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Sample records for zinc pyrithione shampoo

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis induced by zinc pyrithione in shampoo: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Hsieh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Shampoo-induced allergic contact dermatitis is difficult to diagnose clinically because it can involve multiple and variable areas where the shampoo flows. Zinc pyrithione is a common active agent in medicated shampoo that is known to have good anti-dandruff and antifungal effects. Despite its low risk of sensitization, cases of allergic contact dermatitis still occur because of the popularity of such products. We report a 33-year-old man who developed pruritic rash on his scalp, face, neck, and hands after using a new shampoo containing zinc pyrithione. A patch test revealed a positive reaction to zinc pyrithione and personal shampoo containing zinc pyrithione.

  2. Efficacy of a piroctone olamine/climbazol shampoo in comparison with a zinc pyrithione shampoo in subjects with moderate to severe dandruff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rose, T; Braren, S; Fölster, H; Hillemann, T; Oltrogge, B; Philipp, P; Weets, G; Fey, S

    2011-06-01

    Dandruff is a chronic scalp disorder characterized by scaling and itching. A successful anti-dandruff shampoo not only has to provide superior anti-dandruff relief to ensure patient compliance. It also needs to offer excellent cosmetic and hair conditioning benefits at the same time. In this study, the efficacy of a shampoo containing 0.5% piroctone olamine and 0.45% climbazole (shampoo 1) was compared with a widely available commercial shampoo containing 1% zinc pyrithione (shampoo 2). In vitro studies investigating the anti-mycotic efficacy of a combination of 0.5% piroctone olamine and 0.45% climbazole as well as 1% zinc pyrithione were performed. To study substantivity, pig skin punches were used as a model system and a test of wet combability was performed to characterize combing ease. In vivo home-in-use studies were carried out to determine the efficacy of both shampoos to improve scalp condition and reduce itching in subjects suffering from moderate to severe dandruff. Results demonstrated a comparable anti-fungal effectiveness for 0.5% piroctone olamine plus 0.45% climbazole and 1% zinc pyrithione, respectively. Shampoo 1 showed a significantly higher anti-mycotics substantivity compared to shampoo 2. After treatment with shampoo 1, the wet combing force was significantly reduced compared with shampoo 2, suggesting a better combability following the use of shampoo 1. In an in vivo split head design study, shampoo 1 was shown to be equally effective in reducing the amount of dandruff on the scalp compared with shampoo 2. The approval rate of volunteers regarding the question 'The use of this shampoo decreases the itching of my scalp?' after a 4-week treatment with shampoo 1 equaled 90%. Overall, the shampoo formulation with 0.5% piroctone olamine and 0.45% climbazole effectively reduces the amount of dandruff and, at the same time, provides hair conditioning advantages. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Fran

  3. Clinical Trial Of Ketoconazole 2% + Zinc Pyrithione 1% Shampoo In The Management Of Tinea Versicolor

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    Ramesh M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An open uncontrolled trial, to assess the efficacy of ketoconazole 2%+zinc pyrithione 1% shampoo was conducted in patients with extensive tinea versicolor. The results show that this is an effective and well tolerated combination in the management of tinea versicolor.

  4. Sensitive and simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione and climbazole deposition from anti-dandruff shampoos onto human scalp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Miao, M.; Hoptroff, M.; Fei, X.; Collins, L.Z.; Jones, A.; Janssen, H.G.

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and climbazole (CBZ) deposited onto human scalp from anti-dandruff (AD) shampoos. Scrubbing with a buffer

  5. Multicenter, open-label, non-comparative study of a combination of polytar and zinc pyrithione shampoo in the management of dandruff

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    Sawleshwarkar Shailendra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dandruff is a common condition in clinical practice. We undertook a study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination of zinc pyrithione and polytar in a shampoo base for the treatment of dandruff. Methods: A combination of polytar (1% and zinc pyrithione (1% was used for 4 weeks to treat 954 patients suffering from mild to severe dandruff. Scoring of dandruff was done on a 0-10 scale for each of the 6 regions of scalp at weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6. Follow up was for 2 weeks. Results: There was consistent improvement in dandruff scores over the treatment and the follow up period. There was significant improvement in signs and symptoms such as erythema and itching, with a negligible adverse event profile. The global assessment by investigators showed good-excellent results in the majority of patients and there was high acceptability for the treatment among the patients. Conclusion: A combination shampoo of polytar (1% and zinc pyrithione (1% offers a safe and effective option in the treatment of dandruff and its associated symptoms.

  6. Enhanced efficacy and sensory properties of an anti-dandruff shampoo containing zinc pyrithione and climbazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G A; Matheson, J R; Li, G-Z; Fei, X-Q; Zhu, D; Baines, F L

    2013-02-01

    Dandruff is a common complaint and is suffered by as much as half of the population at some time post puberty. The condition is characterized by the presence of flakes on the scalp and in the hair, and is often accompanied by itch. The most common treatment for dandruff is the use of shampoo formulations that contain fungistatic agents such as zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and octopirox. Whilst most antidandruff shampoos are effective in resolving the symptoms of dandruff these shampoos can often result in hair condition that is less than acceptable to consumers which can lead to a tendency for them to revert to use of a non-antidandruff shampoo. This can result in a rapid return of dandruff symptoms. The aim of this investigation was to study the impact of using a combination of antidandruff actives and silicones on the resolution of dandruff and to deliver superior sensory properties to the hair. We have demonstrated that shampoo containing the dual active system of ZPT/Climbazole deposits both active agents onto a model skin surface (VitroSkin) and reduces Malassezia furfur regrowth in vitro. Clinical evaluation of the dual active shampoo demonstrated superior efficacy and retained superiority during a regression phase where all subjects reverted to using a non-antidandruff shampoo. We have also demonstrated that it is possible to deposit silicone materials from antidandruff shampoo uniformly over both virgin and damaged hair fibres that results in smoother hair fibres (as evidenced by reduced dry friction). This combination of antidandruff agents and conditioning silicones delivered from a shampoo provides subjects with superior antidandruff efficacy and desired end sensory benefits ensuring compliance and longer term dandruff removal. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis and Dandruff Therapy Using a Herbal and Zinc Pyrithione-based Therapy of Shampoo and Scalp Lotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Shinar, Deganit; Green, Lawrence J

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of an herbal and zinc pyrithione shampoo and a scalp lotion (Kamedis Derma-Scalp Dandruff Therapy, Kamedis Ltd., Tel Aviv, Israel) for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff. Design: This was an interventional, open-label, safety and efficacy study. Setting: This open-label study was conducted at Consumer Product Testing Company Inc. in Fairfield, New Jersey. At the baseline visit (Day 0), an examination of the scalp was conducted by a board-certified dermatologist. The entire scalp was evaluated for evidence of seborrheic dermatitis using the Adherent Scalp Flaking Score with a 10-point scale. Only subjects with evidence of moderate-to-greater seborrheic dermatitis or moderate-to-greater dandruff were deemed qualified for inclusion in the study. Participants: Fifty subjects were recruited and included in the study. Measurements: Study subjects were evaluated by the same dermatologist for erythema and flaking at Days 0, 14, 28, and 42 using a five-point scale for each parameter. At each time point, a total severity score was calculated based on the findings of the evaluations. Following the scalp evaluation, each subject had a standardized digital photograph taken of his or her scalp. Each subject was also asked to answer a satisfaction questionnaire regarding the product treatment enhancement and characteristics. Results: A reduction in both parameters evaluated was seen at all time points. Statistical significance was achieved at each time point when compared with the baseline visit. In addition, the subjects expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the treatment. No adverse events were reported during this study. Conclusion: The study showed that the herbal zinc pyrithione shampoo and scalp lotion provided improvement in the main symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis.

  8. Ex-vivo measurement of scalp follicular infundibulum delivery of zinc pyrithione and climbazole from an anti-dandruff shampoo.

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    Chen, Guoqiang; Ji, Chengdong; Miao, Miao; Yang, Kang; Luo, Yajun; Hoptroff, Michael; Collins, Luisa Z; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2017-09-05

    Efficient delivery of anti-dandruff (AD) actives into the scalp follicular infundibulum as well as onto the scalp surface is critical for the efficacy of AD shampoos. A method involving scalp cyanoacrylate (CA) biopsy sampling, a tailor made cutting device, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement and Raman imaging has been developed for the measurement of delivery of zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and climbazole (CBZ) from an AD shampoo into the scalp follicular infundibulum. Scalp CA biopsy enables the sampling of ZPT and CBZ delivered into the scalp follicular infundibula as well as onto the scalp surface. Raman imaging of scalp CA biopsy samples allows the visualization of the spatial distribution of ZPT and CBZ deposited on the scalp. A tailor made cutting device enables the separation of the scalp follicular infundibulum sample (20μm below the scalp surface) from the scalp surface samples (including top 20μm of infundibula). UHPLC-MS/MS was used as a sensitive and specific methodology enabling the quantification of ZPT and CBZ without interference. Using this method, both ZPT and CBZ were successfully quantified and spacially visualized within the scalp follicular infundibulum, after scalp was washed with an AD shampoo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Evaluation of a New-Formula Shampoo for Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis Containing Extract of Rosa centifolia Petals and Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study.

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    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won

    2014-12-01

    Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including extract of Rosa centifolia petals and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-that exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and sebum secretion inhibitory effects, and antifungal agents for the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. Seventy-five patients were randomized into three treatment groups; new-formula shampoo, 2% ketoconazole shampoo, and 1% zinc- pyrithione shampoo. The clinical severity scores and sebum levels were assessed by the same dermatologists at baseline (week 0), and at 2 and 4 weeks after using the shampoo. User satisfaction and irritation were also assessed with the aid of a questionnaire. The efficacy of the new-formula shampoo was comparable to that of both the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo and the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. Furthermore, it was found to provide a more rapid response than the 1% zinc-pyrithione shampoo for mild erythema lesions and was associated with greater user satisfaction compared with the 2% ketoconazole shampoo. However, the new-formula shampoo did not exhibit the previously reported sebum inhibitory effect. Extract of R. centifolia petals or EGCG could be useful ingredients in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

  10. Effects of pyrithiones and surfactants on zinc and enzyme levels in rabbits.

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    Spiker, R C; Ciuchta, H P

    1980-04-01

    The effects of zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and sodium pyrithione (NaPT), including the influence of various vehicles, upon whole blood and plasma zinc levels and serum alkaline phosphatase (SAP) have been investigated in rabbits following dermal and/or iv administration. Two such vehicles, ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) and triethanolamine lauryl sulfate, affected zinc homeostasis differently than the pyrithiones, in that, unlike the pyrithiones, no whole blood changes were observed, although there were delayed and sustained declines in plasma zinc and SAP values. These changes were most likely related to the skin irritation caused by the surfactants. In contrast, NaPT-dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dermal and iv exposures produced rapid decreases in plasma zinc followed by quick recovery, coupled with smaller and unsustained declines in SAP. Large increases in whole blood zinc were also observed in both cases, as well as in a ZnPT-DMSO iv exposure. DMSO itself had no effects on the measured parameters. Experiments involving combinations of the pyrithiones and ALS demonstrated effects on zinc homeostasis that were attributable to both substances, i.e. large increases in whole blood zinc (PT effect), quick drops in plasma zinc (PT effect) and slowly recovering plasma zinc and SAP values (surfactant effect). The chelating nature of the PT molecule may have been responsible for some of the observed changes in zinc distribution.

  11. Effects of zinc pyrithione and copper pyrithione on microbial community function and structure in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, DG; Dahllof, I.; Nielsen, LP

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the new antifouling biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and copper pyrithione (CPT), on microbial communities in estuarine sediments were studied in microcosms. As functional endpoints, fluxes of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, HPO42-, Si(OH)(4)) and protein synthesis ([C-14] leucine incorporat......The effects of the new antifouling biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and copper pyrithione (CPT), on microbial communities in estuarine sediments were studied in microcosms. As functional endpoints, fluxes of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, HPO42-, Si(OH)(4)) and protein synthesis ([C-14] leucine...... DNA content, whereas the LOEC for CPT was 0.1 nmol/g dry sediment for the nitrate flux and total DNA content. Nitrate fluxes increased significantly following additions of both ZPT and CPT, whereas ammonium fluxes decreased significantly after ZPT addition, suggesting changes in the nitrification...... and denitrification processes. The total DNA content decreased significantly following addition of both ZPT and CPT, but at the highest addition of ZPT (10 nmol ZPT/g dry sediment), an increase in total DNA content was found. Increased protein synthesis and bacterial diversity were also observed at this concentration...

  12. Clinical Evaluation of a New-Formula Shampoo for Scalp Seborrheic Dermatitis Containing Extract of Rosa centifolia Petals and Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Shin, Hong-Ju; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong; Lee, Yang Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Scalp seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic type of inflammatory dermatosis that is associated with sebum secretion and proliferation of Malassezia species. Ketoconazole or zinc-pyrithione shampoos are common treatments for scalp seborrheic dermatitis. However, shampoos comprising different compounds are required to provide patients with a wider range of treatment options. Objective This study was designed to evaluate a new-formula shampoo that contains natural ingredients-including e...

  13. ANTIMYCOTIC ACTIVITY OF ACTIVATED ZINC PYRITHIONE IN RELATION TO MALASSEZIA IN PATIENTS WITH ATOPIC DERMATITIS

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    E.V. Golysheva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article illustrates the results of a study whose purpose was to determine the antimycotic action of activated zinc pyrithione (AZP against Malassezia in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD. 30 patients diagnosed with AD and aged 3 to 18 years were studied. A mycological study that aimed to identify Malassezia was done by the scraping method and skin surface collection using a cotton ball on a 1 cm2 area, with further yeast maintenance procedure in a selective environment. The activated zinc pyrithione in the form of cream was applied on children’s skin of the left shoulder and forearm twice a day. Nothing but a moisturizing cream was applied to the skin on the right shoulder and forearm. The samples for mycobiota were taken on both sides three times: before AZP treatment, 1 and 2 weeks after treatment. As a result of treatment, a two-fold reduction in skin colonization with Malassezia just in a week’s time (up to 102–105 КОЕ/cm2. The significant dynamics was observed in the modification of species diversity which got more sparse in skin areas where activated zinc pyrithione cream was applied. The follow-up results confirm that AZP has a moderate antimycotic effect. Key words: atopic dermatitis, treatment, activated zinc pyrithione, antimycotic action, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(6:58-62

  14. Formulation of Pine Tar Antidandruff Shampoo Assessment and Comparison With Some Commercial Formulations

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    M. Gharavi

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study a pine tar shampoo as a new antidandruff formulation is presented. Assessment of antidandruff preparations has been hampered by the lack of standardized schedules, and reliable methods of evaluation.Some antidandruff agents such as : Zinc pyri-thione pine tar, selenium sulphide and (sulfure were used in shampoos. Samples were coded as numbers 1,2 formulated by us and 3,4 formulated commercially. The grading scheme based on 10 point scale, and corneocyte count was carried out on 50 selected volunte¬ers. Corneocyte count and fungal study proved that pine tor shampoo is effective against pityrosporum ovale. Draize lest was used for determination of the irritancy potential of the samples. Results showed that samples numbered 1,2 were relatively innocous in comparison with the others. I urthermore,s kin sensitination test on rabbit also confirmed the results obtained by Draize test. Consumer judgments proved that all formulations were acceptable.

  15. Ex-vivo measurement of scalp follicular infundibulum delivery of zinc pyrithione and climbazole from an anti-dandruff shampoo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, G.; Ji, C.; Miao, M.; Yang, K.; Luo, Y.; Hoptroff, M.; Collins, L.Z.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient delivery of anti-dandruff (AD) actives into the scalp follicular infundibulum as well as onto the scalp surface is critical for the efficacy of AD shampoos. A method involving scalp cyanoacrylate (CA) biopsy sampling, a tailor made cutting device, ultra-high-performance liquid

  16. Estrogenic activity of zinc pyrithione: an and study

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    Kyung Sik Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Zinc pyrithione (ZP is commonly used to prevent dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. Many consumers are exposed daily to high doses of ZP, causing serious concerns about its toxicity. The reproductive and developmental toxicities were previously reported in pregnant rats. However, the estrogenic activity of ZP at varying degrees of exposure has been rarely studied. Thus, we performed an uterotrophic assay, E-screen assay, and gene expression profiling to assess the estrogenic activity of ZP. For the uterotrophic assay, ZP (2, 10, or 50 mg/kg/d was subcutaneously administered to ovariectomized rats every day for three days. Uteri were extracted 24 hours after the last dose. Then, wet and blotted uterine weights were measured. For the E-screen essay, MCF-7 cells (a breast cancer cell line were exposed to 10-9 to 10-6 M of ZP, and cell proliferation was then measured. For the gene expression analysis, changes of gene expression levels in uterine samples taken for the uterotrophic assay were analyzed. In the uterotrophic assay, the concentration of ZP had no significant effect on uterine weight. In the E-screen assay, ZP at any concentration showed no significant increase in MCF-7 cell proliferation, compared to the control group. However, 10-6 M of ZP significantly reduced cell viability. The changes in gene expression slightly differed between the ZP and control groups. The in vivo and in vitro assays, together with gene expression analysis, demonstrated that ZP showed no significant estrogenic activity.

  17. Formulation, evaluation and comparison of the herbal shampoo with the commercial shampoos

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    Khaloud Al Badi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to formulate a pure herbal shampoo and to evaluate and compare its physicochemical properties with the marketed synthetic and herbal shampoos. The herbal shampoo was formulated by adding the extracts of Acacia concinna, Sapindus mukorossi, Phyllanthus emblica, Ziziphus spina-christi and Citrus aurantifolia in different proportions to a 10% aqueous gelatin solution. Small amount of methyl paraben was added as a preservative and pH was adjusted with citric acid. Several tests such as visual inspection, pH, wetting time, % of solid contents, foam volume and stability, surface tension, detergency, dirt dispersion etc, were performed to determine the physicochemical properties of both prepared and marketed shampoos. The formulated herbal shampoo was also evaluated for conditioning performance by administering a blind test to 20 student volunteers. The formulated herbal shampoo was clear and appealing. It showed good cleansing and detergency, low surface tension, small bubble size and good foam stability after 5 min. The prepared shampoo and commercial shampoos showed comparable results for % solid contents also. The score of the conditioning performance of the tress washed with herbal shampoo was found to be 3.0 out of 4, while the score of the marketed synthetic and herbal shampoo was 3.4 and 3.3 respectively. The results indicated the formulated shampoo is having excellent conditioning performance, at par with commercially available shampoo. However, further research and development is required to improve it's quality and safety.

  18. Irritancies of shampoos

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    Singh Sanjay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Six commonly used shampoos were tested for their relative irritancies using Kligman and Wooding′s technique. Shampoos in increasing order of irritancies were Halo egg, Aqua dermis, Clinic plus, Sunsilk, Velvette black and Mediker.

  19. Formulation, evaluation and comparison of the herbal shampoo with the commercial shampoos

    OpenAIRE

    Khaloud Al Badi; Shah A. Khan

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to formulate a pure herbal shampoo and to evaluate and compare its physicochemical properties with the marketed synthetic and herbal shampoos. The herbal shampoo was formulated by adding the extracts of Acacia concinna, Sapindus mukorossi, Phyllanthus emblica, Ziziphus spina-christi and Citrus aurantifolia in different proportions to a 10% aqueous gelatin solution. Small amount of methyl paraben was added as a preservative and pH was adjusted with citric acid. Several tests su...

  20. Copper pyrithione, a booster biocide, induces abnormal muscle and notochord architecture in zebrafish embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Kelly M; Trombetta, Louis D

    2017-09-01

    The metal pyrithiones, principally zinc (ZnPT) and copper (CuPT), are replacing tributyltin (TBT) as antifouling agents. Zebrafish embryos were exposed within the first hour after fertilization to 12 and 64 µg/L of CuPT for 24 h. Morphological abnormalities in notochord and muscle architecture were observed at 96 h post fertilization (hpf). TEM revealed abnormal electron dense deposits in the notochord sheath and muscle fiber degeneration in animals treated with 12 µg/L of CuPT. Embryos that were exposed to 64 µg/L of CuPT displayed severe muscle fiber degeneration including abnormal A and I band patterning and altered z disk arrangement. Abnormalities in the notochord sheath, swelling of the mitochondria and numerous lipid whorls were also noted. Total antioxidant capacity was significantly decreased in embryos exposed to 12 and 64 µg/L of CuPT. Acridine orange staining revealed an increase in apoptosis particularly in the brain, eye, heart and tail regions of both treatment groups. Apoptosis was confirmed with an increase in caspase 3/7 activity in both treatment groups. Severe alternations in primary motor neuron axon extensions, slow tonic muscle fibers and fast twitch fibers were observed in CuPT treated embryos. There was a significant upregulation in sonic hedgehog and myod1 expression at 24 hpf in the 12 µg/L treatment group. Exposed zebrafish embryos showed ultra-structural hallmarks of peroxidative injury and cell death via apoptosis. These changes question the use of copper pyrithione as an antifouling agent.

  1. Photosensitivity to selsun shampoo

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    Mani M

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of photosensitive dermatitis, occurring after the second application of 2.5% selenium sulphide (Selsun shampoo, Abbot, is reported. The shampoo was diluted to half strength with water, before use. The patient had pityriasis versicolor, with extensive lesions on the covered as well as exposed areas.

  2. Pediculicidal effect of herbal shampoo against Pediculus humanus capitis in vitro.

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    Watcharawit, R; Soonwera, M

    2013-06-01

    Human head lice infestation is an important public health problem in Thailand. Lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy and thus alternative products such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat lice infestation. The present study investigated the efficacy of twenty nine herbal shampoos based on zinbiberaceae plants, piperaceae plants and native plants against human head lice and compared them with malathion shampoo (A-lices shampoo®: 1% w/v malathion) and commercial shampoo (BabiMild Natural'N Mild®) in order to assess their in vitro efficacy. All herbal shampoo were more effective than commercial shampoo with 100% mortality at 60 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30 to 31.97 seconds, meanwhile, commercial shampoo caused 14.0-15.0% mortality and LT50 values ranged from 83.96 to 87.43 seconds. The nine herbal shampoos from Zingiber cassumunar, Piper betle, Piper ribesioides, Averrhoa bilimbi, Clitoria ternatea, Plectranthus amboincus, Myristica fragrans, Tacca chantrieri and Zanthoxylum limonella were more effective pediculicide than malathion shampoo with 100% mortality at 30 seconds and LT50 values ranged from 11.30-13.58 seconds, on the other hand malathion shampoo showed LT50 values ranging from 12.39 to 13.67 seconds. LT50 values indicated the order of pediculicidal activity in the herbal shampoos as Z. cassumunar shampoo > P. betle shampoo > Za. limonella shampoo > Av. bilimbi shampoo > P. ribesioides shampoo > My. fragrans shampoo > T. chantrieri shampoo > Pl. amboincus shampoo. Our data showed that eight of the twenty nine herbal shampoos in this study were of high potential pediculicide to human head lice treatments for Thai children.

  3. Randomized study comparing the efficacy and tolerance of a lipohydroxy acid shampoo to a ciclopiroxolamine shampoo in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seite, Sophie; Rougier, André; Talarico, Sergio

    2009-12-01

    The success of a dandruff treatment depends not only on the ability of a shampoo to control dandruff, but also on patient compliance, which is closely linked to the cosmetic attributes of the product. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy, tolerance, and cosmetic properties of a LHA Shampoo [containing 0.1% lipohydroxy acid (LHA) and 1.3% salicylic acid] to a CPO shampoo [containing 1.5% ciclopiroxolamine (CPO), 3% salicylic acid, and 0.5% menthol] in subjects with seborrheic dermatitis (SD) of the scalp. One hundred subjects with mild to moderate scalp SD were randomized to receive either the LHA shampoo or the CPO shampoo every 2 days for 4 weeks. Efficacy and tolerance were evaluated at days 0, 14, and 28. The LHA and the CPO shampoo both decreased symptoms of scale, erythema, itching, cutaneous discomfort, and dryness from baseline to day 28. A higher percentage of patients showed improvement in the group treated with the LHA formulation than in the group treated with the CPO formulation, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. At day 28, the tolerance and the global efficacy of the LHA shampoo were significantly better (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively) than those of the CPO shampoo. Furthermore, the cosmetic acceptability was better or significantly better for all the endpoints evaluated for the LHA shampoo (P = 0.02 for cleaning, P = 0.04 for lathering). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the lipohydroxy acid shampoo evaluated in this study is a more convenient, efficient, safe, and well-tolerated cosmetic treatment for mild-to-moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp than a ciclopiroxolamine shampoo.

  4. Pharmaceutical evaluation of different shampoo brands in local Saudi market

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    Bushra T. AlQuadeib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shampooing is the most common form of hair treatment. Shampoos are primarily products aimed at cleansing the hair and scalp. There are many brands of shampoos in Saudi Arabia, available from different sources, locally and imported from other countries. This study aims to investigate whether such brands comply with the Saudi standard specifications for shampoos, issued by the National Center for Specifications and Standards, and to what extent these specifications are applied. Six shampoo brands were randomly collected from Riyadh market (Pantene®, Sunsilk®, Herbal essences®, Garnier Ultra Doux®, Syoss® and L'Oreal Elvive®. The selected shampoos were evaluated according to their physicochemical properties, including organoleptic characterization, pH measurement, percentage of solid content, rheological measurements, dirt dispersion level, foaming ability and foam stability, and surface tension. All shampoos had a good percentage of solids, excellent foam formation with stable foam and a highly viscous nature. Regarding the pH measurement, all shampoo samples were within the specified range with good wetting ability. Keywords: Shampoo, Physicochemical approach, Evaluation

  5. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

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    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 1-6

  6. Pharmaceutical evaluation of different shampoo brands in local Saudi market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQuadeib, Bushra T; Eltahir, Eram K D; Banafa, Rana A; Al-Hadhairi, Lama A

    2018-01-01

    Shampooing is the most common form of hair treatment. Shampoos are primarily products aimed at cleansing the hair and scalp. There are many brands of shampoos in Saudi Arabia, available from different sources, locally and imported from other countries. This study aims to investigate whether such brands comply with the Saudi standard specifications for shampoos, issued by the National Center for Specifications and Standards, and to what extent these specifications are applied. Six shampoo brands were randomly collected from Riyadh market (Pantene®, Sunsilk®, Herbal essences®, Garnier Ultra Doux®, Syoss® and L'Oreal Elvive®). The selected shampoos were evaluated according to their physicochemical properties, including organoleptic characterization, pH measurement, percentage of solid content, rheological measurements, dirt dispersion level, foaming ability and foam stability, and surface tension. All shampoos had a good percentage of solids, excellent foam formation with stable foam and a highly viscous nature. Regarding the pH measurement, all shampoo samples were within the specified range with good wetting ability.

  7. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 1-6

  8. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system, the calming ingredient bisabolol, and

  9. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Catherine; Koch, Laine H; Dice, James E; Dempsey, Kimberly K; Moskowitz, Alan B; Barnes-Eley, Myra L; Hubbard, Thomas W; Williams, Judith V

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children. Forty children aged 1-11 years with clinically diagnosed tinea capitis were randomized to receive selenium sulfide shampoo 1% or ciclopirox shampoo 1% twice a week as adjuncts to an 8-week course of ultramicronized griseofulvin dosed at 10-12 mg/kg/day. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, subjects returned to the clinic for evaluation and scalp cultures. Subjects then returned for follow-up visits 4 weeks after completing treatment. Overall, by 8 weeks, 30 of 33 (90.9%) treated children demonstrated mycological cure. Selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% were equally effective as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children in our study. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweiger D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Schweiger,1 Andrea M Schoelermann,1 Alexander Filbry,1 Tina Hamann,1 Claudia Moser,2 Frank Rippke1 1Research and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany; 2Moser Medical, Clinics for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Vienna, Austria Background: Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp.Methods: The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire.Results: Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants.Conclusion: Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test

  11. Ecotoxicological evaluation of two anti-dandruff hair shampoos using Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Shoaib, Shahana; Bangash, Halima; Taimur, Nadia; Murad, Waheed; Daud, Muhammad Khan

    2018-04-04

    Hair shampoos, a mixture of various organic and organic compounds, are commonly used personnel care products. Since shampoos are used in almost every household and beauty shop, their ingredients are common components of domestic and municipal wastewater. However, studies on the effect of shampoos to aquatic plants can hardly be found in literature. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the phytotoxic effects of two commonly used anti-dandruff shampoos (named here AD 1 and AD 2) using Lemna minor as a biotest organism. For toxicity assessment, frond number, fresh and dry biomass, and light-harvesting pigments (chlorophyll a, b and total carotenoids) of Lemna were used as end points. Five different concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 5%) of each shampoo were tested in comparison to the control. At lower concentrations of shampoos, some minor and non-significant stimulatory effects were observed in some parameters, but at concentrations above 0.01% both the shampoos significantly inhibited almost all parameters in Lemna. The EC 50 values obtained for frond number were 0.034 and 0.11% for AD 1 and AD 2, respectively. The fresh biomass gave EC 50 values of 0.07 and 0.066% for AD 1 and AD 2, respectively. Based on the preset study, it can be speculated that shampoo contamination at higher concentrations in water bodies can be a threat to aquatic organisms. This study can be used as a baseline to further investigate shampoo toxicity using other species and to explore the mechanism of shampoo toxicity in aquatic plants.

  12. Control of head lice with a coconut-derived emulsion shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, M; Stafford, K A; Coles, G C; Kennedy, C T C; Downs, A M R

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate a novel coconut-derived emulsion (CDE) shampoo against head lice infestation in children. A school trial in which pupils were treated on days 0 and 7 and checked on days 8 and 15 and a family trial where product was applied by parents three times in 2 weeks or used as a cosmetic shampoo and checked on days 14 and days 70. UK schools in Bristol and Western-super-Mare and families in Northern Somerset. Numbers of children free from infestation after treatment. In the school trial, percentage cures at day 8 were 14% (permethrin, n=7) and 61% (CDE, n=37). In the family trial where all family members were treated, cure rate was 96% (n=28), and if the shampoo was subsequently used as a cosmetic shampoo, only 1 of 12 children became re-infested after 10 weeks. CDE shampoo is a novel effective method of controlling head lice and used after treatment as a cosmetic shampoo can aid in the reduction of re-infestation.

  13. The Shampoo pH can Affect the Hair: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis; de Almeida, Andréia Munck; Cecato, Patricia Makino Rezende; Adriano, Andre Ricardo; Pichler, Janine

    2014-07-01

    Dermatologists most frequently prescribe shampoos for the treatment of hair shed and scalp disorders. Prescription of hair care products is often focused on improving scalp hair density, whereas the over-the-counter products focus on hair damage prevention. Little is taught in medical schools about the hair cosmetics, so that the prescriptions are based only on the treatment of the scalp and usually disregards the hair fiber health. In this work, we review the current literature about the mode of action of a low-pH shampoo regarding the hair shaft's health and analyze the pH of 123 shampoos of international brands. All shampoo pH values ranged from 3.5 to 9.0. 38.21% of all 123 shampoos presented a pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 29.9-47%) and 61.78% presented a pH > 5.5. 26 anti-dandruff shampoos were analyzed. About 19.23% presented pH ≤ 5.5.(IC: 7.4-37.6%). 80.77% of all anti-dandruffs shampoos presented a pH > 5.5. The dermatological shampoo group (n = 19) presented 42.10% with pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 21.8-64.6%), and 57.90% with pH > 5.5. Among the commercial (popular) products (n = 96), 34.37% presented pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 25.4-44.3%) and 65.62% presented pH > 5.5. 15 professional products (used in hair salons) were analyzed, of which 75% had a pH ≤ 5.5 (IC: 18-65, 4%), and 25% had a pH > 5.5. 100% of the children's shampoos presented a pH > 5.5. Alkaline pH may increase the negative electrical charge of the hair fiber surface and, therefore, increase friction between the fibers. This may lead to cuticle damage and fiber breakage. It is a reality and not a myth that lower pH of shampoos may cause less frizzing for generating less negative static electricity on the fiber surface. Interestingly, only 38% of the popular brand shampoos against 75% of the salons shampoos presented a pH ≤ 5.0. Pediatric shampoos had the pH of 7.0 because of the "no-tear" concept. There is no standardized value for the final pH. The authors believe that it is important to reveal the pH value on the

  14. Matting Of Hair Due To ′Sunsilk′ Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Mohd

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Matting of hair been reported from time to time due to treatment of hair with detergent, shampoos, waving lotions, setting lotions and bleaches. A case of matting of hairs in a young girl due to a change in the brand of shampoo is reported.

