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Sample records for zinc-acetate halts tumor

  1. Evolution of the zinc compound nanostructures in zinc acetate single-source solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Li Yinhua; Zhou Zhengzhi; Zu Xihong; Deng Yulin

    2011-01-01

    A series of nanostructured zinc compounds with different nanostructures such as nanobelts, flake-like, flower-like, and twinning crystals was synthesized using zinc acetate (Zn(Ac) 2 ) as a single-source. The evolution of the zinc compounds from layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA) to bilayered basic zinc acetate (BLBZA) and twinned ZnO nano/microcrystal was studied. The low-angle X-ray diffraction spectra indicate the layered spacing is 1.34 and 2.1 nm for LBZA and BLBZA, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra results confirmed that the bonding force of acetate anion with zinc cations decreases with the phase transformation from Zn(Ac) 2 to BLBZA, and finally to LBZA. The OH − groups gradually replaced the acetate groups coordinated to the matrix zinc cation, and the acetate groups were released completely. Finally, the Zn(OH) 2 and ZnO were formed at high temperature. The conversion process from Zn(Ac) 2 to ZnO with release of acetate anions can be described as Zn(Ac) 2 → BLBZA → LBZA → Zn(OH) 2 → ZnO.

  2. Clomazone selectivity in cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hiroko Inoue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study objective was to evaluate the selectivity of pre-emergence applications the herbicide clomazone cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate. The 4 x 2 factorial arrangement was adopted (4 seed treatment methods and 2 clomazone dosages, distributed in a randomized block design with 4 repetitions. In treatments where dietholate and zinc acetate were applied, rates of 0.4 kg ha-1 and 8 ml per kg of seeds were used respectively. The clomazone rates used refer to 0.8 and 1.0 kg ha- 1. The cotton cultivar used was the Fiber Max 966 LL. Independent of treatment, all seeds were treated with tiametoxam insecticide and fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M fungicide at rates of 2.24 and 0.08 + 0.03 g per kg of seed, respectively, to control pests early and limit losses caused by pathogens in germination and seedling emergence. Dietholate and zinc acetate treatment had greater initial effect on cotton plants at 21, 30 and 45 days after application. In phytointoxication symptoms were observed for treatment with dietholate and zinc acetate during the evaluation periods. Seeds treated with dietholate, dietholate and zinc acetate or zinc acetate alone provided a higher number of bolls and seed cotton production compared to the control.

  3. Duration and severity of symptoms and levels of plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor, and adhesion molecules in patients with common cold treated with zinc acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ananda S; Beck, Frances W J; Bao, Bin; Snell, Diane; Fitzgerald, James T

    2008-03-15

    Zinc lozenges have been used for treatment of the common cold; however, the results remain controversial. Fifty ambulatory volunteers were recruited within 24 h of developing symptoms of the common cold for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of zinc. Participants took 1 lozenge containing 13.3 mg of zinc (as zinc acetate) or placebo every 2-3 h while awake. The subjective scores for common cold symptoms were recorded daily. Plasma zinc, soluble interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1ra), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, soluble vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecule, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 were assayed on days 1 and 5. Compared with the placebo group, the zinc group had a shorter mean overall duration of cold (4.0 vs. 7.1 days; P cold symptoms. We related the improvement in cold symptoms to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of zinc.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and thermogravimetric study of zinc and cadmium acetates-polyaniline hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes de Farias, Robson

    2004-01-01

    By dissolution of respective acetates and conducting polymer in dimethylformamide, homogeneous zinc acetate and cadmium acetate-polyaniline (PANI) hybrids were synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and SEM microscopy. The infrared spectra suggests that there are interactions between PANI and the metal cations involving both, imine and amine nitrogens in a typical Lewis acid-base reaction. The thermogravimetric degradation profile of the synthesized hybrids resembles those exhibited by PANI samples

  5. Three-dimensional structure of porcine pancreatic carboxypeptidase B with an acetate ion and two zinc atoms in the active site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akparov, V. Kh., E-mail: valery@akparov.ru [State Research Institute for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms (Russian Federation); Timofeev, V. I., E-mail: tostars@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Maghsoudi, N. N., E-mail: maghsudi@yahoo.com [Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Neuroscience Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kuranova, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Crystals of porcine pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (CPB) were grown by the capillary counter-diffusion method in the presence of polyethylene glycol and zinc acetate. The three-dimensional structure of CPB was determined at 1.40 Å resolution using the X-ray diffraction data set collected from the crystals of the enzyme at the SPring 8 synchrotron facility and was refined to R{sub fact} = 17.19%, R{sub free} = 19.78%. The structure contains five zinc atoms, two of which are present in the active site of the enzyme, and an acetate ion. The arrangement of an additional zinc atom in the active site and the acetate ion is different from that reported by Yoshimoto et al.

  6. Digital selective growth of a ZnO nanowire array by large scale laser decomposition of zinc acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sukjoon; Yeo, Junyeob; Manorotkul, Wanit; Kang, Hyun Wook; Lee, Jinhwan; Han, Seungyong; Rho, Yoonsoo; Suh, Young Duk; Sung, Hyung Jin; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2013-05-07

    We develop a digital direct writing method for ZnO NW micro-patterned growth on a large scale by selective laser decomposition of zinc acetate. For ZnO NW growth, by replacing the bulk heating with the scanning focused laser as a fully digital local heat source, zinc acetate crystallites can be selectively activated as a ZnO seed pattern to grow ZnO nanowires locally on a larger area. Together with the selective laser sintering process of metal nanoparticles, more than 10,000 UV sensors have been demonstrated on a 4 cm × 4 cm glass substrate to develop all-solution processible, all-laser mask-less digital fabrication of electronic devices including active layer and metal electrodes without any conventional vacuum deposition, photolithographic process, premade mask, high temperature and vacuum environment.

  7. Conformational changes associated with the binding of zinc acetate at the putative active site of XcTcmJ, a cupin from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, Herbert L.; Kozbial, Piotr; McMullan, Daniel; Krishna, S. Sri; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Acosta, Claire; Astakhova, Tamara; Carlton, Dennis; Caruthers, Jonathan; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Elias, Ylva; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grzechnik, Slawomir K.; Grant, Joanna C.; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; Morse, Andrew T.; Murphy, Kevin D.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Okach, Linda; Oommachen, Silvya; Paulsen, Jessica; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Tien, Henry J.; Trout, Christina V.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; White, Aprilfawn; Xu, Qingping; Zubieta, Chloe; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of an RmlC-type cupin with zinc acetate bound at the putative active site reveals significant differences from a previous structure without any bound ligand. The functional implications of the ligand-induced conformational changes are discussed. In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the product of the tcmJ gene, XcTcmJ, encodes a protein belonging to the RmlC family of cupins. XcTcmJ was crystallized in a monoclinic space group (C2) in the presence of zinc acetate and the structure was determined to 1.6 Å resolution. Previously, the apo structure has been reported in the absence of any bound metal ion [Chin et al. (2006 ▶), Proteins, 65, 1046–1050]. The most significant difference between the apo structure and the structure of XcTcmJ described here is a reorganization of the binding site for zinc acetate, which was most likely acquired from the crystallization solution. This site is located in the conserved metal ion-binding domain at the putative active site of XcTcmJ. In addition, an acetate was also bound within coordination distance of the zinc. In order to accommodate this binding, rearrangement of a conserved histidine ligand is required as well as several nearby residues within and around the putative active site. These observations indicate that binding of zinc serves a functional role in this cupin protein

  8. Early-in-life dietary zinc deficiency and supplementation and mammary tumor development in adulthood female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Flávia R M; Grassi, Tony F; Zapaterini, Joyce R; Bidinotto, Lucas T; Barbisan, Luis F

    2017-06-01

    Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and postnatal life can adversely increase risk of developing human diseases at adulthood. The present study was designed to evaluate whether dietary zinc deficiency or supplementation during the pregnancy, lactation and juvenile stages interferes in the development of mammary tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant female SD rats were allocated into three groups: zinc-adequate diet (ZnA - 35-mg/kg chow), zinc-deficient diet (ZnD - 3-mg/kg chow) or zinc-supplemented diet (ZnS - 180-mg/kg chow) during gestational day 10 (GD 10) until the litters' weaning. Female offspring received the same diets as their dams until postnatal day (PND) 51. At PND 51, the animals received a single dose of DMBA (50 mg/kg, ig) and zinc-adequate diets. At PND 180, female were euthanized, and tumor samples were processed for histological evaluation and gene expression microarray analysis. The ZnD induced a significant reduction in female offspring body weight evolution and in mammary gland development. At late in life, the ZnD or ZnS did not alter the latency, incidence, multiplicity, volume or histological types of mammary tumors in relation to the ZnA group. However, the total tumor number in ZnS group was higher than in ZnA group, accompanied by distinct expression of 4 genes up- and 15 genes down-regulated. The present findings indicate that early-in-life dietary zinc supplementation, differently to zinc deficiency, has a potential to modify the susceptibility to the development of mammary tumors induced by DMBA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of tumor necrosis factor in flavone acetic acid-induced tumor vasculature shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, V.; Malik, S.T.; Meager, A.; Fiers, W.; Lewis, G.P.; Hart, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    Flavone acetic acid (FAA), a novel investigational antitumor agent, has been shown to cause early vascular shutdown in several experimental murine tumors, and this phenomenon is believed to be crucial to FAA's antitumor effects. However, the basis of this FAA-induced tumor vascular shutdown is unknown. In this study a radioactive tracer-clearance technique has been used as an objective indication of tumor blood flow to show that i.p. administered FAA induces a progressive and sustained reduction in blood flow in a colon 26 tumor growing s.c. in syngeneic mice. As early as 1 h after administration, there was a significant increase in the t1/2 clearance value for intratumorally injected 133Xe, reaching a peak at 3 h (117.3 +/- 36.4 versus 7.8 +/- 0.85 min for controls). Significant inhibition of blood flow was still apparent 48 h after a single injection of drug. This FAA-induced vascular shutdown was virtually abolished in tumor-bearing mice pretreated with an antiserum against tumor necrosis factor, while no such effect was observed in controls pretreated with nonimmune serum (t1/2 of 10.8 +/- 1.2 versus 65.6 +/- 8.0 min for controls). Furthermore, in vitro FAA was seen to induce tumor necrosis factor secretion from murine peritoneal cells and splenocytes. These studies suggest that FAA-induced tumor vascular shutdown in the colon 26 tumor is mediated by tumor necrosis factor

  10. Protective effects of zinc acetate toward the toxicity of nickelous acetate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waalkes, M.P.; Kasprzak, K.S.; Ohshima, M.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of zinc pretreatment on the acute toxicity of nickel. Male Fischer rats received either nickel alone (i.p.), zinc alone (s.c.), zinc plus nickel, or saline (i.p. and s.c.; controls). Zinc pretreatment significantly increased the 14-day survival of nickel-related rats. Zinc did not, however, prevent the reduction in weight gain over 2 weeks seen with nickel treatment. Histopathologically, at 120 h following nickel exposure, kidneys in the group receiving nickel alone generally showed moderate nephropathy (multifocal proximal tubule degeneration with necrosis) while in the zinc plus nickel group the nephropathy was generally mild. Zinc pretreatment had no apparent effect on the pharmacokinetics of nickel over 24 h as assessed by urinary excretion, blood levels or organ distribution. Zinc pretreatment also did not alter the subcellular distribution of renal nickel 6 h after nickel exposure. Enhanced synthesis of metallothionein did not appear to play a critical role in the reduction of nickel toxicity, since renal concentrations of this metalbuilding protein, although elevated compared to control, were not different in rats receiving zinc and nickel or zinc alone. Zinc pretreatment did, however, have marked effect on nickel-induced hyperglycemia, reducing both the duration and severity of elevated blood glucose levels. Results of the study show that zinc can prevent some of the toxic effects of nickel and that the mechanism of this action does not appear to involve either metalothionein or alterations in the pharmacokinetics of nickel. (author)

  11. Synthesis of ZnO nanocoatings by decomposition of zinc acetate induced by electrons emitted by indium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, Ladislav [Department of Chemistry, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava 708 33 (Czech Republic); Institute of Environmental Technologies, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava 708 33 (Czech Republic); Dvorský, Richard [Department of Physics, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava 708 33 (Czech Republic); Regional Materials Science and Technology Centre, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava 708 33 (Czech Republic); Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava 708 33 (Czech Republic); Praus, Petr, E-mail: petr.praus@vsb.cz [Department of Chemistry, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava 708 33 (Czech Republic); Institute of Environmental Technologies, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava 708 33 (Czech Republic); Matýsek, Dalibor [Institute of Geological Engineering, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava 708 33 (Czech Republic); Bednář, Jiří [Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15/2172, Ostrava 708 33 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hexagonal ZnO was synthetized by the decomposition of zinc acetate under UV light. • Source of photogenerated electron was an indium plate. • ZnO nanocoatings were deposited on surface of silica nanoparticles. • Mean thickness of the ZnO nanocoatings was estimated by DLS at 13 nm. - Abstract: In this work, a new method for the synthesis of ZnO nanocoatings is presented. It was tested for the nanocoating of silica nanoparticles forming core/shell SiO{sub 2}/ZnO nanoparticles by the decomposition of zinc acetate in silica aqueous nanodispersions induced by electrons generated by a plate indium photocathode, which was irradiated with a UV Hg lamp with maximum intensity at the wavelength of 245 nm. The ZnO nanocoatings were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence spectroscopy (PLS), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that ZnO of hexagonal structure formed nanocoatings with the mean thickness of 13 nm. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanocoatings was verified by the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue (MB). Such nanocoating procedure based on the electron-induced decomposition of suitable metal salts could be a promising method for various applications in nanotechnology.h.

  12. Direct Synthesis of 7 nm Thick Zinc(II)-Benzimidazole-Acetate Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Feng; Kumar, Prashant; Xu, Wenqian; Mkhoyan, K. Andre; Tsapatsis, Michael

    2018-01-09

    Two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising candidates for high performance gas sepa-ration membranes. Currently, MOF nanosheets are mostly fabricated through delamination of layered MOFs, which often re-sults in a low yield of intact free-standing nanosheets. In this work, we present a direct synthesis method for zinc(II)-benzimidazole-acetate (Zn(Bim)OAc) MOF nanosheets. The obtained nanosheets have a lateral dimension of 600 nm when synthesized at room temperature. By adjusting the synthesis temperature, the morphology of obtained nanosheets can be readily tuned from nanosheets to nanobelts. A thickness of 7 nm is determined for Zn(Bim)OAc using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, which makes these nanosheets promising building blocks of gas sepa-ration membranes.

  13. Fra halt ko til taberko

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    En halt ko kan meget nemt ende som en taberko, hvis der ikke gribes ind i tide. Ubehandlede haltheder vil ofte være  starten på en ond cirkel, som ender med, at koen bliver en taberko. Udgivelsesdato: 2009......En halt ko kan meget nemt ende som en taberko, hvis der ikke gribes ind i tide. Ubehandlede haltheder vil ofte være  starten på en ond cirkel, som ender med, at koen bliver en taberko. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  14. Zinc-induced protection against cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Early, J.L.; Schnell, R.C.

    1978-02-01

    Pretreatment of male rats with cadmium acetate potentiates the duration of hexobarbital hypnosis and inhibits the rate of hepatic microsomal drug metabolism. Pretreatment of rats with zinc acetate protects against these alterations in drug action elicited by cadmium.

  15. MicroPET assessment of androgenic control of glucose and acetate uptake in the rat prostate and a prostate cancer tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Nobuyuki; Kim, Joonyoung; Jones, Lynne A.; Mercer, Nicole M.; Engelbach, John A.; Sharp, Terry L.; Welch, Michael J. E-mail: welchm@mir.wustl.edu

    2002-11-01

    PET has been used to monitor changes in tumor metabolism in breast cancer following hormonal therapy. This study was undertaken to determine whether PET imaging could evaluate early metabolic changes in prostate tumor following androgen ablation therapy. Studies were performed comparing two positron-emitting tracers, {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 11}C-acetate, in Sprague-Dawley male rats to monitor metabolic changes in normal prostate tissue. Additional studies were performed in nude mice bearing the CWR22 androgen-dependent human prostate tumor to evaluate metabolic changes in prostate tumor. In rats, for the androgen ablation pretreatment, 1 mg diethylstilbestrol (DES) was injected subcutaneously 3 and 24 hours before tracer injection. For androgen pretreatment, 500 {mu}g dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was injected intraperitoneally 2 and 6 hours before tracer injection. The rats were divided into three groups, Group A (no-DES, no-DHT, n = 18), Group B (DES, no-DHT, n = 18) and Group C (DES, DHT, n = 18). In each group, 10 animals received {sup 18}F-FDG, whereas the remaining eight animals were administered {sup 11}C-acetate. Rats were sacrificed at 120 min post-injection of {sup 18}F-FDG or 30 min post-injection of {sup 11}C-acetate. Pretreatment of the mouse model using DHT (200 {mu}g of DHT in 0.1 mL of sunflower seed oil) or DES (200 {mu}g of DES in 0.1 mL of sunflower seed oil) was conducted every 2 days for one week. Mice were imaged with both tracers in the microPET scanner (Concorde Microsystems Inc.). DES treatment caused a decrease in acetate and glucose metabolism in the rat prostate. Co-treatment with DHT maintained the glucose metabolism levels at baseline values. In the tumor bearing mice, similar effects were seen in {sup 18}F-FDG study, while there was no significant difference in {sup 11}C-acetate uptake. These results indicate that changes in serum testosterone levels influence {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the prostate gland, which is closely tied to glucose

  16. The effect of zinc and phytic acid on the incorporation of 1-14C-acetate into aflatoxin by resting mycelia of Aspergillus parasiticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Venkitasubramanian, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of zinc and phytic acid on [1- 14 C]-acetate incorporation into aflatoxins by resting mycelium was studied. When different levels of ZnSO 4 were used to study its effect on the incorporation of [1- 14 C]-acetate into aflatoxins, it was found that the specific radioactivity incorporation into aflatoxins was maximum at the level of 10 mM-ZnSO 4 . At this concentration the change in the specific radioactivities of aflatoxins B 1 + B 2 and aflatoxins G 1 + G 2 were +74.61% and +29.66%, respectively. On the other hand, phytic acid had an inhibitory effect on the incorporation of [1- 14 C]-acetate. These observations have been correlated in order to find out why soyabean is unable to produce aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus. (orig.) [de

  17. Zinc oxide's hierarchical nanostructure and its photocatalytic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Barakat, Nasser A. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a new hierarchical nanostructure that consists of zinc oxide (ZnO) was produced by the electrospinning process followed by a hydrothermal technique. First, electrospinning of a colloidal solution that consisted of zinc nanoparticles, zinc acetate dihydrate and poly(vinyl alcohol...

  18. Treatment of Gastrin-Secreting Tumor With Sustained-Release Octreotide Acetate in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangho; Hosoya, Kenji; Takagi, Satoshi; Okumura, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    An 8 yr old, intact male Shiba Inu was presented with loose stool, polydipsia, hematuria, vomiting, and anorexia. On abdominal ultrasonography, numerous nodules were detected in the hepatic parenchyma distributed diffusely throughout all lobes. Excisional biopsy of one of the nodules was performed via exploratory laparotomy. A histopathological diagnosis of the lesion was carcinoid, and the tumor cells stained positive to chromogranin A and gastrin. The serum gastrin level of the dog was 45,613 pg/mL (reference range: 160-284). In addition to medical treatment with omeprazole(c) and famotidine(e), suppression of gastrin secretion was attempted with octreotide acetate. A test dose of octreotide acetate significantly decreased the serum gastrin level to approximately one third of the baseline in 2 hr and the effect lasted approximately for 6 hr. On day 21, treatment with sustained-release formulation of octreotide acetate(a) (5 mg intramuscular, q 4 wk) was initiated. The serum gastrin concentration gradually decreased over 32 days and then progressively increased in parallel with the progression of the hepatic nodules. The dog gradually developed recurrence of initial clinical signs, and was lost to follow-up on day 510.

  19. Inhibition effects of protein-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles on tumor cells growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Ying; Wang Huajie; Cao Cui; Sun Yuanyuan; Yang Lin; Wang Baoqing; Zhou Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a facile and environmentally friendly method was applied to fabricate BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the matrix. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the stable and well-dispersed nanoparticles with the diameter of 15.9 ± 2.1 nm were successfully prepared. The energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrograph, high resolution transmission electron microscope, and selected area electron diffraction measurements showed that the obtained nanoparticles had the amorphous structure and the coordination occurred between zinc sulfide surfaces and BSA in the nanoparticles. In addition, the inhibition effects of BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles on tumor cells growth were described in detail by cell viability analysis, optical and electron microscopy methods. The results showed that BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles could inhibit the metabolism and proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and the inhibition was dose dependent. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.36 mg/mL. Overall, this study suggested that BSA-conjugated amorphous zinc sulfide nanoparticles had the application potential as cytostatic agents and BSA in the nanoparticles could provide the modifiable site for the nanoparticles to improve their bioactivity or to endow them with the target function.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn 2+ cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn 2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh@aut.ac.ir [Department of Surface Coatings and Corrosion, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • An organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive pigment was synthesized and characterized. • Chemical structure and morphology of the hybrid complex were characterized. • Zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica showed effective inhibition action in saline solution on carbon steel. • The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} cations and inhibitive compounds existed in U.D resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface. - Abstract: This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV–vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn{sup 2+} and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  2. Efficient synthesis of zinc-containing mesoporous silicas by microwave irradiation method and their high activities in acetylation of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene with acetic anhydride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bachari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of acid zinc-containing mesoporous materials have been synthesized by microwave irradiation method with different Si/Zn ratios (Si/Zn = 100, 65, 15 and characterized by several spectroscopic techniques such as: N2 physical adsorption, ICP, XRD, TEM, FT-IR and a temperature-programmed-desorption (TPD of pyridine. The liquid phase of acetylation of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene with acetic anhydride has been investigated over this series of catalysts. In fact, the catalyst Zn-JLU-15 (15 showed bigger performance in the acid-catalyzed acetylation of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene employing acetic anhydride as an acylating agent. Furthermore, the kinetics of the acetylation of 1,2-dimethoxybenzene over these catalysts have also been investigated.

  3. Zinc species distribution in EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-H.; Wei, Y.-L.; Wang, H. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Soil sample from a site heavily contaminated with >10 wt.% zinc is sampled and extracted with aqueous solutions of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) that is a reagent frequently used to extract heavy metals in soil remediation. Three liquid/soil ratios (5/1, 20/1, and 100/1) were used in the extracting experiment. The molecular environment of the residual Zn in the EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil is investigated with XANES technique. The results indicate that EDTA does not show considerable preference of chelating for any particular Zn species during the extraction. Zn species distribution in the sampled soil is found to resemble that in all EDTA-extract residues; Zn(OH) 2 is determined as the major zinc species (60-70%), seconded by organic zinc (21-26%) and zinc oxide (9-14%)

  4. Synthesis of transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films through free-radical copolymerization of asymmetric zinc methacrylate acetate and in-situ thermal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lin [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Li Fan, E-mail: lfan@ncu.edu.cn [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Chen Yiwang, E-mail: ywchen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang Xiaofeng [Institute of Polymers, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2011-08-15

    In this paper, a new and simple approach for in-situ preparation of transparent ZnO/poly(metyl methacrylate) (ZnO/PMMA) nanocomposite films was developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly(zinc methacrylate acetate) (PMMA-co-PZnMAAc) copolymer was synthesized via free-radical polymerization between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and zinc methacrylate acetate (ZnMAAc), where asymmetric ZnMAAc with only one terminal double bond (C=C) was applied to act as the precursor for ZnO nanocrystals and could avoid cross-link. Subsequently, transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films were obtained by in-situ thermal decomposition. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image revealed that ZnO nanocrystals were homogeneously dispersed in PMMA matrix. With thermal decomposition time increasing, the absorption intensity in UV region and photoluminescence intensity of ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films enhanced. However, the optical properties diminished when the thermal decomposition temperature increased. The TGA measurement displayed ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films prepared by the in-situ synthesis method possessed better thermal stability compared with those prepared by the physical blending method and pristine PMMA films. - Highlights: > ZnO/PMMA hybrid films were prepared via free-radical polymerization and in-situ thermal decomposition. > ZnO NCs are homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix and these films have good optical properties. > Thermal stability of these films is improved compared with those of physically blending ones.

  5. Synthesis of transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films through free-radical copolymerization of asymmetric zinc methacrylate acetate and in-situ thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Li Fan; Chen Yiwang; Wang Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new and simple approach for in-situ preparation of transparent ZnO/poly(metyl methacrylate) (ZnO/PMMA) nanocomposite films was developed. Poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly(zinc methacrylate acetate) (PMMA-co-PZnMAAc) copolymer was synthesized via free-radical polymerization between methyl methacrylate (MMA) and zinc methacrylate acetate (ZnMAAc), where asymmetric ZnMAAc with only one terminal double bond (C=C) was applied to act as the precursor for ZnO nanocrystals and could avoid cross-link. Subsequently, transparent ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films were obtained by in-situ thermal decomposition. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image revealed that ZnO nanocrystals were homogeneously dispersed in PMMA matrix. With thermal decomposition time increasing, the absorption intensity in UV region and photoluminescence intensity of ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films enhanced. However, the optical properties diminished when the thermal decomposition temperature increased. The TGA measurement displayed ZnO/PMMA nanocomposite films prepared by the in-situ synthesis method possessed better thermal stability compared with those prepared by the physical blending method and pristine PMMA films. - Highlights: → ZnO/PMMA hybrid films were prepared via free-radical polymerization and in-situ thermal decomposition. → ZnO NCs are homogeneously dispersed in the PMMA matrix and these films have good optical properties. → Thermal stability of these films is improved compared with those of physically blending ones.

  6. Effect of sibutramine on 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid levels and selected oxidative biomarkers on brain regions of female rats in the presence of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, David C; García, Ernestina H; Mejía, Gerardo B; Olguín, Hugo J; Jiménez, Francisca T; Soto, Erick B; Del Angel, Daniel S; Aparicio, Liliana C

    2012-05-01

    A number of drugs, like sibutramine, which are used clinically in weight control, act on serotonergic metabolism. However, their relation with zinc and free radical (FR) production in central nervous system remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sibutramine and zinc on FR production. Female Wistar rats (about 250 g) were used in this study. The animals received 400 μg/kg of zinc and 10 mg/kg of sibutramine intraperitoneally every 36 hr for 15 days. At the end of the study, the rats were killed and their brains used for the measurement of lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2) ), calcium and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels, all by means of validated methods. Corporal weight and food consumption were found to be decreased in the zinc/sibutramine group. TBARS decreased in cortex, hemispheres and medulla oblongata. GSH decreased in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum in the sibutramine group. Zinc given alone and in combination with sibutramine decreased H(2) O(2) concentration in cortex, hemispheres and cerebellum but increased calcium and 5-HIAA concentration in all brain regions. Our results suggest that sibutramine and zinc are associated with weight loss, an effect that was more pronounced in the group treated with both drugs. Reduction in oxidative stress may be involved in these effects. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of resorcinol–formaldehyde resin chars doped by zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gun’ko, Vladimir M.; Bogatyrov, Viktor M.; Oranska, Olena I.; Urubkov, Iliya V.; Leboda, Roman; Charmas, Barbara; Skubiszewska-Zięba, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    Polycondensation polymerization of resorcinol–formaldehyde (RF) mixtures in water with addition of different amounts of zinc acetate and then carbonization of dried gels are studied to prepare ZnO doped chars. Zinc acetate as a catalyst of resorcinol–formaldehyde polycondensation affects structural features of the RF resin (RFR) and, therefore, the texture of chars prepared from Zn-doped RFR. The ZnO doped chars are characterized using thermogravimetry, low temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). At a relatively high content of zinc acetate (1 mol per 10–40 mol of resorcinol) in the reaction mixture, the formation of crystallites of ZnO (zincite) occurs in a shape of straight nanorods of 20–130 nm in diameter and 1–3 μm in length. At a small content of zinc acetate (1 mol per 100–500 mol of resorcinol), ZnO in composites is XRD amorphous and does not form individual particles. The ZnO doped chars are pure nanoporous at a minimal ZnO content and nano-mesoporous or nano-meso-macroporous at a higher ZnO content.

  8. Molecular and applied modulation effects in electron-electron double resonance. 7. Modulation frequency effects for the CH/sub 2/COO/sup -/ radical in irradiated zinc acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Jr, R C; Dalton, L R [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tenn. (USA). Dept. of Chemistry; Kispert, L D

    1977-04-01

    Frequency-swept absorption ELDOR signals for the CH/sub 2/COO/sup -/radical in zinc acetate depend upon Zeeman modulation frequency, the signals going from a positive to a negative sense as the Zeeman modulation frequency is varied from 100 to 1 kHz. A mathematical formulation derived explicitly considering applied electromagnetic radiation and Zeeman modulation fields is employed to computer-simulate the experimentally observed effects.

  9. Partial construction halt to HTR reactor revoked

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauk, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Higher Administrative Court has dismissed the decision of the Arnsberg Administrative Court of February 5, 1981, which had decided in favour of an action for restitution of the suspensive power of an action for annulment of the part-construction permit for the Schmehausen nuclear power plant with a high-temperature reactor, i.e. in favour of a halt to construction. The Higher Administrative Court has revoked this decision on formal grounds - incompetence of the Administrative Court - and on substantial grounds - the halt to construction would be too hard on the power plant producer. The author agrees with this and discusses some aspects of judgment, effective legal aid, etc. (HSCH) [de

  10. Acetate supplementation induces growth arrest of NG2/PDGFRα-positive oligodendroglioma-derived tumor-initiating cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Long

    Full Text Available Cancer is associated with globally hypoacetylated chromatin and considerable attention has recently been focused on epigenetic therapies. N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA, the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA, the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate and ultimately acetyl-Coenzyme A for histone acetylation, are reduced in oligodendroglioma. The short chain triglyceride glyceryl triacetate (GTA, which increases histone acetylation and inhibits histone deacetylase expression, has been safely used for acetate supplementation in Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation. We demonstrate that GTA induces cytostatic G0 growth arrest of oligodendroglioma-derived cells in vitro, without affecting normal cells. Sodium acetate, at doses comparable to that generated by complete GTA catalysis, but not glycerol also promoted growth arrest, whereas long chain triglycerides promoted cell growth. To begin to elucidate its mechanism of action, the effects of GTA on ASPA and acetyl-CoA synthetase protein levels and differentiation of established human oligodendroglioma cells (HOG and Hs683 and primary tumor-derived oligodendroglioma cells that exhibit some features of cancer stem cells (grade II OG33 and grade III OG35 relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu were examined. The nuclear localization of ASPA and acetyl-CoA synthetase-1 in untreated cells was regulated during the cell cycle. GTA-mediated growth arrest was not associated with apoptosis or differentiation, but increased expression of acetylated proteins. Thus, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a safe, novel epigenetic therapy to reduce the growth of oligodendroglioma cells without affecting normal neural stem or oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation or differentiation.

  11. Targeting Glutamatergic Signaling and the PI3 Kinase Pathway to Halt Melanoma Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Rosenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Our group has previously reported that the majority of human melanomas (>60% express the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1 and that the glutamate release inhibitor riluzole, a drug currently used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, can induce apoptosis in GRM1-expressing melanoma cells. Our group previously reported that in vitro riluzole treatment reduces cell growth in three-dimensional (3D soft agar colony assays by 80% in cells with wildtype phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K pathway activation. However, melanoma cell lines harboring constitutive activating mutations of the PI3K pathway (PTEN and NRAS mutations showed only a 35% to 40% decrease in colony formation in soft agar in the presence of riluzole. In this study, we have continued our preclinical studies of riluzole and its effect on melanoma cells alone and in combination with inhibitors of the PI3 kinase pathway: the AKT inhibitor, API-2, and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin. We modeled these combinatorial therapies on various melanoma cell lines in 3D and 2D systems and in vivo. Riluzole combined with mTOR inhibition is more effective at halting melanoma anchorage-independent growth and xenograft tumor progression than either agent alone. PI3K signaling changes associated with this combinatorial treatment shows that 3D (nanoculture modeling of cell signaling more closely resembles in vivo signaling than monolayer models. Riluzole combined with mTOR inhibition is effective at halting tumor cell progression independent of BRAF mutational status. This makes this combinatorial therapy a potentially viable alternative for metastatic melanoma patients who are BRAF WT and are therefore ineligible for vemurafenib therapy.

  12. HALT Selected Papers, 1993 with Language Teaching Ideas from Paradise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Paul, Ed.; Hodnett, Edda, Ed.

    In section I, papers presented at the Hawaii Association of Language Teachers (HALT) in 1993 are presented. Section II includes a number of projects received from a call for papers simultaneous to the call for the HALT papers. Section 1 contains: "This is Like a Foreign Language to Me: Keynote Address" (Bill VanPatten); "From Discussion Questions…

  13. Influence of synthesis procedure on the formation and properties of zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Popovic, S.; Maljkovic, M.; Dragcevic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Formation and properties of zinc oxide were investigated in dependence on the synthesis procedure. Zinc oxide did not crystallize upon hydrothermal treatment of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 aqueous solutions containing urea, up to 160 deg. C. Hydrozincite was formed instead. Changes in the X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were interpreted in terms of stacking disorder in hydrozincite crystals. Zinc oxide powder was obtained by thermal treatment in air of precipitated hydrozincite. The conditions for instantaneous synthesis of very fine zinc oxide particles were found. This procedure is based on addition of TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) solution to an ethanolic solution of zinc acetate dihydrate, up to pH∼14. On the other hand, addition of an equivalent volume of water to the ethanolic solution of zinc acetate dihydrate, prior to the addition of TMAH solution up to pH∼14, yielded ZnO flakes without any specific shape. All zinc oxide particles produced upon heating at 600 deg. C in air showed similar morphology and tendency to aggregation due to the sintering effect. The features of the FT-IR spectra of zinc oxide particles were related to their shapes

  14. Local anesthetics inhibit induction of ornithine decarboxylase by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuspa, S H; Lichti, U; Ben, T

    1980-01-01

    The induction of ornithine decarboxylase (L-ornithine carboxy-lyase, EC 4.1.1.17) activity in mouse epidermal cells in vivo and in vitro occurs rapidly after exposure to the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). This induction has characteristics of a cell surface receptor-mediated process. Local anesthetics modify a variety of cellular responses mediated by membrane receptors. When cultured mouse epidermal cells were exposed to the local anesthetics lidocaine, tetracaine...

  15. Zinc mediated activation of terminal alkynes: stereoselective synthesis of alkynyl glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatina, Madhu Babu; Kusunuru, Anil Kumar; Yousuf, Syed Khalid; Mukherjee, Debaraj

    2014-10-28

    Zinc mediated alkynylation reaction was studied for the preparation of C-glycosides from unactivated alkynes. Different glycosyl donors such as glycals and anomeric acetates were tested towards an alkynyl zinc reagent obtained from alkynes using zinc dust and ethyl bromoacetate as an additive. The method provides simple, mild and stereoselective access to alkynyl glycosides both from aromatic and aliphatic acetylenes.

  16. A study of 11C-acetate production using 11C-choline commercial module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinming; Tian Jiahe; Yao Shulin; Chen Yan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: 11 C-acetate is a useful PET tracer in evaluating myocardial metabolism but more interest has been focused on its application in tumor detection in recent years, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was designed to evaluate the laboratory, preparation of 11 C-acetate with a modified 11 C-choline commercial module and to investigate its biodistribution in tumor (lung adenocarcinoma)-bearing mice as well as its potential as a tumor imaging agent. Methods: 11 C-acetate was synthesized with a modified 11 C choline module: Methyl magnesium bromide Grignard (0.1 ml of 1.5 mol/L) was load- ed to a Teflon loop before 11 CO 2 was recovered from the target. Cartier acetate solution (2 ml of 1 mmol/L) was pushed through the loop, SPE cartridges (mixed AG50 and IC-Ag) and then the QMA. The loop and cartridges were then rinsed with water. The product 11 C-acetate was then washed out from QMA with 0.9% NaCl solution into a collection vial containing diluted HCl. 11 C-carbonate was removed by nitrogen bubbling for 2 min. After neutralization with trisodium citrate, the injectable 11 C-acetate solution was obtained. The tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed. The percentage activity of injected dose per gram of tissue (% ID/g) for tumor and other tissues were calculated. One patient with known diagnosis of moderately differentiated HCC was injected with 11 C-acetate and imaged by PET/CT, followed by 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Results: The synthesis yield of 11 C-acetate was (60.5 ± 8.7)% (decay conected, n=10); the radio-chemistry purity was > 98% and the synthesis time was 10 min from 11 CO 2 to 11 C-acetate. The radioactivity ratio for tumor/muscle was 1.76 at 30 min. A patient with known HCC showed positive 11 C-acetate accumulation in the tumor but was negative in 18 F-FDG. Conclusion: The synthesis of 11 C-acetate by modification of an 11 C-choline commercial module was feasible and it could be achieved with high yield, high radiochemical purity

  17. Conductivity study of nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yu-Ting; Lan, Wen-How; Huang, Kai-Feng; Lin, Jia-Ching; Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the spray pyrolysis method was used to prepare unintentionally doped and nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide films by using zinc acetate, calcium nitrate precursor, and ammonium acetate precursor. Morphological and structural analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that film grain size decreased as the nitrogen doping was increased. Both calcium oxide and zinc oxide structures were identified in the unintentionally doped calcium zinc oxide. When nitrogen doping was introduced, the film mainly exhibited a zinc oxide structure with preferred (002) and (101) orientations. The concentration and mobility were investigated using a Hall measurement system. P-type films with a mobility and concentration of 10.6 cm"2 V"−"1 s"−"1 and 2.8×10"1"7 cm"−"3, respectively, were obtained. Moreover, according to a temperature-dependent conductivity analysis, an acceptor state with activation energy 0.266 eV dominated the p-type conduction for the unintentionally doped calcium zinc oxide. By contrast, a grain boundary with a barrier height of 0.274–0.292 eV dominated the hole conduction for the nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide films.

  18. High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paananen, Markus; Sixta, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    High-alkali low-temperature polysulfide pulping (HALT) was effectively utilised to prevent major polysaccharide losses while maintaining the delignification rate. A yield increase of 6.7 wt% on wood was observed for a HALT pulp compared to a conventionally produced kappa number 60 pulp with comparable viscosity. Approximately 70% of the yield increase was attributed to improved galactoglucomannan preservation and 30% to cellulose. A two-stage oxygen delignification sequence with inter-stage peroxymonosulphuric acid treatment was used to ensure delignification to a bleachable grade. In a comparison to conventional pulp, HALT pulp effectively maintained its yield advantage. Diafiltration trials indicate that purified black liquor can be directly recycled, as large lignin fractions and basically all dissolved polysaccharides were separated from the alkali-rich BL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [The morphofunctional state of the bone marrow in lead and zinc intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimtseva, T M; Pashkevich, I A; Salmina, A B

    2006-01-01

    The nucleolus is a compulsory nuclear structure of all cells of eukaryotes. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of nuclei show the functional activity of a cell, the rate of its synthesis of RNA and portents, and its metabolic state. Heavy metals (zinc chloride and lead acetate) were comparatively investigated for their effects on the nucleolar apparatus of bone marrow cells in in vivo experiments. Zinc chloride and lead acetate were ascertained to damage the nucleolar apparatus of cells, thus decreasing their transcriptional activity or irreversibly damaging them.

  20. Glucose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 under different aeration conditions: Requirement of acetate to sustain growth under microaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Jensen, N.B.S.; Villadsen, John

    2003-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 was grown in batch cultures on a defined medium with glucose as the energy source under different aeration conditions, namely, anaerobic conditions, aerobic conditions, and microaerobic conditions with a dissolved oxygen tension of 5% (when saturation...... resulted in acetate, CO2, and acetoin replacing formate and ethanol as end products. Under microaerobic conditions, growth came to a gradual halt, although more than 60% of the glucose was still left. A decline in growth was not observed during microaerobic cultivation when acetate was added to the medium...

  1. Quantum iterative deepening with an application to the halting problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Tarrataca

    Full Text Available Classical models of computation traditionally resort to halting schemes in order to enquire about the state of a computation. In such schemes, a computational process is responsible for signaling an end of a calculation by setting a halt bit, which needs to be systematically checked by an observer. The capacity of quantum computational models to operate on a superposition of states requires an alternative approach. From a quantum perspective, any measurement of an equivalent halt qubit would have the potential to inherently interfere with the computation by provoking a random collapse amongst the states. This issue is exacerbated by undecidable problems such as the Entscheidungsproblem which require universal computational models, e.g. the classical Turing machine, to be able to proceed indefinitely. In this work we present an alternative view of quantum computation based on production system theory in conjunction with Grover's amplitude amplification scheme that allows for (1 a detection of halt states without interfering with the final result of a computation; (2 the possibility of non-terminating computation and (3 an inherent speedup to occur during computations susceptible of parallelization. We discuss how such a strategy can be employed in order to simulate classical Turing machines.

  2. Quantum Iterative Deepening with an Application to the Halting Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrataca, Luís; Wichert, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Classical models of computation traditionally resort to halting schemes in order to enquire about the state of a computation. In such schemes, a computational process is responsible for signaling an end of a calculation by setting a halt bit, which needs to be systematically checked by an observer. The capacity of quantum computational models to operate on a superposition of states requires an alternative approach. From a quantum perspective, any measurement of an equivalent halt qubit would have the potential to inherently interfere with the computation by provoking a random collapse amongst the states. This issue is exacerbated by undecidable problems such as the Entscheidungsproblem which require universal computational models, e.g. the classical Turing machine, to be able to proceed indefinitely. In this work we present an alternative view of quantum computation based on production system theory in conjunction with Grover's amplitude amplification scheme that allows for (1) a detection of halt states without interfering with the final result of a computation; (2) the possibility of non-terminating computation and (3) an inherent speedup to occur during computations susceptible of parallelization. We discuss how such a strategy can be employed in order to simulate classical Turing machines. PMID:23520465

  3. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and ulcerogenic activity of a zinc-diclofenac complex in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Santos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and ulcerogenic activity of a zinc-diclofenac complex (5.5 or 11 mg/kg in male Wistar rats (180-300 g, N = 6 and compared it to free diclofenac (5 or 10 mg/kg and to the combination of diclofenac (5 or 10 mg/kg and zinc acetate (1.68 or 3.5 mg/kg. The carrageenin-induced paw edema and the cotton pellet-induced granulomatous tissue formation models were used to assess the anti-inflammatory activity, and the Hargreaves model of thermal hyperalgesia was used to assess the antinociceptive activity. To investigate the effect of orally or intraperitoneally (ip administered drugs on cold-induced gastric lesions, single doses were administered before exposing the animals to a freezer (-18ºC for 45 min in individual cages. We also evaluated the gastric lesions induced by multiple doses of the drugs. Diclofenac plus zinc complex had the same anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects as diclofenac alone. Gastric lesions induced by a single dose administered per os and ip were reduced in the group treated with zinc-diclofenac when compared to the groups treated with free diclofenac or diclofenac plus zinc acetate. In the multiple dose treatment, the complex induced a lower number of the most severe lesions when compared to free diclofenac and diclofenac plus zinc acetate. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the zinc-diclofenac complex may represent an important therapeutic alternative for the treatment of rheumatic and inflammatory conditions, as its use may be associated with a reduced incidence of gastric lesions.

  4. Using a feed-grade zinc propionate to achieve molt induction in laying hens and retain postmolt egg production and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S Y; Kim, W K; Birkhold, S G; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J; Ricke, S C

    2004-11-01

    A commercial-feed-grade form of zinc propionate was examined as a potential feed amendment at a concentration of 1% zinc to induce molt in 90-wk-old hens. Dietary treatments consisted of 4 treatment groups of 28 birds each randomly assigned to either (1) molted conventionally by feed withdrawal, (2) 1% zinc as Zn acetate, (3) 1% zinc as Zn propionate, or (4) nonmolted control for 9 d. Ovary weights of hens fed Zn acetate or Zn propionate were not significantly different from each other, but hens fed Zn acetate or Zn propionate were significantly (phens. Zinc concentrations in the kidney and liver were significantly (phens when compared to either nonmolted control-fed hens or feed-withdrawal molted hens. Over the entire 3-mo postmolt period, there were no significant differences in interior or exterior egg qualities among the four treatments. Egg production of hens fed Zn acetate was significantly lower than feed-withdrawal hens, Zn propionate-fed hens, or nonmolted control hens (pfeeding a feed grade of Zn propionate (1% Zn)-supplemented diet can induce molt and retain postmolt egg quality and production comparable to hens molted by feed withdrawal.

  5. Silver nanoparticles in combination with acetic acid and zinc oxide quantum dots for antibacterial activities improvement—A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedira, Sofiane, E-mail: sofianebilel@gmail.com [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Ayachi, Ahmed Abdelhakim, E-mail: ayachi-med@hotmail.fr [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Lakehal, Sihem, E-mail: lakehal.lakehal@gmail.com [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Fateh, Merouane, E-mail: merouane.fateh@gmail.com [Microbiological Laboratory Engineering and Application, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria); Achour, Slimane, E-mail: achourslimane11@yahoo.fr [Ceramic Laboratory, University of Constantine1, Constantine (Algeria)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method. • Ag NPs exert their bactericidal effect mainly by Ag{sup +} ions. • CH{sub 3}COOH addition to Ag NPs improves bactericidal effect more than ZnO Qds addition. • E. coli and P. aeruginosa are more sensitive to NPs than K. pneumonia and S. aureus. - Abstract: Due to their remarkable antibacterial/antivirus properties, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO Qds) have been widely used in the antimicrobial field. The mechanism of action of Ag NPs on bacteria was recently studied and it has been proven that Ag NPs exerts their antibacterial activities mainly by the released Ag{sup +}. In this work, Ag NPs and ZnO Qds were synthesized using polyol and hydrothermal method, respectively. It was demonstrated that Ag NPs can be oxidized easily in aqueous solution and the addition of acetic acid can increase the Ag{sup +} release which improves the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs. A comparative study between bactericidal effect of Ag NPs/acetic acid and Ag NPs/ZnO Qds on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus was undertaken using agar diffusion method. The obtained colloids were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  6. Zinc-based electrolyte compositions, and related electrochemical processes and articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniajanski, Sergei; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2018-02-20

    An aqueous electrolyte composition is described, including a zinc salt based on zinc acetate or zinc glocolate. The saturation concentration of zinc in the electrolyte composition is in the range of about 2.5M to about 3.5M. The composition also contains at least one salt of a monovalent cation. The molar ratio of zinc to the monovalent cation is about 1:2. An aqueous zinc electroplating bath, containing the aqueous electrolyte composition, is also disclosed, along with a method for the electrochemical deposition of zinc onto a substrate surface, using the electroplating bath. Related flow batteries are also described, including a catholyte, as well as an anolyte based on the aqueous electrolyte composition, with a membrane between the catholyte and the anolyte.

  7. Determinación de cinc a microescala en un medicamento especifico Micro-scale zinc determination in a specific medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar A. Díaz; Elida Alvarez

    2004-01-01

    This work presents zinc determination in certain medicines that contain zinc oxide and zinc undecylenate. The technique consists of a spectrophotometric micro-scale titration, where EDTA is used as titrant, and xylenol orange as an indicator, in a medium adjusted to pH = 6 with acetic acid and sodium acetate. After each added portion of EDTA, the absorbance value is measured at a selected wavelength, in order to detect the end-point of the spectrophotometric titration. The results already obt...

  8. Successful application of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy in the detection of ectopic adrenocorticotropin-producing bronchial carcinoid lung tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahi Babak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The diagnostic efficacy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy labeling with 111 indium in the localization of tumors has been assessed in a limited number of patients with contradictory outcomes. Here, we describe the case of a patient with an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid tumor diagnosed preoperatively using technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy. Case presentation A 29-year-old Asian man presented to our hospital with the typical clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, which he had had for a duration of 18 months. The results of a biochemical evaluation revealed he had adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome. The results of a spiral abdominal computed tomography scan showed he had bilateral adrenal hypertrophy. A magnetic resonance image of the patient's brain showed he had a normal hypophysis. Whole body technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy was performed to check for the presence of an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing tumor. The scan results showed a small focal increase in uptake in the lower lobe of our patient's right lung, just above his diaphragm. A spiral chest computed tomography scan also revealed a small non-specific lesion in the same region. A transthoracic biopsy was then performed. Pathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor, of the adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing type. After surgical removal, the patient's symptoms resolved and significant clinical improvement was achieved. Conclusions This case report shows that technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy can effectively detect an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid.

  9. The tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) accelerates expression of differentiation markers in cultures of rat palatal epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenholt, D; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of rat palatal epithelium grown on collagen rafts were treated with different doses of the potent tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Sections from biopsies taken 1, 6, 24, and 48 hr after the addition of TPA were examined for the localization of staining by blood ...

  10. Interrelationships between the changes in the myocardium of the experimental animals and the amount of the accumulated zinc during chronic zinc intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlateva, M; Galabova, V

    1974-01-01

    White rats, aged 45 days, and another group, aged 3 months, were poisoned with 1/100 of LD/sub 50/ of water extract of zinc acetate for a period of 6 months. There was a considerable increase of the zinc content in the myocardial tissue. This increase depended on the age at which the intoxication began: it was larger in animals which were immature at the onset of the experiments. It was established that the increased amount of zinc caused distrophyci and sclerotic changes in the myocardium and coronary blood vessels. 10 references, 1 figure.

