Mohd Yasim; Zitty Sarah Ismail; Suhanom Mohd Zaki; Mohd Fahmi Abd Azis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of banana trunk as an adsorbent in removal of heavy metals in aqueous solution. Functional groups of adsorbent were determined using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the adsorption percentage of heavy metals (Cu, As, Pb and Zn). The optimum adsorption using banana trunk was based on pH difference, contact time and dosage. Adsorption percentage was found to be proportional to pH, contact time and dosage. Maximum adsorption percentage of Cu, As, Pb and Zn at pH 6, 100 minutes and 8 gram of dosage are 95.80 %, 75.40 %, 99.36 % and 97.24 %, respectively. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to determine the equilibrium state for heavy metals ion adsorption experiments. All equilibrium heavy metals were well explained by the Freundlich isotherm model with R"2= 0.9441, R"2= 0.8671, R"2= 0.9489 and R"2= 0.9375 for Cu, As, Pb and Zn respectively. It is concluded that banana trunk has considerable potential for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. (author)

  7. Tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress is due to high levels of Zn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzie T Celino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatogonia are highly tolerant to reactive oxygen species (ROS attack while advanced-stage germ cells such as spermatozoa are much more susceptible, but the precise reason for this variation in ROS tolerance remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Japanese eel testicular culture system that enables a complete spermatogenesis in vitro, we report that advanced-stage germ cells undergo intense apoptosis and exhibit strong signal for 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative DNA damage marker, upon exposure to hypoxanthine-generated ROS while spermatogonia remain unaltered. Activity assay of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD and Western blot analysis using an anti-Copper/Zinc (Cu/Zn SOD antibody showed a high SOD activity and Cu/Zn SOD protein concentration during early spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemistry showed a strong expression for Cu/Zn SOD in spermatogonia but weak expression in advanced-stage germ cells. Zn deficiency reduced activity of the recombinant eel Cu/Zn SOD protein. Cu/Zn SOD siRNA decreased Cu/Zn SOD expression in spermatogonia and led to increased oxidative damage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that the presence of high levels of Cu/Zn SOD and Zn render spermatogonia resistant to ROS, and consequently protected from oxidative stress. These findings provide the biochemical basis for the high tolerance of spermatogonia to oxidative stress.

  8. Homogeneous (Cu, Ni)6Sn5 intermetallic compound joints rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system using ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase soldering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z L; Dong, H J; Song, X G; Zhao, H Y; Tian, H; Liu, J H; Feng, J C; Yan, J C

    2018-04-01

    Homogeneous (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 intermetallic compound (IMC) joints were rapidly formed in asymmetrical Ni/Sn/Cu system by an ultrasound-induced transient liquid phase (TLP) soldering process. In the traditional TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system consisted of major (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 and minor Cu 3 Sn IMCs, and the grain morphology of (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs subsequently exhibited fine rounded, needlelike and coarse rounded shapes from the Ni side to the Cu side, which was highly in accordance with the Ni concentration gradient across the joints. However, in the ultrasound-induced TLP soldering process, the intermetallic joints formed in Ni/Sn/Cu system only consisted of the (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 IMCs which exhibited an uniform grain morphology of rounded shape with a remarkably narrowed Ni concentration gradient. The ultrasound-induced homogeneous intermetallic joints exhibited higher shear strength (61.6 MPa) than the traditional heterogeneous intermetallic joints (49.8 MPa). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Room-temperature ferromagnetic properties of Cu-doped ZnO rod ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have investigated properties of the Cu-doped ZnO crystalline film synthesized by the hydrothermal method. X-ray diffraction and X-ray ... DMSs are semiconducting alloys whose lattice is made up in part of substitutional magnetic ... investigate Cu-doped ZnO system (Hou et al 2007a, b), as. Cu is a potential magnetic ion ...

  10. Metallothionein Zn(2+)- and Cu(2+)-clusters from first-principles calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Per Junior; Jespersen, Jakob Berg; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2012-01-01

    Detailed electronic structures of Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) clusters from metallothioneins (MT) have been obtained using density functional theory (DFT), in order to investigate how oxidative stress-caused Cu(ii) intermediates affect Zn-binding to MT and cooperatively lead to Cu(i)MT. The inferred accura...

  11. Study of dipole interaction in micron-width NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire using exchange anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Itagaki, Yoshio; Wakaya, Fujio; Gamo, Kenji

    2001-01-01

    The dipole interaction between a NiFe layer pinned by a NiO and a free NiFe layer in a micron-wide NiFe/Cu/NiFe/NiO wire was studied by changing the direction of the exchange bias from the NiO layer. The effect of the dipole interaction when the exchange bias was perpendicular to the wire axis was larger than that when the exchange bias was parallel to the wire axis, and was consistently explained by the stray field caused by the magnetic charges of the pinned layer. It was demonstrated that this method, using exchange anisotropy, is useful for investigating the dipole interaction between ferromagnetic materials separated by a nonmagnetic material in small-scale magnetic multilayers. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  12. Study On Nanohardness Of Phases Occurring In ZnAl22Cu3 And ZnAl40Cu3 Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zn-Al alloys are mainly used due to their high tribological and damping properties. A very important issue is determination of the hardness of the phases present in the Zn-Al-Cu alloys. Unfortunately, in literature there is lack of studies on the hardness of the phases present in the alloys Zn-Al-Cu. The aim of this research was to determine the hardness of the phases present in the ZnAl22Cu3Si and ZnAl40Cu3Si alloys. The scope of the research included examination of the structure, chemical composition of selected micro-regions and hardness of phases present in the examined alloys. The research carried out has shown, that CuZn4 phase is characterized by a similar hardness as the hardness of the interdendritic areas. The phases present in the structure of ZnAl40Cu3 and ZnAl22Cu3 alloys after soaking at the temperature of 185 °C are characterized by lower hardness than the phase present in the structure of the as-cast alloys.

  13. Complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present evidence on complete transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles, which are among the most heavily studied metal oxide particles, during 24 h in vitro toxicological testing with human T-lymphocytes. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy results revealed that Zn speciation profiles of 30 nm and 80 nm ZnO nanoparticles, and ZnSO4- exposed cells were almost identical with the prevailing species being Zn-cysteine. This suggests that ZnO nanoparticles are rapidly transformed during a standard in vitro toxicological assay, and are sequestered intracellularly, analogously to soluble Zn. Complete transformation of ZnO in the test conditions was further supported by almost identical Zn spectra in medium to which ZnO nanoparticles or ZnSO4 was added. Likewise, Cu XANES spectra for CuO and CuSO4-exposed cells and cell culture media were similar. These results together with our observation on similar toxicological profiles of ZnO and soluble Zn, and CuO and soluble Cu, underline the importance of dissolution and subsequent transformation of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles during toxicological testing and provide evidence that the nano-specific effect of ZnO and CuO nanoparticulates is negligible in this system. We strongly suggest to account for this aspect when interpreting the toxicological results of ZnO and CuO nanoparticles. Although a number of studies have discussed the transformation of nanoparticles during

  14. Electronic structure, magnetic and structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shalendra; Vats, Prashant; Gautam, S.; Gupta, V.P.; Verma, K.D.; Chae, K.H.; Hashim, Mohd; Choi, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • XRD, and HR-TEM results show the single phase nature of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • dc magnetization results indicate the RT-FM in Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles. • Ni L 3,2 edge NEXAFS spectra infer that Ni ions are in +2 valence state. • O K edge NEXAFS spectra show that O vacancy increases with Ni doping in ZnO. - Abstract: We report structural, magnetic and electronic structural properties of Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by auto-combustion method. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and dc magnetization measurements. The XRD and HR-TEM results indicate that Ni doped ZnO nanoparticles have single phase nature with wurtzite lattice and exclude the presence of secondary phase. NEXAFS measurements performed at Ni L 3,2 -edges indicates that Ni ions are in +2 valence state and exclude the presence of Ni metal clusters. O K-edge NEXAFS spectra indicate an increase in oxygen vacancies with Ni-doping, while Zn L 3,2 -edge show the absence of Zn-vacancies. The magnetization measurements performed at room temperature shows that pure and Ni doped ZnO exhibits ferromagnetic behavior

  15. Evaluation of Some (n,n'), (n,γ), (n,p), (n,2n) and (n,3n) Reaction Excitation Functions for Fission and Fusion Reactor Dosimetry Applications; Evaluation of the Excitation Functions for the 54Fe(n,p)54Mn, 58Ni(n,2n)57Ni, 67Zn(n,p)67Cu, 92Mo(n,p)92mNb, 93Nb(n,γ)94Nb, 113In(n,n')113mIn, 115In(n,γ) 116mIn, and 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm Reactions. Progress Report on Research Contract No 16242

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, K.I.; Zolotarev, P.K.

    2013-12-01

    Cross section data for the 54 Fe(n,p) 54 Mn, 58 Ni(n,2n) 57 Ni, 67 Zn(n,p) 67 Cu, 92 Mo(n,p) 92m Nb, 93 Nb(n,γ) 94 Nb, 113 In(n,n') 113m In, 115 In(n,γ) 116m In, 169 Tm(n,3n) 167 Tm reactions are needed to solve a wide spectrum of scientific and technical tasks. Activation detectors based on these reactions may be used in the field of reactor dosimetry. Furthermore, the 54 Fe(n,p) 54 Mn reaction is often used in experimental nuclear physics as a monitor reaction for measurements of unknown cross sections by means of the activation method over the neutron energy range from 5 to 15 MeV. The 93 Nb(n,γ) 94 Nb reaction is also very promising for using in retrospective neutron dosimetry for determination of total neutron fluence during a campaign of a reactor. In the existing version of the International Reactor Dosimetry File and the new extended version named as IRDFF data for excitation functions of 67 Zn(n,p) 67 Cu, 92 Mo(n,p) 92m Nb, 113 In(n,n') 113m In, and 169 Tm(n,3n) 167 Tm reactions are absent. Data for these reactions are also absent in the JENDL/D-99 dosimetry file. Excitation functions of 67 Zn(n,p) 67 Cu and 169 Tm(n,3n) 167 Tm are presented in the TENDL-2012, EAF-2010, JENDL-4.0, JEFF-3.1/A, MENDL-2 libraries. Cross section data for the 67 Zn(n,p) 67 Cu reaction up to 20 MeV are given also in the JENDL/HE-2007 library. Excitation functions of the 92 Mo(n,p) 92m Nb and 113 In(n,n') 113m In reactions are evaluated in the EAF-2010 and JEFF-3.1/A libraries. Cross section data for the 113 In(n,n') 113m In reaction are given also in the TENDL-2010 library. It is necessary to note that neutron data in the JEFF-3.1/A and JENDL-4.0 libraries were evaluated up to 20 MeV. Neutron data in the TENDL-2012, EAF-2010, MENDL-2 and TENDL-2010 libraries had been evaluated up to 30 MeV, 60 MeV, 100 MeV and 200 MeV, respectively. Neutron cross sections in the MENDL-2, TENDL-2010 and TENDL-2012 libraries had been obtained on the basis of pure theoretical model calculations

  16. The stability of the martensitic phases in Cu-Zn-Al at an electron concentration of 1534

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelegrina, J.L.; Ahlers, Manfred.

    1989-01-01

    The β phase to martensite and the martensite to martensite transformations in Cu-Zn-Al single crystals of a high electron concentration have been studied as a function of the temperature. A stress temperature diagram, similar to that proposed in the Cu-Al-Ni system, is constructed and the stability of the different martensites is analyzed from thermodynamic considerations. The results for the 18R, the 6R and the 2H phase are compared with those obtained from other alloy compositions. (Author) [es

  17. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films solar cells synthesized by electrodeposition route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Ma, Tuteng; Wei, Ming; Liu, Weifeng; Jiang, Guoshun; Zhu, Changfei

    2012-06-01

    An electrodeposition route for preparing Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films for thin film solar cell absorber layers is demonstrated. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films are prepared by co-electrodeposition Cu-Zn-Sn metallic precursor and subsequently annealing in element selenium atmosphere. The structure, composition and optical properties of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrometry, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. The Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film with high crystalline quality was obtained, the band gap and absorption coefficient were 1.0 eV and 10-4 cm-1, which is quite suitable for solar cells fabrication. A solar cell with the structure of ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/Cu2ZnSnSe4/Mo/glass was fabricated and achieved an conversion efficiency of 1.7%.

  18. Preparation and characterization of water-soluble ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Cao, Lixin, E-mail: caolixin@ouc.edu.cn; Su, Ge; Liu, Wei; Xia, Chenghui; Zhou, Huajian

    2013-09-01

    The synthesis and luminescent properties of water-soluble ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with different shell thickness are reported in this paper. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) studies present that the ZnSe:Cu/ZnS core/shell QDs with different shell thickness have a cubic zinc-blende structure. The tests of transmission electron microscope (TEM) pictures exhibit that the QDs obtained are spherical-shaped particles and the average grain size increased from 2.7 to 3.8 nm with the growth of ZnS shell. The emission peak position of QDs has a small redshift from 461 to 475 nm with the growth of ZnS shell within the blue spectral window. The photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity and stability of the ZnSe:Cu core d-dots are both enhanced by coating ZnS shell on the surface of core d-dots. The largest PL intensity of the core/shell QDs is almost 3 times larger than that of Cu doped ZnSe quantum dots (ZnSe:Cu d-dots). The redshift of core/shell QDs compared with the core QDs are observed in both the absorption and the photoluminescence excitation spectra.

  19. Crystalline, Optical and Electrical Properties of NiZnO Thin Films Fabricated by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Wang Hui; Zhao Wang; Ma Yan; Li Wan-Cheng; Shi Zhi-Feng; Zhao Long; Zhang Bao-Lin; Dong Xin; Du Guo-Tong; Xia Xiao-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    NiZnO thin films are grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by using a photo-assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The effect of the Ni content on the crystalline, optical and electrical properties of the films are researched in detail. The NiZnO films could retain a basic wurtzite structure when the Ni content is less than 0.18. As Ni content increases, crystal quality degradation could be observed in the x-ray diffraction patterns and a clear red shift of the absorption edge can be observed in the transmittance spectrum. Furthermore, the donor defects in the NiZnO film can be compensated for effectively by increasing the Ni content. The change of Ni content has an important effect on the properties of NiZnO films. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  20. Quantitative trait loci controlling Cu, Ca, Zn, Mn and Fe content in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of essential minerals (such as Fe, Zn etc), breeding mineral- efficient crops that produce .... and seven digenic interactions were identified for Cu, Ca,. Zn, Mn and Fe, .... Eva P. 1993 Cadmium, copper and lead in wild rice from central. Canada.

  1. Thermomechanical Treatments on High Strength Al-Zn-Mg(-Cu) Alloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Di Russo, E; Conserva, M; Gatto, F

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the metallurgical properties of Al-Zn-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy products processed according to newly developed Final Thermomechanical Treatments (FTMT) of T-AHA type...

  2. Activation of a Cu/ZnO catalyst for methanol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Wenzel; Rasmussen, F.B.; Helveg, S.

    2006-01-01

    The structural changes during activation by temperature-programmed reduction of a Cu/ZnO catalyst for methanol synthesis have been studied by several in situ techniques. The catalyst is prepared by coprecipitation and contains 4.76 wt% Cu, which forms a substitutional solid solution with Zn......O as determined by resonant X-ray diffraction. In situ resonant X-ray diffraction reveals that the Cu atoms are extracted from the solid solution by the reduction procedure, forming metallic Cu crystallites. Cu is redispersed in bulk or surface Zn lattice sites upon oxidation by heating in air. The results...... is highly dispersed and in intimate contact with the surface of the host ZnO particles. The possibility of re-forming the (Zn,Cu)O solid solution by oxidation may provide a means of redispersing Cu in a deactivated catalyst....

  3. Preparation of carrier-free 67Cu by the 68Zn(γ,p) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Kondo, K.

    1978-01-01

    The preparation of pure, carrier-free 67 Cu using the 68 Zn(γ, p) reaction with an isotopically enriched 68 Zn(98.97%) target is described. The production rates of 67 Cu and contaminants were determined as a function of the maximum bremsstrahlung energies between 30 and 60 MeV. The chemical separation of the carrier-free 67 Cu and the recovery of the 68 Zn target were also studied. (author)

  4. Low Temperature Mechanical Properties of Scandium-Modified Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Senkov, O

    2002-01-01

    Tensile properties of three wrought alloys, (1) Al-10Zn-3Mg-1.2Cu-0.15Zr, (2) Al-10Zn-3Mg-1.2Cu-0.15Zr-0.39Mn-0.49Sc, and (3) Al-12Zn-3Mg-1.2Cu-0.15Zr-0.39Mn-0.49Sc were studied in T6 and T7 conditions at 298K and 77K...

  5. Formation of ferric flocks for the removal of Zn and Cu from dockyard wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Arevalo, Edurado; Stichnothe, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater from wash down of boat hulls contains typically Cu, Zn and organometallic biocides, e.g. tributyltin (TBT). In some cases this wastewater is led directly into the marine system. In the present paper a cheap flocculation method (iron flocculants) for removal of Cu and Zn from the wastew......Wastewater from wash down of boat hulls contains typically Cu, Zn and organometallic biocides, e.g. tributyltin (TBT). In some cases this wastewater is led directly into the marine system. In the present paper a cheap flocculation method (iron flocculants) for removal of Cu and Zn from...

  6. Compositional ratio effect on the surface characteristics of CuZn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahrom; Park, Juyun; Kang, Yujin; Lee, Seokhee; Kang, Yong-Cheol

    2018-05-01

    CuZn thin films were fabricated by RF co-sputtering method on p-type Si(100) wafer with various RF powers applied on metallic Cu and Zn targets. This paper aimed to determine the morphological, chemical, and electrical properties of the deposited CuZn thin films by utilizing a surface profiler, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), UV photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and a 4-point probe. The thickness of the thin films was fixed at 200 ± 8 nm and the roughness of the thin films containing Cu was smaller than pure Zn thin films. XRD studies confirmed that the preferred phase changed, and this tendency is dependent on the ratio of Cu to Zn. AES spectra indicate that the obtained thin films consisted of Cu and Zn. The high resolution XPS spectra indicate that as the content of Cu increased, the intensities of Zn2+ decreased. The work function of CuZn thin films increased from 4.87 to 5.36 eV. The conductivity of CuZn alloy thin films was higher than pure metallic thin films.

  7. Enhanced wetting of Cu on ZnO by migration of subsurface oxygen vacancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beinik, Igor; Helström, Matti; Jensen, Thomas Nørregaard

    2015-01-01

    is of utmost importance. The Cu/ZnO system is among the most investigated of such systems in model studies, but the presence of subsurface ZnO defects and their important role for adhesion on ZnO have been unappreciated so far. Here we reveal that the surface-directed migration of subsurface defects affects...... the Cu adhesion on polar ZnO(0001) in the technologically interesting temperature range up to 550 K. This leads to enhanced adhesion and ultimately complete wetting of ZnO(0001) by a Cu overlayer. On the basis of our experimental and computational results we demonstrate a mechanism which implies...

  8. Enhanced multiferroic properties in (1–y)BiFeO{sub 3}–yNi{sub 0.50}Cu{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumdar, S.C. [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Department of Physics, Comilla University, Comilla (Bangladesh); Khan, M.N.I. [Materials Science Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Islam, Md. Fakhrul [Department of Glass and Ceramic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Hossain, A.K.M. Akther, E-mail: akmhossain@phy.buet.ac.bd [Department of Physics, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2015-09-15

    Multiferroic composites (1–y)BiFeO{sub 3}–yNi{sub 0.50}Cu{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (y=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) are synthesized by the standard solid state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction analysis affirms the formation of both the component phases and also reveals that there is no chemical reaction between them. From the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy study it is observed that the percentage of the elements in the component phases is well consistent with the nominal composition of the composites. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis shows almost homogeneous mixture of the two phases. The real part of the initial permeability increases (up to 67%) and the loss decreases with the ferrite content in the composites which is important in application point of view. Dielectric constant (ε′), loss tangent and AC conductivity are measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. The highest ε′ is obtained for 0.6BiFeO{sub 3}–0.4Ni{sub 0.50}Cu{sub 0.05}Zn{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite. The dielectric dispersion at lower frequency (<10{sup 5} Hz) is due to the interfacial polarization. The complex impedance spectroscopy is used to correlate between the electrical properties of the studied samples with their microstructures. Two semicircular arcs corresponding to both grain and grain boundary contribution to electrical properties have been observed in all the studied samples. The maximum magnetoelectric voltage coefficient is found to be ∼38 mV cm{sup −1} Oe{sup −1} for the composite with 80% ferroelectric+20% ferrite phases. The present composite might be a promising candidate as multiferroic materials showing effective electric and magnetic properties. - Highlights: • XRD shows coexistance of ferroelectric and ferrimagnetic phases and no third phase. • The multiferroic composites show enhanced initial permeability and low loss. • Dielectric constant exhibits excellent high frequency stability

  9. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherif, S.-M. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: a_layadi@yahoo.fr; Ben Youssef, J. [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, U.B.O., Brest 29238 (France); Nacereddine, C. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Roussigne, Y. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse, 93340 (France)

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K {sub 1} and K {sub 2}, have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K {sub 1} was found to decrease from 1.0x10{sup 6} to 0.18x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3} as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K {sub 2} increased from 0.24x10{sup 6} to 0.8x10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}. Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t{>=}165 nm in Ni/glass and t{>=}90 nm in Ni/Cu.