  15. Effects on the function of three trophic levels in marine plankton communities under stress from the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjorth, M.; Dahlloef, I.; Forbes, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate functional responses of natural marine planktonic communities to stress from the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Isotope labelling techniques ( 14 C) were applied to study bacterial incorporation of leucine, photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton and grazing of labelled prey by zooplankton communities for 6 days after exposures to nominal concentrations of 0, 5, 25, 50 nM ZPT in a mesocosm experiment in Isefjord, Denmark. Significant direct effects were visible on chlorophyll a concentrations, which decreased in all exposed communities, to between 48 and 36% of control concentrations on Day 3, 1 day after the last exposure. Phytoplankton activities were also significantly affected on Day 3 with activities between 9 and 26% of control levels, as was zooplankton activities in the 25 and 50 nM exposures. In the 50 nM exposure the total community zooplankton activity was reduced to 25 ± 4%, and per individual to 46 ± 11% of control levels. Bacterial communities showed positive indirect effects with high activities (up to 183 ± 40%) due to higher amounts of available substrate from algal death. Pollution induced community tolerance analyses performed on phytoplankton and bacterial communities at the end of the experiment indicated a development of increased tolerance for phytoplankton in the 50 nM exposed communities, whereas there were no changes in tolerance in the bacterial communities. Multivariate analysis of the integrated functional response by the plankton communities revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between exposed communities compared to controls in the first 3 days after last exposure and in the end of the experiment. The study provides evidence of diverse effects on the functions of marine plankton communities under stress from a pollutant. Direct effects lead to cascading indirect effects throughout the community, eventually causing different developments. Continuous exposure to ZPT could lead to

  16. Effects of shampoo and water washing on hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Amanda F; Meyer, Jerrold S; Henchey, Elizabeth; Dettmer, Amanda M; Suomi, Stephen J; Novak, Melinda A

    2011-01-30

    Measurement of cortisol in hair is an emerging biomarker for chronic stress in human and nonhuman primates. Currently unknown, however, is the extent of potential cortisol loss from hair that has been repeatedly exposed to shampoo and/or water. Pooled hair samples from 20 rhesus monkeys were subjected to five treatment conditions: 10, 20, or 30 shampoo washes, 20 water-only washes, or a no-wash control. For each wash, hair was exposed to a dilute shampoo solution or tap water for 45 s, rinsed 4 times with tap water, and rapidly dried. Samples were then processed for cortisol extraction and analysis using previously published methods. Hair cortisol levels were significantly reduced by washing, with an inverse relationship between number of shampoo washes and the cortisol concentration. This effect was mainly due to water exposure, as cortisol levels following 20 water-only washes were similar to those following 20 shampoo treatments. Repeated exposure to water with or without shampoo appears to leach cortisol from hair, yielding values that underestimate the amount of chronic hormone deposition within the shaft. Collecting samples proximal to the scalp and obtaining hair washing frequency data may be valuable when conducting human hair cortisol studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF A HERBAL SHAMPOO

    OpenAIRE

    Gouri Kumar Dash* and Noor Husna Nazirah Binti A. Razak

    2017-01-01

    The study was aimed at formulating and evaluating a complete herbal shampoo containing only traditionally used plant materials. The shampoo contained extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenumgraecum, Phyllanthus emblica, Sapindus mukorossi, Acacia concinna and fresh juice of Aloe vera. The physicochemical parameters such as colour, clarity, pH, skin irritation, percentage of solid contents, dirt dispersion, foaming ability and foam stability, wetting time and c...

  18. PENETAPAN KADAR Pb PADA SHAMPOO BERBAGAI MERK DENGAN METODE SPEKTROFOTOMETRI SERAPAN ATOM

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Jaya; Any Guntarti; Zainul Kamal

    2013-01-01

    The source of lead pollution (Pb) can come from cosmetic product including shampoo. The purpose of this research are to know wether there is Pb in the shampoo cosmetic based on different brands and colours of the shampoo. The sample of the shampoos that used in this research are A, B, C, and D. Each of the samples replicated 5 times, then analyzed with atomic absorbtion specktrophotometry. Then, one of the sample are taken from one brand with different colour and replicated 5 time...

  19. Efficacy of a cosmetic phyto-caffeine shampoo in female androgenetic alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussoletti, Carolina; Tolaini, Maria V; Celleno, Leonardo

    2018-03-06

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in both males as well as females, occurring in up to 57% of women by the age of 80 years. Androgenetic alopecia is associated with a high psychological burden and often results in substantially reduced quality of life, poor body image and low self-esteem, particularly in women. Caffeine-based products have shown promise, both in vitro and in vivo, as potential treatments for AGA. This study was performed to determine the efficacy of a phyto-caffeine- containing shampoo used over a 6-month period in female subjects with AGA. This was a single-centre, double-blind parallel trial in which female subjects with AGA were randomized to either a phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo or a control shampoo. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in the number of hairs pulled in a hair pull test at 6 months. Hair loss intensity, hair strength, subject satisfaction and tolerability were also assessed. Subjects using the phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo had significantly fewer hairs pulled in a hair pull test at 6 months, compared with subjects using the control shampoo (-3.1 vs -0.5 hairs; pshampoo, compared with controls. Both products were very well tolerated. Compared with a control shampoo, a phyto-caffeine-containing shampoo was more efficacious, with respect to the number of hairs being pulled out at 6 months, hair loss intensity and hair strength in subjects with AGA.

  20. Advancement in shampoo (a dermal care product): preparation methods, patents and commercial utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeksha; Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod K

    2014-01-01

    Shampoo is a cleaning aid for hair and is the most evolving beauty products in the present scenario. Today's shampoo products are of great importance as they provide cleaning of hair with the benefits of conditioning, smoothing and good health of hair i.e. dandruff, dirt, grease and lice free hair. Various types of shampoos depending upon function, nature of ingredient, and their special effects are elaborated in this study. Generally shampoos are evaluated in terms of physical appearance, detergency, surface tension, foam quality, pH, viscosity, and percent of solid content, flow property, dirt dispersion, cleaning action, stability and wetting time. The attention should be paid at its patent portion which attracts towards itself as it provides wide knowledge related to shampoo. This article reviews the various aspects of shampoo in terms of preparation methods, various patents and commercial value.

  1. Dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after hairwash with coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooten, F.-J. van; Moonen, E.J.C.; Rhijnsburger, E.; Agen, B. van; Thijssen, H.H.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S. [University of Limburg, Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. of Health Risk Analysis and Toxicology

    1994-11-26

    Describes an experiment to assess the dermal uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after hairwashing with coal tar antidandruff shampoo. The urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-P), a PAH metabolile was used to assess internal dose of PAH. A single use of coal tar shampoo resulted in increased 1-OH-P excretion in all members of the experimental group compared with the control group using a non-coal tar antidandruff shampoo. It is suggested that repeated use of coal tar shampoo would result in a high internal dose of carcinogenic PAH. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Evaluation of soy-based surface active copolymers as surfactant ingredients in model shampoo formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, A; Kalita, H; Chisholm, B J; Voronov, A

    2014-12-01

    A new non-toxic soybean oil-based polymeric surfactant (SBPS) for personal-care products was developed and extensively characterized, including an evaluation of the polymeric surfactant performance in model shampoo formulations. To experimentally assure applicability of the soy-based macromolecules in shampoos, either in combination with common anionic surfactants (in this study, sodium lauryl sulfate, SLS) or as a single surface-active ingredient, the testing of SBPS physicochemical properties, performance and visual assessment of SBPS-based model shampoos was carried out. The results obtained, including foaming and cleaning ability of model formulations, were compared to those with only SLS as a surfactant as well as to SLS-free shampoos. Overall, the results show that the presence of SBPS improves cleaning, foaming, and conditioning of model formulations. SBPS-based formulations meet major requirements of multifunctional shampoos - mild detergency, foaming, good conditioning, and aesthetic appeal, which are comparable to commercially available shampoos. In addition, examination of SBPS/SLS mixtures in model shampoos showed that the presence of the SBPS enables the concentration of SLS to be significantly reduced without sacrificing shampoo performance. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Comparative study of ketoconazole versus selenium sulphide shampoo in pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal K

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated with either 2% ketoconazole shampoo (20 patients or 2.5% selenium sulphide shampoo (20 patients, once a week for three weeks. On global assessment after one month of start of therapy, 19 (95% out of 20 patients treated with ketoconazole shampoo were cured while one case had mild residual disease. In selenium sulphide shampoo group, 17 (85% out of 20 patients were cured, one had mild residual disease and two had considerable residual disease. No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in one patient of ketoconazole group and two patients of selenium sulphide group during the follow - up period of three months.

  4. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Guenther, Lyn; Tan, Jerry; Lynde, Charles; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Clobetasol propionate (CP) shampoo 0.05% is an efficacious and safe treatment for scalp psoriasis. The aim of this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was to determine if CP shampoo is suitable for long-term disease control. Participants with moderate to severe scalp psoriasis (global severity score [GSS] of 3 or 4 on a scale of 0 [clear] to 5 [very severe]) first received once daily CP shampoo treatment for up to 4 weeks. Responders were subsequently randomized to receive the CP shampoo or vehicle twice weekly maintenance regimen for up to 6 months. When relapse occurred (defined as GSS > 2), participants resumed once daily CP shampoo treatment; when symptoms diminished (GSS shampoo did not relapse compared with participants treated with vehicle (P shampoo group. After 6 months 31.1% (33/106) of participants in the CP shampoo group were still relapse free versus 8.1% (9/111) of participants in the vehicle group. There was no greater incidence of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression in the CP shampoo group compared with the vehicle group. Clobetasol propionate shampoo is efficacious and safe for acute management and long-term maintenance of moderate to severe scalp psoriasis.

  5. Baby Shampoo Versus Povidone-Iodine or Isopropyl Alcohol in Reducing Eyelid Skin Bacterial Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Nguyen, Christine V; Yonkers, Marc A; Tao, Jeremiah P

    Baby shampoo is used as an alternative surgical skin preparation, but the evidence supporting its use is scarce with no descriptions of efficacy in the periocular region. The authors compare the efficacy of baby shampoo, povidone-iodine (PI, Betadine) and isopropyl alcohol (IA) in reducing eyelid skin bacterial load. Prospective, randomized, comparative, and interventional trial. Bacterial load on adult, human eyelid skin was quantitated before and after cleansing with 1) dilute baby shampoo, 2) 10% PI, or 3) 70% IA. Paired skin swabs were collected from a 1 cm area of the upper eyelid of subjects before and after a standardized surgical scrub technique. Samples were cultured on 5% sheep blood agar for 24 hours. The number of colony forming units (CFU) was assessed and bacterial load per square centimeter of eyelid skin was quantified. Baseline and postcleansing samples were assessed from 42 eyelids of 42 subjects (n = 14 for each of baby shampoo, PI, and IA). Before cleansing, similar amounts of bacterial flora were grown from all specimens (median log CFU/cm = 2.04 before baby shampoo, 2.01 before PI, 2.11 before IA; p > 0.05). All 3 cleansing agents significantly reduced the bacterial load (p shampoo, 0.39 after PI, 0.59 after IA; p > 0.05). Change from baseline in bacterial load was statistically similar for all 3 agents (median reduction in log CFU/cm = 1.28 with baby shampoo, 1.57 with PI, 1.40 with IA; p > 0.05). These corresponded to bacterial load reductions of 96.3%, 96.6%, and 98.4% for baby shampoo, PI, and IA, respectively. Baby shampoo achieved comparable diminution in eyelid skin bacterial load to PI or IA. These data suggest baby shampoo may be an effective preoperative cleansing agent.

  6. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% is efficacious and safe for long-term control of moderate scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Yves; Papp, Kim; Bissonnette, Robert; Barber, Kirk; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated in this study the efficacy and safety of an alternate regimen using clobetasol propionate 0.05% shampoo (CP shampoo) for long-term control of scalp psoriasis. Patients with moderate scalp psoriasis (Global Severity Score [GSS] of 3 on a 0-5 scale) first received CP shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Patients with a GSS shampoo or vehicle twice weekly. When relapse (GSS > 2) occurred, patients received the 4-week daily CP shampoo treatment. Patients who had a GSS shampoo, almost 4 months later than with vehicle (30.5 days;p shampoo (40.3%) than with vehicle (11.6%;p shampoo was also safe during the 7-month study period, without leading to more cases of skin atrophy, telangiectasia, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression or adverse events compared to vehicle. The alternate treatment regimen with CP shampoo is efficacious and safe for long-term management of moderate scalp psoriasis.

  7. Noncorticosteroid Combination Shampoo versus 1% Ketoconazole Shampoo for the Management of Mild-to-Moderate Seborrheic Dermatitis of the Scalp: Results from a Randomized, Investigator-Single-Blind Trial Using Clinical and Trichoscopic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Verzì, Anna Elisa; Micali, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of a combination noncorticosteroid, antiinflammatory/antifungal shampoo versus 1% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of mild-to-moderate scalp seborrheic dermatitis (SD). Twenty patients were randomized to using the combination shampoo (group A, 10 patients) or the 1% ketoconazole shampoo (group B, 10 patients) 3 times a week every other day for 8 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the degree of scaling and pruritus by clinical and trichoscopic examination using a 4-point scale. Additionally, a physician global assessment (PGA) was assessed at the end of the study. At 4 weeks, there was a significant reduction of scaling from baseline for both groups, while pruritus showed a significant reduction only for group A. After 8 weeks, there was a significant reduction of scaling and pruritus for both groups. PGA showed a complete response in 90% of the cases in both groups. The results of our study demonstrate that the combination noncorticosteroid, antiinflammatory/antifungal shampoo represents an alternative approach to standard topical treatment for scalp SD. A noncorticosteroid shampoo may be equally safe and effective as ketoconazole shampoo for scalp SD, and trichoscopy provides accurate and reliable quantifiable data to assist in therapeutic monitoring.

  8. Horse Shampoo for Human Hair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac Anca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lately, a new idea has caught the attention of young people of both genders, being debated in consultation rooms, during classes, and especially on social media: is using horse shampoo for human hair wrong or not?

  9. The study of consistent properties of gelatinous shampoo with minoxidil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Gnitko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the study of consistent properties of gelatinous shampoo with minoxidil 1% for the complex therapy and prevention of alopecia. This shampoo with minoxidil was selected according to the complex physical-chemical, biopharmaceutical and microbiological investigations. Methods and results. It has been established that consistent properties of the gelatinous minoxidil 1% shampoo and the «mechanical stability» (1.70 describe the formulation as exceptionally thixotropic composition with possibility of restoration after mechanical loads. Also this fact allows to predict stability of the consistent properties during long storage. Conclusion. Factors of dynamic flowing for the foam detergent gel with minoxidil (Кd1=38.9%; Kd2=78.06% quantitatively confirm sufficient degree of distribution at the time of spreading composition on the skin surface of the hairy part of head or during technological operations of manufacturing. Insignificant difference of «mechanical stability» for the gelatinous minoxidil 1% shampoo and its base indicates the absence of interactions between active substance and the base.

  10. Ketoconazole 2% shampoo in pityriasis versicolor: An open trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection caused by a lipophilic yeast. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of ketoconazole 2% shampoo in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor, for which thirty patients were included. The shampoo was applied daily for 3 days and found to be very effective in clearing the signs and symptoms of the disease. There was no serious adverse effects.

  11. Putative contact ketoconazole shampoo-triggered pemphigus foliaceus in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Hyun-Jeong; Yoon, In-Hwa; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    A 10-year-old spayed female cocker spaniel dog was referred for an evaluation of acute-onset generalized pustular cutaneous lesions following application of ketoconazole shampoo. Cytologic and histopathologic examinations of the lesions revealed intra-epidermal pustules with predominantly neutrophils and acantholytic cells. This is the first description of putative contact ketoconazole shampoo-triggered pemphigus foliaceus in a dog.

  12. No sulfates, no parabens, and the "no-poo" method: a new patient perspective on common shampoo ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Abigail; Uwakwe, Laura N; McMichael, Amy J

    2018-01-01

    The ingredients in shampoos and other cosmetic products have become scrutinized by the general public and the Internet has contributed to misinformation about certain shampoos. Dermatologists must be prepared to acknowledge the concerns that their patients have about common shampoo ingredients to dispel the myths that may misinform patient decision-making. This article reviews the controversy surrounding the use of sulfates and parabens in shampoos, as well as commonly used shampoo alternatives, often called the "no-poo" method.

  13. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine–ketoconazole shampoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, JE; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. Methods and Results We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed‐breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post‐infestation. Conclusion Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. PMID:26220323

  14. Coexistence of adult-onset actinic prurigo and shampoo dermatitis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ju Lee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Actinic prurigo is a rare and acquired idiopathic photodermatosis. It usually shows childhood onset and female predominance. Here, we present an unusual case of a male patient with coexistence of adult-onset actinic prurigo and shampoo-induced allergic contact dermatitis. He was initially diagnosed with actinic prurigo. However, after detailed examination of the distribution of the rash, careful collection of his history, and interpretation of the results of histopathologic analysis, photo test, patch test, and photopatch test, coexistence of adult-onset actinic prurigo and shampoo-induced allergic contact dermatitis associated with cocamidopropyl betaine was diagnosed. The rash improved after appropriate use of sunscreen and avoidance of shampoo containing this allergen. Dermatologists should be aware of the possibility of concurrent photodermatitis and contact dermatitis. Keywords: Actinic prurigo, Cocamidopropyl betaine, Contact dermatitis, Photosensitivity, Shampoo dermatitis

  15. Identification of the plants use as natural herbal shampoo in Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S R; Phurailatpam, A K; Senjam, P

    2014-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in the year, 2011 - 12 in Imphal valley of Manipur, on the use of herbs as ingredient sources for the preparation of traditional natural herbal shampoo referred to as 'Chinghi', by Meitei community. Methodological field survey and personal interview of local people aged between 30-70 years of both sexes using standard questionnaires were carried out to collect information on the plants use in the herbal shampoo preparation. The survey revealed the therapeutic application of 35 plant species representing 28 genera and 18 families available in the Imphal valley. Tree species contributed immensely, yielding 38%, while herbs 32%, shrubs 27%, and climbing shrubs 3%, respectively being the record of the total number of plants used as ingredient in herbal shampoo preparation. These natural shampoos are used for a wide range of common hair care like anti-ageing of the hair, blackness, shininess and smoothness of the hair. It is prepared from young leaves and tender stalk of shoot of trees or shrubs, or whole plant of the herbs and fresh fruits boiled with local sticky rice water locally called 'Chinghi'. Fermented lime peel is also used as a herbal shampoo. The study shows details of their scientific, common, and local names, including their family, parts used, habit of the plants, and the benefit to the hair health as a whole.

  16. Shampoo and Conditioners: What a Dermatologist Should Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Paschal; Rathi, Sanjay K

    2015-01-01

    Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  17. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ian F; Kay, Katrina; Burgess, Nazma A; Brunton, Elizabeth R

    2011-01-01

    This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil- based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product. We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment. The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.

  18. Efficacy of a 2% climbazole shampoo for reducing Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, P; Petit, J-Y; Perrot, S; Guechi, R; Marignac, G; Reynaud, K; Guillot, J

    2015-12-01

    Shampoo therapy is often recommended for the control of Malassezia overgrowth in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo activity of a 2% climbazole shampoo against Malassezia pachydermatis yeasts in naturally infected dogs. Eleven research colony Beagles were used. The dogs were distributed randomly into two groups: group A (n=6) and group B (n=5). Group A dogs were washed with a 2% climbazole shampoo, while group B dogs were treated with a physiological shampoo base. The shampoos were applied once weekly for two weeks. The population size of Malassezia yeasts on skin was determined by fungal culture through modified Dixon's medium contact plates pressed on left concave pinna, axillae, groins, perianal area before and after shampoo application. Samples collected were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Samples collected after 2% climbazole shampoo application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia population sizes. One hour after the first climbazole shampoo application, Malassezia reduction was already statistically significant and 15 days after the second climbazole shampoo, Malassezia population sizes were still significantly decreased. No significant reduction of Malassezia population sizes was observed in group B dogs. The application of a 2% climbazole shampoo significantly reduced Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs. Application of 2% climbazole shampoo may be useful for the control of Malassezia overgrowth and it may be also proposed as prevention when recurrences are frequent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine-ketoconazole shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R D; Liebenberg, J E; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed-breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post-infestation. Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. © 2015 MSD Animal Health. Australian Veterinary Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australian Veterinary Association.

  20. Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning from a home-made shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaka, Yair; Broides, Arnon; Tzion, Raffi Lev; Lifshitz, Matitiahu

    2011-07-01

    Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning is a major health problem in children. We report an unusual cause of organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning. Two children were admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning after exposure from a home-made shampoo that was used for the treatment of head lice. Owing to no obvious source of poisoning, the diagnosis of organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning in one of these patients was delayed. Both patients had an uneventful recovery. Organophosphate acetylcholine esterase inhibitor poisoning from home-made shampoo is possible. In cases where the mode of poisoning is unclear, direct questioning about the use of home-made shampoo is warranted, in these cases the skin and particularly the scalp should be rinsed thoroughly as soon as possible.

  1. Post-operative shampoo effects in neurosurgical patients: a pilot experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palese, Alvisa; Moreale, Renzo; Noacco, Massimo; Pistrino, Flavia; Mastrolia, Irene; Sartor, Assunta; Scarparo, Claudio; Skrap, Miran

    2015-04-01

    Neurosurgical site infections are an important issue. Among the acknowledged preventive tactics, the non-shaving technique is well established in the neurosurgical setting. However, given that patient's hair around the surgical site may retain biologic material that emerges during the surgical procedure or that may simply become dirty, which may increase the risk of surgical site infections, if and when shampooing should be offered remains under debate. A pilot experimental study was undertaken from 2011 to 2012. A series of neurosurgical patients not affected by conditions that would increase the risk of post-operative infection were assigned randomly to the exposed group (receiving shampoo 72 h after surgical procedure) or control group (receiving standard dressing surveillance without shampooing). Comfort, surgical site contamination (measured as the number of colony-forming units [CFU]), and SSIs at 30 d after surgery were the main study outcomes. A total of 53 patients were included: 25 (47.2%) received a shampoo after 72 h whereas 28 (52.8%) received standard care. Patients who received a shampoo reported a similar level of comfort (average=8.04; standard deviation [SD] 1.05) compared with those receiving standard care (average 7.3; SD 3.2) although this was not statistically significant (p=0.345). No statistically significant difference emerged in the occurrence of surgical site contamination between the groups, and no SSIs were detected within 30 d. In our pilot study, the results of which are not generalizable because of the limited sample of patients involved, a gentle shampoo offered 72 h after the surgical procedure did not increase the SSIs occurrence or the contamination of the surgical site, although it may increase the perception of comfort by patients. Further studies are strongly recommended involving a larger sample size and designed to include more diversified neurosurgical patients undergoing surgical procedures in different centers.

  2. COMPARISON OF POTENCY OF ANTIFUNGAL ACTION OF DANDRUFF SHAMPOOS AND DIFFERENT PLANT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Padma P, Anuradha K, Divya K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dandruff a very common scalp disorder with high prevalence in population is caused by numerous host factors in conjunction with Malassezia furfur. Most of the commercially available anti-dandruff hair shampoos contain some form of antifungal agent(s that appear to reduce the incidence of the disease. There are no good scientific studies done to prove the antifungal activity of commercially available hair shampoos. Aim: In this study commercially available shampoos were assessed for antifungal activity against a human dandruff isolate of M. furfur. The shampoos were Head & Shoulders, Clinic All Clear, and Pantene etc. The results demonstrated that all six of the assayed hair shampoos have some antifungal effect on growth of M. furfur. These products have poor efficacies, more side effects and give scope for recurrence of symptoms. Methods and Materials: Therefore different plant extracts that possess various active compounds which have antifungal activity could help to overcome the incidence of the disease and also avoid the emergence of resistance in the pathogen. The plant extracts were tested in different concentrations like 1:5, 1:10, 1:20 and they were hibiscus, neem, soap nut, etc. The inhibitory action was studied using agar well assay and disc diffusion method and the results indicated in percentage of inhibition. Conclusion: The study was significant as not only efficient known plant products with anti-dandruff activity could be compared with commercially available shampoos but also their better efficacies at minimum concentrations could be identified. This can help make a polyherbal mixture that could be incorporated in hair oil or shampoos for better anti-dandruff activity.

  3. Making a frothy shampoo or beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durian, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    The terms ``foam'' and ``froth'' refer to a dispersion of gas bubbles in a liquid. Why do certain liquids show a tendency to foam while others do not? For example, bubbles can be produced in pure water by vigorous agitation, but then they rapidly coalesce and disappear. While foams cannot be produced with pure water, foams associated with beer or shampoo can persist for several minutes or even hours. What ingredient(s) in shampoo and beer make their foams stable, and what physical concepts control their stability? In this talk I'll review three basic mechanisms underlying foam stability, and I'll make connection with current research on coarsening by the diffusion of gas from smaller to larger bubbles. With thanks to Srinivasa Raghavan, Adam Roth, and NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Grant NNX07AP20G.

  4. Leaching of hydrophobic Cu and Zn from discarded marine antifouling paint residues: Evidence for transchelation of metal pyrithiones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Luke; Turner, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of discarded antifouling paint residues ([Cu] = 288 mg g -1 ; [Zn] = 96 mg g -1 ) into natural sea water has been studied over a period of 75 h. Total Cu and Zn were released according to a pseudo first-order reaction, with rate constants on the order of 0.3 and 2.5 (mg L -1 ) -1 h -1 , respectively, and final concentrations equivalent to the dissolution of about 8 and 2% of respective concentrations in the composite. Time-distributions of hydrophobic metals, determined by solid phase extraction-methanol elution, were more complex. Net release of hydrophobic Cu was greater in the absence of light than under a sequence of light-dark cycles; however, hydrophobic Zn release was not detected under the former conditions but contributed up to 50% of total aqueous Zn when light was present. These observations are interpreted in terms of the relative thermodynamic and photolytic stabilities of biocidal pyrithione complexes. - Hydrophobic Cu and Zn leached from antifouling paint particles into sea water appear to be pyrithione complexes.

  5. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  6. Shampoo and conditioners: What a dermatologist should know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschal D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologists many a times encounter questions from patients and even colleagues asking about how to keep their hair looking clean, healthy and beautiful. Therefore, familiarity and a basic knowledge of the available hair care products will help them to guide their patients properly. A shampoo not only provides the cleaning of the scalp skin and hair as its primary function, but in addition also serves to condition and beautify hair and acts as an adjunct in the management of various scalp disorders. To achieve this, various ingredients in the correct proportion are mixed to provide a shampoo which is suitable for individuals having different hair types and hair need. Among the ingredients that go into the making of a shampoo are detergents, conditioners, thickeners, sequestering agents, pH adjusters, preservatives and specialty additives. Hair conditioners are designed to improve hair manageability, decrease hair static electricity and add luster. They are used in several ways depending upon the state of hair and requirement of the individual. This article attempts to put forward the basic and practical aspects regarding use of these products.

  7. Gel network shampoo formulation and hair health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J M; Brown, M A; Felts, T J; Hutton, H D; Vatter, M L; Whitaker, S; Wireko, F C; Styczynski, P B; Li, C; Henry, I D

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work was to create a shampoo formula that contains a stable ordered gel network structure that delivers fatty alcohols inside hair. X-ray diffraction (SAXS and WAXS), SEM and DSC have been used to confirm formation of the ordered Lβ gel network with fatty alcohol (cetyl and stearyl alcohols) and an anionic surfactant (SLE1S). Micro-autoradiography and extraction methods using GC-MS were used to confirm penetration of fatty alcohols into hair, and cyclic fatigue testing was used to measure hair strength. In this work, evidence of a stable Lβ ordered gel network structure created from cetyl and stearyl alcohols and anionic surfactant (SLE1S) is presented, and this is confirmed via scanning electron microscopy images showing lamella layers and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showing new melting peaks vs the starting fatty alcohols. Hair washed for 16 repeat cycles with this shampoo showed penetration of fatty alcohols from the gel network into hair as confirmed by a differential extraction method with GC-MS and by radiolabelling of stearyl alcohol and showing its presence inside hair cross-sections. The gel network role in delivering fatty alcohol inside hair is demonstrated by comparing with a shampoo with added fatty alcohol not in an ordered gel network structure. The hair containing fatty alcohol was measured via the Dia-stron cyclic fatigue instrument and showed a significantly higher number of cycles to break vs control. The formation of a stable gel network was confirmed in the formulated shampoo, and it was demonstrated that this gel network is important to deliver cetyl and stearyl alcohols into hair. The presence of fatty alcohol inside hair was shown to deliver a hair strength benefit via cyclic fatigue testing. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Disposition kinetics of selenium in healthy volunteers following therapeutic shampoo treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noisel, Nolwenn; Bouchard, Michèle; Carrier, Gaétan

    2010-05-01

    This study was aimed at documenting the kinetic time courses of selenium (Se) in accessible biological matrices of volunteers following controlled applications of therapeutic shampoo containing Se, to better elucidate the mechanisms by which shampoo-Se accumulates in hair and hence estimate the contribution of this source to total Se body burden. Ten healthy volunteers were exposed to Se-shampoo three times a week over a month. Blood, hair and toenail concentrations along with daily urinary excretions were repeatedly measured over an 18-month period following the onset of application. Over the entire study period, blood concentrations of Se (range: 127-233μg/l) and daily urinary excretions (range: 11.9-150μg/d) remained within baseline range of the general population. Conversely, during shampoo application, mean Se concentrations in hair reached transitional levels of 89μg/g while, following cessation of treatment, a mono-exponential decrease was observed with a mean half-life of 4.5 weeks. Two of the volunteers also exhibited an increase in toenail concentrations of Se during the study period. Results show that Se-shampoo does not contribute significantly to total Se body burden, as assessed from blood and urine levels. Differences observed between blood and urine time courses as compared to hair profiles and the presence of Se on hair grown before treatment indicates an adsorption on hair; however, the gradual decrease in Se concentrations in successive centimeters of hair grown following the application period suggests a concomitant absorption from the scalp during treatment with subsequent excretion in hair. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Leaching of hydrophobic Cu and Zn from discarded marine antifouling paint residues: Evidence for transchelation of metal pyrithiones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmes, Luke [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of discarded antifouling paint residues ([Cu] = 288 mg g{sup -1}; [Zn] = 96 mg g{sup -1}) into natural sea water has been studied over a period of 75 h. Total Cu and Zn were released according to a pseudo first-order reaction, with rate constants on the order of 0.3 and 2.5 (mg L{sup -1}){sup -1} h{sup -1}, respectively, and final concentrations equivalent to the dissolution of about 8 and 2% of respective concentrations in the composite. Time-distributions of hydrophobic metals, determined by solid phase extraction-methanol elution, were more complex. Net release of hydrophobic Cu was greater in the absence of light than under a sequence of light-dark cycles; however, hydrophobic Zn release was not detected under the former conditions but contributed up to 50% of total aqueous Zn when light was present. These observations are interpreted in terms of the relative thermodynamic and photolytic stabilities of biocidal pyrithione complexes. - Hydrophobic Cu and Zn leached from antifouling paint particles into sea water appear to be pyrithione complexes.

  10. BRAND POSITIONING THROUGH MULTIDIMENSIONAL SCALING:A STUDY IN THE TURKISH SHAMPOO MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Anıl KONUK

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the position ofseven shampoo brands that existin the Turkish market. In this research, perceptualmapping technique was usedbased on the attribute data and attribute ratings.The results of this study indicate that two most important dimensions that areeffective on consumer evaluations of shampoo brandsare found to be brand affectand brand Trust Customer Services.

  11. Multicenter, double-blind, parallel group study investigating the non-inferiority of efficacy and safety of a 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with a 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Stanislaw A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the non-inferiority of efficacy and tolerance of 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. A randomized, double-blind, comparative, parallel group, multicenter study was done. A total of 274 patients (145 miconazole, 129 ketoconazole) were enrolled. Treatment was twice-weekly for 4 weeks. Safety and efficacy assessments were made at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Assessments included symptoms of erythema, itching, scaling ['Symptom Scale of Seborrhoeic Dermatitis' (SSSD)], disease severity and global change [Clinical Global Impressions (CGIs) and Patient Global Impressions (PGIs)]. Miconazole shampoo is at least as effective and safe as ketoconazole shampoo in treating scalp seborrheic dermatitis scalp.