  11. Essential role for zinc-triggered p75NTR activation in preconditioning neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Jin; Kim, Tae-Youn; Koh, Jae-Young; Kim, Yang-Hee

    2008-10-22

    Ischemic preconditioning (PC) of the brain is a phenomenon by which mild ischemic insults render neurons resistant to subsequent strong insults. Key steps in ischemic PC of the brain include caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) cleavage, but upstream events have not been clearly elucidated. We have tested whether endogenous zinc is required for ischemic PC of the brain in rats. Mild, transient zinc accumulation was observed in certain neurons after ischemic PC. Moreover, intraventricular administration of CaEDTA during ischemic PC abrogated both zinc accumulation and the protective effect against subsequent full ischemia. To elucidate the mechanism of the zinc-triggered PC (Zn PC) effect, cortical cultures were exposed to sublethal levels of zinc, and 18 h later to lethal levels of zinc or NMDA. Zn PC exhibited the characteristic features of ischemic PC, including caspase-3 activation, PARP-1 cleavage, and HSP70 induction, all of which are crucial for subsequent neuroprotection against NMDA or zinc toxicity. HSP70 induction was necessary for protection, as it halted caspase-3 activation before apoptosis. Interestingly, in both Zn PC in vitro and ischemic PC in vivo, p75(NTR) was necessary for neuroprotection. These results suggest that caspase-3 activation during ischemic PC, a necessary event for subsequent neuroprotection, may result from mild zinc accumulation and the consequent p75(NTR) activation in neurons.

  12. INFN halts the activities of Gran Sasso Laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Due to the rising doubts about the tightness of the sewers, the executive board of INFN has decided as a precaution to halt all activities requiring manipulation of any kind of liquid over the whole Laboratories (1 paragraph).

  13. Decrease of non-point zinc runoff using porous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeki; Komuro, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    The use of porous concrete columns to decrease the amount of zinc in stormwater runoff is examined. The concentration of zinc in a simulated stormwater fluid (zinc acetate solution), fed through concrete columns (slashed circle10x10cm) decreased by 50-81%, suggesting physical adsorption of zinc by the porous concrete. We propose the use of porous concrete columns (slashed circle50x10cm) as the base of sewage traps. Longer-term, high-zinc concentration monitoring revealed that porous concrete blocks adsorb 38.6mgcm(-3) of zinc. A period of no significant zinc runoff (with an acceptable concentration of zinc in runoff of 0.03mgL(-1), a zinc concentration equal to the Japanese Environmental Standard) is estimated for 41years using a 1-ha catchment area with 20 porous concrete sewage traps. Scanning electron microscopy of the porous concrete used in this study indicates that the needle-like particles formed by hydration action significantly increase zinc adsorption. Evidence suggests that the hydrant is ettringite and has an important role in zinc adsorption, the resulting immobilization of zinc and the subsequent effects on groundwater quality. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic engineering: frost damage trial halted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiansky, S

    The University of California at Berkeley has announced the postponement of a planned experiment involving the field testing of bacteria genetically engineered to reduce frost damage to crops. The action came after Jeremy Rifkin, who had earlier filed suit against the National Institutes of Health after its Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee had approved the experiment, threatened to seek a temporary restraining order against the university to halt the experiment.

  15. On the Present Halting of Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syun-Ichi Akasofu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The rise in global average temperature over the last century has halted since roughly the year 2000, despite the fact that the release of CO2 into the atmosphere is still increasing. It is suggested here that this interruption has been caused by the suspension of the near linear (+ 0.5 °C/100 years or 0.05 °C/10 years temperature increase over the last two centuries, due to recovery from the Little Ice Age, by a superposed multi-decadal oscillation of a 0.2 °C amplitude and a 50~60 year period, which reached its positive peak in about the year 2000—a halting similar to those that occurred around 1880 and 1940. Because both the near linear change and the multi-decadal oscillation are likely to be natural changes (the recovery from the Little Ice Age (LIA and an oscillation related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, respectively, they must be carefully subtracted from temperature data before estimating the effects of CO2.

  16. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; EL-NAHLA, A.M.; ASHOUR, I.; SALEH, SH.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  17. Dichromatic light halting using double spin coherence gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Byoung S; Hahn, Joonseong

    2011-01-01

    Light control by another light has drawn much attention in nonlinear quantum optics. Achieving all-optical control of the refractive index has been a key issue in all-optical information processing. Ultraslow light has been a good candidate for this purpose, where a giant phase shift can be achieved. The recent presentation of stationary light utilizing ultraslow light is an advanced example of such research. The stationary light functions as cavity quantum electrodynamics, where no high-Q-factor mirror pair is needed. In this paper, we report on two-color halted light pulses inside a solid medium, where the trapping time is comparable with that of ultraslow light but is much longer than quantum mapping storage time. The observed two-color halted light is achieved by means of double Raman optical field-excited spin coherence gratings, where slow light enhanced backward nondegenerate four-wave mixing processes play a major role.

  18. Dichromatic light halting using double spin coherence gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Byoung S; Hahn, Joonseong, E-mail: bham@inha.ac.kr [Center for Photon Information Processing, School of Electrical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yoghyun-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    Light control by another light has drawn much attention in nonlinear quantum optics. Achieving all-optical control of the refractive index has been a key issue in all-optical information processing. Ultraslow light has been a good candidate for this purpose, where a giant phase shift can be achieved. The recent presentation of stationary light utilizing ultraslow light is an advanced example of such research. The stationary light functions as cavity quantum electrodynamics, where no high-Q-factor mirror pair is needed. In this paper, we report on two-color halted light pulses inside a solid medium, where the trapping time is comparable with that of ultraslow light but is much longer than quantum mapping storage time. The observed two-color halted light is achieved by means of double Raman optical field-excited spin coherence gratings, where slow light enhanced backward nondegenerate four-wave mixing processes play a major role.

  19. Halting of the calcium aluminate cement hydration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A.P.; Borba, N.Z; Pandolfelli, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    The calcium aluminate cement reactions with water lead to the anhydrous phases dissolution resulting a saturated solution, followed by nucleation and crystal growth of the hydrate compounds. This is a dynamic process, therefore, it is necessary to use suitable methods to halt the hydration in order to study the phase transformations kinetics of such materials. In this work two methods are evaluated: use of acetone and microwave drying, aiming to withdraw the free water and inhibit further reactions. X ray diffraction and thermogravimetric tests were used to quantify the phases generated in the cement samples which were kept at 37 deg C for 1 to 15 days. The advantages and disadvantages of those procedures are presented and discussed. The use of microwave to halt the hydration process seems to be effective to withdraw the cement free water, and it can further be used in researches of the refractory castables area, endodontic cements, etc. (author)

  20. CAN CHILD-CARE SUPPORT POLICIES HALT DECREASING FERTILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Yasuoka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Some earlier papers examine whether child allowances can raise fertility or not in an endogenous fertility model with a defined contribution pension system. They derive that a child allowance can raise fertility. This paper is aimed at deriving the level of child allowances or education subsidies to make the pension system sustainable. A child allowance can raise fertility instantaneously. However, in the long run, fertility might continue decreasing and the pension system might not be sustainable if less child allowance is provided. In a defined benefit system, tax burdens for pension benefits are heavy in an aging society with fewer children. A heavy tax burden reduces the household income and then decreases fertility. Therefore, child allowances must be provided to halt decreasing fertility in the long run. Nevertheless, given parametric conditions, education subsidy of more than a certain level can not halt the decrease of fertility in the long run.

  1. 1-11C-acetate as a PET radiopharmaceutical for imaging fatty acid synthase expression in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vāvere, Amy L; Kridel, Steven J; Wheeler, Frances B; Lewis, Jason S

    2008-02-01

    Although it is accepted that the metabolic fate of 1-(11)C-acetate is different in tumors than in myocardial tissue because of different clearance patterns, the exact pathway has not been fully elucidated. For decades, fatty acid synthesis has been quantified in vitro by the incubation of cells with (14)C-acetate. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has been found to be overexpressed in prostate carcinomas, as well as other cancers, and it is possible that imaging with 1-(11)C-acetate could be a marker for its expression. In vitro and in vivo uptake experiments in prostate tumor models with 1-(11)C-acetate were performed both with and without blocking of fatty acid synthesis with either C75, an inhibitor of FAS, or 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). FAS levels were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemical techniques for comparison. In vitro studies in 3 different prostate tumor models (PC-3, LNCaP, and 22Rv1) demonstrated blocking of 1-(11)C-acetate accumulation after treatment with both C75 and TOFA. This was further shown in vivo in PC-3 and LNCaP tumor-bearing mice after a single treatment with C75. A positive correlation between 1-(11)C-acetate uptake into the solid tumors and FAS expression levels was found. Extensive involvement of the fatty acid synthesis pathway in 1-(11)C-acetate uptake in prostate tumors was confirmed, leading to a possible marker for FAS expression in vivo by noninvasive PET.

  2. A shortcut hydrothermal strategy for the synthesis of zinc nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jianqiang; Chen Zhiwu; Xie Jingsi; Yu Ying

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of metal nanowires has opened many new possibilities for designing ideal building blocks for future nanodevices. In this work, zinc nanowires with lengths of micrometre magnitude were synthesized in high yield by a shortcut hydrothermal strategy. The synthesis involves a template-free, non-seed and catalyst-free solution-phase process to high-quality zinc nanowires, which is low-cost and proceeds at relatively short time. In this process, zinc nanowires were prepared through the reduction of zinc acetate with absolute ethanol in the presence of silver nitrate under hydrothermal atmosphere. The strategy suggests that silver ion plays a vital role in the synthesis of zinc nanowires, without which the substituted product is zinc oxide nanowires. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the final formation of zinc nanowires and component transformation from zinc oxide nanowires in the introduction of silver ion. We believe that with the efficient synthesis, longer zinc nanowires can be fabricated and may find potential applications for superconductors and nanodevices. (fast track communication)

  3. Improved adaptation of test with lanthanum nitrate for the colorimetric estimation of acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szumilo, T [Akademia Medyczna, Lublin (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    A colorimetric method for the determination of acetate based on the production of the blue complex between iodine and lanthanum alkaline acetate has been developed. Optimum concentrations of reagents (acetate, lanthanum nitrate, iodine and ammonia) as well as the volume of acetate were selected to achieve best colour intensity. Coloured complex was stabilized by dilution of reagent mixture with water to the final volume convenient for determinaton. Absorbance of the complex can be measured immediately after dilution and any changes can be observed during at least 15 minutes. Elevation of temperature over 60/sup 0/decreases absorbance. The method fulfills the Beer's law in the range 1,5-3,5 ..mu..moles of acetate, precision of the method 2/sup +/ = 3,7%. Apart from acetate - propionate and fluoroacetate complex is 620 nm, propionate complex - at 590 nm. Propionate complex displayed any relationship between concentration and absorbance. Potassium, sodium, lithium and barium acetates give the identical results as acetic acid, whereas zinc and cupric acetates failed to react. Other derivatives tested, e.g. chloroacetate, trichloroacetate, iodoacetate, chloroporpionate and butyrate are unable to form the coloured complexes. Many compounds interfere with the formation of acetate complex, therefore, in material containing impurities acetate can be determined after purificaton by means of described in literature methods.

  4. Laterally Spreading Tumors of the Colon During High Resolution Colonoscopy with Narrow Band Imaging and Acetic Acid Chromoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Yakovenko

    2015-02-01

    Materials and Methods. 1632 colonoscopy protocols were studied: 735 — by using video colonoscope Olympus CF-HQ190L and 897 — Olympus CF-150. Results and Discussion. In study group, adenoma detection rate was higher than in control one: 0.78 (571/735 vs. 0.47 (422/897, p < 0.00001; c2 = 157.9. Adenoma detection index was 3.6 times higher in study group than in control one: 2.9 (2,104/735 vs. 0.8 (708/897. Laterally spreading tumors were diagnosed 2.2 times more often in study group than in control one: 22 % (187/735 vs. 10 % (85/897, p < 0.00001; c2 = 53.6. Conclusions. High resolution colonoscopy with narrow band imaging and acetic acid chromoscopy has a high diagnostic value for detection of laterally spreading tumors of the colon.

  5. A MIV-150/zinc acetate gel inhibits SHIV-RT infection in macaque vaginal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnable, Patrick; Calenda, Giulia; Ouattara, Louise; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Kizima, Larisa; Rodríguez, Aixa; Abraham, Ciby; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Cooney, Michael L; Roberts, Kevin D; Sperling, Rhoda; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernandez-Romero, Jose A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa; Teleshova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    To extend our observations that single or repeated application of a gel containing the NNRTI MIV-150 (M) and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA) in carrageenan (CG) (MZC) inhibits vaginal transmission of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-RT in macaques, we evaluated safety and anti-SHIV-RT activity of MZC and related gel formulations ex vivo in macaque mucosal explants. In addition, safety was further evaluated in human ectocervical explants. The gels did not induce mucosal toxicity. A single ex vivo exposure to diluted MZC (1∶30, 1∶100) and MC (1∶30, the only dilution tested), but not to ZC gel, up to 4 days prior to viral challenge, significantly inhibited SHIV-RT infection in macaque vaginal mucosa. MZC's activity was not affected by seminal plasma. The antiviral activity of unformulated MIV-150 was not enhanced in the presence of ZA, suggesting that the antiviral activity of MZC was mediated predominantly by MIV-150. In vivo administration of MZC and CG significantly inhibited ex vivo SHIV-RT infection (51-62% inhibition relative to baselines) of vaginal (but not cervical) mucosa collected 24 h post last gel exposure, indicating barrier effect of CG. Although the inhibitory effect of MZC (65-74%) did not significantly differ from CG (32-45%), it was within the range of protection (∼75%) against vaginal SHIV-RT challenge 24 h after gel dosing. Overall, the data suggest that evaluation of candidate microbicides in macaque explants can inform macaque efficacy and clinical studies design. The data support advancing MZC gel for clinical evaluation.

  6. A MIV-150/zinc acetate gel inhibits SHIV-RT infection in macaque vaginal explants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Barnable

    Full Text Available To extend our observations that single or repeated application of a gel containing the NNRTI MIV-150 (M and zinc acetate dihydrate (ZA in carrageenan (CG (MZC inhibits vaginal transmission of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-RT in macaques, we evaluated safety and anti-SHIV-RT activity of MZC and related gel formulations ex vivo in macaque mucosal explants. In addition, safety was further evaluated in human ectocervical explants. The gels did not induce mucosal toxicity. A single ex vivo exposure to diluted MZC (1∶30, 1∶100 and MC (1∶30, the only dilution tested, but not to ZC gel, up to 4 days prior to viral challenge, significantly inhibited SHIV-RT infection in macaque vaginal mucosa. MZC's activity was not affected by seminal plasma. The antiviral activity of unformulated MIV-150 was not enhanced in the presence of ZA, suggesting that the antiviral activity of MZC was mediated predominantly by MIV-150. In vivo administration of MZC and CG significantly inhibited ex vivo SHIV-RT infection (51-62% inhibition relative to baselines of vaginal (but not cervical mucosa collected 24 h post last gel exposure, indicating barrier effect of CG. Although the inhibitory effect of MZC (65-74% did not significantly differ from CG (32-45%, it was within the range of protection (∼75% against vaginal SHIV-RT challenge 24 h after gel dosing. Overall, the data suggest that evaluation of candidate microbicides in macaque explants can inform macaque efficacy and clinical studies design. The data support advancing MZC gel for clinical evaluation.

  7. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  8. The role of pH variation on the growth of zinc oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Ansari, S.G.; Kim, Young Soon; Song, Minwu; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study on the morphological variation of ZnO nanostructure by varying the pH of precursor solution via solution method. Zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium hydroxide were used as a precursor, which was refluxed at 90 deg. C for an hour. The pH of the precursor solution (zinc acetate di hydrate) was increased from 6 to 12 by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Morphology of ZnO nanorods markedly varies from sheet-like (at pH 6) to rod-like structure of zinc oxide (pH 10-12). Diffraction patterns match well with standard ZnO at all pH values. Crystallinity and nanostructures were confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, which indicates structure grew along [0 0 0 1] direction with an ideal lattice fringes distance 0.52 nm. FTIR spectroscopic measurement showed a standard peak of zinc oxide at 464 cm -1 . Amount of H + and OH - ions are found key to the structure control of studied material, as discussed in the growth mechanism.

  9. Zinc oxide microcapsules obtained via a bio-inspired approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowsky, Peter; Hirscher, Michael; Hoffmann, Rudolf C; Bill, Joachim; Aldinger, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Hollow zinc oxide microcapsules have been synthesized by a sacrificial template route involving the chemical bath deposition of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films on sulfonate-modified polystyrene microspheres and subsequent removal of the polymer core by dissolution in a solvent or by thermolysis. Scanning electron micrographs show that uniform coating of the templates is achieved when ZnO is deposited from a solution containing zinc acetate, the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, and a base in methanol, and that the ZnO shells remain intact after removal of the cores. A focused ion beam is used to cut slices from the spheres and demonstrate their inner morphology and hollowness. X-ray diffraction yields evidence that the shells consist of nanocrystalline ZnO with the zincite structure

  10. Effect of addition of butyl benzyl phthalate plasticizer and zinc oxide nanoparticles on mechanical properties of cellulose acetate butyrate/organoclay biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, B. A. P.; Juwono, A. L.; Rochman, N. T.

    2017-07-01

    Plastics as packaging materials and coatings undergo increasing demands globally each year. This pose a serious problem to the environment due to its difficulty to degrade. One solution to addressing the problem of plastic wastes is the use of bioplastics. According to the European Organization Bioplastic, one of the biodegradable plastics is derivative of cellulose. To improve mechanical properties of bioplastic, biocomposites are made with the addition of certain additives and fillers. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of butyl benzyl phthalate plasticizer (BBP) and ZnO nanoparticles addition on mechanical properties of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) / organoclay biocomposite. ZnO nanoparticles synthesized from commercial ZnO precursor by using sol-gel size reduction method. ZnO was dissolved in a solution of citric acid in the ratio 1:1 to 1:5 to form zinc citrate. Zinc citrate then decomposed by calcination at temperature of 600oC. ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 44.4 nm is obtained at a ratio of 1: 2. The addition of ZnO nanoparticles and BBP plasticizer was varied to determine the effect on the mechanical properties of biocomposite. The addition of 10 - 15 %wt ZnO nanoparticles and 30 - 40 %wt BBP plasticizer was studied to determine the effect on the tensile strength, elongation, and modulus elasticity of the biocomposites. Biocomposite films were made by using solution casting method with acetone as solvent. The addition of plasticizer BBP and ZnO nanoparticles by 30% and 10% made biocomposite has a tensile strength of 2.223 MPa.

  11. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Syntheses, structures and luminescence behaviour of some zinc(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2, the zinc(II) centre is bound by four N atoms of the tailored Schiff base L2 and two O atoms of the chelated acetate. .... determination parameters for 1 and 2 is given in table 1. 3. Results ..... Shields G P, Taylor R, Towler M and van de Streek J.

  13. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline zinc oxide: Experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Mongia [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Farhat, Samir, E-mail: farhat@lspm.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Schoenstein, Frederic; Karmous, Farah; Jouini, Noureddine [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Viana, Bruno [LCMCP Chimie-Paristech, UPMC, Collège de France, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Mgaidi, Arbi [Laboratoire de chimie minérale industrielle université Tunis el Manar (Tunisia)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • ZnO nanospheres and nanowires were grown using ultrasound and thermal activation techniques. • The growth uses forced hydrolysis of zinc acetate in diethylene glycol (DEG). • A thermochemical model was developed based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. • We estimate species distribution in the bubble in temperature range from 5000 K to ambient. • We propose a new mechanism for ZnO growth assisted by ultrasound irradiation. - Abstract: A fast and green approach is proposed for the preparation of nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) via ultrasonic (US) irradiation in polyol medium. The process uses forced hydrolysis of zinc acetate in diethylene glycol (DEG). The protocol is compared to thermal activation under the same chemical environment. The activation method is found to be playing a critical role in the selective synthesis of morphologically distinct nanostructures. As compared to thermally activated conventional polyol process, (US) permits to considerably reduce reaction time as well as size of particles. In addition, the shape of these nanoparticles was changed from long nanowires to small nanospheres, indicating different reaction mechanisms. To explain this difference, a thermochemical model was developed based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The model estimate species distribution in the bubble in temperature range from 5000 K to ambient simulating quenching process during bubble formation and collapse. Our results indicate the presence of high density of zinc atoms that could be responsible of a high density of nucleation as compared to thermal activation.

  14. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline zinc oxide: Experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosni, Mongia; Farhat, Samir; Schoenstein, Frederic; Karmous, Farah; Jouini, Noureddine; Viana, Bruno; Mgaidi, Arbi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO nanospheres and nanowires were grown using ultrasound and thermal activation techniques. • The growth uses forced hydrolysis of zinc acetate in diethylene glycol (DEG). • A thermochemical model was developed based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. • We estimate species distribution in the bubble in temperature range from 5000 K to ambient. • We propose a new mechanism for ZnO growth assisted by ultrasound irradiation. - Abstract: A fast and green approach is proposed for the preparation of nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) via ultrasonic (US) irradiation in polyol medium. The process uses forced hydrolysis of zinc acetate in diethylene glycol (DEG). The protocol is compared to thermal activation under the same chemical environment. The activation method is found to be playing a critical role in the selective synthesis of morphologically distinct nanostructures. As compared to thermally activated conventional polyol process, (US) permits to considerably reduce reaction time as well as size of particles. In addition, the shape of these nanoparticles was changed from long nanowires to small nanospheres, indicating different reaction mechanisms. To explain this difference, a thermochemical model was developed based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. The model estimate species distribution in the bubble in temperature range from 5000 K to ambient simulating quenching process during bubble formation and collapse. Our results indicate the presence of high density of zinc atoms that could be responsible of a high density of nucleation as compared to thermal activation

  15. Synthesis and characterization of an effective organic/inorganic hybrid green corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, E.; Naderi, Reza; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2017-02-01

    This study aims at synthesis and characterization of an effective corrosion inhibitive complex based on zinc acetate/Urtica Dioica (ZnA-U.D) for corrosion protection of mild steel in chloride solution. The chemical structure and morphology of the complex were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-vis, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion protection performance of the mild steel samples dipped in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions with and without ZnA-U.D extract was investigated by visual observations, open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization test. Results revealed that the ZnA successfully chelated with organic inhibitive compounds (i.e Quercetin, Quinic acid, Caffeic acid, Hystamine and Serotonin) present in the U.D extract. The electrochemical measurements revealed the effective inhibition action of ZnA-U.D complex in the sodium chloride solution on the mild steel. The synergistic effect between Zn2+ and organic compounds present in the U.D extract resulted in protective film deposition on the steel surface, which was proved by SEM and XPS analyses.

  16. Effect of aluminum oxide doping on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of zinc oxide (AOZO) nanofibers synthesized by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotus, A.F.; Kang, Y.C.; Walker, J.I.; Ramsier, R.D.; Chase, G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanofibers doped with aluminum oxide were prepared by sol-gel processing and electrospinning techniques using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), zinc acetate and aluminum acetate as precursors. The resulting nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, and current-voltage (I-V) properties. The nanofibers had diameters in the range of 60-150 nm. The incorporation of aluminum oxide resulted in a decrease in the crystallite sizes of the zinc oxide nanofibers. Aluminum oxide doped zinc oxide (AOZO) nanofibers exhibited lower bandgap energies compared to undoped zinc oxide nanofibers. However, as the aluminum content (Al/(Al + Zn) x 100%) was increased from 1.70 at.% to 3.20 at.% in the electrospinning solution, the bandgap energy increased resulting in lower conductivity. The electrical conductivity of the AOZO samples was found to depend on the amount of aluminum dopant in the matrix as reflected in the changes in oxidation state elucidated from XPS data. Electrospinning was found to be a productive, simple, and easy method for tuning the bandgap energy and conductivity of zinc oxide semiconducting nanofibers.

  17. Zinc vanadate nanorods and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Lin, N.; Wei, T.; Liu, H.D.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. • The size of zinc vanadate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Zinc vanadate nanorods show good photocatalytic activities of methylene blue under solar light. - Abstract: Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and sodium vanadate as the raw materials. The zinc vanadate nanorods have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum. XRD pattern and HRTEM image show that the zinc vanadate nanorods are composed of single crystalline monoclinic Zn 2 V 2 O 7 phase. SEM and TEM observations show that the diameter and length of the zinc vanadate nanorods are 50–100 nm and about 5 μm, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) has an essential role in the formation of zinc vanadate nanorods. The SDS-assisted nucleation and growth process have been proposed to explain the formation and growth of the zinc vanadate nanorods. Solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum shows that the zinc vanadate nanorods have a band gap of 2.76 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the zinc vanadate nanorods have been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under solar light irradiation. The MB with the concentration of 10 mg L −1 can be degraded totally under the solar light irradiation for 4 h. It is suggested that the zinc vanadate nanorods exhibit promising application potential for the degradation of organic pollutants under solar light irradiation

  18. Prevention of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in zinc-deficient rodents: Inefficacy of genetic or pharmacological disruption of COX-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Louise Y.Y.; Jiang, Yubao; Riley, Maurisa; Liu, Xianglan; Smalley, Karl J.; Guttridge, Denis C.; Farber, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Zinc deficiency in humans is associated with an increased risk of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer. In rodents, zinc deficiency predisposes to carcinogenesis by causing proliferation and alterations in gene expression. We examined whether in zinc-deficient rodents, targeted disruption of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 pathway by the COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib or by genetic deletion prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Tongue cancer prevention studies were conducted in zinc-deficient rats previously exposed to a tongue carcinogen by celecoxib treatment with or without zinc replenishment, or by zinc replenishment alone. The ability of genetic COX-2 deletion to protect against chemically-induced for-estomach tumorigenesis was examined in mice on zinc-deficient versus zinc-sufficient diet. The expression of 3 predictive bio-markers COX-2, nuclear factor (NF)-κ B p65 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In zinc-deficient rats, celecoxib without zinc replenishment reduced lingual tumor multiplicity but not progression to malignancy. Celecoxib with zinc replenishment or zinc replenishment alone significantly lowered lingual squamous cell carcinoma incidence, as well as tumor multiplicity. Celecoxib alone reduced overexpression of the 3 biomarkers in tumors slightly, compared with intervention with zinc replenishment. Instead of being protected, zinc-deficient COX-2 null mice developed significantly greater tumor multiplicity and forestomach carcinoma incidence than wild-type controls. Additionally, zinc-deficient COX-2−/− forestomachs displayed strong LTA4H immunostaining, indicating activation of an alter-native pathway under zinc deficiency when the COX-2 pathway is blocked. Thus, targeting only the COX-2 pathway in zinc-deficient animals did not prevent UADT carcinogenesis. Our data suggest zinc supplementation should be more thoroughly explored in human prevention clinical trials for UADT cancer. PMID:17985342

  19. Triacetin-based acetate supplementation as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant therapy in glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Andrew R; Long, Patrick M; Driscoll, Heather E; Davies, Matthew T; Teasdale, Benjamin A; Penar, Paul L; Pendlebury, William W; Spees, Jeffrey L; Lawler, Sean E; Viapiano, Mariano S; Jaworski, Diane M

    2014-03-15

    Cancer is associated with epigenetic (i.e., histone hypoacetylation) and metabolic (i.e., aerobic glycolysis) alterations. Levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate, are reduced in glioma; yet, few studies have investigated acetate as a potential therapeutic agent. This preclinical study sought to test the efficacy of the food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) as a novel therapy to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma cells. The growth-inhibitory effects of GTA, compared to the histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA), were assessed in established human glioma cell lines (HOG and Hs683 oligodendroglioma, U87 and U251 glioblastoma) and primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu), normal astrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. GTA was also tested as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant with temozolomide (TMZ) in orthotopically grafted GSCs. GTA-induced cytostatic growth arrest in vitro comparable to Vorinostat, but, unlike Vorinostat, GTA did not alter astrocyte growth and promoted NSC expansion. GTA alone increased survival of mice engrafted with glioblastoma GSCs and potentiated TMZ to extend survival longer than TMZ alone. GTA was most effective on GSCs with a mesenchymal cell phenotype. Given that GTA has been chronically administered safely to infants with Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a novel, safe chemotherapeutic adjuvant to reduce the growth of glioma tumors, most notably the more rapidly proliferating, glycolytic and hypoacetylated mesenchymal glioma tumors. © 2013 UICC.

  20. Rat Tumor Response to the Vascular-Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid as Measured by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Plasma 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Levels, and Tumor Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley D. McPhail

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The dose-dependent effects of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA on rat GH3 prolactinomas were investigated in vivo. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI was used to assess tumor blood flow/permeability pretreatment and 24 hours posttreatment with 0, 100, 200, or 350 mg/kg DMXAA. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using Ktrans and the integrated area under the gadolinium time curve (IAUGC as response biomarkers. Highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the plasma concentration of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA following treatment to provide an index of increased vessel permeability and vascular damage. Finally, tumor necrosis was assessed by grading hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections cut from the same tumors investigated by MRI. Both tumor Ktrans and IAUGC were significantly reduced 24 hours posttreatment with 350 mg/kg DMXAA only, with no evidence of dose response. HPLC demonstrated a significant increase in plasma 5-HIAA 24 hours posttreatment with 200 and 350 mg/kg DMXAA. Histologic analysis revealed some evidence of tumor necrosis following treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg DMXAA, reaching significance with 350 mg/kg DMXAA. The absence of any reduction in Ktrans or IAUGC following treatment with 200 mg/kg, despite a significant increase in 5-HIAA, raises concerns about the utility of established DCE-MRI biomarkers to assess tumor response to DMXAA.

  1. Rat Tumor Response to the Vascular-Disrupting Agent 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-Acetic Acid as Measured by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Plasma 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid Levels, and Tumor Necrosis1

    OpenAIRE

    McPhail, Lesley D; McIntyre, Dominick J O; Ludwig, Christian; Kestell, Philip; Griffiths, John R; Kelland, Lloyd R; Robinson, Simon P

    2006-01-01

    The dose-dependent effects of 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) on rat GH3 prolactinomas were investigated in vivo. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was used to assess tumor blood flow/permeability pretreatment and 24 hours posttreatment with 0, 100, 200, or 350 mg/kg DMXAA. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using Ktrans and the integrated area under the gadolinium time curve (IAUGC) as response biomarkers. Highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was use...

  2. The Trump tax plan halts inversions but increases treaty shopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lejour, Arjen; Cnossen, Sybren; van 't Riet, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Some US multinationals have displayed a willingness to relinquish their American nationality and move their headquarters abroad. Such ‘inversions’ generally aim to avoid and minimise taxes. This column argues that the new Trump tax plan is likely to halt tax inversions by US multinationals. However,

  3. ANALISIS SISTEM ANTRIAN TRANSPORTASI BUSWAY DI HALTE PULOGADUNG DAN DUKUH ATAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Marfuah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu daerah Jakarta yang memiliki tingkat mobilitas yang cukup sibuk yaitu di daerah Pulogadung yang merupakan kawasan industri dan di daerah Dukuh Atas sekitar Sudirman, yang merupakan kawasan perkantoran di pusat kota. Minat masyarakat akan transportasi busway sebagai sarana transportasi umum dalam kegiatan hari – harinya sangat besar. Hal tersebut menyebabkan meningkatnya jumlah pengguna busway setiap tahunnya, namun Unit Pengelola Transjakarta Busway belum dapat memaksimalkan pelayanan yang dapat diberikan sehingga terjadi penumpukkan penumpang pada halte Pulogadung dan Dukuh Atas, terutama pada hari – hari  kerja di jam sibuk. Penelitian ini didasari pada perbaikan sistem antrian yang ada pada saat ini, sehingga didapatkan solusi untuk mengatasi masalah antrian pada kedua halte tersebut dengan efisien waktu pelayanan sebesar 13%. Model antrian yang digunakan yaitu Single Phase-Single Channel dengan analisis perbaikaanya disimulasikan dengan Promodel.   Kata kunci : Sistem, Antrian, Promodel.

  4. Styrene-maleic acid-copolymer conjugated zinc protoporphyrin as a candidate drug for tumor-targeted therapy and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun; Tsukigawa, Kenji; Liao, Long; Yin, Hongzhuan; Eguchi, Kanami; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated the potential of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) as an antitumor agent targeting to the tumor survival factor heme oxygenase-1, and/or for photodynamic therapy (PDT). In this study, to achieve tumor-targeted delivery, styrene-maleic acid-copolymer conjugated ZnPP (SMA-ZnPP) was synthesized via amide bond, which showed good water solubility, having ZnPP loading of 15%. More importantly, it forms micelles in aqueous solution with a mean particle size of 111.6 nm, whereas it has an apparent Mw of 65 kDa. This micelle formation was not detracted by serum albumin, suggesting it is stable in circulation. Further SMA-ZnPP conjugate will behave as an albumin complex in blood with much larger size (235 kDa) by virtue of the albumin binding property of SMA. Consequently, SMA-ZnPP conjugate exhibited prolonged circulating retention and preferential tumor accumulation by taking advantage of enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Clear tumor imaging was thus achieved by detecting the fluorescence of ZnPP. In addition, the cytotoxicity and PDT effect of SMA-ZnPP conjugate was confirmed in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Light irradiation remarkably increased the cytotoxicity (IC50, from 33 to 5 μM). These findings may provide new options and knowledge for developing ZnPP based anticancer theranostic drugs.

  5. Ulipristal acetate versus leuprolide acetate for uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques; Tomaszewski, Janusz; Vázquez, Francisco; Bouchard, Philippe; Lemieszczuk, Boguslav; Baró, Francesco; Nouri, Kazem; Selvaggi, Luigi; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and side-effect profile of ulipristal acetate as compared with those of leuprolide acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are unclear. In this double-blind noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 307 patients with symptomatic fibroids and excessive uterine bleeding to receive 3 months of daily therapy with oral ulipristal acetate (at a dose of either 5 mg or 10 mg) or once-monthly intramuscular injections of leuprolide acetate (at a dose of 3.75 mg). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with controlled bleeding at week 13, with a prespecified noninferiority margin of -20%. Uterine bleeding was controlled in 90% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, in 98% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and in 89% of those receiving leuprolide acetate, for differences (as compared with leuprolide acetate) of 1.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.3 to 11.8) for 5 mg of ulipristal acetate and 8.8 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4 to 18.3) for 10 mg of ulipristal acetate. Median times to amenorrhea were 7 days for patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 5 days for those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 21 days for those receiving leuprolide acetate. Moderate-to-severe hot flashes were reported for 11% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, for 10% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and for 40% of those receiving leuprolide acetate (P<0.001 for each dose of ulipristal acetate vs. leuprolide acetate). Both the 5-mg and 10-mg daily doses of ulipristal acetate were noninferior to once-monthly leuprolide acetate in controlling uterine bleeding and were significantly less likely to cause hot flashes. (Funded by PregLem; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00740831.).

  6. Redox and Lewis acid relay catalysis: a titanocene/zinc catalytic platform in the development of multicomponent coupling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianino, Joseph B; Campos, Catherine A; Lepore, Antonio J; Pinkerton, David M; Ashfeld, Brandon L

    2014-12-19

    A titanocene-catalyzed multicomponent coupling is described herein. Using catalytic titanocene, phosphine, and zinc dust, zinc acetylides can be generated from the corresponding iodoalkynes to affect sequential nucleophilic additions to aromatic aldehydes. The intermediate propargylic alkoxides are trapped in situ with acetic anhydride, which are susceptible to a second nucleophilic displacement upon treatment with a variety of electron-rich species, including acetylides, allyl silanes, electron-rich aromatics, silyl enol ethers, and silyl ketene acetals. Additionally, employing cyclopropane carboxaldehydes led to ring-opened products resulting from iodine incorporation. Taken together, these results form the basis for a new mode of three-component coupling reactions, which allows for rapid access to value added products in a single synthetic operation.

  7. Designing and Evaluating Interventions to Halt the Transmission of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, David W; Grant, Alison D; Dheda, Keertan; Nardell, Edward; Fielding, Katherine; Moore, David A J

    2017-11-03

    To reduce the incidence of tuberculosis, it is insufficient to simply understand the dynamics of tuberculosis transmission. Rather, we must design and rigorously evaluate interventions to halt transmission, prioritizing those interventions most likely to achieve population-level impact. Synergy in reducing tuberculosis transmission may be attainable by combining interventions that shrink the reservoir of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (preventive therapy), shorten the time between disease onset and treatment initiation (case finding and diagnosis), and prevent transmission in key settings, such as the built environment (infection control). In evaluating efficacy and estimating population-level impact, cluster-randomized trials and mechanistic models play particularly prominent roles. Historical and contemporary evidence suggests that effective public health interventions can halt tuberculosis transmission, but an evidence-based approach based on knowledge of local epidemiology is necessary for success. We provide a roadmap for designing, evaluating, and modeling interventions to interrupt the process of transmission that fuels a diverse array of tuberculosis epidemics worldwide. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  8. Supportive treatment with megestrol acetate during radio-(chemo-)therapy. A randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, R.; Sauer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Background: The value of megestrol acetate in treating tumor anorexia and cachexia of terminal patients is well known. However, the supportive effect of megestrol acetate during intensive radio-(chemo-)therapy was not investigated up to now. Therefore a randomized trial was performed including patients with advanced tumors in the head and neck region. Patients and Methods: From June 1991 to December 1993 a total of 64 patients were admitted to a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. During and up to 6 weeks following radiotherapy patients received 160 mg/d megestrol acetate or placebo. The nutritional status (anthropometric and laboratory parameters) and the quality-of-life index according to Padilla et al. were determined prior to therapy, 1, 4, 6 weeks later during radiotherapy and 12, 18 weeks after completion. Results: Sixty-one out of 64 patients were evaluable (control group: n=30; megestrol acetate patients: n=31). One patients refused further participation after randomization. One patient in each arm was excluded due to side effects (impotence, diarrhoea). Further side effects were not observed. In the control group the nutrititional parameters (body weight, triceps skinfold) and the subjective feeling of the patients deteriorated during radiotherapy and did not restore following radiotherapy. By contrast, the patients of the megestrol acetate group were able to stabilize these parameters. This difference was most prominent in the orally nourished patients (weight loss during therapy: Control group: -4.1 kg; megestrol acetate group: -0.8 kg; p=0.004); but not in the patients fed by percutaneous endoscopically guided gastrostomy (weight loss control group: -2.4 kg; megestrol acetate group: -0.8 kg; p=0.14). Conclusion: In patients on radiochemotherapy megestrol acetate prevents patients from further deterioration of the nutritional status and quality of life. (orig.) [de

  9. Metallothionein provides zinc-mediated protective effects against methamphetamine toxicity in SK-N-SH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Swinscoe, John; Shavali, Shaik; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Ebadi, Manuchair

    2005-11-30

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse and neurotoxin that induces Parkinson's-like pathology after chronic usage by targeting dopaminergic neurons. Elucidation of the intracellular mechanisms that underlie METH-induced dopaminergic neuron toxicity may help in understanding the mechanism by which neurons die in Parkinson's disease. In the present study, we examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the METH-induced death of human dopaminergic SK-N-SH cells and further assessed the neuroprotective effects of zinc and metallothionein (MT) against METH-induced toxicity in culture. METH significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, decreased intracellular ATP levels and reduced the cell viability. Pre-treatment with zinc markedly prevented the loss of cell viability caused by METH treatment. Zinc pre-treatment mainly increased the expression of metallothionein and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species and ATP depletion caused by METH. Chelation of zinc by CaEDTA caused a significant decrease in MT expression and loss of protective effects of MT against METH toxicity. These results suggest that zinc-induced MT expression protects dopaminergic neurons via preventing the accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species and halting the decrease in ATP levels. Furthermore, MT may prevent the loss of mitochondrial functions caused by neurotoxins. In conclusion, our study suggests that MT, a potent scavenger of free radicals is neuroprotective against dopaminergic toxicity in conditions such as drug of abuse and in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using rice as soft biotemplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bin Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2013-01-01

    Rice as a renewable, abundant bio-resource with unique characteristics can be used as a bio-template to synthesize various functional nanomaterials. Therefore, the effect of uncooked rice flour as bio-template on physico-chemical properties, especially the morphology of zinc oxide nanostructures was investigated in this study. The ZnO particles were synthesized through hydrothermal-biotemplate method using zinc acetate-sodium hydroxide and uncooked rice flour at various ratios as precursors at 120°C for 18 hours. The results indicate that rice as a bio-template can be used to modify the shape and size of zinc oxide particles. Different morphologies, namely flake-, flower-, rose-, star- and rod-like structures were obtained with particle size at micro- and nanometer range. Pore size and texture of the resulting zinc oxide particles were found to be template-dependent and the resulting specific surface area enhanced compared to the zinc oxide synthesized without rice under the same conditions. However, optical property particularly the band gap energy is generally quite similar. Pure zinc oxide crystals were successfully synthesized using rice flour as biotemplate at various ratios of zinc salt to rice. The size- and shape-controlled capability of rice to assemble the ZnO particles can be employed for further useful practical applications.

  11. Controlled Growth of ZnSe Nanocrystals by Tuning Reactivity and Amount of Zinc Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai-Jun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc selenide (ZnSe nanocrystals were synthesized via a phosphine-free route using the highly reactive alkylamine-H2Se complex as selenium precursor and zinc precursors with different reactivity. The reactivity of zinc precursor was tuned by using three kinds of zinc carboxylates with different alkyl chain lengths, including zinc acetate, zinc nonanoate, and zinc stearate. The effect of the reactivity and the amount of zinc precursor on nucleation and growth of ZnSe nanocrystals were investigated by ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence spectra. Result indicates that the growth and optical property of the resulting ZnSe nanocrystals are strongly dependent on the alkyl chain length and the amount of the zinc carboxylates and both shorter alkyl chain length, and more amount of zinc carboxylate will lead to faster growth of ZnSe nanocrystals. This allows that the controlled growth and excellent optical property of high-quality ZnSe nanocrystals can be achieved by combining the different reactivity and the used amount of zinc precursor, such as by using stoichiometric and reactive Zn precursor and Se precursor or by using larger amount of more unreactive Zn precursor relative to the highly reactive alkylamine-H2Se complex precursor.

  12. Two mechanisms of oral malodor inhibition by zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Hanioka, Takashi

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanisms by which zinc ions inhibit oral malodor. The direct binding of zinc ions to gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was assessed in comparison with other metal ions. Nine metal chlorides and six metal acetates were examined. To understand the strength of H2S volatilization inhibition, the minimum concentration needed to inhibit H2S volatilization was determined using serial dilution methods. Subsequently, the inhibitory activities of zinc ions on the growth of six oral bacterial strains related to volatile sulfur compound (VSC) production and three strains not related to VSC production were evaluated. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl2, CdCl2, CuCl2, (CH3COO)2Zn, (CH3COO)2Cd, (CH3COO)2Cu, and CH3COOAg inhibited H2S volatilization almost entirely. The strengths of H2S volatilization inhibition were in the order Ag+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+. The effect of zinc ions on the growth of oral bacteria was strain-dependent. Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586 was the most sensitive, as it was suppressed by medium containing 0.001% zinc ions. Zinc ions have an inhibitory effect on oral malodor involving the two mechanisms of direct binding with gaseous H2S and suppressing the growth of VSC-producing oral bacteria.

  13. Red luminescence of Zn /ZnO core–shell nanorods in a mixture of LTZA/Zinc acetate matrix: Study of the effects of Nitrogen bubbling, Cobalt doping and thioglycolic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimipour, Masoud; Kheshabnia, Alireza; Molaei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Zn/ZnO core–shell nanorods were synthesized using a very simple low temperature and low pressure Solvothermal method. Effect of N 2 gas bubbling, insertion of thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cobalt doping with Co/Zn=x: 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Furrier transformed infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurement. XRD analysis showed that hexagonal metallic zinc and wurtzite ZnO phases are available in all the samples. Zinc acetate crystallizes together with Zn and ZnO phases as well, but it transforms to l-thereonine zinc acetate(LTZA) after the insertion of TGA. Moreover, gas bubbling and cobalt doping do not change the crystal phases. FTIR spectroscopy also confirms the formation of zincacetate and LTZA phases. Williamson–Hall analysis indicates that with the insertion of TGA, mean crystallite size decreases and the value of microstrain is the least for x=0.1%. SEM images depict that with the insertion of TGA, the morphology of the compound changes from rounded particles to nanorods. TEM images revealed that the microstructure of the compounds is of the Zn/ZnO core–shell type. UV–vis spectroscopy demonstrates the blue shift of absorption edge and the size reduction due to insertion of TGA. PL spectroscopy shows that the samples have strong blue emission with peaks range from 316 nm up to 480 nm. Bubbling simply causes that the samples emit a narrow and sharp band peaked at 605 nm. Insertion of TGA prevents the blue emission and enhances the pure red emission band. At the presence of TGA, the optimum value of pure red emission for Co-doping was found to be 0.1% which was compatible with XRD analysis. With x>0.1%, the blue and red emission of samples started quenching and light emission for the value of x=0.5% vanished completely. The results show that the other crystal phases such as zincacetate, LTZA do not affect

  14. Biotreatment of zinc-containing wastewater in a sulfidogenic CSTR: Performance and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahinkaya, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Sulfidogenic treatment of sulfate (2-10 g/L) and zinc (65-677 mg/L) containing simulated wastewater was studied in a mesophilic (35 deg. C) CSTR. Ethanol was supplemented (COD/sulfate = 0.67) as carbon and energy source for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The robustness of the system was studied by increasing Zn, COD and sulfate loadings. Sulfate removal efficiency, which was 70% at 2 g/L feed sulfate concentration, steadily decreased with increasing feed sulfate concentration and reached 40% at 10 g/L. Over 99% Zn removal was attained due to the formation of zinc-sulfide precipitate. COD removal efficiency at 2 g/L feed sulfate concentration was over 94%, whereas, it steadily decreased due to the accumulation of acetate at higher loadings. Alkalinity produced from acetate oxidation increased wastewater pH remarkably when feed sulfate concentration was 5 g/L or lower. Electron flow from carbon oxidation to sulfate reduction averaged 83 ± 13%. The rest of the electrons were most likely coupled with fermentative reactions as the amount of methane production was insignificant. The developed ANN model was very successful as an excellent to reasonable match was obtained between the measured and the predicted concentrations of sulfate (R = 0.998), COD (R = 0.993), acetate (R = 0.976) and zinc (R = 0.827) in the CSTR effluent

  15. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolaz de Oliveira, Henrique; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO 4 2− /g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO 4 2− /g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated. - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate were synthesized. • The interlayer anions were replaced by chromate anions at pH=8.0. • Only Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate have the structure preserved after exchange. • Fast exchange reaction and high capacity of chromate removal were observed. • Magnetic materials were obtained to facilitate the solids removal the from solutions.

  16. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Betulinic acid acetate (BAAC) was most effective than other betulinic acid derivatives. It had most ... blastoma (Schmidt et al., 1997), malignant brain tumor .... 96 well plate and incubated in 37oC, 5% CO2 and 90% humidity.

  17. Lessons from a “Failed” Experiment: Zinc Silicates with Complex Morphology by Reaction of Zinc Acetate, the Ionic Liquid Precursor (ILP Tetrabutylammonium Hydroxide (TBAH, and Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Taubert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available At elevated temperatures, the ionic liquid precursor (ILP tetrabutylammonium hydroxide reacts with zinc acetate and the glass wall of the reaction vessel. While the reaction of OH- with the glass wall is not surprising as such and could be considered a failed experiment, the resulting materials are interesting for a variety of applications. If done on purpose and under controlled conditions, the reaction with the glass wall results in uniform, well-defined hemimorphite Zn4Si2O7(OH2·nH2O and willemite Zn2SiO4 microcrystals and films. Their morphology can be adjusted by variation of the reaction time and reaction temperature. The hemimorphite can be transformed to Zn2SiO4 via calcination. The process is therefore a viable approach for the fabrication of porous films on glass surfaces with potential applications as catalyst support, among others.

  18. Normal Uptake of 11C-Acetate in Pancreas, Liver, Spleen, and Suprarenal Gland in PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Malkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. C11-Acetate is radiotracer being considered an alternative to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Evaluation of C11-acetate biodistribution in human parenchymal organs is described. Methods and Materials. 60 consecutive patients referred to C11-acetate PET CT suspected of renal or prostate cancer relapse with negative results (no recurrent tumor were included in the study. Acquisition from the base of skull to upper thigh was made 20 min after i.v. injection of 720 MBq of C11-acetate. The distribution was evaluated by measuring the uptake in pancreas (uncinate process and body separately, liver, spleen, and left suprarenal gland. Clinical data of included patients showed no abnormalities in these organs. Results. Biodistributions of C11-acetate radiotracer were compared in different organs. Standardized uptake values of 11C-acetate were significantly higher in pancreatic parenchyma (SUV mean 6,4 than in liver (SUV mean 3,3, spleen (SUV mean 4,5, or suprarenal gland (SUV mean 2,7 tissues. No significant difference was found between pancreatic head (SUV mean 6,4 and body (SUV mean 5,9 uptake. In case of all aforementioned organs, there were no differences either between both sexes or between formerly diagnosed tumors (renal and prostate. Conclusions. Evaluation of C11-acetate uptake differences in parenchymal organs will allow establishing normal patterns of distribution. High pancreatic uptake may be used in quantitative assessment of organ function in diffuse nonneoplastic pathology.

  19. Zinc Deficiency with Acrodermatitis Enteropathica-like Eruption After Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hsien Yu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD is the standard operation for periampullary lesions. Most reports have focused on the clinical outcome, complications and tumor recurrence after PD. Few studies have focused on the nutritional sequelae that result from the extended resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract and disruption of the normal physiologic process of digestion. Zinc is absorbed mainly in the duodenum and proximal jejunum, which are removed during PD. Herein, we report two patients who experienced zinc deficiency with acrodermatitis enteropathica-like eruption, alopecia, glossitis and nail dystrophy after PD. The lesions improved dramatically after supplementation with zinc sulfate, pancreatic enzyme and diet instructions. No symptoms related to zinc deficiency were noted on follow-up after nutritional instructions had been given to the patients.