  10. Study of the magnetic anisotropy in Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherif, S.-M.; Layadi, A.; Ben Youssef, J.; Nacereddine, C.; Roussigne, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films have been investigated by means of the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the Brillouin light scattering (BLS) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The Ni thickness, t, ranges from 31 to 165 nm. The second- and fourth-order magnetic anisotropy constants, K 1 and K 2 , have been included; for the Ni/Cu series, K 1 was found to decrease from 1.0x10 6 to 0.18x10 6 erg/cm 3 as t increases from 31 to 165 nm, while K 2 increased from 0.24x10 6 to 0.8x10 6 erg/cm 3 . Over all the thickness range, the magnetization easy axis is in plane. For thinner films, there is a good agreement between anisotropy constant values inferred from VSM and BLS. Stripe domains were observed for t≥165 nm in Ni/glass and t≥90 nm in Ni/Cu

  11. Persistence of the Z=28 Shell Gap Around ^{78}Ni: First Spectroscopy of ^{79}Cu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, L; Franchoo, S; Niikura, M; Vajta, Z; Sohler, D; Doornenbal, P; Obertelli, A; Tsunoda, Y; Otsuka, T; Authelet, G; Baba, H; Calvet, D; Château, F; Corsi, A; Delbart, A; Gheller, J-M; Gillibert, A; Isobe, T; Lapoux, V; Matsushita, M; Momiyama, S; Motobayashi, T; Otsu, H; Péron, C; Peyaud, A; Pollacco, E C; Roussé, J-Y; Sakurai, H; Santamaria, C; Sasano, M; Shiga, Y; Takeuchi, S; Taniuchi, R; Uesaka, T; Wang, H; Yoneda, K; Browne, F; Chung, L X; Dombradi, Z; Flavigny, F; Giacoppo, F; Gottardo, A; Hadyńska-Klęk, K; Korkulu, Z; Koyama, S; Kubota, Y; Lee, J; Lettmann, M; Louchart, C; Lozeva, R; Matsui, K; Miyazaki, T; Nishimura, S; Ogata, K; Ota, S; Patel, Z; Sahin, E; Shand, C; Söderström, P-A; Stefan, I; Steppenbeck, D; Sumikama, T; Suzuki, D; Werner, V; Wu, J; Xu, Z

    2017-11-10

    In-beam γ-ray spectroscopy of ^{79}Cu is performed at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory of RIKEN. The nucleus of interest is produced through proton knockout from a ^{80}Zn beam at 270  MeV/nucleon. The level scheme up to 4.6 MeV is established for the first time and the results are compared to Monte Carlo shell-model calculations. We do not observe significant knockout feeding to the excited states below 2.2 MeV, which indicates that the Z=28 gap at N=50 remains large. The results show that the ^{79}Cu nucleus can be described in terms of a valence proton outside a ^{78}Ni core, implying the magic character of the latter.

  12. Elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on separated targets of {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn and {sup 208}Pb using the Saclay fixed-energy cyclotron; Sections efficaces differentielles elastiques et inelastiques obtenues par diffusion de particules {alpha} de 44 MeV sur des cibles de {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn et {sup 208}Pb au cyclotron a energie fixe de saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruge, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de physique nucleaire, service de physique nucleaire a moyenne energie

    1967-01-01

    This report contains elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn and Pb enriched targets. (author) [French] Ce rapport contient les tableaux des sections efficaces differentielles obtenues par diffusion elastique et inelastique des particules {alpha} de 44 MeV, fournies par le cyclotron a energie fixe de Saclay, sur des cibles d'isotopes separes de Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn et Pb. (auteur)

  13. Study of Cu-Al-Zn alloys hardness temperature dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurmanova, D.T.; Skakov, M.K.; Melikhov, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of studies for the Cu-Al-Zn ternary alloys hardness temperature dependence are presented. The method of 'hot hardness' has been used during study of the solid state phase transformations and under determination of the hot stability boundaries. Due to the samples brittleness a hardness temperature dependence definition is possible only from 350-400 deg. C. Sensitivity of the 'hot hardness' method is decreasing within high plasticity range, so the measurements have been carried out only up to 700-800 deg. C. It is shown, that the alloys hardness dependence character from temperature is close to exponential one within the certain structure modification existence domain

  14. Experimental determination of magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants and saturation magnetostriction constants of NiZn and NiZnCo ferrites intended to be used for antennas miniaturization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattei, Jean-Luc, E-mail: mattei@univ-brest.fr [Lab-STICC, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, CS 93837, 6 Avenue Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Le Guen, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.leguen@hotmail.fr [Lab-STICC, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, CS 93837, 6 Avenue Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); IETR, Université de Rennes 1, 263 Avenue General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Chevalier, Alexis, E-mail: alexis.chevalier@univ-brest.fr [Lab-STICC, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, CS 93837, 6 Avenue Le Gorgeu, 29238 Brest Cedex 3 (France); Tarot, Anne-Claude, E-mail: anne-claude.tarot@univ-rennes1.fr [IETR, Université de Rennes 1, 263 Avenue General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2015-01-15

    This study investigates the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants (K{sub 1}) and the saturation magnetostriction constants (λ{sub S}) of Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NiZn) and Ni{sub 0.8−x}Zn{sub x}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 1.98}O{sub 4−δ} (NiZnCo) ferrites intended to be used for antenna downsizing. Composite materials constituted of soft ferrite nanosized particles (NiZn or NiZnCo ferrites) embedded in an epoxy matrix are realized. Measurements of their magnetic permeability in the frequency range of 200 MHz–6 GHz are performed. The influence of compressive stress (in the range of 32–96 MPa) on their Ferrimagnetic Resonance (FMR) is demonstrated. An analytical modeling of stress-induced FMR changes is proposed that allows simultaneous determinations of the Natural Ferrimagnetic Resonance (NFMR, F{sub 0}), K{sub 1} and λ{sub S} of Ni{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Ni{sub 0.8−x}Zn{sub x}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 1.98}O{sub 4−δ} ferrites. The obtained results for NiZn ferrites are in agreement with literature data, validating both the experimental process and the proposed modeling of the stress-induced FMR changes. Regarding NiZnCo ferrites, extended data on K{sub 1} and λ{sub S} are presented for the first time. Increasing zinc content (x) induces a spin disorder that reduces in a same time K{sub 1} and the magnetization at saturation M{sub S}. The rapid variation of K{sub 1}(x) is related to that of the magnetization M{sub S}(x) through a power law. The single-ion anisotropy model allows a satisfactory interpretation of K{sub 1} dependence on zinc content. The unexpected low values of λ{sub S} got for NiZnCo ferrites, compared to those got for NiZn ferrites, are also discussed. Application of compressive stress lowers noticeably magnetic losses of Ni{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.2}Co{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 1.98}O{sub 4−δ} at given frequency, thereby enhancing the ability of this spinel ferrite to be used as a substrate in the aim of antenna

  15. Experimental determination of magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants and saturation magnetostriction constants of NiZn and NiZnCo ferrites intended to be used for antennas miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattei, Jean-Luc; Le Guen, Emmanuel; Chevalier, Alexis; Tarot, Anne-Claude

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants (K 1 ) and the saturation magnetostriction constants (λ S ) of Ni 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 (NiZn) and Ni 0.8−x Zn x Co 0.2 Fe 1.98 O 4−δ (NiZnCo) ferrites intended to be used for antenna downsizing. Composite materials constituted of soft ferrite nanosized particles (NiZn or NiZnCo ferrites) embedded in an epoxy matrix are realized. Measurements of their magnetic permeability in the frequency range of 200 MHz–6 GHz are performed. The influence of compressive stress (in the range of 32–96 MPa) on their Ferrimagnetic Resonance (FMR) is demonstrated. An analytical modeling of stress-induced FMR changes is proposed that allows simultaneous determinations of the Natural Ferrimagnetic Resonance (NFMR, F 0 ), K 1 and λ S of Ni 1−x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 and Ni 0.8−x Zn x Co 0.2 Fe 1.98 O 4−δ ferrites. The obtained results for NiZn ferrites are in agreement with literature data, validating both the experimental process and the proposed modeling of the stress-induced FMR changes. Regarding NiZnCo ferrites, extended data on K 1 and λ S are presented for the first time. Increasing zinc content (x) induces a spin disorder that reduces in a same time K 1 and the magnetization at saturation M S . The rapid variation of K 1 (x) is related to that of the magnetization M S (x) through a power law. The single-ion anisotropy model allows a satisfactory interpretation of K 1 dependence on zinc content. The unexpected low values of λ S got for NiZnCo ferrites, compared to those got for NiZn ferrites, are also discussed. Application of compressive stress lowers noticeably magnetic losses of Ni 0.6 Zn 0.2 Co 0.2 Fe 1.98 O 4−δ at given frequency, thereby enhancing the ability of this spinel ferrite to be used as a substrate in the aim of antenna miniaturization. - Highlights: • We measure permeability of ferrite-based composites from 0.1 GHz to 6 GHz. • The influence of compressive stress on the FMR of

  16. Magnetic Properties and Structural Study of Ni-Co/Cu Multilayers Prepared by Electrodeposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jafari Fesharaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Co/Cu multilayers have been grown by electrodeposition method from a single electrolyte (based on Ni(SO4.6H2O, Co(SO4.7H2O, Cu(SO4 and H3BO3 using galvanostatic control on titanium sublayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns confirmed the multilayered structure with the nanometer thicknesses. Also, electron diffraction x-ray (EDX  analysis confirmed the purity of deposited samples. The morphology of the samples was estimated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Magnetoresistance (MR measurements were carried out at room temperature for the Ni-Co/Cu multilayers by measuring the resistivity in a magnetic fields varying between ±6kOe as a function of the Ni-Co and Cu layer thicknesses; (1 dCu(nm 4 and 3 dNi-Cu(nm 5. The Maximum value of giant magnetoresistance (GMR was obtained when the Ni-Co and Cu thicknesses were 4.0nm and 4.0nm respectively. The hysteresis loop of the samples at room temperature was studied using an alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM. Finally, the temperature dependence of magnetization for Ni-Co/Cu multilayers; (dNi-Cu(4nm/dCu(2nm and dNi-Cu(3nm/dCu(3nm measured by Faraday balance and decreasing the magnetization with increasing the temperature discussed according to electron scattering due to spin fluctuation.

  17. ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Based Downconversion Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Thermal Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantum dot-based light-emitting diodes (QD-LEDs were fabricated using blue GaN chips and red-, yellow-, and green-emitting ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs. The power efficiencies were measured as 14.0 lm/W for red, 47.1 lm/W for yellow, and 62.4 lm/W for green LEDs at 2.6 V. The temperature effect of ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs on these LEDs was investigated using CIE chromaticity coordinates, spectral wavelength, full width at half maximum (FWHM, and power efficiency (PE. The thermal quenching induced by the increased surface temperature of the device was confirmed to be one of the important factors to decrease power efficiencies while the CIE chromaticity coordinates changed little due to the low emission temperature coefficients of 0.022, 0.050, and 0.068 nm/°C for red-, yellow-, and green-emitting ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs. These indicate that ZnCuInS/ZnSe/ZnS QDs are more suitable for downconversion LEDs compared to CdSe QDs.

  18. Low temperature interdiffusion in Cu/Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefakis, H.; Cain, J.F.; Ho, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    Interdiffusion in Cu/Ni thin films was studied by means of Auger electron spectroscopy in conjunction with Ar + ion sputter profiling. The experimental conditions used aimed at simulating those of typical chip-packaging fabrication processes. The Cu/Ni couple (from 10 μm to 60 nm thick) was produced by sequential vapor deposition on fused-silica substrates at 360, 280 and 25 0 C in 10 - 6 Torr vacuum. Diffusion anneals were performed between 280 and 405 0 C for times up to 20 min. Such conditions define grain boundary diffusion in the regimes of B- and C-type kinetics. The data were analyzed according to the Whipple-Suzuoka model. Some deviations from the assumptions of this model, as occurred in the present study, are discussed but cannot fully account for the typical data scatter. The grain boundary diffusion coefficients were determined allowing calculation of respective permeation distances. (Auth.)

  19. Anomalous fast diffusion in Cu-NiFe nanolaminates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Alan F. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Energy Nanomaterials Dept.

    2017-09-01

    For this work, the decomposition of the one-dimensional composition wave in Cu-NiFe nanolaminate structures is examined using x-ray diffraction to assess the kinetics of phase decomposition. The anomalously high diffusivity value found for long-term aging at room temperature is attributed to the inherent nanostructure that features paths for short-circuit diffusion in nanolaminates as attributed to interlayer grain boundaries.

  20. Interplay of Cu and oxygen vacancy in optical transitions and screening of excitons in ZnO:Cu films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darma, Yudi; Rusydi, Andrivo; Seng Herng, Tun; Marlina, Resti; Fauziah, Resti; Ding, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We study room temperature optics and electronic structures of ZnO:Cu films as a function of Cu concentration using a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoluminescence, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Mid-gap optical states, interband transitions, and excitons are observed and distinguishable. We argue that the mid-gap states are originated from interactions of Cu and oxygen vacancy (Vo). They are located below conduction band (Zn4s) and above valence band (O2p) promoting strong green emission and narrowing optical band gap. Excitonic states are screened and its intensities decrease upon Cu doping. Our results show the importance of Cu and Vo driving the electronic structures and optical transitions in ZnO:Cu films

  1. Interplay of Cu and oxygen vacancy in optical transitions and screening of excitons in ZnO:Cu films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darma, Yudi; Seng Herng, Tun; Marlina, Resti; Fauziah, Resti; Ding, Jun; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2014-02-01

    We study room temperature optics and electronic structures of ZnO:Cu films as a function of Cu concentration using a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoluminescence, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Mid-gap optical states, interband transitions, and excitons are observed and distinguishable. We argue that the mid-gap states are originated from interactions of Cu and oxygen vacancy (Vo). They are located below conduction band (Zn4s) and above valence band (O2p) promoting strong green emission and narrowing optical band gap. Excitonic states are screened and its intensities decrease upon Cu doping. Our results show the importance of Cu and Vo driving the electronic structures and optical transitions in ZnO:Cu films.

  2. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafouresse, M.C., E-mail: mlafouresse@gmail.co [Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Fukunaka, Y. [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Waseda University, Shinjuku Ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); ISS Science Project Office, JAXA, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Matsuoka, T. [Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Schwarzacher, W. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-30

    Highlights: {yields} Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. {yields} The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. {yields} Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. {yields} Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. {yields} No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  3. Monitoring Cu nodule formation using Ni marker layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafouresse, M.C.; Fukunaka, Y.; Matsuoka, T.; Schwarzacher, W.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ni marker layers to monitor electrodeposited Cu nodule morphological evolution. → The edges of the nodules trace out a straight line. → Difference in growth between spheres and hemispheres. → Nodule on nodule growth at high overpotential. → No dramatic effect of the diffusion layer thickness on the film morphology. - Abstract: We have used Ni marker layers to study the evolution of the characteristic spheroidal nodule morphology in electrodeposited Cu films. Ultrathin Ni layers were electrodeposited in-between Cu layers, and cross sections prepared by electrochemical polishing. During growth of a typical spheroidal feature, the edge (i.e. where there is a discontinuity in the surface slope) traces out a straight line in the cross-sectional image. At high overpotential, the cross-sections show nodule-on-nodule growth, giving rise to the well known cauliflower morphology. Rotating disk electrode studies reveal that, surprisingly, the absolute diffusion layer thickness does not appear to play a major role in the development of spheres.

  4. Synthesis of Cu and Ce co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: crystallographic, optical, molecular, morphological and magnetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat Mohit

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present research work, crystallographic, optical, molecular, morphological and magnetic properties of Zn1-xCuxO (ZnCu and Zn1-x-yCeyCuxO (ZnCeCu nanoparticles have been investigated. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA coated ZnCu and ZnCeCu nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical sol-gel method and thoroughly studied using various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction pattern indicates the wurtzite structure of the synthesized ZnCu and ZnCeCu particles. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the synthesized ZnCu and ZnCeCu particles are of spherical shape, having average sizes of 27 nm and 23 nm, respectively. The incorporation of Cu and Ce in the ZnO lattice has been confirmed through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Room temperature photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO doped with Cu and co-doped Ce display two emission bands, predominant ultra-violet near-band edge emission at 409.9 nm (3 eV and a weak green-yellow emission at 432.65 nm (2.27 eV. Room temperature magnetic study confirms the diamagnetic behavior of ZnCu and ferromagnetic behavior of ZnCeCu.

  5. Synthesis of highly non-stoichiometric Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles with tunable bandgaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanaka, Yasushi, E-mail: hamanaka@nitech.ac.jp; Oyaizu, Wataru; Kawase, Masanari [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Japan); Kuzuya, Toshihiro [Muroran Institute of Technology, College of Design and Manufacturing Technology (Japan)

    2017-01-15

    Non-stoichiometric Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles with average diameters of 4–15 nm and quasi-polyhedral shape were successfully synthesized by a colloidal method. We found that a non-stoichiometric composition of Zn to Cu in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles yielded a correlation where Zn content increased with a decrease in Cu content, suggesting formation of lattice defects relating to Cu and Zn, such as a Cu vacancy (V{sub Cu}), antisite with Zn replacing Cu (Zn{sub Cu}), and/or defect cluster of V{sub Cu} and Zn{sub Cu}. The bandgap energy of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles systematically varies between 1.56 and 1.83 eV depending on the composition ratios of Cu and Zn, resulting in a wider bandgap for Cu-deficient Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanoparticles. These characteristics can be ascribed to the modification in electronic band structures due to formation of V{sub Cu} and Zn{sub Cu} on the analogy of ternary copper chalcogenide, chalcopyrite CuInSe{sub 2}, in which the top of the valence band shifts downward with decreasing Cu contents, because much like the structure of CuInSe{sub 2}, the top of the valence band is composed of a Cu 3d orbital in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}.

  6. Transverse excitations in liquid Fe, Cu and Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, S; Inui, M; Kajihara, Y; Tsutsui, S; Baron, A Q R

    2015-01-01

    Transverse acoustic (TA) excitation modes were observed in inelastic x-ray scattering spectra of liquid Fe, Cu and Zn. From the analysis of current correlation functions, we concluded that TA excitation modes can experimentally be detected through the quasi-TA branches in the longitudinal current correlation spectra in these liquid metals. The microscopic elastic constants are estimated and a characteristic difference from macroscopic polycrystalline value was found in Poisson's ratio of liquid Fe, which shows an extremely softer value of ∼0.38 compared with the macroscopic value of ∼0.275. The lifetime of the TA modes were determined to be ∼0.45 ps for liquid Fe and Cu and ∼0.55 ps for liquid Zn, reflecting different interatomic correlations between liquid transition metals and non-transition metals. The propagation length of the TA modes are ∼0.85 nm in all of liquid metals, corresponding to the size of icosahedral or similar size of cages formed instantaneously in these liquid metals. (paper)

  7. Antiresonance in (Ni,Zn) ferrite-carbon nanofibres nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-García, Lucía; Suárez, Marta; Luis Menéndez, Jose; Torrecillas, Ramón; Pecharromán, Carlos; Peretyagin, Pavel Y; Petzelt, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Frait, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    (NiZn)Fe 2 O 4 carbon nanofiber (CNF) nanocomposites with concentrations up to 5% in volume of CNFs were prepared by traditional ceramic processing and a subsequent spark plasma sintering at 860 °C with a holding time of 1 min. Low-frequency conductivity and magnetic properties were studied, revealing the appearance of a ferromagnetic antiresonance when a certain value of conductivity is reached due to the introduction of a conductive second-phase CNF in the ferromagnetic matrix (ferrite), thereby opening a route to induce magnetically tunable transparency in these composites. (paper)

  8. Computer augumented modelling studies of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-glutamic acid in 1,2-propanediol–water mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHESWARA RAO VEGI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-glutamic acid was studied at 303 K in 0–60 vol. % 1,2-propanediol–water mixtures, whereby the ionic strength was maintained at 0.16 mol dm-3. The active forms of the ligand are LH3+, LH2 and LH–. The predominant detected species were ML, ML2, MLH, ML2H and ML2H2. The trend of the variation in the stability constants with changing dielectric constant of the medium is explained based on the cation stabilizing nature of the co-solvents, specific solvent–water interactions, charge dispersion and specific interactions of the co-solvent with the solute. The effect of systematic errors in the concentrations of the substances on the stability constants is in the order alkali > > acid > ligand > metal. The bioavailability and transportation of metals are explained based on distribution diagrams and stability constants.

  9. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pransisco, Prengki, E-mail: prengkipransisco@gmail.com, E-mail: afza@petronas.com.my; Shafie, Afza, E-mail: prengkipransisco@gmail.com, E-mail: afza@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Guan, Beh Hoe, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    This paper examines the effect of calcination process on the structural and magnetic properties material nanostructure composite of Ni{sub 0Ð}œ‡{sub 5}Zn{sub 0Ð}œ‡{sub 25}Cu{sub 0.25} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites. The samples were successfully prepared by sol-gel method at different calcination temperature, which are 600°C, 700°C, 800°C and 900°C. Morphological investigation, average crystallite size and microstructure of the material were examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The effects of calcination temperature on the magnetic properties were calculated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD result shows single-phase cubic spinel structure with interval average size 5.9-38 nm, and grain size microstructure of the material was increasing with temperature increases. The highest magnetization saturation was reached at a temperature 800°C with value 53.89 emu/g, and the value coercive force (Hc) was inversely with the grain size.

  10. Microstructural and optical properties of spinel oxide M{sub x}Co{sub 2−x}MnO{sub 4} (M = Ni, Zn or Cu; 0 < x < 1) thin films prepared by inorganic polycondensation and dip-coating methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Thi Ly; Guillemet-Fritsch, Sophie; Dufour, Pascal; Tenailleau, Christophe, E-mail: tenailleau@chimie.ups-tlse.fr

    2016-08-01

    Spinel oxide nanoparticles of M{sub x}Co{sub 2−x}MnO{sub 4} (M = Ni, Zn, Cu; 0 < x < 1) were prepared at 120 °C by the inorganic polycondensation method. Phase composition and microstructure of each sample powder thus obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Nanoparticles are well crystallized and uniformly distributed in both shape and size. Colloidal dispersions were stabilized in a low cost and environmentally friendly solvent solution. Spinel oxide thin films were then deposited on glass substrates by using the dip-coating technique. Their optical properties were measured in the 300–1100 nm wavelength range. Thin films show extremely good absorbance in the ultra-violet and blue regions. The highest absorbance observed in the red region was for x = 0.15 in zinc. A smaller direct band gap was determined when a low amount of doping M element was introduced in the cobalt and manganese spinel oxide material. - Highlights: • Pure complex spinel oxide nanoparticles synthesis at low T • Low cost method used to stabilize colloidal dispersions • Preparation of homogenous light absorber thin films by dip-coating • Adjustable optical properties and band gaps with the dopants.