  12. Shampoo of kesum (Polygonum minus) leaves ethanol extract as an anti-dandruff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiarti, Dini

    2017-03-01

    Formulation of shampoo has done as anti dandruff extracts from ethanol leaf kesum (Polygonum minus) the most effective way of inhibiting the growth of Pityrosporum ovale. The community of West Kalimantan utilizing kesum as medicine anti dandruff but there has been no clinical research against such activities. Kesum have been cleaned, dried and crushed, then extracted by using maceration method of ethanol 50%. Furthermore, kesum leaves were divided into four of shampoo formula by varying concentrations of kesum leaves ethanol extract 0% (negative control), 5 % (the fisrt formula), 10 % (the second formula), and 15 % (the third formula). In the next step, each formula shampoo anti dandruff will betested by setting up the media in the form of SDB (Sabouraud Dextrose Broth) and SDA (Sabouraud Dextrose Agar) as well as the microbiological tests include: culture Pityrosporum ovale, calculation of yeast Pityrosporum ovale, and test of inhibition and release of active substances. Shampoo formula of kesum leaves ethanol extract showed that is has antifungal activity towards of the fungi caused by dandruff. The best inhibitor activity has been obtained from the third formula with diameter of clear zone at 2,61 cm.

  13. Use of a modified hair strand test to assess the antifungal activity kinetics of dog hair after a 2% climbazole shampoo application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean Yanique; Cavana, Paola; Thoumire, Sandra; Guillot, Jacques; Perrot, Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    The "hair strand test" was first developed as a model to evaluate the antifungal activity of antidandruff shampoos. To assess the residual activity of an antifungal shampoo on the hair shafts of dogs after a single application, followed by bathing with a physiological shampoo one month later. Six beagles (two males and four females) from a research colony. Dogs were bathed with a 2% climbazole shampoo. Hairs were collected before application of the shampoo and at scheduled intervals for 30 days after treatment. A physiological shampoo was then applied to all dogs and hairs were collected following the same schedule. The inhibition zone around the hair shafts was measured after incubation on Sabouraud's dextrose agar plates streaked with three Malassezia pachydermatis strains. Inhibition zones around hairs collected from dogs bathed with 2% climbazole shampoo were significantly larger than those around hairs collected before shampooing at all time points (P = 0.003). An increase in the width of the inhibition zones around climbazole treated hairs was observed following physiological shampoo on Day 30 (P = 0.005). No significant differences were observed between Malassezia pachydermatis isolates (P = 0.571). No inhibition zones were seen around the hairs of dogs bathed with physiological shampoo only. The modified hair strand test is useful for the assessment of residual antifungal activity on animal hairs. Use of a physiological shampoo following antifungal shampoo therapy may increase the efficacy of the antifungal product for the control of Malassezia overgrowth. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Study of technical and financial pre-feasibility to produce a natural shampoo and ecological

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arauz Villegas, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    A study of technical and financial pre-feasibility was described for producing natural shampoo, ecological and to determine attributes desired by people in that shampoo. A survey was performed to study which characteristics have improved the hair condition; and from the results a model was developed with which is backing the formulation of the shampoo. The proposed shampoo has had as functionality provide hair shine, moisturize, reconstruct, provide protection and has reduced the static (is anti-frizz) because has used biodegradable and friendly raw materials to the environment. The color is light green and its aroma-herbal will have a white container with green lid and will be marketed in 500mL presentation. The production process is done in six steps: reception, storage and dosing of raw materials, preparation of the surfactant and liquid phase of shampoo (addition of active natural preservatives, dyes and fragrances), preparation of the stabilizing phase, mixed, pH regulation and quality control, packaging and storage. A semi-continuous production system was suggested to be more economical, flexible and easy to sterilize. The equipments used in the process are: a stirred tank of 205L, a stirred tank of 500L and a Semiautomatic packaging each built in stainless steel with sanitary finish by the company TECNOFAR. The tanks were designed in compliance with the typical dimensions of these teams and were sized in order to supply the first 5 years of production. A publicity campaign and marketing is recommended to fulfill sales target and execute the project of a plant to produce shampoo and natural cosmetics [es

  15. Evaluation of pH of bathing soaps and shampoos for skin and hair care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normal healthy skin has potential of hydrogen (pH range of 5.4-5.9 and a normal bacterial flora. Use of soap with high pH causes an increase in skin pH, which in turn causes an increase in dehydrative effect, irritability and alteration in bacterial flora. The majority of soaps and shampoos available in the market do not disclose their pH. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pH of different brands of bathing soaps and shampoos available in the market. Materials and Methods: The samples of soaps and shampoos were collected from shops in the locality. The samples of different brands are coded before the analysis of the pH. Solution of each sample was made and pH was measured using pH meter. Results: Majority of the soaps have a pH within the range of 9-10. Majority of the shampoos have a pH within the range of 6-7. Conclusions: The soaps and shampoos commonly used by the population at large have a pH outside the range of normal skin and hair pH values. Therefore, it is hoped that before recommending soap to patient especially those who have sensitive and acne prone skin, due consideration is given to the pH factor and also that manufacturers will give a thought to pH of soaps and shampoos manufactured by them, so that their products will be more skin and hair friendly.

  16. Efficacy of herbal shampoo base on native plant against head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, Pediculidae: Phthiraptera) in vitro and in vivo in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonwera, Mayura

    2014-09-01

    Head lice infestation (or pediculosis) is an important public health problem in Thailand, especially in children between the ages 5 and 11 years. Head lice resistance is increasing, chemical pediculicides have lost their efficacy, and, therefore, alternative pediculicides such as herbal shampoos have been proposed to treat head lice infestation. Thus, the present study investigated the efficacy of three herbal shampoos based on native plants in Thailand (Acorus calamus Linn., Phyllanthus emblica Linn., and Zanthoxylum limonella Alston) against head lice and compared them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo, 0.6% w/v carbaryl), malathion shampoo (A-Lice shampoo, 1.0% w/v malathion), and commercial shampoos (Babi Mild Natural' N Mild and Johnson's baby shampoo) in order to assess their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. For in vitro study, doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm(2) of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, then 10 head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice were recorded at 5, 15, 30, and 60 min. The results revealed that all herbal shampoo were more effective on pediculicidal activity than chemical and commercial shampoos with 100% mortality at 15 min; LT₅₀ values ranged from 0.25 to 1.90 min. Meanwhile, chemical shampoos caused 20-80% mortality, and LT₅₀ values ranged from 6.50 to 85.43 min. On the other side, commercial shampoos showed 4.0% mortality. The most effective pediculicide was Z. limonella shampoo, followed by A. calamus shampoo, P. emblica shampoo, carbaryl shampoo, malathion shampoo, and commercial shampoo, respectively. In vivo results showed that all herbal shampoos were also more effective for head lice treatment than chemical and commercial shampoos with 94.67-97.68% of cure rate after the first treatment; the second treatment, 7 days later, revealed that the cure rate was 100%. Meanwhile, chemical shampoo showed 71.67-93.0% of cure rate and, unfortunately, commercial shampoos were nontoxic to

  17. The effect of dilute baby shampoo on nasal mucociliary clearance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Seth; Fakhri, Samer; Luong, Amber; Whited, Chad; Citardi, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Biofilm formation has been implicated as an etiologic factor in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Nasal irrigation with surfactants including dilute baby shampoo have been proposed as an antibiofilm treatment for CRS patients. The effect of dilute baby shampoo on normal sinonasal mucosal function is unknown. Mucociliary clearance time (MCT), as measured by the time in minutes for a subject to detect a sweet taste after the application of a saccharin granules at the anterior part of the inferior turbinate, was performed before and shortly after nasal irrigation with 50 ml of 1% baby shampoo (Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, NJ) in 27 healthy volunteers. Mean MCTs before and after irrigation were 12.09 (±4.83 minutes) and 15.45 (±7.71 minutes) minutes, respectively. The mean difference, 3.37 minutes, was statistically significant (p = 0.031). Pre- and post-MCTs for each subject were not correlated (r = 0.324; p = 0.100). Nasal irrigations with dilute baby shampoo increase MCTs in healthy subjects. The impact of such interventions in CRS patients warrants additional investigation.

  18. Chloromethylisothiazolone/methylisothiazolone (CMI/MI) use test with a shampoo on patch-test-positive subjects. Results of a multicentre double-blind crossover trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, P J; Lahti, A; Hannuksela, M

    1995-01-01

    A randomized, multicentre, double-blind, 2-period crossover study with 2 shampoos was performed on subjects patch-test-positive to 100 ppm CMI/MI. One shampoo was preserved with 15 ppm a.i. CMI/MI, the other with 0.3% imidazolidinyl urea (IU). 27 subjects from 5 European dermatology clinics...... participated. 1 subject discontinued use after severe adverse reactions to the CMI/MI-preserved shampoo and did not evaluate the other shampoo. Another 2 subjects developed moderate symptoms with the CMI/MI-preserved shampoo and discontinued its use, but tolerated the IU-preserved shampoo for the full 2-week...... period. 2 subjects discontinued use after 1 or 2 washes after severe adverse reactions to the IU-preserved shampoo. 1 of these subjects tolerated the CMI/MI-preserved shampoo for 2 weeks without any untoward effects. However, the majority of subjects had negative findings on the scalp, face, neck...

  19. Molecular confirmation of shampoo as the putative source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced postgrooming furunculosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Heng L; Jacob, Megan E; Bizikova, Petra

    2016-08-01

    An acute onset furunculosis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa following grooming is a well recognized entity. Although contaminated shampoos have been suspected to be the source of the infection, a molecular confirmation of this association has been missing. This case report describes a dog with postgrooming furunculosis in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an identical genetic fingerprint was isolated from the skin lesions as well as from the shampoo used prior to the disease onset. The dog presented for lethargy, anorexia, pain and rapidly progressing skin lesions consistent with haemorrhagic papules, pustules, coalescing ulcers and crusts localized to the dorsal and lateral aspects of the thorax and gluteal region, which developed within 24 h after a bath. Cytology demonstrated suppurative inflammation with occasional intracellular rod-shaped bacteria. Bacterial culture from skin lesions and the shampoo bottle yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Treatment with oral ciprofloxacin and topical antimicrobial shampoo resulted in a complete resolution of skin lesions within eight weeks. Our clinical investigation suggests a link between Pseudomonas-contaminated shampoo and development of postgrooming furunculosis, and underscores the need for hygienic management of shampoos to help limit this disease. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  20. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to evaluate an antipruritic shampoo for dogs with allergic pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, J; Mueller, R S

    2012-07-28

    Shampoo therapy is frequently used on pruritic dogs. However, there are few double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies of this form of therapy. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of a commercial medicated shampoo (DermaTopic; Almapharm) containing chlorhexidine, lactoferrin, piroctone olamine, chitosan and essential fatty acids in 27 dogs with mild to moderate allergic pruritus without secondary skin infections. All dogs received shampoo therapy with either DermaTopic or a shampoo vehicle as placebo twice weekly for four weeks. The extent of pruritus was evaluated before the study and then on a daily basis by the owners using a visual analogue scale. Before beginning the treatment and after four weeks, the skin lesions were evaluated by an experienced clinician with a validated lesion score (Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index - CADESI). The pruritus was reduced significantly by both DermaTopic and placebo. However, there was no significant difference between both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the CADESI scores pre- and post-treatment in either group or between the two types of treatment. This study provides further evidence of the benefit of shampoo therapy for pruritic dogs.

  1. Leaping Shampoo and the Stable Kaye Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Michel; Blom, C.; van der Meer, Roger M.; van der Weele, J.P.; Lohse, Detlef

    2006-01-01

    The 'Leaping Shampoo' video reveals the underlying physical mechanisms of the so-called Kaye effect. The spectacular effect is a classic textbook example to illustrate the rich dynamics of complex fluids and was first described by A. Kaye in a 1963 Nature paper, however, no published discussion or

  2. In vitro pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on Thai local plants against head louse (Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassami, Watcharawit; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-04-01

    Head lice infestation, a worldwide head infestation caused Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Several chemical pediculicides have lost in efficacy due to increasing resistance of lice against insecticide. Therefore, non-toxic alternative products, such as natural products from plants, e.g. plant extract pediculicides, are needed for head lice control. The aims of this study were to evaluate the potential of pediculicidal activity of herbal shampoo base on three species of Thai local plants (Accacia concinna (Willd.) DC, Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. and Tamarindus indica Linn.) against head lice and to compare them with carbaryl shampoo (Hafif shampoo®; 0.6% w/v carbaryl) and non-treatment control in order to assess their in vitro. Doses of 0.12 and 0.25 ml/cm2 of each herbal shampoo were applied to filter paper, and ten head lice were place on the filter paper. The mortalities of head lice on the filter paper were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 30 and 60 min by sterio-microscope. All herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 were more effective pediculicide than carbaryl shampoo with 100% mortality at 5 min. The median lethal time (LT50) of all herbal shampoos at 0.25 ml/cm2 showed no significant differences over at 0.12 ml/cm2 (Pshampoo, followed by Av. bilimbi extract shampoo and Ac. concinna extract shampoo, with LT50 valuesshampoos have high potential of pediculicide to head lice treatments for schoolchildren.

  3. Inhibitory effect of formulated lemongrass shampoo on Malassezia furfur: a yeast associated with dandruff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuthi-Udomlert, Mansuang; Chotipatoomwan, Ployphand; Panyadee, Sasikan; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2011-03-01

    Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) has been used in cooking and in many traditional medicines; the essential oil contains citral as a major constituent. This study evaluated the antifungal activity of lemongrass oil against Malassezia furfur, an opportunistic yeast associated with dandruff, by using a broth dilution assay. From the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) obtained, the oil was then incorporated at different percentages into shampoo formulations. The formulated shampoos were kept at room temperature (28 degrees-30 degrees C) and under accelerated condition (45 degrees C). At the end of the first and sixth weeks, after preparation, all formulations were tested again and the appearance was recorded. Selection of an appropriate formula was based on antifungal activity against M. furfur, the physical appearance, the chemical properties and stability of the formula. Two percent lemongrass oil shampoo provided the required qualities necessary for commercial use. After being kept for 6 weeks at 28 degrees-30 degrees C and 45 degrees C, this formulated shampoo gave MFCs against M. furfur of 75 microl/ml and 18.75 microl/ml, respectively.

  4. Outpatient-based scalp surgery without shaving and allowing use of shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun-Chul; Kim, Soon-Kwon; Park, Kwan-Woong; Im, Soo-Bin; Shin, Won-Han; Kim, Bum-Tae

    2012-02-01

    To assess the authors' experience of wound management following scalp mass surgery after introducing a policy of leaving hair unshaved and allowing patients to use shampoo. The authors retrospectively reviewed 93 patients who underwent outpatient-based excision of a scalp or skull mass. Surgical complications, mass depth, and maximal mass size were analyzed. All of the surgeries were performed without shaving around the lesion; the hair was simply parted along the proposed incision, and the parting was maintained using adhesive plasters. Routine antiseptic scalp preparations, skin closure with staples after mass excision, and topical ointment on the day following surgery were used, and use of shampoo was allowed. The staples were removed on postoperative days 7-10. The masses were located in the skin (23 cases), subcutaneously (64 cases), and subgaleally (6 cases). All patients except one had satisfactory wound healing. No infections occurred. Leaving hair unshaved and allowing patients to use shampoo can be applied in wound management after scalp mass surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilot evaluation of the efficacy of shampoo treatment with ultrapure soft water for canine pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Keitaro; Tanaka, Akane; Makita, Yuka; Takai, Masaki; Yoshinari, Yuji; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Ultrapure soft water (UPSW) is water in which calcium and magnesium ions have been replaced with sodium ions using a cation-exchange resin. We recently demonstrated that washing with soap and UPSW reduced the clinical severity of dermatitis and improved the skin barrier function in NC/NgaTnd mice, a murine model for human atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of shampoo treatment with UPSW for dogs with pruritus. Eleven dogs with pruritus were randomly assigned to two groups depending on whether they received weekly shampoo treatment with UPSW or tap water for 4 weeks. After a washout period, the treatment protocol was switched such that each dog received both treatments. The pre-treatment and post-treatment values of the following were compared: pruritus scores assessed by the owners; dermatitis scores recorded by an investigator; and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Shampoo treatment with UPSW significantly decreased pruritus and dermatitis scores in the dogs, whereas shampoo treatment with tap water did not. In addition, shampoo treatment with UPSW, but not with tap water, significantly reduced TEWL in the dogs. Adverse events due to the treatment were not observed in the dogs. Furthermore, we found that topical application of UPSW for barrier-disrupted skin caused by tape stripping in healthy dogs decreased TEWL more rapidly than topical application of tap water. Our findings suggest that shampoo treatment with UPSW promotes skin barrier recovery and thus could be considered as a possible therapeutic option in the management of pruritus and dermatitis in dogs. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Assessment of the antidandruff activity of a new shampoo: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study by clinical and instrumental evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparavigna, Adele; Setaro, Michele; Caserini, Maurizio; Bulgheroni, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, double-blind, controlled study was to evaluate the antidandruff activity exerted by a new shampoo on patients affected by dandruff and/or mild seborrheic dermatitis by means of both D-squame technique coupled with image analysis and clinical assessments. Thirty-four patients were enrolled and 1:1 randomly assigned to either a test shampoo or a comparative shampoo group. Treatment schedule was twice a week for 4 weeks. The D-squame technique was shown to be able to objectively record variations in scalp desquamation both between test and comparative groups and within the same group over time. The results obtained with this instrumental approach showed a statistically significant reduction by 52% vs baseline after 2 weeks of treatment. There was an even greater reduction after 4 weeks (-66%). This reduction was statistically significant compared with the comparative group at the same time points. The analysis of all the other parameters (except Wood's lamp) confirmed the superiority of the test vs the comparative shampoo. The test shampoo proved to be safe, well tolerated, and accepted by the patients for cosmetic acceptability and efficacy. The study confirmed the antidandruff efficacy of the test shampoo and its superiority vs the comparative shampoo.

  7. PERBANDINGAN BRAND EQUITY PRODUK SHAMPOO MEREK SUNSILK DENGAN MEREK PANTENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Raras Aristyani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to know the difference in brand equity and its elements between shampoo products with brand Sunsilk and Pantene. The data analysis technique used was the mean difference test with paired samples. Based on the results of the study, it was found that there is no difference between brand equity Sunsilk with Pantene. the four dimensions of brand equity, just a different one, namely brand perceived quality. Therefore the next shampoo brand Sunsilk should be more focus on the improvement of the quality of its products by way of innovation in flavor, ingredients, and overall quality so as to always be in the top brand position together Pantene.

  8. A new concept for anti-fouling paint for Yachts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallstroem, Eva; Jespersen, Henrik T.; Schaumburg, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    It is shown to be possible to develop yacht paint with a reduction of 70% of biocide, without pigments/fillers (cuprous oxide and zinc oxide) that may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment, and to obtain application and usage properties that match present commercial anti......-fouling products for yachts. To be able to reduce the amount of biocide, in this case zinc pyrithione, it is necessary to have control over the amount of biocide present in the surface layer. The control is achieved by encapsulating the biocide in a silica gel. The silica gel is dispersed together with pigments...... that is formulated without introducing new compounds and with reduced amount of zinc pyrithione (1/3). Finally, it is shown that it is possible to make antifouling paint for yachts without zinc or copper based pigments by using other traditional pigments and fillers, which have no known long-term adverse effect...

  9. New Thai herbal shampoos as pediculicides for killing head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirawut Sittichok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Thai herbal shampoos [Cartoxylum formosum (C. formosum + eucalyptus essential oil (EO, C. formosum + citrus EO, Solanum trilobatum + eucalyptus EO, Solanum trilobatum + citrus EO, Moringa oleifera + eucalyptus EO and Moringa oleifera + citrus EO] for killing all stages of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera. Methods: A filter paper contact method was applied with three concentrations (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mL/cm2 of each Thai herbal shampoo as well as permethrin pediculicide (positive control and drinking water (negative control against eggs, nymphs and adults of Pediculus humanus capitis. Mortality rates of the eggs were recorded after 7 days of incubation while those of nymphs and adults were recorded after 5 minutes of contact. Results: All herbal shampoos at the high concentration were highly effective against nymphs and adults, but not effective against the eggs. C. formosum + eucalyptus EO and C. formosum + citrus EO shampoos at all concentrations exhibited the highest efficacy against nymphs and adults with 100% mortality rate at 5 min and LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.005 mL/cm2, respectively. All formulation of Solanum trilobatum and Moringa oleifera shampoos added with eucalyptus EO showed mortality rates against nymphs at 92.0%-100.0% and 76.0%-100.0% and against adults at 84.0%-100.0% and 20.0%-32.0%, respectively. Permethrin pediculicide was not effective against the eggs, but showed 68.0%-92.0% and 28.0%-60.0% mortality rates against nymphs and adults. Conclusions: These results indicate that C. formosum + eucalyptus EO shampoo can be used as an effective nymphicide and adulticide against Pediculus humanus capitis.

  10. Matting of Hair Due to Halo-egg Shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z M Mani

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of hair matting in an 18 year old female is reported. The hair got densely entangled immediately after washing the hair with ′Halo Egg′ shampoo. The hair was disentangled completely after prolonged dipping of the hair in arachis oil frr 5 days.

  11. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. AIM: First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical

  12. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazma A Burgess

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ian F Burgess1, Katrina Kay1,2, Nazma A Burgess1, Elizabeth R Brunton11Medical Entomology Centre, Insect Research and Development Limited, Cambridge, 2Leeds Primary Care Trust, Leeds, UKBackground: This was a randomized, assessor-blind, controlled comparison of a soya oil-based medical device shampoo with a medicinal permethrin lotion in an alcohol vehicle for treatment of head louse infestation to generate data suitable for a regulatory submission to achieve reimbursable status for the shampoo product.Methods: We treated 91 children and adults, divided between two sites, on two occasions 9 days apart. Participants washed their hair and towel-dried it before treatment. The shampoo was used twice for 30 minutes each time. The lotion was used for 30 minutes followed by rinsing. Assessments were made by dry detection combing on days 2, 9, 11, and 14 after the first treatment. According to present knowledge, this combing technique does not influence the overall head louse populations or outcome of treatment.Results: The soya oil shampoo was significantly (P < 0.01 more effective than the lotion for both intention to treat (62.2% versus 34.8% successful treatment and per-protocol (74.3% versus 36.8% success groups. Post-treatment assessments showed the necessity for repeat treatment, but that a 9-day interval was too long because if eggs hatched after the first treatment, the lice could grow old enough to lay eggs before the second treatment.Conclusion: The soya oil-based shampoo was more effective than the permethrin lotion, more cosmetically acceptable, and less irritant.Keywords: pediculosis, medical device, medicinal product, insecticide, vegetable oil

  13. Structure and performance of cationic assembly dispersed in amphoteric surfactants solution as a shampoo for hair damaged by coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Yasuo; Nishida, Yuichi; Isoda, Masanori; Yamagata, Yoshifumi; Nishikawa, Naoki; Takada, Koji

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, hair coloring gains popularity as a trend of consumer's hair care. This coloring frequently damages hair. In response to this, a new shampoo-base was developed for repairing hair damaged by coloring. The new shampoo-base was prepared by dispersing cationic assembly in a solution of amphoteric surfactants. The mixture of behenyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (C22TAC) and behenyl alcohol (C22OH) was applied as the cationic assembly, which are dispersed in amido propyl betaine laurate (LPB) solution. LPB, which behaves as an amphoteric surfactant, was used as the wash-base. It was verified from the results on the measurements of DSC, calorimeter polarization, cryo-SEM and X-ray diffraction that the cationic assembly has a crystalline structure in the LPB solution. The new shampoo-base was highly efficient to change the color-damaged hair from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The friction level of the hair washed with the new shampoo-base recovered to the same state as that of healthy hair. The exfoliation of cuticle was reduced after washing with the new shampoo-base.

  14. Feasibility tests for treating shampoo and hair colorant wastewaters using anaerobic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammad, Shaikh Z; Yakubu, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2012-01-01

    Wastes from the personal care product (PCP) industry are often high in biodegradable carbon, which makes them amenable to aerobic biological treatment, although process costs are usually high due to aeration inefficiencies, high electricity demand and production of large amounts of sludge. As such, anaerobic treatment technologies are being considered to lower net energy costs by reducing air use and increasing methane production. To assess the amenability of PCP wastes to anaerobic treatment, methane yields and rates were quantified in different anaerobic reactors treating typical PCP wastes, including wastes from shampoo and hair colorant products. Overall, shampoo wastes were more amenable to methanogenesis with almost double the methane yields compared with colour wastes. To assess relevant microbial guilds, qPCR was performed on reactor biomass samples. Methanosaetaceae abundances were always significantly higher than Methanosarcinaceae and Methanomicrobiales abundances (P shampoo wastes, differences cannot be explained by relative microbial abundances and probably result from the presence of inhibiting compounds in hair colorants (e.g., oxidants) at higher levels. Results showed that anaerobic technologies have great potential for treating PCP wastes, but additional work is needed to establish the basis of elevated methane yields and inhibition, especially when colorant wastes are present.

  15. A Review: Hair Health, Concerns of Shampoo Ingredients and Scalp Nourishing Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chin-Hsien T; Huang, Shu-Hung; Wang, Hui-Min D

    2015-01-01

    Human hair serves a biological purpose of protecting the scalp, as well as physical attractiveness to the perception of beauty. Hair loss, graying of hair, dandruff and other conditions affecting hair conditions can be distressing to patients, as hair condition is often considered important in people's own assessment of physical beauty. Different hair types can benefit from different treatment methods to promote hair health and growth. External factors like exposure to the sun and smoking, dietary factors including malnutrition of essential fatty acids and vitamins, and chemicals applied to the hair and scalp in shampoos and other treatments can all cause damage to existing hair and impair hair growth. Specific chemicals found in many shampoos, including antimicrobial agents, surfactants and preservatives, can all impair different aspects of hair health. In this review, we aim to discuss the main hair issues, such as hair loss, followed by the safety assessments of selected ingredients in shampoo, and possible nourishment for scalp improvement. This review highlights areas of disagreement in the existing literature, and points to new directions for future studies. Key conclusions include the carcinogenic chemicals to avoid, alternatives of such ingredients, and scalp nourishing treatments with micronutrients.

  16. Formulation and evaluation of herbal anti-dandruff shampoo | Sagar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of Tridax procumbens was found to be effective against dandruff at minimum inhibitory concentration of 10000mg/ml, which was compared with standard Ketoconazole (10mg/ml). Eclipta alba does not show any effect against Ptyrosporum ovale. Formulation (liquid cream shampoo) was ...

  17. Evaluation of the health risk resulting from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal-tar shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennes, W.C.; Van Veen, M.P.; Kroese, E.D.; Speijers, G.J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Shampoos may contain as much as 56 mg benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)/kg product. Based on a human dermal uptake study, it is plausible that BaP and other PAHs become systemically available after a single use of coal-tar shampoos. Because several PAHs, among which BaP are considered to be carcinogenic substances, the safety of these products has been questioned. Dermal exposure results in skin tumours, but after inhalatory or oral exposure besides to local tumour formation, systemic tumours are found as well. In this report, an estimate of external dermal exposure to BaP has been generated by application of a mathematical model. This estimate was the starting point in an assessment of the additional risk on local skin tumours after contact with a coal-tar shampoo containing 56 mg BaP/kg product. In this assessment it was assumed that this shampoo was used three times weekly. Four different risk estimates were derived, namely for contact times of 1 or 5 minutes per event and for life-time or 40 years of use. 4 tabs., 3 appendices, 15 refs.

  18. Clinical response and safety of malathion shampoo for treatment of head lice in a primary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wananukul, Siriwan; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Tempark, Therdpong; Wananukul, Winai

    2011-04-01

    Help eradicate or at least alleviating head lice in a primary school with malathion shampoo and to study clinical response and safety of malathion shampoo. All students were examined by using a fine-toothed lice comb to help detect live lice. Direct visual examination and the collection of nits for microscopic examination were performed to differentiate viable nits from empty nits. Diagnosis of head lice was made by the presence of lice. All students that had lice and/or nits were treated with malathion shampoo. Malathion shampoo was also provided for all family members. Pediculocidal efficacy was by the presence or absence of live lice. Blood for red blood cell cholinesterase activity was drawn in 32 volunteers before treatment and after the second treatment. At the first visit, 629 students were examined and 48 students had live head lice. The infestation rate was 13% in girls and 1.3% in boys. The cure rate was 93% after the first treatment. The reported side effects were nausea, a burning sensation, and irritation that was found in five (4%), 10 (7%) and three (2%) students respectively. The mean of RBC cholinesterase activity before and after two applications showed significant changes (p = 0.03). It was -7.5 +/- 4.1% reduction from the initial, but all were in the normal range. There was no report of clinical manifestation of malathion toxicity. Malathion shampoo is safe and effective in the treatment of head lice. There is significant skin absorption so a scalp examination for head lice should be done before subsequent application to avoid unnecessary exposure.

  19. Efficacy of Iralfaris shampoo in the treatment of scalp psoriasis: a videodermoscopy evaluation prospective study in 70 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A; Pranteda, G; Iorio, A; Mari, E; Milani, M

    2012-12-01

    This work has the aim to test the sensibility of VSCAPSI method in the evaluation of effectiveness of a medicated shampoo for the treatment of scalp psoriasis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease histologically characterized by proliferation and loss of differentiation of keratinocytes, angiogenesis with vasodilatation and increased permeability, and inflammation. Scalp involvement is a common clinical feature of psoriasis, that is present in the 25% of patients who suffer of it. Videodermoscopy (VD) permits a magnified view of the surface components of the epidermis and papillary dermis, which are not visible to the naked eye, together with the ability to capture digitally the viewed images and to store them for later use. Moreover videodermoscopy is a non-invasive technique, used to analyze cutaneous peripheral microcirculation. Therefore VD could be an useful tool in evaluating the efficacy of treatments for scalp psoriasis. The clinical benefit of currently available medicated shampoos for the treatment of scalp psoriasis is restricted, due to their limited efficacy, low cosmetic appeal and safety and tolerability problems. Therefore effective and safe products are needed especially for the long term management of scalp psoriasis. A specific shampoo designed for the scalp hygiene in psoriatic patients has been recently developed. This shampoo contains urea, glycolic acid, salicylic acid, icthyol pale and laureth 9 (polidocanol). Aim of the study was to evaluate in a 12-week prospective monocenter, open-study the efficacy and tolerability of an emollient, keratolytic shampoo (Iralfaris shampoo ISDIN, Barcelona; Ir-S) applied three times a week in patients with scalp psoriasis. The efficacy of the shampoo has been valuated with VSCAPSI. Seventy subjects with mild to moderate/severe scalp psoriasis were enrolled in the trial, after their informed consent. Efficacy was assessed using a specific and validated videodermoscopy scalp psoriasis severity

  20. From conditioning shampoo to nanomechanics and haptics of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Claudia; Sugiharto, Albert Budiman; Max, Eva; Fery, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Shampoo treatment and hair conditioning have a direct impact on our wellbeing via properties like combability and haptic perception of hair. Therefore, systematic investigations leading to quality improvement of hair care products are of major interest. The aim of our work is a better understanding of complex testing and the correlation with quantitative parameters. The motivation for the development of physical testing methods for hair feel relates to the fact that an ingredient supplier like BASF can only find new, so far not yet toxicologically approved chemistries for hair cosmetics, if an in-vitro method exists.In this work, the effects of different shampoo treatments with conditioning polymers are investigated. The employed physical test method, dry friction measurements and AFM observe friction phenomena on a macroscopic as well as on a nanoscale directly on hair. They are an approach to complement sensoric evaluation with an objective in-vitro method.

  1. Analysis of the penetration of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles by in vivo laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Richter, H.; Schanzer, S.; Klenk, A.; Sterry, W.; Patzelt, A.

    2010-02-01

    In previous in vitro investigations, it was demonstrated that caffeine is able to stimulate the hair growth. Therefore, a penetration of caffeine into the hair follicle is necessary. In the present study, in vivo laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to investigate the penetration and storage of a caffeine containing shampoo into the hair follicles. It was shown that a 2-min contact time of the shampoo with the skin was enough to accumulate significant parts of the shampoo in the hair follicles. A penetration of the shampoo up to a depth of approx. 200 μm could be detected, which represents the detection limit of the LSM. At this depth, the close network of the blood capillaries surrounding the hair follicles commences. Even after 24 h, the substance was still detectable in the hair follicles. This demonstrates the long-term reservoir function of the hair follicles for topically applied substances such as caffeine.