  20. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolaz de Oliveira, Henrique; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br

    2016-11-15

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated. - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate were synthesized. • The interlayer anions were replaced by chromate anions at pH=8.0. • Only Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate have the structure preserved after exchange. • Fast exchange reaction and high capacity of chromate removal were observed. • Magnetic materials were obtained to facilitate the solids removal the from solutions.

  1. A single dose of a MIV-150/Zinc acetate gel provides 24 h of protection against vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase infection, with more limited protection rectally 8-24 h after gel use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Jessica; Singer, Rachel; Derby, Nina; Aravantinou, Meropi; Abraham, Ciby J; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Zhang, Shimin; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernández-Romero, José A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

    2012-11-01

    Previously we showed that repeated vaginal application of a MIV-150/zinc acetate carrageenan (MIV-150/ZA/CG) gel and a zinc acetate carrageenan (ZA/CG) gel significantly protected macaques from vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) infection. Gels were applied either daily for 2 weeks or every other day for 4 weeks, and the animals were challenged 4-24 h later. Herein, we examined the effects of a single vaginal dose administered either before or after virus challenge. Encouraged by the vaginal protection seen with MIV-150/ZA/CG, we also tested it rectally. Vaginal applications of MIV-150/ZA/CG, ZA/CG, and CG gel were performed once 8-24 h before, 1 h after, or 24 h before and 1 h after vaginal challenge. Rectal applications of MIV-150/ZA/CG and CG gel were performed once 8 or 24 h before rectal challenge. While vaginal pre-challenge and pre/post-challenge application of MIV-150/ZA/CG gel offered significant protection (88%, pinfection prechallenge, but not significantly, and the effect was completely lost post-challenge. Rectal application of MIV-150/ZA/CG gel afforded limited protection against rectal challenge when applied 8-24 h before challenge. Thus, MIV-150/ZA/CG gel is a highly effective vaginal microbicide that demonstrates 24 h of protection from vaginal infection and may demonstrate efficacy against rectal infection when given close to the time of HIV exposure.

  2. Effect of subchronic zinc toxicity on rat salivary glands and serum composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizari, Nazer; Hirbod-Mobarakeh, Armin; Shahinpour, Shervin; Ghalichi-Tabriz, Mostafa; Beigy, Maani; Yamini, Ali; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-11-01

    Zinc plays an important role in a wide variety of metabolic processes in animal systems. The role of zinc in preservative treatment, fungicidal action and medicine, and addition of supplementary zinc have increased the probability of zinc toxicity, specially the chronic type. It is known that the composition and quantity of saliva influence the oral health. Regarding people's exposure to zinc in routine life and the importance of saliva, our purpose was to investigate the effects of oral zinc intoxication on secretory function in rat salivary glands and also on serum composition. In this study, there were five groups of female rats. Four groups received zinc acetate dehydrate through their drinking water. After 3 months of experiment, the chemical characteristics and flow rate of saliva and weight of salivary glands were determined. The effects of zinc on hematological and chemical factors of plasma were assessed too. Flow rate of submandibular glands was significantly lower in experimental groups and there were significant changes in Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) concentration both in saliva and in plasma. The serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glucose levels in the plasma and urine creatinine levels were also altered in experimental groups in comparison with the control group. Our results show that zinc toxicity will affect the quantity and quality of saliva probably through changes in the various neurologic pathways to the salivary glands or effects on acinar cells of the salivary glands. Furthermore, our results showed that zinc toxicity will affect the liver and renal function.

  3. Nanoparticle synthesis of zinc peroxide: structural and morphological characterization for bactericidal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonia, Roberto; Martinez, Vanessa C.; Solis, Jose L.; Gomez, Monica M.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc peroxide (ZnO 2 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The chemicals used for the synthesis were zinc acetate di-hydrate (Zn(CH 3 COO) 2. 2H 2 O) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at 30 % in an aqueous solution with sonication. The structure of the ZnO 2 nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction. While the morphology and the cluster size were determined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. For a preliminary evaluation of the bactericidal properties of the ZnO 2 , the material was exposed to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli y Bacillus subtili, and the nanoparticles presented good bactericidal properties. (author)

  4. Red luminescence of Zn /ZnO core–shell nanorods in a mixture of LTZA/Zinc acetate matrix: Study of the effects of Nitrogen bubbling, Cobalt doping and thioglycolic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimipour, Masoud, E-mail: masoud.karimipour@gmail.com; Kheshabnia, Alireza; Molaei, Mehdi

    2016-10-15

    Zn/ZnO core–shell nanorods were synthesized using a very simple low temperature and low pressure Solvothermal method. Effect of N{sub 2} gas bubbling, insertion of thioglycolic acid (TGA) and cobalt doping with Co/Zn=x: 0%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Furrier transformed infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) measurement. XRD analysis showed that hexagonal metallic zinc and wurtzite ZnO phases are available in all the samples. Zinc acetate crystallizes together with Zn and ZnO phases as well, but it transforms to l-thereonine zinc acetate(LTZA) after the insertion of TGA. Moreover, gas bubbling and cobalt doping do not change the crystal phases. FTIR spectroscopy also confirms the formation of zincacetate and LTZA phases. Williamson–Hall analysis indicates that with the insertion of TGA, mean crystallite size decreases and the value of microstrain is the least for x=0.1%. SEM images depict that with the insertion of TGA, the morphology of the compound changes from rounded particles to nanorods. TEM images revealed that the microstructure of the compounds is of the Zn/ZnO core–shell type. UV–vis spectroscopy demonstrates the blue shift of absorption edge and the size reduction due to insertion of TGA. PL spectroscopy shows that the samples have strong blue emission with peaks range from 316 nm up to 480 nm. Bubbling simply causes that the samples emit a narrow and sharp band peaked at 605 nm. Insertion of TGA prevents the blue emission and enhances the pure red emission band. At the presence of TGA, the optimum value of pure red emission for Co-doping was found to be 0.1% which was compatible with XRD analysis. With x>0.1%, the blue and red emission of samples started quenching and light emission for the value of x=0.5% vanished completely. The results show that the other crystal phases such as zincacetate, LTZA do not

  5. Supporting the Secure Halting of User Sessions and Processes in the Linux Operating System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brock, Jerome

    2001-01-01

    .... Only when a session must be reactivated are its processes returned to a runnable state. This thesis presents an approach for adding this "secure halting" functionality to the Linux operating system...

  6. Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cell Devices Prepared with Composites of Conjugated Polymer and Zinc Oxide Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tam Nguyen Truong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanorods (Nrods with ~20–50 nm lengths were synthesized using an aqueous solution of zinc acetate and glacial acetic acid. Bulk heterojunction solar cells were fabricated with the structure of indium tin oxide (ITO/polyethylenedioxythiophene doped with polystyrene-sulfonic acid (PEDOT:PSS/ZnO-Nrods + polymer/electron transport layer (ETL/Al. Current density-voltage characterization of the resulting cells showed that, by adding an ETL and using polymers with a low band gap energy, the photoactive layer surface morphology and the device performance can be dramatically improved.

  7. Breaking boundaries for biodiversity : expanding the policy agenda to halt biodiversity loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.P.; Sanders, M.E.; Tekelenburg, A.; Gerritsen, A.L.; Lörzing, J.A.; Brink, Th.

    2010-01-01

    Our assessment from the perspective of the Netherlands, a country in the temperate zone, showed a slightly positive picture, in line with the overall results for this zone. The loss of biodiversity in the Netherlands has been slowed down, but the European target – halting the loss of biodiversity –

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites Prepared via a Simple Chemical Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research zinc sulfide (ZnS nanoparticles and nanocomposites powders were prepared by chemical precipitation method using zinc acetate and various sulfur sources. The ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and fourier transform infra-red. The structure of nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffraction pattern. The crystallite size of ZnS nanoparticles was calculated by Debye–Scherrer formula. Morphology of nano-crystals was observed and investigated using the scanning electron microscopy. The grain size of zinc sulfide nanoparticles were in suitable agreement with the crystalline size calculated by X-ray diffraction results. The optical properties of particles were studied with ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum.

  9. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant...... physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate.......Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300...

  10. Antimicrobial electrospun silver-, copper- and zinc-doped polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirós, Jennifer; Borges, João P.; Boltes, Karina; Rodea-Palomares, Ismael; Rosal, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc. • Antimicrobial effect for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. • Silver strongly reduced colony forming units and bacterial viability. • Silver, copper, and zinc led to a significant increase of non-viable cells on mats. - Abstract: The use of electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc nanoparticles was studied to prepare antimicrobial mats using silver and copper nitrates and zinc acetate as precursors. Silver became reduced during electrospinning and formed nanoparticles of several tens of nanometers. Silver nanoparticles and the insoluble forms of copper and zinc were dispersed using low molecular weight PVP as capping agent. High molecular weight PVP formed uniform fibers with a narrow distribution of diameters around 500 nm. The fibers were converted into an insoluble network using ultraviolet irradiation crosslinking. The efficiency of metal-loaded mats against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was tested for different metal loadings by measuring the inhibition of colony forming units and the staining with fluorescent probes for metabolic viability and compromised membranes. The assays included the culture in contact with mats and the direct staining of surface attached microorganisms. The results indicated a strong inhibition for silver-loaded fibers and the absence of significant amounts of viable but non-culturable microorganisms. Copper and zinc-loaded mats also decreased the metabolic activity and cell viability, although in a lesser extent. Metal-loaded fibers allowed the slow release of the soluble forms of the three metals.

  11. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  12. Antimicrobial electrospun silver-, copper- and zinc-doped polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirós, Jennifer [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Borges, João P. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Boltes, Karina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Water (IMDEA Agua), Parque Científico Tecnológico, E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Rodea-Palomares, Ismael [Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rosal, Roberto [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Alcalá, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Water (IMDEA Agua), Parque Científico Tecnológico, E-28805, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc. • Antimicrobial effect for the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. • Silver strongly reduced colony forming units and bacterial viability. • Silver, copper, and zinc led to a significant increase of non-viable cells on mats. - Abstract: The use of electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers containing silver, copper, and zinc nanoparticles was studied to prepare antimicrobial mats using silver and copper nitrates and zinc acetate as precursors. Silver became reduced during electrospinning and formed nanoparticles of several tens of nanometers. Silver nanoparticles and the insoluble forms of copper and zinc were dispersed using low molecular weight PVP as capping agent. High molecular weight PVP formed uniform fibers with a narrow distribution of diameters around 500 nm. The fibers were converted into an insoluble network using ultraviolet irradiation crosslinking. The efficiency of metal-loaded mats against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was tested for different metal loadings by measuring the inhibition of colony forming units and the staining with fluorescent probes for metabolic viability and compromised membranes. The assays included the culture in contact with mats and the direct staining of surface attached microorganisms. The results indicated a strong inhibition for silver-loaded fibers and the absence of significant amounts of viable but non-culturable microorganisms. Copper and zinc-loaded mats also decreased the metabolic activity and cell viability, although in a lesser extent. Metal-loaded fibers allowed the slow release of the soluble forms of the three metals.

  13. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes, E-mail: rayssasouza.net@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  14. 18F-Fluoroacetate - A longer lived acetate analogue for oncology studies with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khezami, Arbia; Ulrich, Eva; Matthies, Alexander; Ezziddin, Samer; Bender, Hans; Biersack, Hans-Juergen; Guhlke, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Aim: 18 F-Fluoroacetate ( 18 Fac) can be considered as a fluoro analogue of 11C-acetate. Thus it may also be useful for oncologic PET studies. Like acetate, fluoroacetate is a substrate of the citric acid cycle, however in contrast to acetate it is an inhibitor of the enzyme Aconitase and thus no further metabolization of fluoroacetate occurs. The aim of this study was the in-vivo evaluation of this tracer with respect to tumor uptake in prostate carcinoma bearing nude mice as well as biodistribution and kinetics. Methods: The synthesis of 18 F-fluoroacetate was performed by using benzyl bromoacetate as precursor. The fluorinated ester was separated by HPLC, followed by basic hydrolysis and purification by use of anion exchange SEP-Pak chromatography. The formulation was performed by rinsing with water and subsequent elution of 18 Fac with sterile PBS-buffer and final sterile filtration. For the biodistribution studies, 3 groups of nude mice were inoculated with the prostate carcinoma cell lines PC3, DU-145 and LnCAP. After tumor growth, the animals were injected with 37-370 KBq of 18 Fac and bio-distributions performed at different times post injection. Results: The rcy of the substitution step was usually > 90%. The HPLC separation of the fluorinated ester and the precursor was performed on a C-18 column. The high UV-absorbance of the benzyl ester allows the determination of the specific activity of the tracer which was always lower than detection limits. Further, the injected animals did not show any signs of intoxication. The biodistribution studies revealed a primary biliary excretion. Regardless which cell line was used, accumulation of 18 Fac in tumor sites was well visible by PET-CT. Tumor to blood ratios increased with time. Conclusion: The synthesis of 18 Fac is straight forward and high radiochemical yields are typically obtained. The high specific activity of 18 F-fluoride allows injections of 18 Fac far below toxic concentrations. In nude

  15. Adding 11C-acetate to 18F-FDG at PET Examination Has an Incremental Value in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Larsson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The sensitivity of FDG at PET examination of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC is restricted. In a few studies, all done in Oriental patients, PET-examination with 11C-acetate has shown a higher accuracy than with FDG. In the current study, the uptake of 11C-acetate has been compared with the uptake of FDG in the primary HCC in a cohort of Occidental patients. Material and Methods: 44 patients underwent PET-examination with both tracers with a mean of 9 days between the examinations. 26 patients had a microscopical diagnosis and 18 were diagnosed with multimodal radiological methods. At least one relevant radiological examination was available for comparison. Results: At visual evaluation, 13 of the HCC’s were positive at PET-examination using FDG and 34 were positive using 11C-acetate (p<0.001. Median tumor SUVmean of 11C-acetate was 4.7 and of FDG was 1.9 (p<0.001. There was also a higher uptake of 11C-acetate by the surrounding liver tissue than of FDG. Median liver SUVmean of 11C-acetate was 3.2 and of FDG it was 1.7 (p<0.001. This corresponded to a median tumour/liver tissue ratio for 11C-acetate of 1.4 and for FDG of 1.0 (p<0.05. Previous reports of a negative correlation between the uptake of the tracers were weakly supported. In 4 large tumors some portions being hot using one of the tracers were cold using the other tracer and vice versa. Conclusion: Adding registration with 11C-acetate to registration with FDG at PET-examination has an incremental value in the diagnosis of HCC. A higher tumor uptake of 11C-acetate cannot be taken full advantage of because of a higher uptake also by the surrounding liver tissue. (MIRT 2012;21:6-12

  16. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, B.L.; Auld, D.S.; Coleman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a zinc cluster akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is ∼3.5 angstrom. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is ∼13 angstrom, and in this instance, a zinc twist is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native zinc fingers, structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent

  17. Electrochemical evaluation of zinc effect on the corrosion of nickel alloy in PWR solutions with increasing temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvial M, Gaston; Neves, Celia F.C.; Schvartzman, Monica M.A.M.; Quinan, Marco Antonio D.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective for the addition of zinc acetate to the reactor coolant system of PWRs is to effect radiation dose rate reductions. However, zinc is also added as an approach to mitigate the occurrence or severity of primary water stress corrosion cracking of nickel alloy 600. The mechanism by which zinc affects the corrosion of austenitic nickel-base alloys is by incorporation of zinc into the spinel oxide corrosion films. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the influence of zinc on the corrosion behavior of the nickel alloy 600 in PWR chemical environment (1200 ppm B, 2.2 ppm Li, deoxygenated water) with increasing temperature at room pressure. Electrochemical tests (anodic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) were used to characterize the alloy 600. Two conditions were applied: 0 and 100 ppb zinc and the temperature range was 50 - 90 deg C, at ambient pressure. Potentiodynamic polarization was inefficient to present conclusive results. Impedance measurements showed single semicircle in the Nyquist plane suggesting reduction of the charge transference resistance in zinc-containing solutions. This effect is evident at 90 deg C suggesting prejudicial influence of zinc for the alloy 600 at room pressure. (author)

  18. Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Michael B.

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to public-sector pensions, writes lead author Michael B. Lafferty in this report, "A major public-policy (and public-finance) problem has been defined and measured, debated and deliberated, but not yet solved. Except where it has been." As recounted in "Halting a Runaway Train: Reforming Teacher Pensions for the 21st…

  19. Nanoparticles of Titanium and Zinc Oxides as Novel Agents in Tumor Treatment: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Janusz; Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna; Zarzyńska, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Cancer has become a global problem. On all continents, a great number of people are diagnosed with this disease. In spite of the progress in medical care, cancer still ends fatal for a great number of the ill, either as a result of a late diagnosis or due to inefficiency of therapies. The majority of the tumors are resistant to drugs. Thus, the search for new, more effective therapy methods continues. Recently, nanotechnology has been attributed with big expectations in respect of the cancer fight. That interdisciplinary field of science creates nanomaterials (NMs) and nanoparticles (NPs) that can be applied, e.g., in nanomedicine. NMs and NPs are perceived as very promising in cancer therapy since they can perform as drug carriers, as well as photo- or sonosensitizers (compounds that generate the formation of reactive oxygen species as a result of either electromagnetic radiation excitation with an adequate wavelength or ultrasound activation, respectively). Consequently, two new treatment modalities, the photodynamic therapy (PDT) and the sonodynamic therapy (SDT) have been created. The attachment of ligands or antibodies to NMs or to NPs improve their selective distribution into the targeted organ or cell; hence, the therapy effectiveness can be improved. An important advantage of the targeted tumor treatment is lowering the cyto- and genotoxicity of active substance towards healthy cells. Therefore, both PDT and SDT constitute a valuable alternative to chemo- or radiotherapy. The vital role in cancer eradication is attributed to two inorganic sensitizers in their nanosized scale: titanium dioxide and zinc oxide.

  20. Patterned transparent zinc oxide films produced by sol-gel embossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, J.; Koh, L.H.K.; Crean, G.M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Department of Microelectronic Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); O' Brien, S. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Winfield, R.J.

    2008-08-15

    A low cost zinc oxide embossing technique is reported as a method of fabricating structures relevant to a variety of applications. A zinc based sol-gel material was prepared from zinc acetate[Zn(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}], monoethanolamine[H{sub 2}NC{sub 2}H{sub 4}OH] and isopropanol. The sol-gel was cast into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould a track design, placed in contact with the substrate and dried under vacuum at 70 C for 3 hours. The formed track pattern was further densified to provide a stable conductor film that retained the embossed shape. An optimum Zn sol-gel content of 0.6 M was identified. The embossed films had a transparency of greater than 83% in the visible region. The optical bandgap energy was evaluated to be 3.306 eV. The influence of ZnO sol-gel film synthesis and embossing parameters on the microstructure, morphology and optical transparency of fabricated structures is described. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, a novel candidate for the treatment of allergic inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ho; Seo, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2014-09-05

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace metal for eukaryotes. The roles of Zn in the numerous physiological functions have been elucidated. Bamboo salt contains Zn that was shown to have anti-inflammatory effect and other health benefits. Nanoparticles of various types have found application in the biology, medicine, and physics. Here we synthesized tetrapod-like, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZO-NP; diameter 200 nm, source of Zn) using a radio frequency thermal plasma system and investigated its effects on mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reactions. ZO-NP was found to inhibit the productions and mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α on the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus A23187 (PMACI)-stimulated human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. In these stimulated cells, caspase-1 and nuclear factor-κB activations were abolished by ZO-NP, and the expressions of receptor interacting protein2 (RIP2) and IκB kinaseβ (IKKβ) induced by PAMCI were reduced. On the other hand, ZO-NP alone increased the expressions of RIP2 and IKKβ in normal condition. ZO-NP inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase in the PMACI-stimulated HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, ZO-NP significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. These findings indicate that ZO-NP effectively ameliorates mast cell-mediated allergic inflammatory reaction, and suggest that ZO-NP be considered a potential therapeutic for the treatment of mast cell-mediated allergic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel mechanism of aberrant ZIP4 expression with zinc supplementation in oral tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Sho; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Nakashima, Dai; Koide, Nao; Takahara, Toshikazu; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Iyoda, Manabu; Shiiba, Masashi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Zrt-Irt-like protein 4 (ZIP4) is critical molecule for proper mammalian development and releasing zinc from vesicular compartments. Recent studies suggested that ZIP4 plays an important role of tumor progression in pancreatic, prostate, and hepatocellular cancers, however, little is known about the detail mechanism of ZIP4 in their cancers. In the present study, we examined the possibility of ZIP4 as a new molecular target for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We evaluated ZIP4 expression in OSCC-derived cell lines and primary OSCC samples by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also analyzed the clinical correlation between ZIP4 status and clinical behaviors in patients with OSCC. In addition, ZIP4 knockdown cells (shZIP4 cells) and ZnCl 2 treatment were used for functional experiments, including cellular proliferation assay, zinc uptake assay, and cell-cycle analysis. ZIP4 mRNA and protein were up-regulated significantly in OSCCs compared with normal counterparts in vitro and in vivo. IHC showed that ZIP4 expression in the primary OSCC was positively correlated with primary tumoral size. The shZIP4 cells showed decrease accumulation of intercellular zinc and decreased cellular growth by cell-cycle arrest at the G1 phase, resulting from up-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and down-regulation of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. Since cellular growth of OSCC cells after treatment with zinc was significantly greater than control cells, we speculated that intercellular ZnCl 2 accumulation is an important factor for cellular growth. Consistent with our hypothesis, not only decreased zinc uptake by ZIP4 knockdown but also chelating agent, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), showed inhibitory effects of cellular proliferation. Therefore, our data provide evidence for an essential role of ZIP4 and intracellular zinc for tumoral growth in OSCC, suggesting that zinc uptake might be a

  3. Isolation and characterization of a native strain of Aspergillus niger ZRS14 with capability of high resistance to zinc and its supernatant application towards extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morahem Ashengroph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc oxide nanoparticles have quite a few applications in the fields of biology, optics, mechanics, magnetism, energy, hygiene and medicine. Due to serious problems associated with physiochemical synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, including environmental pollution, complicated and costly processes, there is a growing need to develop a simple biological procedure for synthesis of nanoparticles to achieve the monodisperse-sized particles with a higher purity, low energy consumption and a cleaner environment. We conducted this investigation to screen and isolate native fungi strains capable of high zinc metal tolerance ability and a potential for extracellular synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using fungal secretions as biological catalysts.Materials and methods: 15 different strains of fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from lead and zinc mines of Angoran-Zanjan using conventional enrichment process and characterized initially based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and colony morphology. The intrinsic tolerance of the isolated strains to zinc toxic metal was measured in the synthetic and complex media using the agar dilution method. The supernatants of isolated fungi were incubated with zinc acetate solution in a shaker incubator for 72h; then, the strain that was able to synthesis ZnO nanoparticle was identified. The ZnO nanoparticles formation was investigated by using spectroscopic techniques and microscopic observations.Results: Among the 15 isolated strains, the strain ZRS14 had highest zinc metal tolerance ability and was selected and identified as Aspergillus niger strain ZRS14 (GenBank accession number KF414527 based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis. For synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by isolated A. niger ZRS14, fungal cell-free filtrate of the strain was collected and incubated in the presence of zinc acetate solution at a final concentration of 250 mg/l zinc metal ion at 28º C for

  4. Effects of binding metronidazole to a copper-acetate compound on radiosensitizer properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negron, Ana C. Valderrama; Silva, Denise de Oliveira; Cruz, Aurea S.

    2009-01-01

    Copper compounds exhibit interesting biological properties. Nitroimidazoles show radiosensitizer properties for radiotherapy tumor treatment. In the present work, the effect of binding metronidazole (1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole = MTZ) to copper-acetate on the radiosensitizer properties has been investigated. A compound of copper-acetate-MTZ was prepared and characterized. The experiments were carried out by gamma-irradiation of Hep2 (human larynx cancer) cells under hypoxic conditions. The radiation doses for 50% cell survival in the presence of radiosensitizer were about 8.2 Gy for CuAcMTZ or free MTZ. The effect of binding metronidazole to copper acetate on radiosensitizer properties is mainly related to the radiosensitizer process which involves two events for CuAcMTZ in contrast to one event observed for the MTZ free drug. (author)

  5. CT-guided percutaneous acetic acid injection therapy for liver metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tongfu; Wang Dehang; Zhuang Zhenwu; Li Linxun; Shi Haibin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of CT-guided percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI) for liver metastasis. Methods: Thirty-five cases (40 lesions) with liver metastasis were treated with PAI. 4-10 ml of 30% acetic acid with 1 ml contrast media was injected into every lesion. PAI was performed twice a week, and repeated for 2 to 3 weeks. Results: The tumors shrunk in 23 lesions, and remained unchanged in 12 lesions. The efficiency was 87.5%. All cases were followed up for 3 months to 3 years. One year survival rates was 62.9% (22 cases), 2 years 40.0% (14 cases), and 3 years 22.9% (8 cases). Conclusion: PAI was an effective therapy for liver metastasis

  6. Granisetron ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Rahimian, Reza; Daneshmand, Ali; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2010-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, of which the definite etiology remains ambiguous. Considering the adverse effects and incomplete efficacy of currently administered drugs, it is indispensable to explore new candidates with more desirable therapeutic profiles. 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonists have shown analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to investigate granisetron, a 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonist, in acetic acid-induced rat colitis and probable involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors. Colitis was rendered by instillation of 1 mL of 4% acetic acid (vol/vol) and after 1 hour, granisetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT( 3) receptor agonist, or granisetron + mCPBG was given intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours following colitis induction, animals were sacrificed and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically and biochemically (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6). Granisetron or dexamethasone significantly (p granisetron were reversed by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Our data suggests that the salutary effects of granisetron in acetic acid colitis could be mediated by 5-HT(3) receptors.

  7. A Novel Ras Effector Pathway Found to Play Significant Role in Tumor Suppression | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer; photo by Richard Frederickson, Staff Photographer Normal cells have mechanisms to prevent the development of cancer. Among these is a type of tumor suppressor mechanism known as oncogene-induced senescence, or OIS, which halts the uncontrolled growth of cells caused by mutations in oncogenes. The oncogene Ras plays a crucial role in inducing OIS

  8. A zinc-resistant human epithelial cell line is impaired in cadmium and manganese import

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousselet, Estelle; Richaud, Pierre; Douki, Thierry; Chantegrel, Jocelyne Garcia; Favier, Alain; Bouron, Alexandre; Moulis, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    A human epithelial cell line (HZR) growing with high zinc concentrations has been analyzed for its ability to sustain high cadmium concentrations. Exposure to up to 200 μM of cadmium acetate for 24 h hardly impacted viability, whereas most of parental HeLa cells were killed by less than 10 μM of cadmium. Upon challenge by 35 fold higher cadmium concentrations than HeLa cells, HZR cells did not display increased DNA damage, increased protein oxidation, or changed intracellular cadmium localization. Rather, the main cause of resistance against cadmium was by avoiding cadmium entry into cells, which differs from that against zinc as the latter accumulates inside cells. The zinc-resistant phenotype of these cells was shown to also impair extracellular manganese uptake. Manganese and cadmium competed for entry into HeLa cells. Probing formerly identified cadmium or manganese transport systems in different animal cells did not evidence any significant change between HeLa and HZR cells. These results reveal zinc adaptation influences manganese and cadmium cellular traffic and they highlight previously unknown connections among homeostasis of divalent metals

  9. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  10. Preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Film as Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) from Zinc Complex Compound on Thin Film Solar Cells: A Study of O2 Effect on Annealing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslih, E. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cell application was successfully prepared through two step preparations which consisted of deposition by spin coating at 2000 rpm for 10 second and followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 hours under O2 and ambient atmosphere. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as a precursor which dissolved in ethanol and acetone (1:1 mol) mixture in order to make a zinc complex compound. In this work, we reported the O2 effect, reaction mechanism, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. ZnO thin film in this work shows a single phase of wurtzite, with n-type semiconductor and has band gap, carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity as 3.18 eV, 1.21 × 10-19cm3, 11 cm2/Vs, 2.35 × 10-3 Ωcm respectively which is suitable for TCO at thin film solar cell.

  11. Lead and zinc contamination of vegetation in the southern Pennines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimwell, D W; Laurie, A E

    1972-01-01

    Three types of heavy metal tolerant vegetation occurring on the spoil heaps in the Pennines are described sociologically and ecologically and their distribution in the Peak District National Park mapped. Concentrations of lead and zinc extractable from soils by acetic acid are recorded, as are total values for these two heavy metals in the tissues of the main component phanerogams and cryptogams of the vegetation. The range of values for zinc in plant tissues are uniformly higher than those for lead. Concentrations of lead accumulated by these plants are higher than those reported for the accumulation of atmospheric lead. The differences in heavy metal absorption, retention and excretion between ectohydric and myxohydric mosses are shown to be quite distinct. The heavy metals are excreted in the former type and form a crust in periods of drought with up to 6% lead and 1.5% zinc content, while, in the latter, the metals tend to be located mainly in the older growth at the base of the moss carpets. The concentrations of the two metal ions in two Peak District rivers proved to be less than 1 ppm in all samples.

  12. 11C-acetate for positron emission tomography imaging of clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma. Comparison with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose for imaging and evaluation of tumor aggressiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hidekatsu; Nomori, Hiroaki; Uno, Kimiichi

    2009-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of positron emission tomography (PET) with 11 C-acetate (AC) for imaging lung adenocarcinoma and evaluating its tumor aggressiveness, AC- and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET were compared. One hundred and sixty-nine adenocarcinomas with clinical stage IA and 53 benign nodules were examined by both AC- and FDG-PET before surgery. The sensitivity and specificity for discriminating benign/adenocarcinoma were compared between AC- and FDG-PET. The AC and FDG uptakes were examined to determine the relationship with tumor aggressiveness, id est (i.e.), pathological tumor stage, lymphatic, vascular, or pleural involvement, and proliferative activity determined by Ki-67 staining score. While the sensitivity of AC-PET was significantly higher than FDG-PET for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) and well-differentiated (W/D) adenocarcinoma (p<0.001 and 0.006, respectively), there was no significant difference for moderately or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The specificity was not different between them. While FDG uptakes were significantly higher in tumors with pathological advanced stages or those with lymphatic, vascular and/or pleural involvements than in tumors with pathological stage IA or those without these tumor involvements (p=0.04 to p<0.001), AC uptake did not show significant differences between the respective sub-groups except according to the tumor stage. While both AC and FDG uptakes showed a significant correlation with Ki-67 staining scores (p=0.03 and p<0.001, respectively), the correlation coefficient of former was lower than that of latter (p=0.07). While AC-PET can image BAC and W/D adenocarcinoma with a higher sensitivity than FDG-PET, it cannot evaluate tumor aggressiveness of clinical stage IA lung adenocarcinoma as well as FDG-PET. (author)

  13. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  14. hZip2 and hZip3 zinc transporters are down regulated in human prostate adenocarcinomatous glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Renty B

    2007-06-01

    . The down regulation of all three transporters in the malignant cells is consistent with the loss of zinc accumulation in these cells. Since zinc imposes tumor suppressor effects, the silencing of the gene expression for these transporters is a required event for the manifestation of the malignant activities of the neoplastic cells. This now provides new insights into the genetic/molecular events associated with the development of prostate cancer; and supports our concept of Zip1, and now Zip2 and Zip3, as tumor suppressor genes and zinc as a tumor suppressor agent.

  15. Structural, optical, and magnetic studies of manganese-doped zinc oxide hierarchical microspheres by self-assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yao-Ming; Lou, Shi-Yun; Zhou, Shao-Min; Yuan, Rui-Jian; Zhu, Gong-Yu; Li, Ning

    2012-02-02

    In this study, a series of manganese [Mn]-doped zinc oxide [ZnO] hierarchical microspheres [HMSs] are prepared by hydrothermal method only using zinc acetate and manganese acetate as precursors and ethylene glycol as solvent. X-ray diffraction indicates that all of the as-obtained samples including the highest Mn (7 mol%) in the crystal lattice of ZnO have a pure phase (hexagonal wurtzite structure). A broad Raman spectrum from as-synthesized doping samples ranges from 500 to 600 cm-1, revealing the successful doping of paramagnetic Mn2+ ions in the host ZnO. Optical absorption analysis of the samples exhibits a blueshift in the absorption band edge with increasing dopant concentration, and corresponding photoluminescence spectra show that Mn doping suppresses both near-band edge UV emission and defect-related blue emission. In particular, magnetic measurements confirm robust room-temperature ferromagnetic behavior with a high Curie temperature exceeding 400 K, signifying that the as-formed Mn-doped ZnO HMSs will have immense potential in spintronic devices and spin-based electronic technologies.

  16. Manufacture of Autologous CD34+ Selected Grafts in the NIAID-Sponsored HALT-MS and SCOT Multicenter Clinical Trials for Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keever-Taylor, Carolyn A; Heimfeld, Shelly; Steinmiller, Kaitlyn C; Nash, Richard A; Sullivan, Keith M; Czarniecki, Christine W; Granderson, Tomeka C; Goldstein, Julia S; Griffith, Linda M

    2017-09-01

    To ensure comparable grafts for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Investigational New Drug protocols for multiple sclerosis (HALT-MS) and systemic sclerosis (SCOT), a Drug Master File approach to control manufacture was implemented, including a common Master Production Batch Record and site-specific standard operating procedures with "Critical Elements." We assessed comparability of flow cytometry and controlled rate cryopreservation among sites and stability of cryopreserved grafts using hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from healthy donors. Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells, Apheresis-CD34+ Enriched, for Autologous Use (Auto-CD34 + HPC) graft specifications included ≥70% viable CD34 + cells before cryopreservation. For the 2 protocols, 110 apheresis collections were performed; 121 lots of Auto-CD34 + HPC were cryopreserved, and 107 of these (88.4%) met release criteria. Grafts were infused at a median of 25 days (range, 17 to 68) post-apheresis for HALT-MS (n = 24), and 25 days (range, 14 to 78) for SCOT (n = 33). Subjects received precryopreservation doses of a median 5.1 × 10 6 viable CD34 + cells/kg (range, 3.9 to 12.8)  for HALT-MS and 5.6 × 10 6 viable CD34 + cells/kg (range, 2.6 to 10.2) for SCOT. Recovery of granulocytes occurred at a median of 11 days (range, 9 to 15) post-HCT for HALT-MS and 10 days (range, 8 to 12) for SCOT, independent of CD34 + cell dose. Subjects received their last platelet transfusion at a median of 9 days (range, 6 to 16) for HALT-MS and 8 days (range, 6 to 23) for SCOT; higher CD34 + /kg doses were associated with faster platelet recovery. Stability testing of cryopreserved healthy donor CD34 + HPCs over 6 months of vapor phase liquid nitrogen storage demonstrated consistent 69% to 73% recovery of viable CD34 + cells. Manufacturing of Auto-CD34 + HPC for the HALT-MS and SCOT protocols was comparable across all sites and

  17. Catalysis by a de novo zinc-mediated protein interface: implications for natural enzyme evolution and rational enzyme engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der, Bryan S; Edwards, David R; Kuhlman, Brian

    2012-05-08

    Here we show that a recent computationally designed zinc-mediated protein interface is serendipitously capable of catalyzing carboxyester and phosphoester hydrolysis. Although the original motivation was to design a de novo zinc-mediated protein-protein interaction (called MID1-zinc), we observed in the homodimer crystal structure a small cleft and open zinc coordination site. We investigated if the cleft and zinc site at the designed interface were sufficient for formation of a primitive active site that can perform hydrolysis. MID1-zinc hydrolyzes 4-nitrophenyl acetate with a rate acceleration of 10(5) and a k(cat)/K(M) of 630 M(-1) s(-1) and 4-nitrophenyl phosphate with a rate acceleration of 10(4) and a k(cat)/K(M) of 14 M(-1) s(-1). These rate accelerations by an unoptimized active site highlight the catalytic power of zinc and suggest that the clefts formed by protein-protein interactions are well-suited for creating enzyme active sites. This discovery has implications for protein evolution and engineering: from an evolutionary perspective, three-coordinated zinc at a homodimer interface cleft represents a simple evolutionary path to nascent enzymatic activity; from a protein engineering perspective, future efforts in de novo design of enzyme active sites may benefit from exploring clefts at protein interfaces for active site placement.

  18. Biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using leaf extract of Calotropis gigantea: characterization and its evaluation on tree seedling growth in nursery stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sadhan Kumar; Malodia, Lalit

    2017-11-01

    Green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out using Calotropis leaf extract with zinc acetate salt in the presence of 2 M NaOH. The combination of 200 mM zinc acetate salt and 15 ml of leaf extract was ideal for the synthesis of less than 20 nm size of highly monodisperse crystalline nanoparticles. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized through UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX (energy dispersive X-ray), and AFM (atomic force microscopy). Effects of biogenic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on growth and development of tree seedlings in nursery stage were studied in open-air trenches. The UV-Vis absorption maxima showed peak near 350 nm, which is characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles. DLS data showed that single peak is at 11 nm (100%) and Polydispersity Index is 0.245. XRD analysis showed that these are highly crystalline ZnO nanoparticles having an average size of 10 nm. FTIR spectra were recorded to identify the biomolecules involved in the synthesis process, which showed absorption bands at 4307, 3390, 2825, 871, 439, and 420 cm-1. SEM images showed that the particles were spherical in nature. The presence of zinc and oxygen was confirmed by EDX and the atomic % of zinc and oxygen were 33.31 and 68.69, respectively. 2D and 3D images of ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by AFM studies, which indicated that these are monodisperse having size ranges between 1.5 and 8.5 nm. Significant enhancement of growth was observed in Neem ( Azadirachta indica), Karanj ( Pongamia pinnata), and Milkwood-pine ( Alstonia scholaris) seedlings in foliar spraying ZnO nanoparticles to nursery stage of tree seedlings. Out of the three treated saplings, Alstonia scholaris showed maximum height development.

  19. Morphology dependent dye-sensitized solar cell properties of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K., E-mail: sanjeevlrs732000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Information and Communication, Cheju Halla College, Jeju City 690 708 (Korea, Republic of); Inamdar, A.I.; Im, Hyunsik [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100 715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B.G. [Department of Information and Communication, Cheju Halla College, Jeju City 690 708 (Korea, Republic of); Patil, P.S. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized from an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] solution onto FTO coated conducting glass substrates using two different electrochemical routes, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) or SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). > The reproducibility of the catalytic activity of the SDS and PVA surfactants in the modification of the morphologies was observed. > Vertically aligned nest-like and compact structures were observed from the SDS and PVA mediated films, respectively, while the grain size in the ZnO thin films without an organic surfactant was observed to be {approx}150 nm. > The dye sensitized ZnO electrodes displayed excellent properties in the conversion process from light to electricity. The efficiencies of the surfactant mediated nanocrystalline ZnO thin films, viz. ZnO:SDS and ZnO:PVA, sensitized with ruthenium-II (N3) dye were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized with an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] solution on to FTO coated glass substrates. Two different electrochemical baths were used, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The organic surfactants played an important role in modifying the surface morphology, which influenced the size of the crystallites and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) properties. The vertically aligned thin and compact hexagonal crystallites were observed with SDS mediated films, while the grain size in the films without an organic surfactant was observed to be {approx}150 nm. The conversion efficiencies of the ZnO:SDS:Dye and ZnO:PVA:Dye thin films were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively.

  20. Investigation of manifestation of optical properties of butterfly wings with nanoscale zinc oxide incorporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aideo, Swati N.; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2016-10-01

    In this work, microstructural and optical characteristics nanoparticles of wings of Tailed Jay (Graphium Agamemnon) butterfly were studied before and after treating it in a precursor solution of zinc acetate and ethanol. We speculate that the butterfly scales are infiltrated with ZnO nanoparticles owing to reduction of Zinc hydroxide under ambient condition. The ZnO butterfly scales so produced were characterised using optical microscopy, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, and electron microscopy etc. From the reflectance spectra, we could see that after treating it in the solution, optical properties vary. We anticipate that this change may be due to the formation of ZnO nanoparticles as well as the loss in periodicity due to the chemical treatments, which could be assessed from the SEM micrographs.

  1. Investigation of manifestation of optical properties of butterfly wings with nanoscale zinc oxide incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aideo, Swati N.; Mohanta, Dambarudhar

    2016-01-01

    In this work, microstructural and optical characteristics nanoparticles of wings of Tailed Jay (Graphium Agamemnon) butterfly were studied before and after treating it in a precursor solution of zinc acetate and ethanol. We speculate that the butterfly scales are infiltrated with ZnO nanoparticles owing to reduction of Zinc hydroxide under ambient condition. The ZnO butterfly scales so produced were characterised using optical microscopy, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, and electron microscopy etc. From the reflectance spectra, we could see that after treating it in the solution, optical properties vary. We anticipate that this change may be due to the formation of ZnO nanoparticles as well as the loss in periodicity due to the chemical treatments, which could be assessed from the SEM micrographs. (paper)

  2. Zinc injection on the EDF pressurized light water reactors. Current results and operating experience feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piana, Olivier; Duval, Arnaud; Moleiro, Edgar; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Chaigne, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, zinc injection, as well as pH management and hydrogen control, is increasingly considered as an essential element of PWR Primary Water Chemistry worldwide. After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 since 2004 and Bugey 4 since 2006, EDF decided to extend this practice, which constitutes a modification of primary circuit chemical conditioning, to other units of its fleet. Currently, 15 among the 58 reactors of the French fleet are injecting depleted zinc acetate into the primary coolant water. Three main goals were identified at the beginning of this program. Indeed, the expected benefits of zinc injection were: Reduction of the rate of generalized corrosion and mitigation of stress corrosion cracking initiation on nickel based alloys (Material goal). Curative or preventive reduction of radiation sources to which workers are exposed (Radiation fields' goal). Mitigation of the AOA or CIPS risks by reduction of corrosion products releases and mitigation of crud deposition (Fuel protection goal). To monitor the zinc addition, EDF has defined a complete survey program concerning: chemistry and radiochemistry responses (primary coolant monitoring of corrosion and fission products and calculation of zinc injected, zinc removed and zinc incorporated in RCS surfaces) ; radiation fields (dose rates and deposited activities measurements) ; materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks) ; fuel (oxide thickness measurements and visual exams) ; effluents (corrosion products releases and isotopic distribution follow up) ; wastes (radiochemical characterization of filters). This paper will detail the present results of this monitoring program. It appears that the expected benefits of zinc injection have yet to be fully realized; further operating experience will be required in order to fully evaluate its impact. (author)

  3. Exosome-Based Cell-Cell Communication in the Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Maia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tumors are not isolated entities, but complex systemic networks involving cell-cell communication between transformed and non-transformed cells. The milieu created by tumor-associated cells may either support or halt tumor progression. In addition to cell-cell contact, cells communicate through secreted factors via a highly complex system involving characteristics such as ligand concentration, receptor expression and integration of diverse signaling pathways. Of these, extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are emerging as novel cell-cell communication mediators in physiological and pathological scenarios. Exosomes, membrane vesicles of endocytic origin released by all cells (both healthy and diseased, ranging in size from 30 to 150 nm, transport all the main biomolecules, including lipids, proteins, DNAs, messenger RNAs and microRNA, and perform intercellular transfer of components, locally and systemically. By acting not only in tumor cells, but also in tumor-associated cells such as fibroblasts, endothelium, leukocytes and progenitor cells, tumor- and non-tumor cells-derived exosomes have emerged as new players in tumor growth and invasion, tumor-associated angiogenesis, tissue inflammation and immunologic remodeling. In addition, due to their property of carrying molecules from their cell of origin to the peripheral circulation, exosomes have been increasingly studied as sources of tumor biomarkers in liquid biopsies. Here we review the current literature on the participation of exosomes in the communication between tumor and tumor-associated cells, highlighting the role of this process in the setup of tumor microenvironments that modulate tumor initiation and metastasis.

  4. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigations into Recycling Zinc from Used Metal Oxide Varistors via pH Selective Leaching: Characterization, Leaching, and Residue Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, Toni; Gustafsson, Anna; Forsgren, Christer; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Metal oxide varistors (MOVs) are a type of resistor with significantly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics commonly used in power lines to protect against overvoltages. If a proper recycling plan is developed MOVs can be an excellent source of secondary zinc because they contain over 90 weight percent zinc oxide. The oxides of antimony, bismuth, and to a lesser degree cobalt, manganese, and nickel are also present in varistors. Characterization of the MOV showed that cobalt, nickel, and manganese were not present in the varistor material at concentrations greater than one weight percent. This investigation determined whether a pH selective dissolution (leaching) process can be utilized as a starting point for hydrometallurgical recycling of the zinc in MOVs. This investigation showed it was possible to selectively leach zinc from the MOV without coleaching of bismuth and antimony by selecting a suitable pH, mainly higher than 3 for acids investigated. It was not possible to leach zinc without coleaching of manganese, cobalt, and nickel. It can be concluded from results obtained with the acids used, acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric, that sulfate leaching produced the most desirable results with respect to zinc leaching and it is also used extensively in industrial zinc production. PMID:26421313

  6. Investigations into Recycling Zinc from Used Metal Oxide Varistors via pH Selective Leaching: Characterization, Leaching, and Residue Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Gutknecht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide varistors (MOVs are a type of resistor with significantly nonlinear current-voltage characteristics commonly used in power lines to protect against overvoltages. If a proper recycling plan is developed MOVs can be an excellent source of secondary zinc because they contain over 90 weight percent zinc oxide. The oxides of antimony, bismuth, and to a lesser degree cobalt, manganese, and nickel are also present in varistors. Characterization of the MOV showed that cobalt, nickel, and manganese were not present in the varistor material at concentrations greater than one weight percent. This investigation determined whether a pH selective dissolution (leaching process can be utilized as a starting point for hydrometallurgical recycling of the zinc in MOVs. This investigation showed it was possible to selectively leach zinc from the MOV without coleaching of bismuth and antimony by selecting a suitable pH, mainly higher than 3 for acids investigated. It was not possible to leach zinc without coleaching of manganese, cobalt, and nickel. It can be concluded from results obtained with the acids used, acetic, hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric, that sulfate leaching produced the most desirable results with respect to zinc leaching and it is also used extensively in industrial zinc production.

  7. Fabrication and Optical Characterization of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared via a Simple Sol-gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hedayati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research zinc oxide (ZnO nano-crystalline powders were prepared by sol-gel method using zinc acetate. The ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis, Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy. The structure of nanoparticles was studied using XRD pattern. The crystallite size of ZnO nanoparticles was calculated by Debye–Scherrer formula. Morphology of nano-crystals was observed and investigated using the SEM. The grain size of zinc oxide nanoparticles were in suitable agreement with the crystalline size calculated by XRD results. The optical properties of particles were studied with UV-Vis an FTIR absorption spectrum. The Raman spectrum measurements were carried out using a micro-laser Raman spectrometer forms the ZnO nanoparticles. At the end studied the effect of calcined temperature on the photoluminescence (PL emission of ZnO nanoparticles.

  8. Effects of zinc complexes on the distribution of zinc in calcareous soil and zinc uptake by maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, José M; Rico, María I

    2003-09-10

    The movement and availability of Zn from six organic Zn sources in a Typic Xerorthent (calcareous) soil were compared by incubation, column assay, and in a greenhouse study with maize (Zea mays L.). Zinc soil behavior was studied by sequential, diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, and Mehlich-3 extractions. In the incubation experiment, the differences in Zn concentration observed in the water soluble plus exchangeable fraction strongly correlated with Zn uptake by plants in the greenhouse experiment. Zinc applied to the surface of soil columns scarcely moved into deeper layers except for Zn-ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) that showed the greatest distribution of labile Zn throughout the soil and the highest proportion of leaching of the applied Zn. In the upper part of the column, changes in the chemical forms of all treatments occurred and an increase in organically complexed and amorphous Fe oxide-bound fractions was detected. However, the water soluble plus exchangeable fraction was not detected. The same results were obtained at the end of the greenhouse experiment. Significant increases were found in plant dry matter yield and Zn concentration as compared with the control treatment without Zn addition. Increasing Zn rate in the soil increased dry matter yield in all cases but Zn concentration in the plant increased only with Zn-EDTA and Zn-ethylenediaminedi-o-hydroxyphenyl-acetate (EDDHA) fertilizers. Higher Zn concentration in plants (50.9 mg kg(-)(1)) occurred when 20 mg Zn kg(-)(1) was added to the soil as Zn-EDTA. The relative effectiveness of the different Zn carriers in increasing Zn uptake was in the order: Zn-EDTA > Zn-EDDHA > Zn-heptagluconate >/= Zn-phenolate approximately Zn-polyflavonoid approximately Zn-lignosulfonate.

  9. Combination therapy of radiation and immunomodulators in the treatment of MM46 tumor transplanted in C3H/He mice. Histological and histoenzymatic studies using alpha-naphtyl acetate esterase staining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaji, Chihiro; Imanaka, Kazufumi; Gose, Kyuhei; Ichiyanagi, Akihiro; Imajo, Yoshinari (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-12-01

    Female C3H/He mice aged 13 weeks with transplanted MM 46 tumor were used in histological and enzymohistochemical studies on the timing of administration of immunomodulators, PSK (a protein bound polysaccharide prepared from Coriolus versicolor), or OK-432 (Streptococcal preparation) combined with two fractionated local irradiation with the total dose of 3,000 rad. The daily dose of 250 mg/kg of PSK, or 1 KE/mouse of OK-432 was respectively injected intraperitoneally for four consecutive days before or after irradiation. Mice were sacrificed before irradiation and 7, 14 and 21 days after irradiation. Resected tumor tissues were examined using H-E staining and ..cap alpha..-naphtyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining to observe the stromal reactions such as the infiltration of mononuclear cells and fibroblasts around tumor tissues. When PSK or OK-432 was administered after irradiation, remarkable lymphocytic infiltration was observed compared with the control group and the group to which PSK or OK-432 was administered before irradiation. ANAE staining revealed most of infiltrating lymphocytes were T-cells. These results suggested that PSK and OK-432 which were received after radiotherapy enhanced the immunological responses against tumors which were represented by remarkable lymphocytic infiltration.