  11. Optimization of Cu-Zn Massive Sulphide Flotation by Selective Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, F.; Koleini, S. M. J.; Abdollahy, M.

    2014-10-01

    Selective floatation of base metal sulphide minerals can be achieved by using selective reagents. Sequential floatation of chalcopyrite-sphalerite from Taknar (Iran) massive sulphide ore with 3.5 % Zn and 1.26 % Cu was studied. D-optimal design of response surface methodology was used. Four mixed collector types (Aer238 + SIPX, Aero3477 + SIPX, TC1000 + SIPX and X231 + SIPX), two depressant systems (CuCN-ZnSO4 and dextrin-ZnSO4), pH and ZnSO4 dosage were considered as operational factors in the first stage of flotation. Different conditions of pH, CuSO4 dosage and SIPX dosage were studied for sphalerite flotation from first stage tailings. Aero238 + SIPX induced better selectivity for chalcopyrite against pyrite and sphalerite. Dextrin-ZnSO4 was as effective as CuCN-ZnSO4 in sphalerite-pyrite depression. Under optimum conditions, Cu recovery, Zn recovery and pyrite content in Cu concentrate were 88.99, 33.49 and 1.34 % by using Aero238 + SIPX as mixed collector, CuCN-ZnSO4 as depressant system, at ZnSO4 dosage of 200 g/t and pH 10.54. When CuCN was used at the first stage, CuSO4 consumption increased and Zn recovery decreased during the second stage. Maximum Zn recovery was 72.19 % by using 343.66 g/t of CuSO4, 22.22 g/t of SIPX and pH 9.99 at the second stage.

  12. Studies of the development and characterization of the Cu-Ni-Pt and Cu-Ni-Sn alloys for electro-electronic uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luis Carlos Elias da

    2006-01-01

    The Cu and its alloys have different applications in the owed modern society the excellent electric properties, thermal conductivity, resistance to the corrosion and other properties. These applications can be in valves, pipes, pots for absorption of solar energy, radiators for automobiles, current driver, electronic driver, thermostats elements and structural parts of nuclear reactors, as, for example, reels for field toroidal for a reactor of nuclear coalition. The alloys used in nuclear reactors, we can highlight Cu-Be, Cu-Sn and Cu-Pt. Ni and Co frequently are added to the Cu alloys so that the solubility is moved for temperatures more elevated with relationship to the binary systems of Cu-Sn and Cu-Pt. The addition of Ni-Pt or Ni-Sn to the Cu in the same or inferior percentages to 1,5% plus thermomechanical treatments changes the properties of the copper. We studied the electric conductivity and hardness Vickers of the Cu-Ni-Pt and Cu-Ni-Sn and compared with the electrolytic Cu. In the proposed flowcharts, breaking of the obtaining of the ingot, we proceeded with thermo mechanical treatments. (author)

  13. Preparation of ZnO/Cu2O compound photocatalyst and application in treating organic dyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chao; Cao Lixin; Su Ge; Liu Wei; Liu Hui; Yu Yaqin; Qu Xiaofei

    2010-01-01

    ZnO/Cu 2 O compound photocatalysts were prepared by 'soak-deoxidize-air oxidation' with different concentrations of Cu 2+ (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mol/L). The prepared ZnO/Cu 2 O samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrometer, and photochemical reaction instrument. The results show that ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite structure and the crystallinity had no change with the increase of Cu 2+ concentration. Cu 2 O belonged to cubic structure and the crystallinity increased with the increase of Cu 2+ concentration. ZnO were rods and bulks which had diameter of about 300-400 nm, some small round Cu 2 O particles which had a diameter of about 50 nm adhered to these rods and bulks. In the compounds the mole ratio of Cu 2 O to ZnO was 0.017, 0.025, 0.076, 0.137, 0.138, and 0.136, respectively. An absorbance in the visible light region between 400 and 610 nm was seen and the reflection rate became less with the mole ratio of Cu 2 O to ZnO increasing. The photocatalytic activities of ZnO/Cu 2 O compound were evaluated using a basic organic dye, methyl orange (MO). It was found that, compared with pure ZnO, the photocatalytic properties of ZnO/Cu 2 O compound were improved greatly and some compounds were better than pure Cu 2 O.

  14. Long-Lived Termite Queens Exhibit High Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Tasaki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In most organisms, superoxide dismutases (SODs are among the most effective antioxidant enzymes that regulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generated by oxidative energy metabolism. ROS are considered main proximate causes of aging. However, it remains unclear if SOD activities are associated with organismal longevity. The queens of eusocial insects, such as termites, ants, and honeybees, exhibit extraordinary longevity in comparison with the nonreproductive castes, such as workers. Therefore, the queens are promising candidates to study the underlying mechanisms of aging. Here, we found that queens have higher Cu/Zn-SOD activity than nonreproductive individuals of the termite Reticulitermes speratus. We identified three Cu/Zn-SOD sequences and one Mn-SOD sequence by RNA sequencing in R. speratus. Although the queens showed higher Cu/Zn-SOD activity than the nonreproductive individuals, there were no differences in their expression levels of the Cu/Zn-SOD genes RsSOD1 and RsSOD3A. Copper (Cu2+ and Cu+ is an essential cofactor for Cu/Zn-SOD enzyme activity, and the queens had higher concentrations of copper than the workers. These results suggest that the high Cu/Zn-SOD activity of termite queens is related to their high levels of the cofactor rather than gene expression. This study highlights that Cu/Zn-SOD activity contributes to extraordinary longevity in termites.

  15. Structural and elemental characterization of high efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kejia; Shin, Byungha; Reuter, Kathleen B.; Todorov, Teodor; Mitzi, David B.; Guha, Supratik

    2011-01-01

    We have carried out detailed microstructural studies of phase separation and grain boundary composition in Cu2ZnSnS4 based solar cells. The absorber layer was fabricated by thermal evaporation followed by post high temperature annealing on hot plate. We show that inter-reactions between the bottom molybdenum and the Cu2ZnSnS4, besides triggering the formation of interfacial MoSx, results in the out-diffusion of Cu from the Cu2ZnSnS4 layer. Phase separation of Cu2ZnSnS4 into ZnS and a Cu-Sn-S compound is observed at the molybdenum-Cu2ZnSnS4 interface, perhaps as a result of the compositional out-diffusion. Additionally, grain boundaries within the thermally evaporated absorber layer are found to be either Cu-rich or at the expected bulk composition. Such interfacial compound formation and grain boundary chemistry likely contributes to the lower than expected open circuit voltages observed for the Cu2ZnSnS4 devices.

  16. Molecular distortion and charge transfer effects in ZnPc/Cu(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, B.; Nazir, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption geometry and electronic properties of a zinc-phthalocyanine molecule on a Cu(111) substrate are studied by density functional theory. In agreement with experiment, we find remarkable distortions of the molecule, mainly as the central Zn atom tends towards the substrate to minimize the Zn-Cu distance. As a consequence, the Zn-N chemical bonding and energy levels of the molecule are significantly modified. However, charge transfer induces metallic states on the molecule and therefore is more important for the ZnPc/Cu(111) system than the structural distortions.

  17. Molecular distortion and charge transfer effects in ZnPc/Cu(111)

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, B.

    2013-04-23

    The adsorption geometry and electronic properties of a zinc-phthalocyanine molecule on a Cu(111) substrate are studied by density functional theory. In agreement with experiment, we find remarkable distortions of the molecule, mainly as the central Zn atom tends towards the substrate to minimize the Zn-Cu distance. As a consequence, the Zn-N chemical bonding and energy levels of the molecule are significantly modified. However, charge transfer induces metallic states on the molecule and therefore is more important for the ZnPc/Cu(111) system than the structural distortions.

  18. KLL resonant Auger transitions in metallic Cu and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koever, L.; Berenyi, Z.; Cserny, I.

    2004-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. KLL Auger spectra of 3d transition metals contain important information on the effects of the solid environment on deep core Auger transitions. Following the changes in the spectra when fine tuning the exciting photon energy across the K-shell ionization threshold with high energy resolution is informative concerning the possible resonant processes, expected to indicate the single-step nature of threshold Auger emission. The satellite structures in these spectra are strongly related to the unoccupied local electronic states above the Fermi level, as well as to the excitation, relaxation and screening processes associated with core hole ionization. In spite of the fundamental significance of the phenomena mentioned above, even non resonant high energy resolution studies of KLL Auger spectra of 3d transition metals (using laboratory X-ray sources) are very scarce due to the demanding experimental conditions requested. A very efficient tool for studying these phenomena is the Tunable High Energy XPS developed at HASYLAB which provides unique conditions, photon x and energy resolution for deep core Auger spectroscopy. Using the THE-XPS instrument at the BW2 beamline the high energy resolution (ΔE = 0.2 eV) KL 2,3 L 2,3 Auger spectra of polycrystalline Cu and Ni foils were measured with the Scienta SES-200 hemispherical analyzer. In the high energy range Cu 2p photo-electron peaks appearing in the Cu KLL Auger spectra due to the excitation by internal Cu K X-rays and trusted value for the Cu 2p3/2 binding energy were used for energy calibration. The exciting photon energy range was tuned up to about 50 eV above the K absorption edge and for the resonant energy region to 5 eV (Cu KLL) and 4 eV (Ni KLL) below threshold ensuring a photon beam with an energy width of about 1.1 eV. The evolution of the satellite structure as a function of excitation energy above threshold indicates di rent behaviour for particular satellites, making

  19. Effect of Cu Alloying on S Poisoning of Ni Surfaces and Nanoparticle Morphologies Using Ab-Initio Thermodynamics Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Su; Kim, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yeong-Cheol

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the effect of Cu alloying on S poisoning of Ni surfaces and nanoparticle morphologies using ab-initio thermodynamics calculations. Based on the Cu segregation energy and the S adsorption energy, the surface energy and nanoparticle morphology of pure Ni, pure Cu, and NiCu alloys were evaluated as functions of the chemical potential of S and the surface orientations of (100), (110), and (111). The constructed nanoparticle morphology was varied as a function of chemical potential of S. We find that the Cu added to Ni for NiCu alloys is strongly segregated into the top surface, and increases the S tolerance of the NiCu nanoparticles.

  20. Cooperative cytotoxic activity of Zn and Cu in bovine serum albumin-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites in PC12 cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hua-Jie; Yu, Xue-Hong; Wang, Cai-Feng; Cao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Series of self-assembled and mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with different Zn/Cu ratios had been successfully synthesized by a combination method of the biomimetic synthesis and ion-exchange strategy under the gentle conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, Fourier transform infrared spectra and zeta potential analysis demonstrated that BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with well dispersity had the hierarchical structure and BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and surface electro-negativity of final products. The real-time monitoring by atomic absorption spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that the Zn/Cu ratio of nano-composites could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. In addition, the metabolic and morphological assays indicated that the metabolic proliferation and spread of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells could be inhibited by nano-composites, with the high anti-cancer activity at a low concentration (4 ppm). What were more important, Zn and Cu in nano-composites exhibited a positive cooperativity at inhibiting cancer cell functions. The microscope observation and biochemical marker analysis clearly revealed that the nano-composites-included lipid peroxidation and disintegration of membrane led to the death of PC12 cells. Summarily, the present study substantiated the potential of BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites as anti-cancer drug

  1. Cooperative cytotoxic activity of Zn and Cu in bovine serum albumin-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites in PC12 cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hua-Jie, E-mail: wanghuajie972001@163.com; Yu, Xue-Hong; Wang, Cai-Feng; Cao, Ying, E-mail: caoying1130@sina.com [Henan Normal University, Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Media and Reactions, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2013-11-15

    Series of self-assembled and mono-dispersed bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with different Zn/Cu ratios had been successfully synthesized by a combination method of the biomimetic synthesis and ion-exchange strategy under the gentle conditions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, Fourier transform infrared spectra and zeta potential analysis demonstrated that BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites with well dispersity had the hierarchical structure and BSA was a key factor to control the morphology and surface electro-negativity of final products. The real-time monitoring by atomic absorption spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that the Zn/Cu ratio of nano-composites could be controlled by adjusting the ion-exchange time. In addition, the metabolic and morphological assays indicated that the metabolic proliferation and spread of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells could be inhibited by nano-composites, with the high anti-cancer activity at a low concentration (4 ppm). What were more important, Zn and Cu in nano-composites exhibited a positive cooperativity at inhibiting cancer cell functions. The microscope observation and biochemical marker analysis clearly revealed that the nano-composites-included lipid peroxidation and disintegration of membrane led to the death of PC12 cells. Summarily, the present study substantiated the potential of BSA-conjugated ZnS/CuS nano-composites as anti-cancer drug.

  2. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Pollock, Heather; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-01-01

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L -1 ) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  3. Effect of Cu-Dopant on the Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanto, D.; Kurniawan, C.; Subhan, A.; Sudiro, T.; Sebayang, P.; Ginting, M.; Siregar, S. M. K.; Nasruddin, M. N.

    2017-05-01

    Zn1- x Cu x O (x = 0, 2, 3, and 4 at.%) was synthesized by using solid-state reaction technique. The ZnO and CuO powders were mixed and then milled by using high-speed shaker mill. The influence of Cu dopants on the structure, magnetic, and electrical properties was investigated by using XRD, VSM, and I-V and C-V measurements. The XRD analysis showed that the Zn1- x Cu x O had hexagonal wurtzite polycrystalline. The diffraction intensity decreased and the peak position shifted directly to a higher 2θ angle with increasing the dopant concentration. Furthermore, the lattice parameters decreased when the ZnO was doped with x = 0.04, which indicated that the crystal structure changed. The increase of Cu dopants was believed to affect the magnetic and electrical properties of ZnO.

  4. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Pollock, Heather [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L{sup -1}) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  5. Effect of the Cu and Ni content on the crystallization temperature and crystallization mechanism of La–Al–Cu(Ni metallic glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiyou Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Cu and Ni content on the crystallization mechanism and the crystallization temperatures of La–Al–Cu(Ni metallic glasses (MGs was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The experimental results have shown that the DSC curves obtained for the La–Al–Cu and La–Al–Ni MGs exhibit two and three crystallization temperatures, respectively. The crystallization temperatures of the La–Al–Cu and La–Al–Ni MGs result from the merging and splitting of thermal events related to the corresponding eutectic atomic pairs in the La72Cu28 and La81.6Al18.4 MGs, and La72Ni28 and La81.6Al18.4 MGs, respectively. In addition, Al- and Ni-containing clusters with weak or strong atomic interaction in the Al–Ni atomic pairs strongly affect the crystallization mechanism and thus the crystallization temperature of La–Al–Ni MGs. This study provides a novel understanding of the relation between the crystallization temperature and the underlying crystallization mechanisms in La–Al–Cu(Ni MGs.

  6. Fabrication of a Cu/Ni stack in supercritical carbon dioxide at low-temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasadujjaman, Md, E-mail: rasadphy@duet.ac.bd [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Department of Physics, Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology, Gazipur 1700 (Bangladesh); Watanabe, Mitsuhiro [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan); Sudoh, Hiroshi; Machida, Hideaki [Gas-Phase Growth Ltd., 2-24-16 Naka, Koganei, Tokyo 184-0012 (Japan); Kondoh, Eiichi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511 (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    We report the low-temperature deposition of Cu on a Ni-lined substrate in supercritical carbon dioxide. A novel Cu(I) amidinate precursor was used to reduce the deposition temperature. From the temperature dependence of the growth rate, the activation energy for Cu growth on the Ni film was determined to be 0.19 eV. The films and interfaces were characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy. At low temperature (140 °C), we successfully deposited a Cu/Ni stack with a sharp Cu/Ni interface. The stack had a high adhesion strength (> 1000 mN) according to microscratch testing. The high adhesion strength originated from strong interfacial bonding between the Cu and the Ni. However, at a higher temperature (240 °C), significant interdiffusion was observed and the adhesion became weak. - Highlights: • Cu/Ni stack fabricated in supercritical CO{sub 2} at low temperature. • A novel Cu(I) amidinate precursor was used to reduce the deposition temperature. • Adhesion strength of Cu/Ni stack improved dramatically. • Fabricated Cu/Ni stack is suitable for Cu interconnections in microelectronics.

  7. Reaction pathways of furfural, furfuryl alcohol and 2-methylfuran on Cu(111) and NiCu bimetallic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ke; Wan, Weiming; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is an important reaction for converting biomass-derived furfural to value-added 2-methylfuran, which is a promising fuel additive. In this work, the HDO of furfural to produce 2-methylfuran occurred on the NiCu bimetallic surfaces prepared on either Ni(111) or Cu(111). The reaction pathways of furfural were investigated on Cu(111) and Ni/Cu(111) surfaces using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) experiments. These studies provided mechanistic insights into the effects of bimetallic formation on enhancing the HDO activity. Specifically, furfural weakly adsorbed on Cu(111), while it strongly adsorbed on Ni/Cu(111) through an η2(C,O) configuration, which led to the HDO of furfural on Ni/Cu(111). The ability to dissociate H2 on Ni/Cu(111) is also an important factor for enhancing the HDO activity over Cu(111).

  8. Enhanced Oxidation-Resistant Cu@Ni Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Printed Flexible Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Gon; Park, Hye Jin; Woo, Kyoohee; Jeong, Sunho; Choi, Youngmin; Lee, Su Yeon

    2018-01-10

    In this work, the fabrication and application of highly conductive, robust, flexible, and oxidation-resistant Cu-Ni core-shell nanoparticle (NP)-based electrodes have been reported. Cu@Ni core-shell NPs with a tunable Ni shell thickness were synthesized by varying the Cu/Ni molar ratios in the precursor solution. Through continuous spray coating and flash photonic sintering without an inert atmosphere, large-area Cu@Ni NP-based conductors were fabricated on various polymer substrates. These NP-based electrodes demonstrate a low sheet resistance of 1.3 Ω sq -1 under an optical energy dose of 1.5 J cm -2 . In addition, they exhibit highly stable sheet resistances (ΔR/R 0 flexible heater fabricated from the Cu@Ni film is demonstrated, which shows uniform heat distribution and stable temperature compared to those of a pure Cu film.

  9. Effect of solute Cu on ductile-to-brittle behavior of martensitic Fe-8% Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junaidi Syarif; Tsuchiyama, Toshihiro; Takaki, Setsuo

    2007-01-01

    Effect of solute Cu on the ductile-to-brittle (DBT) behaviour of martensitic Fe-8mass%Ni alloy is investigated to understand the effect of solute Cu on mechanical properties of martensitic steel. The DBT behaviours of the Fe-8mass%Ni and the Fe-8mass%Ni-1mass%Cu alloys are almost the same. It is thought to be due to disappearance of the solid solution softening in the martensitic Fe-8mass%Ni-Cu alloys. The solute Cu gives small influence on temperature and strain rate dependences of yield stress and suppressing the twin deformation at lower temperature in the martensitic Fe-8mass%Ni alloy. Therefore, the DBT temperature of the martensitic Fe-8mass%Ni-Cu alloy was not shifted to lower side. (author)

  10. Combustion synthesis by reaction and characterization of structural Ni-Zn ferrite doped with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, J.; Santos, J.R.D.; Cunha, R.B.L.; Feitosa, C.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present stud aims to evaluate the effect of doping with Cu 2+ ions concentrations of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mol in the synthesis and structure of Ni-Zn ferrite. Samples were synthesized by the method of the combustion reaction and characterized by measuring the temperature as a function of reaction time, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy in Fourier transform (FTIR). The combustion temperature and time were 646, 900, 989, 975 and 735°C and 210, 175, 220, 210 and 110 seconds for the sample doped with 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 mol of copper, respectively. XRD results show that all concentrations of copper evaluated, there was only a training phase inverse spinel ferrite and Ni-Zn FTIR spectra show absorption bands below 1000cm -1 , which are characteristics of the spinel type AB 2 O 4- (author)

  11. The crystallisation of Cu2ZnSnS4 thin film solar cell absorbers from co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, R.; Hoelzing, A.; Jost, S.; Hock, R.; Voss, T.; Schulze, J.; Kirbs, A.; Ennaoui, A.; Lux-Steiner, M.; Weber, A.; Koetschau, I.; Schock, H.-W.

    2009-01-01

    The best CZTS solar cell so far was produced by co-sputtering continued with vapour phase sulfurization method. Efficiencies of up to 5.74% were reached by Katagiri et al. The one step electrochemical deposition of copper, zinc, tin and subsequent sulfurization is an alternative fabrication technique for the production of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 based thin film solar cells. A kesterite based solar cell (size 0.5 cm 2 ) with a conversion efficiency of 3.4% (AM1.5) was produced by vapour phase sulfurization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn films. We report on results of in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments during crystallisation of kesterite thin films from electrochemically co-deposited metal films. The kesterite crystallisation is completed by the solid state reaction of Cu 2 SnS 3 and ZnS. The measurements show two different reaction paths depending on the metal ratios in the as deposited films. In copper-rich metal films Cu 3 Sn and CuZn were found after electrodeposition. In copper-poor or near stoichiometric precursors additional Cu 6 Sn 5 and Sn phases were detected. The formation mechanism of Cu 2 SnS 3 involves the binary sulphides Cu 2-x S and SnS 2 in the absence of the binary precursor phase Cu 6 Sn 5 . The presence of Cu 6 Sn 5 leads to a preferred formation of Cu 2 SnS 3 via the reaction educts Cu 2-x S and SnS 2 in the presence of a SnS 2 (Cu 4 SnS 6 ) melt. The melt phase may be advantageous in crystallising the kesterite, leading to enhanced grain growth in the presence of a liquid phase

  12. Research on Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystals and heterojunctions based on such crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaliuk T. T.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the results of the studies of magnetic, kinetic and optical properties of Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystals. The Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystals showed diamagnetic properties (the magnetic susceptibility almost independent of the magnetic field and temperature. The Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystals possessed p-type of conductivity and the Hall coefficient was independent on temperature. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of the Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystal shows metallic character, i. e. decreases with the increase of temperature, that is caused by the lower charge carrier mobility at higher temperature. Thermoelectric power of the samples ispositive that also indicates on the prevalence of p-type conductivity. Heterojunctions n-TiN/p-Cu2ZnSnTe4, n-TiO2/p-Cu2ZnSnTe4 and n-MoO/p-Cu2ZnSnTe4 were fabricated by the reactive magnetron sputtering of TiN, TiO2 and MoOx thin films, respectively, onto the substrates made of the Cu2ZnSnTe4 crystals. The dominating current transport mechanisms in the n-TiN/p-Cu2ZnSnTe4 and n-TiO2/p-Cu2ZnSnTe4 heterojunctions were established to be the tunnel-recombination mechanism at forward bias and tunneling at reverse bias.