  2. Soya oil-based shampoo superior to 0.5% permethrin lotion for head louse infestation [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgess IF

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Burgess IF, Kay K, Burgess NA, Brunton ER. Med Devices (Auckl. 2011;4:35-42 In March 2011 we published a report of a clinical study investigating the efficacy of a shampoo for the treatment of head louse infestation.1 The report states that the shampoo used contained, as an active component, 1% soya oil. However, it has now come to light that this product may have a considerably different formulation, and possibly contained no soya oil at all. Read the original article

  3. Treatment of scalp psoriasis with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo: a study on daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovenschen, H J; Van de Kerkhof, P C M

    2010-04-01

    Safety and clinical effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo have been shown in patients with scalp psoriasis. First, to evaluate treatment satisfaction, user convenience safety and effectiveness of clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo treatment in daily clinical practice. Second, to identify subgroup variables that may predict treatment success or failure. A total of 56 patients with scalp psoriasis were treated with short-contact clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo once daily for 4 weeks. Data on treatment satisfaction, user convenience, safety and effectiveness were assessed on a 7-point Likert scale using postal questionnaires. Subgroup analyses were performed to identify variables that may predict treatment outcome. A total of 41 patients returned both questionnaires (73%). Positive treatment satisfaction and user convenience were reported by 66% and 79% of patients respectively. Patient-rated indicators for disease severity improved by 39-46% (P 0.05). Short-contact treatment with clobetasol-17 propionate 0.05% shampoo has high user convenience and patient satisfaction rates. Moreover, the treatment is well-tolerated and efficacious from patients' perspective. Subgroup analyses did not reveal factors predicting treatment outcome, although treatment success tended to be more evident in patients who had received fewer treatments previously.

  4. Treatment of Phthiriasis Palpebrarum and Crab Louse: Petrolatum Jelly and 1% Permethrin Shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabela, Yunus; Yardimci, Gurkan; Yildirim, Isik; Atalay, Eray; Karabela, Semsi Nur

    2015-01-01

    Phthiriasis palpebrarum is an uncommon cause of blepharoconjunctivitis in which Pthirus pubis infest the eyelashes. We report a case of unilateral phthiriasis palpebrarum with crab louse. A 45-year-old man presented with conjunctival hyperaemia and moderate itching associated with irritation, and crusty excretions of the eyelashes in the left eye. Careful slit-lamp examination revealed many lice and nits in left eye and mild conjunctival hyperaemia. No abnormality was found in the right eye. On dermatologic examination, only one louse was found at the pubic area. The patient was treated effectively with petrolatum jelly (Vaseline) and 1% permethrin shampoo (Kwellada 1% shampoo). At the end of the first week no louse or nit was present on eyelashes and pubic area.

  5. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Luise; Eertmans, Frank; Wolf, Doerte; Rossel, Bart; Adriaens, Els

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo. This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23) was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere), registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution). In total, 107 patients (>1 year) with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54). All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10. Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation) for the test product (96.1%) and control (94%) significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70%) (p shampoo) can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because of the physical mode of action. German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00009753 and EudraCT database 2014-002918-23.

  6. Baby Shampoo to Relieve the Discomfort of Tear Gas and Pepper Spray Exposure: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopyra, Jason P; Winslow, James E; Johnson, James C; Hill, Keith D; Bozeman, William P

    2018-03-01

    Oleoresin capsicum (OC) or pepper spray, and tear gas (CS) are used by police and the military and produce severe discomfort. Some have proposed that washing with baby shampoo helps reduce this discomfort. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to determine if baby shampoo is effective in reducing the severity and duration of these effects. Study subjects included volunteers undergoing OC or CS exposure as part of their police or military training. After standardized exposure to OC or CS all subjects were allowed to irrigate their eyes and skin ad lib with water. Those randomized to the intervention group were provided with baby shampoo for application to their head, neck, and face. Participants rated their subjective discomfort in two domains on a scale of 0-10 at 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. We performed statistical analysis using a two-tailed Mann-Whitney Test. There were 58 participants. Of 40 subjects in the OC arm of the study, there were no significant differences in the ocular or respiratory discomfort at any of the time points between control (n=19) and intervention (n=21) groups. Of 18 subjects in the CS arm, there were no significant differences in the ocular or skin discomfort at any of the time points between control (n=8) and intervention (n=10) groups. Irrigation with water and baby shampoo provides no better relief from OC- or CS-induced discomfort than irrigation with water alone.

  7. Simultaneous determination of three surfactants and water in shampoo and liquid soap by ATR-FTIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolei, Luciano; Gutz, Ivano G R

    2005-03-31

    It is demonstrated for the first time that the principal constituents of a shampoo as well as of a liquid soap -three surfactants and water- can be determined directly, simultaneously and quickly in undiluted samples by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in the middle infrared region, despite the broad absorption bands of the solvent. Two of the surfactants, sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) and cocoamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), are common to both formulations; alkylpolyglucoside (APG) is the third surfactant of the liquid soap and cocodiethanolamide (CDEA), the corresponding ingredient of the shampoo. Absorbance data of the undiluted samples and of the calibration standards was collected in the middle infrared region of the spectrum (800-1600 and 1900-3000cm(-1)). Two methods of multivariate quantification were compared: classical least squares (CLS), where absorbance data measured at 200 wavenumbers was processed, and inverse least squares (ILS), where data at 10 selected wavenumbers was analyzed. A spectra normalization procedure, based on a dominating water band, was examined. Twenty-seven standard mixtures were used for each application, consisting of all combinations at three concentration levels of each surfactant, respectively the lower limit, the expected value and the upper limit accepted in quality control. By favoring wavenumbers where absorption bands of the minor components (APG in the liquid soap and CDEA in the shampoo) are more intense, good results were obtained for 18 simulated samples of shampoo and 18 samples of liquid soap, no matter if calculations were made by CLS or ILS. The relative errors for water (major component, 84-88%) and SLES (7-10%) were always below 2%; for CAPB (2-4%), APG (<2%) and CDEA (<2%), they occasionally reached 5% of the component, an uncertainty of less than 0.07% in terms of the sample weight.

  8. Comparison of a chlorhexidine and a benzoyl peroxide shampoo as sole treatment in canine superficial pyoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, A; Cobb, M A; Bond, R

    2011-09-03

    The clinical and antibacterial efficacy of two shampoos used as a sole antibacterial treatment in dogs with superficial pyoderma were investigated and compared. In a randomised, partially blinded study, a 3 per cent chlorhexidine gluconate shampoo (Chlorhex 3; Leo Animal Health) was compared against a 2.5 per cent benzoyl peroxide shampoo (Paxcutol; Virbac) in 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma. Dogs were washed two to three times weekly with a 10-minute contact time over 21 days. Clinical scores and bacterial counts were assessed on days 1, 8 and 22 and compared within and between treatment groups; overall response was assessed at the end of the study. Twenty dogs completed the study; 15 (68.2 per cent) showed an overall clinical improvement and the clinical signs resolved in three chlorhexidine-treated dogs. In the chlorhexidine-treated group, scores for papules/pustules (P<0.001), investigator-assessed pruritus (P=0.003), total bacterial counts (P=0.003) and counts for coagulase-positive staphylococci (P=0.003) were reduced after three weeks. Scores and bacterial counts did not vary significantly in the benzoyl peroxide-treated group.

  9. Baby Shampoo to Relieve the Discomfort of Tear Gas and Pepper Spray Exposure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Winslow III

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oleoresin capsicum (OC or pepper spray, and tear gas (CS are used by police and the military and produce severe discomfort. Some have proposed that washing with baby shampoo helps reduce this discomfort. Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to determine if baby shampoo is effective in reducing the severity and duration of these effects. Study subjects included volunteers undergoing OC or CS exposure as part of their police or military training. After standardized exposure to OC or CS all subjects were allowed to irrigate their eyes and skin ad lib with water. Those randomized to the intervention group were provided with baby shampoo for application to their head, neck, and face. Participants rated their subjective discomfort in two domains on a scale of 0–10 at 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. We performed statistical analysis using a two-tailed Mann-Whitney Test. Results: There were 58 participants. Of 40 subjects in the OC arm of the study, there were no significant differences in the ocular or respiratory discomfort at any of the time points between control (n=19 and intervention (n=21 groups. Of 18 subjects in the CS arm, there were no significant differences in the ocular or skin discomfort at any of the time points between control (n=8 and intervention (n=10 groups. Conclusion: Irrigation with water and baby shampoo provides no better relief from OC- or CS-induced discomfort than irrigation with water alone.

  10. Multi-pathway exposure modeling of chemicals in cosmetics with application to shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstoff, Alexi S; Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, Susan A; Henderson, Andrew D; Chung, Susie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel multi-pathway, mass balance based, fate and exposure model compatible with life cycle and high-throughput screening assessments of chemicals in cosmetic products. The exposures through product use as well as post-use emissions and environmental media were quantified based on the chemical mass originally applied via a product, multiplied by the product intake fractions (PiF, the fraction of a chemical in a product that is taken in by exposed persons) to yield intake rates. The average PiFs for the evaluated chemicals in shampoo ranged from 3×10(-4) up to 0.3 for rapidly absorbed ingredients. Average intake rates ranged between nano- and micrograms per kilogram bodyweight per day; the order of chemical prioritization was strongly affected by the ingredient concentration in shampoo. Dermal intake and inhalation (for 20% of the evaluated chemicals) during use dominated exposure, while the skin permeation coefficient dominated the estimated uncertainties. The fraction of chemical taken in by a shampoo user often exceeded, by orders of magnitude, the aggregated fraction taken in by the population through post-use environmental emissions. Chemicals with relatively high octanol-water partitioning and/or volatility, and low molecular weight tended to have higher use stage exposure. Chemicals with low intakes during use (<1%) and subsequent high post-use emissions, however, may yield comparable intake for a member of the general population. The presented PiF based framework offers a novel and critical advancement for life cycle assessments and high-throughput exposure screening of chemicals in cosmetic products demonstrating the importance of consistent consideration of near- and far-field multi-pathway exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cross-linked natural gum resins, when inserted in shampooing product, result infallible to eliminate several metallic ions risky for hair keratin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martini Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims of my research is to herald the method of eliminating Calcium and Magnesium ions that remain onto hair and scalp keratin after washing with common hard water and trivial shampooing products, but even of removing other metals as Lead, Silicon and Nickel ions which can be retrieved in manifold building materials like mortar, cement, concrete, pozzolans, limestone and asbest, most of workers throughout the world are directly involved with, because of their continuous contact with those chemical materials. I have selected twelve volunteers (workers who are directly in contact with building materials containing Calcium and Magnesium ions and prayed them to use three types of shampooing products of my invention (containing special gum resins previously cross-linked in order to uptake or sorption the metallic ions after having used, in precedence, trivial shampoos (bought at the same store and used the same tap water, since they live all in the same town. I calculated the difference of quantities of Magnesium and Calcium that remain onto hair and scalp keratin, using a general and trivial shampoo respect to my products, apt to remove the same metallic ions. Results are satisfactory and encouraging.

  12. Baby Shampoo versus Commercial Anti-fogging Solution to Prevent Fogging during Nasal Endoscopy: A Randomized Double-Blinded, Matched-Pair, Equivalent Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainansamit, Seksun; Piromchai, Patorn; Anantpinijwatna, Intira; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak

    2015-08-01

    To compare the minimization of the fog condensation during nasal endoscopy between a commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo. This randomized double-blinded matched pair study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University during February 4, 2013 to March 14, 2013. The commercial anti-fogging solution (Ultrastop®) and baby shampoo solution (Johnson's® no more tear®) were compared. A computer generated randomization was performed to select the solution applying on the lens for nasal endoscopy of the right nasal cavity. The other solution was then used for the left one. Three passes of endoscopy were performed to examine the floor of the nose, the sphenoethmoidal recess and the middle meatus area which spent about 30 seconds for each time of endoscopy. The time to become foggy on the lens and the preferred solution assessed by the endoscopists were recorded. There were 71 eligible patients recruited in the study, 37 males (52.1%) and 34 females (47.9%). There was no fogging during a 30-second nasal endoscopy either by baby shampoo or commercial anti-fogging solution. However, 9.86% (95% C12.75-16.97) of endoscopists preferred commercial anti-fogging agent, 7.04% (95% CI 0.94-13.14) preferred baby shampoo and 83.10% (95% CI 74.16-92.03) had equal satisfaction. Both agents had no statistically significant difference for preventing foggy on the lens. Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during nasal endoscopy and comparable with the commercial anti-fogging agent.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of a Mineral Oil-Based Head Lice Shampoo: A Randomized, Controlled, Investigator-Blinded, Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise Wolf

    Full Text Available Due to increased resistance and safety concerns with insecticide-based pediculicides, there is growing demand for head lice treatments with a physical mode of action. Certain mineral oils kill lice by blocking spiracles or by disrupting the epicuticular wax layer. The present study was performed to evaluate efficacy and safety of a mineral oil-based shampoo.This randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, monocentric study (EudraCT registration no. 2014-002918-23 was performed from October 2014-June 2015 in Germany. A mineral oil shampoo (Mosquito® Med Läuse Shampoo 10 in Germany, Paranix or Silcap shampoo elsewhere, registered as medical device, was compared to a conventional, locally reimbursed, pyrethroid-based pediculicide (Goldgeist® Forte solution. In total, 107 patients (>1 year with confirmed head lice infestation were included (test arm: n = 53; control arm: n = 54. All subjects received two applications of either test or control product at day 0 and day 7, according to the instructions for use. Efficacy and safety was evaluated directly, 1h and 24h after first application, before and after second treatment, and at day 10. The main objective was demonstrating a cure rate for the test product, being superior to 70% at day 10.Cure rates at day 10 (corrected for re-infestation for the test product (96.1% and control (94% significantly exceeded the pre-defined target (70% (p < 0.001, 2-sided, 1-sample, chi-square test with confirmed non-inferiority for the test product. Over all visits, cure rates were consistently higher for the test product, whereas more initially-cured subjects remained lice-free until end of study (78%; control: 60%. Both products were safe and well tolerated, offering good esthetical effects.This study showed that substance-based medical devices (including the tested mineral oil shampoo can be safe and effective alternatives for insecticide-based pediculicides, with less risk for development of resistance because

  14. Antiinflammatory and neurological activity of pyrithione and related sulfur-containing pyridine N-oxides from Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejčová, Petra; Kučerová, Petra; Stafford, Gary Ivan

    2014-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum) is a bulbous plant native to Turkey, Iran and Central Asia. It is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of a variety of disorders, including inflammation and stress. Antiinflammatory and neurological activities...... of pyrithione and four related sulfur-containing pyridine N-oxides which are prominent constituents of Allium stipitatum were tested. METHODS: The antiinflammatory activity was tested by the ability of the compounds to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2), whereas the neurological activities were evaluated...... by assessing the compounds ability to inhibit monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The compounds׳ affinity for the serotonin transport protein (SERT) and the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor were also investigated. RESULTS: 2-[(Methylthio)methyldithio]pyridine N-oxide showed very high...

  15. Short-contact clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% improves quality of life in patients with scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Thomas, Richard; Wang, Béatrice; Gratton, David; Vender, Ronald; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2009-03-01

    Scalp psoriasis has a considerable impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients, and most patients are dissatisfied with available treatments. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% has been shown to be effective and safe for moderate to severe scalp psoriasis. We evaluated the effect of clobetasol propionate shampoo on QOL and the degree of participant satisfaction with the product. Participants received once-daily treatment for up to 4 weeks. Their QOL and degree of satisfaction were evaluated by questionnaires. The mean (standard deviation) Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score decreased significantly from 7.0 (4.9) at baseline to 3.2 (3.2) at week 4 (Pshampoo improved the QOL of participants and resulted in high satisfaction.

  16. A review of shampoo surfactant technology: consumer benefits, raw materials and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, P A

    2018-02-01

    Surfactants form the core of all shampoo formulations, and contribute to a wide range of different benefits, including cleansing, foaming, rheology control, skin mildness and the deposition of benefit agents to the hair and scalp. The purpose of this review was to assist the design of effective, modern, shampoo surfactant technologies. The mechanisms through which surfactants help deliver their effects are presented, along with the appraisal techniques through which surfactant options can be tested and screened for product development. The steps that should be taken to select the most appropriate blend of surfactants are described, and useful information on the most widely used surfactants is provided. The review concludes with an examination of recent developments in 'greener' surfactants, 'sulphate-free' technologies and structured liquid phases for novel sensory properties and for suspending benefit agents. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. De los pelos: construcción discursiva en las contraetiquetas de envases de shampoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available [es] Proponemos el análisis discursivo de tres contraetiquetas de shampoo: dos destinados a mujeres y uno medicinal. Concebimos a las etiquetas en tanto “géneros” discursivos y nos planteamos cómo, a partir de la aplicación de las operaciones de semiotización del mundo (Charaudeau, 1995, vinculadas con los principios de la Teoría de la Argumentación en la Lengua (Anscombre y Ducrot, 1998, es posible indicar los modos de construcción del mundo. [en] We propose three discourse analysis shampoo labels: two for women and one medicinal. We concivethe labels as "gender" and we consider how, from the application of operations semiotization world (Charaudeau, 1995, linked to the principles of the Theory of Argumentation in Language (Anscombre and Ducrot , 1998, may indicate the modes of construction of the world.

  18. Using clobetasol propionate in the form of a shampoo for the treatment of patients suffering from psoriasis localized in the scalp area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Bakulev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 80 adult psoriatic patients with scalp affections at the dermatosis progressing stage. The authors compared scalp psoriasis topical treatment options such as using 0.05% clobetasol propionate in the form of a shampoo, and successive administration of the 2% salicylic acid ointment and aforesaid short-term topical product in patients with vulgar or exudative dermatoses using dynamic scores such as mPASI, DLQI and itching intensity degree. It was demonstrated that 0.05% clobetasol propionate used in the form of a shampoo is characterized by a high efficacy and safety profile for patients with vulgar or exudative psoriasis of the scalp. At the same time, in case of exudative dermatosis successive topical treatment with the use of the 2% salicylic acid ointment and 0.05% clobetasol propionate in the form of a shampoo contributes to the clearance of psoriatic foci from accumulated scales and enables a potent topical corticosteroid such as clobetasol to efficiently reduce principal clinical symptoms of scalp psoriasis such as erythema, infiltration, exfoliation and itching. Using the clobetasol shampoo reduces the scalp itching intensity as the key psoriatic symptom preventing an isomorphic reaction as a result of foci traumatization related to scratching.

  19. Isolation of llama antibody fragments for prevention of dandruff by phage display in shampoo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolk, E.; Vaart, M. van der; Lutje Hulsik, D.; Vriend, G.; Haard, H. de; Spinelli, S.; Cambillau, C.; Frenken, L.; Verrips, T.

    As part of research exploring the feasibility of using antibody fragments to inhibit the growth of organisms implicated in dandruff, we isolated antibody fragments that bind to a cell surface protein of Malassezia furfur in the presence of shampoo. We found that phage display of llama

  20. OPTIMIZATION AND VALIDATION OF HPLC METHOD FOR TETRAMETHRIN DETERMINATION IN HUMAN SHAMPOO FORMULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeric Stosic, Marina Z; Jaksic, Sandra M; Stojanov, Igor M; Apic, Jelena B; Ratajac, Radomir D

    2016-11-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with diode array detection (DAD) were optimized and validated for separation and determination of tetramethrin in an antiparasitic human shampoo. In order to optimize separation conditions, two different columns, different column oven temperatures, as well as mobile phase composition and ratio, were tested. Best separation was achieved on the Supelcosil TM LC-18- DB column (4.6 x 250 mm), particle size 5 jim, with mobile phase methanol : water (78 : 22, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and at temperature of 30⁰C. The detection wavelength of the detector was set at 220 nm. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, standard calibration curve was measured with good linearity [r2 = 0.9997]. Accuracy of the method defined as a mean recovery of tetramethrin from shampoo matrix was 100.09%. The advantages of this method are that it can easily be used for the routine analysis of drug tetramethrin in pharmaceutical formulas and in all pharmaceutical researches involving tetramethrin.

  1. Shampoo-clay heals diaper rash faster than calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-06-01

    Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and risk ratio. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O.

  2. Toxicity of Diuron and copper pyrithione on the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana: the effects of temperature and salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsaftis, Apostolos; Aoyama, Isao

    2008-12-01

    Diuron and copper pyrithione (CuPT) are two substances that have been used worldwide as alternatives to tributyltin (TBT) in antifouling paints for the protection of ship hulls. In this study their toxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana is examined under several combinations of salinity and temperature using the LC(20), LC(50) and LC(80) values found for the 25 degrees C and 35 per thousand standard conditions. A significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects was observed for both chemicals. Decreasing temperature almost eliminated Diuron's toxicity, while a toxicity reduction was also observed for CuPT. Decreasing salinity decreased Diuron's toxicity, while for CuPT the effect of salinity was more complex. These two natural environmental parameters had a profound influence on the ecotoxicity of the two tested chemicals, and this highlights the importance of considering the implications of such factors when conducting ecological risk assessment.

  3. Effects of zinc pyrithione and copper pyrithione on microbial community function and structure in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, DG; Dahllof, I.; Nielsen, LP

    2004-01-01

    incorporation) were used, whereas molecular fingerprinting methods (polymerase chain reaction/ denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) were used to describe the bacterial community structure. The lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC) for ZPT was 0.001 nmol/g dry sediment for the phosphate flux and total...... DNA content, whereas the LOEC for CPT was 0.1 nmol/g dry sediment for the nitrate flux and total DNA content. Nitrate fluxes increased significantly following additions of both ZPT and CPT, whereas ammonium fluxes decreased significantly after ZPT addition, suggesting changes in the nitrification...... and denitrification processes. The total DNA content decreased significantly following addition of both ZPT and CPT, but at the highest addition of ZPT (10 nmol ZPT/g dry sediment), an increase in total DNA content was found. Increased protein synthesis and bacterial diversity were also observed at this concentration...

  4. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations.

  5. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Li, E. Q.; Marston, J. O.; Bonito, A.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2013-06-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  6. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S.

    2013-06-10

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one\\'s hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  7. Leaping shampoo glides on a lubricating air layer

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, S.; Li, Erqiang; Marston, J. O.; Bonito, A.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2013-01-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine bubbles. The resulting microbubble sizes suggest this air layer is of submicron thickness. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding.

  8. Serratia marcescens-contaminated baby shampoo causing an outbreak among newborns at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, T A; Alsaedi, S; James, L; Eldeek, B S; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Alawi, M M; Marwan, D; Cudal, M; Macapagal, M; Bahlas, R; Farouq, M

    2011-05-01

    During November 2008 to January 2009, 11 babies in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) and three babies in the nursery were infected with Serratia marcescens at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Overall, fifteen infections were identified among 11 newborns in the NICU: septicaemia (five cases), purulent conjunctivitis (three), urinary tract infection (two), meningitis (two) and cellulitis (one). Three newborns in the nursery had three infections: purulent conjunctivitis (two cases) and omphalitis (one). Thirteen of 14 babies recovered fully but one died from S. marcescens meningitis and septicaemia. All infections were traced to intrinsically contaminated baby shampoo introduced to the units five days before the first reported case. The outbreak terminated following withdrawal of the shampoo product. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods. Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results. In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions. Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  10. Effects of a New Eyelid Shampoo on Lid Hygiene and Eyelash Length in Patients with Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Comparative Open Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Asuka; Ide, Takeshi; Fukumoto, Teruki; Miki, Emiko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Toda, Ikuko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose . Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) can lead to abnormalities in the composition and function of tear film, resulting in dry eye. Eyelid hygiene is a key to management of MGD. We tested a novel eyelid shampoo (Eye Shampoo Long, ESL) for its ability to maintain lid hygiene. This shampoo is nonirritating and can potentially lengthen eyelashes. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ESL in the treatment of MGD and its effects on eyelash length. Methods . Ten patients with MGD and 10 healthy subjects without MGD applied ESL twice daily for 8 weeks. Patients were examined for lid margin and dry eye before and after the trial. Subjective symptoms were evaluated. Eyelash length was measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Results . In the MGD group, significant improvements were observed in subjective symptoms obstruction of the meibomian orifice, secretion of meibum, eyelashes contamination, eyelid margin foam, and SPK. Eyelash length became significantly longer. Conclusions . Maintaining eyelid hygiene using ESL improved the eyelid margins and symptoms of dry eye in MGD patients and increased eyelash length. These findings are promising and warrant confirmation in a larger randomized controlled study.

  11. [Eyelid hygiene for contact lens wearers with blepharitis. Comparative investigation of treatment with baby shampoo versus phospholipid solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaireddin, R; Hueber, A

    2013-02-01

    Blepharitis due to Meibom gland dysfunction (MGD) is presumed to be one of the main reasons for dry eye symptoms which occur in up to 50% of contact lens users. Thus, MGD presumably plays an important role in dry eye in contact lens wearers. In the present prospective, randomized and double blind trial the efficacy of two established treatment options for MGD and blepharitis was evaluated in symptomatic contact lens wearers. In this prospective, randomized 2-centre trial 53 symptomatic contact lens wearers suffering from blepharitis were included. Patients were randomly selected for two treatment groups: group A performed lid margin hygiene using the commonly recommended mild baby shampoo (Bübchen Kinder Shampoo-extra augenmild, Bübchen Werk Ewald Hermes Pharmazeutische Fabrik GmbH, Soest, Germany) and group B performed lid margin hygiene using a phospholipid-liposome solution specially designed for lid hygiene (Blepha Cura, Optima, Moosburg/Wang, Germany), each for 4 weeks. Before as well as 4 weeks after initiation of this study the following tests were performed: standardized subjective assessment using the ocular surface disease index, non-invasive break-up time (NIBUT) and objective evaluation of lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF) and further lid margin criteria by double blinded evaluation of slit lamp photographs. Of the 53 symptomatic contact lens wearers suffering from blepharitis 21 (39,6%) were randomly selected for treatment group A and 32 (60.4%) for group B. In both treatment groups there was objective and subjective improvement of symptoms of dry eye in contact lens wearers. Interestingly, there was a significantly greater improvement, subjective as well as objective, in treatment group B which used the phospholipidliposome solution for lid margin hygiene compared to group A using baby shampoo. Although both therapies improved symptoms of dry eye due to blepharitis in symptomatic contact lens wearers, patients using phospholipid

  12. Prophylactic ketoconazole shampoo for tinea capitis in a high-risk pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Watson, Holly J; Winters, Shauna D; Carlson, Adrian L; Schulz, Richard M

    2011-07-01

    Although topical agents for the treatment of tinea capitis decrease viable fungal elements and reduce shedding, their use as a prophylactic agent has not been investigated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a prophylactic ketoconazole shampoo (Nizoral 2%) protocol to reduce the number of clinically evident tinea capitis infections in a high-risk African American, urban population. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a ketoconazole prophylaxis protocol that was implemented at an urban pediatric clinic for medically fragile children. Patients at high risk for tinea capitis received twice-weekly ketoconazole shampoo. The primary outcome of the study was a reduction in the number of documented tinea capitis infections between the 12-month preprotocol and 12-month postprotocol periods. A secondary outcome included the evaluation of predisposing risk factors for acquiring tinea infections. Ninety-seven patients, with a mean age of 8.06 years, were included. Most patients (78%) were African American. There were a total of 13 tinea capitis infections during the 12-month preprotocol period. During the 12-month postprotocol period, 41 infections were documented: 37 (90.2%) in the prophylaxis group and 4 (9.8%) in the nonprophylaxis group. The average numbers of per-patient infections in the postprotocol period were 0.79 and 0.08 in the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups, respectively. Initiation of prophylaxis did not reduce tinea capitis infections (p=NS). Previous history of infection and a high level of care were significant predictors of infections (pshampoo) prophylaxis protocol.

  13. Gene expression profiling in psoriatic scalp hair follicles: clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% normalizes psoriasis disease markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, J; Reiniche, P; Fogel, P; Poulin, Y; Lui, H; Lynde, C; Shapiro, J; Villemagne, H; Soto, P; Voegel, J J

    2010-11-01

    Clobetasol propionate shampoo is effective and safe in treatment of scalp psoriasis (SP). Gene expression profiling of psoriatic skin biopsies led to the identification of numerous disease-related genes. However, it remained unknown whether the gene expression profile of hair follicles of SP patients was also affected. To determine whether psoriasis-related genes are differentially regulated in the hair follicles of SP patients and whether the modulation of these genes can be correlated with clinical severity scores. A single arm, open study was conducted in three centres. SP patients received daily treatment with clobetasol propionate shampoo. At Baseline, Weeks 2 and 4, investigators assessed clinical severity parameters and collected scalp hair follicles in anagen phase. Total RNA extracted from hair follicles was used to determine the expression level of 44 genes, which were reported previously to be upregulated in the skin of psoriasis patients. RNA of good quality and sufficient quantity was obtained from hair follicles of psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers (HV). The expression level of 10 inflammation-related genes was significantly increased in psoriatic hair follicles. The patient's exploratory transcriptomic score, defined as the mean fold modulation of these 10 genes compared with HV, correlated with clinical severity scores. Clobetasol propionate shampoo was effective in decreasing both the exploratory transcriptomics and the clinical severity scores. Hair follicles of SP patients are affected by the inflammatory process. The change in the expression level of inflammation-related genes correlates with the severity of the disease. © 2010 Galderma R&D. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  14. A Look Behind the Salt Curve: An Examination of Thickening Mechanisms in Shampoo Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Kevin

    2008-07-01

    Dynamic oscillatory rheological measurements are used to examine two mechanisms for thickening simple shampoo formulations. The salt curve, in which viscosity of a surfactant solution is maximized at intermediate levels of salt, is shown to be due to the variation in relaxation time; this is found to correlate with variation in the degree of entanglement per micelle. This is contrasted with the effect of PEG-150 distearate, which alters viscosity through a change in modulus.

  15. Protection of oxidative hair color fading from shampoo washing by hydrophobically modified cationic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Foltis, L; Moore, D J; Rigoletto, R

    2009-01-01

    The fading of oxidative color in hair as a result of daily shampoo washing activities has become a common problem and a source of frequent complaints by consumers. The fading occurs primarily through hair dye solubility in water. One aspect of the current study investigates the physical and chemical factors that influence hair color fading during the washing process. This is accomplished by testing hair dye dissolution in water from dyed hair samples with variation of surfactant type, pH, and hair type. Furthermore, a new approach to preventing color fading is developed aiming to provide an effective barrier function for hair dye from dissolving into water. The preliminary investigation of a series of polymers with various functional groups indicates that polymers with hydrophobically modified and cationic functionalities are most effective in preventing hair dye dissolution in water. It is also evident that a synergistic effect of the polymer's hydrophobic moieties and cationic charges are important on hair color protection during shampoo washing processes. A primary example of a polymer within this category is a cationic terpolymer of vinylpyrrolidone, dimethylaminopropyl methacrylamide, and methacryloylaminopropyl lauryldimonium chloride (INCI: Polyquaternium-55). The color protection benefit of this polymer is evaluated using newly developed methodologies for evaluating hair color changes, such as hair color fading tests through multiple shampoo washes with mannequin heads and hair tresses, both derived from human hair, colorimetry, and quantitative digital image analysis. In addition, new infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques are used to detect the hair dye deposition behavior inside hair fibers both with and without the color protection treatment. Both visual and instrumental measurement results indicate that Polyquaternium-55 provides a high level of color protection when formulated in a hair color protection regimen with up to 50% color protection. This

  16. Efficacious and safe management of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis using clobetasol propionate shampoo 0·05% combined with ketoconazole shampoo 2%: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortonne, J-P; Nikkels, A F; Reich, K; Ponce Olivera, R M; Lee, J H; Kerrouche, N; Sidou, F; Faergemann, J

    2011-07-01

    Topical antifungals and corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for seborrhoeic dermatitis. The short-contact clobetasol propionate 0·05% shampoo (CP) is an efficacious and safe once-daily treatment for scalp psoriasis. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CP alone and combined with ketoconazole shampoo 2% (KC) in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis. This randomized and investigator-blinded study consisted of three phases, each lasting 4 weeks. During the treatment phase, subjects were randomized to receive KC twice weekly (K2), CP twice weekly (C2), CP twice weekly alternating with KC twice weekly (C2 + K2) or CP four times weekly alternating with KC twice weekly (C4+K2). All subjects received KC once weekly during the maintenance phase and were untreated during the follow-up phase. At the end of the treatment phase, all three CP-containing regimens were significantly more efficacious than K2 in decreasing the overall disease severity (P < 0·05). Both combination regimens were also significantly more efficacious than K2 in decreasing each individual sign of the disease (P < 0·05). While the C2 and C4 + K2 groups experienced slight worsening during the maintenance phase, the efficacy of C2 + K2 was sustained and remained the highest among all groups. All regimens were well tolerated without inducing any skin atrophy. Similarly low incidences of telangiectasia, burning and adverse events were observed among the four groups. The combination therapy of twice-weekly CP alternating with twice-weekly KC provided significantly greater efficacy than KC alone and a sustained effect in the treatment of moderate to severe scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists 2011.