  10. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  11. Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Sodium Hydroxide on the Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirjalili

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out, together with the hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate, using sodium hydroxide to increase surface activity and enhance nanoparticle adsorption. Polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide in an ultrasonic bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confi rmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The self-cleaning property of treated fabrics was evaluated through discolouring using methylene blue stain under solar irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against common pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound-treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.

  12. Synthesis of S-doped ZnO by the interaction of sulfur with zinc salt in PEG200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Xin-Yuan; Zhan, Pei; Li, Li-Yun; Zhou, Dan-Jie; Guo, Dan-Yi; Meng, Jian-Xin; Bai, Yan; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: S-doped ZnO nanoparticles (S-ZnO) were synthesized via a one-step and green method by using zinc acetate dihydrate as a precursor, S powder as a dopant and PEG200 as a solvent with the number of moles of sulfur (n S ) smaller than that of zinc salt (n Zn ). A possible mechanism was proposed to elucidate the formation of S-ZnO. PL spectra show strong green emission band, which could be applied to ZnO optoelectronic devices that work in the visible spectrum. - Highlights: • A green and one-step method was developed to synthesize S-doped ZnO nanoparticles. • The molar ratio of Zn(II) and S influences the composition of the products greatly. • The interactive mechanism of S with zinc salt in PEG was elucidated. • PL spectra of S-doped ZnO nanoparticles show strong green emission band. - Abstract: S-doped ZnO nanoparticles (S-ZnO) were synthesized via a one-step and green method. In this method, zinc acetate dihydrate was used as a precursor and sulfur was the dopant. The reaction between zinc salt and S occurred in PEG200 media. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and room temperature photoluminescence were used to characterize the products. The results show that the molar ratio of Zn(II) and S determines the composition, structure, surface morphology, and luminescence properties of the products greatly. When the number of moles of sulfur (n S ) is smaller than that of zinc salt (n Zn ), the products are S-ZnO with diameters of 40–55 nm and they have ultraviolet absorption peaks at 363 nm. The incorporation of S into ZnO is supported by broadening and lower Bragg angle shift in XRD pattern. FTIR spectra show that PEG200 adsorbs onto the surfaces of the S-ZnO as a capping agent. PL spectra show that the effective sulfur doping

  13. Differential control of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in tumor versus liver: evidence for decontrolled tumor cholesterogenesis in a cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azrolan, N.

    1987-01-01

    Cholesterol biosynthesis was characterized in cell-free post-mitochondrial supernatant (PMS) systems prepared from both normal rat liver and Morris hepatoma 3924A. Per cell, the rate of cholesterol synthesis from either 14 C-citrate of 14 -acetate in the hepatoma system was 9-fold greater than that observed in the liver system. Furthermore, the ratio of sterol-to-fatty acid synthesis rates from 14 C-citrate was more than 3-fold greater in the tumor than in the normal liver system. Incubations using radiolabeled acetate and mevalonate have demonstrated the loss of a normally rate-limiting control site within the early portion of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in the tumor system. Upon analysis of the steady-state levels of early lipogenic intermediates, the specific site of decontrol in the tumor was identified as the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA → mevalonate site of this pathway. In contrast, this reaction appeared to retain its rate-limiting properties in the cell-free system from normal liver

  14. Zinc supplementation to improve mucositis and dermatitis in patients after radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancers: A double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, L.-C.; Que, Jenny; Lin, L.-K.; Lin, F.-C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether zinc supplementation can accelerate the healing of mucositis and dermatitis after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In this double-blind study, patients were placed into two randomized groups (experimental and control) of 50 patients each. The groups were homogeneous with respect to medical history, tumor characteristics, and therapeutic details. The experimental group received a standard dose of a zinc supplement, and the control group was given a placebo. Results: Patients in the control group developed Grade 2 mucositis and dermatitis earlier and sooner than patients in the experimental group. There was also a significant difference in the development of Grade 3 mucositis and dermatitis between the two groups. Patients in the experimental group were found to have milder mucositis and dermatitis. Zinc supplementation did not show much benefit in those patients receiving concurrent chemotherapy or make a substantial impact on weight changes. Conclusions: Zinc supplementation used in conjunction with radiotherapy could postpone the development of severe mucositis and dermatitis for patients with cancers of the head and neck. Zinc supplementation can also alleviate the degree of mucositis and dermatitis. The impact of zinc on tumor growth and patient survival is under further investigation

  15. A hypothesis about the potential role of statin administration as adjuvant treatment in the management of Merlin-deficient tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros G. Brotis, MD, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Merlin, a tumor suppressor protein, controls essential steps of cell cycle, and its deficiency results in cellular overgrowth, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis. Lack of Merlin is responsible for neurofibromatosis-2, most schwannomas, and many meningiomas and ependymomas. We hypothesize that there is a role for statins to ameliorate Merlin's deficiency in this set of tumors by inhibiting a number of Merlin's downstream effectors, the small Rho-GTP-ases, and we present the relevant data. The ultimate goal is to offer a medical therapy promising to halt or reduce the tumor growth-rate in patients harboring Merlin-deficient neoplasms and to provide an adjuvant systemic therapy for patients undergoing stereotactic radio-surgery and partial tumor resection.

  16. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  17. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  18. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  19. Rare beneficial mutations can halt Muller's ratchet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Daniel; Goyal, Sidhartha; Jerison, Elizabeth; Neher, Richard; Shraiman, Boris; Desai, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In viral, bacterial, and other asexual populations, the vast majority of non-neutral mutations are deleterious. This motivates the application of models without beneficial mutations. Here we show that the presence of surprisingly few compensatory mutations halts fitness decay in these models. Production of deleterious mutations is balanced by purifying selection, stabilizing the fitness distribution. However, stochastic vanishing of fitness classes can lead to slow fitness decay (i.e. Muller's ratchet). For weakly deleterious mutations, production overwhelms purification, rapidly decreasing population fitness. We show that when beneficial mutations are introduced, a stable steady state emerges in the form of a dynamic mutation-selection balance. We argue this state is generic for all mutation rates and population sizes, and is reached as an end state as genomes become saturated by either beneficial or deleterious mutations. Assuming all mutations have the same magnitude selective effect, we calculate the fraction of beneficial mutations necessary to maintain the dynamic balance. This may explain the unexpected maintenance of asexual genomes, as in mitochondria, in the presence of selection. This will affect in the statistics of genetic diversity in these populations.

  20. Anti-tumor Effect of Rhaponticum uniflorum Ethyl Acetate Extract by Regulation of Peroxiredoxin1 and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore whether Rhaponticum uniflorum (R. uniflorum had anti-tumor effects in oral cancer and investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in these anti-tumor effects.Methods: Chemical compositions of R. uniflorum ethyl acetate (RUEA extracts were detected by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-Q/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS, followed by pharmacology-based network prediction analysis. The effects of RUEA extracts on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion ability of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC cell line SCC15 were evaluated by CCK8 assay, Annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, wound healing assay, and Matrigel invasion assay, respectively. The mRNA and protein expression of peroxiredoxin1 (Prx1, the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT marker E-cadherin, vimentin, and Snail were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. A mouse xenograft model of SCC15 cells was established to further evaluate the effect of RUEA extracts in vivo. Immunohistochemical assessment of Ki67 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining of apoptotic cells were performed on the tumor tissues to assess the effects of RUEA extracts on proliferation and apoptosis.Results: Fourteen compounds were identified from RUEA extracts by UPLC-Q/TOF-MS. The pharmacology-based network prediction analysis showed that Prx1 could be a potential binder of RUEA extracts. In SCC15 cells, RUEA extracts inhibited cell viability, induced apoptosis, and suppressed cell invasion and migration in a concentration-dependent manner. After treatment with RUEA extracts, the mRNA and protein expression of E-cadherin increased, whereas those of Prx1, vimentin, and Snail decreased. RUEA extracts also affected the EMT program and suppressed cell invasion and migration in Prx1 knockdown SCC15 cells. In an OSCC mouse

  1. Antioxidant effects of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate-induced hepatic injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamdy El-Tantawy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Spirulina supplement against lead acetate -induced hepatic injury in rats. Five groups of rats were used in this study, Control, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 0.5 g/kg Spirulina, Lead acetate (100 mg/kg + 1 g/kg Spirulina and Lead acetate + 25 mg/100 g Vitamin C (reference drug. All experimental groups received the oral treatment by stomach tube once daily for 4 weeks. Lead intoxication resulted in a significant increase in serum alanine transaminae (ALT, aspartate transaminae (AST activities, liver homogenate tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, caspase-3, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO levels and a significant decline of total serum protein, liver homogenate reduced glutathione (GSH level and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Both doses of Spirulina supplement as well as Vitamin C succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of serum and liver and prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and antioxidant status of the liver. Both doses of Spirulina supplement had the same anti-apoptotic activity and high dose exhibited more antioxidant activity than that of low dose. In conclusion, the results of the present work revealed that Spirulina supplement had protective, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects on lead acetate-induced hepatic damage.

  2. Thermocouple module halt failure acceptance test procedure for Tank 241-SY-101 DACS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The readiness of the Tank 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1) to provide monitoring and alarms for a halt failure of any thermocouple module will be tested during the performance of this procedure. Updated DACS-1 ''1/0 MODULE HEALTH STATUS'', ''MININ1'', and ''MININ2'' screens, which now provide indication of thermocouple module failure, will also be tested as part of this procedure

  3. Synthesis and controlled release properties of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate–zinc layered hydroxide nanohybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashi, Abbas M.; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Tichit, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Direct reaction of ZnO with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (24D) solutions of different concentrations allows obtaining new organic–inorganic nanohybrid materials formed by intercalation of 24D into interlayers of zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH). XRD patterns show a progressive evolution of the structure as 24D concentration increases. The nanohybrid obtained at higher 24D concentration (24D–ZLH(0.4)) reveals a well ordered layered structure with two different basal spacings at 25.2 Å and 24 Å. The FTIR spectrum showing the vibrations bands of the functional groups of 24D and of the ZLH confirms the intercalation. SEM images are in agreement with the structural evolution observed by XRD and reveal the ribbon morphology of the nanohybrids. The release studies of 24D showed a rapid release of 94% for the first 100 min governed by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. - Graphical abstract: The phenomenon indicates that the optical energy gap is enlarged with the increase of molar concentrations in 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate anion content into ZnO to create a ZLH–24D nanohybrid. - Highlights: • Nanohybrid was synthesized from 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetate with-Zinc LHD, using wet chemistry. • Characterized using SEM, TEM, EDX, FTIR, XRD and TGA. • Ribbon-shaped 24D–Zn-layered hydroxide nanoparticles with (003) diffractions of 2.5 nm phase were synthesized

  4. A case of anaphylactoid reaction to acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Taro; Suzuki, Yumiko; Naito, Yoshitaka; Shiooka, Tempei; Isozaki, Taisuke

    2015-05-01

    A 35-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease due to chronic glomerulonephritis was admitted to our hospital to start maintenance hemodialysis (HD). One hour after starting the first session of HD, he experienced general pruritus, urticaria, and dyspnea. Signs and symptoms were resolved by discontinuing HD and administrating an antihistamine drug; HD-associated anaphylactoid reactions were therefore suspected. Over the next few HD sessions, we changed the dialysis membrane, anticoagulant, HD circuit and needle, in that order, but general pruritus and urticaria again appeared within 3 h after starting each session of HD. Finally, when we changed the dialysate from acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate to acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate, urticaria was clearly less than that seen in previous HD sessions, and subsided after discontinuation of HD. Subsequently, 20 mg of oral prednisolone (PSL) was administered 1 h before starting HD, and the patient did not experience general pruritus, urticaria, or dyspnea after starting the session. When administered acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate after oral PSL pretreatment, the patient again experienced general pruritus, urticaria and dyspnea. Few reports have been published on the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions during HD using acetate dialysate. We report a rare case of anaphylactoid reactions with acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate that were reduced with the use of acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate and oral PSL pretreatment.

  5. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and a non-absorbed marker, /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with /sup 65/Zn and /sup 51/Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption.

  6. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi 65 ZnCl 2 and a non-absorbed marker, 51 CrCl 3 , dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with 65 Zn and 51 Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption

  7. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  9. Does conservation on farmland contribute to halting the biodiversity decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleijn, David; Rundlöf, Maj; Scheper, Jeroen; Smith, Henrik G; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-09-01

    Biodiversity continues to decline, despite the implementation of international conservation conventions and measures. To counteract biodiversity loss, it is pivotal to know how conservation actions affect biodiversity trends. Focussing on European farmland species, we review what is known about the impact of conservation initiatives on biodiversity. We argue that the effects of conservation are a function of conservation-induced ecological contrast, agricultural land-use intensity and landscape context. We find that, to date, only a few studies have linked local conservation effects to national biodiversity trends. It is therefore unknown how the extensive European agri-environmental budget for conservation on farmland contributes to the policy objectives to halt biodiversity decline. Based on this review, we identify new research directions addressing this important knowledge gap. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  11. Research on the uptake of mercury 197 acetate in early bronchial cancers and on the variation of this uptake during drug therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, H.M.

    1975-01-01

    Mercury 197 was proposed as a means to analyze the behavior of early bronchial cancers, especially during drug treatment. This choice was based on four facts: a hyperfixation of mercury has already been demonstrated in malignant intrathoracic tumors; the use of mercury 197 in acetate form gives higher uptake rates than those observed with bichloride; because of its properties mercury 197 is easy to use in routine radioisotopic practice; mercury toxicity is negligible with the preparation employed. The work was performed in two stages: analysis of the uptake conditions for mercury 197 in acetate form in order to detect the factors which influence this uptake and to define its limits and advantages; on the basis of the above notions, use of mercury 197 as tracer to follow the development of bronchial tumors, the aim being to observe the tumor volume variation under drug treatment (the changes in uptake rate are analyzed and the numerical results obtained used to estimate the degree of efficiency of the treatment proposed, the moment of maximum result and the start of a new tumoral growth) [fr

  12. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  13. Palytoxin: exploiting a novel skin tumor promoter to explore signal transduction and carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2007-01-01

    Palytoxin is a novel skin tumor promoter, which has been used to help probe the role of different types of signaling mechanisms in carcinogenesis. The multistage mouse skin model indicates that tumor promotion is an early, prolonged, and reversible phase of carcinogenesis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor promotion is therefore important for developing strategies to prevent and treat cancer. Naturally occurring tumor promoters that bind to specific cellular receptors have proven to be useful tools for investigating important biochemical events in multistage carcinogenesis. For example, the identification of protein kinase C as the receptor for the prototypical skin tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (also called phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) provided key evidence that tumor promotion involves the aberrant modulation of signaling cascades that govern cell fate and function. The subsequent discovery that palytoxin, a marine toxin isolated from zoanthids (genus Palythoa), is a potent skin tumor promoter yet does not activate protein kinase C indicated that investigating palytoxin action could help reveal new aspects of tumor promotion. Interestingly, the putative receptor for palytoxin is the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. This review focuses on palytoxin-stimulated signaling and how palytoxin has been used to investigate alternate biochemical mechanisms by which important targets in carcinogenesis can be modulated.

  14. A halting-stage in the evolution of logical theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Ejsing

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the way in which the American pragmatist John Dewey’s engaged critically with Hermann Lotze’s logic in a series of papers in the 1903 anthology Studies in Logical Theory. The first part of the paper describes the backdrop for Dewey’s critical engagement with Lotze, namely, his...... attempt to distinguish his newly developed instrumentalist understanding of logic from the absolute idealism that had played an important role in his earlier thinking. The next part of the paper then describes the instrumental position from which Dewey approached Lotze’s thinking, while the final part...... of the paper examines Dewey’s critical analysis of Lotze’s thinking about logic. Here the conclusion will be that even though Dewey saw Lotze as “one of the most vigorous and acute of modern logicians”, he also thought that Lotze represented “a halting-stage in the evolution of logical theory” in so far as his...

  15. Size-mediated cytotoxicity of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide, pure and zinc-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devanand Venkatasubbu, G.; Ramasamy, S.; Avadhani, G. S.; Palanikumar, L.; Kumar, J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticles are highly used in biological applications including nanomedicine. In this present study, the interaction of HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC) with hydroxyapatite (HAp), zinc-doped hydroxyapatite, and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were investigated. Hydroxyapatite, zinc-doped hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were prepared by wet precipitation method. They were subjected to isochronal annealing at different temperatures. Particle morphology and size distribution were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope. The nanoparticles were co-cultured with HepG2 cells. MTT assay was employed to evaluate the proliferation of tumor cells. The DNA damaging effect of HAp, Zn-doped HAp, and TiO 2 nanoparticles in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were evaluated using DNA fragmentation studies. The results showed that in HepG2 cells, the anti-tumor activity strongly depend on the size of nanoparticles in HCC cells. Cell cycle arrest analysis for HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and TiO 2 nanoparticles revealed the influence of HAp, zinc-doped HAp, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. The results imply that the novel nano nature effect plays an important role in the biomedicinal application of nanoparticles.

  16. Zinc electrode - its behaviour in the nickel oxide-zinc accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Certain aspects of zinc electrode reaction and behavior are investigated in view of their application to batteries. The properties of the zinc electrode in a battery system are discussed, emphasizing porous structure. Shape change is emphasized as the most important factor leading to limited battery cycle life. It is shown that two existing models of shape change based on electroosmosis and current distribution are unable to consistently describe observed phenomena. The first stages of electrocrystallization are studied and the surface reactions between the silver substrate and the deposited zinc layer are investigated. The reaction mechanism of zinc and amalgamated zinc in an alkaline electrolyte is addressed, and the batter system is studied to obtain information on cycling behavior and on the shape change phenomenon. The effect on cycle behavior of diferent amalgamation techniques of the zinc electrode and several additives is addressed. Impedance measurements on zinc electrodes are considered, and battery behavior is correlated with changes in the zinc electrode during cycling. 193 references.

  17. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR

  18. Growth of antimony doped P-type zinc oxide nanowires for optoelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Pradel, Ken

    2016-09-27

    In a method of growing p-type nanowires, a nanowire growth solution of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO.sub.3).sub.2), hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) and polyethylenemine (800 M.sub.w PEI) is prepared. A dopant solution to the growth solution, the dopant solution including an equal molar ration of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), glycolic acid (C.sub.2H.sub.4O.sub.3) and antimony acetate (Sb(CH.sub.3COO).sub.3) in water is prepared. The dopant solution and the growth solution combine to generate a resulting solution that includes antimony to zinc in a ratio of between 0.2% molar to 2.0% molar, the resulting solution having a top surface. An ammonia solution is added to the resulting solution. A ZnO seed layer is applied to a substrate and the substrate is placed into the top surface of the resulting solution with the ZnO seed layer facing downwardly for a predetermined time until Sb-doped ZnO nanowires having a length of at least 5 .mu.m have grown from the ZnO seed layer.

  19. Multifunctional properties of cotton fabrics coated with in situ synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles capped with date seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Shaarawy, S; Hebeish, A A

    2018-02-01

    In situ formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) was studied within the framework of several factors. variables examined include (i) innovation of a new capping agent; (ii) nature of the cotton fabric related to its processing; (iii) formation of Zinc hydroxide (Zn(OH) 2 ) due to reduction of zinc acetate with sodium hydroxide (iv) treatment of the differently processed cotton fabrics with (Zn(OH) 2 ) functionalized dispersion as per the exhaustion method, (v) further treatment of the cotton fabrics with (Zn(OH) 2 ) dispersion according to the pad-dry-cure method and (Vi) conversion of (Zn(OH) 2 ) to ZnO-NPs during the curing step in the latter method. Results depict that the incorporation of the bio-extract obtained from date seed waste works effectively as capping material which stabilize ZnO-NPs. Mercerized bleached cotton fabric proves to be a better candidate than mercerized loomstate cotton fabric in conferring sustainable bactericidal and UV blocking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be...

  1. Zinc Prevents the Development of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes (T2DM patients. Zinc is an important essential trace metal, whose deficiency is associated with various chronic ailments, including vascular diseases. We assessed T2DM B6.BKS(D-Leprdb/J (db/db mice fed for six months on a normal diet containing three zinc levels (deficient, adequate, and supplemented, to explore the role of zinc in DCM development and progression. Cardiac function, reflected by ejection fraction, was significantly decreased, along with increased left ventricle mass and heart weight to tibial length ratio, in db/db mice. As a molecular cardiac hypertrophy marker, atrial natriuretic peptide levels were also significantly increased. Cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy were accompanied by significantly increased fibrotic (elevated collagen accumulation as well as transforming growth factor β and connective tissue growth factor levels and inflammatory (enhanced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, caspase recruitment domain family member 9, and B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10, and activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase responses in the heart. All these diabetic effects were exacerbated by zinc deficiency, and not affected by zinc supplementation, respectively. Mechanistically, oxidative stress and damage, mirrored by the accumulation of 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, was significantly increased along with significantly decreased expression of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidants (NQO-1 and catalase. This was also exacerbated by zinc deficiency in the db/db mouse heart. These results suggested that zinc deficiency promotes the development and progression of DCM in T2DM db/db mice. The exacerbated effects by zinc deficiency on the heart of db/db mice may be related to further suppression of Nrf2 expression and function.

  2. Modifiers of free radicals inhibit in vitro the oncogenic actions of x-rays, bleomycin, and the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borek, C.; Troll, W.

    1983-01-01

    Using short-term cultures of hamster embryo cells, we have examined the effects of the free-radical scavenger superoxide dismutase (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) and the enzyme catalase (hydrogen-peroxide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.11.1.6) on x-ray-and bleomycin-induced transformation and on the enhancement of radiogenic transformation by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). We find that superoxide dismutase inhibits (i) transformation induced by x-ray and bleomycin and (ii) promotional action of TPA in vitro. The results suggest that the oncogenic action of x-rays and bleomycin and the enhancement of oncogenic transformation by TPA are mediated in part by free radicals. The findings also suggest that superoxide dismutase can serve as an inhibitor of oncogenesis and that its actions, as seen in this in vitro system, are most predominantly on inhibiting late events in the progression of cellular transformation--those associated with promotion

  3. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  4. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    from dehydration. Giving fluids by mouth (using an oral rehydration solution (ORS)) has been shown to save children's lives, but it has no effect on the length of time the children suffer with diarrhoea. Zinc supplementation could help reduce the duration and the severity of diarrhoea, and therefore have an additional benefit over ORS in reducing children mortality. What is oral zinc and how may it shorten the duration and severity of diarrhoea Zinc is usually given as zinc sulphate, zinc acetate, or zinc gluconate, which are all water-soluble compounds. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommend 10 mg to 20 mg of zinc per day for children with diarrhoea. There are several mechanism of action of zinc on acute diarrhoea, some of which are specific to the gastrointestinal system: zinc restores mucosal barrier integrity and enterocyte brush-border enzyme activity, it promotes the production of antibodies and circulating lymphocytes against intestinal pathogens, and has a direct effect on ion channels, acting as a potassium channel blocker of adenosine 3-5-cyclic monophosphate-mediated chlorine secretion. Cochrane researchers examined the evidence available up to 30 September 2016. What the evidence in the review suggests Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met the inclusion criteria of this review. Among children with acute diarrhoea, we don't know if treating children with zinc has an effect on death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (low certainty evidence), and probably reduces the number of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven (moderate certainty evidence). In children with signs of malnutrition the effect appears greater, reducing the duration of diarrhoea by around a day (high certainty evidence). Conversely, in children younger than six

  5. The selective recycling of mixed plastic waste of polylactic acid and polyethylene terephthalate by control of process conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Carné Sánchez, Arnau; Collinson, Simon R.

    2011-01-01

    The glycolysis of postconsumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste was evaluated with catalysts of zinc acetate, zinc stearate and zinc sulfate, showing that zinc acetate was the most soluble and effective. The chemical recycling by solvolysis of polylactic acid (PLA) and PET waste in either methanol or ethanol was investigated. Zinc acetate as a catalyst was found to be necessary to yield an effective depolymerization of waste PLA giving lactate esters, while with the same reaction condit...

  6. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  8. Production of zinc pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  9. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.; Cousins, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. The authors have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific to the intestine. The protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport and shows signs of saturation at higher luminal zinc concentrations, characteristics consistent with a role in carrier-mediated zinc absorption. Microsequence analysis of the protein purified by gel-filtration HPCL and SDS/PAGE showed complete identity within the first 41 N-terminal amino acids with the deduced protein sequence of cysteine-rich intestinal protein. These investigators showed that the gene for this protein is developmentally regulated in neonates during the suckling period, conserved in many vertebrate species, and predominantly expressed in the small intestine. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein contains a recently identified conserved sequence of histidine and cysteine residues, the LIM motif, which our results suggest confers metal-binding properties that are important for zinc transport and/or functions of this micronutrient

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of nanocellulose supported zinc oxide composite for RhB dye as well as ciprofloxacin drug under sunlight/visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavker, Neha; Sharma, Manu

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesised from zinc acetate di-hydrate via co-precipitation method. Nanocellulose was isolated from agrowaste using chemo-mechanical treatments and characterized. Nanocellulose supported zinc oxide composites were prepared through in-situ method by adding different amounts of nanocellulose. The photocatalytic efficiency of pure Zno and nanocellulose supported ZnO was calculated using RhB dye under visible light and sun light. The composites which had nanocellulose in greater ratio showed higher degradation efficiency in sunlight rather than visible light for both; dye and drug. All the composites showed high rate of photodegradation compared to bare ZnO and bare nanocellulose. The enhancement in photocatalytic activity was observed maximum where the amount of cellulose was maximum. The maximum observed rate was 0.025 min-1 using Ciprofloxacin drug due to the increase in lifetime of Z4 sample delaying the electron and hole pair recombination. The degrading efficiency of nanocellulose supported zinc oxide (NC/ZnO) composite for RhB was found to be 35% in visible, 76% in sunlight and 75% for ciprofloxacin under sunlight.

  11. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  12. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  13. Effect of Consuming Zinc-fortified Bread on Serum Zinc and Iron Status of Zinc-deficient Women: A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad

    2012-03-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p bread improved iron absorption.

  14. Characterization of acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, depending on varying acetate concentrations, in a biogas plant. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahring, B.K.

    1994-12-01

    The present report contains the results of a project concerning behaviour of acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants, collected in 1992 - 1994 period. Labelled acetates (2-C 14 -CH 3 COOH) have been used to characterize the types of methane bacteria populations in the Danish biogas plants, the optimum acetate concentration for these bacteria and acetate metabolism in mesophilic and thermophilic biogas reactors with low acetate concentrations. 2 publications are included. (EG)

  15. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  16. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  17. Relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate in utero supply of zinc is essential for optimal fetal growth because of the role of zinc in cellular division, growth and differentiation. Low maternal serum zinc has been reported to be associated with low birth weight and the later is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in newborns.

  18. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  19. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  20. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  1. Effects of calcium and magnesium acetates on tissue distribution of carcinogenic doses of calcium chloride in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, K.S.; Poirier, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that magnesium, unlike calcium, prevents cadmium carcinogenesis at the subcutaneous injection site, and that neither magnesium nor calcium has any significant influence on the production of testicular tumors by cadmium in rats. The present investigation attempts to disclose the nature of those different effects by comparing the results of administration of both physiological metals on the uptake and distribution of carcinogenic doses of cadmium in rats. Male Wistar rats received a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of 109 CdCl 2 (0.02 mmol/kg or 0.04 mmol/kg) and s.c. injections (one daily) of calcium acetate (CaAcet; 0.16 mmol/kg), or magnesium acetate (MgAcet; 4 mmol/kg) or saline on the day before, the day of and the day after the 109 CdCl 2 dosing. The concentration of cadmium in tissues was determined by gamma-counting on the 4th, the 15th and the 45th day after 109 CdCl 2 injection. The concentration of cadmium in tissues on day 4 was ranked as follows: liver > kidney > the injection site skin > pancreas > spleen > heart > lung > distant skin > testes > blood. Administration of CaAcet increased by over 20% and that of MgAcet decreased by over 30% the initial uptake of both cadmium doses at the injection site. The MgAcet may prevent cadmium carcinogenesis by inhiniting the uptake of cadmium by the injection site tissues. In the testis and in all other tissues investigated, except kidney, the effects of the physiological metals were reversed, CaAcet and MgAcet tended to increase the uptake of cadmium. CaAcet exerted no noticeable effects on the uptake of cadmium by the kidney. The observed results of CaAcet and MgAcet administration on the concentration of cadmium in distal tissues seem to depend on the alterations in cadmium uptake at the injection site. (author)

  2. Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in combination with gemcitabine on Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells cultured in vitro or Panc-1 tumors grown in immunodeficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xi; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Gao, Zhi; Verano, Michael; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Liu, Yue; Rabson, Arnold B; Conney, Allan H

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the effects of 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) alone or in combination with gemcitabine on the growth of Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells cultured in vitro or grown in NCr immunodeficient nude mice were investigated. Combinations of TPA and gemcitabine synergi-stically inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in Panc-1 cells. The combination of TPA (0.16 nM) and gemcitabine (0.5 µM) induced a marked increase in phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in the Panc-1 cells. In animal experiments, NCr nude mice with established Panc-1 tumors received daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of TPA (50 ng/g body weight/day) or gemcitabine (0.5 µg/g body weight/day) alone or in combination for 26 days. Treatment with daily i.p. injections of low doses of TPA or gemcitabine alone had a modest inhibitory effect on the growth of the tumors. However, the combination of low doses of TPA and gemcitabine more potently inhibited the growth of Panc-1 tumors than either agent used individually. Treatment with TPA or gemcitabine alone or in combination did not affect the body weight of the animals. Clinical trials with TPA alone or in combination with gemcitabine on patients with pancreatic cancer are warranted in order to confirm our results.

  3. Method for the preparation of cellulose acetate flat sheet composite membranes for forward osmosis—Desalination using MgSO4 draw solution

    KAUST Repository

    Sairam, M.; Sereewatthanawut, E.; Li, K.; Bismarck, A.; Livingston, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    A lab scale method for the preparation of defect free flat sheet composite membranes for forward osmosis (FO) has been developed. Membranes containing a thin layer of cellulose acetate (CA) cast on a nylon fabric of 50μm thick were prepared by phase inversion in water. Cellulose acetate (CA) membranes with an overall thickness of 70-80μm have been prepared with lactic acid, maleic acid and zinc chloride as pore forming agents, at different annealing temperatures, for forward osmosis. These membranes have been tested in the desalination of saline feeds (35g·L-1 of NaCl) using magnesium sulphate solution (150g·L-1) as the draw solution. The water flux, and rejection of NaCl, were compared with those of commercially available membranes tested under the same FO conditions. The commercially available FO membrane from Hydration Technologies Inc, OR (M1) has a permeability of 0.13L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with a NaCl rejection of 97% when tested with 150g·L-1 of MgSO4 in the draw solution. Another commercially available membrane for FO from Hydration Technologies Inc, OR, M2 has a water permeability of 0.014L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with NaCl rejection of 100%. The flux and rejection of the CA membranes prepared in this work are found to be dependent on the nature of the pore forming agent, and annealing temperature. Impregnation of an inorganic filler, sodium montmorrillonite in CA membranes and coating of CA membranes with hydrophilic PVA did not enhance the flux of base CA membranes. Cellulose acetate membranes cast from dope solutions containing acetone/isopropanol and lactic acid, maleic acid and zinc chloride as pore forming agents have water permeabilities of 0.13, 0.09 and 0.68L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 respectively, with NaCl rejections of 97.7, 99.3 and 88% when annealed at 50°C. CA membranes prepared with zinc chloride as a pore forming agent have good permeability of 0.27L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with a NaCl rejection of 95% when annealed at 70°C. © 2011.

  4. Method for the preparation of cellulose acetate flat sheet composite membranes for forward osmosis—Desalination using MgSO4 draw solution

    KAUST Repository

    Sairam, M.

    2011-06-01

    A lab scale method for the preparation of defect free flat sheet composite membranes for forward osmosis (FO) has been developed. Membranes containing a thin layer of cellulose acetate (CA) cast on a nylon fabric of 50μm thick were prepared by phase inversion in water. Cellulose acetate (CA) membranes with an overall thickness of 70-80μm have been prepared with lactic acid, maleic acid and zinc chloride as pore forming agents, at different annealing temperatures, for forward osmosis. These membranes have been tested in the desalination of saline feeds (35g·L-1 of NaCl) using magnesium sulphate solution (150g·L-1) as the draw solution. The water flux, and rejection of NaCl, were compared with those of commercially available membranes tested under the same FO conditions. The commercially available FO membrane from Hydration Technologies Inc, OR (M1) has a permeability of 0.13L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with a NaCl rejection of 97% when tested with 150g·L-1 of MgSO4 in the draw solution. Another commercially available membrane for FO from Hydration Technologies Inc, OR, M2 has a water permeability of 0.014L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with NaCl rejection of 100%. The flux and rejection of the CA membranes prepared in this work are found to be dependent on the nature of the pore forming agent, and annealing temperature. Impregnation of an inorganic filler, sodium montmorrillonite in CA membranes and coating of CA membranes with hydrophilic PVA did not enhance the flux of base CA membranes. Cellulose acetate membranes cast from dope solutions containing acetone/isopropanol and lactic acid, maleic acid and zinc chloride as pore forming agents have water permeabilities of 0.13, 0.09 and 0.68L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 respectively, with NaCl rejections of 97.7, 99.3 and 88% when annealed at 50°C. CA membranes prepared with zinc chloride as a pore forming agent have good permeability of 0.27L·h-1·m-2·bar-1 with a NaCl rejection of 95% when annealed at 70°C. © 2011.

  5. Codon 61 mutations in the c-Harvey-ras gene in mouse skin tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene plus okadaic acid class tumor promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, H; Suganuma, M; Yoshizawa, S; Kanazawa, H; Sugimura, T; Manam, S; Kahn, S M; Jiang, W; Hoshina, S; Weinstein, I B

    1989-01-01

    Three okadaic acid class tumor promoters, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and calyculin A, have potent tumor-promoting activity in two-stage carcinogenesis experiments on mouse skin. DNA isolated from tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and each of these tumor promoters revealed the same mutation at the second nucleotide of codon 61 (CAA----CTA) in the c-Ha-ras gene, determined by the polymerase chain reaction procedure and DNA sequencing. Three potent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type tumor promoters, TPA, teleocidin, and aplysiatoxin, showed the same effects. These results provide strong evidence that this mutation in the c-Ha-ras gene is due to a direct effect of DMBA rather than a selective effect of specific tumor promoters.

  6. PREPARATION OF ZINC ENRICHED YEAST (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE BY CULTIVATION WITH DIFFERENT ZINC SALTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the best known microorganism and therefore widely used in many branches of industry. This study aims to investigate the accumulation of three inorganic zinc salts. Our research presents the ability of this yeast to absorb zinc from liquid medium and such enriched biomass use as a potential source of microelements in animal and/or human nutrition. It was found that the addition of different zinc forms, i.e. zinc nitrate, zinc sulphate and zinc chloride in fixed concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg.100 ml-1 did not affect the amount of dry yeast biomass yielded, i.e. 1.0 – 1.2 g of yeast cells from 100 ml of cultivation medium, while higher presence of zinc solutions caused significantly lower yield of yeast biomass. The highest amount of zinc in yeast cells was achieved when added in the form of zinc nitrate in concentration of 200 mg.100 ml-1 YPD medium. The increment of intracellular zinc was up to 18.5 mg.g-1 of yeast biomass.

  7. Plasma zinc in institutionalized elderly individuals: Relation with immune and cardiometabolic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Márcia Cristina; de Oliveira, Larissa Praça; de Araújo Cabral, Natalia Louise; de Sousa, Sara Estéfani Soares; das Graças Almeida, Maria; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura; de Oliveira Lyra, Clélia; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Sena-Evangelista, Karine Cavalcanti Mauricio; de Fatima Campos Pedrosa, Lucia

    2018-04-24

    Changes in zinc metabolism caused by aging and the institutionalization process may contribute to zinc deficiency in elderly individuals. Hypozincemia results in changes in glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory profiles. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma zinc concentrations and their relationships with sociodemographic, dietary, inflammatory, and cardiometabolic biomarkers in institutionalized elderly individuals. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 255 elderly adults living in nursing homes. The associations between plasma zinc and dietary zinc intake, sociodemographic indicators, and glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Independent variables were analyzed according to quartiles of plasma zinc concentrations (Q1: 93.7 μg/dL). The relationship between plasma zinc concentrations and predictor variables was also tested. In Q1, higher concentrations of the following variables were observed, compared with those in other quartiles: total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c; Q1 > Q2, Q3, Q4; all p  Q3, Q4; all p  Q3, Q4; p = 0.024 and p = 0.010, respectively); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Q1 > Q3, p = 0.003). A significant reduction in plasma zinc concentrations was observed with increasing age-adjusted institutionalization time (Δ = - 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.18 to -0.01). The concentrations of total cholesterol (Δ = - 0.19; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.15), LDL-c (Δ = - 0.19; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.15), triglycerides (Δ = - 0.11; 95% CI: -0.16 to -0.06), IL-6 (Δ = - 1.41; 95% CI: -2.64 to -0.18), and TNF-α (Δ = - 1.04; 95% CI: -1.71 to -0.36) were also significantly increased. In conclusion, decreased plasma zinc concentrations were associated with longer institutionalization time and worse lipid and inflammatory profiles in elderly institutionalized individuals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pešlová, F.; Kliber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 43-46 ISSN 0543-5846 Grant - others:KEGA(SK) KEGA 007 TnUAD-4/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * production of zinc oxide * microstructure * chemical composition * zinc slag Subject RIV: JG - Metal lurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  9. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  10. Hydrothermally Synthesized Zinc Sulphide Microspheres for Solar Light-Driven Photocatalytic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghadkar, Yogesh; Arbuj, Sudhir; Shinde, Manish; Ballal, Reshma; Rane, Sunit B.; Gosavi, Suresh; Fouad, H.; Chauhan, Ratna

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we reported the synthesis of zinc sulphide microspheres using the hydrothermal method. ZnS microspheres were synthesized using water, zinc acetate, thiourea and ammonia solution at 150°C for 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h. The as-synthesized ZnS powders were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD indicates the cubic (major phase) as well as hexagonal (minor phase) crystalline phase with enhanced crystallinity increased gradually with more reaction time. UV-Vis spectra show the absorption peaks in the UV-Vis region for all the samples. The Tauc's plot was used to calculate the band gap energy of ZnS samples, which are found to be 3.39 eV, 3.4 eV, and 3.42 eV for the samples synthesized at reaction times of 6 h, 12 h, and 24 h, respectively. FESEM images confirm the formation of microspheres as aggregates of spherical nanoparticles. The as-synthesized ZnS microspheres have been explored for solar light-induced photo-catalytic dye degradation of methylene blue (MB), and the results confirm that such microspheres exhibit effectual photocatalytic properties.

  11. An experimental study of the retention of zinc, zinc-cadmium mixture and zinc-65 in the presence of cadmium in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1976-07-01

    Zinc uptake was studied in eels in fresh water, using stable zinc, a zinc-cadmium mixture, and zinc 65 in the presence of small amounts of cadmium. The zinc content in the eel began to increase after 45 days only, and reached approximately 85 ppm after 76 days in water initially containing 5ppm of zinc. At the conclusion of the experiment (76 days), the body organs could be classified in decreasing order in zinc content (in ppm): kidneys (152), skeleton (133), skin (129), muscles (89), head (80), gills (78), digestive tract (77), liver (63) spleen-heart-air bladder (32), and mucus (15). A comparison of experimental results obtained with the zinc-cadmium mixture and cadmium alone showed that zinc decreased the cadmium content of all organs except the gills. The presence of cadmium in water did not inhibit zinc uptake. As cadmium content in water increased, then zinc content in the digestive tract and the kidneys decreased and in all cases remained lower than when zinc alone was present. In the presence of cadmium the percentage of zinc in the kidneys was always lower than the value obtained for zinc alone, and that of the digestive tract did not increase. Contamination of eels treated with 18 and 50ppb of cadmium for 29 days, then contaminated by zinc-65 (5μCi/l) while maintaining the same low cadmium content, showed no significant difference in zinc 65 uptake in the two groups. The same applied to the body organs, and particularly the digestive tract and kidneys, where the highest activity levels were observed. By weight, muscles represented approximately 30% of the total contamination after 45 days [fr

  12. Effect of zinc sources on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on an inceptisol of Delhi to evaluate three sources of zinc, namely, zinc sulphate, zincated urea and zinc oxide on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence. Results indicated that, amongst the three zinc sources, zinc sulphate and zincated urea gave the best performance in increasing the grain yield of rice whereas zinc oxide depressed the grain yield of wheat significantly when compared to other treatments. The highest Zn derived from fertilizer and its utilization was obtained with zinc sulphate for both rice and wheat crops. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  14. Identification of novel potential acetate-oxidizing bacteria in an acetate-fed methanogenic chemostat based on DNA stable isotope probing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Zhong; Gou, Min; Yi, Yue; Xia, Zi-Yuan; Tang, Yue-Qin

    2018-05-11

    Acetate is a significant intermediate of anaerobic fermentation. There are two pathways for converting acetate to CH 4 and CO 2 : acetoclastic methanogenesis by acetoclastic methanogens, and syntrophic acetate oxidation by acetate-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Detailed investigations of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) should contribute to the elucidation of the microbial mechanisms of methanogenesis. In this study, we investigated the major phylogenetic groups of acetate-utilizing bacteria (AUB) in a mesophilic methanogenic chemostat fed with acetate as the sole carbon source by using DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) technology. The results indicated that acetoclastic methanogenesis and acetate oxidization/hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis coexisted in the mesophilic chemostat fed with acetate, operated at a dilution rate of 0.1 d -1 . OTU Ace13(9-17) (KU869530), Ace13(9-4) (KU667241), and Ace13(9-23) (KU667236), assigned to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were probably potential SAOB in the chemostat, which needs further investigation. Species in the phyla Proteobacteria, Deferribacteres, Acidobacteria, Spirochaetes and Actinobacteria were probably capable of utilizing acetate for their growth. Methanoculleus was likely to be the preferred hydrogenotrophic methanogen for syntrophy with AOB in the chemostat.

  15. Thyroid hormone upregulates zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in the liver but not in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simó

    Full Text Available Overproduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by adipose tissue is crucial in accounting for the lipolysis occurring in cancer cachexia of certain malignant tumors. The main aim of this study was to explore whether thyroid hormone could enhance zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in adipose tissue. In addition, the regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by thyroid hormone in the liver was investigated. We performed in vitro (HepG2 cells and primary human adipocytes and in vivo (C57BL6/mice experiments addressed to examine the effect of thyroid hormone on zinc-α2-glycoprotein production (mRNA and protein levels in liver and visceral adipose tissue. We also measured the zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels in a cohort of patients before and after controlling their hyperthyroidism. Our results showed that thyroid hormone up-regulates zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the zinc-α2-glycoprotein proximal promoter contains functional thyroid hormone receptor binding sites that respond to thyroid hormone treatment in luciferase reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced lipolysis in HepG2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our in vivo experiments in mice confirmed the up-regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced by thyroid hormone in the liver, thus leading to a significant increase in zinc-α2-glycoprotein circulating levels. However, thyroid hormone did not regulate zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in either human or mouse adipocytes. Finally, in patients with hyperthyroidism a significant reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels was detected after treatment but was unrelated to body weight changes. We conclude that thyroid hormone up-regulates the production of zinc-α2-glycoprotein in the liver but not in the adipose tissue. The neutral effect of thyroid hormones on zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression in adipose tissue could be the reason why zinc-α2-glycoprotein is not

  16. Thyroid hormone upregulates zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in the liver but not in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Rafael; Hernández, Cristina; Sáez-López, Cristina; Soldevila, Berta; Puig-Domingo, Manel; Selva, David M

    2014-01-01

    Overproduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by adipose tissue is crucial in accounting for the lipolysis occurring in cancer cachexia of certain malignant tumors. The main aim of this study was to explore whether thyroid hormone could enhance zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in adipose tissue. In addition, the regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein by thyroid hormone in the liver was investigated. We performed in vitro (HepG2 cells and primary human adipocytes) and in vivo (C57BL6/mice) experiments addressed to examine the effect of thyroid hormone on zinc-α2-glycoprotein production (mRNA and protein levels) in liver and visceral adipose tissue. We also measured the zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels in a cohort of patients before and after controlling their hyperthyroidism. Our results showed that thyroid hormone up-regulates zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the zinc-α2-glycoprotein proximal promoter contains functional thyroid hormone receptor binding sites that respond to thyroid hormone treatment in luciferase reporter gene assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced lipolysis in HepG2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our in vivo experiments in mice confirmed the up-regulation of zinc-α2-glycoprotein induced by thyroid hormone in the liver, thus leading to a significant increase in zinc-α2-glycoprotein circulating levels. However, thyroid hormone did not regulate zinc-α2-glycoprotein production in either human or mouse adipocytes. Finally, in patients with hyperthyroidism a significant reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein serum levels was detected after treatment but was unrelated to body weight changes. We conclude that thyroid hormone up-regulates the production of zinc-α2-glycoprotein in the liver but not in the adipose tissue. The neutral effect of thyroid hormones on zinc-α2-glycoprotein expression in adipose tissue could be the reason why zinc-α2-glycoprotein is not related to weight

  17. Manufacturing process, characterization and optical investigation of amorphous 1D zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysiak, Wiktor; Tański, Tomasz; Zaborowska, Marta

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to produce amorphous ZnO nanowires via the electrospinning process from a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(COOH)2)/dimethylformamide (DMF) and ethanol (EtOH) solution. The as obtained nanofibers were calcined at temperatures ranging from 400 to 600 °C to remove the organic phase. The one-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures were studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM) to analyse the influence of the used temperature on the morphology and structures of the obtained ceramic nanomaterials. In order to examine the chemical structure of nanowires, the energy dispersive spectrometry (EDX) was used. Besides, a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to show the polymer concentration loss in a function of temperature in order to obtain pure zinc oxide nanowires. The optical property analysis was performed on the basis of UV-vis spectra of absorbance as a function of the wavelength. Using the modified Swanepoel method, which the authors proposed, and the recorded absorbance spectra determined the banded refractive index n, real n‧ and imaginary k part of the refractive index as a function of the wavelength, complex dielectric permeability ɛ, real and imaginary part εr and εi of the dielectric permeability as a function of the radiation energy of the produced ZnO nanowires.

  18. Neodymium conversion layers formed on zinc powder for improving electrochemical properties of zinc electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liqun; Zhang Hui; Li Weiping; Liu Huicong

    2008-01-01

    Zinc powder, as active material of secondary alkaline zinc electrode, can greatly limit the performance of zinc electrode due to corrosion and dendritic growth of zinc resulting in great capacity-loss and short cycle life of the electrode. This work is devoted to modification study of zinc powder with neodymium conversion films coated directly onto it using ultrasonic immersion method for properties improvement of zinc electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy and other characterization techniques are applied to prove that neodymium conversion layers are distributing on the surface of modified zinc powder. The electrochemical performance of zinc electrodes made of such modified zinc powder is investigated through potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic polarization and cyclic voltammetry. The neodymium conversion films are found to have a significant effect on inhibition corrosion capability of zinc electrode in a beneficial way. It is also confirmed that the neodymium conversion coatings can obviously suppress dendritic growth of zinc electrode, which is attributed to the amelioration of deposition state of zinc. Moreover, the results of cyclic voltammetry reveal that surface modification of zinc powder enhances the cycle performance of the electrode mainly because the neodymium conversion films decrease the amounts of ZnO or Zn(OH) 2 dissolved in the electrolyte

  19. Natural inhibitors of tumor-associated proteases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdolen, U.; Krol, J.; Sato, S.; Schmitt, M.; Magdolen, V.; Krueger, A.; Mueller, M.M.; Sperl, S.

    2002-01-01

    The turnover and remodelling of extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential part of many normal biological processes including development, morphogenesis, and wound healing. ECM turnover also occurs in severe pathological situations like artherosclerosis, fibrosis, tumor invasion and metastasis. The major proteases involved in this turnover are serine proteases (especially the urokinase-type plasminogen activator/plasmin system), matrix metalloproteases (a family of about 20 zinc-dependent endopeptidases including collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, and membrane-type metalloproteases), and cysteine proteases. In vivo, the activity of these proteases is tightly regulated in the extracellular space by zymogen activation and/or controlled inhibition. In the present review, we give an overview on the structure and biochemical properties of important tumor-associated protease inhibitors such as plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and type 2 (PAI-1, PAI-2), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1, -2, -3, and -4), and the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C. Interestingly, some of these inhibitors of tumor-associated proteases display multiple functions which rather promote than inhibit tumor progression, when the presence of inhibitors in the tumor tissue is not balanced. (author)

  20. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  1. Crystal Structure of Homo Sapiens PTD012 Reveals a Zinc-Containing Hydrolase Fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjasetty,B.; Bussow, K.; Fieber-ErdMan, M.; Roske, Y.; Gobam, J.; Scheich, C.; Gotz, F.; Niesen, F.; Heinemann, U.