  13. Thermochemistry of paddle wheel MOFs: Cu-HKUST-1 and Zn-HKUST-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Manas K; Hughes, James T; Fettinger, James C; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2013-06-25

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) porosity relies upon robust metal-organic bonds to retain structural rigidity upon solvent removal. Both the as-synthesized and activated Cu and Zn polymorphs of HKUST-1 were studied by room temperature acid solution calorimetry. Their enthalpies of formation from dense assemblages (metal oxide (ZnO or CuO), trimesic acid (TMA), and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)) were calculated from the calorimetric data. The enthalpy of formation (ΔHf) of the as-synthesized Cu-HKUST-H2O ([Cu3TMA2·3H2O]·5DMF) is -52.70 ± 0.34 kJ per mole of Cu. The ΔHf for Zn-HKUST-DMF ([Zn3TMA2·3DMF]·2DMF) is -54.22 ± 0.57 kJ per mole of Zn. The desolvated Cu-HKUST-dg [Cu3TMA2] has a ΔHf of 16.66 ± 0.51 kJ/mol per mole Cu. The ΔHf for Zn-HKUST-amorph [Zn3TMA2·2DMF] is -3.57 ± 0.21 kJ per mole of Zn. Solvent stabilizes the Cu-HKUST-H2O by -69.4 kJ per mole of Cu and Zn-HKUST-DMF by at least -50.7 kJ per mole of Zn. Such strong chemisorption of solvent is similar in magnitude to the strongly exothermic binding at low coverage for chemisorbed H2O on transition metal oxide nanoparticle surfaces. The strongly exothermic solvent-framework interaction suggests that solvent can play a critical role in obtaining a specific secondary building unit (SBU) topology.

  14. Catalytic hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis oil using bimetallic Ni-Cu catalysts on various supports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardiyanti, A. R.; Khromova, S. A.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Melian-Cabrera, I. V.; Heeres, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Bimetallic Ni-Cu catalysts on various Supports (CeO2-ZrO2, ZrO2, SiO2, TiO2, rice husk carbon, and Sibunite) with metal contents ranging from 7.5 to 9.0 (Ni) and 3.1-3.6 wt.% (Cu) for the inorganic supports and 17.1-17.8 (Ni) and 7.1-7.8 (Cu) for the carbon supports were synthesised and screened for

  15. Structural, electrical and magnetic properties of evaporated Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacereddine, C. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Layadi, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)]. E-mail: A_Layadi@yahoo.fr; Guittoum, A. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), Alger 16000 (Algeria); Cherif, S.-M. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Chauveau, T. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Billet, D. [Laboratoire PMTM, Institut Galilee, Univeriste Paris 13, Villetaneuse 93340 (France); Youssef, J. Ben [Laboratoire de Magnetisme de Bretagne, U.B.O., Brest 29238 (France); Bourzami, A. [Departement de Physique, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Bourahli, M.-H. [Departement d' O. M. P., Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2007-01-25

    The structural, electrical and magnetic properties of Ni thin films evaporated onto glass and polycrystalline Cu substrates have been investigated. The Ni thickness ranges from 31 to 165 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to study the structure and morphology of these systems. The Ni/Cu and Ni/glass thin films are found to be polycrystalline with a (1 1 1) texture. There is an overall increase of the grain size with increasing thickness. A negative strain was noted indicating that all the samples are under a compressive stress. Diffusion at the grain boundaries seems to be a major contribution to the electrical resistivity in this thickness range. Study of the hysteresis curves, obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), indicates that all samples are characterized by an in-plane magnetization easy axis. Higher in-plane coercive fields seem to be associated with higher grain size, indicating that coercivity may be due to nucleation of reverse domains rather than pinning of domain walls. The saturation field and the squareness have been studied as a function of the Ni thickness.

  16. First-principle Calculations of Mechanical Properties of Al2Cu, Al2CuMg and MgZn2 Intermetallics in High Strength Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIAO Fei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Structural stabilities, mechanical properties and electronic structures of Al2Cu, Al2CuMg and MgZn2 intermetallics in Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aluminum alloys were determined from the first-principle calculations by VASP based on the density functional theory. The results show that the cohesive energy (Ecoh decreases in the order MgZn2 > Al2CuMg > Al2Cu, whereas the formation enthalpy (ΔH decreases in the order MgZn2 > Al2Cu > Al2CuMg. Al2Cu can act as a strengthening phase for its ductile and high Young's modulus. The Al2CuMg phase exhibits elastic anisotropy and may act as a crack initiation point. MgZn2 has good plasticity and low melting point, which is the main strengthening phase in the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aluminum alloys. Metallic bonding mode coexists with a fractional ionic interaction in Al2Cu, Al2CuMg and MgZn2, and that improves the structural stability. In order to improve the alloys' performance further, the generation of MgZn2 phase should be promoted by increasing Zn content while Mg and Cu contents are decreased properly.

  17. Microstructural characterization of alloys of the quasibinary Cu-NiBe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaic, S.; Markoli, B. [Univ. of Ljubljana, Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2003-08-01

    Alloys of the quasibinary section Cu-NiBe were experimentally investigated with differential thermal analysis, optical microscopy, electron microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The construction of the quasibinary Cu-NiBe phase diagram was made based on the experimental results. The constitution of alloys of the whole section was studied along with the investigation of the microstructure and crystallographic relationship of the NiBe phase in aged alloys from the Cu-rich corner of the Cu-NiBe system. (orig.)

  18. Study on positron annihilation spectroscopy of methanol synthesis catalyst CuO/ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qisheng; Dai Guohuan; Sun Jiying; Ding Yingru; Yao Jianhua

    1989-01-01

    A new method was developed for determining the solid solubility of a metal oxide series prepared by precipitation using the positron lifetime parameters. The positron lifetime spectra of a series of CuO/ZnO catalysts prepared by precipitation were measured, in which the CuO at % contents were different before and after reducing. The relations between the solid solubility of the catalysts and the positron lifetime parameters were obtained, from which a result of solid solubility of 12 CuO at% after reducing had been found. The viewpoint that the Cu + ion acted as the active centre in the CuO/ZnO catalyst was supported

  19. Size Control of Alloyed Cu-In-Zn-S Nanoflowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Kempken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniform, alloyed Cu-In-Zn-S nanoflowers with sizes of 11.5±2.1 nm and 31±5 nm composed of aggregated 4.1 nm and 5.6 nm primary crystallites, respectively, were obtained in a one-pot, heat-up reaction between copper, indium, and zinc acetate with tert-dodecanethiol in the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide. Larger aggregates were obtained by diluting tert-dodecanethiol with oleylamine, which lowered the reactivity of the indium and zinc precursors and led to the formation of copper rich particles. The thermal decomposition of tert-dodecanethiol stabilizing the primary crystallites induced their agglomeration, while the presence of trioctylphosphine oxide on the surface of the nanoflowers provided them with colloidal stability and prevented them from further aggregation.

  20. Thermoelastic properties on Cu-Zn-Al shape memory springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto do Nascimento Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a thermomechanical study of actuators in form of helical springs made from shape memory alloy wires that can work as actuator and/or as sensor. These abilities are due to the martensitic transformation. This transformation is a diffusionless phase transition that occurs by a cooperative atomic rearrange mechanism. In this work, helical spring actuators were manufactured from Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloy wires. The springs were submitted to constant tensile loads and thermal cycles. This procedure allows to determine thermoelastic properties of the shape memory springs. Thermomechanical properties were analyzed during 50 thermal cycles in the temperature range from 20 to 130 °C. Results of variations in critical transformation temperatures, thermoelastic strain and thermal hysteresis are discussed based on defects rearrangement and martensitic transformation theory.

  1. Crystallization behavior of Zr62Al8Ni13Cu17 Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Mi Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization behavior has been studied in Zr62Al8Ni13Cu17 metallic glass alloy. The Zr62Al8Ni13Cu17 metallic glass crystallized through two steps. The fcc Zr2Ni phase transformed from the amorphous matrix during first crystallization and then the Zr2Ni and residual amorphous matrix transformed into a mixture of tetragonal Zr2Cu and hexagonal Zr6Al2Ni phases. Johnson-Mehl-Avrami analysis of isothermal transformation data suggested that the formation of crystalline phase is primary crystallization by diffusion-controlled growth.

  2. Kinetic study of the annealing reactions in Cu-Ni-Fe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, E.

    2014-01-01

    The thermal aging of a Cu-45Ni-4Fe, Cu-34Ni-11Fe and Cu-33Ni-22Fe alloys tempered from 1173 K have been studied from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and microhardness measurements. The analysis of DSC curves, from room temperature to 950 K, shows the presence of one exothermic reaction associated to the formation of FeNi 3 phase nucleating from a modulate structure, and one endothermic peak attributed to dissolution of this phase. Kinetic parameters were obtained using the usual Avrami-Erofeev equation, modified Kissinger method and integrated kinetic functions. Microhardness measurements confirmed the formation and dissolution of the FeNi 3 phase. (Author)

  3. Enhanced bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy with Zn addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, M.X., E-mail: mingxingguo@skl.ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Sha, G., E-mail: gang.sha@njust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Jiangsu 210094 (China); Cao, L.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, W.Q. [Key Laboratory for Microstructures, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-07-15

    This study reports that Zn addition greatly enhances the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. The pre-aged alloy exhibits a high strength increment of 135 MPa after paint baking. Differential scanning calorimetry, atom probe tomography and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that Zn addition and pre-aging have significant effects on the solute nanostructure formation. Zn atoms partition into solute clusters/GP zones, and reduce the activation energy of β” precipitation in the alloy. - Highlights: • Zn addition can improve the bake-hardening response of an Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloy. • Zn addition can stabilize the solute clusters/GP zones from dissolution. • Zn addition can reduce the size of clusters formed in the pre-aging treatment. • Zn partitioned into solute clusters/GP zones and β” in the Zn-containing Al alloy.

  4. Non-isothermal precipitation behaviors of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with different Zn contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, M.X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.K.; Zhang, J.S.; Zhuang, L.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The non-isothermal precipitation behaviors of Al–Mg–Si–Cu alloys with different Zn contents were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, hardness measurement and high resolution transmission electron microscope characterization. The results show that Zn addition has a significant effect on the GP zone dissolution and precipitation of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys. And their activation energies change with the changes of Zn content and aging conditions. Precipitation kinetics can be improved by adding 0.5 wt% or 3.0 wt%Zn, while be suppressed after adding 1.5 wt%Zn. The Mg-Si precipitates (GP zones and β″) are still the main precipitates in the Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys after heated up to 250 °C, and no Mg-Zn precipitates are observed in the Zn-added alloy due to the occurrence of Mg-Zn precipitates reversion. The measured age-hardening responses of the alloys are corresponding to the predicted results by the established precipitation kinetic equations. Additionally, a double-hump phenomenon of hardness appears in the artificial aging of pre-aged alloy with 3.0 wt% Zn addition, which resulted from the formation of pre-β″ and β″ precipitates. Finally, the precipitation mechanism of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with different Zn contents was proposed based on the microstructure evolution and interaction forces between Mg, Si and Zn atoms.

  5. Investigations of structural, morphological and optical properties of Cu:ZnO/TiO2/ZnO and Cu:TiO2/ZnO/TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Khan

    Full Text Available The aim of this research work is presented a comparison study of Cu:ZnO/TiO2/ZnO (Cu:ZTZ and Cu:TiO2/ZnO/TiO2 (Cu:TZT thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique on FTO substrates. After deposition, these films are annealed at 500 °C. XRD confirms the anatase phase of TiO2 and Hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO. SEM shows that Cu:TZT has more porous surface than Cu:ZTZ and also the root mean square (RMS roughness of Cu:TZT film is 48.96 and Cu:ZTZ film is 32.69. The calculated optical band gaps of Cu:TZT and Cu:ZTZ thin films are 2.65 eV and 2.6 eV respectively, measured by UV–Vis spectrophotometer. This work provides an environment friendly and low cost use of an abundant material for highly efficient dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Keywords: Multilayer films, ZnO, TiO2, Cu

  6. The Influence of Nickel and Tin Additives on the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider T. Naeem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nickel and nickel combined tin additions on mechanical properties and microstructural evolutions of aluminum-zinc-magnesium-copper alloys were investigated. Aluminum alloys containing Ni and Sn additives were homogenized at different temperatures conditions and then aged at 120°C for 24 h (T6 and retrogressed at 180°C for 30 min and then reaged at 120°C for 24 h (RRA. Comparison of the ultimate tensile strength (UTS of as-quenched Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni and Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Ni-Sn alloys with that of similar alloys which underwent aging treatment at T6 temper showed that gains in tensile strengths by 385 MPa and 370 MPa were attained, respectively. These improvements are attributed to the precipitation hardening effects of the alloying element within the base alloy and the formation of nickel/tin-rich dispersoid compounds. These intermetallic compounds retard the grain growth, lead to grain refinement, and result in further strengthening effects. The outcomes of the retrogression and reaging processes which were carried on aluminum alloys indicate that the mechanical strength and Vickers hardness have been enhanced much better than under the aging at T6 temper.

  7. Electrospun NiO, ZnO and composite NiO–ZnO nanofibers/photocatalytic degradation of dairy effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmad; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Barakat, Nasser A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Among the food wastes, the dairy effluent (DE) is considered to be the most polluting one because of the large volume of wastewater generated and its high organic load. Photocatalytic degradation of DE and organic dye methylene blue (MB) was studied using Zinc oxide nanofibers (ZnO NFs), Nickel....... The significant enhancement of degradation in the composite ZnO–NiO NFs is attributed to the photoactivity of material under visible light irradiation. The composite ZnO–NiO NFs eliminated 40% of DE and 65% of MB dye, after 1h and maximum degradation of 80% DE after 3h and 100% MB dye after 90min. Overall...

  8. Effects of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) on growth and physiological characteristics of green algae, Cladophora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, De-ju; Xie, Pan-pan; Deng, Juan-wei; Zhang, Hui-min; Ma, Ru-xiao; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ren-jing; Liang, Yue-gan; Li, Hao; Shi, Xiao-dong

    2015-11-01

    Effects of various concentrations of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) (0.0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/L) on the growth, malondialdehyde (MDA), the intracellular calcium, and physiological characteristics of green algae, Cladophora, were investigated. Low Zn(2+) concentrations accelerated the growth of Cladophora, whereas Zn(2+) concentration increases to 0.25 mg/L inhibited its growth. Cu(2+) greatly influences Cladophora growth. The photosynthesis of Cladophora decreased under Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) stress. Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) treatment affected the content of total soluble sugar in Cladophora and has small increases in its protein content. Zn(2+) induced the intracellular calcium release, and copper induced the intracellular calcium increases in Cladophora. Exposure to Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) induces MDA in Cladophora. The stress concent of Cu(2+) was strictly correlated with the total soluble sugar content, Chla+Chlb, and MDA in Cladophora, and the stress concent of Zn(2+) was strictly correlated with the relative growth rate (RGR) and MDA of Cladophora.

  9. Experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Mujin; Wang, Cuiping; Yang, Shuiyuan; Shi, Zhan; Han, Jiajia; Liu, Xingjun

    2017-01-01

    The phase equilibria in the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system are investigated combined with X-ray diffraction, electron probe micro-analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Two isothermal sections of the Zr-Cu-Ni ternary system at 1 000 C and 1 100 C are experimentally established. Most of the binary intermetallic compounds, e.g. Zr 7 Ni 10 , ZrNi, ZrNi 5 , Zr 14 Cu 51 , and Zr 2 Cu 9 , show a remarkable ternary solubility. A new ternary compound named τ 3 (Zr 31.1-30.7 . Cu 28.5-40.3 Ni 40.4-29.0 ) is detected at 1 000 C and dissolved at 1 020 C because the nearby large liquid phase field further expands. The newly determined phase equilibria will provide important information for both thermodynamic assessment and alloy design of Zr-based metallic glass.

  10. Magneto-optical response of Cu/NiFe/Cu nanostructure under surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoodi, S. [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, 87317 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, M., E-mail: m.moradi@kashanu.ac.ir [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, 87317 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohseni, S.M. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, Tehran, 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this paper, we present theoretical and experimental studies about the surface plasmon resonance effects on the magneto-optical activity of Cu/NiFe/Cu nanostructures as a function of layers thickness and light incident angle. Device fabrication was done by an oblique deposition technique with RF magnetron sputtering to carefully cover fine step thickness variation of all constituted layers. Angular dependent transverse Kerr response of samples was measured in the Kretschmann configuration at a fixed wavelength of 632 nm. At an optimum layer thickness and incident angle, significant amplification of the transverse Kerr effect was observed. Enhancement in the transverse Kerr effect can be realized by hybridization of surface plasmon excitation and cavity resonance in the plasmonic nanostructure. Experimental results were in qualitative agreement with modeling based on the 4×4 transfer matrix formalism. - Highlights: • Large magneto-optical response in Cu/NiFe/Cu multilayer nanostructure is achieved. • Layer thickness and sequence are studied to find large transverse Kerr signal. • Hybridization of surface plasmon excitation and cavity resonance were done.

  11. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Cu/Zn SOD Gene from Gynura bicolor DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase is an important antioxidant enzyme extensively existing in eukaryote, which scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS and plays an essential role in stress tolerance of higher plants. A full-length cDNA encoding Cu/Zn SOD was cloned from leaves of Gynura bicolor DC. by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The full-length cDNA of Cu/Zn SOD is 924 bp and has a 681 bp open reading frame encoding 227 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that belonged to the plant SOD super family. Cu/Zn SODs of the Helianthus annuus, Mikania micrantha, and Solidago canadensis var. scabra all have 86% similarity to the G. bicolor Cu/Zn SOD. Analysis of the expression of Cu/Zn SOD under different treatments revealed that Cu/Zn SOD was a stress-responsive gene, especially to 1-MCP. It indicates that the Cu/Zn SOD gene would be an important gene in the resistance to stresses and will be helpful in providing evidence for future research on underlying molecular mechanism and choosing proper postharvest treatments for G. bicolor.

  12. Investigations on Cu-Ni and Cu-Al systems with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Murcia, H.; Beske, H.E.

    1976-04-01

    The ratio of the ionization coefficients of secondary atomic ions emitted from the two component systems Cu-Ni and Cu-Al was investigated as a function of the concentration of the two components. In the low concentration range the ratio of the ionization coefficients is a constant. An influence of the phase composition on the ratio of the ionization coefficients was found in the Cu-Al system. In addition, the cluster ion emission was investigated as a function of the concentration and the phase composition of the samples. The secondary atomic ion intensity was influenced by the presence of cluster ions. The importance of the cluster ions in quantitative analysis and phase determination by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry are discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Physicochemical properties of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. FERENC

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid anion of the formula: M(C10H11O52·nH2O, where n = 6 for Ni(II, n = 1 for Mn(II, Co(II, Cu(II, and n = 0 for Zn, have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X–ray diffraction measurements, thermogravimetry and magnetic studies. They are crystalline compounds characterized by various symmetry. They decompose in various ways when heated in air to 1273 K. At first, they dehydrate in one step and form anhydrous salts. The final products of decomposition are oxides of the respective metals (Mn2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO, ZnO. The solubilities of the analysed complexes in water at 293 K are in the orders of 10-2 – 10-4 mol dm-3. The magnetic susceptibilities of the Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes were measured over the range of 76–303 K and the magnetic moments were calculated. The results show that the 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II are high-spin complexes but that of Cu(II forms a dimer [Cu2(C10H11O54(H2O2]. The carboxylate groups bind as monodentate or bidentate chelating or bridging ligands.

  14. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekiacova, Z; Cornu, S; Pichat, S

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ(65)Cu values vary from -0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ(66)Zn from -0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from -0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ(65)Cu and from -0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ(66)Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance evaluation of ZnO–CuO hetero junction solid state room temperature ethanol sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Ming-Ru; Suyambrakasam, Gobalakrishnan; Wu, Ren-Jang; Chavali, Murthy

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Sensor response (resistance) curves of time were changed from 150 ppm to 250 ppm alcohol concentration of ZnO–CuO 1:1. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The sensing material ZnO–CuO is a high potential alcohol sensor which provides a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature. Highlights: ► The main advantages of the ethanol sensor are as followings. ► Novel materials ZnO–CuO ethanol sensor. ► The optimized ZnO–CuO hetero contact system. ► A good sensor response and room working temperature (save energy). -- Abstract: A semiconductor ethanol sensor was developed using ZnO–CuO and its performance was evaluated at room temperature. Hetero-junction sensor was made of ZnO–CuO nanoparticles for sensing alcohol at room temperature. Nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method and optimized with different weight ratios. Sensor characteristics were linear for the concentration range of 150–250 ppm. Composite materials of ZnO–CuO were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). ZnO–CuO (1:1) material showed maximum sensor response (S = R air /R alcohol ) of 3.32 ± 0.1 toward 200 ppm of alcohol vapor at room temperature. The response and recovery times were measured to be 62 and 83 s, respectively. The linearity R 2 of the sensor response was 0.9026. The sensing materials ZnO–CuO (1:1) provide a simple, rapid and highly sensitive alcohol gas sensor operating at room temperature.