  17. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, B.L.; Auld, D.S.; Coleman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a zinc cluster akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is ∼3.5 angstrom. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is ∼13 angstrom, and in this instance, a zinc twist is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native zinc fingers, structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent

  18. Human hair follicle benzo(a)pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene 7, 8-diol metabolism: effect of exposure to a coal tar-containing shampoo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merk, H.F.; Mukhtar, H.; Kaufmann, I.; Das, M.; Bickers, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Hair follicles are a readily available source of human epithelial tissue and offer an excellent system with which to study carcinogen metabolism in human populations. In this study hair follicles were employed to measure the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene (BP), benzo(a)pyrene - 7,8-diol (BP 7,8-diol) and the enzyme mediated binding of /sup 3/H-BP to DNA. The effect of human exposure to a crude coal tar (CCT) - containing shampoo, a preparation rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs on these parameters was also evaluated. It was found that aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity increased after use of the shampoo and enhancement of enzyme-mediated binding of BP to DNA was detected in most subjects. Hair follicles were shown to convert BP to several metabolic species and BP, 7,8-diol was also metabolised. Clotrimazole, a known inhibitor of the metabolism of BP was found to inhibit AHH and the metabolism of BP and BP 7,8-diol in human hair follicles, as were other imidazole compounds. The studies show that hair follicles represent an accessible tissue suitable for assessing the extent of PAH carcinogen metabolism in human subjects. Furthermore enzyme activity critical to cancer induction by PAHs was shown to be inducible following the use of a CCT-containing shampoo. Imidazole compounds were shown to be possible effective anti-carcinogens in human populations. 29 refs.

  19. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with fipronil/(S-methoprene or weekly physiological hygiene shampoos against Ctenocephalides felis in a simulated flea-infested environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet F.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Flea infestations of pets continue to persist due to the lack of knowledge of flea biology and ecology. It is not unusual that pet owners believe regular hygiene, such as shampooing their dogs can replace regular insecticidal treatment. The objective of this study was to compare in a flea simulated environment, modelling exposure similar to that found in a home, that the use of regular physiological shampoo does not control fleas adequately when compared to a long acting topical formulation. Three groups of six dogs were formed: one untreated control group, one group treated monthly with the topical formulation of fipronil/(S-methoprene, and a third group treated weekly with a hygiene shampoo. All dogs were infested with adult unfed Ctenocephalides felis fleas (200 ± 5 on Days -28 and -21. Each animal’s sleeping box was fitted with a plastic cup mounted to the inside roof of the box. The sleeping bench of each animal was covered with a carpet to accommodate flea development. The dogs were maintained in their kennels throughout the study. In order to maintain the environmental flea challenge, C. felis pupae (100 ± 5 were placed in the plastic cup in each animal’s sleeping box on Days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42. The dogs were combed and fleas counted weekly on Days -1, 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, and 51. The fleas were placed immediately back on the dogs. On Day 60, fleas were counted and removed. Flea infestations in the untreated control group at each count averaged between 46.2 and 74.2 fleas throughout the study. The average number of fleas infesting dogs was significantly different (p < 0.05 between the untreated and the two treatment groups and between the two treatment groups at all counts throughout the two months study (Days 3, 10, 17, 24, 31, 38, 45, 51 and 60. The efficacy was never below 99.1% in the fipronil/(S-methoprene group, and efficacy in the shampoo group was never above 79.2%. Weekly shampooing in treatment

  20. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  1. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss. © 2011 DERMAPRO Co Ltd. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  3. DETERMINAÇÃO DE ENXOFRE EM SHAMPOO POR ESPECTROFOTOMETRIA UV-VIS: AVALIAÇÃO DE MÉTODOS DE PREPARO DE AMOSTRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia J. Bielemann

    Full Text Available Dry ashing, dissolution in aqueous medium or wet digestion methods were evaluated for sample preparation of shampoo for the subsequent indirect determination of sulfur by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Among the sample preparation methods evaluated, microwave-assisted wet digestion using 7 mol L-1 HNO3 was the most suitable method for this purpose. Accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by recovery test using standard solution, and the recovery was about 96%. Moreover, for comparison of results, S (as SO42- was also determined by ion chromatography, after microwave-assisted wet digestion using concentrated HNO3, and no significant difference was observed between the obtained results (according to the t-test for a 95% confidence level, p = 0.288. Relative standard deviations were always lower than 10% and the limit of detection was 0.007% w/v. Finally, the proposed method was applied for analysis of sixteen shampoos used to many types of hair, from different brands produced in Brazil, and the concentration of S ranged from 0.78 to 2.82% w/v.

  4. Effect of Unshaven Hair with Absorbable Sutures and Early Postoperative Shampoo on Cranial Surgery Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Oak; Yeom, Insun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Eun-Kyung; Shim, Kyu-Won

    2018-01-01

    Cranial surgical site infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Preoperative hair shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures is performed traditionally in an attempt to protect patients against complications from infections at cranial surgical sites. However, preoperative shaving of surgical incision sites using traditional surgical blades without properly washing the head after surgery can cause infections at surgical sites. Therefore, a rapid protocol in which the scalp remains unshaven and absorbable sutures are used for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is examined in this study. A retrospective comparative study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 2,641 patients who underwent unshaven cranial surgery with absorbable sutures for scalp closure were enrolled in this study. Data of 1,882 patients who underwent surgery with the traditional protocol from January 2005 to December 2007 were also analyzed for comparison. Of 2,641 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the rapid protocol, all but 2 (0.07%) patients experienced satisfactory wound healing. Of 1,882 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the traditional protocol, 3 patients (0.15%) had infections. Each infection occurred at the superficial incisional surgical site. Unshaven cranial surgery using absorbable sutures for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is safe and effective in the cranial neurosurgery setting. This protocol has a positive psychological effect. It can help patients accept neurosurgical procedures and improve their self-image after the operation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A lipohydroxyacid-containing shampoo improves scalp condition and quality of life in patients with seborrheic dermatitis and light-to-moderate scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Paries, J; Reygagne, P; Hamidou, Z; Jouanique, C; Perez-Pala, G; Rougier, A

    2009-06-01

    Dandruff is a common scalp disorder affecting almost half of the post-pubertal population of any ethnicity and both genders. It is one of the major reasons for patients to consult a dermatologist and it is the cause of significant psychological and social distress. The aim of this open study was to evaluate the benefit of a 4-week treatment with a shampoo containing 0.1% lipohydroxyacid (LHA) and 1.3% salicylic acid on the scalp condition and on the quality of life of 275 volunteers with seborrheic dermatitis (SD) (n = 226) or light-to-moderate scalp psoriasis (SP) (n = 49). The clinical benefit of the treatment was assessed by scoring the following parameters, i.e., severity of the dermatosis, scaling, itching, excoriations, and superficial burning sensation. The impact on the quality of life was assessed using the Scalpdex, a questionnaire specially developed by Chen et al. for patients with scalp dermatitis, which includes 23 questions regarding the symptoms, functioning and emotions affected by scalp dermatosis. The shampoo used in this study was well tolerated. After a 4-week treatment, dermatologists noticed a significant clinical improvement of all the scalp parameters evaluated (i.e., the composite lesional score was improved in 91% and 77% of the patients with SD or SP respectively). The symptoms, functioning and emotions scores of quality of life were also significantly improved in relation to the improvement of scalp condition. This study not only allowed a better understanding of the SD and SP patient's profile but also demonstrated that the shampoo evaluated is a convenient, efficient, safe, and well-tolerated cosmetic treatment of SD and light-to-moderate SP improving greatly the quality of life of the treated patients.

  7. Prevalence of head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of permethrine shampoo in primary school girls in a low-income area in southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Jaberhashemi, Seyed Aghil; Zare, Mehdi; Sanei-Dehkordi, Alireza

    2017-07-24

    Head lice infestation is a common public health problem that is most prevalent in primary school children throughout the world, especially in developing countries including different parts of Iran. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with head lice infestation and pediculicidal effect of 1% permethrin shampoo in primary schools girls of Bashagard County, one of the low socioeconomic areas in southeast of Iran. In this interventional study six villages with similar demographical situations were selected and randomly assigned into intervention and control areas. In each area 150 girl students aged 7-12 years were selected randomly and screened for head lice infestation by visual scalp examination. In intervention area, treatment efficacy of 1% permethrin shampoo was evaluated via re-examination for infestation after one, two, and three weeks. Pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic and associated factors of head lice infestation. The prevalence of head lice infestation was 67.3%. There was significant association between head lice infestation and school grade, family size, parents' literacy, bathing facilities, frequency of hair washing, and use of shared articles (p shampoo for head lice treatment was 29.2, 68.9, and 90.3% after the first, second, and third weeks, respectively. The head lice infestation is a health problem in primary school girls of Bashagard County. Improvement of socioeconomic status and providing appropriate educational programs about head lice risk factors and prevention can be effective for reduction of infestation in this area. This trial has been registered and approved by Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences ethical committee (Trial No.764). Trial registration date: March 17 2014.

  8. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  9. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  10. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and a non-absorbed marker, /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with /sup 65/Zn and /sup 51/Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption.

  11. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi 65 ZnCl 2 and a non-absorbed marker, 51 CrCl 3 , dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with 65 Zn and 51 Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption

  12. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  14. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  15. Zinc electrode - its behaviour in the nickel oxide-zinc accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Certain aspects of zinc electrode reaction and behavior are investigated in view of their application to batteries. The properties of the zinc electrode in a battery system are discussed, emphasizing porous structure. Shape change is emphasized as the most important factor leading to limited battery cycle life. It is shown that two existing models of shape change based on electroosmosis and current distribution are unable to consistently describe observed phenomena. The first stages of electrocrystallization are studied and the surface reactions between the silver substrate and the deposited zinc layer are investigated. The reaction mechanism of zinc and amalgamated zinc in an alkaline electrolyte is addressed, and the batter system is studied to obtain information on cycling behavior and on the shape change phenomenon. The effect on cycle behavior of diferent amalgamation techniques of the zinc electrode and several additives is addressed. Impedance measurements on zinc electrodes are considered, and battery behavior is correlated with changes in the zinc electrode during cycling. 193 references.

  16. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR

  17. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  18. Production of zinc pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  19. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.; Cousins, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. The authors have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific to the intestine. The protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport and shows signs of saturation at higher luminal zinc concentrations, characteristics consistent with a role in carrier-mediated zinc absorption. Microsequence analysis of the protein purified by gel-filtration HPCL and SDS/PAGE showed complete identity within the first 41 N-terminal amino acids with the deduced protein sequence of cysteine-rich intestinal protein. These investigators showed that the gene for this protein is developmentally regulated in neonates during the suckling period, conserved in many vertebrate species, and predominantly expressed in the small intestine. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein contains a recently identified conserved sequence of histidine and cysteine residues, the LIM motif, which our results suggest confers metal-binding properties that are important for zinc transport and/or functions of this micronutrient

  20. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  1. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  2. Effect of Consuming Zinc-fortified Bread on Serum Zinc and Iron Status of Zinc-deficient Women: A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad

    2012-03-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p bread improved iron absorption.

  3. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  4. Leaping shampoo glides on a 500-nm-thick lubricating air layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erqiang; Lee, Sanghyun; Marston, Jeremy; Bonito, Andrea; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2013-11-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer [Lee et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 061001 (2013)]. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine micro-bubbles. The resulting micro-bubble sizes suggest that the thickness of this air layer is around 500 nm. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding, with the shear stress within the thin air layer sufficient for the observed deceleration. Particle tracking within the jet shows uniform velocity, with no pronounced shear, which would be required for shear-thinning effects. The role of the surfactant may primarily be to stabilize the air film.

  5. Relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate in utero supply of zinc is essential for optimal fetal growth because of the role of zinc in cellular division, growth and differentiation. Low maternal serum zinc has been reported to be associated with low birth weight and the later is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in newborns.

  6. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  7. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  8. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  9. PREPARATION OF ZINC ENRICHED YEAST (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE BY CULTIVATION WITH DIFFERENT ZINC SALTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the best known microorganism and therefore widely used in many branches of industry. This study aims to investigate the accumulation of three inorganic zinc salts. Our research presents the ability of this yeast to absorb zinc from liquid medium and such enriched biomass use as a potential source of microelements in animal and/or human nutrition. It was found that the addition of different zinc forms, i.e. zinc nitrate, zinc sulphate and zinc chloride in fixed concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg.100 ml-1 did not affect the amount of dry yeast biomass yielded, i.e. 1.0 – 1.2 g of yeast cells from 100 ml of cultivation medium, while higher presence of zinc solutions caused significantly lower yield of yeast biomass. The highest amount of zinc in yeast cells was achieved when added in the form of zinc nitrate in concentration of 200 mg.100 ml-1 YPD medium. The increment of intracellular zinc was up to 18.5 mg.g-1 of yeast biomass.

  10. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pešlová, F.; Kliber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 43-46 ISSN 0543-5846 Grant - others:KEGA(SK) KEGA 007 TnUAD-4/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * production of zinc oxide * microstructure * chemical composition * zinc slag Subject RIV: JG - Metal lurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  11. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  12. An experimental study of the retention of zinc, zinc-cadmium mixture and zinc-65 in the presence of cadmium in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1976-07-01

    Zinc uptake was studied in eels in fresh water, using stable zinc, a zinc-cadmium mixture, and zinc 65 in the presence of small amounts of cadmium. The zinc content in the eel began to increase after 45 days only, and reached approximately 85 ppm after 76 days in water initially containing 5ppm of zinc. At the conclusion of the experiment (76 days), the body organs could be classified in decreasing order in zinc content (in ppm): kidneys (152), skeleton (133), skin (129), muscles (89), head (80), gills (78), digestive tract (77), liver (63) spleen-heart-air bladder (32), and mucus (15). A comparison of experimental results obtained with the zinc-cadmium mixture and cadmium alone showed that zinc decreased the cadmium content of all organs except the gills. The presence of cadmium in water did not inhibit zinc uptake. As cadmium content in water increased, then zinc content in the digestive tract and the kidneys decreased and in all cases remained lower than when zinc alone was present. In the presence of cadmium the percentage of zinc in the kidneys was always lower than the value obtained for zinc alone, and that of the digestive tract did not increase. Contamination of eels treated with 18 and 50ppb of cadmium for 29 days, then contaminated by zinc-65 (5μCi/l) while maintaining the same low cadmium content, showed no significant difference in zinc 65 uptake in the two groups. The same applied to the body organs, and particularly the digestive tract and kidneys, where the highest activity levels were observed. By weight, muscles represented approximately 30% of the total contamination after 45 days [fr

  13. Effect of zinc sources on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on an inceptisol of Delhi to evaluate three sources of zinc, namely, zinc sulphate, zincated urea and zinc oxide on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence. Results indicated that, amongst the three zinc sources, zinc sulphate and zincated urea gave the best performance in increasing the grain yield of rice whereas zinc oxide depressed the grain yield of wheat significantly when compared to other treatments. The highest Zn derived from fertilizer and its utilization was obtained with zinc sulphate for both rice and wheat crops. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  15. Neodymium conversion layers formed on zinc powder for improving electrochemical properties of zinc electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liqun; Zhang Hui; Li Weiping; Liu Huicong

    2008-01-01

    Zinc powder, as active material of secondary alkaline zinc electrode, can greatly limit the performance of zinc electrode due to corrosion and dendritic growth of zinc resulting in great capacity-loss and short cycle life of the electrode. This work is devoted to modification study of zinc powder with neodymium conversion films coated directly onto it using ultrasonic immersion method for properties improvement of zinc electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy and other characterization techniques are applied to prove that neodymium conversion layers are distributing on the surface of modified zinc powder. The electrochemical performance of zinc electrodes made of such modified zinc powder is investigated through potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic polarization and cyclic voltammetry. The neodymium conversion films are found to have a significant effect on inhibition corrosion capability of zinc electrode in a beneficial way. It is also confirmed that the neodymium conversion coatings can obviously suppress dendritic growth of zinc electrode, which is attributed to the amelioration of deposition state of zinc. Moreover, the results of cyclic voltammetry reveal that surface modification of zinc powder enhances the cycle performance of the electrode mainly because the neodymium conversion films decrease the amounts of ZnO or Zn(OH) 2 dissolved in the electrolyte

  16. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  17. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Dymáček, Petr; Pešlová, F.; Jurkovič, Z.; Barborák, O.; Stodola, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-410 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * metallography * microstructure of zinc * zinc oxide * production of zinc oxide Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  18. Cyclic AMP Pathway Activation and Extracellular Zinc Induce Rapid Intracellular Zinc Mobilization in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, Lasse; Winther, Anne-Marie L.; Wilson, Duncan; Fuglsang, Anja T.

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient, required for a range of zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors. In mammalian cells, zinc serves as a second messenger molecule. However, a role for zinc in signaling has not yet been established in the fungal kingdom. Here, we used the intracellular zinc reporter, zinbo-5, which allowed visualization of zinc in the endoplasmic reticulum and other components of the internal membrane system in Candida albicans. We provide evidence for a link between cyclic AMP/PKA- and zinc-signaling in this major human fungal pathogen. Glucose stimulation, which triggers a cyclic AMP spike in this fungus resulted in rapid intracellular zinc mobilization and this “zinc flux” could be stimulated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and blocked via inhibition of adenylate cyclase or PKA. A similar mobilization of intracellular zinc was generated by stimulation of cells with extracellular zinc and this effect could be reversed with the chelator EDTA. However, zinc-induced zinc flux was found to be cyclic AMP independent. In summary, we show that activation of the cyclic AMP/PKA pathway triggers intracellular zinc mobilization in a fungus. To our knowledge, this is the first described link between cyclic AMP signaling and zinc homeostasis in a human fungal pathogen. PMID:29619016

  19. Reactivation in vitro of zinc-requiring apo-enzymes by rat liver zinc-thionein

    OpenAIRE

    Udom, Albert O.; Brady, Frank O.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of rat liver zinc-thionein to donate its metal to the apo-enzymes of the zinc enzymes horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, yeast aldolase, thermolysin, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase was investigated. Zinc-thionein was as good as, or better than, ZnSO4, Zn(CH3CO2)2 or Zn(NO3)2 in donating its zinc to these apo-enzymes. Apo-(alcohol dehydrogenase) could not be reactivated by zinc salts or by zinc-thionein. Incubation of the other apo-e...

  20. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  1. Influence of soil zinc concentrations on zinc sensitivity and functional diversity of microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) is based on the phenomenon that toxic effects reduce survival of the most sensitive organisms, thus increasing community tolerance. Community tolerance for a contaminant is thus a strong indicator for the presence of that contaminant at the level of adverse concentrations. Here we assessed PICT in 11 soils contaminated with zinc runoff from galvanised electricity pylons and 11 reference soils sampled at 10 m distance from these pylons. Using PICT, the influence of background concentration and bioavailability of zinc on zinc sensitivity and functional diversity of microbial communities was assessed. Zinc sensitivity of microbial communities decreased significantly with increasing zinc concentrations in pore water and calcium chloride extracted fraction while no significant relationship was found with total zinc concentration in the soil. It was also found that functional diversity of microbial communities decreased with increasing zinc concentrations, indicating that increased tolerance is indeed an undesirable phenomenon when environmental quality is considered. The hypothesis that zinc sensitivity of microbial communities is related to background zinc concentration in pore water could not be confirmed. - Zinc sensitivity of microbial communities and functional diversity decrease with increasing zinc concentration in the pore water

  2. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of zinc carbonate and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Marashianpour, Zahra; Karimi, Meisam Sadeghpour; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    Zinc oxide and its precursor i.e., zinc carbonate is widely utilized in various fields of industry, especially in solar energy conversion, optical, and inorganic pigments. In this work, a facile and clean electrodeposition method was utilized for the synthesis of zinc carbonate nanoparticles. Also, zinc oxide nanoparticles were produced by calcination of the prepared zinc carbonate powder. Zinc carbonate nanoparticles with different sizes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of a zinc plate as anode in the solution of sodium carbonate. It was found that the particle size of zinc carbonate might be tuned by process parameters, i.e., electrolysis voltage, carbonate ion concentration, solvent composition and stirring rate of the electrolyte solution. An orthogonal array design was utilized to identify the optimum experimental conditions. The experimental results showed that the minimum size of the electrodeposited ZnCO3 particles is about 24 nm whereas the maximum particle size is around 40 nm. The TG-DSC studies of the nanoparticles indicated that the main thermal degradation of ZnCO3 occurs in two steps over the temperature ranges of 150-250 and 350-400 °C. The electrosynthesized ZnCO3 nanoparticles were calcined at the temperature of 600 °C to prepare ZnO nanoparticles. The prepared ZnCO3 and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and FT-IR techniques.

  3. The relative efficiency of zinc carriers on growth and zinc nutrition of corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, B.; Sinha, K.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of different zinc carriers showed that application of Zn-DTPA, Zn-EDTA, Zn-fulvate and ZnSO 4 significantly increased the dry matter yield and zinc uptake by corn over the control treatment where no zinc was applied. The chelates in particular enhanced to a greater extent the uptake of both native and applied sources than that observed with ZnSO 4 as the zinc carrier. Both the dry matter yield and zinc uptake by corn showed a positive and significant relationship with self-diffusion coefficient of zinc showing thereby that diffusion contributed mainly the supply of Zn from the ambient soil matrix to plant roots. The effectiveness of the chelates varied depending on their capacity to retain Zn in a soluble form in the soil solution. It is evident that zinc nutrition of plants in alkaline and calcareous soils can be more effectively regulated by both synthetic and natural chelates or organic manures which contain substantial amount of complexed zinc. (orig.)

  4. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  5. Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc transporters in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Jie; Long, Ciming; Yao, Yajun; Peng, Hongxing; Wan, Dan; Wu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P zinc transporter in either duodenum or jejunum of pigs fed TBZ were higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS. These results indicate that TBZ is more effective in serum Zn accumulation and intestinal Zn absorption, and might be a potential substitute for ZS in young growing pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Availability of native and fertilizer zinc in some Indian soils: studies with 65Zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, J.; Deb, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopically exchangeable zinc (Et values) was determined by different methods in some soils having pH(H 2 O) varying from 3.05 to 8.40 using 65 Zn. The Et values obtained using different extractants showed significant correlation with available zinc, organic carbon and soil pH. The recovery of applied zinc in the aqueous phase was less than one percent in most of the soils having pH higher than 7.0. Application of zinc with complexing agents like DTPA and EDTA increased the recovery of applied zinc in the solution to about 95 percent. Soil pH, organic C and DTPA extractable zinc showed significant relationship with the recovery of applied zinc under different treatments. Use of EDTA and DTPA extractants reduced the zinc buffering capacity of soil to a value less than one, irrespective of the initial pH of the soil, whereas the values were comparatively higher in presence of different levels of zinc carrier. (auth.)

  7. 65Zinc and endogenous zinc content and distribution in islets in relationship to insulin content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figlewicz, D.P.; Forhan, S.E.; Hodgson, A.T.; Grodsky, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Uptake of 65 Zn and distribution of 65 Zn, total zinc, and insulin were measured in rat islets and islet granules under different conditions of islet culture. Specific activity of islet zinc ( 65 Zn/zinc) was less than 15% that of extracellular zinc even after 48 h. In contrast, once in the islet, 65 Zn approached 70% of equilibrium with granular zinc in 24 h and apparent equilibrium by 48 h. During a 24-h culture, at either high or low glucose, reduction of both islet zinc and insulin occurred. However, zinc depletion was greater than that predicted if zinc loss was proportional to insulin depletion and occurred only from the granular compartment, which represents only one third of the total islet zinc. Extension of culture to 48 h caused additional insulin depletion, but islet zinc was unchanged. Omission of calcium during the 48-h culture caused a predicted increase in insulin retention, presumably by inhibiting secretion; however, zinc retention was not increased proportionately. Pretreatment of rats with tolbutamide caused a massive depletion of insulin stored in isolated islets, with little change in total islet zinc; subsequent culture of these islets resulted in a greater loss of granular zinc than predicted from the small loss of granular insulin. None of the conditions tested affected the percentage of either 65 Zn or total zinc that was distributed in the islet granules. Results show that zinc exists in a metabolically labile islet compartment(s) as well as in secretory granules; and extra-granular zinc, although not directly associated with insulin storage, may act as a reservoir for granular zinc and may regulate insulin synthesis, storage, and secretion in ways as yet unknown

  8. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong D. Tran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease.

  9. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  10. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... It suggests that supplementation of ewes diet with zinc sulfate could be an effective way to increase zinc ... alkaline phosphates activity. Zinc supplements were .... Similar results have been reported previously when dairy cows.

  11. Evolution of the zinc compound nanostructures in zinc acetate single-source solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Li Yinhua; Zhou Zhengzhi; Zu Xihong; Deng Yulin

    2011-01-01

    A series of nanostructured zinc compounds with different nanostructures such as nanobelts, flake-like, flower-like, and twinning crystals was synthesized using zinc acetate (Zn(Ac) 2 ) as a single-source. The evolution of the zinc compounds from layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA) to bilayered basic zinc acetate (BLBZA) and twinned ZnO nano/microcrystal was studied. The low-angle X-ray diffraction spectra indicate the layered spacing is 1.34 and 2.1 nm for LBZA and BLBZA, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra results confirmed that the bonding force of acetate anion with zinc cations decreases with the phase transformation from Zn(Ac) 2 to BLBZA, and finally to LBZA. The OH − groups gradually replaced the acetate groups coordinated to the matrix zinc cation, and the acetate groups were released completely. Finally, the Zn(OH) 2 and ZnO were formed at high temperature. The conversion process from Zn(Ac) 2 to ZnO with release of acetate anions can be described as Zn(Ac) 2 → BLBZA → LBZA → Zn(OH) 2 → ZnO.

  12. Effects of dietary zinc status on seizure susceptibility and hippocampal zinc content in the El (epilepsy) mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukahori, M; Itoh, M

    1990-10-08

    The effects of dietary zinc status on the development of convulsive seizures, and zinc concentrations in discrete hippocampal areas and other parts of the limbic system were studied in the El mouse model receiving zinc-adequate, zinc-deficient or zinc-loaded diets. Seizure susceptibility of the El mouse was increased by zinc deficiency, and decreased by zinc loading, while an adequate diet had no effect. Zinc loading was accompanied by a marked increase in hippocampal zinc content in the El mouse. Conversely, hippocampal zinc content declined in the El mouse fed a zinc-deficient diet. These results suggest that zinc may have a preventive effect on the development of seizures in the El mouse, and hippocampal zinc may play an important role in the pathophysiology of convulsive seizures of epilepsy.

  13. Intestinal absorption and excretion of zinc in streptozotocin-diabetic rats as affected by dietary zinc and protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.T.; Canfield, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    65 Zn was used to examine the effects of dietary zinc and protein on true zinc absorption and intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc by an isotope dilution technique in streptozotocin-diabetic and control rats. Four groups each of diabetic and control rats were fed diets containing 20 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (HMHP); 20 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (HMLP); 10 ppm Zn, 20% egg white protein (LMHP); and 10 ppm Zn, 10% egg white protein (LMLP). Measurement of zinc balance was begun 9 d after an i.m. injection of 65 Zn. True zinc absorption and the contribution of endogenous zinc to fecal zinc excretion were calculated from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled zinc in the feces, duodenum and kidney. Results from the isotope dilution study indicated that diabetic rats, but not control rats, absorbed more zinc from 20 ppm zinc diets than from 10ppm zinc diets and that all rats absorbed more zinc from 20% protein diets than from 10% protein diets. Furthermore, all rats excreted more endogenous zinc from their intestines when dietary zinc and protein levels resulted in greater zinc absorption. In diabetic and control rats, consuming equivalent amounts of zinc, the amount of zinc absorbed was not significantly different, but the amount of zinc excreted by the intestine was less in the diabetic rats. Decreased intestinal excretion of endogenous zinc may be a homeostatic response to the increased urinary excretion of endogenous zinc in the diabetic rats and may also lead to the elevated zinc concentrations observed in some organs of the diabetic rats

  14. Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, Robert John; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals o...

  15. A Bacterial Biosensor for Oxidative Stress Using the Constitutively Expressed Redox-Sensitive Protein roGFP2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Arias-Barreiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A highly specific, high throughput-amenable bacterial biosensor for chemically induced cellular oxidation was developed using constitutively expressed redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein roGFP2 in E. coli (E. coli-roGFP2. Disulfide formation between two key cysteine residues of roGFP2 was assessed using a double-wavelength ratiometric approach. This study demonstrates that only a few minutes were required to detect oxidation using E. coli-roGFP2, in contrast to conventional bacterial oxidative stress sensors. Cellular oxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide, menadione, sodium selenite, zinc pyrithione, triphenyltin and naphthalene became detectable after 10 seconds and reached the maxima between 80 to 210 seconds, contrary to Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and sodium arsenite, which induced the oxidation maximum immediately. The lowest observable effect concentrations (in ppm were determined as 1.0 x 10−7 (arsenite, 1.0 x 10−4 (naphthalene, 1.0 x 10−4 (Cu2+, 3.8 x 10−4 (H2O2, 1.0 x 10−3 (Cd2+, 1.0 x 10−3 (Zn2+, 1.0 x 10−2 (menadione, 1.0 (triphenyltin, 1.56 (zinc pyrithione, 3.1 (selenite and 6.3 (Pb2+, respectively. Heavy metal-induced oxidation showed unclear response patterns, whereas concentration-dependent sigmoid curves were observed for other compounds. In vivo GSH content and in vitro roGFP2 oxidation assays together with E. coli-roGFP2 results suggest that roGFP2 is sensitive to redox potential change and thiol modification induced by environmental stressors. Based on redox-sensitive technology, E. coli-roGFP2 provides a fast comprehensive detection system for toxicants that induce cellular oxidation.

  16. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  17. Zinc species distribution in EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-H.; Wei, Y.-L.; Wang, H. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Soil sample from a site heavily contaminated with >10 wt.% zinc is sampled and extracted with aqueous solutions of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) that is a reagent frequently used to extract heavy metals in soil remediation. Three liquid/soil ratios (5/1, 20/1, and 100/1) were used in the extracting experiment. The molecular environment of the residual Zn in the EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil is investigated with XANES technique. The results indicate that EDTA does not show considerable preference of chelating for any particular Zn species during the extraction. Zn species distribution in the sampled soil is found to resemble that in all EDTA-extract residues; Zn(OH) 2 is determined as the major zinc species (60-70%), seconded by organic zinc (21-26%) and zinc oxide (9-14%)

  18. Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

    2010-07-01

    Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of resveratrol and zinc on intracellular zinc status in normal human prostate epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the influence of resveratrol on cellular zinc status, normal human prostate epithelial (NHPrE) cells were treated with 6 levels of resveratrol (0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 microM) and 4 levels of zinc [0, 4, 16, and 32 microM for zinc-deficient (ZD), zinc-normal (ZN), zinc-adequate (ZA), an...

  20. Sulfidation of zinc plating sludge with Na2S for zinc resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchar, D.; Fukuta, T.; Onyango, M.S.; Matsuda, H.