    2006-01-01

    The human protein PTD012 is the longer product of an alternatively spliced gene and was described to be localized in the nucleus. The X-ray structure analysis at 1.7 Angstroms resolution of PTD012 through SAD phasing reveals a monomeric protein and a novel fold. The shorter splice form was also studied and appears to be unfolded and non-functional. The structure of PTD012 displays an {alpha}{beta}{beta}{alpha} four-layer topology. A metal ion residing between the central {beta}-sheets is partially coordinated by three histidine residues. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis identifies the PTD012-bound ion as Zn{sup 2+}. Tetrahedral coordination of the ion is completed by the carboxylate oxygen atom of an acetate molecule taken up from the crystallization buffer. The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to PTD012 is reminiscent of zinc-containing enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, carbonic anhydrase, and {beta}-lactamase. Biochemical assays failed to demonstrate any of these enzyme activities in PTD012. However, PTD012 exhibits ester hydrolase activity on the substrate p-nitrophenyl acetate.

  2. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Dymáček, Petr; Pešlová, F.; Jurkovič, Z.; Barborák, O.; Stodola, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-410 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * metallography * microstructure of zinc * zinc oxide * production of zinc oxide Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  3. Cyclic AMP Pathway Activation and Extracellular Zinc Induce Rapid Intracellular Zinc Mobilization in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, Lasse; Winther, Anne-Marie L.; Wilson, Duncan; Fuglsang, Anja T.

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient, required for a range of zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors. In mammalian cells, zinc serves as a second messenger molecule. However, a role for zinc in signaling has not yet been established in the fungal kingdom. Here, we used the intracellular zinc reporter, zinbo-5, which allowed visualization of zinc in the endoplasmic reticulum and other components of the internal membrane system in Candida albicans. We provide evidence for a link between cyclic AMP/PKA- and zinc-signaling in this major human fungal pathogen. Glucose stimulation, which triggers a cyclic AMP spike in this fungus resulted in rapid intracellular zinc mobilization and this “zinc flux” could be stimulated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and blocked via inhibition of adenylate cyclase or PKA. A similar mobilization of intracellular zinc was generated by stimulation of cells with extracellular zinc and this effect could be reversed with the chelator EDTA. However, zinc-induced zinc flux was found to be cyclic AMP independent. In summary, we show that activation of the cyclic AMP/PKA pathway triggers intracellular zinc mobilization in a fungus. To our knowledge, this is the first described link between cyclic AMP signaling and zinc homeostasis in a human fungal pathogen. PMID:29619016

  4. Reactivation in vitro of zinc-requiring apo-enzymes by rat liver zinc-thionein

    OpenAIRE

    Udom, Albert O.; Brady, Frank O.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of rat liver zinc-thionein to donate its metal to the apo-enzymes of the zinc enzymes horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, yeast aldolase, thermolysin, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase was investigated. Zinc-thionein was as good as, or better than, ZnSO4, Zn(CH3CO2)2 or Zn(NO3)2 in donating its zinc to these apo-enzymes. Apo-(alcohol dehydrogenase) could not be reactivated by zinc salts or by zinc-thionein. Incubation of the other apo-e...

  5. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  6. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. Influence of soil zinc concentrations on zinc sensitivity and functional diversity of microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) is based on the phenomenon that toxic effects reduce survival of the most sensitive organisms, thus increasing community tolerance. Community tolerance for a contaminant is thus a strong indicator for the presence of that contaminant at the level of adverse concentrations. Here we assessed PICT in 11 soils contaminated with zinc runoff from galvanised electricity pylons and 11 reference soils sampled at 10 m distance from these pylons. Using PICT, the influence of background concentration and bioavailability of zinc on zinc sensitivity and functional diversity of microbial communities was assessed. Zinc sensitivity of microbial communities decreased significantly with increasing zinc concentrations in pore water and calcium chloride extracted fraction while no significant relationship was found with total zinc concentration in the soil. It was also found that functional diversity of microbial communities decreased with increasing zinc concentrations, indicating that increased tolerance is indeed an undesirable phenomenon when environmental quality is considered. The hypothesis that zinc sensitivity of microbial communities is related to background zinc concentration in pore water could not be confirmed. - Zinc sensitivity of microbial communities and functional diversity decrease with increasing zinc concentration in the pore water

  8. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of zinc carbonate and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Marashianpour, Zahra; Karimi, Meisam Sadeghpour; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    Zinc oxide and its precursor i.e., zinc carbonate is widely utilized in various fields of industry, especially in solar energy conversion, optical, and inorganic pigments. In this work, a facile and clean electrodeposition method was utilized for the synthesis of zinc carbonate nanoparticles. Also, zinc oxide nanoparticles were produced by calcination of the prepared zinc carbonate powder. Zinc carbonate nanoparticles with different sizes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of a zinc plate as anode in the solution of sodium carbonate. It was found that the particle size of zinc carbonate might be tuned by process parameters, i.e., electrolysis voltage, carbonate ion concentration, solvent composition and stirring rate of the electrolyte solution. An orthogonal array design was utilized to identify the optimum experimental conditions. The experimental results showed that the minimum size of the electrodeposited ZnCO3 particles is about 24 nm whereas the maximum particle size is around 40 nm. The TG-DSC studies of the nanoparticles indicated that the main thermal degradation of ZnCO3 occurs in two steps over the temperature ranges of 150-250 and 350-400 °C. The electrosynthesized ZnCO3 nanoparticles were calcined at the temperature of 600 °C to prepare ZnO nanoparticles. The prepared ZnCO3 and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and FT-IR techniques.

  9. Taurine zinc solid dispersions enhance bile-incubated L02 cell viability and improve liver function by inhibiting ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation during cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lai, Xiaofang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Taurine zinc SDs could prevent the bile-induced reduction in L02 cell viability. • Taurine zinc SDs can prevent cholestatic liver injury. • Taurine zinc SDs can inhibit BDL-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. • Taurine zinc SDs shows the cholesterol-lowering effects on cholestasis. • Taurine zinc SDs may suppress inflammation via dampening JNK phosphorylation. - Abstract: Dietary intakes of taurine and zinc are associated with decreased risk of liver disease. In this study, solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on hepatic injury were examined in vitro using the immortalized human hepatocyte cell line L02 and in a rat model of bile duct ligation. Sham-operated and bile duct ligated Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the vehicle alone or taurine zinc (40, 80, 160 mg/kg) for 17 days. Bile duct ligation significantly increased blood lipid levels, and promoted hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation and compensatory biliary proliferation. In vitro, incubation with bile significantly reduced L02 cell viability; this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and enhanced when co-incubated with taurine zinc SDs. In vivo, administration of taurine zinc SDs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increases in serum total bilirubin, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after bile duct ligation. Additionally, taurine zinc SDs downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β and inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase2 (ERK2) in the liver after bile duct ligation. Moreover, taurine zinc SDs had more potent blood lipid regulatory and anti-apoptotic effects than the physical mixture of taurine and zinc acetate. Therefore, we speculate that taurine zinc SDs protect liver function at least in part via a mechanism linked to reduce

  10. Porritoxins, metabolites of Alternaria porri, as anti-tumor-promoting active compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masayuki; Tokuda, Harukuni; Ohnishi, Keiichiro; Yamashita, Masakazu; Nishino, Hoyoku; Maoka, Takashi

    2006-02-01

    To search for possible cancer chemopreventive agents from natural sources, we performed primary screening of metabolites of Alternaria porri by examining their possible inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells. The ethyl acetate extract of A. porri showed the inhibitory effect on EBV-EA activation. Three porritoxins (1-3) were obtained as inhibitory active compounds for EBV-EA from ethyl acetate extract. 6-(3',3'-Dimethylallyloxy)-4-methoxy-5-methylphthalide (2) showed the strongest activity among them. Inhibitory effect of porritoxin (1) and (2) was superior to that of beta-carotene, a well-known anti-tumor promoter. Furthermore, the structure-activity correlation of porritoxins and their related compounds were discussed.

  11. The relative efficiency of zinc carriers on growth and zinc nutrition of corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, B.; Sinha, K.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of different zinc carriers showed that application of Zn-DTPA, Zn-EDTA, Zn-fulvate and ZnSO 4 significantly increased the dry matter yield and zinc uptake by corn over the control treatment where no zinc was applied. The chelates in particular enhanced to a greater extent the uptake of both native and applied sources than that observed with ZnSO 4 as the zinc carrier. Both the dry matter yield and zinc uptake by corn showed a positive and significant relationship with self-diffusion coefficient of zinc showing thereby that diffusion contributed mainly the supply of Zn from the ambient soil matrix to plant roots. The effectiveness of the chelates varied depending on their capacity to retain Zn in a soluble form in the soil solution. It is evident that zinc nutrition of plants in alkaline and calcareous soils can be more effectively regulated by both synthetic and natural chelates or organic manures which contain substantial amount of complexed zinc. (orig.)

  12. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  14. Taurine zinc solid dispersions enhance bile-incubated L02 cell viability and improve liver function by inhibiting ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation during cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lai, Xiaofang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-07-29

    Dietary intakes of taurine and zinc are associated with decreased risk of liver disease. In this study, solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on hepatic injury were examined in vitro using the immortalized human hepatocyte cell line L02 and in a rat model of bile duct ligation. Sham-operated and bile duct ligated Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the vehicle alone or taurine zinc (40, 80, 160mg/kg) for 17days. Bile duct ligation significantly increased blood lipid levels, and promoted hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation and compensatory biliary proliferation. In vitro, incubation with bile significantly reduced L02 cell viability; this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and enhanced when co-incubated with taurine zinc SDs. In vivo, administration of taurine zinc SDs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increases in serum total bilirubin, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after bile duct ligation. Additionally, taurine zinc SDs downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β and inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase2 (ERK2) in the liver after bile duct ligation. Moreover, taurine zinc SDs had more potent blood lipid regulatory and anti-apoptotic effects than the physical mixture of taurine and zinc acetate. Therefore, we speculate that taurine zinc SDs protect liver function at least in part via a mechanism linked to reduce phosphorylation of JNK and ERK2, which suppresses inflammation, apoptosis and cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazely, F.; Ledinko, N.; Smith, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The biological activity of retinoids was assayed in an in vitro quantitative assay of human tumor cell invasion using human amnion basement membrane (BM). The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the BM and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 14 C-proline labeled collagenous and noncollagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested, the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.009 μg/mL, and of TC-106 cells at 0.07 μg/mL. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels over 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more potent than retinol palmitate. The model system will be useful for investigating antiinvasive activity of other retinoids as well as other compounds

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc transporters in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Jie; Long, Ciming; Yao, Yajun; Peng, Hongxing; Wan, Dan; Wu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P zinc transporter in either duodenum or jejunum of pigs fed TBZ were higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS. These results indicate that TBZ is more effective in serum Zn accumulation and intestinal Zn absorption, and might be a potential substitute for ZS in young growing pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Availability of native and fertilizer zinc in some Indian soils: studies with 65Zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, J.; Deb, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopically exchangeable zinc (Et values) was determined by different methods in some soils having pH(H 2 O) varying from 3.05 to 8.40 using 65 Zn. The Et values obtained using different extractants showed significant correlation with available zinc, organic carbon and soil pH. The recovery of applied zinc in the aqueous phase was less than one percent in most of the soils having pH higher than 7.0. Application of zinc with complexing agents like DTPA and EDTA increased the recovery of applied zinc in the solution to about 95 percent. Soil pH, organic C and DTPA extractable zinc showed significant relationship with the recovery of applied zinc under different treatments. Use of EDTA and DTPA extractants reduced the zinc buffering capacity of soil to a value less than one, irrespective of the initial pH of the soil, whereas the values were comparatively higher in presence of different levels of zinc carrier. (auth.)

  18. 65Zinc and endogenous zinc content and distribution in islets in relationship to insulin content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figlewicz, D.P.; Forhan, S.E.; Hodgson, A.T.; Grodsky, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Uptake of 65 Zn and distribution of 65 Zn, total zinc, and insulin were measured in rat islets and islet granules under different conditions of islet culture. Specific activity of islet zinc ( 65 Zn/zinc) was less than 15% that of extracellular zinc even after 48 h. In contrast, once in the islet, 65 Zn approached 70% of equilibrium with granular zinc in 24 h and apparent equilibrium by 48 h. During a 24-h culture, at either high or low glucose, reduction of both islet zinc and insulin occurred. However, zinc depletion was greater than that predicted if zinc loss was proportional to insulin depletion and occurred only from the granular compartment, which represents only one third of the total islet zinc. Extension of culture to 48 h caused additional insulin depletion, but islet zinc was unchanged. Omission of calcium during the 48-h culture caused a predicted increase in insulin retention, presumably by inhibiting secretion; however, zinc retention was not increased proportionately. Pretreatment of rats with tolbutamide caused a massive depletion of insulin stored in isolated islets, with little change in total islet zinc; subsequent culture of these islets resulted in a greater loss of granular zinc than predicted from the small loss of granular insulin. None of the conditions tested affected the percentage of either 65 Zn or total zinc that was distributed in the islet granules. Results show that zinc exists in a metabolically labile islet compartment(s) as well as in secretory granules; and extra-granular zinc, although not directly associated with insulin storage, may act as a reservoir for granular zinc and may regulate insulin synthesis, storage, and secretion in ways as yet unknown

  19. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong D. Tran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease.

  20. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  1. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... It suggests that supplementation of ewes diet with zinc sulfate could be an effective way to increase zinc ... alkaline phosphates activity. Zinc supplements were .... Similar results have been reported previously when dairy cows.

  3. Air-oxidized linalyl acetate - an emerging fragrance allergen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagvall, Lina; Berglund, Victoria; Bråred Christensson, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Linalyl acetate is a fragrance chemical that is prone to autoxidation. Exposure to linalyl acetate occurs through cosmetic products and essential oils, but is difficult to assess, as linalyl acetate is not labelled in the EU. To investigate the frequencies of contact allergy to oxidized linalyl acetate among dermatitis patients, and to investigate the autoxidation of linalyl acetate in terms of hydroperoxide formation and sensitization potency. Hydroperoxide formation in air-exposed linalyl acetate was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The sensitization potencies of hydroperoxides were determined with the local lymph node assay. One thousand seven hundred and seventeen patients were patch tested with oxidized linalyl acetate at 6.0% in petrolatum. Of the patients, 2.2% showed positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate. Forty-three per cent of the positive patients also had positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers. Linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were detected early in the autoxidation process, and accumulated to a concentration of 37% after 42 weeks of air exposure. The linalyl acetate hydroperoxides were classified as moderate sensitizers. The frequency of positive reactions to oxidized linalyl acetate is comparable to that of previously studied oxidized fragrance terpenes. Oxidized linalyl acetate could thus be a common fragrance contact allergen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of dietary zinc status on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal zinc content in the El (epilepsy) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, M; Itoh, M

    1990-10-08

    The effects of dietary zinc status on the development of convulsive seizures, and zinc concentrations in discrete hippocampal areas and other parts of the limbic system were studied in the El mouse model receiving zinc-adequate, zinc-deficient or zinc-loaded diets. Seizure susceptibility of the El mouse was increased by zinc deficiency, and decreased by zinc loading, while an adequate diet had no effect. Zinc loading was accompanied by a marked increase in hippocampal zinc content in the El mouse. Conversely, hippocampal zinc content declined in the El mouse fed a zinc-deficient diet. These results suggest that zinc may have a preventive effect on the development of seizures in the El mouse, and hippocampal zinc may play an important role in the pathophysiology of convulsive seizures of epilepsy.

  5. Intestinal absorption and excretion of zinc in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as affected by dietary zinc and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.T.; Canfield, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    65 Zn was used to examine the effects of dietary zinc and protein on true zinc absorption and intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc by an isotope dilution technique in streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats. Four groups each of diabetic and control rats were fed diets containing 20 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (HMHP); 20 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (HMLP); 10 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (LMHP); and 10 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (LMLP). Measurement of zinc balance was begun 9 d after an i.m. injection of 65 Zn. True zinc absorption and the contribution of endogenous zinc to fecal zinc excretion were calculated from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled zinc in the feces, duodenum and kidney. Results from the isotope dilution study indicated that diabetic rats, but not control rats, absorbed more zinc from 20 ppm zinc diets than from 10ppm zinc diets and that all rats absorbed more zinc from 20% protein diets than from 10% protein diets. Furthermore, all rats excreted more endogenous zinc from their intestines when dietary zinc and protein levels resulted in greater zinc absorption. In diabetic and control rats, consuming equivalent amounts of zinc, the amount of zinc absorbed was not significantly different, but the amount of zinc excreted by the intestine was less in the diabetic rats. Decreased intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc may be a homeostatic response to the increased urinary excretion of endogenous zinc in the diabetic rats and may also lead to the elevated zinc concentrations observed in some organs of the diabetic rats

  6. Primary Testicular Carcinoid Tumor presenting as Carcinoid Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath L Chikkaraddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis are very rare, and they seldom present with carcinoid syndrome. We report a hereto unreported instance, where a patient with a long-standing testicular mass presented with carcinoid heart disease, an uncommon form of carcinoid syndrome. He presented with symptoms of right heart failure, episodic facial flushing and was found to have severe right-sided valvular heart disease. His urinary 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid level was elevated. He underwent orchidectomy and the histopathology confirmed a testicular carcinoid tumor.

  7. Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, Robert John; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals o...

  8. Characterization of Compounds with Tumor-Cell Proliferation Inhibition Activity from Mushroom (Phellinus baumii) Mycelia Produced by Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Henan; Shao, Qian; Wang, Wenhan; Zhang, Jingsong; Zhang, Zhong; Liu, Yanfang; Yang, Yan

    2017-04-27

    The inhibition of tumor-cell proliferationbyan organicsolvent extract from the solid-state fermentation of Phellinus baumii mycelia inoculated in rice medium was investigated in vitro. The active compounds inhibiting tumor-cell proliferation were characterized. Results revealed that all (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and butanol) fractions inhibited tumor-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. The ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effecton tumor-cell proliferation, and the butanol fraction had the lowest. Six compounds were isolated and purified from the ethyl acetate extract of P. baumii mycelia by the tandem application of silica-gel column chromatography (SGCC), high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and preparative HPLC. These compounds were identified by NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) spectroscopic methods as ergosterol (RF1), ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl pentadecanoate (RF3), 3,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde(RF6), inoscavinA (RF7), baicalein(RF10), and 24-ethylcholesta-5,22-dien-3β-ol (RF13). To further clarify the activity of these compounds, the cell-proliferation-inhibition tests of these compounds on various tumor cells were carried out and evaluatedin vitro. Results suggested that compounds RF6, RF7, and RF10 had potent inhibition effects on the proliferation of a series of tumor cell lines, including K562, L1210, SW620, HepG2, LNCaP, and MCF-7cells. These findings indicated that P. baumii mycelia produced by solid-state fermentation in rice canbe used to obtain active compounds with the ability to inhibittumor-cell proliferation.

  9. Simultaneous determination of triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine hydrochloride in amorolfine liniment by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Jianjun; Shu, Wenjuan; Gao, Liqiong

    2012-04-01

    A simple, rapid, specific and precise reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine in marketed pharmaceutical liniment. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu VP-ODS C(18) column using the mixture of citric acid-hydrochloric acid-sodium hydrate buffer (pH 3.0), acetonitrile and methanol (32:30:38) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV-detection at 215 nm. The method separated the four components simultaneously in less than 10 min. The validation of the method was performed with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 35.1-81.9 μ/mL for triacetin, 431.1-1005.9 μ/mL for acetic ether, 167.0-389.7 μ/mL for butyl acetate and 151.0-352.3 μ/mL for amorolfine. The mean 100% spiked recovery for triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine is 99.43 ± 0.42, 101.5 ± 1.09, 101.4 ± 1.02 and 100.8 ± 0.69, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation values were liniment.

  10. Retinoid inhibition of in vitro invasion of human amnion basement membrane by human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazely, F.

    1988-01-01

    The effects measured were the inhibition of tumor cell migration through the basement membrane (BM) and tumor cell degradative enzyme activity on 3 H-proline labeled collagenous and non collagenous components of the BM. The human lung carcinoma A549 or the human Ewing's sarcoma TC-106 cell lines treated with retinoids for two days were incubated on the BM in the absence of retinoids. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell invasion was produced by retinoids. Among the retinoids tested the most powerful was retinol acetate which inhibited invasion by 50% of A549 cells at a concentration of 0.09 μg/ml, and TC-106 cells at 0.08 μg/ml. Retinol acetate inhibited A549 and TC-106 cell growth by approximately 50% at levels almost 100-fold higher than those needed for antiinvasive activity. Retinol acetate was about 20 times more potent than retinoic acid and 30 times more than retinol palmitate. Furthermore, A549 cells treated with retinol acetate, under conditions whereby an anti-invasive state was induced,showed an increase in the number of cellular retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP), a decrease in the activity of type IV collagenase and ectosialyltransferase, and no change in the activity of transglutaminase

  11. Implication of extracellular zinc exclusion by recombinant human calprotectin (MRP8 and MRP14 from target cells in its apoptosis-inducing activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yui

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding and zinc-binding protein complex that is abundant in the cytosol of neutrophils. This factor is composed of 8 and 14 kDa subunits, which have also been termed migration inhibitory factor-related proteins MRP8 and MRP14. We previously reported that rat calprotectin purified from inflammatory neutrophils induces apoptosis of various tumor cells or normal fibroblasts in a zinc-reversible manner.

  12. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  13. Photodynamic therapy effect of aluminum and zinc tetrasulfophthalocyanines on melanoma cancer cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maduray, K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available , Cancer, Aluminum Tetrasulfophthalocyanines, Zinc Tetrasulfophthalocyanines 1. INTRODUCTION Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising oncology treatment which aims at offering treatment that is selective and localized. PDT is a very simple principle... which requires three essential components a photosensitizer (PS), visible light (laser source) and molecular oxygen present in the biological tissue. The combination of these components will result in the destruction of tumor cells.1 This oncology...

  14. Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

    2010-07-01

    Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, M.S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of

  16. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...

  18. Sulfidation of zinc plating sludge with Na2S for zinc resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchar, D.; Fukuta, T.; Onyango, M.S.; Matsuda, H.

    2006-01-01

    A high amount of zinc disposed in the landfill sites as a mixed-metal plating sludge represents a valuable zinc source. To recover zinc from the plating sludge, a sulfidation treatment is proposed in this study, while it is assumed that ZnS formed could be separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was conducted by contacting simulated zinc plating sludge with Na 2 S solution at S 2- to Zn 2+ molar ratio of 1.5 for a period of 1-48 h, while changing the solid to liquid (S:L) ratio from 0.25:50 to 1.00:50. The conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS was determined based on the consumption of sulfide ions. The reaction products formed by the sulfidation of zinc were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). As a result, it was found that the conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS increased with an increase in S:L ratio. A maximum conversion of 0.809 was obtained at an S:L ratio of 1.00:50 after 48 h. However, when the zinc sludge treated at S:L ratio of 1.00:50 for 48 h was subjected to XRD analyses, only ZnS was identified in the treated zinc sludge. The result suggested that the rest of zinc sludge remained unreacted inside the agglomerates of ZnS. The formation behavior of ZnS was predicted by Elovich equation, which was found to describe the system satisfactorily indicating the heterogeneous nature of the sludge

  19. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  20. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  1. Zinc (II) [tetra(4-methylphenyl)] Porphyrin: a Novel and Reusable Catalyst for Efficient Synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted Imidazoles Under Ultrasound Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Javad; Khalili, Shiva Dehghan; Banitaba, Sayed Hossein; Dehghani, Hossein [Univ. of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    An efficient three-component one-step synthesis of 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles by condensation reaction of 1,2-diketones or α-hydroxyketones with aromatic aldehydes and ammonium acetate using Zinc (II) [tetra (4-methylphenyl)] porphyrin as a novel and reusable catalyst under ultrasound irradiation at ambient temperature is described. In this method, α-hydroxyketones as well as 1,2-diketones were converted to their corresponding 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles in excellent yields.

  2. Molecular basis for the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis: An experimental study in the Sprague-dawley rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Omu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of zinc deficiency on spermatogenesis in the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat. Materials and Methods: Three groups of eight adult male SD rats were maintained for 4 weeks on a normal diet as control, zinc deficient diet and zinc deficient diet with zinc supplementation of 28 mg zinc/kg body weight respectively. Using standard techniques, the following parameters were compared between the three groups of experimental animals at the end of 4 weeks: (a Serum zinc, magnesium (Mg, copper (Cu, selenium (Se and cadmium (Cd, (b serum sex hormones, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, (c interleukin-4 (IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 expression in the testes, (d assessment of apoptosis of testicular cells using electron microscopy and (e testicular volume and histology using the orchidometer and Johnsen score, respectively. Results: The zinc deficient group showed a reduction of testicular volume, serum concentrations of Zn, Cu, Se, Mg, SOD, GPX, IL-4, Bcl-2 and testosterone (P < 0.05, as well as increased levels of serum Cd, MDA and tissue TNF-α, Bax, caspase-3 and apoptosis of the germ cells (P < 0.05 compared with control and zinc supplementation groups. Conclusion: Zinc deficiency is associated with impaired spermatogenesis because of reduced testosterone production, increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. These findings suggest that zinc has a role in male reproduction.

  3. Sirolimus therapy to halt the progression of ADPKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perico, Norberto; Antiga, Luca; Caroli, Anna; Ruggenenti, Piero; Fasolini, Giorgio; Cafaro, Mariateresa; Ondei, Patrizia; Rubis, Nadia; Diadei, Olimpia; Gherardi, Giulia; Prandini, Silvia; Panozo, Andrea; Bravo, Rodolfo Flores; Carminati, Sergio; De Leon, Felipe Rodriguez; Gaspari, Flavio; Cortinovis, Monica; Motterlini, Nicola; Ene-Iordache, Bogdan; Remuzzi, Andrea; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways may contribute to uncontrolled cell proliferation and secondary cyst growth in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). To assess the effects of mTOR inhibition on disease progression, we performed a randomized, crossover study (The SIRENA Study) comparing a 6-month treatment with sirolimus or conventional therapy alone on the growth of kidney volume and its compartments in 21 patients with ADPKD and GFR>or=40 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In 10 of the 15 patients who completed the study, aphthous stomatitis complicated sirolimus treatment but was effectively controlled by topical therapy. Compared with pretreatment, posttreatment mean total kidney volume increased less on sirolimus (46+/-81 ml; P=0.047) than on conventional therapy (70+/-72 ml; P=0.002), but we did not detect a difference between the two treatments (P=0.45). Cyst volume was stable on sirolimus and increased by 55+/-75 ml (P=0.013) on conventional therapy, whereas parenchymal volume increased by 26+/-30 ml (P=0.005) on sirolimus and was stable on conventional therapy. Percentage changes in cyst and parenchyma volumes were significantly different between the two treatment periods. Sirolimus had no appreciable effects on intermediate volume and GFR. Albuminuria and proteinuria marginally but significantly increased during sirolimus treatment. In summary, sirolimus halted cyst growth and increased parenchymal volume in patients with ADPKD. Whether these effects translate into improved long-term outcomes requires further investigation.

  4. Extractants to assess zinc phytoavailability in mineral fertilizer and industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Prado Cenciani de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient analytical methods for the quantification of plant-available Zn contained in mineral fertilizers and industrial by-products are fundamental for the control and marketing of these inputs. In this sense, there are some doubts on the part of the scientific community as well as of the fertilizer production sector, whether the extractor requested by the government (Normative Instruction No. 28, called 2nd extractor, which is citric acid 2 % (2 % CA (Brasil, 2007b, is effective in predicting the plant availability of Zn via mineral fertilizers and about the agronomic significance of the required minimal solubility of 60 % compared to the total content (HCl (Brasil, 2007a. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the alternative extractors DTPA, EDTA, neutral ammonium citrate (NAC, buffer solution pH 6.0, 10 % HCl, 10 % sulfuric acid, 1 % acetic acid, water, and hot water to quantify the contents of Zn available for maize and compare them with indices of agronomic efficiency of fertilizers and industrial by-products when applied to dystrophic Clayey Red Latosol and Dystrophic Alic Red Yellow Latosol with medium texture. The rate of Zn applied to the soil was 5 mg kg-1, using the sources zinc sulfate, commercial granular zinc, ash and galvanic sludge, ash and two brass slags. Most Zn was extracted from the sources by DTPA, 10 % HCl, NAC, 1% acetic acid, and 10 % sulfuric acid. Recovery by the extractors 2 % CA, EDTA, water, and hot water was low. The agronomic efficiency index was found to be high when using galvanic sludge (238 % and commercial granular zinc (142 % and lower with brass slag I and II (67 and 27 %, respectively. The sources galvanizing ash and brass ash showed solubility lower than 60 % in 2 % CA, despite agronomic efficiency indices of 78 and 125 %, respectively. The low agronomic efficiency index of industrial by-products such as brass slag I and galvanizing ash can be compensated by higher doses, provided there is no

  5. Hypertonic saline impedes tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction by reducing adhesion molecule and laminin expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline infusion dampens inflammatory responses and suppresses neutrophil-endothelial interaction by reducing adhesion molecule expression. This study tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline attenuates tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium through a similar mechanism. METHODS: Human colon cancer cells (LS174T) were transfected with green fluorescent protein and exposed to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 under hypertonic and isotonic conditions for 1 and 4 hours. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were similarly exposed. Cellular apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules and laminin were measured by flow cytometry. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelium and laminin was assessed with fluorescence microscopy. Data are represented as mean +\\/- standard error of mean, and an ANOVA test was performed to gauge statistical significance, with P <.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Hypertonic exposure significantly reduced tumor cell adhesion despite the presence of the perioperative cell stressors (42 +\\/- 2.9 vs 172.5 +\\/- 12.4, P <.05), attenuated tumor cell beta-1 integrin (14.43 vs 23.84, P <.05), and endothelial cell laminin expression (22.78 +\\/- 2.2 vs 33.74 +\\/- 2.4, P <.05), but did not significantly alter cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline significantly attenuates tumor cell adhesion to endothelium by inhibiting adhesion molecule and laminin expression. This may halt the metastatic behavior of tumor cells shed at surgery.

  6. Hydrolyses of alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1983-01-01

    Using simultaneous coupling azo dye techniques kidney enzymes active against alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester are characterized. The enzymes show identical distribution in the section. The banding patterns in zymograms are the same after...

  7. Effect of hydroxylamine hydrochloride on the floral decoration of zinc oxide synthesized by solution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Ansari, S.G.; Kim, Young Soon; Khang, Gilson; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2008-01-01

    Effect of the structure-directing agent on the floral (depicting flower) morphological variation of ZnO is systematically studied and presented here. Flowery decorated (resembling flower) zinc oxide structure composed of hexagonal nanorods (sharp tips and wider bases) was synthesized at 90 deg. C using zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium hydroxide at various concentrations of hydroxylamine hydrochloride for 12 h by solution method. Single crystalline nature with the wurtzite hexagonal phase remained unaltered with increasing concentration of hydroxylamine hydrochloride while the morphology changes from nanorod to plate like structure. Photoelectron spectroscopic measurement presented spectra close to the standard bulk ZnO, with an O 1s peak composed of surface adsorbed O-H group, O 2- in the oxygen vacancies on ZnO structure and ZnO. At higher concentration (0.8 M), surface adsorbed O-H group increases while other component decreases because of the changes in the nucleation and surface energy. Results clearly indicate that hydroxylamine hydrochloride works as a structure-directing agent without affecting other properties

  8. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 and DNA repair by uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen L; Dashner, Erica J; Tsosie, Ranalda; Cho, Young Mi; Lewis, Johnnye; Hudson, Laurie G

    2016-01-15

    Uranium has radiological and non-radiological effects within biological systems and there is increasing evidence for genotoxic and carcinogenic properties attributable to uranium through its heavy metal properties. In this study, we report that low concentrations of uranium (as uranyl acetate; uranium exacerbates DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that uranium may inhibit DNA repair processes. Concentrations of uranyl acetate in the low micromolar range inhibited the zinc finger DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and caused zinc loss from PARP-1 protein. Uranyl acetate exposure also led to zinc loss from the zinc finger DNA repair proteins Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group A (XPA) and aprataxin (APTX). In keeping with the observed inhibition of zinc finger function of DNA repair proteins, exposure to uranyl acetate enhanced retention of induced DNA damage. Co-incubation of uranyl acetate with zinc largely overcame the impact of uranium on PARP-1 activity and DNA damage. These findings present evidence that low concentrations of uranium can inhibit DNA repair through disruption of zinc finger domains of specific target DNA repair proteins. This may provide a mechanistic basis to account for the published observations that uranium exposure is associated with DNA repair deficiency in exposed human populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Iron and zinc concentrations and 59Fe retention in developing fetuses of zinc-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.M.; Loennerdal, B.H.; Hurley, L.S.; Keen, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Because disturbances in iron metabolism might contribute to the teratogenicity of zinc deficiency, we examined the effect of zinc deficiency on fetal iron accumulation and maternal and fetal retention of 59 Fe. Pregnant rats were fed from mating a purified diet containing 0.5, 4.5 or 100 micrograms Zn/g. Laparotomies were performed on d 12, 16, 19 and 21 of gestation. Maternal blood and concepti were analyzed for zinc and iron. Additional groups of dams fed 0.5 or 100 micrograms Zn/g diet were gavaged on d 19 with a diet containing 59 Fe. Six hours later maternal blood and tissues, fetuses and placentas were counted for 59 Fe. Maternal plasma zinc, but not iron, concentration was affected by zinc deficiency on d 12. Embryo zinc concentration on d 12 increased with increasing maternal dietary zinc, whereas iron concentration was not different among groups. On d 16-21 plasma iron was higher in dams fed 0.5 micrograms Zn/g diet than in those fed 4.5 or 100 micrograms/g, whereas plasma zinc was lower in dams fed 0.5 or 4.5 micrograms Zn/g than in those fed 100 micrograms Zn/g diet. On d 19 zinc concentration in fetuses from dams fed 0.5 micrograms/g zinc was not different from that of those fed 4.5 micrograms/g zinc, and iron concentration was higher in the 0.5 microgram Zn/g diet group. The increase in iron concentration in zinc-deficient fetuses thus occurs too late to be involved in major structural teratogenesis. Although whole blood concentration of 59 Fe was not different in zinc-deficient and control dams, zinc-deficient dams had more 59 Fe in the plasma fraction

  10. Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xue

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780. Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity.

  11. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  12. Ulipristal acetate in the management of symptomatic uterine fibroids: facts and pending issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, F R

    2015-04-01

    Various treatment options have been proposed for the management of human symptomatic uterine fibroids (or myomas). Despite this, the most popular one is surgery (myomectomy or hysterectomy). Ulipristal acetate (UA) is a selective progesterone receptor modulator. In women programmed for surgical treatment for uterine fibroids, oral UA treatment (5 or 10 mg/day) controls symptoms, reduces tumor size and improves quality of life as compared to placebo and is not inferior to monthly intramuscular injection of leuprolide acetate for 3 months. Women treated with up to 4 courses of UA (10 mg/day for 3 months) followed or not by norethisterone acetate (10 mg/day for 10 days or placebo) reported a high rate of bleeding control, and improved quality of life, pain anxiety and depression. Median fibroid volume after successive courses of UA treatment ranged from -63% to -72% as compared to baseline value. Endometrium showed benign histological changes without hyperplasia, while adverse events were mild or moderate throughout the several courses of treatment. There is a need for global cost assessment of UA treatment for uterine fibroids, including those women that do not reach their expected outcome and need other complementary explorations or treatments. Studies are needed in non-Caucasian women, in infertile patients and in cases of fibroids associated with adenomyosis. Furthermore, assessment of long-term UA treatment should include endometrial, cardiocirculatory and neurological endpoints.

  13. Cyproterone acetate enhances TRAIL-induced androgen-independent prostate cancer cell apoptosis via up-regulation of death receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linjie; Wolff, Dennis W; Xie, Yan; Lin, Ming-Fong; Tu, Yaping

    2017-03-07

    Virtually all prostate cancer deaths occur due to obtaining the castration-resistant phenotype after prostate cancer cells escaped from apoptosis and/or growth suppression initially induced by androgen receptor blockade. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was an attractive cancer therapeutic agent due to its minimal toxicity to normal cells and remarkable apoptotic activity in tumor cells. However, most localized cancers including prostate cancer are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, thereby creating a therapeutic challenge of inducing TRAIL sensitivity in cancer cells. Herein the effects of cyproterone acetate, an antiandrogen steroid, on the TRAIL-induced apoptosis of androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cells are reported. Cell apoptosis was assessed by both annexin V/propidium iodide labeling and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage assays. Gene and protein expression changes were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot assays. The effect of cyproterone acetate on gene promoter activity was determined by luciferase reporter assay. Cyproterone acetate but not AR antagonist bicalutamide dramatically increased the susceptibility of androgen receptor-negative human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis but no effects on immortalized human prostate stromal PS30 cells and human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Further investigation of the TRAIL-induced apoptosis pathway revealed that cyproterone acetate exerted its effect by selectively increasing death receptor 5 (DR5) mRNA and protein expression. Cyproterone acetate treatment also increased DR5 gene promoter activity, which could be abolished by mutation of a consensus binding domain of transcription factor CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) in the DR5 gene promoter. Cyproterone acetate increases CHOP expression in a concentration and time-dependent manner and endoplasmic reticulum stress reducer 4-phenylbutyrate could block

  14. The KRAB Zinc Finger Protein Roma/Zfp157 Is a Critical Regulator of Cell-Cycle Progression and Genomic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L.F. Ho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of DNA replication and cell division is essential for tissue growth and maintenance of genomic integrity and is particularly important in tissues that undergo continuous regeneration such as mammary glands. We have previously shown that disruption of the KRAB-domain zinc finger protein Roma/Zfp157 results in hyperproliferation of mammary epithelial cells (MECs during pregnancy. Here, we delineate the mechanism by which Roma engenders this phenotype. Ablation of Roma in MECs leads to unscheduled proliferation, replication stress, DNA damage, and genomic instability. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs depleted for Roma exhibit downregulation of p21Cip1 and geminin and have accelerated replication fork velocities, which is accompanied by a high rate of mitotic errors and polyploidy. In contrast, overexpression of Roma in MECs halts cell-cycle progression, whereas siRNA-mediated p21Cip1 knockdown ameliorates, in part, this phenotype. Thus, Roma is an essential regulator of the cell cycle and is required to maintain genomic stability.

  15. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  16. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic 65 Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%

  17. Effect of tumor promoters on ultraviolet light-induced mutation and mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, B.A.; Hannan, M.A.; Haynes, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that mitotic recombination is involved in tumor promotion. On this basis, one might expect tumor promoters to be recombinagenic. D7 is a diploid strain of yeast in which both mutation and mitotic recombination can be measured. We have used this strain to assay the known tumor promoters, iodacetate, anthralin, and 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, and the cocarcinogen, catechol, for mutagenicity, recombinagenicity, and the ability to enhance ultraviolet light (UV)-induced genetic events. In the absence of preirradiation with UV, iodoacetate was found to be recombinagenic whereas catechol was mutagenic; however, in both cases, the effects were small. Iodoacetate, anthralin, and catechol potentiated UV-induced mitotic crossing-over, aberrant colony formation, and mutation, while catechol also increased UV-induced gene conversion. We were unable to detect any mutagenic or recombinagenic effect of 12-0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate in either whole cells or spheroplasts. Our results do not indicate any consistent correlation between tumor-promoting activity and the ability of an agent to induce mitotic recombination in yeast. However, the ability to potentiate UV-induced mutation and mitotic recombination may reflect the cocarcinogenic activity of certain promoters

  18. Objectifying when to halt a boxing match: a video analysis of fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Vincent J; Bailes, Julian E

    2007-02-01

    Although numerous prestigious medical organizations have called for its abolishment, participation in the sport of boxing has reached an all-time high among both men and women, and its elimination is unlikely in the near future. Physicians should strive to increase boxing safety by improving the rules of competition, which have evolved minimally over the past two centuries. Currently, subjective criteria are used to determine whether or not a contest should be halted. Developing a standardized, objective method of determining when a contest should be halted would be a significant paradigm shift and could increase the safety of the sport's participants. This study analyzed the number and types of punches landed in a typical professional match, in bouts considered to be competitive and in those that ended in fatalities, to determine whether or not this would be a practical method of differentiating between these groups. Three groups of professional boxing matches were defined at the beginning of the study: 1) a "fatal" group, consisting of bouts that resulted in the death of a participant; 2) a "classic" group that represented competitive matches; and 3) a "control" group of 4000 professional boxing matches representing the average bout. A computer program known as Punchstat (Compubox, Inc., Manorville, NY) was used in the objective analysis of these matches via videotape playback. Several statistically significant differences were discovered between matches that resulted in fatalities and the control group. These include the number of punches landed per round, the number of power punches landed per round, and the number of power punches thrown per round by losing boxers. However, when the fatal bouts were compared with the most competitive bouts, these differences were no longer evident. Based on the data analyzed between the control and fatal-bout groups, a computerized method of counting landed blows at ringside could provide sufficient data to stop matches that

  19. Development of zinc oxide nanoparticle by sonochemical method and study of their physical and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Samreen Heena; Suriyaprabha, R.; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    With the miniaturization of crystal size, the fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms becomes dominant, and hence, materials in the nano-regime behave very differently from the similar material in a bulk. Zinc oxide (ZnO), particularly, exhibits extraordinary properties such as a wide direct band gap (3.37 eV), large excitation binding energy (60 meV), low refractive index (1.9), stability to intense ultraviolet (UV) illumination, resistance to high-energy irradiation, and lower toxicity as compared to other semiconductors. This very property makes Zinc Oxide a potential candidate in many application fields, particularly as a prominent semiconductor. Zinc Oxide plays a significant role in many technological advances with its application in semiconductor mediated photocatalytic processes and sensor, solar cells and others. In present study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been synthesized using three different precursors by sonochemical method. Zinc Acetate Dihydrate, Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate and Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate used as a precursor for the synthesis process. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticle has been found under the range of ∼50 nm. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized using different characterizing tools. The as-synthesized ZnO was characterized by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the determination of functional group; Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for Morphology and elemental detection respectively, Transmission Electron Microscopy for Particle size distribution and morphology and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the confirmation of crystal structure of the nanomaterial. The optical properties of the ZnO were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy equipped with Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) confirmed the optical band gap of ZnO-3 around 3.23 eV resembles with the band gap of bulk ZnO (3.37eV). The TEM micrograph of the as-synthesized material showed perfectly spherical shaped

  20. Development of zinc oxide nanoparticle by sonochemical method and study of their physical and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Samreen Heena, E-mail: samreen.heena.khan@gmail.com; Suriyaprabha, R. [Centre for Nanosciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, India- 382030 (India); Pathak, Bhawana, E-mail: bhawana.pathak@cug.ac.in; Fulekar, M. H., E-mail: mhfulekar@yahoo.com [School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, India- 382030 (India)

    2016-04-13

    With the miniaturization of crystal size, the fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms becomes dominant, and hence, materials in the nano-regime behave very differently from the similar material in a bulk. Zinc oxide (ZnO), particularly, exhibits extraordinary properties such as a wide direct band gap (3.37 eV), large excitation binding energy (60 meV), low refractive index (1.9), stability to intense ultraviolet (UV) illumination, resistance to high-energy irradiation, and lower toxicity as compared to other semiconductors. This very property makes Zinc Oxide a potential candidate in many application fields, particularly as a prominent semiconductor. Zinc Oxide plays a significant role in many technological advances with its application in semiconductor mediated photocatalytic processes and sensor, solar cells and others. In present study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been synthesized using three different precursors by sonochemical method. Zinc Acetate Dihydrate, Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate and Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate used as a precursor for the synthesis process. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticle has been found under the range of ∼50 nm. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized using different characterizing tools. The as-synthesized ZnO was characterized by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the determination of functional group; Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for Morphology and elemental detection respectively, Transmission Electron Microscopy for Particle size distribution and morphology and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the confirmation of crystal structure of the nanomaterial. The optical properties of the ZnO were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy equipped with Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) confirmed the optical band gap of ZnO-3 around 3.23 eV resembles with the band gap of bulk ZnO (3.37eV). The TEM micrograph of the as-synthesized material showed perfectly spherical shaped

  1. Zinc and zinc transporters in macrophages and their roles in efferocytosis in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Hamon

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that nutritional zinc restriction exacerbates airway inflammation accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 activation and an accumulation of apoptotic epithelial cells in the bronchioles of the mice. Normally, apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared by macrophage efferocytosis, limiting any secondary necrosis and inflammation. We therefore hypothesized that zinc deficiency is not only pro-apoptotic but also impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Impaired efferocytic clearance of apoptotic epithelial cells by alveolar macrophages occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cigarette-smoking and other lung inflammatory diseases. We now show that zinc is a factor in impaired macrophage efferocytosis in COPD. Concentrations of zinc were significantly reduced in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD who were current smokers, compared to healthy controls, smokers or COPD patients not actively smoking. Lavage zinc was positively correlated with AM efferocytosis and there was decreased efferocytosis in macrophages depleted of Zn in vitro by treatment with the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN. Organ and cell Zn homeostasis are mediated by two families of membrane ZIP and ZnT proteins. Macrophages of mice null for ZIP1 had significantly lower intracellular zinc and efferocytosis capability, suggesting ZIP1 may play an important role. We investigated further using the human THP-1 derived macrophage cell line, with and without zinc chelation by TPEN to mimic zinc deficiency. There was no change in ZIP1 mRNA levels by TPEN but a significant 3-fold increase in expression of another influx transporter ZIP2, consistent with a role for ZIP2 in maintaining macrophage Zn levels. Both ZIP1 and ZIP2 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in normal human lung alveolar macrophages. We propose that zinc homeostasis in macrophages involves the coordinated action of ZIP1 and ZIP2

  2. Improved compaction of ZnO nano-powder triggered by the presence of acetate and its effect on sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargatz, Benjamin; Gonzalez-Julian, Jesus; Guillon, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    The retention of nanocrystallinity in dense ceramic materials is still a challenge, even with the application of external pressure during sintering. The compaction behavior of high purity and acetate enriched zinc oxide (ZnO) nano-powders was investigated. It was found that acetate in combination with water plays a key role during the compaction into green bodies at moderate temperatures. Application of constant pressure resulted in a homogeneous green body with superior packing density (86% of theoretical value) at moderate temperature (85 °C) in the presence of water. In contrast, no improvement in density could be achieved if pure ZnO powder was used. This compaction behavior offers superior packing of the particles, resulting in a high relative density of the consolidated compact with negligible coarsening. Dissolution accompanying creep diffusion based matter transport is suggested to strongly support reorientation of ZnO particles towards densities beyond the theoretical limit for packing of ideal monosized spheres. Finally, the sintering trajectory reveals that grain growth is retarded compared to conventional processing up to 90% of theoretical density. Moreover, nearly no radial shrinkage was observed after sinter-forging for bodies performed with this advanced processing method.

  3. Zinc oxide films impurified with Ti and prepared by the Sol-gel method; Peliculas de oxido de zinc impurificadas con Ti y preparadas por el metodo Sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado G, S. [ESFM-IPN, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cazares R, J.M.; Maldonado, A. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Titanium-doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared on silicon substrate using the Sol-Gel technique. The structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such thin films were studied as a function of titanium concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and the thin films thickness. Zinc acetate dihydrate and titanium (VI)-oxy acetylacetonate were used as precursor materials, using 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine as via. The X-ray diffraction spectra show polycrystalline films in all the cases. It can see for all the thin films a preferential growth along the (002) planes where the titanium concentration and also the thin films thickness play an important rule. No structural changes are observed at all. The surface morphology studied shows as the grain size decreases when thin thickness is increases. For titanium concentration of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % values the grains size increase also. The thin films thickness for titanium concentration of 1.5 % was 500 nm (4v), 400 nm (3v), 180 nm (2v) and 130 nm (1v), values obtained from cross-section micrographs. Highly resistive samples are obtained for substrate soda-lime even showing high transmittance. Better physical properties are required for gas sensors or semitransparent electrodes and other possible applications. (Author)

  4. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  5. Sexual selection halts the relaxation of protamine 2 among rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Lüke

    Full Text Available Sexual selection has been proposed as the driving force promoting the rapid evolutionary changes observed in some reproductive genes including protamines. We test this hypothesis in a group of rodents which show marked differences in the intensity of sexual selection. Levels of sperm competition were not associated with the evolutionary rates of protamine 1 but, contrary to expectations, were negatively related to the evolutionary rate of cleaved- and mature-protamine 2. Since both domains were found to be under relaxation, our findings reveal an unforeseen role of sexual selection: to halt the degree of degeneration that proteins within families may experience due to functional redundancy. The degree of relaxation of protamine 2 in this group of rodents is such that in some species it has become dysfunctional and it is not expressed in mature spermatozoa. In contrast, protamine 1 is functionally conserved but shows directed positive selection on specific sites which are functionally relevant such as DNA-anchoring domains and phosphorylation sites. We conclude that in rodents protamine 2 is under relaxation and that sexual selection removes deleterious mutations among species with high levels of sperm competition to maintain the protein functional and the spermatozoa competitive.

  6. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  7. Glatiramer Acetate-associated Refractory Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftach Sagy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of glatiramer acetate-associated refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP in a female patient with multiple sclerosis. A search of MEDLINE/PubMed did not find any connection between glatiramer acetate and thrombocytopenia, specifically ITP. The autoimmune reaction was resistant to conservative ITP treatment, and was eventually managed only by splenectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of glatiramer acetate-associated ITP. Physicians should be aware of this condition, and consider performing routine blood counts at the beginning of glatiramer acetate treatment.

  8. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  9. Vapour pressures and vapour-liquid equilibria of propyl acetate and isobutyl acetate with ethanol or 2-propanol at 0.15 MPa. Binary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susial Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vapour pressures of propyl acetate, isobutyl acetate and 2-propanol from 0.004 to 1.6 MPa absolute pressure and VLE data for the binary systems propyl acetate+ethanol, propyl acetate+2-propanol, isobutyl acetate+ethanol and isobutyl acetate+2-propanol at 0.15 MPa have been determined. The experimental VLE data were verified with the test of van Ness and the Fredenslund criterion. The propyl acetate+ethanol or +2-propanol binary systems have an azeotropic point at 0.15 MPa. The different versions of the UNIFAC and ASOG group contribution models were applied.