  16. Biperiodic oscillatory coupling with the thickness of an embedded Ni layer in Co/Cu/Co/Ni/Co (100) and selection rules for the periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.J.; Vorst, van de M.T.H.; Johnson, M.T.; Jungblut, R.; Reinders, A.; Bloemen, P.J.H.; Coehoorn, R.; Jonge, de W.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A biperiodic oscillation of the strength of the antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling as a function of the thickness of an embedded Ni layer has been observed in an epitaxial Cu(100)/Co/Cu/Co/Ni/Co sample with the Cu interlayer and the Ni layer in the form of wedges. As the effect originates from

  17. First-principles calculations of vacancy formation in In-free photovoltaic semiconductor Cu2ZnSnSe4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Nakamura, Satoshi; Wada, Takahiro

    2011-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the formation energies of Cu, Zn, Sn, and Se vacancies in kesterite-type Cu 2 ZnSnSe 4 (CZTSe), first-principles pseudopotential calculations using plane-wave basis functions were performed. The formation energies of neutral Cu, Zn, Sn and Se vacancies were calculated as a function of the atomic chemical potentials of constituent elements. The obtained results were as follows: (1) the formation energy of Cu vacancy was generally smaller than those of the other Zn, Sn and Se vacancies, (2) under the Cu-poor and Zn-rich condition, the formation energy of Cu vacancy was particularly low, (3) the formation energy of Zn vacancy greatly depended on the chemical potentials of the constituent elements and under the Zn-poor and Se-rich condition, the formation energy of Zn vacancy was smaller than that of Cu vacancy, and (4) the formation energy of Sn vacancy did not greatly depend on the chemical potentials of the constituent elements and was much larger than those of Cu, Zn, and Se vacancies. These results indicate that Cu vacancy is easily formed under Cu-poor and Zn-rich conditions, but Zn vacancy is easily formed under the Zn-poor and Se-rich conditions.

  18. Tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora to individual and combined application of Ni, Pb and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, N; Andrejić, G; Dželetović, Ž

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, metal accumulation capacity and tolerance of Portulaca grandiflora were investigated. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in pots on soil amended with Ni, Pb and Zn to the final concentration of 2 mmol kg(-1) for each metal. Results show considerable accumulating capacity and translocation of Ni and Zn, as well as significant accumulation of Pb in roots. A slight decrease of biomass with Zn and of chlorophyll content with Zn and Ni were observed, as well as an increase of proline content with each of the metals. Combinations of metals revealed mutual interference affecting both the uptake and translocation of the metals and their impact on physiological parameters. Results suggest that Portulaca grandiflora, although not a hyperaccumulator, shows a good tolerance and accumulation capacity for Ni, Pb and Zn, but, for the purposes of remediation, interference of the metals must be taken into account.

  19. Grain boundary diffusion and segregation of Ni in Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divinski, Sergiy; Ribbe, Jens; Schmitz, Guido; Herzig, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Grain boundary (GB) diffusion of 63 Ni in polycrystalline Cu was investigated by the radiotracer technique in an extended temperature interval from 476 to 1156K. The independent measurements in Harrison's C and B kinetic regimes resulted in direct data of the GB diffusivity D gb and of the so-called triple product P=s.δ.D gb (s and δ are the segregation factor and the diffusional GB width, respectively). Arrhenius-type temperature dependencies for both the D gb and P values were measured, resulting in the pre-exponential factors D gb 0 =6.93x10 -7 m 2 s -1 and P 0 =1.89x10 -16 m 3 s -1 and the activation enthalpies of 90.4 and 73.8kJmol -1 , respectively. Although Ni is completely soluble in Cu, it reveals a distinct but still moderate ability to segregate copper GBs with a segregation enthalpy of about -17kJmol -1

  20. On the evolution of Cu-Ni-rich bridges of Alnico alloys with tempering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Liu, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States); Analytical Instrumentation Facility, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Jha, Rajesh; Dulikravich, George S. [Departments of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, MAIDROC, Florida International University, EC3462, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Schwartz, J.; Koch, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7907, Raleigh, NC 27695-7907 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Tempering is a critical step in Alnico alloy processing, yet the effects of tempering on microstructure have not been well studied. Here we report these effects, and in particular the effects on the Cu-Ni bridges. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) maps and line scans show that tempering changes the elemental distribution in the Cu-Ni bridges, but not the morphology and distribution of Cu-bridges. The Cu concentration in the Cu-Ni bridges increases after tempering while other element concentrations decrease, especially Ni and Al. Furthermore, tempering sharpens the Cu bridge boundaries. These effects are primarily related to the large 2C{sub 44}/(C{sub 11}−C{sub 12}) ratio for Cu, largest of all elements in Alnico. In addition, the Ni-Cu loops around the α{sub 1} phases become inconspicuous with tempering. The diffusion of Fe and Co to the α{sub 1} phase during tempering, which increases the difference of saturation magnetization between the α{sub 1} and α{sub 2} phases, is observed by EDS. In summary, α{sub 1}, α{sub 2} and Cu-bridges are concentrated with their major elements during tempering which improves the magnetic properties. The formation of these features formed through elemental diffusion is discussed via energy theories. - Highlights: • Tempering changes the elemental distribution in the Cu-Ni bridges, but not morphology. • Cu concentration in the Cu-Ni bridges increases after tempering while others decrease. • These effects are related to the large 2C{sub 44}/(C{sub 11}−C{sub 12}) ratio for Cu. • The Ni-Cu loops around the α{sub 1} phases become inconspicuous with tempering. • The diffusion of Fe and Co to the α{sub 1} phase during tempering is observed by EDS.

  1. Improved photocatalytic activity of ZnO coupled CuO nanocomposites synthesized by reflux condensation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mageshwari, K.; Nataraj, D.; Pal, Tarasankar; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Park, Jinsub

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by reflux condensation method. • Photodegradation of methyl orange and methylene blue dyes was investigated. • Morphological studies show 3D flower-like CuO microspheres adorned with ZnO nanorods. • Optical analysis showed characteristic absorption bands of CuO and ZnO. • CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited superior photocatalytic activity than CuO. - Abstract: Nanostructured CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were successfully synthesized for different Zn 2+ concentrations by reflux condensation method without using any surfactant, and their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using methyl orange and methylene blue dyes under UV light irradiation. XRD revealed the formation of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites, composing of monoclinic CuO and hexagonal ZnO. XPS analysis revealed that CuO–ZnO nanocomposites are made up of Cu(II), Zn(II) and O. FESEM and TEM images showed that pure CuO exhibit 3D flower-like microstructure, while the CuO–ZnO nanocomposites prepared for different Zn 2+ concentrations have 3D flower-like CuO, microstructure adorned with rod-like ZnO particles. UV–Vis DRS showed absorption bands corresponding to CuO and ZnO around 960 nm and 395 nm, respectively. PL spectra of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites exhibited reduced PL emissions compared to pure CuO, indicating the low recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes. Photodegradation assay revealed that catalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites increased with Zn 2+ concentration, and also effectively degrade methyl orange and methylene blue dyes when compared to pure CuO. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites were mainly ascribed to the reduced recombination and efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The possible mechanism for the improved photocatalytic activity of CuO–ZnO nanocomposites was proposed

  2. Cu and Zn Isotopes as New Tracers of Early Solar Nebula and Asteroidal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    LUCK, J.; BEN OTHMAN, D.; ALBAREDE, F.

    2001-12-01

    Cu and Zn isotopic variations are now identified in extra-terrestrial samples, as has been the case for terrestrial samples (1). The main parameters which may cause these variations are : redox state, temperature, biological activity (Earth), and volatility (extra-terrestrial samples). We report data for meteorites from various groups and classes, including carbonaceous chondrites, ordinary and diffentiated chondrites (iron meteorites, SNC and HED). All analyses have been duplicated (from powder aliquot to final measurement). Values are expressed as relative deviations from NIST and JMC standards for 65Cu/63Cu and 66Zn64Zn, respectively (deltas in permil). Carefull chemistry and MC-ICP-MS measurements allow an overall precision of +/-0.04 permil. I- Carbonaceous Chondrites A very important feature is that each group seems to exhibit a specific isotopic signature : Cu gets isotopically lighter from CI to CM to CO to CV, spanning an overall range of 1.5 permil. Zn shows a reverse order, getting heavier from CI to CM to CO. Zn in CV chondrites (whole rock) seems more variable. This order is the same as that observed for trace elements. Cu and Zn isotopic compositions are generally correlated to trace element content from one group to another, particularly those of similar volatility (e.g. Mn for Cu; Ge for Zn). Cu and Zn isotopic signatures exhibit remarkable relationships with Oxygen isotopes. Each group is well identified. Cu is linearly correlated with Oxygen, whereas Zn-O data display strong curvature : the difference in shape can be related to the nearly constant Cu content in all groups, and by the decreasing Zn content from CI to CO. Since Oxygen variations (from CV to CI) are thought to reflect progressive interaction of liquid water with initial solid (asteroid), Cu isotopic variations may also reflect this progressive alteration process. It may be so for Zn too, although its more volatile character might play a role. II-Allende Progressive leaching

  3. Magnetoelectric effect of (1-x) Ba0.5Sr0.5Zr0.5Ti0.5O3+(x) Ni0.12Mg0.18Cu0.2Zn0.5Fe2O4 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Md. D.; Saha, S. K.; Ahmed, T. N.; Saha, D. K.; Hossain, A. K. M. Akther

    2014-12-01

    The magnetoelectric composites with chemical compositions (1-x) Ba0.5Sr0.5Zr0.5Ti0.5O3+(x) Ni0.12Mg0.18Cu0.2Zn0.5Fe2O4 (x=20, 40, 60 and 80 wt%) was prepared by the conventional solid state reaction method. The presence of a biphase composition was confirmed by X-ray diffraction while the microstructure of the composites was studied by scanning electron microscopy revealing a good mixing of the two phases and a good densification of the bulk ceramics. The dielectric dispersion is observed at lower frequencies due to interfacial polarization arising from the interface of the two phases. At higher frequencies, the dielectric constant is almost constant due to the inability of electric dipoles to follow the first variation of the alternating applied electric field. The dielectric loss shows maxima which are attributed when the hopping frequency of electrons between different ionic sites becomes nearly equal to the frequency of the applied field. The linearity in the log(σAC) vs. log(ω2) plots confirmed the small polaron hopping type of conduction mechanism. The composite materials are found to exhibit an excellent frequency dependence of magnetic properties. In the high frequency range, with increasing ferrite concentration the initial permeability increases and cut-off frequency decreases. An optimal magnetoelectric coupling responding voltage of about 600 μV cm-1 Oe-1 is obtained for x=20 wt% at room temperature.

  4. Thermoelasticity and interdiffusion in CuNi multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoudia, M.C.; Gao, F.; Roussel, J.M.; Labat, S.; Gailhanou, M.; Thomas, O.; Beke, D.L.; Erdelyi, Z.; Langer, G.A.; Csik, A.; Kis-Varga, M.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The idea of observing artificial metallic multilayers with x-ray diffraction techniques to study interdiffusion phenomena dates back to the work of DuMond and Youtz. Interestingly, these pioneering contributions even suggested that the approach could be used to measure the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient. This remark is precisely the subject of the present work: we aim to revisit this issue in light of recent atomistic simulation results obtained for coherent CuNi multilayers. More generally, CuNi multilayers have been extensively studied for their magnetic, mechanical, and optical properties. These physical properties depend critically on interfaces and require a good control on the evolution of composition and strain fields under heat treatment. Understanding of how interdiffusion proceeds in these nanosystems should therefore improve these practical aspects. From a theoretical viewpoint these synthetic modulated structures have been also used as valuable model systems to test the various diffusion theories accounting in particular for the influence of the alloying energy, the coherency strain, and the local concentration. Nowadays, this field remains active and has been extended with the development of atomic simulations and many microscopy techniques like atom probe tomography which give details on the intermixing mechanisms. We have performed x-ray diffraction experiments on coherent CuNi multilayers to probe thermoelasticity and interdiffusion in these samples. Kinetic mean-field simulations combined with the modeling of the x-ray spectra were also achieved to rationalize the experimental results. We have shown that classical thermoelastic arguments combined with bulk data can be used to model the x-ray scattered intensity of annealed coherent CuNi multilayers. This result provides a valuable framework to analyze the evolution of the concentration profiles at higher temperature. The typical coherent

  5. Electronic Topological Transitions in CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn under pressure from first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambabu, P.; Kanchana, V.

    2018-06-01

    A detailed study on quaternary ordered full Heusler alloys CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn at ambient and under different compressions is presented using first principles electronic structure calculations. Both the compounds are found to possess ferromagnetic nature at ambient with magnetic moment of Mn being 3.14 μB and 3.35 μB respectively in CuNiMnAl and CuNiMnSn. The total magnetic moment for both the compounds is found to decrease under compression. Fermi surface (FS) topology change is observed in both compounds under pressure at V/V0 = 0.90, further leading to Electronic Topological Transitions (ETTs) and is evidenced by the anomalies visualized in density of states and elastic constants under compression.

  6. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C.S. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Moura, Ana P. de [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Freire, Poliana G. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Silva, Luis F. da; Longo, Elson [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Lima, Renata C., E-mail: rclima@iqufu.ufu.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn{sub 1−2x}Co{sub x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green–orange–red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical and electrochemical properties. Co, Ni co-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles with optical and electrocatalytic properties were successfully prepared for the first time using a microwave hydrothermal method at mild conditions. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} into ZnO lattice obtained a mild and environmentally friendly process. • The heating method strongly influences in the growth and shape of the particles. • Short-range defects generated by the ions insertion affects the photoluminescence. • Doped ZnO nanoparticles improve the electrocatalytic properties of pure oxide.

  7. Kinetic study of the annealing reactions in Cu-Ni-Fe alloys; Estudio cinetico de las reacciones de recocido en aleaciones de Cu-Ni-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, E.

    2014-07-01

    The thermal aging of a Cu-45Ni-4Fe, Cu-34Ni-11Fe and Cu-33Ni-22Fe alloys tempered from 1173 K have been studied from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and microhardness measurements. The analysis of DSC curves, from room temperature to 950 K, shows the presence of one exothermic reaction associated to the formation of FeNi{sub 3} phase nucleating from a modulate structure, and one endothermic peak attributed to dissolution of this phase. Kinetic parameters were obtained using the usual Avrami-Erofeev equation, modified Kissinger method and integrated kinetic functions. Microhardness measurements confirmed the formation and dissolution of the FeNi{sub 3} phase. (Author)

  8. Deposition of Mn-Cu-Ni-enriched sediments during glacial period in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Borole, D.V.

    Two siliceous sediment cores collected from the Central Indian Basin have been analysed for organic carbon, biogenic silica, Al, Mn, Ni and Cu content. The concentrations of Mn, Cu and Ni showed one order of magnitude variation (an enrichment by a...

  9. Facile synthesis of Zn doped CuO hierarchical nanostructures: Structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Javed, E-mail: tariqjan84@gmail.com, E-mail: javed.suggau@iiu.edu.pk; Jan, Tariq, E-mail: tariqjan84@gmail.com, E-mail: javed.suggau@iiu.edu.pk; Ul-Hassan, Sibt; Umair Ali, M.; Abbas, Fazal [Laboratory of Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Physics, International Islamic University, H-10, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, Ishaq [Experimental Physics Labs, National Center for Physics, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mansoor, Qaisar; Ismail, Muhammad [Institute of Biomedical and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-12-15

    Zn{sub x}Cu{sub 1−x}O (where x= 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mol%) hierarchical nanostructures have been prepared via soft chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of the synthesized samples reveal the monoclinic structure of CuO without any impurity related phases. The micro-structural parameters such as crystallite size and microstrain have been strongly influenced by Zn doping. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses depict the formation of hierarchical nanostructures having average particle size in the range of 26-43 nm. The surface area of CuO nanostructures has been reduced systematically with the increase in Zn content which is linked with the variations in particle size. An obvious decrease in the optical band gap energy of the synthesized CuO hierarchical nanostructures has been observed with Zn doping which is assigned to the formation of shallow levels in the band gap of CuO and combined transition from oxygen 2p states to d sates of Cu and Zn ions. The bactericidal potency of the CuO hierarchical nanostructures have been found to be enhanced remarkably with Zn doping.

  10. Direct determination of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in beer by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascentes, Clesia C.; Kamogawa, Marcos Y.; Fernandes, Kelly G.; Arruda, Marco A.Z.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nobrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (TS-FF-AAS) was employed for Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn determination in beer without any sample digestion. The system was optimized and calibration was based on the analyte addition technique. A sample volume of 300 μl was introduced into the hot Ni tube at a flow-rate of 0.4 ml min -1 using 0.14 mol l -1 nitric acid solution or air as carrier. Different Brazilian beers were directly analyzed after ultrasonic degasification. Results were compared with those obtained by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The detection limits obtained for Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in aqueous solution were 2.2, 18, 1.6, and 0.9 μg l -1 , respectively. The relative standard deviations varied from 2.7% to 7.3% (n=8) for solutions containing the analytes in the 25-50 μg l -1 range. The concentration ranges obtained for analytes in beer samples were: Cu: 38.0-155 μg l -1 ; Mn: 110-348 μg l -1 , Pb: 13.0-32.9 μg l -1 , and Zn: 52.7-226 μg l -1 . Results obtained by TS-FF-AAS and GFAAS were in agreement at a 95% confidence level. The proposed method is fast and simple, since sample digestion is not required and sensitivity can be improved without using expensive devices. The TS-FF-AAS presented suitable sensitivity for determination of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the quality control of a brewery

  11. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  12. Electroplating condition for Ni nanocrystalline on metal (Ni and Cu) plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Yung; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Shim, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Ju

    2012-01-01

    Ni 63, a beta radiation source, is prepared by the electrical deposition of radioactive Ni 63 ions on a thin non radioactive nickel foil or Cu plate. Given a half life of 100 years, a nuclear battery will still produce half of its initial starting power after 100 years. A speck of a radioisotope like nickel 63, for example, contains enough energy to power a nano nuclear battery for decades, and to do so safely. Ni 63 plating is similar to other electroplating processes that employ soluble metal anodes. It requires the passage of a direct current between two electrodes that are immersed in a conductive, aqueous solution of nickel salts. The charged Ni ions are formed by sulfate, sulfamate, chloride, and a Watts bath. However, the charged Ni 63 ions are formed by dissolving metal Ni 63. To established the coating condition of Ni 63, non radioactive metal Ni particles are dissolved an acid solution and electroplated on a Ni sheet. The nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering and electro forming purposes because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited nickel can be varied over a wide range by controlling the composition and operating parameters of the plating solution. A continuous increase in the grain size versus current density has also been recognized in the direct current electrodeposition of nickel coating. On the other hand, A runa et al. reported that the current density has no significant effect on the grain size of nickel electro deposits. A review of the literature shows that saccharin has often been added to a nickel plating bath since the 1980s to improve the ductility and brightness, and in later periods as a grain refiner agent. In the present paper, not only the preparation of a Ni plating solution prepared by dissolving metal particles, but also an optimization of the deposition conditions, such as the current density, saccharin concentration in the bath, and different metal substrates were investigated

  13. Microstructure and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction-Stir-Welded CuCrZr/CuNiCrSi Butt Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youqing Sun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar CuNiCrSi and CuCrZr butt joints were successfully frictionstirwelded at constant welding speed of 150 mm/min and rotational speed of 1400 rpm with the CuCrZr alloy or the CuNiCrSi alloy located on the advancing side (AS. The microstructure and mechanical properties of joints were investigated. When the CuCrZr alloy was located on the AS, the area of retreating material in the nugget zone was a little bigger. The Cr solute-rich particles were found in the nugget zone on CuCrZr side (CuCrZr-NZ while a larger density of solute-rich particles identified as the concentration of Cr and Si element was found in the nugget zone on CuNiCrSi side (CuNiCrSi-NZ. The Cr precipitates and δ-Ni2Si precipitates were found in the base metal on CuNiCrSi side (CuNiCrSi-BM but only Cr precipitates can be observed in the base metal on CuCrZr side (CuCrZr-BM. Precipitates were totally dissolved into Cu matrix in both CuCrZr-NZ and CuNiCrSi-NZ, which led to a sharp decrease in both micro-hardness and tensile strength from BM to NZ. When the CuNiCrSi was located on the AS, the tensile testing results showed the fracture occurred at the CuCrZr-NZ, while the fracture was found at the mixed zone of CuNiCrSi-NZ and CuCrZr-NZ for the other case.

  14. Performance of ethanol electro-oxidation on Ni-Cu alloy nanowires through composition modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xi-Ke; Zhao, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Li-de; Yang, Chao; Pi, Zhen-Bang; Zhang, Su-Xin

    2008-05-28

    To reduce the cost of the catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells and improve its catalytic activity, highly ordered Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays have been fabricated successfully by differential pulse current electro-deposition into the pores of a porous anodic alumina membrane (AAMs). The energy dispersion spectrum, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the composition and morphology of the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays. The results reveal that the nanowires in the array are uniform, well isolated and parallel to each other. The catalytic activity of the nanowire electrode arrays for ethanol oxidation was tested and the binary alloy nanowire array possesses good catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of ethanol. The performance of ethanol electro-oxidation was controlled by varying the Cu content in the Ni-Cu alloy and the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire electrode shows much better stability than the pure Ni one.