    2006-01-01

    A high amount of zinc disposed in the landfill sites as a mixed-metal plating sludge represents a valuable zinc source. To recover zinc from the plating sludge, a sulfidation treatment is proposed in this study, while it is assumed that ZnS formed could be separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was conducted by contacting simulated zinc plating sludge with Na 2 S solution at S 2- to Zn 2+ molar ratio of 1.5 for a period of 1-48 h, while changing the solid to liquid (S:L) ratio from 0.25:50 to 1.00:50. The conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS was determined based on the consumption of sulfide ions. The reaction products formed by the sulfidation of zinc were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). As a result, it was found that the conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS increased with an increase in S:L ratio. A maximum conversion of 0.809 was obtained at an S:L ratio of 1.00:50 after 48 h. However, when the zinc sludge treated at S:L ratio of 1.00:50 for 48 h was subjected to XRD analyses, only ZnS was identified in the treated zinc sludge. The result suggested that the rest of zinc sludge remained unreacted inside the agglomerates of ZnS. The formation behavior of ZnS was predicted by Elovich equation, which was found to describe the system satisfactorily indicating the heterogeneous nature of the sludge

  1. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  2. Iron and zinc concentrations and 59Fe retention in developing fetuses of zinc-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.M.; Loennerdal, B.H.; Hurley, L.S.; Keen, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Because disturbances in iron metabolism might contribute to the teratogenicity of zinc deficiency, we examined the effect of zinc deficiency on fetal iron accumulation and maternal and fetal retention of 59 Fe. Pregnant rats were fed from mating a purified diet containing 0.5, 4.5 or 100 micrograms Zn/g. Laparotomies were performed on d 12, 16, 19 and 21 of gestation. Maternal blood and concepti were analyzed for zinc and iron. Additional groups of dams fed 0.5 or 100 micrograms Zn/g diet were gavaged on d 19 with a diet containing 59 Fe. Six hours later maternal blood and tissues, fetuses and placentas were counted for 59 Fe. Maternal plasma zinc, but not iron, concentration was affected by zinc deficiency on d 12. Embryo zinc concentration on d 12 increased with increasing maternal dietary zinc, whereas iron concentration was not different among groups. On d 16-21 plasma iron was higher in dams fed 0.5 micrograms Zn/g diet than in those fed 4.5 or 100 micrograms/g, whereas plasma zinc was lower in dams fed 0.5 or 4.5 micrograms Zn/g than in those fed 100 micrograms Zn/g diet. On d 19 zinc concentration in fetuses from dams fed 0.5 micrograms/g zinc was not different from that of those fed 4.5 micrograms/g zinc, and iron concentration was higher in the 0.5 microgram Zn/g diet group. The increase in iron concentration in zinc-deficient fetuses thus occurs too late to be involved in major structural teratogenesis. Although whole blood concentration of 59 Fe was not different in zinc-deficient and control dams, zinc-deficient dams had more 59 Fe in the plasma fraction

  3. Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xue

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780. Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity.

  4. [Advances in the research of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation treatment in patients with severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X X; Zhang, M J; Li, X B

    2018-01-20

    Zinc is one of the essential trace elements in human body, which plays an important role in regulating acute inflammatory response, glucose metabolism, anti-oxidation, immune and gastrointestinal function of patients with severe burns. Patients with severe burns may suffer from zinc deficiency because of insufficient amount of zinc intake from the diet and a large amount of zinc lose through wounds and urine. Zinc deficiency may affect their wound healing process and prognosis. This article reviews the characteristics of zinc metabolism in patients with severe burns through dynamic monitoring the plasma and urinary concentration of zinc. An adequate dosage of zinc supplemented to patients with severe burns by an appropriate method can increase the level of zinc in plasma and skin tissue and improve wound healing, as well as reduce the infection rates and mortality. At the same time, it is important to observe the symptoms and signs of nausea, dizziness, leukopenia and arrhythmia in patients with severe burns after supplementing excessive zinc.

  5. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic 65 Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%

  6. Zinc and zinc transporters in macrophages and their roles in efferocytosis in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Hamon

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that nutritional zinc restriction exacerbates airway inflammation accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 activation and an accumulation of apoptotic epithelial cells in the bronchioles of the mice. Normally, apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared by macrophage efferocytosis, limiting any secondary necrosis and inflammation. We therefore hypothesized that zinc deficiency is not only pro-apoptotic but also impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Impaired efferocytic clearance of apoptotic epithelial cells by alveolar macrophages occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cigarette-smoking and other lung inflammatory diseases. We now show that zinc is a factor in impaired macrophage efferocytosis in COPD. Concentrations of zinc were significantly reduced in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD who were current smokers, compared to healthy controls, smokers or COPD patients not actively smoking. Lavage zinc was positively correlated with AM efferocytosis and there was decreased efferocytosis in macrophages depleted of Zn in vitro by treatment with the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN. Organ and cell Zn homeostasis are mediated by two families of membrane ZIP and ZnT proteins. Macrophages of mice null for ZIP1 had significantly lower intracellular zinc and efferocytosis capability, suggesting ZIP1 may play an important role. We investigated further using the human THP-1 derived macrophage cell line, with and without zinc chelation by TPEN to mimic zinc deficiency. There was no change in ZIP1 mRNA levels by TPEN but a significant 3-fold increase in expression of another influx transporter ZIP2, consistent with a role for ZIP2 in maintaining macrophage Zn levels. Both ZIP1 and ZIP2 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in normal human lung alveolar macrophages. We propose that zinc homeostasis in macrophages involves the coordinated action of ZIP1 and ZIP2

  7. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  8. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  9. Species sensitivity distribution approach to primary risk analysis of the metal pyrithione photodegradation product, 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide in the Inland Sea and induction of notochord undulation in fish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Kazuhiko; Amano, Haruna; Ito, Katsutoshi; Ito, Mana; Onduka, Toshimitsu; Ichihashi, Hideki; Kakuno, Akira; Harino, Hiroya; Fujii, Kazunori

    2012-08-15

    To carry out a primary risk assessment in the Inland Sea of Japan for 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide [(PS)(2)], a metal pyrithione photodegradation product, we used a methodology based on the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) estimated with a Bayesian statistical model. We first conducted growth inhibition tests with three marine phytoplankton species, Tetraselmis tetrathele, Chaetoceros calcitrans, and Dunaliella tertiolecta. We also performed acute and early life stage toxicity (ELS) tests with a teleost fish, the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). The algal growth inhibition tests revealed that the 72-h EC(50) ranged from 62 to 1100 μg/L. Acute toxicity tests with larval mummichogs revealed that the 96-h LC(50) was approximately 500 μg/L based on the actual toxicant concentrations. ELS testing of (PS)(2) under continuous flow-through conditions for 50 days revealed that growth was the most sensitive endpoint, and both total length and body weight were significantly lower in the groups exposed to 27 μg/L (PS)(2) compared to the solvent control group. We determined a lowest observed effect concentration of 17 μg/L and a NOEC of 5.9 μg/L based on the actual toxicant concentrations. By using the ecotoxicity data (LC(50) and EC(50)) from this study and previous work, we calculated a hazardous concentration that should protect 95% and 99% of species (HC(5) and HC(1)) based on the SSD derived with a Bayesian statistical model. The medians with 90% confidence intervals (parentheses) of the HC(5) and HC(1) were 31.0 (3.2, 101.8) μg/L and 10.1 (0.5, 44.2) μg/L, respectively. In the ELS test, about 80% of hatched larvae exposed to 243-μg/L (PS)(2) displayed a notochord undulation. To elucidate the cause of the notochord undulation, we carried out embryo toxicity tests by exposing embryos at various developmental stages to (PS)(2). Exposure to (PS)(2) through the entire gastrulae stage was important to induction of the morphological abnormality. Lysyl oxidase activity

  10. Effects of zinc supplementation and zinc chelation on in vitro β-cell function in INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne Bjørn; Larsen, Agnete; Knuhtsen, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zinc is essential for the activities of pancreatic β-cells, especially insulin storage and secretion. Insulin secretion leads to co-release of zinc which contributes to the paracrine communication in the pancreatic islets. Zinc-transporting proteins (zinc-regulated transporter, iron......-regulated transporter-like proteins [ZIPs] and zinc transporters [ZnTs]) and metal-buffering proteins (metallothioneins, MTs) tightly regulate intracellular zinc homeostasis. The present study investigated how modulation of cellular zinc availability affects β-cell function using INS-1E cells. RESULTS: Using INS-1E...... cells, we found that zinc supplementation and zinc chelation had significant effects on insulin content and insulin secretion. Supplemental zinc within the physiological concentration range induced insulin secretion. Insulin content was reduced by zinc chelation with N,N,N',N-tektrakis(2-pyridylmethyl...

  11. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  12. Leptin, NPY, Melatonin and Zinc Levels in Experimental Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism: The Relation to Zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasım; Mogulkoc, Rasim

    2017-06-01

    Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats. The experiment groups in the study were formed as follows: Control (C); Hypothyroidism (PTU); Hypothyroidism+Zinc (PTU+Zn); Hypothyroidism+Zinc deficient; Hyperthyroidism (H); Hyperthyroidism+Zinc (H+Zn); and Hyperthyroidism+Zinc deficient. Thyroid hormone parameters (FT 3 , FT 4 , TT 3 , and TT 4 ) were found to be reduced in hypothyroidism groups and elevated in the hyperthyroidism groups. Melatonin values increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. Leptin and NPY levels both increased in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Zinc levels, on the other hand, decreased in hypothyroidism and increased in hyperthyroidism. Zinc supplementation, particularly when thyroid function is impaired, has been demonstrated to markedly prevent these changes.

  13. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Wessels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14, zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10, and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function.

  14. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  15. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  16. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of anode substrates on electrodeposited zinc over cycling in zinc-anode rechargeable alkaline batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xia; Desai, Divyaraj; Yadav, Gautam G.; Turney, Damon E.; Couzis, Alexander; Banerjee, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of Ag, Bi, Cu, Fe, Ni and Sn substrates on zinc deposition was evaluated over battery cycling by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The effect of Bi, Cu, Ni, and Sn substrates on zinc electrodeposition during battery cycling was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behavior of each metal in 9 M KOH and the corrosion rates of zinc plated on each substrate were analyzed by Tafel extrapolation method from the potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Although the charge-transfer resistance (R_c_t) of zinc electrodeposition is lowest on Sn, Sn eventually corrodes on cycling in alkaline media. Use of Ni as a substrate causes zinc to deteriorate on account of rapid hydrogen evolution. Bi and Cu substrates are more suitable for use as current collectors in zinc-anode alkaline rechargeable batteries because of their low corrosion rate and compact zinc deposition over battery cycling.

  18. Immersion autometallography: histochemical in situ capturing of zinc ions in catalytic zinc-sulfur nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, Gorm; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Bruhn, Mikkel; Søndergaard, Chris; Jensen, Dorete

    2004-12-01

    In the mid-1980s, two versions of Timm's original immersion sulfide silver method were published. The authors used immersion of tissue in a sulfide solution as opposed to Timm, who used immersion of tissue blocks in hydrogen sulfide-bubbled alcohol. The autometallography staining resulting from the "sulfide only immersion" was not particularly impressive, but the significance of this return to an old approach became obvious when Wenzel and co-workers presented their approach in connection with introduction by the Palmiter group of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3). The Wenzel/Palmiter pictures are the first high-resolution, high-quality pictures taken from tissues in which free and loosely bound zinc ions have been captured in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals by immersion. The trick was to place formalin-fixed blocks of mouse brains in a solution containing 3% glutaraldehyde and 0.1% sodium sulfide, ingredients used for transcardial perfusion in the zinc-specific NeoTimm method. That the NeoTimm technique results in silver enhancement of zinc-sulfur nanocrystals has been proved by proton-induced X-ray multielement analyses (PIXE) and in vivo chelation with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC). The aims of the present study were (a) to make the immersion-based capturing of zinc ions in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals work directly on sections and slices of fixed brain tissue, (b) to work out protocols that ensure zinc specificity and optimal quality of the staining, (c) to apply "immersion autometallography" (iZnSAMG) to other tissues that contain zinc-enriched (ZEN) cells, and (d) to make the immersion approach work on unfixed fresh tissue.

  19. Quantitative mapping of zinc fluxes in the mammalian egg reveals the origin of fertilization-induced zinc sparks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Emily L.; Bleher, Reiner; Duncan, Francesca E.; Kong, Betty Y.; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vogt, Stefan; Chen, Si; Garwin, Seth A.; Bayer, Amanda R.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; O' Halloran, Thomas V.

    2014-12-15

    Fertilization of a mammalian egg initiates a series of 'zinc sparks' that are necessary to induce the egg-to-embryo transition. Despite the importance of these zinc-efflux events little is known about their origin. To understand the molecular mechanism of the zinc spark we combined four physical approaches that resolve zinc distributions in single cells: a chemical probe for dynamic live-cell fluorescence imaging and a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence microscopy and three-dimensional elemental tomography for high-resolution elemental mapping. We show that the zinc spark arises from a system of thousands of zinc-loaded vesicles, each of which contains, on average, 10(6) zinc atoms. These vesicles undergo dynamic movement during oocyte maturation and exocytosis at the time of fertilization. The discovery of these vesicles and the demonstration that zinc sparks originate from them provides a quantitative framework for understanding how zinc fluxes regulate cellular processes

  20. Enhancement of antidandruff activity of shampoo by biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Solanum trilobatum plant leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Gaurav; Nayak, Nitesh; Gyana Prasuna, R.

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation describes simple and effective method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles via green route. Solanum trilobatum Linn extract were prepared by both conventional and homogenization method. We optimized the production of silver nanoparticles under sunlight, microwave and room temperature. The best results were obtained with sunlight irradiation, exhibiting 15-20 nm silver nanoparticles having cubic and hexagonal shape. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were highly toxic to various bacterial strains tested. In this study we report antibacterial activity against various Gram negative ( Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella typhi) and Gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus) bacterial strains. Screening was also performed for any antifungal properties of the nanoparticles against human pathogenic fungal strains ( Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis). We also demonstrated that these nanoparticles when mixed with shampoo enhance the anti-dandruff effect against dandruff causing fungal pathogens ( Pityrosporum ovale and Pityrosporum folliculitis). The present study showed a simple, rapid and economical route to synthesize silver nanoparticles and their applications hence has a great potential in biomedical field.

  1. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  2. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  3. Influence of usual zinc intake and zinc in a meal on 65Zn retention and turnover in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    The influences of zinc in a meal and usual zinc intake on zinc retention and turnover were investigated in 7-wk-old male rats fed diets containing 12-151 mg Zn/kg for 3 wk before and after consuming a 65 Zn-labeled meal containing ZnCl 2 . Retention corrected to zero time and turnover rate were determined by whole-body counting. Percent zinc retention was inversely proportional to the natural logarithm of the meal zinc, between 0.09 and 26 mumol. In comparison to lower doses, higher doses resulted in lower percent retention but greater amounts of zinc retained. Although the latter relationship was slightly curvilinear, there was no indication of a limited capacity for zinc retention with high doses. However, doses above 4 mumol resulted in higher turnover rates in rats accustomed to lower zinc intakes. Percent retention and the reciprocal of the turnover rate were proportional to the reciprocal of the dietary zinc concentration. The greatest differences in retention and turnover occurred between 12 and 26 mg Zn/kg diet. The zinc dose in a meal and the usual dietary zinc separately influenced percent zinc retention. These factors also interacted, such that greater dose effects were observed at lower zinc intakes and greater dietary zinc effects were observed at lower doses

  4. Interdependence of free zinc changes and protein complex assembly - insights into zinc signal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyła, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Krężel, Artur

    2018-01-24

    Cellular zinc (Zn(ii)) is bound with proteins that are part of the proteomes of all domains of life. It is mostly utilized as a catalytic or structural protein cofactor, which results in a vast number of binding architectures. The Zn(ii) ion is also important for the formation of transient protein complexes with a Zn(ii)-dependent quaternary structure that is formed upon cellular zinc signals. The mechanisms by which proteins associate with and dissociate from Zn(ii) and the connection with cellular Zn(ii) changes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to examine how zinc protein domains with various Zn(ii)-binding architectures are formed under free Zn(ii) concentration changes and how formation of the Zn(ii)-dependent assemblies is related to the protein concentration and reactivity. To accomplish these goals we chose four zinc domains with different Zn(ii)-to-protein binding stoichiometries: classical zinc finger (ZnP), LIM domain (Zn 2 P), zinc hook (ZnP 2 ) and zinc clasp (ZnP 1 P 2 ) folds. Our research demonstrated a lack of changes in the saturation level of intraprotein zinc binding sites, despite various peptide concentrations, while homo- and heterodimers indicated a concentration-dependent tendency. In other words, at a certain free Zn(ii) concentration, the fraction of a formed dimeric complex increases or decreases with subunit concentration changes. Secondly, even small or local changes in free Zn(ii) may significantly affect protein saturation depending on its architecture, function and subcellular concentration. In our paper, we indicate the importance of interdependence of free Zn(ii) availability and protein subunit concentrations for cellular zinc signal regulation.

  5. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-09-26

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification-solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide-polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology.

  6. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification–solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide–polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology. PMID:28952560

  7. Determinação da segurança biológica do xampu de cetoconazol: teste de irritação ocular e avaliação do potencial de citotoxicidade in vitro Determination of the biological reactivity of ketoconazole in shampoo: draize eye test and cytotoxity test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inara Staub

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cetoconazol é um agente antifúngico, que pode ser incorporado em diferentes formas farmacêuticas, como, por exemplo, xampus e cremes. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a segurança biológica in vivo (teste de irritação ocular e in vitro (teste de citotoxicidade do xampu de cetoconazol degradado sob ação da luz. Para tanto, a formulação foi exposta à radiação UV-C (254 nm e foram empregados dois métodos para a determinação quantitativa do cetoconazol: CLAE e ensaio microbiológico. Os resultados demonstraram alteração do cetoconazol em presença da luz - presença de picos secundários no cromatograma e diminuição da atividade antifúngica - entretanto, não demonstraram alteração na segurança biológica entre xampu de cetoconazol e xampu de cetoconazol contendo produtos de degradação.Ketoconazole is an antifungal agent and can be incorporated into several dosage forms, as an example it could be mentioned shampoos and creams. The aim of this work was to assess the biological reactivity in vivo (Draize eye test and in vitro (cytotoxity test of ketoconazole in shampoo degradeted under action of light. The formulation was exposed to UV-C (254 nm radiation and two methods were used for the quantitative determination of ketoconazole: HPLC and microbiological assay. The results showed alteration in ketoconazole in presence of light - secondary peaks in chromatogram and decrease in antifungal activity - however, no alteration on the biological reactivity between ketoconazole shampoo and ketoconazole shampoo containing degradation products was observed.

  8. Effects of Foliar Application of Nano Zinc Chelate and Zinc Sulfate on Zinc Content, Pigments and Photosynthetic Indices of Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Moghimi pour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Holy basil is a perennial plant belongs to Lamiaceae family. The plant is a perennial and thrives well in the hot and humid climate. Its aerial parts have been in use for food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and perfumery industries. Leaves contain 0.5-1.5% essential oil and main oil components are eugenol, methyl eugenol, carvacrol, methyl chavicol and1,8-cineole. A balanced fertilization program with macro and micronutrients is very important in producing high quality yield. Zinc is involved in IAA production, chlorophyll biosynthesis, carbon assimilation, saccharids accumulation, reactive oxygen radicals scavenging and finally carbon utilization in volatile oil biosynthesis. Material and methods: In order to evaluate the effect on zinc foliar application on zinc content of leaves, photosynthetic indices and pigments of holy basil, an experiment was carried out in 2013 at a research farm of Horticultural Science, Shahid Chamran University (31°20'N latitude and 48°40'E longitude and 22.5 m mean sea level, Ahvaz (Iran, a region characterized by semi-dry climate. The experiment was arranged based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were nano zinc chelate (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g.l-1 and zinc sulfate (1 and 1.5 g.l-1 fertilizers. Land preparation includes disking and the formation of raising beds (15cm high and 45cm wide across the top using a press-pan-type bed shaper. Holy basil seeds were sown on two rows on each bed, with 15 cm in-row and 40 cm between-row spacing. The plants were irrigated weekly as needed. Foliar application of zinc fertilizers was done at six-eight leaf stage and were repeated with interval 15 days until full bloom stage. Zinc content, stomata conductance (gs, CO2 under stomata (Ci, transpiration rate (E, net photosynthesis (Pn, light use efficiency (LUE, water use efficiency (WUE and also chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a+b and carotenoid

  9. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales Zinc deficiency and its functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE L ROSADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructural en membranas biológicas, y guarda una estrecha relación con la síntesis de proteínas, entre otras cosas. Es por esto que la deficiencia de zinc está asociada con consecuencias importantes en la salud y la funcionalidad de los individuos, especialmente durante las primeras etapas de la vida. De relevancia para México es la existencia de una deficiencia moderada de zinc en los niños y las consecuencias que ésta pueda tener en la salud de los mismos. Los estudios realizados sugieren que la deficiencia moderada de zinc se presenta asociada con la ingestión de dietas basadas en alimentos de origen vegetal, las cuales contienen cantidades importantes de inhibidores de la absorción de zinc. Este tipo de dietas se consume habitualmente en las zonas rurales y en la población marginal de las ciudades en el país. Entre las consecuencias más importantes de esta deficiencia se encontró un aumento en la presencia de enfermedades infecciosas, especialmente de diarrea, y posibles alteraciones en el desarrollo de la capacidad cognoscitiva.The purpose of this article is to review theoretical aspects and research performed in Mexico suggesting the existence of marginal zinc deficiency in rural children and its consequences on health. Zinc is an indispensable nutrient for humans since it plays an important role in several metabolic pathways: it participates in the catalytic site of several enzymes, as a structural ion of biological membranes and is

  10. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Zahi Gammoh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB, a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  11. Repletion of zinc in zinc-deficient cells strongly up-regulates IL-1β-induced IL-2 production in T-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaboul, Doha; Rosenkranz, Eva; Uciechowski, Peter; Rink, Lothar

    2012-10-01

    Mild zinc deficiency in humans negatively affects IL-2 production resulting in declined percentages of cytolytic T cells and decreased NK cell lytic activity, which enhances the susceptibility to infections and malignancies. T-cell activation is critically regulated by zinc and the normal physiological zinc level in T-cells slightly lies below the optimal concentration for T-cell functions. A further reduction in zinc level leads to T-cell dysfunction and autoreactivity, whereas high zinc concentrations (100 μM) were shown to inhibit interleukin-1 (IL-1)-induced IL-1 receptor kinase (IRAK) activation. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which zinc regulates the IL-1β-induced IL-2 expression in T-cells. Zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells increased intracellular zinc levels by altering the expression of zinc transporters, particularly Zip10 and Zip12. A zinc signal was observed in the murine T-cell line EL-4 6.1 after 1 h of stimulation with IL-1β, measured by specific zinc sensors FluoZin-3 and ZinPyr-1. This signal is required for the phosphorylation of MAPK p38 and NF-κB subunit p65, which triggers the transcription of IL-2 and strongly increases its production. These results indicate that short-term zinc supplementation to zinc-deficient T-cells leads to a fast rise in zinc levels which subsequently enhance cytokine production. In conclusion, low and excessive zinc levels might be equally problematic for zinc-deficient subjects, and stabilized zinc levels seem to be essential to avoid negative concentration-dependent zinc effects on T-cell activation.

  12. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luptáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper is closely connected with the process of the manufacturing of ZnO. The purity of the metal zinc has crucial influence on the quality of ZnO. ZnO can be produced by pyrometallurgical combustion of zinc and hard zinc. But this mentioned method of preparation leads to the creation of the enormous amount of waste including chemical complexes. On the basis of the occurrence of the residual content of other elements, it is possible to make prediction about the material behavior in the metallographic process. The input and finally materials were investigated and this investigation was done from the aspect of structural and chemical composition of the materials.

  13. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  14. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  15. Zinc-mediated Allosteric Inhibition of Caspase-6*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Delgado, Elih M.; Hardy, Jeanne A.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc and caspase-6 have independently been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders. Depletion of zinc intracellularly leads to apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. Zinc inhibits cysteine proteases, including the apoptotic caspases, leading to the hypothesis that zinc-mediated inhibition of caspase-6 might contribute to its regulation in a neurodegenerative context. Using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, we observed that caspase-6 binds one zinc per monomer, under the same conditions where the zinc leads to complete loss of enzymatic activity. To understand the molecular details of zinc binding and inhibition, we performed an anomalous diffraction experiment above the zinc edge. The anomalous difference maps showed strong 5σ peaks, indicating the presence of one zinc/monomer bound at an exosite distal from the active site. Zinc was not observed bound to the active site. The zinc in the exosite was liganded by Lys-36, Glu-244, and His-287 with a water molecule serving as the fourth ligand, forming a distorted tetrahedral ligation sphere. This exosite appears to be unique to caspase-6, as the residues involved in zinc binding were not conserved across the caspase family. Our data suggest that binding of zinc at the exosite is the primary route of inhibition, potentially locking caspase-6 into the inactive helical conformation. PMID:22891250

  16. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs

  17. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer

  18. Zinc-The key to preventing corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2011-01-01

    Centuries before it was identified as an element, zinc was used to make brass (an alloy of zinc and copper) and for medicinal purposes. Metallic zinc and zinc oxide were produced in India sometime between the 11th and 14th centuries and in China in the 17th century, although the discovery of pure metallic zinc is credited to the German chemist Andreas Marggraf, who isolated the element in 1746. Refined zinc metal is bluish-white when freshly cast; it is hard and brittle at most temperatures and has relatively low melting and boiling points. Zinc alloys readily with other metals and is chemically active. On exposure to air, it develops a thin gray oxide film (patina), which inhibits deeper oxidation (corrosion) of the metal. The metal's resistance to corrosion is an important characteristic in its use.

  19. Dietary Zinc Intake and Plasma Zinc Concentrations in Children with Short Stature and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Nadine; Hanna-Wakim, Rima; El Rafei, Rym; Barhoumi, Abir; Farra, Chantal; Daher, Rose T; Majdalani, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The burden of zinc deficiency on children includes an increased incidence of diarrhea, failure to thrive (FTT) and short stature. The aim of this study was to assess whether children with FTT and/or short stature have lower dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations compared to controls. A case-control study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center included 161 subjects from 1 to 10 years of age. Cases had a statistically significant lower energy intake (960.9 vs. 1,135.2 kcal for controls, p = 0.010), lower level of fat (30.3 vs. 36.5 g/day, p = 0.0043) and iron intake (7.4 vs. 9.1 mg/day, p = 0.034). There was no difference in zinc, copper, carbohydrate and protein intake between the 2 groups. The plasma zinc concentration did not differ between the cases and controls (97.4 vs. 98.2 μg/dl, p = 0.882). More cases had mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency when compared to controls with 10.3 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.095. Our study did not show statistically significant difference in dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations between children with FTT and/or short stature compared to healthy controls. A prospective study is planned to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on growth parameters in FTT children. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Radioactive zinc in soil-plant relationship studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimian, N.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc is one of the elements whose essentiality for plant growth and development has been proved beyond any doubt. Plant life and consequently the crop yield is impossible without zinc. The results of chemical, greenhouse, and field experiments on soils of Shiraz show that their level of available zinc for some crops is inadequate, despite the fact that the total amount of zinc in these soils may be relatively high. Obtaining the maximum yield, therefore, requires that either supplemental zinc be applied as chemical fertilizers or make the endogenous zinc more available to plants through some management practices. One of the isotopes of zinc, i.e. 65 Zn, is radioactive and has a detectable radiation which makes it suitable for tracer studies of zinc in soil, water, plant and animal. These studies help in understanding the soil plant relationships of zinc which in turn help to determine the optimum conditions of obtaining maximum yield. This paper presents and analyzes the results of some selected experiments to show different techniques of using radioactive zinc in understanding the behavior of zinc in soil and plant. Suggestions are also made of using this radioisotope in understanding the reactions of zinc in soils of Iran

  1. The effect of oral zinc loading on the absorption of 65Zinc in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyer, H.; Weismann, K.

    1979-01-01

    Seven groups of 8 rats each were orally loaded with zinc, the daily dose varying from 1.8 to 58 mg, corresponding to about 3 to 100 times of their estimated daily intake of zinc. To record the absorption of zinc, the rats were given a single dose of 65 Zn. The rentention of the isotope was measured in a whole animal counter at regular intervals. The dose of 58mg was obviously toxis, since half of the animals died within 5 days. The net absorption of zinc in the remaining experimental groups was found to vary from about 7% in the group receiving the smallest loading dose to 1.8% in the group receiving the highest dose. From the absorption values, as determined by extrapolation of semilog retention curves, the total amount of absorbed zinc was estimated. It was found to differ from about 170μg to about 530μg zinc daily, increasing three times as the loading dose was increased 16 times. This discrepancy suggests the existence of regulatory mechanisms of the absorption of zinc from the intestine. (orig.) [de

  2. Medicago truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease6 provides zinc to rhizobia-infected nodule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Isidro; Saéz, Ángela; Castro-Rodríguez, Rosario; Escudero, Viviana; Rodríguez-Haas, Benjamín; Senovilla, Marta; Larue, Camille; Grolimund, Daniel; Tejada-Jiménez, Manuel; Imperial, Juan; González-Guerrero, Manuel

    2017-11-01

    Zinc is a micronutrient required for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. It has been proposed that in model legume Medicago truncatula, zinc is delivered by the root vasculature into the nodule and released in the infection/differentiation zone. There, transporters must introduce this element into rhizobia-infected cells to metallate the apoproteins that use zinc as a cofactor. MtZIP6 (Medtr4g083570) is an M. truncatula Zinc-Iron Permease (ZIP) that is expressed only in roots and nodules, with the highest expression levels in the infection/differentiation zone. Immunolocalization studies indicate that it is located in the plasma membrane of nodule rhizobia-infected cells. Down-regulating MtZIP6 expression levels with RNAi does not result in any strong phenotype when plants are fed mineral nitrogen. However, these plants displayed severe growth defects when they depended on nitrogen fixed by their nodules, losing of 80% of their nitrogenase activity. The reduction of this activity was likely an indirect effect of zinc being retained in the infection/differentiation zone and not reaching the cytosol of rhizobia-infected cells. These data are consistent with a model in which MtZIP6 would be responsible for zinc uptake by rhizobia-infected nodule cells in the infection/differentiation zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Osmoregulated Chloride Currents in Hemocytes from Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bregante

    Full Text Available We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution. The chloride channel was slightly inhibited by micromolar concentrations of zinc chloride in the bath solution, while the antifouling agent zinc pyrithione did not affect the channel conductance at all. This is the first direct electrophysiological characterization of a functional ion channel in ancestral immunocytes of mytilus, which may bring a contribution to the understanding of the response of bivalves to salt and contaminant stresses.

  4. BWR fuel experience with zinc injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, H.A.; Garcia, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    In 1982 a correlation between low primary recirculation system dose rates in BWR's and the presence of ionic zinc in reactor water was identified. The source of the zinc was primarily from Admiralty brass condensers. Plants with brass condensers are called ''natural zinc'' plants. Brass condensers were also a source of copper that was implicated in crude induced localized corrosion (CILC) fuel failures. In 1986 the first BWR intentionally injected zinc for the benefits of dose rate control. Although zinc alone was never implicated in fuel degradation of failures, a comprehensive fuel surveillance program was initiated to monitor fuel performance. Currently there are 14 plants that are injecting zinc. Six of these plants are also on hydrogen water chemistry. This paper describes the effect on both Zircaloy corrosion and the cruding characteristics as a result of these changes in water chemistry. Fuel rod corrosion was found to be independent of the specific water chemistry of the plants. The corrosion behavior was the same with the additions of zinc alone or zinc plus hydrogen and well within the operating experience for fuel without either of these additions. No change was observed in the amounts of crude deposited on the fuel rods, both for the adherent and loosely held deposits. One of the effects of the zinc addition was the trend to form more of the zinc rich iron spinel in the fuel deposits rather than the hematite deposits that are predominantly formed with non additive water chemistry

  5. Comparative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and dissolved zinc on zebrafish embryos and eleuthero-embryos: Importance of zinc ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, N.R.; Lenz, M.; Wehrli, B.; Fent, K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and their associated environmental occurrence make it necessary to assess their potential effects on aquatic organisms. Upon water contact, nZnO dissolve partially to zinc (Zn(II)). To date it is not yet completely understood, whether effects of

  6. Endogenous zinc excretion in relation to various levels of dietary zinc intake in the mink (Mustela vison)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejborn, H.