  10. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. Effects of zinc supplementation and zinc chelation on in vitro β-cell function in INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne Bjørn; Larsen, Agnete; Knuhtsen, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zinc is essential for the activities of pancreatic β-cells, especially insulin storage and secretion. Insulin secretion leads to co-release of zinc which contributes to the paracrine communication in the pancreatic islets. Zinc-transporting proteins (zinc-regulated transporter, iron......-regulated transporter-like proteins [ZIPs] and zinc transporters [ZnTs]) and metal-buffering proteins (metallothioneins, MTs) tightly regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis. The present study investigated how modulation of cellular zinc availability affects β-cell function using INS-1E cells. RESULTS: Using INS-1E...... cells, we found that zinc supplementation and zinc chelation had significant effects on insulin content and insulin secretion. Supplemental zinc within the physiological concentration range induced insulin secretion. Insulin content was reduced by zinc chelation with N,N,N',N-tektrakis(2-pyridylmethyl...

  12. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  13. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  14. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Wessels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14, zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10, and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function.

  15. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  16. Solvothermal synthesis of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles for electrolyte-gated transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lídia; Nunes, Daniela; Calmeiro, Tomás; Branquinho, Rita; Salgueiro, Daniela; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luís; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira

    2015-01-14

    Solution-processed field-effect transistors are strategic building blocks when considering low-cost sustainable flexible electronics. Nevertheless, some challenges (e.g., processing temperature, reliability, reproducibility in large areas, and cost effectiveness) are requirements that must be surpassed in order to achieve high-performance transistors. The present work reports electrolyte-gated transistors using as channel layer gallium-indium-zinc-oxide nanoparticles produced by solvothermal synthesis combined with a solid-state electrolyte based on aqueous dispersions of vinyl acetate stabilized with cellulose derivatives, acrylic acid ester in styrene and lithium perchlorate. The devices fabricated using this approach display a ION/IOFF up to 1 × 10(6), threshold voltage (VTh) of 0.3-1.9 V, and mobility up to 1 cm(2)/(V s), as a function of gallium-indium-zinc-oxide ink formulation and two different annealing temperatures. These results validates the usage of electrolyte-gated transistors as a viable and promising alternative for nanoparticle based semiconductor devices as the electrolyte improves the interface and promotes a more efficient step coverage of the channel layer, reducing the operating voltage when compared with conventional dielectrics gating. Moreover, it is shown that by controlling the applied gate potential, the operation mechanism of the electrolyte-gated transistors can be modified from electric double layer to electrochemical doping.

  17. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the inf......Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal...... of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  18. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  19. Tumor associated macrophages protect colon cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis through IL-1beta-dependent stabilization of Snail in tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kaler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported that colon tumor cells stimulate macrophages to release IL-1beta, which in turn inactivates GSK3beta and enhances Wnt signaling in colon cancer cells, generating a self-amplifying loop that promotes the growth of tumor cells.Here we describe that macrophages protect HCT116 and Hke-3 colon cancer cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Inactivation of IL-1beta by neutralizing IL-1beta antibody, or silencing of IL-1beta in macrophages inhibited their ability to counter TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Accordingly, IL-1beta was sufficient to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis. TRAIL-induced collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi and activation of caspases were prevented by macrophages or by recombinant IL-1beta. Pharmacological inhibition of IL-1beta release from macrophages by vitamin D(3, a potent chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer, restored the ability of TRAIL to induce apoptosis of tumor cells cultured with macrophages. Macrophages and IL-1beta failed to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells expressing dnIkappaB, dnAKT or dnTCF4, confirming that they oppose TRAIL-induced cell death through induction of Wnt signaling in tumor cells. We showed that macrophages and IL-1beta stabilized Snail in tumor cells in an NF-kappaB/Wnt dependent manner and that Snail deficient tumor cells were not protected from TRAIL-induced apoptosis by macrophages or by IL-1beta, demonstrating a crucial role of Snail in the resistance of tumor cells to TRAIL.We have identified a positive feedback loop between tumor cells and macrophages that propagates the growth and promotes the survival of colon cancer cells: tumor cells stimulate macrophages to secrete IL-1beta, which in turn, promotes Wnt signaling and stabilizes Snail in tumor cells, conferring resistance to TRAIL. Vitamin D(3 halts this amplifying loop by interfering with the release of IL-1beta from macrophages. Accordingly, vitamin D(3 sensitizes tumor cells to TRAIL

  20. Enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in genetically engineered pineapple plants using soybean ferritin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatre, Minal; Srinivas, Lingam; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2011-12-01

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr., cv. "Queen") leaf bases were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA 105 harboring the pSF and pEFESF plasmids with soybean ferritin cDNA. Four to eight percent of the co-cultivated leaf bases produced multiple shoots 6 weeks after transfer to Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with α-naphthalene acetic acid 1.8 mg/l, indole-3-butyric acid 2.0 mg/l, kinetin 2.0 mg/l, cefotaxime 400 mg/l, and kanamycin 50 mg/l. Putatively transformed shoots (1-2 cm) were selected and multiplied on medium of the same composition and elongated shoots (5 cm) were rooted on liquid rooting medium supplemented with cefotaxime 400 mg/l and kanamycin 100 mg/l. The rooted plants were analyzed through PCR, genomic Southern analysis, and reverse transcription PCR. The results clearly confirmed the integration and expression of soybean ferritin gene in the transformed plants. Atomic absorption spectroscopic analysis carried out with six independently transformed lines of pSF and pEFE-SF revealed a maximum of 5.03-fold increase in iron and 2.44-fold increase in zinc accumulation in the leaves of pSF-transformed plants. In pEFE-SF-transformed plants, a 3.65-fold increase in iron and 2.05-fold increase in zinc levels was observed. Few of the transgenic plants were hardened in the greenhouse and are being grown to maturity to determine the enhanced iron and zinc accumulation in the fruits. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the transformation of pineapple with soybean ferritin for enhanced accumulation of iron and zinc content in the transgenic plants.

  1. Functional role of zinc in poly(A) synthesis catalyzed by nuclear poly(A) polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K M; Allen, M S; Crawford, I L; Jacob, S T [Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology; Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey (USA). Specialized Cancer Research Center; Texas Univ., Dallas (USA). Dept. of Neurology; Texas Univ., Dallas (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology)

    1978-07-01

    The functional role of transition metals in poly(A) synthesis was elucidated by investigating the effect of the metal chelator o-Phenanthroline on purified nuclear poly(A) polymerase. This chelator inhibited the enzyme activity in a manner competitive with respect to the polynucleotide primer concentration. o-phenanthroline was a non-competitive inhibitor with regard to ATP concentration and an 'uncompetitive' inhibitor with regard to dithiothreitor levels. The metal content of the purified enzyme preparations from rat liver and Morris hepatoma 3924A was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Of the transition metals measured, only zinc was present in detectable quantities at levels less than 1 mol/mol of enzyme. Hepatoma enzyme contained 2-3 times as much zinc as the corresponding liver enzyme. Hepatoma poly(A) polymerase was also radioactively labelled in vivo by injection of tumor-bearing animals with /sup 65/Zn. Dialysis experiments with highly purified radiolabelled poly(A) polymerase showed that the enzyme-zinc complex was labile and that a reduction in /sup 65/Zn content correlated with a loss in enzyme activity.

  2. Functional role of zinc in poly(A) synthesis catalyzed by nuclear poly(A) polymerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, K.M.; Allen, M.S.; Crawford, I.L.; Jacob, S.T.; Pennsylvania State Univ., Hershey; Texas Univ., Dallas; Texas Univ., Dallas

    1978-01-01

    The functional role of transition metals in poly(A) synthesis was elucidated by investigating the effect of the metal chelator o-phenanthroline on purified nuclear poly(A) polymerase. This chelator inhibited the enzyme activity in a manner competitive with respect to the polynucleotide primer concentration. o-phenanthroline was a non-competitive inhibitor with regard to ATP concentration and an 'uncompetitive' inhibitor with regard to dithiothreitor levels. The metal content of the purified enzyme preparations from rat liver and Morris hepatoma 3924A was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Of the transition metals measured, only zinc was present in detectable quantities, at levels less than 1 mol/mol of enzyme. Hepatoma enzyme contained 2-3 times as much zinc as the corresponding liver enzyme. Hepatoma poly(A) polymerase was also radioactively labelled in vivo by injection of tumor-bearing animals with 65 Zn. Dialysis experiments with highly purified radiolabelled poly(A) polymerase showed that the enzyme-zinc complex was labile and that a reduction in 65 Zn content correlated with a loss in enzyme activity. (orig./AJ) [de

  3. Influence of pH on optoelectronic properties of zinc sulphide thin films prepared using hydrothermal and spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudapur, V. H.; Bennal, A. S.; Raju, A. B.

    2018-04-01

    The ZnS nanomaterial is synthesized by hydrothermal method under optimized conditions using Zinc acetate and sodium sulphide as precursors. The Zinc Sulphide thin films are obtained by simple spin coating method with high optical transmittance. The prepared thin films are adhesive and uniform. The x-ray diffraction analysis showed that the films are polycrystalline in cubic phase with the preferred orientation along (111) direction. Current-voltage curves were recorded at room temperature using Keithley 617 programmable electrometer and conductivity is calculated for the film coated on ITO by two probe method. The pH of the solution is varied by using ammonia and hydrochloric acid. The comparative studies of effect of pH on the morphology, crystallanity and optoelectronic properties of the films are studied. It is observed that the pH of the solution has large influence on optoelectronic properties. The thin film prepared with neutral pH has higher crystallanity, bandgap and conductivity as compared to the samples prepared in acidic or basic solutions.

  4. Expression of zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox factor 1 in epithelial ovarian cancer: A clinicopathological analysis of 238 patients

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIUFANG; HUANG, RUIXIA; LI, RUTH HOLM; TROPE, CLAES G.; NESLAND, JAHN M.; SUO, ZHENHE

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that aberrant activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox factor 1 (ZEB1), as a crucial mediator of EMT, contributes to the malignant progression of various epithelial tumors. To determine whether ZEB1 is involved in the progression of ovarian cancer, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of ZEB1 in 238 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC...

  5. Characterization of hepatic tumors using [11C]metomidate through positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roivainen, Anne; Naum, Alexandru; Nuutinen, Heikki

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Using positron emission tomography (PET), we compared two tracers, [11C]metomidate ([11C]MTO) and [11C]acetate ([11C]ACE), for the characterization of hepatic tumors. METHODS: Thirty-three patients underwent PET with [11C]MTO and [11C]ACE and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...

  6. Improved adhesion of metal oxide layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide layer, which method comprises the steps of: a) mixing zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in water or methanol and b) filtering out solids; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in aqueous or m...

  7. Impact of anode substrates on electrodeposited zinc over cycling in zinc-anode rechargeable alkaline batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xia; Desai, Divyaraj; Yadav, Gautam G.; Turney, Damon E.; Couzis, Alexander; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of Ag, Bi, Cu, Fe, Ni and Sn substrates on zinc deposition was evaluated over battery cycling by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effect of Bi, Cu, Ni, and Sn substrates on zinc electrodeposition during battery cycling was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behavior of each metal in 9 M KOH and the corrosion rates of zinc plated on each substrate were analyzed by Tafel extrapolation method from the potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the charge-transfer resistance (R_c_t) of zinc electrodeposition is lowest on Sn, Sn eventually corrodes on cycling in alkaline media. Use of Ni as a substrate causes zinc to deteriorate on account of rapid hydrogen evolution. Bi and Cu substrates are more suitable for use as current collectors in zinc-anode alkaline rechargeable batteries because of their low corrosion rate and compact zinc deposition over battery cycling.

  8. Immersion autometallography: histochemical in situ capturing of zinc ions in catalytic zinc-sulfur nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, Gorm; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Bruhn, Mikkel; Søndergaard, Chris; Jensen, Dorete

    2004-12-01

    In the mid-1980s, two versions of Timm's original immersion sulfide silver method were published. The authors used immersion of tissue in a sulfide solution as opposed to Timm, who used immersion of tissue blocks in hydrogen sulfide-bubbled alcohol. The autometallography staining resulting from the "sulfide only immersion" was not particularly impressive, but the significance of this return to an old approach became obvious when Wenzel and co-workers presented their approach in connection with introduction by the Palmiter group of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3). The Wenzel/Palmiter pictures are the first high-resolution, high-quality pictures taken from tissues in which free and loosely bound zinc ions have been captured in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals by immersion. The trick was to place formalin-fixed blocks of mouse brains in a solution containing 3% glutaraldehyde and 0.1% sodium sulfide, ingredients used for transcardial perfusion in the zinc-specific NeoTimm method. That the NeoTimm technique results in silver enhancement of zinc-sulfur nanocrystals has been proved by proton-induced X-ray multielement analyses (PIXE) and in vivo chelation with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC). The aims of the present study were (a) to make the immersion-based capturing of zinc ions in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals work directly on sections and slices of fixed brain tissue, (b) to work out protocols that ensure zinc specificity and optimal quality of the staining, (c) to apply "immersion autometallography" (iZnSAMG) to other tissues that contain zinc-enriched (ZEN) cells, and (d) to make the immersion approach work on unfixed fresh tissue.

  9. Tumor-promoting phorbol ester amplifies the inductions of tyrosine aminotransferase and ornithine decarboxylase by glucocorticoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, H.; Fukusen, N.; Katunuma, N.

    1987-01-01

    In adrenalectomized rats, the tumor-promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) markedly enhanced the inductions of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and ornithine decarboxylase by glucocorticoids, even with sufficient concentration of glucocorticoids to have a maximal effect, whereas it had no effect on TAT activity and increased ornithine decarboxylase activity only slightly in the absence of glucocorticoids. Phorbol derivatives and components of TPA such as 4β-phorbol, phorbol 12-tetradecanoate, phorbol 13-acetate, and 4-O-methylphorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate, which have no tumor-promoting activity or ability to activate protein kinase C, did not have any effect on TAT induction by glucocorticoid. TPA enhanced the induction of TAT by various glucocorticoids but had no effect on induction of TAT by glucagon or insulin and did not enhance the induction of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by 17β-estradiol. These results suggest that TPA specifically enhances the induction of TAT and ornithine decarboxylase by glucocorticoids. Similar effects of TPA on TAT induction by glucocorticoid were observed in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Another activator of protein kinase C, rac-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, was also found to have similar effects on the cells

  10. Transparent conductive zinc-oxide-based films grown at low temperature by mist chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahata, Takahiro; Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Shizuo; Orita, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist–CVD) systems have been developed to grow zinc-oxide-based (ZnO-based) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films. Low-resistive aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) TCOs, showing resistivity of the order on 10"−"4 Ωcm, previously were grown using a safe source material zinc acetate [Zn(ac)_2], at a growth temperature as high as 500 °C. To grow superior TCOs at lower temperatures, we proposed the addition of NH_3 to accelerate the reaction of acetylacetonate compounds. As the result, we could grow gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) TCOs with a resistivity of 2.7 × 10"−"3 Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90% at 300 °C by using zinc acetylacetonate [Zn(acac)_2] as the Zn source. To grow boron-doped ZnO (BZO) TCOs at a lower growth temperature of 200 °C, we used boron doping along with a toluene solution of diethylzinc (DEZ), that maintained high reactivity without being flammable. These BZO TCOs showed a resistivity of 1.5 × 10"−"3 Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90%, despite the use of a non-vacuum-based open-air technology. - Highlights: • Introduction of Mist–CVD as a non-vacuum-based, safe, and cost-effective growth technology • Process evolution of the growth technology to lower the growth temperature. • Achievement of low resistive ZnO films at 200oC.

  11. Transparent conductive zinc-oxide-based films grown at low temperature by mist chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirahata, Takahiro [New Energy and Environmental Business Division, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Kobe International Business Center (KIBC) 509, 5-5-2 Minatojima-Minami, Chuo-Ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan); Kawaharamura, Toshiyuki [Research Institute, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi 780-8502 (Japan); School of Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Kami, Kochi 780-8502 (Japan); Fujita, Shizuo, E-mail: fujitasz@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Orita, Hiroyuki [New Energy and Environmental Business Division, Toshiba Mitsubishi-Electric Industrial Systems Corporation, Kobe International Business Center (KIBC) 509, 5-5-2 Minatojima-Minami, Chuo-Ku, Kobe 650-0047 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    Atmospheric pressure mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist–CVD) systems have been developed to grow zinc-oxide-based (ZnO-based) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films. Low-resistive aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO) TCOs, showing resistivity of the order on 10{sup −4} Ωcm, previously were grown using a safe source material zinc acetate [Zn(ac){sub 2}], at a growth temperature as high as 500 °C. To grow superior TCOs at lower temperatures, we proposed the addition of NH{sub 3} to accelerate the reaction of acetylacetonate compounds. As the result, we could grow gallium-doped ZnO (GZO) TCOs with a resistivity of 2.7 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90% at 300 °C by using zinc acetylacetonate [Zn(acac){sub 2}] as the Zn source. To grow boron-doped ZnO (BZO) TCOs at a lower growth temperature of 200 °C, we used boron doping along with a toluene solution of diethylzinc (DEZ), that maintained high reactivity without being flammable. These BZO TCOs showed a resistivity of 1.5 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and transmittance higher than 90%, despite the use of a non-vacuum-based open-air technology. - Highlights: • Introduction of Mist–CVD as a non-vacuum-based, safe, and cost-effective growth technology • Process evolution of the growth technology to lower the growth temperature. • Achievement of low resistive ZnO films at 200oC.

  12. Quantitative mapping of zinc fluxes in the mammalian egg reveals the origin of fertilization-induced zinc sparks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Emily L.; Bleher, Reiner; Duncan, Francesca E.; Kong, Betty Y.; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vogt, Stefan; Chen, Si; Garwin, Seth A.; Bayer, Amanda R.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; O' Halloran, Thomas V.

    2014-12-15

    Fertilization of a mammalian egg initiates a series of 'zinc sparks' that are necessary to induce the egg-to-embryo transition. Despite the importance of these zinc-efflux events little is known about their origin. To understand the molecular mechanism of the zinc spark we combined four physical approaches that resolve zinc distributions in single cells: a chemical probe for dynamic live-cell fluorescence imaging and a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence microscopy and three-dimensional elemental tomography for high-resolution elemental mapping. We show that the zinc spark arises from a system of thousands of zinc-loaded vesicles, each of which contains, on average, 10(6) zinc atoms. These vesicles undergo dynamic movement during oocyte maturation and exocytosis at the time of fertilization. The discovery of these vesicles and the demonstration that zinc sparks originate from them provides a quantitative framework for understanding how zinc fluxes regulate cellular processes

  13. Low temperature activation of methane over a zinc-exchanged heteropolyacid as an entry to its selective oxidation to methanol and acetic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Patil, Umesh; Saih, Youssef; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Hamieh, Ali Imad Ali; Pelletier, Jeremie; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    A Zn-exchanged heteropolyacid supported onto silica (Zn-HPW/SiO2) activates methane at 25 °C into Zn-methyl. At higher temperatures and with CH4/O2 or CH4/CO2, it gives methanol and acetic acid respectively. This journal is

  14. Acute Effects of Vascular Modifying Agents in Solid Tumors Assessed by Noninvasive Laser Doppler Flowmetry and Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kragh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS to detect acute effects of different vascular-modifying agents on perfusion and blood volume in tumors was evaluated. C3H mouse mammary carcinomas (∼200 mm3 in the rear foot of CDF1 mice were treated with flavone acetic acid (FAA, 150 mg/kg, 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4acetic acid (DMXAA, 20 mg/kg, combretastatin A-4 disodium phosphate (CAMP, 250 mg/kg, hydralazine (HDZ, 5 mg/kg, or nicotinamide (NTA, 500 mg/kg. Tumor perfusion before and after treatment was evaluated by noninvasive LDF, using a 41°C heated custombuilt LDF probe with four integrated laser/receiver units, and tumor blood volume was estimated by MRS, using light guide coupled reflectance measurements at 800±10 nm. FAA, DMXAA, CAMP, and HDZ significantly decreased tumor perfusion by 50%, 47%, 73%, and 78%, respectively. In addition, FAA, DMXAA, and HDZ significantly reduced the blood volume within the tumor, indicating that these compounds to some degree shunted blood from the tumor to adjacent tissue, HDZ being most potent. CAMP caused no change in the tumor blood volume, indicating that the mechanism of action of CAMP was vascular shut down with the blood pool trapped in the tumor. NTA caused no change in either tumor perfusion or tumor blood volume. We conclude that noninvasive LDF and MRS can determine acute effects of vascular modifying agents on tumor perfusion and blood volume.

  15. Proton conductivity and relaxation properties of chitosan-acetate films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokhorov, E.; Luna-Bárcenas, G.; González-Campos, J.B.; Kovalenko, Yu.; García-Carvajal, Z.Y.; Mota-Morales, J.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of conductivity, the number of density and proton mobility in chitosan-acetate film. - Highlights: • DD, conductivity, Vogel temperature dependent on the concentration of acetic acid. • Proton conductivity of CS-acetate films interpreted using two Grotthuss mechanisms. • Transformation between two mechanisms observed at the glass transition temperature. - Abstract: The effect of aqueous acetic acid solution concentration during the preparation of chitosan-acetate (CS-acetate) films on the conductivity and relaxation properties were studied by dielectric and FTIR spectroscopies, TGA measurements and X-Ray diffraction. Analyses of the experimental results on the degree of deacetylation, water absorption, conductivity, Vogel temperature and activation energy demonstrate a strong dependence of these parameters on the concentration of the acid acetic solutions from which the films have been obtained. The proton conductivity and relaxation properties of CS-acetate films have been interpreted using two Grotthuss “structural diffusion” and “pack-acid” mechanisms. The transformation between these two mechanisms observed at temperature higher than CS-acetate glass transition temperature is due to an increase in the thermal motion of CS chains, water evaporation, hydrogen bond between water molecules and side groups of CS breaking and formation of new bonds between NH 3 + and acetate ions. Additionally, application of the Rice and Roth model allowed estimating the temperature dependence of proton number and their mobility in CS-acetate films. A systematic interpretation on the appropriate conductivity mechanism will help trigger the design of smart materials used in flexible electronic, solid polymer electrolytes for fuel cells and solid polymer batteries based on CS-acetate films.

  16. Omics analysis of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2017-05-01

    Acetic acid is an inhibitor in industrial processes such as wine making and bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. It causes energy depletion, inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity, growth arrest and ethanol productivity losses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the yeast responses to acetic acid stress is essential for improving acetic acid tolerance and ethanol production. Although 329 genes associated with acetic acid tolerance have been identified in the Saccharomyces genome and included in the database ( http://www.yeastgenome.org/observable/resistance_to_acetic_acid/overview ), the cellular mechanistic responses to acetic acid remain unclear in this organism. Post-genomic approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemogenomics are being applied to yeast and are providing insight into the mechanisms and interactions of genes, proteins and other components that together determine complex quantitative phenotypic traits such as acetic acid tolerance. This review focuses on these omics approaches in the response to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, several novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance have been engineered by modifying key genes, and the application of these strains and recently acquired knowledge to industrial processes is also discussed.

  17. Synthesis of ZnO particles using water molecules generated in esterification reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarić, Ankica; Gotić, Marijan; Štefanić, Goran; Dražić, Goran

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide particles were synthesized without the addition of water by autoclaving (anhydrous) zinc acetate/alcohol and zinc acetate/acetic acid/alcohol solutions at 160 °C. The solvothermal synthesis was performed in ethanol or octanol. The structural, optical and morphological characteristics of ZnO particles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy, FE-SEM and TEM/STEM microscopy. 13C NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of ester (ethyl- or octyl-acetate) in the supernatants which directly indicate the reaction mechanism. The formation of ester in this esterification reaction generated water molecule in situ, which hydrolyzed anhydrous zinc acetate and initiated nucleation and formation of ZnO. It was found that the size and shape of ZnO particles depend on the type of alcohol used as a solvent and on the presence of acetic acid in solution. The presence of ethanol in the ;pure; system without acetic acid favoured the formation of fine and uniform spherical ZnO nanoparticles (∼20 nm). With the addition of small amount of acetic acid the size of these small nanoparticles increased significantly up to a few hundred nanometers. The addition of small amount of acetic acid in the presence of octanol caused even more radical changes in the shape of ZnO particles, favouring the growth of huge rod-like particles (∼3 μm).

  18. Lead, zinc and copper fine powder with controlled size and shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A Rabah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the preparation of lead, zinc and copper powders by hydrometallurgy from secondary resources. Chloride, sulphate and acetate salts of zinc, copper and lead were prepared. The powders were prepared by reducing the ionic species of these metals by hydrazine hydrate or ascorbic acid. The effect of addition of some water soluble polar organic solvents to the aqueous salt solutions on the morphology and particle size of the prepared powder was studied. Findings were explained on the basis of the transition state theory and according to the Hughes and Ingold’s rule. Aqueous solutions alone produce metal powder having different size and irregular shape. The presence of polar organic solvents with high molecular weight and polarity produce powders having controlled size and regular morphology. The reason was because solvent polarity enhances the rate of red-ox reactions between metal ions and the reducing agent. The mean particle size of the powder was 60 um with zinc, 80 um with copper, and 90 um with lead. The extent of productivity was ≥98%. Results highlighted that the chemical reduction of the ionic species took place in a sequence steps. The first is a diffusion of the reactants across a boundary layer established at the polar site of the organic solvent molecules. The next step is the direct contact of the reactants. The third step involved reduction to yield powder. The last is the backward diffusion of the powder outside the boundary layer. Results showed that addition of water-miscible solvents having high dielectric constant increased the polarity of the medium. This energizes and enhances the one or more t step of the model to be more rapid to yield particles with small size and symmetrical shape.

  19. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  20. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-25

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400°C and 500°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm(-1) can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm(-1) are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  2. Influence of usual zinc intake and zinc in a meal on 65Zn retention and turnover in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    The influences of zinc in a meal and usual zinc intake on zinc retention and turnover were investigated in 7-wk-old male rats fed diets containing 12-151 mg Zn/kg for 3 wk before and after consuming a 65 Zn-labeled meal containing ZnCl 2 . Retention corrected to zero time and turnover rate were determined by whole-body counting. Percent zinc retention was inversely proportional to the natural logarithm of the meal zinc, between 0.09 and 26 mumol. In comparison to lower doses, higher doses resulted in lower percent retention but greater amounts of zinc retained. Although the latter relationship was slightly curvilinear, there was no indication of a limited capacity for zinc retention with high doses. However, doses above 4 mumol resulted in higher turnover rates in rats accustomed to lower zinc intakes. Percent retention and the reciprocal of the turnover rate were proportional to the reciprocal of the dietary zinc concentration. The greatest differences in retention and turnover occurred between 12 and 26 mg Zn/kg diet. The zinc dose in a meal and the usual dietary zinc separately influenced percent zinc retention. These factors also interacted, such that greater dose effects were observed at lower zinc intakes and greater dietary zinc effects were observed at lower doses

  3. Interdependence of free zinc changes and protein complex assembly - insights into zinc signal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyła, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Krężel, Artur

    2018-01-24

    Cellular zinc (Zn(ii)) is bound with proteins that are part of the proteomes of all domains of life. It is mostly utilized as a catalytic or structural protein cofactor, which results in a vast number of binding architectures. The Zn(ii) ion is also important for the formation of transient protein complexes with a Zn(ii)-dependent quaternary structure that is formed upon cellular zinc signals. The mechanisms by which proteins associate with and dissociate from Zn(ii) and the connection with cellular Zn(ii) changes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to examine how zinc protein domains with various Zn(ii)-binding architectures are formed under free Zn(ii) concentration changes and how formation of the Zn(ii)-dependent assemblies is related to the protein concentration and reactivity. To accomplish these goals we chose four zinc domains with different Zn(ii)-to-protein binding stoichiometries: classical zinc finger (ZnP), LIM domain (Zn 2 P), zinc hook (ZnP 2 ) and zinc clasp (ZnP 1 P 2 ) folds. Our research demonstrated a lack of changes in the saturation level of intraprotein zinc binding sites, despite various peptide concentrations, while homo- and heterodimers indicated a concentration-dependent tendency. In other words, at a certain free Zn(ii) concentration, the fraction of a formed dimeric complex increases or decreases with subunit concentration changes. Secondly, even small or local changes in free Zn(ii) may significantly affect protein saturation depending on its architecture, function and subcellular concentration. In our paper, we indicate the importance of interdependence of free Zn(ii) availability and protein subunit concentrations for cellular zinc signal regulation.

  4. Fixing of metallic acetates on an anion-exchange resin; Fixation d'acetates metalliques dans une resine echangeuse d'anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigaudeau-Vaissiere, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etude Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving a brief review of the theoretical principles governing the fixation of anionic complexes of metallic elements on an anion exchange resin, we consider the particular case of uranyl acetate. By plotting the partition curves we have been able to calculate the exchange constants in the resin. By studying the changes in the logarithm of the limiting partition coefficient as a function of the logarithm of the free acetate ion concentration, it has been possible to calculate the dissociation constants for the complexes in solution. The fixation of a large number of metallic acetates has been studied. All the tests have been negative except in the case of mercury. For this reason we have been able to consider the possibility of separating uranium from a certain number of elements. Some of these separations are possible even in the presence of interfering anions such as chlorides which have a greater affinity for the resin than have the acetate ions. In the case of water-ethanol and water-isopropanol mixtures, we have improved the conditions under which copper acetate and mercury acetate may be fixed. This study has enabled us to calculate the dissociation constant for the CuAc{sub 3}{sup -} complex in the mixtures water +40% (by weight) isopropanol and water +50% (by weight) isopropanol. It should also make it possible to use separation conditions which could not hitherto be applied in aqueous media. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele les principes theoriques de la fixation des complexes anioniques des elements metalliques dans une resine echangeuse d'anions, nous avons etudie tout particulierement le cas de l'acetate d'uranyle. Le trace des courbes de partage nous a permis de calculer les constantes d'echange dans la resine. L'etude des variations du logarithme du coefficient limite de partage avec le logarithme de la concentration des ions acetate libres nous a conduits aux calculs des constantes de dissociation des complexes en solution. La fixation d

  5. Glycerol transesterification with ethyl acetate to synthesize acetins using ethyl acetate as reactant and entrainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Shafiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transesterification of glycerol with ethyl acetate was performed over acidic catalysts in the batch and semi-batch systems. Ethyl acetate was used as reactant and entrainer to remove the produced ethanol during the reaction, through azeotrope formation. Since the azeotrope of ethyl acetate and ethanol forms at 70 oC, all the experiments were performed at this temperature. Para-toluene sulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and Amberlyst 36 were used as catalyst. The effect of process parameters including ethyl acetate to glycerol molar ratio (6-12, reaction time (3-9 h, and the catalyst to glycerol weight (2.5-9.0%, on the conversion and products selectivities were investigated. Under reflux conditions, 100% glycerol conversion was obtained with 45%, 44%, and 11% selectivity to monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin, respectively. Azeotropic reactive distillation led to 100% conversion of glycerol with selectivities of 3%, 48% and 49% for monoacetin, diacetin, and triacetin. During the azeotropic reactive distillation, it was possible to remove ethanol to shift the equilibrium towards diacetin and triacetin. Therefore, the total selectivity to diacetin and triacetin was increased from 55% to 97% through azeotropic distillation.

  6. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose ...

  7. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  8. Zinc oxide films impurified with Ti and prepared by the Sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado G, S.; Cazares R, J.M.; Maldonado, A.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium-doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared on silicon substrate using the Sol-Gel technique. The structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such thin films were studied as a function of titanium concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and the thin films thickness. Zinc acetate dihydrate and titanium (VI)-oxy acetylacetonate were used as precursor materials, using 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine as via. The X-ray diffraction spectra show polycrystalline films in all the cases. It can see for all the thin films a preferential growth along the (002) planes where the titanium concentration and also the thin films thickness play an important rule. No structural changes are observed at all. The surface morphology studied shows as the grain size decreases when thin thickness is increases. For titanium concentration of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % values the grains size increase also. The thin films thickness for titanium concentration of 1.5 % was 500 nm (4v), 400 nm (3v), 180 nm (2v) and 130 nm (1v), values obtained from cross-section micrographs. Highly resistive samples are obtained for substrate soda-lime even showing high transmittance. Better physical properties are required for gas sensors or semitransparent electrodes and other possible applications. (Author)

  9. Influence of calcium acetate on rye bread volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina FUCKERER

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The positive accepted savoury taste of rye bread is dependent on acetate concentration in the dough of such breads. In order to study how calcium acetate influences rye bread properties, the pH of rye doughs fortified with calcium acetate and the resulting volume of the breads were measured. Furthermore, CO2 formation of yeast with added calcium acetate and yeast with different pH levels (4, 7, 9 were measured. Thereby, it was determined that the addition of calcium acetate increased the pH of dough from 4.42 to 5.29 and significantly reduced the volume of the breads from 1235.19 mL to 885.52 mL. It could be proven that bread volume was affected by a 30.9% lower CO2 amount production of yeast, although bread volume was not affected by changing pH levels. Due to reduced bread volume, high concentrations of calcium acetate additions are not recommended for improving rye bread taste.

  10. Study of alkaline-earth element complexes in anhydrous acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, N.

    1968-10-01

    We have studied the complexes of alkaline-earth elements in anhydrous acetic acid. Using glass-electrode potentiometry we have studied the titration of alkaline earth acetates with perchloric acid which is the strongest acid in anhydrous acetic acid. These titrations have shown that the basic strength of these acetates increases as follows: Mg 4 ); the mixed acetate-acid sulfate complex of barium: Ba (OAc)(HSO 4 ); the mixed acetate-chloride of barium: Ba (OAc)(Cl). (author) [fr

  11. Effects of Foliar Application of Nano Zinc Chelate and Zinc Sulfate on Zinc Content, Pigments and Photosynthetic Indices of Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Moghimi pour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Holy basil is a perennial plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. The plant is a perennial and thrives well in the hot and humid climate. Its aerial parts have been in use for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfumery industries. Leaves contain 0.5-1.5% essential oil and main oil components are eugenol, methyl eugenol, carvacrol, methyl chavicol and1,8-cineole. A balanced fertilization program with macro and micronutrients is very important in producing high quality yield. Zinc is involved in IAA production, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon assimilation, saccharids accumulation, reactive oxygen radicals scavenging and finally carbon utilization in volatile oil biosynthesis. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the effect on zinc foliar application on zinc content of leaves, photosynthetic indices and pigments of holy basil, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at a research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5 m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a region characterized by semi-dry climate. The experiment was arranged based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were nano zinc chelate (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g.l-1 and zinc sulfate (1 and 1.5 g.l-1 fertilizers. Land preparation includes disking and the formation of raising beds (15cm high and 45cm wide across the top using a press-pan-type bed shaper. Holy basil seeds were sown on two rows on each bed, with 15 cm in-row and 40 cm between-row spacing. The plants were irrigated weekly as needed. Foliar application of zinc fertilizers was done at six-eight leaf stage and were repeated with interval 15 days until full bloom stage. Zinc content, stomata conductance (gs, CO2 under stomata (Ci, transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (Pn, light use efficiency (LUE, water use efficiency (WUE and also chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid

  12. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 and DNA repair by uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Karen L.; Dashner, Erica J. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Tsosie, Ranalda [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Cho, Young Mi [Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Ecology, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lewis, Johnnye [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Community Environmental Health Program, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center College of Pharmacy, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Hudson, Laurie G., E-mail: lhudson@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Uranium has radiological and non-radiological effects within biological systems and there is increasing evidence for genotoxic and carcinogenic properties attributable to uranium through its heavy metal properties. In this study, we report that low concentrations of uranium (as uranyl acetate; < 10 μM) is not cytotoxic to human embryonic kidney cells or normal human keratinocytes; however, uranium exacerbates DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide, suggesting that uranium may inhibit DNA repair processes. Concentrations of uranyl acetate in the low micromolar range inhibited the zinc finger DNA repair protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and caused zinc loss from PARP-1 protein. Uranyl acetate exposure also led to zinc loss from the zinc finger DNA repair proteins Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group A (XPA) and aprataxin (APTX). In keeping with the observed inhibition of zinc finger function of DNA repair proteins, exposure to uranyl acetate enhanced retention of induced DNA damage. Co-incubation of uranyl acetate with zinc largely overcame the impact of uranium on PARP-1 activity and DNA damage. These findings present evidence that low concentrations of uranium can inhibit DNA repair through disruption of zinc finger domains of specific target DNA repair proteins. This may provide a mechanistic basis to account for the published observations that uranium exposure is associated with DNA repair deficiency in exposed human populations. - Highlights: • Low micromolar concentration of uranium inhibits polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activity. • Uranium causes zinc loss from multiple DNA repair proteins. • Uranium enhances retention of DNA damage caused by ultraviolet radiation. • Zinc reverses the effects of uranium on PARP activity and DNA damage repair.

  13. Disrupting established tumor blood vessels: an emerging therapeutic strategy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeage, Mark J; Baguley, Bruce C

    2010-04-15

    The unique characteristics of tumor vasculature represent an attractive target that may be exploited by vascular-targeting anticancer agents. A promising strategy involves the selective disruption of established tumor blood vessels by tumor-vascular disrupting agents (tumor-VDAs), which exhibit antivascular activity, resulting in inhibition of tumor blood flow and extensive necrosis within the tumor core. The tumor-VDA class can be subdivided into flavonoid compounds, which are related to flavone acetic acid, and tubulin-binding compounds. ASA404, of the flavonoid class, is the most advanced tumor-VDA in clinical development and has been evaluated preclinically and in several phase 1 and phase 2 studies. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the selective apoptosis of tumor endothelial cells and the inhibition of tumor blood flow. Synergistic activity was observed with ASA404 and with several chemotherapeutic agents, particularly taxanes. In clinical trials, compared with chemotherapy alone, ASA404 was tolerated well and produced improved activity in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer when combined with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Phase 3 clinical trials are ongoing. Selectively targeting established tumor vasculature with tumor-VDAs represents a promising and innovative approach to improving the efficacy of standard anticancer therapies. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.

  14. Petiveria alliacea extracts uses multiple mechanisms to inhibit growth of human and mouse tumoral cells

    OpenAIRE

    Urue?a, Claudia; Cifuentes, Claudia; Casta?eda, Diana; Arango, Amparo; Kaur, Punit; Asea, Alexzander; Fiorentino, Susana

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is ethnopharmacological evidence that Petiveria alliacea can have antitumor activity; however, the mechanism of its cytotoxic activity is not well understood. We assessed multiple in vitro biological activities of an ethyl acetate soluble plant fraction over several tumor cell lines. Methods Tumor cell lines were evaluated using the following tests: trypan blue exclusion test, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide], flow cytometry, cytosk...

  15. HALT & REVERSE: Hsf1 activators lower cardiomyocyt damage; towards a novel approach to REVERSE atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanters, Eva A H; van Marion, Denise M S; Kik, Charles; Steen, Herman; Bogers, Ad J J C; Allessie, Maurits A; Brundel, Bianca J J M; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2015-11-05

    Atrial fibrillation is a progressive arrhythmia, the exact mechanism underlying the progressive nature of recurrent AF episodes is still unknown. Recently, it was found that key players of the protein quality control system of the cardiomyocyte, i.e. Heat Shock Proteins, protect against atrial fibrillation progression by attenuating atrial electrical and structural remodeling (electropathology). HALT & REVERSE aims to investigate the correlation between electropathology, as defined by endo- or epicardial mapping, Heat Shock Protein levels and development or recurrence of atrial fibrillation following pulmonary vein isolation, or electrical cardioversion or cardiothoracic surgery. This study is a prospective observational study. Three separate study groups are defined: (1) cardiothoracic surgery, (2) pulmonary vein isolation and (3) electrical cardioversion. An intra-operative high-resolution epicardial (group 1) or endocardial (group 2) mapping procedure of the atria is performed to study atrial electropathology. Blood samples for Heat Shock Protein determination are obtained at baseline and during the follow-up period at 3 months (group 2), 6 months (groups 1 and 2) and 1 year (group 1 and 2). Tissue samples of the right and left atrial appendages in patients in group 1 are analysed for Heat Shock Protein levels and for tissue characteristics. Early post procedural atrial fibrillation is detected by continuous rhythm monitoring, whereas late post procedural atrial fibrillation is documented by either electrocardiogram or 24-h Holter registration. HALT & REVERSE aims to identify the correlation between Heat Shock Protein levels and degree of electropathology. The study outcome will contribute to novel diagnostic tools for the early recognition of clinical atrial fibrillation. Rotterdam Medical Ethical Committee MEC-2014-393, Dutch Trial Registration NTR4658.

  16. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales Zinc deficiency and its functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE L ROSADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructural en membranas biológicas, y guarda una estrecha relación con la síntesis de proteínas, entre otras cosas. Es por esto que la deficiencia de zinc está asociada con consecuencias importantes en la salud y la funcionalidad de los individuos, especialmente durante las primeras etapas de la vida. De relevancia para México es la existencia de una deficiencia moderada de zinc en los niños y las consecuencias que ésta pueda tener en la salud de los mismos. Los estudios realizados sugieren que la deficiencia moderada de zinc se presenta asociada con la ingestión de dietas basadas en alimentos de origen vegetal, las cuales contienen cantidades importantes de inhibidores de la absorción de zinc. Este tipo de dietas se consume habitualmente en las zonas rurales y en la población marginal de las ciudades en el país. Entre las consecuencias más importantes de esta deficiencia se encontró un aumento en la presencia de enfermedades infecciosas, especialmente de diarrea, y posibles alteraciones en el desarrollo de la capacidad cognoscitiva.The purpose of this article is to review theoretical aspects and research performed in Mexico suggesting the existence of marginal zinc deficiency in rural children and its consequences on health. Zinc is an indispensable nutrient for humans since it plays an important role in several metabolic pathways: it participates in the catalytic site of several enzymes, as a structural ion of biological membranes and is

  17. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.

    2017-03-28

    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  18. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Zahi Gammoh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB, a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  19. Repletion of zinc in zinc-deficient cells strongly up-regulates IL-1β-induced IL-2 production in T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaboul, Doha; Rosenkranz, Eva; Uciechowski, Peter; Rink, Lothar

    2012-10-01

    Mild zinc deficiency in humans negatively affects IL-2 production resulting in declined percentages of cytolytic T cells and decreased NK cell lytic activity, which enhances the susceptibility to infections and malignancies. T-cell activation is critically regulated by zinc and the normal physiological zinc level in T-cells slightly lies below the optimal concentration for T-cell functions. A further reduction in zinc level leads to T-cell dysfunction and autoreactivity, whereas high zinc concentrations (100 μM) were shown to inhibit interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced IL-1 receptor kinase (IRAK) activation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which zinc regulates the IL-1β-induced IL-2 expression in T-cells. Zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells increased intracellular zinc levels by altering the expression of zinc transporters, particularly Zip10 and Zip12. A zinc signal was observed in the murine T-cell line EL-4 6.1 after 1 h of stimulation with IL-1β, measured by specific zinc sensors FluoZin-3 and ZinPyr-1. This signal is required for the phosphorylation of MAPK p38 and NF-κB subunit p65, which triggers the transcription of IL-2 and strongly increases its production. These results indicate that short-term zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells leads to a fast rise in zinc levels which subsequently enhance cytokine production. In conclusion, low and excessive zinc levels might be equally problematic for zinc-deficient subjects, and stabilized zinc levels seem to be essential to avoid negative concentration-dependent zinc effects on T-cell activation.

  20. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luptáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper is closely connected with the process of the manufacturing of ZnO. The purity of the metal zinc has crucial influence on the quality of ZnO. ZnO can be produced by pyrometallurgical combustion of zinc and hard zinc. But this mentioned method of preparation leads to the creation of the enormous amount of waste including chemical complexes. On the basis of the occurrence of the residual content of other elements, it is possible to make prediction about the material behavior in the metallographic process. The input and finally materials were investigated and this investigation was done from the aspect of structural and chemical composition of the materials.

  1. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of articles...

  3. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  4. Indium-Nitrogen Codoped Zinc Oxide Thin Film Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis on n-(111 Si Substrate: The Effect of Film Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium-nitrogen codoped zinc oxide (INZO thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis deposition technique on n-(111 Si substrate with different film thicknesses at 450°C using a precursor containing zinc acetate, ammonium acetate, and indium nitrate with 1 : 3 : 0.05 at.% concentration. The morphology and structure studies were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The grain size of the films increased when increasing the film thickness. From XRD spectra, polycrystalline ZnO structure can be observed and the preferred orientation behavior varied from (002 to (101 as the film thickness increased. The concentration and mobility were investigated by Hall effect measurement. the p-type films with a hole mobility around 3 cm2V−1s−1 and hole concentration around 3×1019 cm−3 can be achieved with film thickness less than 385 nm. The n-type conduction with concentration 1×1020 cm−3 is observed for film with thickness 1089 nm. The defect states were characterized by photoluminescence. With temperature-dependent conductivity analysis, acceptor state with activation energy 0.139 eV dominate the p type conduction for thin INZO film. And the Zn-related shallow donors with activation energy 0.029 eV dominate the n-type conduction for the thick INZO film.

  5. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  6. Zinc-mediated Allosteric Inhibition of Caspase-6*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Delgado, Elih M.; Hardy, Jeanne A.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc and caspase-6 have independently been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. Depletion of zinc intracellularly leads to apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. Zinc inhibits cysteine proteases, including the apoptotic caspases, leading to the hypothesis that zinc-mediated inhibition of caspase-6 might contribute to its regulation in a neurodegenerative context. Using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, we observed that caspase-6 binds one zinc per monomer, under the same conditions where the zinc leads to complete loss of enzymatic activity. To understand the molecular details of zinc binding and inhibition, we performed an anomalous diffraction experiment above the zinc edge. The anomalous difference maps showed strong 5σ peaks, indicating the presence of one zinc/monomer bound at an exosite distal from the active site. Zinc was not observed bound to the active site. The zinc in the exosite was liganded by Lys-36, Glu-244, and His-287 with a water molecule serving as the fourth ligand, forming a distorted tetrahedral ligation sphere. This exosite appears to be unique to caspase-6, as the residues involved in zinc binding were not conserved across the caspase family. Our data suggest that binding of zinc at the exosite is the primary route of inhibition, potentially locking caspase-6 into the inactive helical conformation. PMID:22891250

  7. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kapapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N=4 or multiple (N=6 doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P≤0.05. Results. (1 Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2 The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3 There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients.

  8. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs

  9. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer

  10. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  11. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  12. Dietary Zinc Intake and Plasma Zinc Concentrations in Children with Short Stature and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Nadine; Hanna-Wakim, Rima; El Rafei, Rym; Barhoumi, Abir; Farra, Chantal; Daher, Rose T; Majdalani, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The burden of zinc deficiency on children includes an increased incidence of diarrhea, failure to thrive (FTT) and short stature. The aim of this study was to assess whether children with FTT and/or short stature have lower dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations compared to controls. A case-control study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center included 161 subjects from 1 to 10 years of age. Cases had a statistically significant lower energy intake (960.9 vs. 1,135.2 kcal for controls, p = 0.010), lower level of fat (30.3 vs. 36.5 g/day, p = 0.0043) and iron intake (7.4 vs. 9.1 mg/day, p = 0.034). There was no difference in zinc, copper, carbohydrate and protein intake between the 2 groups. The plasma zinc concentration did not differ between the cases and controls (97.4 vs. 98.2 μg/dl, p = 0.882). More cases had mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency when compared to controls with 10.3 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.095. Our study did not show statistically significant difference in dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations between children with FTT and/or short stature compared to healthy controls. A prospective study is planned to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on growth parameters in FTT children. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Radioactive zinc in soil-plant relationship studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimian, N.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc is one of the elements whose essentiality for plant growth and development has been proved beyond any doubt. Plant life and consequently the crop yield is impossible without zinc. The results of chemical, greenhouse, and field experiments on soils of Shiraz show that their level of available zinc for some crops is inadequate, despite the fact that the total amount of zinc in these soils may be relatively high. Obtaining the maximum yield, therefore, requires that either supplemental zinc be applied as chemical fertilizers or make the endogenous zinc more available to plants through some management practices. One of the isotopes of zinc, i.e. 65 Zn, is radioactive and has a detectable radiation which makes it suitable for tracer studies of zinc in soil, water, plant and animal. These studies help in understanding the soil plant relationships of zinc which in turn help to determine the optimum conditions of obtaining maximum yield. This paper presents and analyzes the results of some selected experiments to show different techniques of using radioactive zinc in understanding the behavior of zinc in soil and plant. Suggestions are also made of using this radioisotope in understanding the reactions of zinc in soils of Iran

  14. Regulation of S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) binding to tumor cells by zinc ion and its implication for apoptosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yuichi; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Chazin, Walter J; Yui, Satoru

    2005-10-24

    S100A8/A9 (calprotectin), which is released by neutrophils under inflammatory conditions, has the capacity to induce apoptosis in various cells. We previously reported that S100A8/A9 induces apoptosis of EL-4 lymphoma cells via the uptake of extracellular zinc in a manner similar to DTPA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. In this study, S100A8/A9-induced apoptosis was examined in several cell lines that are weakly sensitive to DTPA, suggesting S100A8/A9 is directly responsible for apoptosis in these cells. Since zinc inhibits apoptosis of MM46, one of these cells, the regulation by zinc of the capacity of S100A8/A9 to bind MM46 cells was studied. When MM46 cells were incubated with S100A8/A9 in standard or zinc-depleted medium, the amounts of S100A8/A9 bound to cells was markedly lower at 3 h than at 1 h. In contrast, when MM46 cells were incubated with S100A8/A9 in the presence of high levels of zinc, binding to cells was the same at 1 and 3 h. When the cells were permeabilized with saponin prior to analysis, a larger amount of cell-associated S100A8/A9 was detected at 3 h. The amount was further increased in cells treated with chloroquine, suggesting that S100A8/A9 was internalized and degraded in lysosomes. Although it has been reported that S100A8/A9 binds to heparan sulfate on cell membranes, the amount of S100A8/A9 bound to MM46 cells was not reduced by heparinase treatment, but was reduced by trypsin treatment. These results suggest that S100A8/A9 induces apoptosis by direct binding to MM46 cells, and that this activity is regulated by zinc.