  15. Performance of ethanol electro-oxidation on Ni-Cu alloy nanowires through composition modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xike; Zhao Xiaoyu; Yang Chao; Pi Zhenbang; Zhang Lide; Zhang Suxin

    2008-01-01

    To reduce the cost of the catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells and improve its catalytic activity, highly ordered Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays have been fabricated successfully by differential pulse current electro-deposition into the pores of a porous anodic alumina membrane (AAMs). The energy dispersion spectrum, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to characterize the composition and morphology of the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire arrays. The results reveal that the nanowires in the array are uniform, well isolated and parallel to each other. The catalytic activity of the nanowire electrode arrays for ethanol oxidation was tested and the binary alloy nanowire array possesses good catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of ethanol. The performance of ethanol electro-oxidation was controlled by varying the Cu content in the Ni-Cu alloy and the Ni-Cu alloy nanowire electrode shows much better stability than the pure Ni one

  16. DO{sub 22}-(Cu,Ni){sub 3}Sn intermetallic compound nanolayer formed in Cu/Sn-nanolayer/Ni structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lilin [School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Huang, Haiyou [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) (Hong Kong); Hong Kong - Beijing Joint Research Center, HKUST Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, Nansha, Guangzhou (China); Fu Ran; Liu Deming [ASM Assembly Automation Ltd. (Hong Kong); Zhang Tongyi, E-mail: mezhangt@ust.h [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) (Hong Kong); Hong Kong - Beijing Joint Research Center, HKUST Fok Ying Tung Graduate School, Nansha, Guangzhou (China)

    2009-11-03

    The present work conducts crystal characterization by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) on Cu/Sn-nanolayer/Ni sandwich structures associated with the use of Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The results show that DO{sub 22}-(Cu,Ni){sub 3}Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) ordered structure is formed in the sandwich structures at the as-electrodeposited state. The formed DO{sub 22}-(Cu,Ni){sub 3}Sn IMC is a homogeneous layer with a thickness about 10 nm. The DO{sub 22}-(Cu,Ni){sub 3}Sn IMC nanolayer is stable during annealing at 250 deg. C for 810 min. The formation and stabilization of the metastable DO{sub 22}-(Cu,Ni){sub 3}Sn IMC nanolayer are attributed to the less strain energy induced by lattice mismatch between the DO{sub 22} IMC and fcc Cu crystals in comparison with that between the equilibrium DO{sub 3} IMC and fcc Cu crystals.

  17. A diffuse neutron scattering study of clustering kinetics in Cu-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrijen, J.; Radelaar, S.; Schwahn, D.

    1977-01-01

    Diffuse scattering of thermal neutrons was used to investigate the kinetics of clustering in Cu-Ni alloys. In order to optimize the experimental conditions the isotopes 65 Cu and 62 Ni were alloyed. The time evolution of the diffuse scattered intensity at 400 0 C has been measured for eight Cu-Ni alloys, varying in composition between 30 and 80 at. pour cent Ni. The relaxation of the so called null matrix, containing 56.5 at. pour cent Ni has also been investigated at 320, 340, 425 and 450 0 C. Using Cook's model from all these measurements information has been deduced about diffusion at low temperatures and about thermodynamic properties of the Cu-Ni system. It turns out that Cook's model is not sufficiently detailed for an accurate description of the initial stages of these relaxations

  18. Wetting Behavior of Ternary Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) Alloys on Cu and Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S.; Valenza, F.; Novakovic, R.; Leinenbach, C.

    2013-06-01

    Au-Ge-based alloys are potential substitutes for Pb-rich solders currently used for high-temperature applications. In the present work, the wetting behavior of two Au-Ge-X (X = Sb, Sn) ternary alloys, i.e., Au-15Ge-17Sb and Au-13.7 Ge-15.3Sn (at.%), in contact with Cu and Ni substrates has been investigated. Au-13.7Ge-15.3Sn alloy showed complete wetting on both Cu and Ni substrates. Total spreading of Au-15Ge-17Sb alloy on Cu was also observed, while the final contact angle of this alloy on Ni was about 29°. Pronounced dissolution of Cu substrates into the solder alloys investigated was detected, while the formation of Ni-Ge intermetallic compounds at the interface of both solder/Ni systems suppressed the dissolution of Ni into the solder.

  19. Photoemission studies of zinc-noble metal alloys: Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au films on Ru(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.A.; Hrbek, J.

    1993-01-01

    Zn and the noble metals alloy when coadsorbed on Ru(001). The properties of Zn--Cu, Zn--Ag, and Zn--Au alloys have been studied using core- and valence-level photoemission and temperature programmed desorption. Alloy formation induces only small shifts (-0.2 to -0.3 eV) in the position of the Zn 2p, 3s, and 3d levels. In contrast, the core and valence levels of the noble metals show large shifts toward higher binding energy. For small amounts of Cu, Ag, and Au dissolved in Zn multilayers, the shifts in the core levels of the nobel metals follow the sequence: Cu(2p 3/2 ), 0.8 eV∼Ag(3d 5/2 ), 0.8 eV 7/2 ), 1.4 eV. The magnitude of the shift increases as the Pauling electronegativity of the noble metal increases. However, the sign of the shifts for the Cu(2p 3/2 ), Ag(3d 5/2 ), or Au(4f 7/2 ) levels is not directly determined by the direction of charge transfer within the corresponding Zn-noble metal bond

  20. Nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys physically synthesized by ion milling deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavon, Luis Alberto Lopez [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (UANL), Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Cuellara, Enrique Lopez; Castro, Alejandro Torres; Cruza, Azael Martinez de la [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (CIIDIT/UANL), Nuevo Leon (Mexico). Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia; Ballesteros, Carmen [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Fisica; Araujo, Carlos Jose de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica

    2012-05-15

    In this research, an ion milling equipment was used to elaborate nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al alloys with shape memory effect. Two different compositions were used, target A: 75.22Cu-17.12Zn-7.66Al at % with an Ms of -9 deg C and target B: 76.18Cu-15.84Zn-7.98Al with an Ms of 20 degree C. Nanoparticles were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles showed a small dispersion, with a size range of 3.2-3.5 nm. Their crystal structure is in good agreement with the bulk martensitic structure of the targets. In this sense, results on morphology, composition and crystal structure have indicated that it is possible to produce nanoparticles of CuZnAl shape memory alloys with martensitic structure in a single process using Ion Milling. (author)

  1. Nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al shape memory alloys physically synthesized by ion milling deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavon, Luis Alberto Lopez; Cuellara, Enrique Lopez; Castro, Alejandro Torres; Cruza, Azael Martinez de la; Ballesteros, Carmen; Araujo, Carlos Jose de

    2012-01-01

    In this research, an ion milling equipment was used to elaborate nanoparticles from Cu-Zn-Al alloys with shape memory effect. Two different compositions were used, target A: 75.22Cu-17.12Zn-7.66Al at % with an Ms of -9 deg C and target B: 76.18Cu-15.84Zn-7.98Al with an Ms of 20 degree C. Nanoparticles were characterized by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Diffraction and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles showed a small dispersion, with a size range of 3.2-3.5 nm. Their crystal structure is in good agreement with the bulk martensitic structure of the targets. In this sense, results on morphology, composition and crystal structure have indicated that it is possible to produce nanoparticles of CuZnAl shape memory alloys with martensitic structure in a single process using Ion Milling. (author)

  2. Chemical bath deposition of CdS thin films doped with Zn and Cu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Zn- and Cu-doped CdS thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the chemical bath technique. ... Cadmium sulfide; chemical bath deposition; doping; optical window. 1. ..... at low temperature (10 K), finding similar trends than.

  3. Relative Humidity Sensing Properties Of Cu2O Doped ZnO Nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, N. K.; Tiwari, K.; Tripathi, A.; Roy, A.; Rai, A.; Awasthi, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report application of Cu 2 O doped ZnO composite prepared by solid state reaction route as humidity sensor. Pellet samples of ZnO-Cu 2 O nanocrystalline powders with 2, 5 and 10 weight% of Cu 2 O in ZnO have been prepared. Pellets have been annealed at temperatures of 200-500 deg. C and exposed to humidity. It is observed that as relative humidity increases, resistance of the pellet decreases for the humidity from 10% to 90%. Sample with 5% of Cu 2 O doped in ZnO and annealed at 500 deg. C shows best results with sensitivity of 1.50 MΩ/%RH. In this case the hysteresis is low and the reproducibility high, making it the suitable candidate for humidity sensing.

  4. Enhanced Solar Photoelectrochemical Conversion Efficiency of ZnO:Cu Electrodes for Water-Splitting Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Dom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available n-type ZnO:Cu photoanodes were fabricated by simple spray pyrolysis deposition technique. Influence of low concentration (range ~10−4–10−1% of Cu doping in hexagonal ZnO lattice on its photoelectrochemical performance has been investigated. The doped photoanodes displayed 7-time enhanced conversion efficiencies with respect to their undoped counterpart, as estimated from the photocurrents generated under simulated solar radiation. This is the highest enhancement in the solar conversion efficiency reported so far for the Cu-doped ZnO. This performance is attributed to the red shift in the band gap of the Cu-doped films and is in accordance with the incident-photon-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE measurements. Electrochemical studies reveal an n-type nature of these photoanodes. Thus, the study indicates a high potential of doped ZnO films for solar energy applications, in purview of the development of simple nanostructuring methodologies.

  5. Physical characterization of Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} thin films from annealing of Cu-Zn-Ge precursor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffière, M., E-mail: buffiere@imec.be [Imec—Partner in Solliance, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), KU Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium); ElAnzeery, H. [Imec—Partner in Solliance, Leuven (Belgium); KACST-Intel Consortium Center of Excellence in Nano-manufacturing Applications (CENA), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Microelectronics System Design department, Nile University, Cairo (Egypt); Oueslati, S.; Ben Messaoud, K. [Imec—Partner in Solliance, Leuven (Belgium); KACST-Intel Consortium Center of Excellence in Nano-manufacturing Applications (CENA), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, El Manar (Tunisia); Brammertz, G.; Meuris, M. [Imec Division IMOMEC — Partner in Solliance, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Institute for Material Research (IMO) Hasselt University, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Poortmans, J. [Imec—Partner in Solliance, Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering (ESAT), KU Leuven, Heverlee (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} (CZGeSe) can be considered as a potential alternative for wide band gap thin film devices. In this work, CZGeSe thin films were deposited on Mo-coated soda lime glass substrates by sequential deposition of sputtered Cu, Zn and e-beam evaporated Ge layers from elemental targets followed by annealing at high temperature using H{sub 2}Se gas. We report on the effect of the precursor stack order and composition and the impact of the annealing temperature on the physical properties of CZGeSe thin films. The optimal layer morphology was obtained when using a Mo/Cu/Zn/Ge precursor stack annealed at 460 °C. We have observed that the formation of secondary phases such as ZnSe can be prevented by tuning the initial composition of the stack, the stack order and the annealing conditions. This synthesis process allows synthesizing CZGeSe absorber with an optical band gap of 1.5 eV. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} (CZGeSe) thin films were deposited using a two-step process. • CZGeSe dense layers were obtained using a Mo/Cu/Zn/Ge precursor annealed at 460 °C. • Formation of ZnSe can be avoided by tuning the composition and order of the initial stack. • P-type CZGeSe absorber with an optical band gap of 1.5 eV was obtained.

  6. Growth kinetics of the intermetallic phase in diffusion-soldered (Cu-5 at.%Ni)/Sn/(Cu-5 at.%Ni) interconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierzbicka-Miernik, A.; Miernik, K.; Wojewoda-Budka, J.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Filipek, R.; Litynska-Dobrzynska, L.; Kodentsov, A.; Zieba, P.

    2013-01-01

    A stereological analysis was carried out in order to obtain the kinetics parameters of the (Cu1-xNix)6Sn5 growth in the diffusion soldered (Cu–5 at.%Ni)/Sn/(Cu–5 at.%Ni) interconnections where previously anomalous fast growth of this phase was described. The n-parameter in the equation x = ktn was

  7. Studies of the development and characterization of the Cu-Ni-Pt and Cu-Ni-Sn alloys for electro-electronic uses; Estudos do desenvolvimento e caracterizacao das ligas Cu-Ni-Pt e Cu-Ni-Sn para fins eletro-eletronicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis Carlos Elias da

    2006-07-01

    The Cu and its alloys have different applications in the owed modern society the excellent electric properties, thermal conductivity, resistance to the corrosion and other properties. These applications can be in valves, pipes, pots for absorption of solar energy, radiators for automobiles, current driver, electronic driver, thermostats elements and structural parts of nuclear reactors, as, for example, reels for field toroidal for a reactor of nuclear coalition. The alloys used in nuclear reactors, we can highlight Cu-Be, Cu-Sn and Cu-Pt. Ni and Co frequently are added to the Cu alloys so that the solubility is moved for temperatures more elevated with relationship to the binary systems of Cu-Sn and Cu-Pt. The addition of Ni-Pt or Ni-Sn to the Cu in the same or inferior percentages to 1,5% plus thermomechanical treatments changes the properties of the copper. We studied the electric conductivity and hardness Vickers of the Cu-Ni-Pt and Cu-Ni-Sn and compared with the electrolytic Cu. In the proposed flowcharts, breaking of the obtaining of the ingot, we proceeded with thermo mechanical treatments. (author)

  8. Spray pyrolysis deposition of Cu-ZnO and Zn-SnO{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelfane, A.; Tarzalt, H.; Sebboua, B.; Zerrouki, H.; Kesri, N., E-mail: kesri5n@gmail.com [Faculty of Physics, University of Science and Technology of Houari Boumediene, Algiers (Algeria)

    2015-12-31

    Large-gap metal oxides, such as titanium, tin, and zinc oxides, have attracted great interest because of their remarkable potential in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and their low cost and simple preparation procedure. In this work, we investigated several Zn-SnO{sub 2} and Cu-ZnO thin films that were sprayed under different experimental conditions. We varied [Zn/[Sn] and [Cu/[Zn] ratios, calculated on atomic percent in the starting solution. We report some structural results of the films using X-ray diffraction. Optical reflection and transmission spectra investigated by an UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer permit the determination of optical constants. The direct band gap was deduced from the photon energy dependence of the absorption coefficient.

  9. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fekiacova, Z.; Cornu, S. [INRA, UR 1119 Géochimie des Sols et des Eaux, F-13100 Aix en Provence (France); Pichat, S. [Laboratoire de Géologie de Lyon (LGL-TPE), Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5276, 69007 Lyon (France)

    2015-06-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ{sup 65}Cu values vary from − 0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ{sup 66}Zn from − 0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from − 0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ{sup 65}Cu and from − 0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ{sup 66}Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. - Highlights: • Pedogenetic processes produce some Cu and Zn isotope fractionation. • Pollution with distinct isotopic signatures can be traced using Cu and Zn isotopes. • Tracing

  10. Tracing contamination sources in soils with Cu and Zn isotopic ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekiacova, Z.; Cornu, S.; Pichat, S.

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are naturally present and ubiquitous in soils and are important micronutrients. Human activities contribute to the input of these metals to soils in different chemical forms, which can sometimes reach a toxic level for soil organisms and plants. Isotopic signatures could be used to trace sources of anthropogenic Cu and Zn pollution. The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is possible to identify (i) Cu and Zn contamination in soils and their sources, on the basis of their isotopic signatures, and (ii) situations that are a priori favorable or not for tracing Cu and Zn pollution using the isotopic approach. Therefore, we compiled data from the literature on Cu and Zn isotopes in soils, rocks and pollutants and added to this database the results of our own research. As only a few studies have dealt with agricultural contamination, we also studied a soil toposequence from Brittany, France, that experienced spreading of pig slurry for tens of years. In the surface horizons of the natural soils, the δ 65 Cu values vary from − 0.15 to 0.44‰ and the δ 66 Zn from − 0.03 to 0.43‰. Furthermore, vertical variations along soil profiles range from − 0.95 to 0.44‰ for δ 65 Cu and from − 0.53 to 0.64‰ for δ 66 Zn values. We concluded that pedogenetic processes can produce isotopic fractionation, yet, it is not always discernible and can be overprinted by an exogenous isotopic signature. Furthermore, some contaminants are enriched in heavy Cu or in light Zn compared to the rock or soil, but no generalization can be made. The anthropogenic inputs can be identified based on stable Cu and Zn isotope ratios if the isotope ratios of the sources are different from those of the soil, which needs to be tested for each individual case. - Highlights: • Pedogenetic processes produce some Cu and Zn isotope fractionation. • Pollution with distinct isotopic signatures can be traced using Cu and Zn isotopes. • Tracing of the metal

  11. Cu-implanted ZnO nanorods array film: An aqueous synthetic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ajaya Kumar, E-mail: ajayaksingh_au@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, Govt. VYT PG. Autonomous College Durg, Chhattisgarh (India); Thool, Gautam Sheel [Department of Chemistry, Govt. VYT PG. Autonomous College Durg, Chhattisgarh (India); Singh, R.S. [Department of Physics, Govt. D.T. College, Utai, Durg, Chhattisgarh (India); Singh, Surya Prakash, E-mail: spsingh@iict.res.in [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500007 (India)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Cu doped ZnO nanorods were synthesized using low temperature aqueous solution method. • We demonstrated the capping action of TEA via theoretical simulation. • Raman analysis revealed the presence of tensile strain in Cu doped ZnO nanorods. • Growth rate was found to be high in Cu doped ZnO nanorods. - Abstract: Pure and Cu doped ZnO nanorods array are synthesized via two step chemical bath deposition method. The seed layer is prepared by successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) method. The synthesized materials have been systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. SEM pictures show the existence of vertically well aligned hexagonal ZnO nanorods. EDAX spectrum confirms the presence of Cu in ZnO nanorods. High intense peak of (0 0 2) plane and E{sub 2}{sup high} mode for XRD and Raman spectrum respectively, suggest the ZnO nanorods are adopted c-axis orientation perpendicular to substrate. XRD and Raman analysis shows the presence of tensile strain in Cu doped ZnO nanorods. Effect of Cu doping on lattice constants, unit cell volume and Zn–O bond length of ZnO nanorods have also been studied. Room temperature PL measurement exhibits two luminescence bands in the spectra i.e. UV emission centered at 3.215 eV and a broad visible band. Theoretical investigation for capping action of triethanolamine is done by Hartree–Fock (HF) method with 3-21G basis set using Gaussian 09 program package.

  12. Inkjet?Printed Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xianzhong; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Lux?Steiner, Martha Ch.; Ennaoui, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4?based solar cells with total area (0.5 cm2) power conversion efficiency of 6.4% are demonstrated from thin film absorbers processed by inkjet printing technology of Cu?Zn?Sn?S precursor ink followed by selenization. The device performance is limited by the low fill factor, which is due to the high series resistance.

  13. Inkjet-Printed Cu2ZnSn(S, Se)4 Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianzhong; Kavalakkatt, Jaison; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch; Ennaoui, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Cu 2 ZnSn(S, Se) 4 -based solar cells with total area (0.5 cm 2 ) power conversion efficiency of 6.4% are demonstrated from thin film absorbers processed by inkjet printing technology of Cu-Zn-Sn-S precursor ink followed by selenization. The device performance is limited by the low fill factor, which is due to the high series resistance.

  14. A Question of Balance: Facing the challenges of Cu, Fe and Zn Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Christine; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    Plants have recently moved into the spotlight with the growing realization that the world needs solutions to energy and food production that are sustainable and environmentally sound. Iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) are essential for plant growth and development, yet the same properties that make these transition metals indispensable can also make them deadly in excess. Fe and Cu are most often utilized for their redox properties, while Zn is primarily utilized for is ability to act as ...

  15. Adsorption of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu and Hg ions on Formaldehyde and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) ions on formaldehyde and Pyridine modified bean husks were determined. The adsorption capacity of formaldehyde modified bean husks (mg/g) was: Pb2+, 5.01; Cd2+, 3.63; Zn2+, 2.18; Hg2+, 1.82; Cu2+, 1.58 and that of pyridine modified bean husk was: Hg2+, 6.92; Cd2+ ...

  16. Defect mediated ferromagnetism in Ni-doped ZnO nanocrystals evidenced by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Yuan; Chen, Z. Q.; Zou, B.; Zhao, X. G.; Tang, Z.; Wang, S. J.

    2012-10-01

    NiO/ZnO nanocomposites with NiO content of 4 at. % and 20 at. % were annealed up to 1200 °C to get Ni doped ZnO nanocrystals. Raman scattering spectra illustrate a broad and strong band at 500-600cm-1 in all nanocomposites after annealing above 700 °C, which suggests incorporation of Ni in the ZnO lattice. However, x-ray diffraction measurements show that NiO phase can be still observed in all nanocomposites after annealing, which indicates that Ni is partially doped into the ZnO structure. Positron annihilation measurements reveal large number of vacancy defects in the interface region of all nanocomposites, and they are gradually recovered with increasing annealing temperature up to 1000 °C. Room temperature ferromagnetism can be observed in the NiO/ZnO nanocomposites, which is stronger in the 20 at. % NiO/ZnO nanocomposites, and the magnetization decreases continuously with increasing annealing temperature. This indicates that the ferromagnetism at low annealing temperatures originates from the NiO nanograins, and they become antiferromanetic after subsequent higher temperature annealing which leads to the weakening of ferromagnetism. After annealing up to 1000 °C, the ferromagnetism in both the two samples becomes nearly invisible. The disappearance of ferromagnetism shows good coincidence with the recovery of vacancy defects in NiO/ZnO nanocomposites. It can be inferred that the ferromagnetism is mediated by vacancy defects which are distributed in the interface region.