    1990-01-01

    Endogenous zinc excretion was studied in adult male mink fed experimental diets for 73 d, including a collection period from d 69 to 73. Dietary zinc levels were 2.8, 26 or 121 mg/kg wet weight. In accordance with the results of a methodological study, also reported here, the animals had an intramuscular injection of 65ZnCl2 12 d before the start of the collection period. Total fecal (endogenous + unabsorbed) zinc excretion for d 69-73 in the three groups was 2.3, 20.4 and 91.0 mg. The endogenous zinc excretion was 1.3, 2.0 and 6.4 mg, corresponding to 80.8, 10.6 and 6.4% of the zinc intake. Thus, the endogenous excretion was mainly important for the zinc homeostasis at low zinc intake, whereas at high intake the homeostasis was regulated via absorption from the digestive tract. The overall conclusion of the experiment was that mink are comparable to other species (including man) in regard to mechanisms controlling zinc homeostasis

  7. Improved colorimetric determination of serum zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D J; Djuh, Y Y; Bruton, J; Williams, H L

    1977-07-01

    We show how zinc may easily be quantified in serum by first using an optimum concentration of guanidine hydrochloride to cause release of zinc from proteins, followed by complexation of released metals with cyanide. The cyanide complex of zinc is preferentially demasked with chloral hydrate, followed by a colorimetric reaction between zinc and 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol. This is a sensitive water-soluble ligand; its complex with zinc has an absorption maximum at 497 nm. Values found by this technique compare favorably with those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

  8. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  9. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; EL-NAHLA, A.M.; ASHOUR, I.; SALEH, SH.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  10. The effects of Zinc supplementation on serum zinc, alkaline phosphatase activity and fracture healing of bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadighi, A.; Moradi, A.; Roshan, Marjan M.; Ostadrahimi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on callus information, serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity in humans. This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with traumatic bone fracture referred to Shohada Hospital of Tabriz, Iran from August to December 2007. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: cases (n=30), receiving one capsule of zinc sulfate consists of 50 mg zinc each day and the controls (n=30), receiving placebo for 60 days. Individual and clinical information was determined by a questionnaire: nutritional intake by 3 days food records at the beginning and the end of trial. Serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and by enzymatic method. Callus information during fracture healing was evaluated by radiography of the bone. There was no significant difference in physical activity, gender, age, type of fractures and nutrient intake, between the 2 groups. The administration of zinc caused a significant elevation of serum zinc and alkaline phosphatase activity. Assessment of bone x-rays showed a significant progress in callus formation in cases compared to the controls. This study shows that zinc supplementation can stimulate fracture healing, however, it needs further study. (author)

  11. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  12. Zinc and immunity: An essential interrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maares, Maria; Haase, Hajo

    2016-12-01

    The significance of the essential trace element zinc for immune function has been known for several decades. Zinc deficiency affects immune cells, resulting in altered host defense, increased risk of inflammation, and even death. The micronutrient zinc is important for maintenance and development of immune cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system. A disrupted zinc homeostasis affects these cells, leading to impaired formation, activation, and maturation of lymphocytes, disturbed intercellular communication via cytokines, and weakened innate host defense via phagocytosis and oxidative burst. This review outlines the connection between zinc and immunity by giving a survey on the major roles of zinc in immune cell function, and their potential consequences in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Herulah, Ursula Nirmala; Prasad, Ashlini; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2015-06-05

    Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV) groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (-1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

  14. Fortification of staple foods with zinc for improving zinc status and other health outcomes in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dheeraj; Sachdev, Harshpal S; Gera, Tarun; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-06-09

    Zinc deficiency is a global nutritional problem, particularly in children and women residing in settings where diets are cereal based and monotonous. It has several negative health consequences. Fortification of staple foods with zinc may be an effective strategy for preventing zinc deficiency and improving zinc-related health outcomes. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of fortification of staple foods with zinc on health-related outcomes and biomarkers of zinc status in the general population. We searched the following databases in April 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 3 of 12, 2015, the Cochrane Library), MEDLINE & MEDLINE In Process (OVID) (1950 to 8 April 2015), EMBASE (OVID) (1974 to 8 April 2015), CINAHL (1982 to April 2015), Web of Science (1900 to 9 April 2015), BIOSIS (1969 to 9 April 2015), POPLINE (1970 to April 2015), AGRICOLA, OpenGrey, BiblioMap, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), besides regional databases (April 2015) and theses. We also searched clinical trial registries (17 March 2015) and contacted relevant organisations (May 2014) in order to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included randomised controlled trials, randomised either at the level of the individual or cluster. We also included non-randomised trials at the level of the individual if there was a concurrent comparison group. We included non-randomised cluster trials and controlled before-after studies only if there were at least two intervention sites and two control sites. Interventions included fortification (central/industrial) of staple foods (cereal flours, edible fats, sugar, condiments, seasonings, milk and beverages) with zinc for a minimum period of two weeks. Participants were members of the general population who were over two years of age (including pregnant and lactating women) from any country. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion

  15. Status of zinc injection in PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, C.A. [Westinghouse Electric Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Based on laboratory and other studies, it was concluded that zinc addition in a PWR primary coolant should result in reduced Alloy 600 PWSCC and general corrosion rates of the materials of construction. Because of these positive results, a Westinghouse Owner`s Subgroup, EPRI, and Westinghouse provided funds to continue the development and application of zinc in an operating plant. As part of the program, Southern Operating Nuclear Company agreed to operate the Farley 2 plant with zinc addition as a demonstration test of the effectiveness of zinc. Since zinc is incorporated in the corrosion oxide film on the primary system surfaces and Farley 2 is a mature plant, it was estimated that about 10 kgs of zinc would be needed to condition the plant before an equilibrium value in the coolant would be reached. The engineered aspects of a Zinc Addition and Monitoring System (ZAMS) considered such items as the constitutents, location, sizing and water supply of the ZAMS. Baseline data such as the PWSCC history of the Alloy 600 steam generator tubing, fuel oxide thickness, fuel crud deposits, radiation levels, and RCP seal leak-off rates were obtained before zinc addition is initiated. This presentation summarizes some of the work performed under the program, and the status of zinc injection in the Farley 2 plant.

  16. Further studies on selective radioprotection by organic zinc salts and synergism of zinc aspartate with WR 2721

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floersheim, G.L.; Bieri, A.

    1990-01-01

    Protection of the haematocrit and thrombocytes by small doses of the aminothiol radioprotector WR 2721 was markedly improved by the concomitant administration of small doses of zinc aspartate. Zinc aspartate was the only one of the tested zinc salts not inhibiting the regression induced by radiotherapy of human tumours grown as xenografts in immunosuppressed mice. This also applied to zinc aspartate with WR 2721. A dose of zinc aspartate which afforded synergistic haematological protection did not enhance the toxicity of WR 2721. The synergism of zinc aspartate with WR 2721 and the differential radioprotection of the combined protocol may make it possible in clinical cancer radiotherapy to obtain selective radioprotection at a lower toxicity giving an improved therapeutic ratio compared with WR 2721 alone. (author)

  17. Serum zinc levels in gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Sharbaf F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Maternal zinc deficiency during pregnancy has been related to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Most studies in which pregnant women have been supplemented with zinc to examine its effects on the outcome of the pregnancy have been carried out in industrialized countries and the results have been inconclusive. It has been shown that women with gestational diabetes (GDM have lower serum zinc levels than healthy pregnant women, and higher rates of macrosomia. Zinc is required for normal glucose metabolism, and strengthens the insulin-induced transportation of glucose into cells by its effect on the insulin signaling pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the serum zinc levels of GDM patients and evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation. "nMethods: In the first stage of this prospective controlled study, we enrolled 70 women who were 24-28 weeks pregnant at the Prenatal Care Center of Mirza Kochak Khan Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The serum zinc level of each subject was determined. In the second stage, among these 70 subjects, the diabetics receiving insulin were divided into two groups, only one of which received a zinc supplement and the other group was the control group. Birth weight of neonates and insulin dosages were recorded. "nResults: The mean serum zinc level in the GDM group was lower than that of the control group (94.83 vs. 103.49mg/dl, respectively and the mean birth weight of neonates from the GDM women who received the zinc supplement was lower than that of the control group (3849g vs. 4136g. The rate of macrosomia was lower in the zinc supplemented group (20% vs. 53%. The mean of increase of insulin after receiving the zinc supplement was lower (8.4u vs. 13.53. "nConclusion: Maternal insulin resistance is associated with the accumulation of maternal fat tissue during early stages of pregnancy and greater fetoplacental nutrient availability in later stages, when 70% of fetal growth occurs, resulting in macrosomia. In

  18. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  19. First Principles Investigation of Zinc-anode Dissolution in Zinc-air Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Tripkovic, Vladimir; Lundgård, Keld Troen

    2013-01-01

    With surging interest in high energy density batteries, much attention has recently been devoted to metal-air batteries. The zinc-air battery has been known for more than hundred years and is commercially available as a primary battery, but recharging has remained elusive; in part because...... the fundamental mechanisms still remain to be fully understood. Here, we present a density functional theory investigation of the zinc dissolution (oxidation) on the anode side in the zinc-air battery. Two models are envisaged, the most stable (0001) surface and a kink surface. The kink model proves to be more....... The applied methodology provides new insight into computational modelling and design of secondary metal-air batteries....

  20. The effect of severe zinc deficiency and zinc supplement on spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi Boroujeni, S; Naghdi, N; Shahbazi, M; Farrokhi, A; Bagherzadeh, F; Kazemnejad, A; Javadian, M

    2009-07-01

    Zinc deficiency during pregnancy and during lactation has been shown to impair cognitive function and motor activity in offspring rats. In the present study, the effect of zinc deficiency and zinc supplement on spatial learning and memory in Morris Water Maze (MWM) and motor activity in open field were investigated. Pregnant rats after mating were divided to three groups. Control group fed a standard diet and a zinc deficient (ZnD) group fed a diet deficient in zinc (0.5-1.5 ppm) and a zinc supplement (ZnS) group fed a standard diet and enhanced zinc in the drinking water (10 ppm). All the diets were exposed during the last trisemester of pregnancy and during lactation. Rat's offspring in these groups were tested for spatial learning and memory in MWM at post natal day (PND) 56 and were tested for motor activity in open field at PND 66.The Escape Latency (EL) and Traveled Distance (TD) in the ZnD group were increased but Percentage of Time Spent in the target quadrant (PTS) was decreased compared to the control group. In addition, these were no significant differences in EL and TD, but PTS had significant increase in ZnS compared to the control group. In the open field, Total Distance Moved (TDM) and Time of Motor Activity (TMA) for the ZnD were decreased compared to the control group, but there were no significant differences in TDM and TMA between control and ZnS groups. These findings suggest that zinc deficiency during the last trimester of pregnancy and during lactation impaired spatial learning and memory in their offsprings and has also negative effect on motor activity. In addition, ZnS has a significant effect on spatial learning and memory but no effect on motor activity in their offsprings.

  1. Effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shazly AN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nabih El-Shazly,1 Soha Abd El-Hady Ibrahim,1 Ghada Mohamed El-Mashad,2 Jehan H Sabry,3 Nashwa Said Sherbini11Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, 2Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shibin Al Kawm, 3Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Banha, Egypt Introduction: Zinc is an essential trace element for human nutrition, and its deficiency is associated with anorexia, poor food efficiency, growth retardation, and impaired neurological and immune systems. The zinc-deficiency rate is particularly high in many disease states, such as with end-stage renal disease patients undertaking hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of zinc supplementation on body mass index (BMI and serum levels of zinc and leptin in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: This was a prospective clinical trial study in which 60 hemodialysis patients were randomly divided into two groups: group I received 50–100 mg zinc sulfate (equivalent to 11–22 mg elemental zinc according to age, sex, and nutritional status of the child; and group II received placebo (cornstarch twice daily for 90 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and serum zinc and leptin levels were determined by colorimetric test with 5-Br-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, at days 0 and 90 of the study. Results: Zinc supplementation resulted in a significant increase in mean serum zinc level and BMI. Serum leptin decreased significantly after supplementation in children under hemodialysis. A significant negative correlation was observed between serum zinc and leptin levels as a result of zinc supplementation. Conclusion: There was an increase in serum zinc level and BMI and decreased serum leptin after zinc supplementation in children under hemodialysis. Keywords: serum zinc, serum leptin

  2. Construction and application of a zinc-specific biosensor for assessing the immobilization and bioavailability of zinc in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pulin; Huang Qiaoyun; Chen Wenli

    2012-01-01

    The inducibility and specificity of different czcRS operons in Pseudomonas putida X4 were studied by lacZ gene fusions. The data of β-glycosidase activity confirmed that the czcR3 promoter responded quantitatively to zinc. A zinc-specific biosensor, P. putida X4 (pczcR3GFP), was constructed by fusing a promoterless enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene with the czcR3 promoter in the chromosome of P. putida X4. In water extracts of four different soils amended with zinc, the reporter strain detected about 90% of the zinc content of the samples. Both the bioavailability assessment and the sequential extraction analysis demonstrated that the immobilization of zinc was highly dependent on the physico-chemical properties of soils. The results also showed that the lability of zinc decreased over time. It is concluded that the biosensor constitutes an alternative system for the convenient evaluation of zinc toxicity in the environment. - Highlights: ► A zinc-specific bacterial biosensor was developed. ► Four spiked soils were used to test the application of this biosensor. ► The bioavailable zinc in soil-water extracts decreased due to aging. ► The immobilization and speciation of zinc were highly dependent on the soil type. - The immobilization and bioavailability of zinc in soil were investigated as a function of soil type and aging by a newly constructed zinc-specific biosensor coupled with chemical analysis.

  3. Inhibitory zinc-enriched terminals in mouse spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Jo, S M; Varea, E

    2001-01-01

    The ultrastructural localization of zinc transporter-3, glutamate decarboxylase and zinc ions in zinc-enriched terminals in the mouse spinal cord was studied by zinc transporter-3 and glutamate decarboxylase immunohistochemistry and zinc selenium autometallography, respectively.The distribution...

  4. Factors influencing zinc status of apparently healthy indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Vaishali V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tarwadi, Kirtan V

    2005-10-01

    To identify dietary, environmental and socio-economic factors associated with mild zinc deficiency, three zinc status indices; erythrocyte membrane zinc (RBCMZn), plasma zinc and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed in free living and apparently healthy Indian population. Dietary patterns of 232 men and 223 women (20-65 yr) from rural, industrial and urban regions of Western India were evaluated by food frequency questionnaire. RBCMZn was estimated using atomic absorption spectrometry, hemoglobin and serum ceruloplasmin by spectrophotometer. On a sub sample (48 men and 51 women) plasma zinc and SOD were also assessed. Mean RBCMZn was 0.5 +/- 0.1 micromols/g protein with 46% individuals showing zinc deficiency. Mean plasma zinc was 0.98 +/- 0.12 microg/mL with 25% men and 2.5% women having values below normal range. Mean SOD was 0.97 +/- 0.1 (u/mL cells). A significant positive correlation was observed between intakes of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and milk products with RBCMZn status (p plasma zinc (p > 0.2). Cereal and legume intakes were negatively correlated with RBCMZn (p plasma zinc (p 0.2). Fruit and other vegetable intake were positively correlated with SOD (p Plasma zinc indicated positive association with zinc, thiamin and riboflavin intakes (p plasma zinc and SOD. Prominent determinants of zinc status were intakes of beta-carotene and zinc along with environmental conditions and family size.

  5. Zinc absorption in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Kertesz, A.; Bondy, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc absorption was measured in 29 patients with inflammatory bowel disease and a wide spectrum of disease activity to determine its relationship to disease activity, general nutritional state, and zinc status. Patients with severe disease requiring either supplementary oral or parenteral nutrition were excluded. The mean 65ZnCl2 absorption, in the patients, determined using a 65Zn and 51Cr stool-counting test, 45 +/- 17% (SD), was significantly lower than the values, 54 +/- 16%, in 30 healthy controls, P less than 0.05. Low 65ZnCl2 absorption was related to undernutrition, but not to disease activity in the absence of undernutrition or to zinc status estimated by leukocyte zinc measurements. Mean plasma zinc or leukocyte zinc concentrations in patients did not differ significantly from controls, and only two patients with moderate disease had leukocyte zinc values below the 5th percentile of normal. In another group of nine patients with inflammatory bowel disease of mild-to-moderate severity and minimal nutritional impairment, 65Zn absorption from an extrinsically labeled turkey test meal was 31 +/- 10% compared to 33 +/- 7% in 17 healthy controls, P greater than 0.1. Thus, impairment in 65ZnCl2 absorption in the patients selected for this study was only evident in undernourished persons with moderate or severe disease activity, but biochemical evidence of zinc deficiency was uncommon, and clinical features of zinc depletion were not encountered

  6. The zinc-myoglobin relationships in porcine muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogd Joergensen, P.; Wegger, I.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc and myoglobin content in muscles from pigs were studied under various conditions. Zinc concentration was considerably higher in red than in white muscles. In muscles, where the metabolic pattern changes from glycolytic to oxidative during the period from birth to weaning, a simultaneous increase in zinc content was seen. A significant positive correlation exists between myoglobin and zinc content under normal conditions. However, while myoglobin concentration decreases due to iron deficiency anaemia no changes occur in zinc content. It is concluded that no functional link seems to exist between zinc metabolism and myoglobin synthesis in porcine muscles. (author)

  7. Non-Chromate Passivation of Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Phos). The treatments are within the same concentration region, and they have a mutual pat-ent pending. Although some tests still need to be conducted, the following aspects are clear at the present time: The general appearance of the passivated zinc surface is very similar to a standard yellow chromate treatment...... successfully. The corrosion resistance against white rust on zinc and zinc alloys is just as good as that of yellow chromate, although the result de-pends on the corrosion test method as well as on the nature of the zinc substrate pas-sivated. The passivation procedure is simply a dip for approxi-mately 2...

  8. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative

  9. Effects of serum zinc level on tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkiten, Güler; Kumral, Tolgar Lütfi; Yıldırım, Güven; Salturk, Ziya; Uyar, Yavuz; Atar, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess zinc levels in tinnitus patients, and to evaluate the effects of zinc deficiency on tinnitus and hearing loss. One-hundred patients, who presented to an outpatient clinic with tinnitus between June 2009 and 2014, were included in the study. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: Group I (patients between 18 and 30years of age); Group II (patients between 31 and 60years of age); and Group III (patients between 61 and 78years of age). Following a complete ear, nose and throat examination, serum zinc levels were measured and the severity of tinnitus was quantified using the Tinnitus Severity Index Questionnaire (TSIQ). Patients were subsequently asked to provide a subjective judgment regarding the loudness of their tinnitus. The hearing status of patients was evaluated by audiometry and high-frequency audiometry. An average hearing sensitivity was calculated as the mean value of hearing thresholds between 250 and 20,000Hz. Serum zinc levels between 70 and 120μg/dl were considered normal. The severity and loudness of tinnitus, and the hearing thresholds of the normal zinc level and zinc-deficient groups, were compared. Twelve of 100 (12%) patients exhibited low zinc levels. The mean age of the zinc-deficient group was 65.41±12.77years. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in group III (p<0.01). The severity and loudness of tinnitus were greater in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.011 and p=0.015, respectively). Moreover, the mean thresholds of air conduction were significantly higher in zinc-deficient patients (p=0.000). We observed that zinc levels decrease as age increases. In addition, there was a significant correlation between zinc level and the severity and loudness of tinnitus. Zinc deficiency was also associated with impairments in hearing thresholds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Absorbed zinc and exchangeable zinc pool size are significantly greater in Pakistani infants receiving traditional complementary foods with zinc fortified micronutrient powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariff, Shabina; Soofi, Sajid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Krebs, Nancy; Westcott, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Adequacy of zinc intake from breast milk alone becomes marginal in relation to infant requirements by around six months of age. Simple and cost effective strategies are needed at population level to ensure adequate intakes of zinc in infants and toddlers in populations at risk of zinc deficiency. We determined the amount of absorbed zinc (AZ) from a micronutrient powder (MNP) without and with 10 mg of zinc (MNP, MNP+Zn, respectively) added to local complementary foods used in Pakistan, and the impact on the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP) size. As a nested study within a large prospective cluster randomized trial, 6 month old infants were randomized to receive MNP or MNP+Zn. Stable isotope methodology was applied after ~ 3 and 9 months of use to measure AZ from MNP-fortified test meals of rice-lentils (khitchri) and EZP. Nineteen infants per group completed the first metabolic studies; 14 and 17 infants in MNP and MNP+Zn groups, completed the follow-up studies. Mean (±SD) AZs were 0.1± 0.1 and 1.2±0.5 mg at the first point for the MNP and MNP+Zn groups, respectively (p <0.001); results were nearly identical at the follow-up measurement. EZP did not differ between groups at the first measurement but was less in the MNP group (3.7±0.6 mg/kg) than in the MNP+Zn group (4.5±1.0 mg/kg) at the second measurement (P = 0.01). These data confirm that the MNP+Zn in khitchri were well absorbed, and after a year of home fortification, zinc status assessed by EZP was significantly better for the MNP+Zn group. Additional field studies may be necessary to ascertain the adequacy of this dose for infants at high risk of deficiency. (author)

  11. Effect of irrigation water salinity and zinc application on yield, yield components and zinc accumulation of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the most important problems of agriculture in crop production in arid and semi arid regions. Under these conditions, in addition to management strategies, proper and adequate nutrition also has an important role in crop improvement. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effect of 4 different irrigation water salinities (blank, 4, 8 and 12 dS m-1, prepared with 1:1 molar ratio of chlorides of calcium and sodium and magnesium sulphate salts. and 5 different zinc applications (0, 10, 20, 30 mg Kg-1 soil and foliar application of salt of zinc sulphate on yield, yield components and zinc concentration of wheat, using a completely randomized design, factorial with three replications. Plant height, spike length, 1000 grain weight, number of grain per spike, grain and straw yield was decreased by Irrigation water salinity. And all of these parameters were improved by zinc application except 1000 grain weight. Zinc absorption and concentration in straw and grain was decreased by Saline water compared to blank. And concentration of zinc significantly was increased in straw and grain by increase zinc application. The results indicated that, zinc application under low to medium salinity conditions improved growth and yield of wheat due to decreasing the impacts salinity.

  12. Zinc Status of Vegetarians during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies and Meta-Analysis of Zinc Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meika Foster

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women are vulnerable to a low zinc status due to the additional zinc demands associated with pregnancy and foetal development. The present systematic review explores the relationship between habitual vegetarian diets and dietary zinc intake/status during pregnancy. The association between vegetarian diets and functional pregnancy outcome also is considered. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE; PubMed; Embase; the Cochrane Library; Web of Science; and Scopus electronic databases up to September 2014. Six English-language observational studies qualified for inclusion in the systematic review. A meta-analysis was conducted that compared the dietary zinc intake of pregnant vegetarian and non-vegetarian (NV groups; the zinc intake of vegetarians was found to be lower than that of NV (−1.38 ± 0.35 mg/day; p < 0.001; and the exclusion of low meat eaters from the analysis revealed a greater difference (−1.53 ± 0.44 mg/day; p = 0.001. Neither vegetarian nor NV groups met the recommended dietary allowance (RDA for zinc. In a qualitative synthesis; no differences were found between groups in serum/plasma zinc or in functional outcomes associated with pregnancy. In conclusion; pregnant vegetarian women have lower zinc intakes than NV control populations and both groups consume lower than recommended amounts. Further information is needed to determine whether physiologic adaptations in zinc metabolism are sufficient to meet maternal and foetal requirements during pregnancy on a low zinc diet.

  13. Zinc Deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Zinc deficiency affects multiple vital functions in the life cycle, especially growth. Limited information is available on the magnitude of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. To examine the latest available information on both the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was identified through a systematic review looking for the latest available data on serum zinc concentrations from surveys or studies with national representativeness conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. The risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated based on dietary zinc inadequacy (according to the 2011 National Food Balance Sheets) and stunting in children under 5 years of age. Only four countries had available national biochemical data. Mexican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Guatemalan children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age had a high prevalence of zinc deficiency (19.1% to 56.3%). The countries with the highest risk of zinc deficiency (estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake > 25% plus prevalence of stunting > 20%) were Belize, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Zinc dietary inadequacy was directly correlated with stunting (r = 0.64, p zinc deficiency in children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age. High rates of both estimated zinc dietary inadequacy and stunting were also reported in most Latin America and Caribbean countries.

  14. Zinc-enriched boutons in rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Danscher, G; Jo, S M

    2000-01-01

    The rat spinal cord reveals a complex pattern of zinc-enriched (ZEN) boutons. As a result of in vivo exposure to selenide ions, nanosized clusters of zinc selenide are created in places where zinc ions are present, including the zinc-containing synaptic vesicles of ZEN boutons. The clusters can...

  15. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  16. Prediction of Serum Zinc Levels in Mexican Children at 2 Years of Age Using a Food Frequency Questionnaire and Different Zinc Bioavailability Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoral, Alejandra; Téllez-Rojo, Martha; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Schnaas, Lourdes; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2015-06-01

    The 2006 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey documented a prevalence of zinc deficiency of almost 30% in children under 2 years of age. We sought to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for quantifying dietary bioavailable zinc intake in 2-year-old Mexican children accounting for phytic acid intake and using serum zinc as a reference. This cross-sectional study was nested within a longitudinal birth cohort of 333 young children in Mexico City. Nonfasting serum zinc concentration was measured and dietary zinc intake was calculated on the basis of a semiquantitative FFQ administered to their mothers. The relationship between dietary zinc intake and serum zinc was assessed using linear regression, adjusting for phytic acid intake, and analyzed according to two distinct international criteria to estimate bioavailable zinc. Models were stratified by zinc deficiency status. Dietary zinc, adjusted for phytic acid intake, explained the greatest proportion of the variance of serum zinc. For each milligram of dietary zinc intake, serum zinc increased on average by 0.95 μg/dL (0.15 μmol/L) (p = .06). When stratified by zinc status, this increase was 0.74 μg/dL (p = .12) for each milligram of zinc consumed among children with adequate serum zinc (n = 276), whereas among those children with zinc deficiency (n = 57), serum zinc increased by only 0.11 μg/dL (p = .82). A semiquantitative FFQ can be used for predicting serum zinc in relation to dietary intake in young children, particularly among those who are zinc-replete, and when phytic acid or phytate intake is considered. Future studies should be conducted accounting for both zinc status and dietary zinc inhibitors to further elucidate and validate these findings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. From zinc selenate to zinc selenide nano structures synthesized by reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutagalung, S.D.; Eng, S.T.; Ahmad, Z.A.; Ishak Mat; Yussof Wahab

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional nano structure materials are very attractive because of their electronic and optical properties depending on their size. It is well known that properties of material can be tuned by reducing size to nano scale because at the small sizes, that they behave differently with its bulk materials and the band gap will control by the size. The tunability of the band gap makes nano structured materials useful for many applications. As one of the wide band gaps semiconductor compounds, zinc selenide (ZnSe) nano structures (nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods) have received much attention for the application in optoelectronic devices, such as blue laser diode, light emitting diodes, solar cells and IR optical windows. In this study, ZnSe nano structures have been synthesized by reduction process of zinc selenate using hydrazine hydrate (N 2 H 4 .2H 2 O). The reductive agent of hydrazine hydrate was added to the starting materials of zinc selenate were heat treated at 500 degree Celsius for 1 hour under argon flow to form one-dimensional nano structures. The SEM and TEM images show the formation of nano composite-like structure, which some small nano bar and nano pellets stick to the rod. The x-ray diffraction and elemental composition analysis confirm the formation of mixture zinc oxide and zinc selenide phases. (author)

  18. Zinc and the modulation of redox homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc, a redox inactive metal, has been long viewed as a component of the antioxidant network, and growing evidence points to its involvement in redox-regulated signaling. These actions are exerted through several mechanisms based on the unique chemical and functional properties of zinc. Overall, zinc contributes to maintain the cell redox balance through different mechanisms including: i) the regulation of oxidant production and metal-induced oxidative damage; ii) the dynamic association of zinc with sulfur in protein cysteine clusters, from which the metal can be released by nitric oxide, peroxides, oxidized glutathione and other thiol oxidant species; iii) zinc-mediated induction of the zinc-binding protein metallothionein, which releases the metal under oxidative conditions and act per se scavenging oxidants; iv) the involvement of zinc in the regulation of glutathione metabolism and of the overall protein thiol redox status; and v) a direct or indirect regulation of redox signaling. Findings of oxidative stress, altered redox signaling, and associated cell/tissue disfunction in cell and animal models of zinc deficiency, stress the relevant role of zinc in the preservation of cell redox homeostasis. However, while the participation of zinc in antioxidant protection, redox sensing, and redox-regulated signaling is accepted, the involved molecules, targets and mechanisms are still partially known and the subject of active research. PMID:22960578

  19. Expression of zinc transporter genes in rice as influenced by zinc-solubilizing Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvaraj eKrithika

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency in major food crops has been considered as an important factor affecting the crop production and subsequently the human health. Rice (Oryza sativa is sensitive to Zn deficiency and thereby causes malnutrition to most of the rice-eating Asian populations. Application of zinc solubilizing bacteria (ZSB could be a sustainable agronomic approach to increase the soil available Zn which can mitigate the yield loss and consequently the nutritional quality of rice. Understanding the molecular interactions between rice and unexplored ZSB is useful for overcoming Zn deficiency problems. In the present study, the role of zinc solubilizing bacterial strain Enterobacter cloacae strain ZSB14 on regulation of Zn-regulated transporters and iron (Fe-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP genes in rice under iron sufficient and deficient conditions was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR. The expression patterns of OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 in root and shoot of rice were altered due to the Zn availability as dictated by Zn sources and ZSB inoculation. Fe sufficiency significantly reduced the root and shoot OsZIP1 expression, but not the OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 levels. Zinc oxide in the growth medium up-regulated all the assessed ZIP genes in root and shoot of rice seedlings. When ZSB was inoculated to rice seedlings grown with insoluble zinc oxide in the growth medium, the expression of root and shoot OsZIP1, OsZIP4 and OsZIP5 was reduced. In the absence of zinc oxide, ZSB inoculation up-regulated OsZIP1 and OsZIP5 expressions. Zinc nutrition provided to the rice seedling through ZSB-bound zinc oxide solubilization was comparable to the soluble zinc sulphate application which was evident through the ZIP genes’ expression and the Zn accumulation in root and shoot of rice seedlings. These results demonstrate that zinc solubilizing bacteria could play a crucial role in zinc fertilization and fortification of rice.

  20. Effect of gypsum, pressmud, fulvic acid and zinc sources on yield and zinc uptake by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chand, M.

    1980-01-01

    The application of fulvic acid to a saline-sodic soil augmented the solubility of zinc by thousands fold. Zinc fulvate when applied at levels equivalent to that of zinc sulphate was more effective in enhancing diffusion of zinc in the soil. Application of gypsum, zinc sulphate and fulvic acid significantly increased dry matter yield and uptake of zinc by rice crop in a saline-sodic soil. Application of gypsum with pressmud or with fulvic acid and zinc sulphate resulted in significantly higher yield and zinc uptake than in other treatments. (orig.)