  15. The effect of oral zinc loading on the absorption of 65Zinc in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, H.; Weismann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Seven groups of 8 rats each were orally loaded with zinc, the daily dose varying from 1.8 to 58 mg, corresponding to about 3 to 100 times of their estimated daily intake of zinc. To record the absorption of zinc, the rats were given a single dose of 65 Zn. The rentention of the isotope was measured in a whole animal counter at regular intervals. The dose of 58mg was obviously toxis, since half of the animals died within 5 days. The net absorption of zinc in the remaining experimental groups was found to vary from about 7% in the group receiving the smallest loading dose to 1.8% in the group receiving the highest dose. From the absorption values, as determined by extrapolation of semilog retention curves, the total amount of absorbed zinc was estimated. It was found to differ from about 170μg to about 530μg zinc daily, increasing three times as the loading dose was increased 16 times. This discrepancy suggests the existence of regulatory mechanisms of the absorption of zinc from the intestine. (orig.) [de

  16. Medicago truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease6 provides zinc to rhizobia-infected nodule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Isidro; Saéz, Ángela; Castro-Rodríguez, Rosario; Escudero, Viviana; Rodríguez-Haas, Benjamín; Senovilla, Marta; Larue, Camille; Grolimund, Daniel; Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel; Imperial, Juan; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Zinc is a micronutrient required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It has been proposed that in model legume Medicago truncatula, zinc is delivered by the root vasculature into the nodule and released in the infection/differentiation zone. There, transporters must introduce this element into rhizobia-infected cells to metallate the apoproteins that use zinc as a cofactor. MtZIP6 (Medtr4g083570) is an M. truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease (ZIP) that is expressed only in roots and nodules, with the highest expression levels in the infection/differentiation zone. Immunolocalization studies indicate that it is located in the plasma membrane of nodule rhizobia-infected cells. Down-regulating MtZIP6 expression levels with RNAi does not result in any strong phenotype when plants are fed mineral nitrogen. However, these plants displayed severe growth defects when they depended on nitrogen fixed by their nodules, losing of 80% of their nitrogenase activity. The reduction of this activity was likely an indirect effect of zinc being retained in the infection/differentiation zone and not reaching the cytosol of rhizobia-infected cells. These data are consistent with a model in which MtZIP6 would be responsible for zinc uptake by rhizobia-infected nodule cells in the infection/differentiation zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...

  18. BWR fuel experience with zinc injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, H.A.; Garcia, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    In 1982 a correlation between low primary recirculation system dose rates in BWR's and the presence of ionic zinc in reactor water was identified. The source of the zinc was primarily from Admiralty brass condensers. Plants with brass condensers are called ''natural zinc'' plants. Brass condensers were also a source of copper that was implicated in crude induced localized corrosion (CILC) fuel failures. In 1986 the first BWR intentionally injected zinc for the benefits of dose rate control. Although zinc alone was never implicated in fuel degradation of failures, a comprehensive fuel surveillance program was initiated to monitor fuel performance. Currently there are 14 plants that are injecting zinc. Six of these plants are also on hydrogen water chemistry. This paper describes the effect on both Zircaloy corrosion and the cruding characteristics as a result of these changes in water chemistry. Fuel rod corrosion was found to be independent of the specific water chemistry of the plants. The corrosion behavior was the same with the additions of zinc alone or zinc plus hydrogen and well within the operating experience for fuel without either of these additions. No change was observed in the amounts of crude deposited on the fuel rods, both for the adherent and loosely held deposits. One of the effects of the zinc addition was the trend to form more of the zinc rich iron spinel in the fuel deposits rather than the hematite deposits that are predominantly formed with non additive water chemistry

  19. Comparative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and dissolved zinc on zebrafish embryos and eleuthero-embryos: Importance of zinc ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, N.R.; Lenz, M.; Wehrli, B.; Fent, K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and their associated environmental occurrence make it necessary to assess their potential effects on aquatic organisms. Upon water contact, nZnO dissolve partially to zinc (Zn(II)). To date it is not yet completely understood, whether effects of

  20. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejborn, H.

    1990-01-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis

  1. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  2. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  3. Lead-zinc interactions in the production of osteocalcin by ROS 17/2.8 osteoblastic bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounds, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The serum level of osteocalcin, a bone specific protein produced by osteoblasts and used clinically as a marker of osteoblast acceptive, is decreased in lead intoxicated children. Previous studies suggest that the reduced osteocalcin production appears to be the result of impaired transcriptional regulation of this 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 gene product, and not translation. As part of a study to investigate the potential interaction of Pb 2+ with Zn 2+ , and with the zinc fingers of the vitamin D receptor, ROS cells were treated with 0, 5, 10, or 25 μM lead acetate for 24 hr, in the presence of 10, 30, or 50 μM Zn followed by an additional 24 hr treatment with lead with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (100 pg/ml media). At the end of this period a radioimmunoassay was conducted to determine the amount of osteocalcin in the cells and secreted in the media. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 caused an increase in osteocalcin secreted into the media in cultures containing 0 μM lead, but this increase was inhibited by lead in a concentration dependent manner, so that osteocalcin secretion in 10 or 25 μM lead treated groups was less than cultures without 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 treatment. This inhibitory effect of lead was blocked by increasing the medium zinc concentration of 50 μM. Increasing medium Pb 2+ concentrations decreased the amount of 65 Zn taken up by cells by ∼30%, which was nullified by increasing medium Zn. These results suggest that lead produces a localized and specific Zn deficiency in the vitamin D receptor zinc finger, and perhaps other zinc metalloproteins, and that these effects of lead are not mediated through general effects on RNA or protein synthesis

  4. The effects of Zinc supplementation on serum zinc, alkaline phosphatase activity and fracture healing of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadighi, A.; Moradi, A.; Roshan, Marjan M.; Ostadrahimi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on callus information, serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with traumatic bone fracture referred to Shohada Hospital of Tabriz, Iran from August to December 2007. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: cases (n=30), receiving one capsule of zinc sulfate consists of 50 mg zinc each day and the controls (n=30), receiving placebo for 60 days. Individual and clinical information was determined by a questionnaire: nutritional intake by 3 days food records at the beginning and the end of trial. Serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by enzymatic method. Callus information during fracture healing was evaluated by radiography of the bone. There was no significant difference in physical activity, gender, age, type of fractures and nutrient intake, between the 2 groups. The administration of zinc caused a significant elevation of serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity. Assessment of bone x-rays showed a significant progress in callus formation in cases compared to the controls. This study shows that zinc supplementation can stimulate fracture healing, however, it needs further study. (author)

  5. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  6. Vinyl acetate polymerization by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Andrea Cercan

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the synthesis and characterization of the poly(vinyl acetate) using the ionizing radiation. Six polymerizations of vinyl acetate were carried out using three techniques of polymerization: in bulk, emulsion and solution. In the technique of solution polymerization were used two solvents, the alcohol ethyl and the methylethylketone, in two proportions 1:0.5 and 1:1 related to the monomer. The solutions were irradiated with gamma rays from a 60 Co source, with dose rate between 5.25 kGy/h and 6.26 kGy/h. The polymers obtained were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The molecular weight was analyzed by the technique of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Tests of density, hardness and Vicat softening temperature were carried out. The infrared spectroscopy and others results confirmed that the polymers obtained by polymerization of vinyl acetate in bulk, emulsion and solution, using ionizing radiation, really correspond at poly(vinyl acetate). (author)

  7. Zinc and immunity: An essential interrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maares, Maria; Haase, Hajo

    2016-12-01

    The significance of the essential trace element zinc for immune function has been known for several decades. Zinc deficiency affects immune cells, resulting in altered host defense, increased risk of inflammation, and even death. The micronutrient zinc is important for maintenance and development of immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. A disrupted zinc homeostasis affects these cells, leading to impaired formation, activation, and maturation of lymphocytes, disturbed intercellular communication via cytokines, and weakened innate host defense via phagocytosis and oxidative burst. This review outlines the connection between zinc and immunity by giving a survey on the major roles of zinc in immune cell function, and their potential consequences in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cationic lipid-based nanoparticles mediate functional delivery of acetate to tumor cells in vivo leading to significant anticancer effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brody LP

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Leigh P Brody,1,* Meliz Sahuri-Arisoylu,1,* James R Parkinson,1 Harry G Parkes,2 Po Wah So,3 Nabil Hajji,4 E Louise Thomas,1 Gary S Frost,5 Andrew D Miller,6,* Jimmy D Bell1,* 1Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster, 2CR-UK Clinical MR Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey, 3Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Experimental Medicine, Centre for Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Toxicology Unit, Imperial College London, 5Faculty of Medicine, Nutrition and Dietetic Research Group, Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, 6Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, London, UK *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Metabolic reengineering using nanoparticle delivery represents an innovative therapeutic approach to normalizing the deregulation of cellular metabolism underlying many diseases, including cancer. Here, we demonstrated a unique and novel application to the treatment of malignancy using a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA-encapsulated lipid-based delivery system – liposome-encapsulated acetate nanoparticles for cancer applications (LITA-CAN. We assessed chronic in vivo administration of our nanoparticle in three separate murine models of colorectal cancer. We demonstrated a substantial reduction in tumor growth in the xenograft model of colorectal cancer cell lines HT-29, HCT-116 p53+/+ and HCT-116 p53-/-. Nanoparticle-induced reductions in histone deacetylase gene expression indicated a potential mechanism for these anti-proliferative effects. Together, these results indicated that LITA-CAN could be used as an effective direct or adjunct therapy to treat malignant transformation in vivo. Keywords: lipid-based nanoparticles, liposomes

  9. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Herulah, Ursula Nirmala; Prasad, Ashlini; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2015-06-05

    Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

  10. Biotechnological applications of acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor, Peter; Goranovic, Dusan

    2008-01-01

    The acetic acid bacteria (AAB) have important roles in food and beverage production, as well as in the bioproduction of industrial chemicals. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding their taxonomy, molecular biology, and physiology, and in methods for their isolation and identification. AAB are obligate aerobes that oxidize sugars, sugar alcohols, and ethanol with the production of acetic acid as the major end product. This special type of metabolism differentiates them from all other bacteria. Recently, the AAB taxonomy has been strongly rearranged as new techniques using 16S rRNA sequence analysis have been introduced. Currently, the AAB are classified in ten genera in the family Acetobacteriaceae. AAB can not only play a positive role in the production of selected foods and beverages, but they can also spoil other foods and beverages. AAB occur in sugar- and alcohol-enriched environments. The difficulty of cultivation of AAB on semisolid media in the past resulted in poor knowledge of the species present in industrial processes. The first step of acetic acid production is the conversion of ethanol from a carbohydrate carried out by yeasts, and the second step is the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid carried out by AAB. Vinegar is traditionally the product of acetous fermentation of natural alcoholic substrates. Depending on the substrate, vinegars can be classified as fruit, starch, or spirit substrate vinegars. Although a variety of bacteria can produce acetic acid, mostly members of Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter are used commercially. Industrial vinegar manufacturing processes fall into three main categories: slow processes, quick processes, and submerged processes. AAB also play an important role in cocoa production, which represents a significant means of income for some countries. Microbial cellulose, produced by AAB, possesses some excellent physical properties and has potential for many applications. Other

  11. Fortification of staple foods with zinc for improving zinc status and other health outcomes in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dheeraj; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Gera, Tarun; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-06-09

    Zinc deficiency is a global nutritional problem, particularly in children and women residing in settings where diets are cereal based and monotonous. It has several negative health consequences. Fortification of staple foods with zinc may be an effective strategy for preventing zinc deficiency and improving zinc-related health outcomes. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of fortification of staple foods with zinc on health-related outcomes and biomarkers of zinc status in the general population. We searched the following databases in April 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3 of 12, 2015, the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE & MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1950 to 8 April 2015), EMBASE (OVID) (1974 to 8 April 2015), CINAHL (1982 to April 2015), Web of Science (1900 to 9 April 2015), BIOSIS (1969 to 9 April 2015), POPLINE (1970 to April 2015), AGRICOLA, OpenGrey, BiblioMap, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), besides regional databases (April 2015) and theses. We also searched clinical trial registries (17 March 2015) and contacted relevant organisations (May 2014) in order to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included randomised controlled trials, randomised either at the level of the individual or cluster. We also included non-randomised trials at the level of the individual if there was a concurrent comparison group. We included non-randomised cluster trials and controlled before-after studies only if there were at least two intervention sites and two control sites. Interventions included fortification (central/industrial) of staple foods (cereal flours, edible fats, sugar, condiments, seasonings, milk and beverages) with zinc for a minimum period of two weeks. Participants were members of the general population who were over two years of age (including pregnant and lactating women) from any country. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion

  12. Status of zinc injection in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, C.A. [Westinghouse Electric Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Based on laboratory and other studies, it was concluded that zinc addition in a PWR primary coolant should result in reduced Alloy 600 PWSCC and general corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Because of these positive results, a Westinghouse Owner`s Subgroup, EPRI, and Westinghouse provided funds to continue the development and application of zinc in an operating plant. As part of the program, Southern Operating Nuclear Company agreed to operate the Farley 2 plant with zinc addition as a demonstration test of the effectiveness of zinc. Since zinc is incorporated in the corrosion oxide film on the primary system surfaces and Farley 2 is a mature plant, it was estimated that about 10 kgs of zinc would be needed to condition the plant before an equilibrium value in the coolant would be reached. The engineered aspects of a Zinc Addition and Monitoring System (ZAMS) considered such items as the constitutents, location, sizing and water supply of the ZAMS. Baseline data such as the PWSCC history of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, fuel oxide thickness, fuel crud deposits, radiation levels, and RCP seal leak-off rates were obtained before zinc addition is initiated. This presentation summarizes some of the work performed under the program, and the status of zinc injection in the Farley 2 plant.

  13. Further studies on selective radioprotection by organic zinc salts and synergism of zinc aspartate with WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floersheim, G.L.; Bieri, A.

    1990-01-01

    Protection of the haematocrit and thrombocytes by small doses of the aminothiol radioprotector WR 2721 was markedly improved by the concomitant administration of small doses of zinc aspartate. Zinc aspartate was the only one of the tested zinc salts not inhibiting the regression induced by radiotherapy of human tumours grown as xenografts in immunosuppressed mice. This also applied to zinc aspartate with WR 2721. A dose of zinc aspartate which afforded synergistic haematological protection did not enhance the toxicity of WR 2721. The synergism of zinc aspartate with WR 2721 and the differential radioprotection of the combined protocol may make it possible in clinical cancer radiotherapy to obtain selective radioprotection at a lower toxicity giving an improved therapeutic ratio compared with WR 2721 alone. (author)

  14. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth of Micractinium pusillum Fresenius in the presence of acetate and glucose: effect of light and acetate gradient concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouarab, L; Dauta, A; Loudiki, M

    2004-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the importance of secondary mechanism of organic carbon utilization (mixotrophic and heterotrophic modes) in addition to CO2 fixation (photoautotrophic mode) in the green alga, Micractinium pusillum Fresenius (chlorophyta), isolated from a waste stabilization pond. The growth was studied in the presence of acetate and glucose. The incorporation rate of 14C- acetate was measured in the light and in the dark at different concentrations. Finally, in order to underline the role of photosynthesis and respiration processes in the acetate assimilation, the effect of two specific metabolic inhibitors, a specific inhibitor of photosystem II (DCMU) and an uncoupler respiratory (DNP), has been studied. The obtained results showed that M. pusillum grows in the presence of organic substrates, i.e., glucose and acetate, in the light (mixotrophic growth) as well as in the dark (Heterotrophic growth). The growth was much more important in the light than in the dark and more in the presence of glucose than of acetate. In the light, the presence of acetate led to a variation of growth parameters mumax, iotaopt, and beta. The effect of acetate gradient on the growth of the microalga was severe as soon as its concentration in the medium was higher. The acetate uptake followed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic in the light as well as in the dark. The capacity of assimilation was slightly higher in the dark. The utilization of DNP and DCMU indicates that acetate incorporation is an active process depending on both anabolic (photosynthesis) and catabolic (respiration) metabolisms, corroborating the model of the Michaelis-Menten kinetic.

  15. Early intranasal insulin therapy halts progression of neurodegeneration: progress in Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Monte, Suzanne M

    Evaluation of Craft S, Baker LD, Montine TJ, Minoshima S, Watson GS, Claxton A, et al. Intranasal Insulin Therapy for Alzheimer Disease and Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Clinical Trial. Arch Neurol . 2011 Sep 12. Alzheimer's disease is associated with brain insulin deficiency and insulin resistance, similar to the problems in diabetes. If insulin could be supplied to the brain in the early stages of Alzheimer's, subsequent neurodegeneration might be prevented. Administering systemic insulin to elderly non-diabetics poses unacceptable risks of inadvertant hypoglycemia. However, intranasal delivery directs the insulin into the brain, avoiding systemic side-effects. This pilot study demonstrates both efficacy and safety of using intranasal insulin to treat early Alzheimer's and mild cognitive impairment, i.e. the precursor to Alzheimer's. Significant improvements in learning, memory, and cognition occured within a few months, but without intranasal insulin, brain function continued to deteriorate in measurable degrees. Intranasal insulin therapy holds promise for halting progression of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Serum zinc levels in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Sharbaf F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies in which pregnant women have been supplemented with zinc to examine its effects on the outcome of the pregnancy have been carried out in industrialized countries and the results have been inconclusive. It has been shown that women with gestational diabetes (GDM have lower serum zinc levels than healthy pregnant women, and higher rates of macrosomia. Zinc is required for normal glucose metabolism, and strengthens the insulin-induced transportation of glucose into cells by its effect on the insulin signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels of GDM patients and evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation. "nMethods: In the first stage of this prospective controlled study, we enrolled 70 women who were 24-28 weeks pregnant at the Prenatal Care Center of Mirza Kochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The serum zinc level of each subject was determined. In the second stage, among these 70 subjects, the diabetics receiving insulin were divided into two groups, only one of which received a zinc supplement and the other group was the control group. Birth weight of neonates and insulin dosages were recorded. "nResults: The mean serum zinc level in the GDM group was lower than that of the control group (94.83 vs. 103.49mg/dl, respectively and the mean birth weight of neonates from the GDM women who received the zinc supplement was lower than that of the control group (3849g vs. 4136g. The rate of macrosomia was lower in the zinc supplemented group (20% vs. 53%. The mean of increase of insulin after receiving the zinc supplement was lower (8.4u vs. 13.53. "nConclusion: Maternal insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of maternal fat tissue during early stages of pregnancy and greater fetoplacental nutrient availability in later stages, when 70% of fetal growth occurs, resulting in macrosomia. In

  17. Methanogenesis from acetate by Methanosarcina barkeri: Catalysis of acetate formation from methyl iodide, CO/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/ by the enzyme system involved

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, K; Eikmanns, B; Frimmer, U; Thauer, R K

    1987-04-01

    Cell suspensions of Methanosarcina barkeri grown on acetate catalyze the formation of methane and CO/sub 2/ from acetate as well as an isotopic exchange between the carboxyl group of acetate and CO/sub 2/. Here we report that these cells also mediate the synthesis of acetate from methyl iodide, CO/sub 2/, and reducing equivalents (H/sub 2/ or CO), the methyl group of acetate being derived from methyl iodide and the carboxyl group from CO/sub 2/. Methyl chloride and methyltosylate but not methanol can substitute for methyl iodide in this reaction. Acetate formation from methyl iodide, CO/sub 2/, and reducing equivalents is coupled with the phosphorylation of ADP. Evidence is presented that methyl iodide is incorporated into the methyl group of acetate via a methyl corrinoid intermediate (deduced from inhibition experiments with propyl iodide) and that CO/sub 2/ is assimilated into the carboxyl group via a C/sub 1/ intermediate which does not exchange with free formate or free CO. The effects of protonophores, of the proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and of arsenate on acetate formation are interpreted to indicate that the reduction of CO/sub 2/ to the oxidation level of the carboxyl group of acetate requires the presence of an electrochemical proton potential and that acetyl-CoA or acetyl-phosphate rather than free acetate is the immediate product of the condensation reaction. These results are dicsussed with respect to the mechanism of methanogenesis from acetate.

  18. Ulipristal acetate versus placebo for fibroid treatment before surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques; Tatarchuk, Tetyana F; Bouchard, Philippe; Puscasiu, Lucian; Zakharenko, Nataliya F; Ivanova, Tatiana; Ugocsai, Gyula; Mara, Michal; Jilla, Manju P; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and safety of oral ulipristal acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are uncertain. We randomly assigned women with symptomatic fibroids, excessive uterine bleeding (a score of >100 on the pictorial blood-loss assessment chart [PBAC, an objective assessment of blood loss, in which monthly scores range from 0 to >500, with higher numbers indicating more bleeding]) and anemia (hemoglobin level of ≤10.2 g per deciliter) to receive treatment for up to 13 weeks with oral ulipristal acetate at a dose of 5 mg per day (96 women) or 10 mg per day (98 women) or to receive placebo (48 women). All patients received iron supplementation. The coprimary efficacy end points were control of uterine bleeding (PBAC score of <75) and reduction of fibroid volume at week 13, after which patients could undergo surgery. At 13 weeks, uterine bleeding was controlled in 91% of the women receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 92% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 19% of those receiving placebo (P<0.001 for the comparison of each dose of ulipristal acetate with placebo). The rates of amenorrhea were 73%, 82%, and 6%, respectively, with amenorrhea occurring within 10 days in the majority of patients receiving ulipristal acetate. The median changes in total fibroid volume were -21%, -12%, and +3% (P=0.002 for the comparison of 5 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo, and P=0.006 for the comparison of 10 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo). Ulipristal acetate induced benign histologic endometrial changes that had resolved by 6 months after the end of therapy. Serious adverse events occurred in one patient during treatment with 10 mg of ulipristal acetate (uterine hemorrhage) and in one patient during receipt of placebo (fibroid protruding through the cervix). Headache and breast tenderness were the most common adverse events associated with ulipristal acetate but did not occur significantly more frequently than with placebo

  19. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  20. First Principles Investigation of Zinc-anode Dissolution in Zinc-air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Tripkovic, Vladimir; Lundgård, Keld Troen

    2013-01-01

    With surging interest in high energy density batteries, much attention has recently been devoted to metal-air batteries. The zinc-air battery has been known for more than hundred years and is commercially available as a primary battery, but recharging has remained elusive; in part because...... the fundamental mechanisms still remain to be fully understood. Here, we present a density functional theory investigation of the zinc dissolution (oxidation) on the anode side in the zinc-air battery. Two models are envisaged, the most stable (0001) surface and a kink surface. The kink model proves to be more....... The applied methodology provides new insight into computational modelling and design of secondary metal-air batteries....

  1. Murine strain differences and the effects of zinc on cadmium concentrations in tissues after acute cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L.M. [ARS USDA, Germplasm and Gamete Physiology Lab., Beltsville, MD (United States); Anderson, M.B. [Dept. of Anatomy, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sikka, S.C. [Dept. of Urology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); George, W.J. [Dept. of Pharmacology, Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1998-10-01

    The role of strain differences in cadmium tissue distribution was studied using sensitive (129/J) and resistant (A/J) mice. These murine strains have previously been shown to differ in their susceptibility to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Cadmium concentration was measured in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, liver, and kidney at 24 h after cadmium chloride exposure (4, 10, and 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2}). The 129/J mice exhibited a significant increase in cadmium concentration in testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle at all cadmium doses used, compared to A/J mice. However, cadmium concentrations in liver and kidney were not different between the strains, at any dose, indicating that cadmium uptake is similar in these organs at 24 h. These murine strains demonstrate similar hepatic and renal cadmium uptake but significantly different cadmium accumulation in the reproductive organs at 24 h. The mechanism of the protective effect of zinc on cadmium toxicity was studied by assessing the impact of zinc acetate (ZnAc) treatment on cadmium concentrations in 129/J mice after 24 h. Zinc pretreatment (250 {mu}mol/kg ZnAc), given 24 h prior to 20 {mu}mol/kg CdCl{sub 2} administration, significantly decreased the amount of cadmium in the testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle of 129/J mice, and significantly increased the cadmium content of the liver after 24 h. Cadmium levels in the kidney were unaffected at this time. Zinc pretreatment also prevented the cadmium-induced decrease in testicular sperm concentration and epididymal sperm motility seen in 129/J mice. These findings suggest that the differences in the two murine strains may be attributed partly to the differential accumulation of cadmium in murine gonads. This may be caused by strain differences in the specificity of cadmium transport mechanisms. The protective role of zinc in cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in the sensitive strain may be due to an interference in the cadmium uptake by susceptible

  2. The Effects of Superovulation Prior to Mating and Zinc Supplementation on Milk Yields in Etawah-Grade Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriani Adriani

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six Etawah-grade does (BW ranged from 20.4 to 44.2 kg and age ranged from 2.5 to 7 years were used to study the effects of superovulation prior to mating and zinc supplementation on milk yields. The experimental does were assigned into a randomized block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. The first factor was PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin injection with 2 levels (0 IU/kg BW [nonsuperovulation–NSO] and 15 IU/kg BW [Superovulation–SO]. The second factor was zinc concentration in the diet with 3 levels (40 mg/kg DM [Z-40], 60 mg/kg DM [Z-60], and 80 mg/kg DM [Z-80]. Intravaginal sponge (60 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate was applied for 14 days to synchronize estrus cycle. Twenty four  hours prior to sponge removal, PMSG was injected  to  stimulate superovulation. After  sponge removal,  5 experimental does  were mixed with 1 buck for natural mating. During  pregnancy  the experimental does were fed and  raised in   individual stables. Udder volume  was measured every other week from weeks 12 to 21 of  pregnancy.  During lactation  (one week to  5 months post partum kids were separated from the does, and   milk was harvested by hand milking. Milk samples were taken every other week for determination of milk quality. The results  indicated that  superovulation increased udder differential growth  by 80% (822.85 vs 1481.25 cm3/head, milk yield by  32% (567.14 vs 746.52 g/head/day.  Zinc concentration  increased udder differential growth and milk yield. Milk productions for does receiving 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg DM were 565.68, 737.88 and 666.92 g/day, respectively.It was concluded that  superovulation and zinc supplementation  increased milk  yield in Etawah Grade does. (Animal Production 6(2: 86-94 (2004   Key Words:  Superovulation, Zinc, Milk  Yield, Etawah-Grade

  3. The effect of severe zinc deficiency and zinc supplement on spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi Boroujeni, S; Naghdi, N; Shahbazi, M; Farrokhi, A; Bagherzadeh, F; Kazemnejad, A; Javadian, M

    2009-07-01

    Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and during lactation has been shown to impair cognitive function and motor activity in offspring rats. In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency and zinc supplement on spatial learning and memory in Morris Water Maze (MWM) and motor activity in open field were investigated. Pregnant rats after mating were divided to three groups. Control group fed a standard diet and a zinc deficient (ZnD) group fed a diet deficient in zinc (0.5-1.5 ppm) and a zinc supplement (ZnS) group fed a standard diet and enhanced zinc in the drinking water (10 ppm). All the diets were exposed during the last trisemester of pregnancy and during lactation. Rat's offspring in these groups were tested for spatial learning and memory in MWM at post natal day (PND) 56 and were tested for motor activity in open field at PND 66.The Escape Latency (EL) and Traveled Distance (TD) in the ZnD group were increased but Percentage of Time Spent in the target quadrant (PTS) was decreased compared to the control group. In addition, these were no significant differences in EL and TD, but PTS had significant increase in ZnS compared to the control group. In the open field, Total Distance Moved (TDM) and Time of Motor Activity (TMA) for the ZnD were decreased compared to the control group, but there were no significant differences in TDM and TMA between control and ZnS groups. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation impaired spatial learning and memory in their offsprings and has also negative effect on motor activity. In addition, ZnS has a significant effect on spatial learning and memory but no effect on motor activity in their offsprings.

  4. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly AN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly,1 Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim,1 Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad,2 Jehan H Sabry,3 Nashwa Said Sherbini11Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shibin Al Kawm, 3Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion: There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. Keywords: serum zinc, serum leptin

  5. Construction and application of a zinc-specific biosensor for assessing the immobilization and bioavailability of zinc in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pulin; Huang Qiaoyun; Chen Wenli

    2012-01-01

    The inducibility and specificity of different czcRS operons in Pseudomonas putida X4 were studied by lacZ gene fusions. The data of β-glycosidase activity confirmed that the czcR3 promoter responded quantitatively to zinc. A zinc-specific biosensor, P. putida X4 (pczcR3GFP), was constructed by fusing a promoterless enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene with the czcR3 promoter in the chromosome of P. putida X4. In water extracts of four different soils amended with zinc, the reporter strain detected about 90% of the zinc content of the samples. Both the bioavailability assessment and the sequential extraction analysis demonstrated that the immobilization of zinc was highly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of soils. The results also showed that the lability of zinc decreased over time. It is concluded that the biosensor constitutes an alternative system for the convenient evaluation of zinc toxicity in the environment. - Highlights: ► A zinc-specific bacterial biosensor was developed. ► Four spiked soils were used to test the application of this biosensor. ► The bioavailable zinc in soil-water extracts decreased due to aging. ► The immobilization and speciation of zinc were highly dependent on the soil type. - The immobilization and bioavailability of zinc in soil were investigated as a function of soil type and aging by a newly constructed zinc-specific biosensor coupled with chemical analysis.

  6. Inhibitory zinc-enriched terminals in mouse spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Jo, S M; Varea, E

    2001-01-01

    The ultrastructural localization of zinc transporter-3, glutamate decarboxylase and zinc ions in zinc-enriched terminals in the mouse spinal cord was studied by zinc transporter-3 and glutamate decarboxylase immunohistochemistry and zinc selenium autometallography, respectively.The distribution...

  7. Factors influencing zinc status of apparently healthy indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Vaishali V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tarwadi, Kirtan V

    2005-10-01

    To identify dietary, environmental and socio-economic factors associated with mild zinc deficiency, three zinc status indices; erythrocyte membrane zinc (RBCMZn), plasma zinc and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed in free living and apparently healthy Indian population. Dietary patterns of 232 men and 223 women (20-65 yr) from rural, industrial and urban regions of Western India were evaluated by food frequency questionnaire. RBCMZn was estimated using atomic absorption spectrometry, hemoglobin and serum ceruloplasmin by spectrophotometer. On a sub sample (48 men and 51 women) plasma zinc and SOD were also assessed. Mean RBCMZn was 0.5 +/- 0.1 micromols/g protein with 46% individuals showing zinc deficiency. Mean plasma zinc was 0.98 +/- 0.12 microg/mL with 25% men and 2.5% women having values below normal range. Mean SOD was 0.97 +/- 0.1 (u/mL cells). A significant positive correlation was observed between intakes of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and milk products with RBCMZn status (p plasma zinc (p > 0.2). Cereal and legume intakes were negatively correlated with RBCMZn (p plasma zinc (p 0.2). Fruit and other vegetable intake were positively correlated with SOD (p Plasma zinc indicated positive association with zinc, thiamin and riboflavin intakes (p plasma zinc and SOD. Prominent determinants of zinc status were intakes of beta-carotene and zinc along with environmental conditions and family size.

  8. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered

  9. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg+-acetic acid complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D.

    2006-11-01

    We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg+-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC2H4O2]+ complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg+-acetic acid association complex with Mg+ bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg+-acetic acid association complex with Mg+ bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg+-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg+-based 3p←3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg+, MgOH+, Mg(H2O )+, CH3CO+, and MgCH3+. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H2O)+, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

  10. X-ray diffraction studies of chitosan acetate-based polymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Z.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Abdul Kariem Arof

    2002-01-01

    Chitosan is the product when partially deacetylated chitin dissolves in dilute acetic acid. This paper presents the x-ray diffraction patterns of chitosan acetate, plasticised chitosan acetate and plasticised-salted chitosan acetate films. The results show that the chitosan acetate based polymer electrolyte films are not completely amorphous but it is partially crystalline. X-ray diffraction study also confirms the occurrence of the complexation between chitosan and the salt and the interaction between salt and plasticizer. The salt-chitosan interaction is clearly justified by infrared spectroscopy. (Author)

  11. The zinc-myoglobin relationships in porcine muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogd Joergensen, P.; Wegger, I.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc and myoglobin content in muscles from pigs were studied under various conditions. Zinc concentration was considerably higher in red than in white muscles. In muscles, where the metabolic pattern changes from glycolytic to oxidative during the period from birth to weaning, a simultaneous increase in zinc content was seen. A significant positive correlation exists between myoglobin and zinc content under normal conditions. However, while myoglobin concentration decreases due to iron deficiency anaemia no changes occur in zinc content. It is concluded that no functional link seems to exist between zinc metabolism and myoglobin synthesis in porcine muscles. (author)

  12. Zinc prevents sickness behavior induced by lipopolysaccharides after a stress challenge in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago B Kirsten

    Full Text Available Sickness behavior is considered part of the specific beneficial adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in individuals in response to infectious/inflammatory processes. However, in dangerous and stressful situations, sickness behavior should be momentarily abrogated to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight or flight. Taking this assumption into account, we experimentally induced sickness behavior in rats using lipopolysaccharides (LPS, an endotoxin that mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, and then exposed these rats to a restraint stress challenge. Zinc has been shown to play a regulatory role in the immune and nervous systems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of zinc treatment on the sickness response of stress-challenged rats. We evaluated 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behavior, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, corticosterone, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plasma levels. LPS administration induced sickness behavior in rats compared to controls, i.e., decreases in the distance traveled, average velocity, rearing frequency, self-grooming, and number of vocalizations, as well as an increase in the plasma levels of TNF-α, compared with controls after a stressor challenge. LPS also decreased BDNF expression but did not influence anxiety parameters. Zinc treatment was able to prevent sickness behavior in LPS-exposed rats after the stress challenge, restoring exploratory/motor behaviors, communication, and TNF-α levels similar to those of the control group. Thus, zinc treatment appears to be beneficial for sick animals when they are facing risky/stressful situations.

  13. Multimicronutrient supplementation in older persons decreased zinc deficiency but not serum TNF-á

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Herwana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the population of older persons needs to be accompanied by increased quality of healthcare in older persons, particularly a decrease in the incidence of infections. Impaired immune responses are common in older adults, and immune senescence likely contributes to the increased incidence of infectious diseases in the older persons. The aging process decreases the immune response and many studies have been conducted to explain the role of supplementation with various micronutrients, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, â-carotene and zinc, on the immune response. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of 6 months of multi-micronutrient (MMN supplementation on zinc and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-á levels in older persons. A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 78 older persons, who were divided into two groups. The treatment group received MMN supplementation containing 40 mg elemental zinc, 120 mg ascorbic acid, 6 mg â-carotene, 15 mg á-tocopherol and 400 ìg folic acid and the control group 400 mg calcium carbonate. The study did not demonstrate that 6 months of MMN supplementation resulted in significant differences between both groups, with respect to total protein, albumin, globulin, and TNF-á levels. In contrast, MMN supplementation significantly decreased the proportion of older persons with zinc deficiency in the treatment group, in comparison with the control group. The present data suggest that in older persons with relatively good immune and protein status, improvement of the immune status by MMN supplementation may be difficult and at best limited.

  14. Revisiting and re-engineering the classical zinc finger peptide: consensus peptide-1 (CP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besold, Angelique N; Widger, Leland R; Namuswe, Frances; Michalek, Jamie L; Michel, Sarah L J; Goldberg, David P

    2016-04-01

    Zinc plays key structural and catalytic roles in biology. Structural zinc sites are often referred to as zinc finger (ZF) sites, and the classical ZF contains a Cys2His2 motif that is involved in coordinating Zn(II). An optimized Cys2His2 ZF, named consensus peptide 1 (CP-1), was identified more than 20 years ago using a limited set of sequenced proteins. We have reexamined the CP-1 sequence, using our current, much larger database of sequenced proteins that have been identified from high-throughput sequencing methods, and found the sequence to be largely unchanged. The CCHH ligand set of CP-1 was then altered to a CAHH motif to impart hydrolytic activity. This ligand set mimics the His2Cys ligand set of peptide deformylase (PDF), a hydrolytically active M(II)-centered (M = Zn or Fe) protein. The resultant peptide [CP-1(CAHH)] was evaluated for its ability to coordinate Zn(II) and Co(II) ions, adopt secondary structure, and promote hydrolysis. CP-1(CAHH) was found to coordinate Co(II) and Zn(II) and a pentacoordinate geometry for Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) was implicated from UV-vis data. This suggests a His2Cys(H2O)2 environment at the metal center. The Zn(II)-bound CP-1(CAHH) was shown to adopt partial secondary structure by 1-D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both Zn(II)-CP-1(CAHH) and Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) show good hydrolytic activity toward the test substrate 4-nitrophenyl acetate, exhibiting faster rates than most active synthetic Zn(II) complexes.

  15. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therien, Jesse B; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Posewitz, Matthew C; Bryant, Donald A; Peters, John W

    2014-01-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. Here we demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Optimal growth conditions for co-cultivation of C. reinhardtii with wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. 7002 were established. In co-culture, acetate produced by a glycogen synthase knockout mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was able to support the growth of a lipid-accumulating mutant strain of C. reinhardtii defective in starch production. Encapsulation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 using an alginate matrix was successfully employed in co-cultures to limit growth and maintain the stability. The ability of immobilized strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce acetate at a level adequate to support the growth of lipid-accumulating strains of C. reinhartdii offers a potentially practical, photosynthetic alternative to providing exogenous acetate into growth media.

  16. Application of dual phase imaging of 11C-acetate positron emission tomography on differential diagnosis of small hepatic lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previously we observed that dual phase 11C-acetate positron emission tomography (AC-PET could be employed for differential diagnosis of liver malignancies. In this study, we prospectively evaluated the effect of dual phase AC-PET on differential diagnosis of primary hepatic lesions of 1-3 cm in size. METHODS: 33 patients having primary hepatic lesions with size of 1-3 cm in diameter undertook dual phase AC-PET scans. Procedure included an early upper-abdomen scan immediately after tracer injection and a conventional scan in 11-18 min. The standardized uptake value (SUV was calculated for tumor (SUVT and normal tissue (SUVB, from which 11C-acetate uptake ratio (as lesion against normal liver tissue, SUVT/SUVB in early imaging (R1, conventional imaging (R2, and variance between R2 and R1 (ΔR were derived. Diagnoses based on AC-PET data and histology were compared. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. RESULTS: 20 patients were found to have HCC and 13 patients had benign tumors. Using ΔR>0 as criterion for malignancy, the accuracy and specificity were significantly increased comparing with conventional method. The area under ROC curve (AUC for R1, R2, and ΔR were 0.417, 0.683 and 0.831 respectively. Differential diagnosis between well-differentiated HCCs and benign lesions of FNHs and hemangiomas achieved 100% correct. Strong positive correlation was also found between R1 and R2 in HCC (r2 = 0.55, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Dual phase AC-PET scan is a useful procedure for differential diagnosis of well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma and benign lesions. The dynamic changes of 11C-acetate uptake in dual phase imaging provided key information for final diagnosis.

  17. Synthesis, spectral properties and thermal behaviour of zinc(II) acetylsalicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambi, John N.; Nsehyuka, Alfred T.; Egbewatt, Nkongho; Cafferata, Lazaro F.R.; Arvia, Alejandro J

    2003-03-05

    The thermal behaviour of zinc(II) acetylsalicylate [Zn(acsa){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}] with respect to phase transitions, pyrolysis both in air and inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere, and product identification has been investigated. The complex was synthesised by metathesis in hot ethanol solution using aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) as precursor and characterised via electronic and IR spectral analyses. Optical observations showed that the white salt does not undergo a direct transition from the solid to the liquid phase but rather goes slowly through an intermediate mesophase around 80 deg. C before melting rapidly to the brick-brown isotropic liquid around 134-136 deg. C. No liquid crystalline phases are however formed. This result was complemented by that from thermogravimetric (TG) studies in the ca. 25-600 deg. C range, which showed three main weight-loss phases of 8.0, 50.0 and 14.0% (around 200, 250 and 400 deg. C) corresponding, respectively, to the elimination of CO{sub 2}, xanthone and acetic acid. The pyrolysis products, as identified using a combination of instrumental (GC-MS) and wet chemical techniques are: CO{sub 2}; non-stoichiometric zinc oxide, most likely in the form: Zn{sub 1+x}O (where 0.0000{<=}x{<=}0.0003); and a mixture of organic products resulting from further decomposition, charring and other attendant thermal effects at the relatively high temperatures (ca. 600 deg. C) involved. Six of the principal organic products were identified and included salsalate and benorylate which are pro-drugs of salicylic acid, a well-known pharmaceutical.

  18. Non-Chromate Passivation of Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Phos). The treatments are within the same concentration region, and they have a mutual pat-ent pending. Although some tests still need to be conducted, the following aspects are clear at the present time: The general appearance of the passivated zinc surface is very similar to a standard yellow chromate treatment...... successfully. The corrosion resistance against white rust on zinc and zinc alloys is just as good as that of yellow chromate, although the result de-pends on the corrosion test method as well as on the nature of the zinc substrate pas-sivated. The passivation procedure is simply a dip for approxi-mately 2...

  19. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  20. Effects of serum zinc level on tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Salturk, Ziya; Uyar, Yavuz; Atar, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess zinc levels in tinnitus patients, and to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on tinnitus and hearing loss. One-hundred patients, who presented to an outpatient clinic with tinnitus between June 2009 and 2014, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (patients between 18 and 30years of age); Group II (patients between 31 and 60years of age); and Group III (patients between 61 and 78years of age). Following a complete ear, nose and throat examination, serum zinc levels were measured and the severity of tinnitus was quantified using the Tinnitus Severity Index Questionnaire (TSIQ). Patients were subsequently asked to provide a subjective judgment regarding the loudness of their tinnitus. The hearing status of patients was evaluated by audiometry and high-frequency audiometry. An average hearing sensitivity was calculated as the mean value of hearing thresholds between 250 and 20,000Hz. Serum zinc levels between 70 and 120μg/dl were considered normal. The severity and loudness of tinnitus, and the hearing thresholds of the normal zinc level and zinc-deficient groups, were compared. Twelve of 100 (12%) patients exhibited low zinc levels. The mean age of the zinc-deficient group was 65.41±12.77years. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in group III (p<0.01). The severity and loudness of tinnitus were greater in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.011 and p=0.015, respectively). Moreover, the mean thresholds of air conduction were significantly higher in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.000). We observed that zinc levels decrease as age increases. In addition, there was a significant correlation between zinc level and the severity and loudness of tinnitus. Zinc deficiency was also associated with impairments in hearing thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Absorbed zinc and exchangeable zinc pool size are significantly greater in Pakistani infants receiving traditional complementary foods with zinc fortified micronutrient powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Shabina; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Krebs, Nancy; Westcott, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Adequacy of zinc intake from breast milk alone becomes marginal in relation to infant requirements by around six months of age. Simple and cost effective strategies are needed at population level to ensure adequate intakes of zinc in infants and toddlers in populations at risk of zinc deficiency. We determined the amount of absorbed zinc (AZ) from a micronutrient powder (MNP) without and with 10 mg of zinc (MNP, MNP+Zn, respectively) added to local complementary foods used in Pakistan, and the impact on the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) size. As a nested study within a large prospective cluster randomized trial, 6 month old infants were randomized to receive MNP or MNP+Zn. Stable isotope methodology was applied after ~ 3 and 9 months of use to measure AZ from MNP-fortified test meals of rice-lentils (khitchri) and EZP. Nineteen infants per group completed the first metabolic studies; 14 and 17 infants in MNP and MNP+Zn groups, completed the follow-up studies. Mean (±SD) AZs were 0.1± 0.1 and 1.2±0.5 mg at the first point for the MNP and MNP+Zn groups, respectively (p <0.001); results were nearly identical at the follow-up measurement. EZP did not differ between groups at the first measurement but was less in the MNP group (3.7±0.6 mg/kg) than in the MNP+Zn group (4.5±1.0 mg/kg) at the second measurement (P = 0.01). These data confirm that the MNP+Zn in khitchri were well absorbed, and after a year of home fortification, zinc status assessed by EZP was significantly better for the MNP+Zn group. Additional field studies may be necessary to ascertain the adequacy of this dose for infants at high risk of deficiency. (author)

  2. Effect of irrigation water salinity and zinc application on yield, yield components and zinc accumulation of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the most important problems of agriculture in crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Under these conditions, in addition to management strategies, proper and adequate nutrition also has an important role in crop improvement. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of 4 different irrigation water salinities (blank, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1, prepared with 1:1 molar ratio of chlorides of calcium and sodium and magnesium sulphate salts. and 5 different zinc applications (0, 10, 20, 30 mg Kg-1 soil and foliar application of salt of zinc sulphate on yield, yield components and zinc concentration of wheat, using a completely randomized design, factorial with three replications. Plant height, spike length, 1000 grain weight, number of grain per spike, grain and straw yield was decreased by Irrigation water salinity. And all of these parameters were improved by zinc application except 1000 grain weight. Zinc absorption and concentration in straw and grain was decreased by Saline water compared to blank. And concentration of zinc significantly was increased in straw and grain by increase zinc application. The results indicated that, zinc application under low to medium salinity conditions improved growth and yield of wheat due to decreasing the impacts salinity.

  3. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meika Foster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (−1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001; and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (−1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001. Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

  4. Zinc Deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Zinc deficiency affects multiple vital functions in the life cycle, especially growth. Limited information is available on the magnitude of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. To examine the latest available information on both the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was identified through a systematic review looking for the latest available data on serum zinc concentrations from surveys or studies with national representativeness conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. The risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated based on dietary zinc inadequacy (according to the 2011 National Food Balance Sheets) and stunting in children under 5 years of age. Only four countries had available national biochemical data. Mexican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Guatemalan children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age had a high prevalence of zinc deficiency (19.1% to 56.3%). The countries with the highest risk of zinc deficiency (estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake > 25% plus prevalence of stunting > 20%) were Belize, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Zinc dietary inadequacy was directly correlated with stunting (r = 0.64, p zinc deficiency in children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age. High rates of both estimated zinc dietary inadequacy and stunting were also reported in most Latin America and Caribbean countries.

  5. Zinc-enriched boutons in rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Danscher, G; Jo, S M

    2000-01-01

    The rat spinal cord reveals a complex pattern of zinc-enriched (ZEN) boutons. As a result of in vivo exposure to selenide ions, nanosized clusters of zinc selenide are created in places where zinc ions are present, including the zinc-containing synaptic vesicles of ZEN boutons. The clusters can...

  6. Heterotrophic utilization of acetate and glucose in Swartvlei, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robarts, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The utilization of dissolved organic compounds in Swartvlei was measured by the addition of single concentrations of 14 C-labelled acetate and glucose to water samples. The results indicated acetate uptake was greatest in the aerobic zone while glucose was predominantly utilized in the anaerobic zone. With the exception of two months, integral glucose uptake was usually greater than the uptake of acetate. In August and September 1971 acetate was indicated as being utilized predominantly by flagellates and in December 1971 by dinoflagellates. During the remainder of the study, bacteria were assumed to be responsible for the uptake of acetate. The extensive weed beds which surround the upper reaches of Swartvlei may be a major source of acetate and glucose in the pelagic water column

  7. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  8. Prediction of Serum Zinc Levels in Mexican Children at 2 Years of Age Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and Different Zinc Bioavailability Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, Alejandra; Téllez-Rojo, Martha; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-06-01

    The 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey documented a prevalence of zinc deficiency of almost 30% in children under 2 years of age. We sought to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for quantifying dietary bioavailable zinc intake in 2-year-old Mexican children accounting for phytic acid intake and using serum zinc as a reference. This cross-sectional study was nested within a longitudinal birth cohort of 333 young children in Mexico City. Nonfasting serum zinc concentration was measured and dietary zinc intake was calculated on the basis of a semiquantitative FFQ administered to their mothers. The relationship between dietary zinc intake and serum zinc was assessed using linear regression, adjusting for phytic acid intake, and analyzed according to two distinct international criteria to estimate bioavailable zinc. Models were stratified by zinc deficiency status. Dietary zinc, adjusted for phytic acid intake, explained the greatest proportion of the variance of serum zinc. For each milligram of dietary zinc intake, serum zinc increased on average by 0.95 μg/dL (0.15 μmol/L) (p = .06). When stratified by zinc status, this increase was 0.74 μg/dL (p = .12) for each milligram of zinc consumed among children with adequate serum zinc (n = 276), whereas among those children with zinc deficiency (n = 57), serum zinc increased by only 0.11 μg/dL (p = .82). A semiquantitative FFQ can be used for predicting serum zinc in relation to dietary intake in young children, particularly among those who are zinc-replete, and when phytic acid or phytate intake is considered. Future studies should be conducted accounting for both zinc status and dietary zinc inhibitors to further elucidate and validate these findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz; Mehl, Marco; Lokachari, Nitin; Nilsson, Elna J.K.; Konnov, Alexander A.; Wagnon, Scott W.; Pitz, William J.; Curran, Henry J.; Roberts, William L.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  10. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2017-12-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  11. From zinc selenate to zinc selenide nano structures synthesized by reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutagalung, S.D.; Eng, S.T.; Ahmad, Z.A.; Ishak Mat; Yussof Wahab

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional nano structure materials are very attractive because of their electronic and optical properties depending on their size. It is well known that properties of material can be tuned by reducing size to nano scale because at the small sizes, that they behave differently with its bulk materials and the band gap will control by the size. The tunability of the band gap makes nano structured materials useful for many applications. As one of the wide band gaps semiconductor compounds, zinc selenide (ZnSe) nano structures (nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods) have received much attention for the application in optoelectronic devices, such as blue laser diode, light emitting diodes, solar cells and IR optical windows. In this study, ZnSe nano structures have been synthesized by reduction process of zinc selenate using hydrazine hydrate (N 2 H 4 .2H 2 O). The reductive agent of hydrazine hydrate was added to the starting materials of zinc selenate were heat treated at 500 degree Celsius for 1 hour under argon flow to form one-dimensional nano structures. The SEM and TEM images show the formation of nano composite-like structure, which some small nano bar and nano pellets stick to the rod. The x-ray diffraction and elemental composition analysis confirm the formation of mixture zinc oxide and zinc selenide phases. (author)

  12. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  13. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Maxwell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache.We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats.Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity.Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

  14. Expression of zinc transporter genes in rice as influenced by zinc-solubilizing Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj eKrithika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in major food crops has been considered as an important factor affecting the crop production and subsequently the human health. Rice (Oryza sativa is sensitive to Zn deficiency and thereby causes malnutrition to most of the rice-eating Asian populations. Application of zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB could be a sustainable agronomic approach to increase the soil available Zn which can mitigate the yield loss and consequently the nutritional quality of rice. Understanding the molecular interactions between rice and unexplored ZSB is useful for overcoming Zn deficiency problems. In the present study, the role of zinc solubilizing bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14 on regulation of Zn-regulated transporters and iron (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP genes in rice under iron sufficient and deficient conditions was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The expression patterns of OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 in root and shoot of rice were altered due to the Zn availability as dictated by Zn sources and ZSB inoculation. Fe sufficiency significantly reduced the root and shoot OsZIP1 expression, but not the OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 levels. Zinc oxide in the growth medium up-regulated all the assessed ZIP genes in root and shoot of rice seedlings. When ZSB was inoculated to rice seedlings grown with insoluble zinc oxide in the growth medium, the expression of root and shoot OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 was reduced. In the absence of zinc oxide, ZSB inoculation up-regulated OsZIP1 and OsZIP5 expressions. Zinc nutrition provided to the rice seedling through ZSB-bound zinc oxide solubilization was comparable to the soluble zinc sulphate application which was evident through the ZIP genes’ expression and the Zn accumulation in root and shoot of rice seedlings. These results demonstrate that zinc solubilizing bacteria could play a crucial role in zinc fertilization and fortification of rice.