  17. Hydrothermal synthesis and magneto-optical properties of Ni-doped ZnO hexagonal columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xingyan; Cao, Chuanbao

    2015-01-01

    Single crystal Zn 1−x Ni x O (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) hexagonal columns have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal route. The hexagonal columns of the products are about 3 μm in diameter and about 2 μm in thickness. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ni K-edge XANES spectra and TEM indicate that the as-prepared samples are single-crystalline wurtzite structure and no metallic Ni or other secondary phases are found in the hexagonal columns. Optical absorption and Raman results further confirm the incorporation of Ni 2+ ions in the ZnO lattice. Magnetic measurements indicate that the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns exhibited obvious ferromagnetic characteristic at room temperature. The coercive fields (H c ) were obtained to be 135.3, 327.79 and 127.29 Oe for x=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06, respectively. The ferromagnetism was assumed to originate from the exchange interaction between free carriers (holes or electrons) from the valence band and the localized d spins on the Ni ions. - Highlights: • Single crystal Zn 1−x Ni x O (x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06) hexagonal columns were synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. • The layer-by-layer growth manner of the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns was proposed. • Obvious room-temperature ferromagnetic characteristic of Zn 1−x Ni x O are observed and the coercivity (H c ) are 135.3,327.79 and 127.29 Oe for x=0.02, 0.04 and 0.06, respectively. • The exchange interaction between local-spin polarized electrons and conduction electrons is responsible for the room-temperature ferromagnetism in the Zn 1−x Ni x O hexagonal columns

  18. Construction and evaluation of multi-component Zn-Al based bearing alloys (Zn-Al-Si, Zn-Al-Cu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahmiri, M.; Shahin, K.

    2001-01-01

    Zn-Al based alloys, with excellent mechanical properties, are finding increasing applications in various industries, especially bearing and bushing fields. Observed dimensional instabilities, in their multicomponent systems, (e. g. Zn-Al-Si and, Zn-Al Si-Cu), is believed to be as the result of some kinds of phase transformation, due to the temperature variations, while in service. Profound understanding of the phase transformations due to the temperature variation, requires detailed evaluations of the isothermal sections of the multi-components phase diagrams of Zn-Al-Si and, Zn-Al-Si-Cu alloy systems. In the present article, the isothermal sections of the aforementioned ternary and quaternary systems in the solid state regions have been investigated and observed phase transitions have been critically evaluated

  19. ZnO/Cu2S/ZnO Multilayer Films: Structure Optimization and Its Detail Data for Applications on Photoelectric and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monolayer Cu2S and ZnO, and three kinds of complex films, Cu2S/ZnO, ZnO/Cu2S, and ZnO/Cu2S/ZnO, were deposited on glass substrates by means of radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering device. The impact of the thickness of ZnO and Cu2S on the whole transmittance, conductivity, and photocatalysis was investigated. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayer were studied by optical spectrometry and four point probes. Numerical simulation of the optical transmittance of the multilayer films has been carried out in order to guide the experimental work. The comprehensive performances of the multilayers as transparent conductive coatings were compared using the figure of merit. Compared with monolithic Cu2S and ZnO films, both the optical transmission property and photocatalytic performance of complex films such as Cu2S/ZnO and ZnO/Cu2S/ZnO change significantly.

  20. Abnormal room temperature ferromagnetism in CuO/ZnO nanocomposites via hydrothermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Li, Ying; Wang, Jianchun; Wu, Ping, E-mail: pingwu@tju.edu.cn

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • CuO/ZnO nanocomposites have been synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method. • The interaction between ZnO and CuO causes a modification of electronic structure. • The abnormal RTFM is discovered at the interface of CuO/ZnO. • The M{sub S} can be tuned by changing the phase ratios of the CuO and ZnO. • The indirect double-exchange model was employed to explain the origin of magnetism. - Abstract: CuO/ZnO nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method with different phase ratios. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy results show that the obtained products of nanosheets are composed of small primary particles with an average size of about 20 nm. With the increasing proportion of CuO phase, nanosheets have significant collapse and the amount of small sheets increases obviously. The abnormal room temperature ferromagnetism was discovered at the interface between diamagnetic ZnO and antiferromagnetic CuO, which can be tuned by changing the phase ratios. Optical spectra indicate that the interaction between ZnO and CuO modifies the electronic structure of nanocomposites. XPS results verify the valence change of Cu ions and the presence of oxygen vacancies, which are ultimately responsible for the observed ferromagnetism. The indirect double-exchange model was employed to explain the origin of magnetism. Our study suggests that magnetically functional interfaces exhibit very appealing properties for novel devices.

  1. Ostwald ripening of decomposed phases in Cu-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Santiago, Felipe; Lopez-Hirata, Victor; Dorantes-Rosales, Hector J.; Saucedo-Munoz, Maribel L.; Gonzalez-Velazquez, Jorge L.; Paniagua-Mercado, Ana Ma.

    2008-01-01

    A study of the coarsening process of the decomposed phases was carried out in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys using transmission electron microscopy. As aging progressed, the morphology of the coherent decomposed Ni-rich phase changed from cuboids to platelets aligned in the Cu-rich matrix directions. Prolonged aging caused the loss of coherency between the decomposed phases and the morphology of the Ni-rich phase changed to ellipsoidal. The variation of mean radius of the coherent decomposed phases with aging time followed the modified LSW theory for thermally activated growth in ternary alloy systems. The linear variation of the density number of precipitates and matrix supersaturation with aging time, also confirmed that the coarsening process followed the modified LSW theory in both alloys. The coarsening rate was faster in the symmetrical Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloy due to its higher volume fraction of precipitates. The activation energy for thermally activated growth was determined to be about 182 and 102 kJ mol -1 in the Cu-34 wt.% Ni-4 wt.% Cr and Cu-45 wt.% Ni-10 wt.% Cr alloys, respectively. The lower energy for the former alloy seems to be related to an increase in the atomic diffusion process as the chromium content increases. The size distributions of precipitates in the Cu-Ni-Cr alloys were broader and more symmetric than that predicted by the modified LSW theory for ternary alloys

  2. One-pot synthesis of Cu/ZnO/ZnAl2O4 catalysts and their catalytic performance in glycerol hydrogenolysis

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Hua

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a series of Cu/ZnO/ZnAl2O4 catalysts with different metal molar fractions (Cu:Zn:Al) were successfully prepared using a one-pot method via the evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) of Pluronic P123 and the corresponding metal precursors. The catalysts were characterized using N2 adsorption, H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The catalytic properties of the resulting Cu/ZnO/ZnAl2O4 with different molar fractions of metals were investigated for the selective hydrogenolysis of glycerol to 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO). It was observed that the ZnAl2O 4 support exerts a strong positive effect on the catalytic activity of the copper-based catalysts, and the presence of ZnO further improves the catalytic activity of the Cu/ZnAl2O4 catalysts. The Cu/ZnO/ZnAl2O4 catalyst (Cu10Zn 30Al60, Cu/Zn/Al molar ratio is 10:30:60), which was the best catalyst, exhibited the highest yield (79%) of 1,2-PDO with 85.8% glycerol conversion and 92.1% 1,2-PDO selectivity at 180 °C reaction temperature in 80 wt% glycerol aqueous solution over 10 h reaction time. The high catalytic activity was attributed to the presence of the ZnAl2O4 support, the strong interaction between ZnO and Cu nanoparticles and the small particle size of ZnO and Cu. Moreover, the Cu/ZnO/ZnAl2O4 catalysts exhibited higher stability than Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/Al2O 3 catalysts prepared by a co-precipitation method during consecutive cycling experiments, which is due to the high chemical and thermal stability of crystalline ZnAl2O4 under harsh reaction conditions. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Dielectric properties investigation of Cu2O/ZnO heterojunction thin films by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiang; Xu, Mengmeng; Fan, Huiqing; Wang, Hairong; Peng, Biaolin; Long, Changbai; Zhai, Yuchun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bottom-up self-assembly Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction was fabricated by electrochemical deposition on indium tin oxide (ITO) flexible substrate (polyethylene terephthalate-PET). ► The dielectric response of Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction thin films had been investigated. ► The universal dielectric response was used to investigate the hopping behavior in Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction. -- Abstract: Structures and morphologies of the Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction electrodeposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) flexible substrate (polyethylene terephthalate-PET) were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The dielectric response of bottom-up self-assembly Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction was investigated. The low frequency dielectric dispersion (LFDD) was observed. The universal dielectric response (UDR) was used to investigate the frequency dependence of dielectric response for Cu 2 O/ZnO heterojunction, which was attributed to the long range and the short range hopping charge carriers at the low frequency and the high frequency region, respectively

  4. Modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by the lipid peroxidation product, acrolein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hoon Kang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrolein is the most reactive aldehydic product of lipidperoxidation and is found to be elevated in the brain whenoxidative stress is high. The effects of acrolein on the structureand function of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD wereexamined. When Cu,Zn-SOD was incubated with acrolein, thecovalent crosslinking of the protein was increased, and the loss ofenzymatic activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner.Reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers and copper chelatorsinhibited the acrolein-mediated Cu,Zn-SOD modification and theformation of carbonyl compound. The present study shows thatROS may play a critical role in acrolein-induced Cu,Zn-SODmodification and inactivation. When Cu,Zn-SOD that has beenexposed to acrolein was subsequently analyzed by amino acidanalysis, serine, histidine, arginine, threonine and lysine residueswere particularly sensitive. It is suggested that the modificationand inactivation of Cu,Zn-SOD by acrolein could be produced bymore oxidative cell environments. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(11:555-560

  5. Comparison of Cu2+ and Zn2+ thermalcatalyst in treating diazo dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y. Y.; Wong, Y. S.; Ong, S. A.; Lutpi, N. A.; Ho, L. N.

    2018-05-01

    This research demonstrates the comparison between copper (II) sulphate (CuSO4) and zinc oxide (ZnO) as thermalcatalysts in thermolysis process for the treatment of diazo reactive black 5 (RB 5) wastewater. CuSO4 was found to be the most effective thermalcatalyst in comparison to ZnO. The color removal efficiency of RB 5 catalysed by CuSO4 and ZnO were 91.55 % at pH 9.5 and 7.36 % at pH 2, respectively. From the UV-Vis wavelength scan, CuSO4 catalyst is able to cleave the molecular structure bonding more efficiently compared to ZnO. ZnO which only show a slight decay on the main chemical network strands: azo bond, naphthalene and benzene rings whereas CuSO4 catalyst is able to fragment azo bond and naphthalene more effectively. The degradation reactions of CuSO4 and ZnO as thermalcatalysts in thermolysis process were compared.

  6. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m 2 g −1 when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions

  7. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.

  8. Migration behavior of Cu and Zn in landfill with different operation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Yuyang; Shen Dongsheng; Wang Hongtao; Lu Wenjing

    2010-01-01

    Cu and Zn were chosen to study the heavy metal migration behavior and mechanism in three simulated landfills with different operation modes, namely conventional landfill (CL), leachate directly recirculated landfill (RL) and leachate pre-treated bioreactor landfill (BL). It showed that Cu and Zn in refuse experienced periodic migration and retention gradually during decomposition, and the variation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) in leachate correspondingly reflected the releasing behavior of Cu and Zn in landfill refuse at different stabilization stages. Except for their accumulated leaching amounts, Cu(II) and Zn(II) concentrations in leachate from landfills with different operation modes had no significant difference. The accumulated leaching amounts of Cu and Zn from CL showed exponential increase, while those of RL and BL showed exponential decay. The operation of bioreactor landfill with leachate recirculation can obviously attenuate the heavy metal leaching than conventional operation. The introduction of methanogenic reactor (MR) in bioreactor landfill can further promote the immobilization of heavy metal in refuse than leachate recirculation directly.

  9. Phytoremediation of Sb, As, Cu, and Zn from contaminated water by the aquatic macrophyte eleocharis acicularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Masayuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Sano, Sakae [Faculty of Education, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang

    2009-09-15

    Sb, As, Cu, and Zn toxicity and contamination have become a growing concern in recent years. Phytoremediation, a plant based and cost effective technology, may be an effective approach in the cleanup of water contaminated by these metals. In this study, the aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis acicularis was used in laboratory and field experiments to assess its capability to accumulate Sb, As, Cu, and Zn, and thereby investigate its potential application in phytoremediation. The results showed that E. acicularis adapted well to water contaminated by these metals. The removal rates of Sb, As, Cu, and Zn in the laboratory experiment were 3.04, 2.75, 0.417, and 1.49 {mu}g/L/day, respectively. The highest concentrations of these metals accumulated in E. acicularis after 10 days of the laboratory experiment were 6.29, 6.44, 20.5, and 73.5 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Only 8% of As, 12% of Sb, 87% of Cu and 93% of Zn removed from the water were used by E. acicularis. The highest concentrations of Sb, As, Cu, and Zn accumulated in E. acicularis after 10 wk of the field experiment were 76.0, 22.4, 33.9, and 266 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The results indicate that E. acicularis has the ability to accumulate Sb, As, Cu, and Zn from contaminated water. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Deposition and characterization of ZnO/NiO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Sakthivel, P.; Murugan, R.; Ravi, G., E-mail: raviganesa@rediffmail.com, E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi – 630 004 (India); Mahalingam, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-23

    In this work, p-n heterojunctions based on p-NiO and n-ZnO composite nanostructures were successfully deposited by sol-gel spin coating method. Structural investigations indicate well aligned ZnO nanorods with hexagonal faces having a preferential orientation along the c-axis (002). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize, the p-n heterostructures formed grain like spherical structure of NiO fully covered the hexagonal rods of ZnO in the NiO/ZnO thin film and elements were confirmed from EDX analysis. PL and micro-Raman spectra of the deposited films showed the variation in luminescence and structural properties due to the formation of heterojuction of NiO.

  11. Effects of Cu content on the photoelectrochemistry of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystal thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoshmashrab, Saghar; Turnbull, Matthew J.; Vaccarello, Daniel; Nie, Yuting; Martin, Spencer; Love, David A.; Lau, Po K.; Sun, Xuhui; Ding, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two compositions of CZTS were synthesized, one yielding Cu-poor and the other Cu-stoichiometric nanocrystals (NCs). • Physical and electronic properties of both films were probed using various analytical techniques. • Films comprised of Cu-poor CZTS showed tighter packing with less defects compared to those of stoichiometric-Cu. • Photoelectrochemical measurements exhibited increased photoconversion and increased photostability of the Cu-poor films. • Intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy showed that the Cu-deficient NCs had half the recombination rate as that of stoichiometric-Cu films. - Abstract: Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) nanocrystals (NCs) were prepared via a one-pot solvothermal method. Given that the composition affects the electronic properties of this p-type semiconductor, two compositional ratios were chosen from 10 designed and synthesized analogues, one yielding Cu-poor and the other Cu-stoichiometric CZTS. NCs in which the Cu concentration was slightly below stoichiometric yielded more uniform films with greater photovoltaic performance. The lower Cu content also lead to slightly better crystallinity within the film, as demonstrated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Chronophotoelectrochemical measurements indicated that both types of NC films displayed good stability; however, with a decrease in potential, an increase in resistance for the Cu-stoichiometric film was observed. As determined by intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy, the product separation rate of the photoinduced holes and electrons in the Cu-poor films were more than 3 times that of the Cu-stoichiometric, confirming that the lower Cu content led to an improved photoperformance

  12. Electronic structure of benzene adsorbed on Ni and Cu surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinelt, M.; Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Benzene has for a long time served as a prototype adsorption system of large molecules. It adsorbs with the molecular plane parallel to the surface. The bonding of benzene to a transition metal is typically viewed to involve the {pi} system. Benzene adsorbs weakly on Cu and strongly on Ni. It is interesting to study how the adsorption strength is reflected in the electronic structure of the adsorbate-substrate complex. The authors have used X-ray Emission (XE) and X-ray Absorption (XA) spectroscopies to selectively study the electronic states localized on the adsorbed benzene molecule. Using XES the occupied states can be studies and with XAS the unoccupied states. The authors have used beamline 8.0 and the Swedish endstation equipped with a grazing incidence x-ray spectrometer and a partial yield absorption detector. The resolution in the XES and XAS were 0.5 eV and 0.05 eV, respectively.

  13. Thermodynamic stability of austenitic Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Janus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The performed research was aimed at determining thermodynamic stability of structures of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron castings. Examined were 35 alloys. The castings were tempered at 900 °C for 2 hours. Two cooling speeds were used: furnace-cooling and water-cooling. In the alloys with the nickel equivalent value less than 20,0 %, partial transition of austenite to martensite took place. The austenite decomposition ratio and the related growth of hardness was higher for smaller nickel equivalent value and was clearly larger in annealed castings than in hardened ones. Obtaining thermodynamically stable structure of castings requires larger than 20,0 % value of the nickel equivalent.

  14. Composition pathway in Fe-Cu-Ni alloy during coarsening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rajdip; Choudhury, Abhik; Nestler, Britta

    2013-10-01

    In this work the microstructure evolution for a two phase Fe-Cu-Ni ternary alloy is studied in order to understand the kinetic composition paths during coarsening of precipitates. We have employed a quantitative phase-field model utilizing the CALPHAD database to simulate the temporal evolution of a multi-particle system in a two-dimensional domain. The paths for the far-field matrix and for precipitate average compositions obtained from simulation are found to be rectilinear. The trends are compared with the corresponding sharp interface theory, in the context of an additional degree of freedom for determining the interface compositions due to the Gibbs-Thomson effect in a ternary alloy.

  15. Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase: cloning and analysis of the Taenia solium gene and Taenia crassiceps cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Unda, Ricardo; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Jiménez, Lucia; Landa, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide (O(2)(-)) to oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and plays an important role in the establishment and survival of helminthes in their hosts. In this work, we describe the Taenia solium Cu,Zn-SOD gene (TsCu,Zn-SOD) and a Taenia crassiceps (TcCu,Zn-SOD) cDNA. TsCu,Zn-SOD gene that spans 2.841 kb, and has three exons and two introns; the splicing junctions follow the GT-AG rule. Analysis in silico of the gene revealed that the 5'-flanking region has three putative TATA and CCAAT boxes, and transcription factor binding sites for NF1 and AP1. The transcription start site was a C, located at 22 nucleotides upstream of the translation start codon (ATG). Southern blot analysis showed that TcCu,Zn-SOD and TsCu,Zn-SOD genes are encoded by a single copy. The deduced amino acid sequences of TsCu,Zn-SOD gene and TcCu,Zn-SOD cDNA reveal 98.47% of identity, and the characteristic motives, including the catalytic site and β-barrel structure of the Cu,Zn-SOD. Proteomic and immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Cu,Zn-SOD does not have isoforms, is distributed throughout the bladder wall and is concentrated in the tegument of T. solium and T. crassiceps cysticerci. Expression analysis revealed that TcCu,Zn-SOD mRNA and protein expression levels do not change in cysticerci, even upon exposure to O(2)(-) (0-3.8 nmol/min) and H(2)O(2) (0-2mM), suggesting that this gene is constitutively expressed in these parasites. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Facile synthesis of Zn doped CuO hierarchical nanostructures: Structural, optical and antibacterial properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ZnxCu1−xO (where x= 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 mol% hierarchical nanostructures have been prepared via soft chemical route. X-ray diffraction (XRD results of the synthesized samples reveal the monoclinic structure of CuO without any impurity related phases. The micro-structural parameters such as crystallite size and microstrain have been strongly influenced by Zn doping. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses depict the formation of hierarchical nanostructures having average particle size in the range of 26-43 nm. The surface area of CuO nanostructures has been reduced systematically with the increase in Zn content which is linked with the variations in particle size. An obvious decrease in the optical band gap energy of the synthesized CuO hierarchical nanostructures has been observed with Zn doping which is assigned to the formation of shallow levels in the band gap of CuO and combined transition from oxygen 2p states to d sates of Cu and Zn ions. The bactericidal potency of the CuO hierarchical nanostructures have been found to be enhanced remarkably with Zn doping.

  17. Re-partitioning of Cu and Zn isotopes by modified protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnarsdottir K Vala

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cu and Zn have naturally occurring non radioactive isotopes, and their isotopic systematics in a biological context are poorly understood. In this study we used double focussing mass spectroscopy to determine the ratios for these isotopes for the first time in mouse brain. The Cu and Zn isotope ratios for four strains of wild-type mice showed no significant difference (δ65Cu -0.12 to -0.78 permil; δ66Zn -0.23 to -0.48 permil. We also looked at how altering the expression of a single copper binding protein, the prion protein (PrP, alters the isotope ratios. Both knockout and overexpression of PrP had no significant effect on the ratio of Cu isotopes. Mice brains expressing mutant PrP lacking the known metal binding domain have δ65Cu isotope values of on average 0.57 permil higher than wild-type mouse brains. This implies that loss of the copper binding domain of PrP increases the level of 65Cu in the brain. δ66Zn isotope values of the transgenic mouse brains are enriched for 66Zn to the wild-type mouse brains. Here we show for the first time that the expression of a single protein can alter the partitioning of metal isotopes in mouse brains. The results imply that the expression of the prion protein can alter cellular Cu isotope content.

  18. Effects of Cu, Zn and Pb Combined Pollution on Soil Hydrolase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Dan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To study the relations between soil enzyme activities and heavy metal pollution, the combined effects of Cu, Zn and Pb on the three hydrolase activities, including invertase(IN, urease(Uand alkaline phosphatase(ALPwere investigated via an orthogonal experiment. Results showed as the following: When the concentration of Cu was 400 mg·kg-1, the U and ALP activities were decreased 51% and 44%, separately; When Zn was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and ALP activities were only decreased 3% and 9%, while U activity was increased; When Pb was at 500 mg·kg-1, IN and U activities were increased, while ALP activity was decreased 13%. As a whole, Cu was considered as the most remarkable influence factor for IN, U and ALP activity regardless of interactions among the heavy metals, Zn came second, and Pb mainly showed activation. Considering interactions, Cu×Zn could significantly influence U activity(P<0.05, effects of Cu×Pb and Cu×Zn on ALP activity were remarkable(95% confidence interval. The response of ALP activity was more sensitive than the other two enzymes. Soil ALP activity might be a sensitive tool for assessing the pollution degree of Cu.

  19. Low-field spin dynamics of Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni-Cu -Cr 7Ni molecular rings as detected by μ SR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, S.; Arosio, P.; Bordonali, L.; Adelnia, F.; Mariani, M.; Garlatti, E.; Baines, C.; Amato, A.; Sabareesh, K. P. V.; Timco, G.; Winpenny, R. E. P.; Blundell, S. J.; Lascialfari, A.

    2017-11-01

    Muon spin rotation measurements were used to investigate the spin dynamics of heterometallic Cr7Ni and Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni molecular clusters. In Cr7Ni the magnetic ions are arranged in a quasiplanar ring and interact via an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling constant J , while Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni is composed of two Cr7Ni linked by a bridging moiety containing one Cu ion, that induces an inter-ring ferromagnetic interaction J'≪J . The longitudinal muon relaxation rate λ collected at low magnetic fields μ0H BPP)-like heuristic fitting model that takes into account of a distribution of electronic spin characteristic times for T >5 K, while the shoulder presented by Cr7Ni can be reproduced by a BPP function that incorporates a single electronic characteristic time theoretically predicted to dominate for T <5 K. The flattening of λ (T ) in Cr7Ni -Cu-Cr7Ni occurring at very low temperature can be tentatively attributed to field-dependent quantum effects and/or to an inelastic term in the spectral density of the electronic spin fluctuations.

  20. The crystallisation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film solar cell absorbers from co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurr, R. [Chair for Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: schurr@krist.uni-erlangen.de; Hoelzing, A.; Jost, S.; Hock, R. [Chair for Crystallography and Structural Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Voss, T.; Schulze, J.; Kirbs, A. [Atotech Deutschland GmbH, Erasmusstrasse 20, D-10553 Berlin (Germany); Ennaoui, A.; Lux-Steiner, M. [Heterogeneous Material Systems SE II, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienickerstr.100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Weber, A.; Koetschau, I.; Schock, H.-W. [Technology SE III, Hahn-Meitner-Institut, Glienickerstr.100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-02-02

    The best CZTS solar cell so far was produced by co-sputtering continued with vapour phase sulfurization method. Efficiencies of up to 5.74% were reached by Katagiri et al. The one step electrochemical deposition of copper, zinc, tin and subsequent sulfurization is an alternative fabrication technique for the production of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} based thin film solar cells. A kesterite based solar cell (size 0.5 cm{sup 2}) with a conversion efficiency of 3.4% (AM1.5) was produced by vapour phase sulfurization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn films. We report on results of in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments during crystallisation of kesterite thin films from electrochemically co-deposited metal films. The kesterite crystallisation is completed by the solid state reaction of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} and ZnS. The measurements show two different reaction paths depending on the metal ratios in the as deposited films. In copper-rich metal films Cu{sub 3}Sn and CuZn were found after electrodeposition. In copper-poor or near stoichiometric precursors additional Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Sn phases were detected. The formation mechanism of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} involves the binary sulphides Cu{sub 2-x}S and SnS{sub 2} in the absence of the binary precursor phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}. The presence of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} leads to a preferred formation of Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} via the reaction educts Cu{sub 2-x}S and SnS{sub 2} in the presence of a SnS{sub 2}(Cu{sub 4}SnS{sub 6}) melt. The melt phase may be advantageous in crystallising the kesterite, leading to enhanced grain growth in the presence of a liquid phase.

  1. Phase Equilibria of the Sn-Ni-Si Ternary System and Interfacial Reactions in Sn-(Cu)/Ni-Si Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Chen, Chih-chi

    2015-07-01

    Interfacial reactions in Sn/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si and Sn-Cu/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si couples at 250°C, and Sn-Ni-Si ternary phase equilibria at 250°C were investigated in this study. Ni-Si alloys, which are nonmagnetic, can be regarded as a diffusion barrier layer material in flip chip packaging. Solder/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si interfacial reactions are crucial to the reliability of soldered joints. Phase equilibria information is essential for development of solder/Ni-Si materials. No ternary compound is present in the Sn-Ni-Si ternary system at 250°C. Extended solubility of Si in the phases Ni3Sn2 and Ni3Sn is 3.8 and 6.1 at.%, respectively. As more Si dissolves in these phases their lattice constants decrease. No noticeable ternary solubility is observed for the other intermetallics. Interfacial reactions in solder/Ni-4.5 wt.%Si are similar to those for solder/Ni. Si does not alter the reaction phases. No Si solubility in the reaction phases was detected, although rates of growth of the reaction phases were reduced. Because the alloy Ni-4.5 wt.%Si reacts more slowly with solders than pure Ni, the Ni-4.5 wt.%Si alloy could be a potential new diffusion barrier layer material for flip chip packaging.

  2. Tensile and electrical properties of unirradiated and irradiated Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of two different heats of Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe (HT Temper) have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500{degrees}C for longitudinal and long transverse orientations. The room temperature electrical conductivity has also been measured for both heats. Both heats exhibited a very good combination of strength and conductivity at room temperature. The strength remained relatively high at all test temperatures, with a yield strength of 420-520 MPa at 500{degrees}C. However, low levels of ductility (<5% uniform elongation) were observed at test temperatures above 200-250{degrees}C, due to flow localization adjacent to grain boundaries. Fission neutron irradiation to a dose of {approximately}0.7 dpa at temperatures between 100 and 240{degrees}C produced a slight increase in strength and a significant decrease in ductility. The measured tensile elongation increased with increasing irradiation temperature, with a uniform elongation of {approximately}3.3% observed at 240{degrees}C. The electrical conductivity decreased slightly following irradiation, due to the presence of defect clusters and Ni, Zn, Co transmutation products. The data indicate that CuNiBe alloys have irradiated tensile and electrical properties comparable or superior to CuCrZr and oxide dispersion strengthened copper at temperatures <250{degrees}C, and may be suitable for certain fusion energy structural applications.

  3. Elimination of Cu (II) and Zn (II) ions in mono-element and the bi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elimination of Cu (II) and Zn (II) ions in mono-element and the bi-element aqueous solutions by adsorption on natural clay of Bikougou (Gabon) ... The modeling of the experimental results is better achieved by application of. Freundlich adsorption isotherm and Langmuir adsorption isotherm concerning the adsorption of Cu ...

  4. Zn incorporation in CuInSe2: Particle size and strain effects on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Zn incorporation in CuInSe2: Particle size and strain effects on microstructural ... size as well as tensile strain. The calculated ... X-ray diffraction analysis of CuInSe2 samples reported in figure 2 ... To estimate qualitative information regarding ...

  5. Analysis of CdS/CdTe devices incorporating a ZnTe:Cu/Ti Contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessert, T.A.; Asher, S.; Johnston, S.; Young, M.; Dippo, P.; Corwine, C.

    2007-01-01

    High-performance CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices can be produced using a ZnTe:Cu/Ti back contact deposited onto the CdTe layer. We observe that prolonged exposure of the ZnTe:Cu and Ti sputtering targets to an oxygen-containing plasma significantly reduces device open-circuit voltage and fill factor. High-resolution compositional analysis of these devices reveals that Cu concentration in the CdTe and CdS layers is lower for devices with poor performance. Capacitance-voltage analysis and related numerical simulations indicate that the net acceptor concentration in the CdTe is also lower for devices with poor performance. Photoluminescence analyses of the junction region reveal that the intensity of a luminescent peak associated with a defect complex involving interstitial Cu (Cu i ) and oxygen on Te (O Te ) is reduced in devices with poor performance. Combined with thermodynamic considerations, these results suggest that oxygen incorporation into the ZnTe:Cu sputtering target reduces the ability of sputtered ZnTe:Cu film to diffuse Cu into the CdTe

  6. Structural and optical properties of Zn doped CuInS 2 thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Copper indium sulphide (CIS) films were deposited by spray pyrolysis onto glass ... The effects of Zn (0–5%)molecular weight compared with CuInS2 Source and ... candidates for use as doped acceptors to fabricate CuInS2-based solar cells.

  7. Phase transformations behavior in a Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Z., E-mail: lizhou6931@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China) and Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wang, M.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410083 (China); Zhang, L.; Gong, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Xiao, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L693 GH (United Kingdom); Pan, Z.Y. [Hunan Nonferrous Metals Holding Group Co., Ltd., Changsha, 410015 (China)

    2011-02-24

    Research highlights: > High solute concentrations Cu-Ni-Si alloy with super high strength and high conductivity has a good prospect for replacing Cu-Be alloys. At least four different kinds of precipitation products (DO{sub 22} ordered structure, {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si precipitate, {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si precipitate and {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Si{sub 2} precipitate) have been observed in previous investigation. Therefore, the overall phase transformation behavior of Cu-Ni-Si alloy appears to be very complex. And most previous studies on the phase transformation usually investigated the precipitation process at only one temperature or at most a few temperatures, which is far away to establish a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for Cu-Ni-Si alloy. > The phase transformation behavior of Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si alloy has been studied systematically at wide temperature range in this paper. The results we have gained are that: after solution treatment, followed by different conditions of isothermal treatment, DO{sub 22} ordering, discontinuous precipitation and continuous precipitation were observed in the alloy; discontinuous precipitates of {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si phase appeared when the alloy isothermal treated at 550 deg. C for short time, which had not been reported by the previous Cu-Ni-Si system alloy's researchers in their papers; two kinds of precipitates of {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si and {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si were determined by the TEM characterization; the orientation relationship between the two kinds of precipitates and Cu-matrix is that: (1 1 0){sub Cu}//(1 1 0){sub {beta}}//(211-bar){sub {delta}}, [112-bar]{sub Cu}//[11-bar 2]{sub {beta}}//[3 2 4]{sub {delta}}; during overaging treatment, Cu-matrix, {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si, {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si and {delta}'-Ni{sub 2}Si were distinguished in the samples and the orientation relationship between the precipitates and Cu-matrix can be expressed as that: (0 2 2){sub Cu}//(0 2 2){sub {beta}}//(1 0 0){sub {delta}}, (02-bar 2){sub Cu

  8. Soldering-induced Cu diffusion and intermetallic compound formation between Ni/Cu under bump metallization and SnPb flip-chip solder bumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Sheng; Jang, Guh-Yaw; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2004-04-01

    Nickel-based under bump metallization (UBM) has been widely used as a diffusion barrier to prevent the rapid reaction between the Cu conductor and Sn-based solders. In this study, joints with and without solder after heat treatments were employed to evaluate the diffusion behavior of Cu in the 63Sn-37Pb/Ni/Cu/Ti/Si3N4/Si multilayer structure. The atomic flux of Cu diffused through Ni was evaluated from the concentration profiles of Cu in solder joints. During reflow, the atomic flux of Cu was on the order of 1015-1016 atoms/cm2s. However, in the assembly without solder, no Cu was detected on the surface of Ni even after ten cycles of reflow. The diffusion behavior of Cu during heat treatments was studied, and the soldering-process-induced Cu diffusion through Ni metallization was characterized. In addition, the effect of Cu content in the solder near the solder/intermetallic compound (IMC) interface on interfacial reactions between the solder and the Ni/Cu UBM was also discussed. It is evident that the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 IMC might form as the concentration of Cu in the Sn-Cu-Ni alloy exceeds 0.6 wt.%.

  9. Thermal stability and primary phase of Al-Ni(Cu)-La amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenghua; Li Jinfu; Rao Qunli; Zhou Youhe

    2008-01-01

    Thermal stability and primary phase of Al 85+x Ni 9-x La 6 (x = 0-6) and Al 85 Ni 9-x Cu x La 6 (x = 0-9) amorphous alloys were investigated by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimeter. It is revealed that replacing Ni in the Al 85 Ni 9 La 6 alloy by Cu decreases the thermal stability and makes the primary phase change from intermetallic compounds to single fcc-Al as the Cu content reaches and exceeds 4 at.%. When the Ni and La contents are fixed, replacing Al by Cu increases the thermal stability but also promotes the precipitation of single fcc-Al as the primary phase

  10. Preparation of highly oriented Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films by sol-gel method and their characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaprasath, G.; Murugan, R. [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalingam, T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, Y. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Ravi, G., E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [School of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 004, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highly oriented thin films of Al doped ZnO (Al:ZnO) and Cu co-doped Al:ZnO (Cu/Al:ZnO) thin films were successfully deposited by sol–gel spin coating on glass substrates. The deposited films were characterized using X-ray diffraction analysis and found to exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with c-axis orientation. SEM images revealed that hexagonal rod shaped morphologies were grown perpendicular to the substrate surface due to repeated deposition process. High transmittance values were observed for pure ZnO compared to Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films. The band gap widening is caused by the increase of carrier concentration, which is believed to be due to Burstein-Moss effect due to Al and Cu doping. PL spectra of Cu/Al:ZnO thin films indicate that the UV emission peaks slightly shifted towards lower energy side. XPS study was carried out for Zn{sub 0.80}Al{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}O thin films to analyze the binding energy of Al, Cu, Zn and O. Magnetic measurement studies exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature, which may be due to the increase in copper concentration in the doped films. The ferromagnetic behavior can be understood from the exchange coupling between localized ‘d’ spin of Cu ion mediated by free delocalized carriers. - Highlights: • High quality of Al:ZnO and Cu co-doped Al:ZnO thin films were fabricated by sol–gel method. • The XRD analyses revealed that the deposited thin films have hexagonal wurtzite structure. • XPS was carried out for Zn{sub 0.80}Al{sub 0.10}Cu{sub 0.10}O films to analyze the binding energy of Al, Cu, Zn and O. • SEM studies were made for Al:ZnO and Cu/Al:ZnO thin films. • RTFM was observed in Cu co-doped Al:ZnO thin films.

  11. Fabrication and current–voltage characteristics of NiOx/ZnO based MIIM tunnel diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Aparajita, E-mail: asing044@fiu.edu [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174, United States of America (United States); Ratnadurai, Rudraskandan [Global Foundaries, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Kumar, Rajesh [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States); Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Krishnan, Subramanian [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States); Emirov, Yusuf [Advanced Materials Engineering Research Institute, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States); Bhansali, Shekhar [BioMEMS and Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication of single and bilayer tunnel diodes by sputter deposition. • Current–voltage characteristics study. • Enhanced asymmetry and non-linearity. • Study of tunneling mechanism. - Abstract: Enhanced asymmetric and non-linear characteristics of Ni–NiOx based MIM diode has been reported by the addition of a second insulator layer ZnO to form MIIM configuration. These properties are required for applications like energy-harvesting devices, terahertz electronics, macro electronics, etc. In this work, single insulator layer Ni–NiOx–Cr and double insulator Ni–NiOx–ZnO–Cr tunnel diodes were fabricated and their I–V characteristics were studied. A significant increase by one order of magnitude in asymmetry has been observed in case of bilayer NiOx/ZnO dielectric configuration at low voltages. The sensitivity of the NiOx and NiOx/ZnO dielectric configuration in MIM stack was 11 V{sup −1} and 16 V{sup −1}. The improved performance of the bilayer insulator diode is due to the second insulator which enables resonant tunneling or step-tunneling. Resonant tunneling was found to be dominant through trap assisted tunneling in the NiOx/ZnO diode.

  12. Properties of ZnO/CuInSe/sub 2/ heterojunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, C.X.; Shih, I.

    1986-01-01

    Low resistivity thin films of ZnO have been prepared by an rf sputtering technique with a target containing indium. It was found that the electrical resistivity of the deposited ZnO films was dependent on the indium content in the films. The deposition method was used to form ZnO/CuInSe/sub 2/ heterojunctions on Bridgman-grown monocrystalline CuInSe/sub 2/ samples. Electrical properties of the heterojunctions have been investigated. Spectral photovoltage variation was also measured

  13. A first-principles study of short range order in Cu-Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutter, M.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Johnson, D.D.; Nicholson, D.M.; Stocks, G.M.; Pinski, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, measurements of short-range order (SRO) diffuse neutron scattering intensity have been performed on quenched Cu-Zn alloys with 22.4 to 31.1 atomic percent (a/o) Zn, and pair interactions were obtained by inverse Monte Carlo simulation. These results are compared to SRO intensities and effective pair interactions obtained from first-principles electronic structure calculations. The theoretical SRO intensities were calculated with the cluster variation method (CVM) in the tetrahedron-octahedron approximation with first-principles pain interactions as input. More generally, phase stability in the Cu-Zn alloy system is discussed, using ab-initio energetic properties

  14. Simultaneous increase in strength and ductility by decreasing interface energy between Zn and Al phases in cast Al-Zn-Cu alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Zeon; Choi, Eun-Ae; Park, Hyun Woong; Lim, Sung Hwan; Lee, Jehyun; Ahn, Jee Hyuk; Hwang, Nong-Moon; Kim, Kwangho

    2017-09-22

    Cast-Al alloys that include a high amount of the second element in their matrix have comparatively high strength but low ductility because of the high volume fraction of strengthening phases or undesirable inclusions. Al-Zn alloys that have more than 30 wt% Zn have a tensile strength below 300 MPa, with elongation under 5% in the as-cast state. However, we found that after substitution of 2% Zn by Cu, the tensile strength of as-cast Al-Zn-Cu alloys was 25% higher and ductility was four times higher than for the corresponding Al-35% Zn alloy. Additionally, for the Al-43% Zn alloy with 2% Cu after 1 h solution treatment at 400 °C and water quenching, the tensile strength unexpectedly reached values close to 600 MPa. For the Al-33% Zn alloy with 2% Cu, the tensile strength was 500 MPa with 8% ductility. The unusual trends of the mechanical properties of Al-Zn alloys with Cu addition observed during processing from casting to the subsequent solution treatment were attributed to the precipitation of Zn in the Al matrix. The interface energy between the Zn particles and the Al matrix decreased when using a solution of Cu in Zn.

  15. Effect of foliar applied (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) in citrus production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, F.; Sarwar, S.; Khattak, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the impact of micronutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn) on sweet orange (Citrus Sinensis L.), blood red var., on farmer's orchard at Khanpur, district Haripur, NWFP, during 2002-03. Micronutrients were applied in foliar sprays over the canopy of each tree. The main effects and interactions of Zinc sulphate (Zn), iron sulphate (Fe), Copper Sulphate (Cu) and Manganese Sulphate (Mn) were studied in factorial combinations. A basal dose of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was applied at the rate 1.5, 1 and 1 kg tree/sup -1/. Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were applied alone and in various combinations at the rate 0.115, 0.057, 0.05 and 0.13 kg in 100 liters of water. Application of micronutrients significantly increased Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn concentrations in leaves, compared with control. Zn treatments significantly increased the yield, number of fruit and total sugar. Manganese treatments significantly increased the total soluble solids and reduced the acidity of fruit juice. Other quality parameters, including fruit size, percent peel, percent pulp, sugar as well as total soluble solids, were improved with the application of Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn. (author)

  16. ZnO/Cu nanocomposite: a platform for direct electrochemistry of enzymes and biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chi; Xu, Chunxiang; Wang, Xuemei

    2012-03-06

    Unique structured nanomaterials can facilitate the direct electron transfer between redox proteins and the electrodes. Here, in situ directed growth on an electrode of a ZnO/Cu nanocomposite was prepared by a simple corrosion approach, which enables robust mechanical adhesion and electrical contact between the nanostructured ZnO and the electrodes. This is great help to realize the direct electron transfer between the electrode surface and the redox protein. SEM images demonstrate that the morphology of the ZnO/Cu nanocomposite has a large specific surface area, which is favorable to immobilize the biomolecules and construct biosensors. Using glucose oxidase (GOx) as a model, this ZnO/Cu nanocomposite is employed for immobilization of GOx and the construction of the glucose biosensor. Direct electron transfer of GOx is achieved at ZnO/Cu nanocomposite with a high heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant of 0.67 ± 0.06 s(-1). Such ZnO/Cu nanocomposite provides a good matrix for direct electrochemistry of enzymes and mediator-free enzymatic biosensors.

  17. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Hideaki; Kubo, Yuki; Jimbo, Kazuo; Maw, Win Shwe; Katagiri, Hironori; Yamazaki, Makoto; Oishi, Koichiro; Takeuchi, Akiko [Nagaoka National College of Technology, 888 Nishikatakai, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-8532 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films were prepared by sulfurization of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn precursors. The Cu-Zn-Sn precursors were deposited on Mo-coated glass substrates in a one-step process from an electrolyte containing copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, zinc sulfate heptahydrate, tin (II) chloride dehydrate and tri-sodium citrate dehydrate. The precursors were sulfurized by annealing with sulfur at temperatures of 580 C and 600 C in an N{sub 2} atmosphere. X-ray diffraction peaks attributable to CZTS were detected in the sulfurized films. Photovoltaic cells with the structure glass/Mo/CZTS/ CdS/ZnO:Al/Al were fabricated using the CZTS films by sulfurizing the electrodeposited precursors. The best photovoltaic cell performance was obtained with Zn-rich samples. An open-circuit voltage of 540 mV, a short-circuit current of 12.6 mA/cm{sup 2} and an efficiency of 3.16% were achieved. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells fabricated by short-term sulfurization of sputtered Sn/Zn/Cu precursors under an H2S atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrani, Amin; Rajbhandari, Pravakar P.; Dhakal, Tara P.; Westgate, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin films by short-term sulfurization of sputtered Sn/Zn/Cu precursors under ambient H 2 S is studied. The effect of the sulfurization processes on the film morphology, surface roughness, composition of the CZTS, and the crystallinity was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy, optical profiler, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction respectively. To further explore the CZTS layer, the following additional layers were deposited to complete the solar cells: CdS with chemical bath deposition; ZnO and Al 2 O 3 -doped ZnO with RF magnetron deposition; and, silver fingers as the front contact as the last layer. The optical and morphological properties of the CZTS films were investigated and compared. Subsequently, the electrical characteristics and the efficiencies of the regarding solar cells were analyzed. A maximum efficiency of 3.8% has been obtained for the fast sulfurization (30 min at 580 °C) and finally, the performance is compared with our best cell fabricated through the more common slow annealing. - Highlights: • Development of Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) solar cells using elemental metal sputtering • 112-oriented CZTS films with well-defined morphology obtained • Reported efficiency of 3.8% for a short-term annealing (less than 30 min) under ambient H 2 S • A detailed comparison between the fast and the more common slow annealing is reported