  15. Effect of gypsum, pressmud, fulvic acid and zinc sources on yield and zinc uptake by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, M.

    1980-01-01

    The application of fulvic acid to a saline-sodic soil augmented the solubility of zinc by thousands fold. Zinc fulvate when applied at levels equivalent to that of zinc sulphate was more effective in enhancing diffusion of zinc in the soil. Application of gypsum, zinc sulphate and fulvic acid significantly increased dry matter yield and uptake of zinc by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil. Application of gypsum with pressmud or with fulvic acid and zinc sulphate resulted in significantly higher yield and zinc uptake than in other treatments. (orig.)

  16. Zinc Binding by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mrvčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element in all organisms. A common method for the prevention of zinc deficiency is pharmacological supplementation, especially in a highly available form of a metalloprotein complex. The potential of different microbes to bind essential and toxic heavy metals has recently been recognized. In this work, biosorption of zinc by lactic acid bacteria (LAB has been investigated. Specific LAB were assessed for their ability to bind zinc from a water solution. Significant amount of zinc ions was bound, and this binding was found to be LAB species-specific. Differences among the species in binding performance at a concentration range between 10–90 mg/L were evaluated with Langmuir model for biosorption. Binding of zinc was a fast process, strongly influenced by ionic strength, pH, biomass concentration, and temperature. The most effective metal-binding LAB species was Leuconostoc mesenteroides (27.10 mg of Zn2+ per gram of dry mass bound at pH=5 and 32 °C, during 24 h. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis and electron microscopy demonstrated that passive adsorption and active uptake of the zinc ions were involved.

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Trent and zinc homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Changes in zinc status and zinc transporters expression in whole blood of patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Daniela; Molina-López, Jorge; Hogstrand, Christer; Lengyel, Imre; de la Cruz, Antonio Pérez; Rodríguez-Elvira, Manuel; Planells, Elena

    2018-09-01

    Critically ill patients develop severe stress, inflammation and a clinical state that may raise the utilization and metabolic replacement of many nutrients and especially zinc, depleting their body reserves. This study was designed to assess the zinc status in critical care patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), comparing them with a group of healthy people, and studying the association with expression of zinc transporters. This investigation was a prospective, multicentre, comparative, observational and analytic study. Twelve critically ill patients from different hospitals and 12 healthy subjects from Granada, Spain, all with informed consent were recruited. Data on daily nutritional assessment, ICU severity scores, inflammation, clinical and nutritional parameters, plasma and blood cell zinc concentrations, and levels of transcripts for zinc transporters in whole blood were taken at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. Zinc levels on critical ill patient are diminish comparing with the healthy control (HS: 0.94 ± 0.19; CIPF: 0.67 ± 0.16 mg/dL). The 58% of critical ill patients showed zinc plasma deficiency at beginning of study while 50.0% of critical ill after 7 days of ICU stay. ZnT7, ZIP4 and ZIP9 were the zinc transporters with highest expression in whole blood. In general, all zinc transporters were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05) in the critical ill population at admission in comparison with healthy subjects. Severity scores and inflammation were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with zinc plasma levels, and zinc transporters ZIP3, ZIP4, ZIP8, ZnT6, ZnT7. Expression of 11 out of 24 zinc transporters was analysed, and ZnT1, ZnT4, ZnT5 and ZIP4, which were downregulated by more than 3-fold in whole blood of patients. In summary, in our study an alteration of zinc status was related with the severity-of-illness scores and inflammation in critical ill patients since admission in ICU stay. SIRS

  19. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  20. Vacuolar zinc transporter Zrc1 is required for detoxification of excess intracellular zinc in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minsu; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W; Jung, Won Hee

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an important transition metal in all living organisms and is required for numerous biological processes. However, excess zinc can also be toxic to cells and cause cellular stress. In the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a vacuolar zinc transporter, Zrc1, plays important roles in the storage and detoxification of excess intracellular zinc to protect the cell. In this study, we identified an ortholog of the S. cerevisiae ZRC1 gene in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Zrc1 was localized in the vacuolar membrane in C. neoformans, and a mutant lacking ZRC1 showed significant growth defects under high-zinc conditions. These results suggested a role for Zrc1 in zinc detoxification. However, contrary to our expectation, the expression of Zrc1 was induced in cells grown in zinc-limited conditions and decreased upon the addition of zinc. These expression patterns were similar to those of Zip1, the high-affinity zinc transporter in the plasma membrane of C. neoformans. Furthermore, we used the zrc1 mutant in a murine model of cryptococcosis to examine whether a mammalian host could inhibit the survival of C. neoformans using zinc toxicity. We found that the mutant showed no difference in virulence compared with the wildtype strain. This result suggests that Zrc1-mediated zinc detoxification is not required for the virulence of C. neoformans, and imply that zinc toxicity may not be an important aspect of the host immune response to the fungus.

  1. Addressing Cellulose Acetate Microfilm from a British Library perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Shenton

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about cellulose acetate microfilm from the British Library perspective. It traces how acetate microfilm became an issue for the British Library and describes cellulose acetate deterioration. This is followed by details of what has already been done about the situation and what action is planned for the future.

  2. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  3. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure...... having a first coating of the zinc-containing coating composition applied onto at least a part of the metal structure in a dry film thickness of 5-100 µm; and an outer coating applied onto said zinc-containing coating in a dry film thickness of 30-200 µm; (iii) a particulate zinc-based alloyed material......, wherein the material comprises 0.05-0.7%(w/w) of bismuth (Bi), and wherein the D50 of the particulate material is in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (iv) a composite powder consisting of at least 25%(w/w) of the particulate zinc-based alloyed material, the rest being a particulate material consisting of zinc...

  4. Anti-corrosive Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tube and Zinc Particle Shapes on Zinc Ethyl Silicate Coated Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, JiMan; Shon, MinYoung; Kwak, SamTak [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Zinc ethyl silicate coatings containing multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared, to which we added spherical and flake shaped zinc particles. The anti-corrosive effects of MWCNTs and zinc shapes on the zinc ethyl silicate coated carbon steel was examined, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and corrosion potential measurement. The results of EIS and corrosion potential measurement showed that the zinc ethyl silicate coated with flake shaped zinc particles and MWCNT showed lesser protection to corrosion. These outcomes were in agreement with previous results of corrosion potential and corrosion occurrence.

  5. Serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin concentrations in infants receiving intravenous zinc and copper supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W; Pendray, M R; Riddell, D; Quigley, G

    1983-02-01

    One hundred twenty-seven newborn infants requiring parenteral nutrition were randomly assigned to receive differing amounts of zinc (40 to 400 micrograms/kg/day) and copper (20 or 40 micrograms/kg/day) supplementation within five birth weight groups (600 to 2,500 gm). The serum zinc concentration remained relatively constant in the group receiving the most zinc supplementation after two weeks of therapy, but declined sharply in the groups receiving less supplementation. No effect of increased copper intake was noted on ceruloplasmin values, but a difference in serum copper concentrations was noted at two weeks. No correlation was noted between serum zinc and copper values or among those for serum zinc, retinol-binding protein, and prealbumin. Reference ranges were defined for serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin in the preterm infant.

  6. Fear-of-intimacy-mediated zinc transport controls the function of zinc-finger transcription factors involved in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Rando, Marta; Atienza-Manuel, Alexandra; Martín, Paloma; Burke, Richard; Ruiz-Gómez, Mar

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a component of one-tenth of all human proteins. Its cellular concentration is tightly regulated because its dyshomeostasis has catastrophic health consequences. Two families of zinc transporters control zinc homeostasis in organisms, but there is little information about their specific developmental roles. We show that the ZIP transporter Fear-of-intimacy (Foi) is necessary for the formation of Drosophila muscles. In foi mutants, myoblasts segregate normally, but their specification is affected, leading to the formation of a misshapen muscle pattern and distorted midgut. The observed phenotypes could be ascribed to the inactivation of specific zinc-finger transcription factors (ZFTFs), supporting the hypothesis that they are a consequence of intracellular depletion of zinc. Accordingly, foi phenotypes can be rescued by mesodermal expression of other ZIP members with similar subcellular localization. We propose that Foi acts mostly as a transporter to regulate zinc intracellular homeostasis, thereby impacting on the activity of ZFTFs that control specific developmental processes. Our results additionally suggest a possible explanation for the presence of large numbers of zinc transporters in organisms based on differences in ion transport specificity and/or degrees of activity among transporters. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Human ribosomal protein L37 has motifs predicting serine/threonine phosphorylation and a zinc-finger domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, G F; Staniunas, R J; Puder, M; Steele, G D; Chen, L B

    1994-08-02

    Ribosomal protein L37 mRNA is overexpressed in colon cancer. The nucleotide sequences of human L37 from several tumor and normal, colon and liver cDNA sources were determined to be identical. L37 mRNA was approximately 375 nucleotides long encoding 97 amino acids with M(r) = 11,070, pI = 12.6, multiple potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites and a zinc-finger domain. The human sequence is compared to other species.

  8. The relative contribution of natural zinc complexing agents and ZnSO4 to growth and zinc nutrition of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Prasad, B.

    1989-01-01

    Relative evaluation of different natural zinc-complexes indicated that application of Zn-FA 2 (PM), Zn-FA 3 (Comp), Zn-FA 1 (BGS), Zn-FA 5 (PR), Zn-FA 4 (SS) and ZnSO 4 significantly enhanced the drymatter yield and zinc uptake by maize. The natural zinc-complexes in particular increased, to a greater extent, the uptake of both native and applied sources than that observed with ZnSO 4 as zinc carrier. Significant positive relationship between self-diffusion coefficient of Zn and drymatter yield and uptake of zinc by maize suggested that diffusion is responsible for the supply of zinc from ambient soil matrix to plant roots. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  10. Study of iron-zinc catalysts by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriola, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Moessbauer parameters were determined on a series of catalyst mixtures of iron and zinc oxides with variable quantities of zinc. A change in the crystal structure of the iron oxide when introducing zinc into the samples was observed. The corundum structure of the α-Fe 2 O 3 phase was transformed into the spinel type of zinc ferrite when zinc oxide was present in any quantity. A strong electronic interaction between the zinc ferrite and the zinc oxide present in excess was evident. The catalysts were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence and x-ray diffraction methods. (author) 10 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Inhibitory effect of flavonoids from citrus plants on Epstein-Barr virus activation and two-stage carcinogenesis of skin tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Y; Takemura, Y; Ju-ichi, M; Ito, C; Furukawa, H; Kawaii, S; Yano, M; Mou, X Y; Takayasu, J; Tokuda, H; Nishino, H

    2000-06-01

    To search for possible anti-tumor promoters, thirteen flavones (1-13) obtained from the peel of Citrus plants were examined for their inhibitory effects on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation by a short-term in vitro assay. Of these flavones, 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (HPT) (13) exhibited significant inhibitory effects on the EBV-EA activation induced by the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). Further, compound 13 exhibited remarkable inhibitory effects on mouse skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test.

  12. Disorder effects in Mn(12)-acetate at 83 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornia, Andrea; Fabretti, Antonio Costantino; Sessoli, Roberta; Sorace, Lorenzo; Gatteschi, Dante; Barra, Anne-Laure; Daiguebonne, Carole; Roisnel, Thierry

    2002-07-01

    The structure of hexadeca-mu-acetato-tetraaquadodeca-mu(3)-oxo-dodecamanganese bis(acetic acid) tetrahydrate, [Mn(12)O(12)(CH(3)COO)(16)(H(2)O)(4)] x 2CH(3)COOH x 4H(2)O, known as Mn(12)-acetate, has been determined at 83 (2) K by X-ray diffraction methods. The fourfold (S(4)) molecular symmetry is disrupted by a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the disordered acetic acid molecule of solvation, which displaces one of the acetate ligands in the cluster. Up to six Mn(12) isomers are potentially present in the crystal lattice, which differ in the number and arrangement of hydrogen-bonded acetic acid molecules. These results considerably improve the structural information available on this molecular nanomagnet, which was first synthesized and characterized by Lis [Acta Cryst. (1980), B36, 2042-2046].

  13. Zinc Finger Takes on a Whole New Meaning: Reducing and Monitoring Zinc Blanks in the Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, E. B.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    In terms of avoiding contamination, zinc is one of the most difficult elements to study isotopically. The reason for this is that zinc stearate is a very common mold release agent in the production of plastics, including those most often used in isotope geochemistry clean labs. While polyethylene bottles, polypropylene centrifuge tubes, pipette tips, and Kimwipes are all potential sources of contaminant zinc, by far the largest amount of zinc is introduced to the laboratory by gloves. Most items can be effectively rid of zinc by soaking in dilute hydrochloric acid, but gloves cannot be cleaned easily, and use of gloves can quickly lead to contamination on many surfaces throughout the lab. We recently conducted several experiments in which dissolved zinc was partly adsorbed onto synthetic Mn oxyhydroxide particles. The dissolved and adsorbed pools were separated by filtration, purified with ion exchange chemistry, and analyzed for isotope composition by MC-ICP-MS. We used a commercially purchased ICP standard solution both as our standard (delta66/64Zn = 0) and as the source of the zinc in the experiments. Whenever gloves were worn during purification, process blanks contained as much as 150 ng Zn, and both the dissolved and adsorbed pools of zinc came out enriched in heavy isotopes relative to the starting pool, contrary to our expectation of mass balance. When gloves were not worn, blanks were brands of vinyl gloves, including one brand recommended to us for being “low” in zinc, measured +10‰ relative to our standard. We therefore concluded that glove zinc contaminated most of our experimental samples. We were only able to see such clear evidence of contamination because (1) we were doing an experiment in which we expected one light and one heavy pool of zinc compared to our standard, and (2) we happened to use an ICP standard solution for delta = 0 that is strongly enriched in light isotopes relative to both brands of gloves. We caution others who measure

  14. Morphologies of Sol–Gel Derived Thin Films of ZnO Using Different Precursor Materials and their Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Sudhir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWe have shown that the morphological features of the sol–gel derived thin films of ZnO depend strongly on the choice of the precursor materials. In particular, we have used zinc nitrate and zinc acetate as the precursor materials. While the films using zinc acetate showed a smoother topography, those prepared by using zinc nitrate exhibited dendritic character. Both types of films were found to be crystalline in nature. The crystallite dimensions were confined to the nanoscale. The crystallite size of the nanograins in the zinc nitrate derived films has been found to be smaller than the films grown by using zinc acetate as the precursor material. Selected area electron diffraction patterns in the case of both the precursor material has shown the presence of different rings corresponding to different planes of hexagonal ZnO crystal structure. The results have been discussed in terms of the fundamental considerations and basic chemistry governing the growth kinetics of these sol–gel derived ZnO films with both the precursor materials.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  17. Density, refraction index and vapor–liquid equilibria of N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate plus (methyl acetate or ethyl acetate or propyl acetate) at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, V.H.; Mattedi, S.; Aznar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities, refraction indices and VLE were measured for ester + m-2-HEAB mixtures. ► V E , apparent molar volumes and thermal expansion coefficients were calculated. ► Peng–Robinson EoS + Wong–Sandler mixing rule + COSMO-SAC predicted the data. -- Abstract: This paper reports the densities, refraction indices, and vapor liquid equilibria for binary systems ester + N-methyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium butyrate (m-2-HEAB): methyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB (2), ethyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB and propyl acetate (1) + m-2-HEAB (2). The excess molar volumes, deviations in the refraction index, apparent molar volumes, and thermal expansion coefficients for the binary systems were fitted to polynomial equations. The Peng–Robinson equation of state, coupled with the Wong–Sandler mixing rule, is used to describe the experimental data. Since the predictive activity coefficient model COSMO-SAC is used in the Wong–Sandler mixing rule, the resulting thermodynamic model is a completely predictive one. The prediction results for the density and for the vapor–liquid equilibria have a deviation lower than 1.0% and 1.1%, respectively

  18. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  19. Uptake and loss of dissolved zinc by the stickleback gasterosteus Aculeatus l. [Zinc 65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthiessen, P.; Brafield, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Uptake and loss by sticklebacks of both stable zinc and /sup 65/Zn in hard and soft water were studied for periods up to 400 h. In calcium-free water, the zinc uptake curve is approximately asymptotic over a period of 24 h, while in hard water internal Zn levels dropped at 24 h. Over 5 h, fish in hard tapwater absorb about 3 to 5 times more Zn than those in calcium-free water. There is positive linear correlation between log Zn uptake and log wet weight of fish. Whole-body concentration factors (c.f.) at 16 h reach a maximum of 12.2 (mean = 2.9), highest concentrations of Zn being found in the gills (mean c.f. = 5.1), and lowest concentrations in the gonads (mean c.f. = 0.8). Over longer periods (400 h), internal stable zinc levels of fish exposed to 1 and 4 ppM Zn/sup +2/ remain little higher than controls (max. 28%) /sup 65/Zn efflux in zinc-free water falls to zero after 5 h, more zinc (78%) being lost after uptake in tapwater than in calcium-free water (56%).

  20. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Sonodynamic and Photodynamic Therapies in a Colon Carcinoma Tumor Model (CT26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameneh Sazgarnia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Photodynamic therapy is a noninvasive therapeutic method for tumors with a maximum depth of 5 mm. On the other hand, most photosensitizers are also susceptible to ultrasound waves (the basis of sonodynamic therapy. Therefore, it is expected that a combination of the two therapeutic methods will increase effectiveness of photodynamic therapies for lower doses of sensitizer and curing deeper tumors. This study evaluates the synergistic effects of photodynamic and sonodynamic therapies.     Materials and methods: The study was conducted on a colon carcinoma tumor model in Balb/c mice. The colon carcinoma tumors were induced in the mice by subcutaneous injection. Twenty four hours after intraperitoneal injection of Zinc Phthalocyanine liposome as a sensitizer, at first ultrasound irradiation with a known frequency and intensity was performed followed by illumination of the tumor area. Evaluation of the treatment efficacy was done using daily measurement of the tumors and calculation of their relative volumes. Also, all control groups were considered to confirm the effect of each therapeutic option in the study.   Results: In the first ten days post treatment, the relative volumes of all groups decreased significantly in comparison with the main control group, but the best response was observed in the photodynamic or sonodynamic therapy groups. The longest doubling time of tumor size was related to groups under photodynamic, sonodynamic and main therapies, and the shortest belonged to the control group.   Discussion and conclusion: Zinc phthalocyanine liposome is both a photosensitizer and sonsensitizer. Photodynamic and sonodynamic therapies can be efficient in retarding tumor growth rate. In this study, combination of the two methods did not cause improved therapeutic outcomes. It is predicted that this result is related to the choice of therapeutic agents and could be optimized in future.

  1. Zinc Enolate/Sulfinate Prepared from a Single-Run Reaction Using Zinc Dust with O-Tosylated 4-Hydroxy Coumarin and Pyrone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ueon Sang; Joo, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Seung-Hoi [Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrated the preparation of new zinc complexes, 2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy tosylzinc (I), and 6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-yloxy tosylzinc (II), by the oxidative addition of readily available zinc dust into the corresponding 4-tosylated coumarin (A) and pyrone (B), respectively. Of special interest, the thus-obtained zinc complexes showed an electrophile-dependent reactivity. The subsequent coupling reactions of I and II with a variety of acid chlorides provided the O-acylation product in moderate yields. More interestingly, it should be emphasized that the thus-prepared zinc complexes (I and II) functioned both as zinc enolate and zinc sulfinate, providing C(3)-disubstituted product (b) and sulfone (c), respectively, from a single-run reaction when I or II was treated with benzyl halides. Even though somewhat low yields were achieved under the nonoptimized conditions, the novel zinc complexes present another potential application for zinc reagents. Versatile applications of this discovery are currently underway.

  2. Zinc Enolate/Sulfinate Prepared from a Single-Run Reaction Using Zinc Dust with O-Tosylated 4-Hydroxy Coumarin and Pyrone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ueon Sang; Joo, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Seung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated the preparation of new zinc complexes, 2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy tosylzinc (I), and 6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-yloxy tosylzinc (II), by the oxidative addition of readily available zinc dust into the corresponding 4-tosylated coumarin (A) and pyrone (B), respectively. Of special interest, the thus-obtained zinc complexes showed an electrophile-dependent reactivity. The subsequent coupling reactions of I and II with a variety of acid chlorides provided the O-acylation product in moderate yields. More interestingly, it should be emphasized that the thus-prepared zinc complexes (I and II) functioned both as zinc enolate and zinc sulfinate, providing C(3)-disubstituted product (b) and sulfone (c), respectively, from a single-run reaction when I or II was treated with benzyl halides. Even though somewhat low yields were achieved under the nonoptimized conditions, the novel zinc complexes present another potential application for zinc reagents. Versatile applications of this discovery are currently underway

  3. Radioisotopic investigations of zinc uptake into brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of zinc in the vicinity of the hippocampal mossy fibers has been repeatedly demonstrated, and several lines of evidence suggest that the mossy-fiber zinc is concentrated within the terminals of mossy fibers. In search of insight into the metabolism and function of mossy-fiber zinc, the present study investigated the transport of zinc into tissue slices and the response of the zinc transport to depolarization. Kinetic analysis of zinc accumulation by mouse brain slices in vitro revealed the presence of a high affinity uptake component with an apparent Km of 17.7 μM for hippocampus, 16.6 μM< for cortex and 25 μM for striatum and a V/sub max/ of 9.2 ng/mg/hr for the hippocampus, 10.1 ng/mg/hr for cortex and 9.6 ng/mg/hr for striatum. Cytoarchitectonic differences in zinc transport between the different hippocampal subregions were found with those regions containing granule cells or mossy fiber axons accumulating greater amounts of zinc than the CA 1 region. The present finding that mossy-fiber neuropil selectivity accumulates zinc suggests the presence of a zinc-binding substance unique to mossy-fiber tissue

  4. Daya antibakteri penambahan Propolis pada zinc oxide eugenol dan zinc oxide terhadap kuman campur gigi molar sulung non vital (The antibacterial effect of propolis additional to zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide on polybacteria of necrotic primary molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemy Ameliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Materials commonly used for root canal filling of primary teeth is zinc oxide eugenol. Eugenol has some disadvantages that can irritate the periapical tissues, has the risk of disturbing the growth and development of permanent tooth buds, and has a narrow antibacterial spectrum. Studies showed that propolis at concentration of 20 % has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of root canal pastes with the additional of propolis additional to zinc oxide eugenol (ZOEP and to zinc oxide (ZOP. Methods: Polybacteria cultures collected from root canals of necrotic primary molar from 5 children patients who received root canal treatment. The bacteria were grown in BHI Broth, and inoculated into Muller Hinton Agar media. The agar plates was divided into 3 areas, and one well was made at each area. The first well filled with ZOE as a control, second well filled with ZOEP and the third well filled with ZOP, then incubated for 24 hour at 370 C. Antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the diameters of inhibition zones of polybacteria growth. The data were statistically analyzed by independent T-test. Results: The pasta mixture of zinc oxide propolis had the strongest antibacterial activity against polybacteria of necrotic primary molar, followed by zinc oxide eugenol propolis paste, and zinc oxide eugenol paste. There were significant differences of inhibition zones between ZOE, ZOEP and ZOP (p<0,05. Conclusion: The study suggested that the additional of propolis to zinc oxide paste could increase the antimicrobial effect against root canal polybacteria of necrotic primary molar.Latar belakang: Bahan yang sering digunakan untuk pengisian saluran akar gigi sulung adalah zinc oxide eugenol. Eugenol memiliki beberapa kekurangan yaitu dapat mengiritasi jaringan periapikal, beresiko mengganggu pertumbuhan dan perkembangan benih gigi permanen pengganti

  5. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating e...

  6. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  7. Automatic design of deterministic and non-halting membrane systems by tuning syntactical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gexiang; Rong, Haina; Ou, Zhu; Pérez-Jiménez, Mario J; Gheorghe, Marian

    2014-09-01

    To solve the programmability issue of membrane computing models, the automatic design of membrane systems is a newly initiated and promising research direction. In this paper, we propose an automatic design method, Permutation Penalty Genetic Algorithm (PPGA), for a deterministic and non-halting membrane system by tuning membrane structures, initial objects and evolution rules. The main ideas of PPGA are the introduction of the permutation encoding technique for a membrane system, a penalty function evaluation approach for a candidate membrane system and a genetic algorithm for evolving a population of membrane systems toward a successful one fulfilling a given computational task. Experimental results show that PPGA can successfully accomplish the automatic design of a cell-like membrane system for computing the square of n ( n ≥ 1 is a natural number) and can find the minimal membrane systems with respect to their membrane structures, alphabet, initial objects, and evolution rules for fulfilling the given task. We also provide the guidelines on how to set the parameters of PPGA.

  8. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J A Craddock

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau, and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1 used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2 performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3 used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of

  9. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Chopra, Deepak; Casey, Noel; Goldstein, Lee E; Hameroff, Stuart R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau), and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques) not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1) used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2) performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3) used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of polymerized

  10. Activity incorporation into zinc doped PWR oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, Kari

    1998-01-01

    Activity incorporation into the oxide layers of PWR primary circuit constructional materials has been studied in Halden since 1993. The first zinc injection tests showed that zinc addition resulted in thinner oxide layers on new metal surfaces and reduced further incorporation of activity into already existing oxides. These tests were continued to find out the effects of previous zinc additions on the pickup of activity onto the surface oxides which were subsequently exposed to zinc-free coolant. The results showed that previous zinc addition will continue to reduce the rate of Co-60 build-up on out-of-core surfaces in subsequent exposure to zinc-free coolants. However, the previous Zn free test was performed for a relatively short period of time and the water chemistry programme was continued to find out the long term effects for extended periods without zinc. The activity incorporation into the stainless steel oxides started to increase as soon as zinc dosing to the coolant was stopped. The Co-60 concentration was lowest on all of the coupons which were first oxidised in Zn containing primary coolant. After the zinc injection period the thickness of the oxides increased, but activity in the oxide films did not increase at the same rate. This could indicate that zinc in the oxide blocks the adsorption sites for Co-60 incorporation. The Co-60 incorporation rate into the oxides on Inconel 600 seemed to be linear whether the oxide was pre-oxidised with or without Zn. The results indicate that zinc can either replace or prevent cobalt transport in the oxides. The results show that for zinc injection to be effective it should be carried out continuously. Furthermore the actual mechanism by which Zn inhibits the activity incorporation into the oxides is still not clear. Therefore, additional work has to follow with specified materials to verify the conclusions drawn in this work. (author)

  11. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values experimentally observed for extraction yields were 97% of manganese and 100% of zinc, under the following operating conditions: temperature 40∘C, pulp density 20%, sulphuric acid concentration 1.8 M, and citric acid 40 g L-1. A second series of leaching tests is also performed to derive other empirical models to predict zinc and manganese extraction. Precipitation tests, aimed both at investigating precipitation of zinc during leaching and at evaluating recovery options of zinc and manganese, show that a quantitative precipitation of zinc can be reached but a coprecipitation of nearly 30% of manganese also takes place. The achieved results allow to propose a battery recycling process based on a countercurrent reducing leaching by citric acid in sulphuric solution.

  12. Study of Doppler broadened annihilation spectra in zinc and zinc-containing 0.05 at. % iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troev, T.; Zolov, R.; Dimova, V.; Levay, B.

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma spectra obtained from positron-electron annihilation in pure polycrystalline zinc and zinc-containing 0.05 at. % iron have been investigated. The line shapes were measured by a Ge(Li) detector in coincidence with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The results are quite consistent with those expected from the trapping model. The positrons are trapped by impurity atoms and vacancy-impurity pairs in zinc containing 0.05 at. % iron. (author)

  13. Gene trapping identifies a putative tumor suppressor and a new inducer of cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola-Serrano, Francisca; Haendeler, Judith; Lukosz, Margarete; Sturm, Karsten; Melchner, Harald von; Altschmied, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in apoptotic cell death, cellular proliferation, differentiation, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. In tumors it is secreted by tumor associated macrophages and can have both pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects. To identify genes regulated by TNFα, we performed a gene trap screen in the mammary carcinoma cell line MCF-7 and recovered 64 unique, TNFα-induced gene trap integration sites. Among these were the genes coding for the zinc finger protein ZC3H10 and for the transcription factor grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3). In line with the dual effects of TNFα on tumorigenesis, we found that ZC3H10 inhibits anchorage independent growth in soft agar suggesting a tumor suppressor function, whereas GRHL3 strongly stimulated the migration of endothelial cells which is consistent with an angiogenic, pro-tumorigenic function

  14. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Timimi, D.; Al-Najjar, F.; Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  15. Effect of hypoxia on the uptake of [methyl-3H]choline, [1-14C] acetate and [18F]FDG in cultured prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toshihiko; Bansal, Aditya; DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Choline, acetate and glucose ([2- 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose, [ 18 F]FDG) analogs are under investigation as positron emission tomography (PET) tracers for the imaging of prostate cancer; however, their response to tumor hypoxia has not been clarified. Methods: The uptake of [methyl- 3 H]choline, [1- 14 C]acetate and [ 18 F]FDG was monitored in androgen-independent PC-3 cells and androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells under aerobic or anoxic conditions. The effect of androgen depletion was also examined. Results: PC-3 cells exhibited aerobic choline and acetate uptake five to six times higher than FDG uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed choline uptake 2.2-fold higher than acetate uptake and 10-fold higher than FDG uptake. After 4 h of anoxia, PC-3 cells showed an 85% increase in FDG uptake, a 15% decrease in choline uptake and a 36% increase in acetate uptake, whereas LNCaP cells showed a 212% increase in FDG uptake, a 28% decrease in choline uptake and no change in acetate uptake. Androgen depletion resulted in a marked decrease in the uptake of all tracers in LNCaP cells but no changes in PC-3 cells. Conclusion: In aerobic conditions, both PC-3 and LNCaP cells exhibited an order of uptake preference as follows: choline>acetate>FDG. In hypoxic cells, the order is reversed, reflecting diverse biochemical responses to hypoxia. These findings may help to explain PET imaging findings of the diverse responses of these tracers in different stages and locations of prostate cancer. Androgen depletion markedly suppressed the uptake of all three tracers in LNCaP cells, which suggests the potential for underestimation of the disease state when PET imaging is performed subsequent to antiandrogen therapy

  16. Zinc release contributes to hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sang Won; Garnier, Philippe; Aoyama, Koji; Chen, Yongmei; Swanson, Raymond A

    2004-08-01

    Neurons exposed to zinc exhibit activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme that normally participates in DNA repair but promotes cell death when extensively activated. Endogenous, vesicular zinc in brain is released to the extracellular space under conditions causing neuronal depolarization. Here, we used a rat model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia to assess the role of zinc release in PARP-1 activation and neuronal death after severe hypoglycemia. Zinc staining with N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl)-para-toluenesulfonamide (TSQ) showed depletion of presynaptic vesicular zinc from hippocampal mossy fiber terminals and accumulation of weakly bound zinc in hippocampal CA1 cell bodies after severe hypoglycemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of the zinc chelator calcium ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) blocked the zinc accumulation and significantly reduced hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death. CaEDTA also attenuated the accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose), the enzymatic product of PARP-1, in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that zinc translocation is an intermediary step linking hypoglycemia to PARP-1 activation and neuronal death.

  17. LiZIP3 is a cellular zinc transporter that mediates the tightly regulated import of zinc in Leishmania infantum parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra; da Silva, Rosa Barreira; Shawki, Ali; Castro, Helena; Lamy, Márcia; Eide, David; Costa, Vítor; Mackenzie, Bryan; Tomás, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cellular zinc homeostasis ensures that the intracellular concentration of this element is kept within limits that enable its participation in critical physiological processes without exerting toxic effects. We report here the identification and characterization of the first mediator of zinc homeostasis in Leishmania infantum, LiZIP3, a member of the ZIP family of divalent metal-ion transporters. The zinc transporter activity of LiZIP3 was first disclosed by its capacity to rescue the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in zinc acquisition. Subsequent expression of LiZIP3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes was shown to stimulate the uptake of a broad range of metal ions, among which Zn2+ was the preferred LiZIP3 substrate (K0.5 ≈ 0.1 μM). Evidence that LiZIP3 functions as a zinc importer in L. infantum came from the observations that the protein locates to the cell membrane and that its overexpression leads to augmented zinc internalization. Importantly, expression and cell-surface location of LiZIP3 are lost when parasites face high zinc bioavailability. LiZIP3 decline in response to zinc is regulated at the mRNA level in a process involving (a) short-lived protein(s). Collectively, our data reveal that LiZIP3 enables L. infantum to acquire zinc in a highly regulated manner, hence contributing to zinc homeostasis. PMID:25644708

  18. A novel thiolated human-like collage zinc complex as a promising zinc supplement: physicochemical characteristics and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yonghui; Mi, Yu; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Xue, Wenjiao

    2014-11-01

    To improve zinc binding ability to human-like collagen (HLC) and stability of metal complex, HLC was thiolated by mercaptosuccinylation reaction with S-acetylmercaptosuccinic anhydride (S-AMSA) at pH8.0. One mole of thiolated HLC-Zn (SHLC-Zn) complex possessed 24.3mol zinc ions when pH was 8.0 and zinc concentration was 15 mM. The physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of thiolated HLC-Zn (SHLC-Zn) complex were investigated by UV-vis, CD, electrophoresis analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and cell viability assay, respectively. The results showed that SHLC-Zn complex(1) exhibited higher zinc ions than that of native HLC and still maintained the secondary structure of HLC though interaction occurred between SHLC and zinc ions, (2) increased the apparent molecular weight when compared with native HLC, (3) exhibited greater thermal stability than native HLC, and (4) presented toxicity free for BHK cells. This study suggests that the SHLC-Zn complex is a potential nutrition as well as zinc supplement in the medical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted.

  20. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  1. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  2. Zinc deficiency in pakistani children with decompensated chronic liver disease; a cross-sectional survey at a hospital in lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoaib, M.; Ayaz, S.B.; Ashraf, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to objectively assess mean serum zinc levels and influence of age, gender and primary etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) on these levels in a sample of Pakistani pediatric patients with decompensated CLD (DCLD). Methodology: It was a cross-sectional survey carried out at Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from August 2013 to February 2014. Through non-probability consecutive sampling we included 100 cases belonging to both genders, fitting in the age-range of 1 - 12 years and having DCLD based on Child-Pugh classification score = 6. Patients with diarrhea, respiratory or urinary tract infection, liver tumors or receiving treatments with immune suppressants, antifungals, antivirals and zinc supplementation were excluded. Results After exclusion, off 74 cases, 58.1% were male. Majority belonged to the age group of 6 - 12 years (54.1%). Idiopathic DCLD was the most prevalent primary etiology (40.5%). Mean serum zinc levels (44.5 ± 4.7 mu g/dL) were significantly lower (p< 0.001) than the minimum normal serum zinc levels (65 micro g/dL). The mean serum zinc levels were lower significantly in children with idiopathic CLD as the primary etiology (p=0.012) and insignificantly in females and children belonging to the age group of 1- < 6 years (p= 0.08 and p= 0.59 respectively) Conclusion Mean serum zinc levels in our sample of pediatric patients with DCLD were significantly lower than the reference values for normal children, were lowest in children suffering from idiopathic CLD and were not dependent on gender and age. (author)

  3. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  4. The behaviour of tungsten electrodes in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor, T.J.; Vajgand, V.H.

    1976-01-01

    Tungsten electrodes have advantageously been used for potentiometric end-point detection in perchloric acid titration of bases in a mixture of acetic acid and acetic anhydride. They have also given good results in biamperometric detection of the equivalence point in continuous coulometric titration of small quantities of bases and acids in the same solvent. Tungsten electrodes in the presence of quinhydrone behave like platinum electrodes, but in biamperometric end-point determination in the absence of quinhydrone it is better to remove the oxide layer from their surface. Some other factors affecting their behaviour have also been studied. Errors in determination do not exceed +-2% even in titration of very small quantities of substances. (author)

  5. Zinc injection method and device in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maehara, Kazumi; Negishi, Itaru; Deguchi, Tatsuya; Ino, Takao; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Yotsuyanagi, Tadashi; Tobara, Hirotaka.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of injecting zinc into reactor water, and it can supply a solution of zinc at a high concentration by improving the solubility of zinc. Namely, zinc is used as a solute and is dissolved in an aqueous solution containing an electrolyte such as carbonic acid. The resultant zinc solution at a high concentration is injected to reactor water. In the device of the present invention, (1) a dissolution vessel for dissolving zinc comprises a zinc supply means at an upper portion thereof and a carbonic acid gas supply means at a lower portion, (2) an injection means supplies the solution in which zinc is dissolved at a high concentration to reactor water. An aqueous solution saturated with a carbonic acid gas is used as a solvent for dissolving zinc into reactor water at a high concentration. The dissolution vessel has a gas diffusion pipe at the bottom for introducing the carbonic acid gas and has a stirrer in the inside. Zinc is supplied continuously or discontinuously. Raw material zinc may be in the form of a plate, rod, granule, or powder, however, powdery zinc is preferably used. (I.S.)

  6. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T; Radford, Robert J; Zastrow, Melissa L; Zhang, Daniel Y; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-05-19

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling.

  7. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151

  8. Zinc electrode shape change II. Process and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einerhand, R.E.F.; Visscher, W.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1991-01-01

    The process and mechanism of zinc electrode shape change is investigated with the radiotracer technique. It is shownthat during repeated cycling of the nickel oxide/zinc battery zinc material is transported over the zinc electrode via the battery electrolyte. During charge as well as during

  9. Zinc dosing and glucose tolerance in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenley, S.; Taylor, M.

    1986-01-01

    Animal data suggest the existence of a physiologic relationship between glucoregulatory hormones and zinc metabolism. In order to investigate this proposed relationship in humans, they examined the effect of moderately elevated plasma zinc levels on blood glucose clearance. Eight women (24-37 yrs) served as subjects for the study. Fasted volunteers were tested under two experimental conditions (a) ingestion of 50 g D-glucose (b) ingestion of 25 mg zinc followed 60 min later by ingestion of 50 g D-glucose. Five ml venous blood was drawn into trace-metal-free, fluoride-containing vacutainer tubes prior to and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose ingestion. Plasma was analyzed for glucose and zinc; glycemic responses were quantified by computing areas under the curves and times to peak concentration. Their human data indicate varied glycemic responses to the acute elevation of plasma zinc: 4 subjects showed little apparent effect; 3 subjects marginally increased either the area under the curve or time to peak and 1 subject (classified as suspect diabetic in the non-zinc condition) showed marked improvement in glycemic response following zinc ingestion. Their preliminary results suggest that blood glucose clearance may be affected in some individuals by the acute elevation of plasma zinc

  10. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charef, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1989-09-01

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  11. Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongshaug, K.O.; Fjellvaag, Helmer

    2004-01-01

    The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn 2 (OH) 2 (ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn 3 (OH) 4 (bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4'biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two μ 2 -OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers are pillared by ndc to form a three-dimensional structure. In CPO-7, the zinc hydroxide layers are containing four-, five- and six coordinated zinc atoms, and the layers are built like stairways running along the [001] direction. Each step is composed of three infinite chains running in the [010] direction. Both crystal structures were solved from conventional single crystal data. Crystal data for CPO-6: Monoclinic space group P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=11.9703(7), b=7.8154(5), c=6.2428(4) A, β=90.816(2) deg., V=583.97(6) A 3 and Z=4. Crystal data for CPO-7: Monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15), a=35.220(4), b=6.2658(8), c=14.8888(17) A, β=112.580(4) deg., V=3033.8(6) A 3 and Z=8. The compounds were further characterized by thermogravimetric- and chemical analysis

  12. Determinación de cinc a microescala en un medicamento especifico

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz,Oscar A.; Alvarez,Elida

    2004-01-01

    This work presents zinc determination in certain medicines that contain zinc oxide and zinc undecylenate. The technique consists of a spectrophotometric micro-scale titration, where EDTA is used as titrant, and xylenol orange as an indicator, in a medium adjusted to pH = 6 with acetic acid and sodium acetate. After each added portion of EDTA, the absorbance value is measured at a selected wavelength, in order to detect the end-point of the spectrophotometric titration. The results already obt...

  13. Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Zinc Coordination and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Savarimuthu, Baskar Raj; Ferraro, Daniel J.; Rubach, Jon K.; Brown, Eric N.; Ramaswamy, S. (Iowa)

    2017-07-07

    During catalysis by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a water bound to the catalytic zinc is replaced by the oxygen of the substrates. The mechanism might involve a pentacoordinated zinc or a double-displacement reaction with participation by a nearby glutamate residue, as suggested by studies of human ADH3, yeast ADH1, and some other tetrameric ADHs. Zinc coordination and participation of water in the enzyme mechanism were investigated by X-ray crystallography. The apoenzyme and its complex with adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose have an open protein conformation with the catalytic zinc in one position, tetracoordinated by Cys-46, His-67, Cys-174, and a water molecule. The bidentate chelators 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline displace the water and form a pentacoordinated zinc. The enzyme–NADH complex has a closed conformation similar to that of ternary complexes with coenzyme and substrate analogues; the coordination of the catalytic zinc is similar to that found in the apoenzyme, except that a minor, alternative position for the catalytic zinc is ~1.3 Å from the major position and closer to Glu-68, which could form the alternative coordination to the catalytic zinc. Complexes with NADH and N-1-methylhexylformamide or N-benzylformamide (or with NAD+ and fluoro alcohols) have the classical tetracoordinated zinc, and no water is bound to the zinc or the nicotinamide rings. The major forms of the enzyme in the mechanism have a tetracoordinated zinc, where the carboxylate group of Glu-68 could participate in the exchange of water and substrates on the zinc. Hydride transfer in the Michaelis complexes does not involve a nearby water.

  14. HUBUNGAN ANTARA ZINC SERUM DENGAN STATUS GIZI LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrah Emawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINC SERUM AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ELDERLY PEOPLE.Background: The findings of study that 30% in Bogor and 27% in Jakarta of elderly people were undernourished. Malnutrition may occur due to infection and low food intake. Among elderly people, one of the factors that causes low food intake is affected by impairment of taste sensory and teeth function. The impairment of taste sensory is influenced by zinc status in the body.Objective: To collect food consumption pattem data of zinc rich foods, zinc concentration in serum and to analyze association of zinc concentration and nutritional status.Methods: Research design was cross sectional, and conducted in two sub districts in Bogor city. The respondents were women in 60-75 years of age, no suffering from illnesses and chronically disease. The total respondent was 90 people, and divided into three groups of 30 peoples. Data gathered included respondent identity, physical examination, anthropometry, blood biochemical and zinc dietary consumption.Results: Zinc dietary consumption adequacy of underweight group was only 30% of recommended dietary allowance, while for normal and overweight groups were 40% of dietary allowance. Zinc serum concentration of underweight group (82 ug/dl was not significantly different with normal group (85 ug/dl, however differed significantly (p<0.05 with overweight group (95 ug/dl. Underweight group suffered 40% zinc deficiency, 27% for normal and only 7% for overweight group.Conclusions: Zinc deficiency was more prevalent in underweight group than that of normal and overweight group. [Panel Gizi Makan 2002,25: 26-33.Keywords: zinc serum concentration, zinc dietary consumption, underweight

  15. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eHagmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.

  16. Zinc-Catalyzed Synthesis of Conjugated Dienoates through Unusual Cross-Couplings of Zinc Carbenes with Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Sergio; González, María J; González, Jesús; López, Luis A; Vicente, Rubén

    2017-01-23

    Zinc-catalyzed selective cross-coupling of two carbene sources, such as vinyl diazo compounds and enynones, enabled the synthesis of conjugated dienoate derivatives. This reaction involved the unprecedented coupling of a zinc furyl carbene with vinyl diazo compounds through the γ-carbon. Alternatively, dienoates were also prepared by a commutative cross-coupling of zinc vinyl carbenes generated from cyclopropenes and simple diazo compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The method of quantitative determination of iodine in acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, A.B.; Kalinchenko, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Method for separate determination of J 2 and J - concentrations in acetic acid is suggested. Iodine concentration in acetic acid is determined by measuring potential of iodine-selective electrode first in the initial solution of acetic acid, where molecular iodine dissociation equals 0.5, and then in acetic acid, with alkali (NaOH) addition up to pH > 3, where molecular iodine dissociation equals 1. Determination is conducted in 5x10 -7 -5x10 -6 mol/l concentration range with relative standard deviation not more than 0.1. 1 fig

  18. Lactic acid in tumor microenvironments causes dysfunction of NKT cells by interfering with mTOR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Di; Zhu, Shasha; Bai, Li

    2016-12-01

    Cellular metabolism has been shown to regulate differentiation and function of immune cells. Tumor associated immune cells undergo phenotypic and functional alterations due to the change of cellular metabolism in tumor microenvironments. NKT cells are good candidates for immunotherapies against tumors and have been used in several clinical trials. However, the influences of tumor microenvironments on NKT cell functions remain unclear. In our studies, lactic acid in tumor microenvironments inhibited IFNγ and IL4 productions from NKT cells, and more profound influence on IFNγ was observed. By adjusting the pH of culture medium we further showed that, dysfunction of NKT cells could simply be induced by low extracellular pH. Moreover, low extracellular pH inhibited NKT cell functions by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and nuclear translocation of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger (PLZF). Together, our results suggest that tumor acidic microenvironments could interfere with NKT cell functions through metabolic controls.

  19. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2...

  20. Fluorescent zinc sensor with minimized proton-induced interferences: photophysical mechanism for fluorescence turn-on response and detection of endogenous free zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Eon; Lee, Sumin; You, Youngmin; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Ohkubo, Kei; Cho, Jaeheung; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Shin, Injae; Park, Soo Young; Nam, Wonwoo

    2012-08-20

    A new fluorescent zinc sensor (HNBO-DPA) consisting of 2-(2'-hydroxy-3'-naphthyl)benzoxazole (HNBO) chromophore and a di(2-picolyl)amine (DPA) metal chelator has been prepared and examined for zinc bioimaging. The probe exhibits zinc-induced fluorescence turn-on without any spectral shifts. Its crystal structure reveals that HNBO-DPA binds a zinc ion in a pentacoordinative fashion through the DPA and HNBO moieties. Steady-state photophysical studies establish zinc-induced deprotonation of the HNBO group. Nanosecond and femtosecond laser flash photolysis and electrochemical measurements provide evidence for zinc-induced modulation of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) from DPA to HNBO. Thus, the zinc-responsive fluorescence turn-on is attributed to suppression of PeT exerted by deprotonation of HNBO and occupation of the electron pair of DPA, a conclusion that is further supported by density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TD-DFT) calculations. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.0), the probe displays a 44-fold fluorescence turn-on in response to zinc ions with a K(d) value of 12 pM. The fluorescent response of the probe to zinc ions is conserved over a broad pH range with its excellent selectivity for zinc ions among biologically relevant metal ions. In particular, its sensing ability is not altered by divalent transition metal ions such as Fe(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II). Cell experiments using HNBO-DPA show its suitability for monitoring intracellular zinc ions. We have also demonstrated applicability of the probe to visualize intact zinc ions released from cells that undergo apoptosis. More interestingly, zinc-rich pools in zebrafish embryos are traced with HNBO-DPA during early developmental stages. The results obtained from the in vitro and in vivo imaging studies demonstrate the practical usefulness of the probe to detect zinc ions.