  1. Zinc Binding by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mrvčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element in all organisms. A common method for the prevention of zinc deficiency is pharmacological supplementation, especially in a highly available form of a metalloprotein complex. The potential of different microbes to bind essential and toxic heavy metals has recently been recognized. In this work, biosorption of zinc by lactic acid bacteria (LAB has been investigated. Specific LAB were assessed for their ability to bind zinc from a water solution. Significant amount of zinc ions was bound, and this binding was found to be LAB species-specific. Differences among the species in binding performance at a concentration range between 10–90 mg/L were evaluated with Langmuir model for biosorption. Binding of zinc was a fast process, strongly influenced by ionic strength, pH, biomass concentration, and temperature. The most effective metal-binding LAB species was Leuconostoc mesenteroides (27.10 mg of Zn2+ per gram of dry mass bound at pH=5 and 32 °C, during 24 h. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis and electron microscopy demonstrated that passive adsorption and active uptake of the zinc ions were involved.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Trent and zinc homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Corey B; Harrison, Mark D; Huygens, Flavia

    2017-09-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen and the major cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis. The mechanisms that P. aeruginosa strains use to regulate intracellular zinc have an effect on infection, antibiotic resistance and the propensity to form biofilms. However, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa strains of variable infectivity has not been compared. In this study, zinc homeostasis in P. aeruginosa Trent, a highly infectious clinical strain, was compared to that of a laboratory P. aeruginosa strain, ATCC27853. Trent was able to tolerate higher concentrations of additional zinc in rich media than ATCC27853. Further, pre-adaptation to additional zinc enhanced the growth of Trent at non-inhibitory concentrations but the impact of pre-adaption on the growth of ATCC27853 under the same conditions was minimal. The results establish clear differences in zinc-induced responses in Trent and ATCC27853, and how zinc homeostasis can be a promising target for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies for P. aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis patients. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Changes in zinc status and zinc transporters expression in whole blood of patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Daniela; Molina-López, Jorge; Hogstrand, Christer; Lengyel, Imre; de la Cruz, Antonio Pérez; Rodríguez-Elvira, Manuel; Planells, Elena

    2018-09-01

    Critically ill patients develop severe stress, inflammation and a clinical state that may raise the utilization and metabolic replacement of many nutrients and especially zinc, depleting their body reserves. This study was designed to assess the zinc status in critical care patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), comparing them with a group of healthy people, and studying the association with expression of zinc transporters. This investigation was a prospective, multicentre, comparative, observational and analytic study. Twelve critically ill patients from different hospitals and 12 healthy subjects from Granada, Spain, all with informed consent were recruited. Data on daily nutritional assessment, ICU severity scores, inflammation, clinical and nutritional parameters, plasma and blood cell zinc concentrations, and levels of transcripts for zinc transporters in whole blood were taken at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. Zinc levels on critical ill patient are diminish comparing with the healthy control (HS: 0.94 ± 0.19; CIPF: 0.67 ± 0.16 mg/dL). The 58% of critical ill patients showed zinc plasma deficiency at beginning of study while 50.0% of critical ill after 7 days of ICU stay. ZnT7, ZIP4 and ZIP9 were the zinc transporters with highest expression in whole blood. In general, all zinc transporters were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05) in the critical ill population at admission in comparison with healthy subjects. Severity scores and inflammation were significantly associated (P < 0.05) with zinc plasma levels, and zinc transporters ZIP3, ZIP4, ZIP8, ZnT6, ZnT7. Expression of 11 out of 24 zinc transporters was analysed, and ZnT1, ZnT4, ZnT5 and ZIP4, which were downregulated by more than 3-fold in whole blood of patients. In summary, in our study an alteration of zinc status was related with the severity-of-illness scores and inflammation in critical ill patients since admission in ICU stay. SIRS

  4. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating effects, systematic reviews and meta-analysis of the effect of maternal zinc supplementation on pregnancy outcomes have consistently shown a limited benefit. We hypothesize, therefore, that zinc homeostatic adjustments during pregnancy and lactation improve zinc utilization sufficiently to provide the increased zinc needs in these stages and, therefore, mitigate immediate detrimental effects due to a low zinc intake. The specific questions addressed are the following: How is zinc utilization altered during pregnancy and lactation? Are those homeostatic adjustments influenced by maternal zinc status, dietary zinc, or zinc supplementation? These questions are addressed by critically reviewing results from published human studies on zinc homeostasis during pregnancy and lactation carried out in different populations worldwide. PMID:22852063

  5. Vacuolar zinc transporter Zrc1 is required for detoxification of excess intracellular zinc in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minsu; Hu, Guanggan; Caza, Mélissa; Horianopoulos, Linda C; Kronstad, James W; Jung, Won Hee

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an important transition metal in all living organisms and is required for numerous biological processes. However, excess zinc can also be toxic to cells and cause cellular stress. In the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a vacuolar zinc transporter, Zrc1, plays important roles in the storage and detoxification of excess intracellular zinc to protect the cell. In this study, we identified an ortholog of the S. cerevisiae ZRC1 gene in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Zrc1 was localized in the vacuolar membrane in C. neoformans, and a mutant lacking ZRC1 showed significant growth defects under high-zinc conditions. These results suggested a role for Zrc1 in zinc detoxification. However, contrary to our expectation, the expression of Zrc1 was induced in cells grown in zinc-limited conditions and decreased upon the addition of zinc. These expression patterns were similar to those of Zip1, the high-affinity zinc transporter in the plasma membrane of C. neoformans. Furthermore, we used the zrc1 mutant in a murine model of cryptococcosis to examine whether a mammalian host could inhibit the survival of C. neoformans using zinc toxicity. We found that the mutant showed no difference in virulence compared with the wildtype strain. This result suggests that Zrc1-mediated zinc detoxification is not required for the virulence of C. neoformans, and imply that zinc toxicity may not be an important aspect of the host immune response to the fungus.

  6. Coating compositions comprising bismuth-alloyed zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present application discloses (i) a coating composition comprising a particulate zinc-based alloyed material, said material comprising 0.05-0.7% by weight of bismuth (Bi), the D50 of the particulate material being in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (ii) a coated structure comprising a metal structure...... having a first coating of the zinc-containing coating composition applied onto at least a part of the metal structure in a dry film thickness of 5-100 µm; and an outer coating applied onto said zinc-containing coating in a dry film thickness of 30-200 µm; (iii) a particulate zinc-based alloyed material......, wherein the material comprises 0.05-0.7%(w/w) of bismuth (Bi), and wherein the D50 of the particulate material is in the range of 2.5-30 µm; (iv) a composite powder consisting of at least 25%(w/w) of the particulate zinc-based alloyed material, the rest being a particulate material consisting of zinc...

  7. Anti-corrosive Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tube and Zinc Particle Shapes on Zinc Ethyl Silicate Coated Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, JiMan; Shon, MinYoung; Kwak, SamTak [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Zinc ethyl silicate coatings containing multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared, to which we added spherical and flake shaped zinc particles. The anti-corrosive effects of MWCNTs and zinc shapes on the zinc ethyl silicate coated carbon steel was examined, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and corrosion potential measurement. The results of EIS and corrosion potential measurement showed that the zinc ethyl silicate coated with flake shaped zinc particles and MWCNT showed lesser protection to corrosion. These outcomes were in agreement with previous results of corrosion potential and corrosion occurrence.

  8. Serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin concentrations in infants receiving intravenous zinc and copper supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W; Pendray, M R; Riddell, D; Quigley, G

    1983-02-01

    One hundred twenty-seven newborn infants requiring parenteral nutrition were randomly assigned to receive differing amounts of zinc (40 to 400 micrograms/kg/day) and copper (20 or 40 micrograms/kg/day) supplementation within five birth weight groups (600 to 2,500 gm). The serum zinc concentration remained relatively constant in the group receiving the most zinc supplementation after two weeks of therapy, but declined sharply in the groups receiving less supplementation. No effect of increased copper intake was noted on ceruloplasmin values, but a difference in serum copper concentrations was noted at two weeks. No correlation was noted between serum zinc and copper values or among those for serum zinc, retinol-binding protein, and prealbumin. Reference ranges were defined for serum zinc, copper, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and ceruloplasmin in the preterm infant.

  9. Fear-of-intimacy-mediated zinc transport controls the function of zinc-finger transcription factors involved in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Rando, Marta; Atienza-Manuel, Alexandra; Martín, Paloma; Burke, Richard; Ruiz-Gómez, Mar

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a component of one-tenth of all human proteins. Its cellular concentration is tightly regulated because its dyshomeostasis has catastrophic health consequences. Two families of zinc transporters control zinc homeostasis in organisms, but there is little information about their specific developmental roles. We show that the ZIP transporter Fear-of-intimacy (Foi) is necessary for the formation of Drosophila muscles. In foi mutants, myoblasts segregate normally, but their specification is affected, leading to the formation of a misshapen muscle pattern and distorted midgut. The observed phenotypes could be ascribed to the inactivation of specific zinc-finger transcription factors (ZFTFs), supporting the hypothesis that they are a consequence of intracellular depletion of zinc. Accordingly, foi phenotypes can be rescued by mesodermal expression of other ZIP members with similar subcellular localization. We propose that Foi acts mostly as a transporter to regulate zinc intracellular homeostasis, thereby impacting on the activity of ZFTFs that control specific developmental processes. Our results additionally suggest a possible explanation for the presence of large numbers of zinc transporters in organisms based on differences in ion transport specificity and/or degrees of activity among transporters. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. The relative contribution of natural zinc complexing agents and ZnSO4 to growth and zinc nutrition of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Prasad, B.

    1989-01-01

    Relative evaluation of different natural zinc-complexes indicated that application of Zn-FA 2 (PM), Zn-FA 3 (Comp), Zn-FA 1 (BGS), Zn-FA 5 (PR), Zn-FA 4 (SS) and ZnSO 4 significantly enhanced the drymatter yield and zinc uptake by maize. The natural zinc-complexes in particular increased, to a greater extent, the uptake of both native and applied sources than that observed with ZnSO 4 as zinc carrier. Significant positive relationship between self-diffusion coefficient of Zn and drymatter yield and uptake of zinc by maize suggested that diffusion is responsible for the supply of zinc from ambient soil matrix to plant roots. (author). 12 refs., 5 tabs

  11. Study of iron-zinc catalysts by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriola, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Moessbauer parameters were determined on a series of catalyst mixtures of iron and zinc oxides with variable quantities of zinc. A change in the crystal structure of the iron oxide when introducing zinc into the samples was observed. The corundum structure of the α-Fe 2 O 3 phase was transformed into the spinel type of zinc ferrite when zinc oxide was present in any quantity. A strong electronic interaction between the zinc ferrite and the zinc oxide present in excess was evident. The catalysts were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence and x-ray diffraction methods. (author) 10 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Zinc Finger Takes on a Whole New Meaning: Reducing and Monitoring Zinc Blanks in the Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, E. B.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    In terms of avoiding contamination, zinc is one of the most difficult elements to study isotopically. The reason for this is that zinc stearate is a very common mold release agent in the production of plastics, including those most often used in isotope geochemistry clean labs. While polyethylene bottles, polypropylene centrifuge tubes, pipette tips, and Kimwipes are all potential sources of contaminant zinc, by far the largest amount of zinc is introduced to the laboratory by gloves. Most items can be effectively rid of zinc by soaking in dilute hydrochloric acid, but gloves cannot be cleaned easily, and use of gloves can quickly lead to contamination on many surfaces throughout the lab. We recently conducted several experiments in which dissolved zinc was partly adsorbed onto synthetic Mn oxyhydroxide particles. The dissolved and adsorbed pools were separated by filtration, purified with ion exchange chemistry, and analyzed for isotope composition by MC-ICP-MS. We used a commercially purchased ICP standard solution both as our standard (delta66/64Zn = 0) and as the source of the zinc in the experiments. Whenever gloves were worn during purification, process blanks contained as much as 150 ng Zn, and both the dissolved and adsorbed pools of zinc came out enriched in heavy isotopes relative to the starting pool, contrary to our expectation of mass balance. When gloves were not worn, blanks were brands of vinyl gloves, including one brand recommended to us for being “low” in zinc, measured +10‰ relative to our standard. We therefore concluded that glove zinc contaminated most of our experimental samples. We were only able to see such clear evidence of contamination because (1) we were doing an experiment in which we expected one light and one heavy pool of zinc compared to our standard, and (2) we happened to use an ICP standard solution for delta = 0 that is strongly enriched in light isotopes relative to both brands of gloves. We caution others who measure

  13. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... 1 § 582.5985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a) Product. Zinc chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  15. Uptake and loss of dissolved zinc by the stickleback gasterosteus Aculeatus l. [Zinc 65

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthiessen, P.; Brafield, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Uptake and loss by sticklebacks of both stable zinc and /sup 65/Zn in hard and soft water were studied for periods up to 400 h. In calcium-free water, the zinc uptake curve is approximately asymptotic over a period of 24 h, while in hard water internal Zn levels dropped at 24 h. Over 5 h, fish in hard tapwater absorb about 3 to 5 times more Zn than those in calcium-free water. There is positive linear correlation between log Zn uptake and log wet weight of fish. Whole-body concentration factors (c.f.) at 16 h reach a maximum of 12.2 (mean = 2.9), highest concentrations of Zn being found in the gills (mean c.f. = 5.1), and lowest concentrations in the gonads (mean c.f. = 0.8). Over longer periods (400 h), internal stable zinc levels of fish exposed to 1 and 4 ppM Zn/sup +2/ remain little higher than controls (max. 28%) /sup 65/Zn efflux in zinc-free water falls to zero after 5 h, more zinc (78%) being lost after uptake in tapwater than in calcium-free water (56%).

  16. Zinc Enolate/Sulfinate Prepared from a Single-Run Reaction Using Zinc Dust with O-Tosylated 4-Hydroxy Coumarin and Pyrone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ueon Sang; Joo, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Seung-Hoi [Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrated the preparation of new zinc complexes, 2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy tosylzinc (I), and 6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-yloxy tosylzinc (II), by the oxidative addition of readily available zinc dust into the corresponding 4-tosylated coumarin (A) and pyrone (B), respectively. Of special interest, the thus-obtained zinc complexes showed an electrophile-dependent reactivity. The subsequent coupling reactions of I and II with a variety of acid chlorides provided the O-acylation product in moderate yields. More interestingly, it should be emphasized that the thus-prepared zinc complexes (I and II) functioned both as zinc enolate and zinc sulfinate, providing C(3)-disubstituted product (b) and sulfone (c), respectively, from a single-run reaction when I or II was treated with benzyl halides. Even though somewhat low yields were achieved under the nonoptimized conditions, the novel zinc complexes present another potential application for zinc reagents. Versatile applications of this discovery are currently underway.

  17. Zinc Enolate/Sulfinate Prepared from a Single-Run Reaction Using Zinc Dust with O-Tosylated 4-Hydroxy Coumarin and Pyrone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ueon Sang; Joo, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Seung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated the preparation of new zinc complexes, 2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy tosylzinc (I), and 6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyran-4-yloxy tosylzinc (II), by the oxidative addition of readily available zinc dust into the corresponding 4-tosylated coumarin (A) and pyrone (B), respectively. Of special interest, the thus-obtained zinc complexes showed an electrophile-dependent reactivity. The subsequent coupling reactions of I and II with a variety of acid chlorides provided the O-acylation product in moderate yields. More interestingly, it should be emphasized that the thus-prepared zinc complexes (I and II) functioned both as zinc enolate and zinc sulfinate, providing C(3)-disubstituted product (b) and sulfone (c), respectively, from a single-run reaction when I or II was treated with benzyl halides. Even though somewhat low yields were achieved under the nonoptimized conditions, the novel zinc complexes present another potential application for zinc reagents. Versatile applications of this discovery are currently underway

  18. Radioisotopic investigations of zinc uptake into brain slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of zinc in the vicinity of the hippocampal mossy fibers has been repeatedly demonstrated, and several lines of evidence suggest that the mossy-fiber zinc is concentrated within the terminals of mossy fibers. In search of insight into the metabolism and function of mossy-fiber zinc, the present study investigated the transport of zinc into tissue slices and the response of the zinc transport to depolarization. Kinetic analysis of zinc accumulation by mouse brain slices in vitro revealed the presence of a high affinity uptake component with an apparent Km of 17.7 μM for hippocampus, 16.6 μM< for cortex and 25 μM for striatum and a V/sub max/ of 9.2 ng/mg/hr for the hippocampus, 10.1 ng/mg/hr for cortex and 9.6 ng/mg/hr for striatum. Cytoarchitectonic differences in zinc transport between the different hippocampal subregions were found with those regions containing granule cells or mossy fiber axons accumulating greater amounts of zinc than the CA 1 region. The present finding that mossy-fiber neuropil selectivity accumulates zinc suggests the presence of a zinc-binding substance unique to mossy-fiber tissue

  19. Daya antibakteri penambahan Propolis pada zinc oxide eugenol dan zinc oxide terhadap kuman campur gigi molar sulung non vital (The antibacterial effect of propolis additional to zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide on polybacteria of necrotic primary molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemy Ameliana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Materials commonly used for root canal filling of primary teeth is zinc oxide eugenol. Eugenol has some disadvantages that can irritate the periapical tissues, has the risk of disturbing the growth and development of permanent tooth buds, and has a narrow antibacterial spectrum. Studies showed that propolis at concentration of 20 % has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of root canal pastes with the additional of propolis additional to zinc oxide eugenol (ZOEP and to zinc oxide (ZOP. Methods: Polybacteria cultures collected from root canals of necrotic primary molar from 5 children patients who received root canal treatment. The bacteria were grown in BHI Broth, and inoculated into Muller Hinton Agar media. The agar plates was divided into 3 areas, and one well was made at each area. The first well filled with ZOE as a control, second well filled with ZOEP and the third well filled with ZOP, then incubated for 24 hour at 370 C. Antimicrobial activity was determined by measuring the diameters of inhibition zones of polybacteria growth. The data were statistically analyzed by independent T-test. Results: The pasta mixture of zinc oxide propolis had the strongest antibacterial activity against polybacteria of necrotic primary molar, followed by zinc oxide eugenol propolis paste, and zinc oxide eugenol paste. There were significant differences of inhibition zones between ZOE, ZOEP and ZOP (p<0,05. Conclusion: The study suggested that the additional of propolis to zinc oxide paste could increase the antimicrobial effect against root canal polybacteria of necrotic primary molar.Latar belakang: Bahan yang sering digunakan untuk pengisian saluran akar gigi sulung adalah zinc oxide eugenol. Eugenol memiliki beberapa kekurangan yaitu dapat mengiritasi jaringan periapikal, beresiko mengganggu pertumbuhan dan perkembangan benih gigi permanen pengganti

  20. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating e...

  1. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  2. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J A Craddock

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau, and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1 used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2 performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3 used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of

  3. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Chopra, Deepak; Casey, Noel; Goldstein, Lee E; Hameroff, Stuart R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau), and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques) not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1) used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2) performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3) used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of polymerized

  4. Activity incorporation into zinc doped PWR oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, Kari

    1998-01-01

    Activity incorporation into the oxide layers of PWR primary circuit constructional materials has been studied in Halden since 1993. The first zinc injection tests showed that zinc addition resulted in thinner oxide layers on new metal surfaces and reduced further incorporation of activity into already existing oxides. These tests were continued to find out the effects of previous zinc additions on the pickup of activity onto the surface oxides which were subsequently exposed to zinc-free coolant. The results showed that previous zinc addition will continue to reduce the rate of Co-60 build-up on out-of-core surfaces in subsequent exposure to zinc-free coolants. However, the previous Zn free test was performed for a relatively short period of time and the water chemistry programme was continued to find out the long term effects for extended periods without zinc. The activity incorporation into the stainless steel oxides started to increase as soon as zinc dosing to the coolant was stopped. The Co-60 concentration was lowest on all of the coupons which were first oxidised in Zn containing primary coolant. After the zinc injection period the thickness of the oxides increased, but activity in the oxide films did not increase at the same rate. This could indicate that zinc in the oxide blocks the adsorption sites for Co-60 incorporation. The Co-60 incorporation rate into the oxides on Inconel 600 seemed to be linear whether the oxide was pre-oxidised with or without Zn. The results indicate that zinc can either replace or prevent cobalt transport in the oxides. The results show that for zinc injection to be effective it should be carried out continuously. Furthermore the actual mechanism by which Zn inhibits the activity incorporation into the oxides is still not clear. Therefore, additional work has to follow with specified materials to verify the conclusions drawn in this work. (author)

  5. Extraction of Zinc and Manganese from Alkaline and Zinc-Carbon Spent Batteries by Citric-Sulphuric Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ferella

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the recovery of zinc and manganese from alkaline and zinc-carbon spent batteries. Metals are extracted by sulphuric acid leaching in the presence of citric acid as reducing agent. Leaching tests are carried out according to a 24 full factorial design, and empirical equations for Mn and Zn extraction yields are determined from experimental data as a function of pulp density, sulphuric acid concentration, temperature, and citric acid concentration. The highest values experimentally observed for extraction yields were 97% of manganese and 100% of zinc, under the following operating conditions: temperature 40∘C, pulp density 20%, sulphuric acid concentration 1.8 M, and citric acid 40 g L-1. A second series of leaching tests is also performed to derive other empirical models to predict zinc and manganese extraction. Precipitation tests, aimed both at investigating precipitation of zinc during leaching and at evaluating recovery options of zinc and manganese, show that a quantitative precipitation of zinc can be reached but a coprecipitation of nearly 30% of manganese also takes place. The achieved results allow to propose a battery recycling process based on a countercurrent reducing leaching by citric acid in sulphuric solution.

  6. Study of Doppler broadened annihilation spectra in zinc and zinc-containing 0.05 at. % iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troev, T.; Zolov, R.; Dimova, V.; Levay, B.

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma spectra obtained from positron-electron annihilation in pure polycrystalline zinc and zinc-containing 0.05 at. % iron have been investigated. The line shapes were measured by a Ge(Li) detector in coincidence with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The results are quite consistent with those expected from the trapping model. The positrons are trapped by impurity atoms and vacancy-impurity pairs in zinc containing 0.05 at. % iron. (author)

  7. Zinc deficiency among a healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Timimi, D.; Al-Najjar, F.; Al-Sharbatti, Shatha S.

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the current zinc status among a sample selected from the healthy population in Baghdad, Iraq. We carried out a community-based study in Baghdad City, Iraq from November through June 2002. We selected a sample of 2090 healthy subjects (aged 1 month to 85 years). We used a pre-tested questionnaire, designed to obtain information on gender, birth dates, height, weight, residence, habitual food consumption patterns, and social status. We performed laboratory assessment of serum zinc level, dietary assessment of food frequency and usual zinc intake. We considered subjects with serum zinc concentration of /-7.7 to 12.3 umol/l mild to moderately zinc deficient. The prevalence of zinc deficiency among the studied sample was 2.7%. We found mild to moderate zinc deficiency among 55.7% of the study sample. Dietary zinc intake assessment showed that 74.8% of the studied sample consumed less than the recommended intake, and in 62.3%, the intakes were deficient and grossly deficient. Mean daily zinc ranged from 5.2 mg in children to 8.5 mg in adults. We observed a high prevalence of mild to moderate zinc deficiency, with inadequate dietary zinc intake among a considerable proportion of the studied sample. Zinc supplementation may be an effective public health intervention means to improve the zinc status of the population. (author)

  8. Zinc release contributes to hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sang Won; Garnier, Philippe; Aoyama, Koji; Chen, Yongmei; Swanson, Raymond A

    2004-08-01

    Neurons exposed to zinc exhibit activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), an enzyme that normally participates in DNA repair but promotes cell death when extensively activated. Endogenous, vesicular zinc in brain is released to the extracellular space under conditions causing neuronal depolarization. Here, we used a rat model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia to assess the role of zinc release in PARP-1 activation and neuronal death after severe hypoglycemia. Zinc staining with N-(6-methoxy-8-quinolyl)-para-toluenesulfonamide (TSQ) showed depletion of presynaptic vesicular zinc from hippocampal mossy fiber terminals and accumulation of weakly bound zinc in hippocampal CA1 cell bodies after severe hypoglycemia. Intracerebroventricular injection of the zinc chelator calcium ethylene-diamine tetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) blocked the zinc accumulation and significantly reduced hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death. CaEDTA also attenuated the accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose), the enzymatic product of PARP-1, in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that zinc translocation is an intermediary step linking hypoglycemia to PARP-1 activation and neuronal death.

  9. LiZIP3 is a cellular zinc transporter that mediates the tightly regulated import of zinc in Leishmania infantum parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra; da Silva, Rosa Barreira; Shawki, Ali; Castro, Helena; Lamy, Márcia; Eide, David; Costa, Vítor; Mackenzie, Bryan; Tomás, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cellular zinc homeostasis ensures that the intracellular concentration of this element is kept within limits that enable its participation in critical physiological processes without exerting toxic effects. We report here the identification and characterization of the first mediator of zinc homeostasis in Leishmania infantum, LiZIP3, a member of the ZIP family of divalent metal-ion transporters. The zinc transporter activity of LiZIP3 was first disclosed by its capacity to rescue the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in zinc acquisition. Subsequent expression of LiZIP3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes was shown to stimulate the uptake of a broad range of metal ions, among which Zn2+ was the preferred LiZIP3 substrate (K0.5 ≈ 0.1 μM). Evidence that LiZIP3 functions as a zinc importer in L. infantum came from the observations that the protein locates to the cell membrane and that its overexpression leads to augmented zinc internalization. Importantly, expression and cell-surface location of LiZIP3 are lost when parasites face high zinc bioavailability. LiZIP3 decline in response to zinc is regulated at the mRNA level in a process involving (a) short-lived protein(s). Collectively, our data reveal that LiZIP3 enables L. infantum to acquire zinc in a highly regulated manner, hence contributing to zinc homeostasis. PMID:25644708

  10. A novel thiolated human-like collage zinc complex as a promising zinc supplement: physicochemical characteristics and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yonghui; Mi, Yu; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Xue, Wenjiao

    2014-11-01

    To improve zinc binding ability to human-like collagen (HLC) and stability of metal complex, HLC was thiolated by mercaptosuccinylation reaction with S-acetylmercaptosuccinic anhydride (S-AMSA) at pH8.0. One mole of thiolated HLC-Zn (SHLC-Zn) complex possessed 24.3mol zinc ions when pH was 8.0 and zinc concentration was 15 mM. The physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of thiolated HLC-Zn (SHLC-Zn) complex were investigated by UV-vis, CD, electrophoresis analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and cell viability assay, respectively. The results showed that SHLC-Zn complex(1) exhibited higher zinc ions than that of native HLC and still maintained the secondary structure of HLC though interaction occurred between SHLC and zinc ions, (2) increased the apparent molecular weight when compared with native HLC, (3) exhibited greater thermal stability than native HLC, and (4) presented toxicity free for BHK cells. This study suggests that the SHLC-Zn complex is a potential nutrition as well as zinc supplement in the medical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  12. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  13. Decrease of non-point zinc runoff using porous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Shigeki; Komuro, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    The use of porous concrete columns to decrease the amount of zinc in stormwater runoff is examined. The concentration of zinc in a simulated stormwater fluid (zinc acetate solution), fed through concrete columns (slashed circle10x10cm) decreased by 50-81%, suggesting physical adsorption of zinc by the porous concrete. We propose the use of porous concrete columns (slashed circle50x10cm) as the base of sewage traps. Longer-term, high-zinc concentration monitoring revealed that porous concrete blocks adsorb 38.6mgcm(-3) of zinc. A period of no significant zinc runoff (with an acceptable concentration of zinc in runoff of 0.03mgL(-1), a zinc concentration equal to the Japanese Environmental Standard) is estimated for 41years using a 1-ha catchment area with 20 porous concrete sewage traps. Scanning electron microscopy of the porous concrete used in this study indicates that the needle-like particles formed by hydration action significantly increase zinc adsorption. Evidence suggests that the hydrant is ettringite and has an important role in zinc adsorption, the resulting immobilization of zinc and the subsequent effects on groundwater quality. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zinc injection method and device in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maehara, Kazumi; Negishi, Itaru; Deguchi, Tatsuya; Ino, Takao; Sasaki, Noriyuki; Yotsuyanagi, Tadashi; Tobara, Hirotaka.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of injecting zinc into reactor water, and it can supply a solution of zinc at a high concentration by improving the solubility of zinc. Namely, zinc is used as a solute and is dissolved in an aqueous solution containing an electrolyte such as carbonic acid. The resultant zinc solution at a high concentration is injected to reactor water. In the device of the present invention, (1) a dissolution vessel for dissolving zinc comprises a zinc supply means at an upper portion thereof and a carbonic acid gas supply means at a lower portion, (2) an injection means supplies the solution in which zinc is dissolved at a high concentration to reactor water. An aqueous solution saturated with a carbonic acid gas is used as a solvent for dissolving zinc into reactor water at a high concentration. The dissolution vessel has a gas diffusion pipe at the bottom for introducing the carbonic acid gas and has a stirrer in the inside. Zinc is supplied continuously or discontinuously. Raw material zinc may be in the form of a plate, rod, granule, or powder, however, powdery zinc is preferably used. (I.S.)

  15. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T; Radford, Robert J; Zastrow, Melissa L; Zhang, Daniel Y; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-05-19

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling.

  16. Modulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors by synaptic and tonic zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Charles T.; Radford, Robert J.; Zastrow, Melissa L.; Zhang, Daniel Y.; Apfel, Ulf-Peter; Lippard, Stephen J.; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-01-01

    Many excitatory synapses contain high levels of mobile zinc within glutamatergic vesicles. Although synaptic zinc and glutamate are coreleased, it is controversial whether zinc diffuses away from the release site or whether it remains bound to presynaptic membranes or proteins after its release. To study zinc transmission and quantify zinc levels, we required a high-affinity rapid zinc chelator as well as an extracellular ratiometric fluorescent zinc sensor. We demonstrate that tricine, considered a preferred chelator for studying the role of synaptic zinc, is unable to efficiently prevent zinc from binding low-nanomolar zinc-binding sites, such as the high-affinity zinc-binding site found in NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Here, we used ZX1, which has a 1 nM zinc dissociation constant and second-order rate constant for binding zinc that is 200-fold higher than those for tricine and CaEDTA. We find that synaptic zinc is phasically released during action potentials. In response to short trains of presynaptic stimulation, synaptic zinc diffuses beyond the synaptic cleft where it inhibits extrasynaptic NMDARs. During higher rates of presynaptic stimulation, released glutamate activates additional extrasynaptic NMDARs that are not reached by synaptically released zinc, but which are inhibited by ambient, tonic levels of nonsynaptic zinc. By performing a ratiometric evaluation of extracellular zinc levels in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, we determined the tonic zinc levels to be low nanomolar. These results demonstrate a physiological role for endogenous synaptic as well as tonic zinc in inhibiting extrasynaptic NMDARs and thereby fine tuning neuronal excitability and signaling. PMID:25947151

  17. Zinc electrode shape change II. Process and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einerhand, R.E.F.; Visscher, W.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1991-01-01

    The process and mechanism of zinc electrode shape change is investigated with the radiotracer technique. It is shownthat during repeated cycling of the nickel oxide/zinc battery zinc material is transported over the zinc electrode via the battery electrolyte. During charge as well as during

  18. Zinc dosing and glucose tolerance in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenley, S.; Taylor, M.

    1986-01-01

    Animal data suggest the existence of a physiologic relationship between glucoregulatory hormones and zinc metabolism. In order to investigate this proposed relationship in humans, they examined the effect of moderately elevated plasma zinc levels on blood glucose clearance. Eight women (24-37 yrs) served as subjects for the study. Fasted volunteers were tested under two experimental conditions (a) ingestion of 50 g D-glucose (b) ingestion of 25 mg zinc followed 60 min later by ingestion of 50 g D-glucose. Five ml venous blood was drawn into trace-metal-free, fluoride-containing vacutainer tubes prior to and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after glucose ingestion. Plasma was analyzed for glucose and zinc; glycemic responses were quantified by computing areas under the curves and times to peak concentration. Their human data indicate varied glycemic responses to the acute elevation of plasma zinc: 4 subjects showed little apparent effect; 3 subjects marginally increased either the area under the curve or time to peak and 1 subject (classified as suspect diabetic in the non-zinc condition) showed marked improvement in glycemic response following zinc ingestion. Their preliminary results suggest that blood glucose clearance may be affected in some individuals by the acute elevation of plasma zinc

  19. Eco-labelling of shampoos, shower gels and foam baths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaschka, Ursula; Liebig, Markus; Knacker, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Environmental issues of personal care products have been met with little attention in the past. Monitoring data as well as preliminary environmental risk assessments indicate that some ingredients in personal care products might be relevant pollutants in the environment. Following the precautionary principle, eco-labelling is proposed as an effective tool for source control of one major group of personal care products, shampoos, shower gels and foam baths (SSBs). Eco-labelling is a soft, but effective market driven and product specific approach to lower discharge of environmentally detrimental substances. Products that fulfil the criteria proposed help to minimise the impact of SSBs on the environment. Available assessment tools for dangerous substances (e.g. current legislation on environmental risk assessments and classification, and labelling, eco-labelling criteria for similar products, the calculation of the critical dilution volume) were adapted and integrated into the criteria for the eco-labelling of SSBs. A short outline of the eco-labelling criteria developed for SSBs is provided. The basic criteria concern the effects of the substances discharged into the waste water during and after use. Products with an eco-label award may exclusively contain substances for which basic information about their effects on the environment is available. They may not contain persistent, bioaccumulating, toxic or ecotoxicological substances. In addition, the basic criteria include requirements for the container and consumer information. The basic criteria for eco-labelling SSBs are based on the actual state of science and are at the same time as simple and transparent as possible to ensure the best applicability. SSBs that comply with the described basic criteria can contribute to a lower chemical burden of waste water treatment plants and surface water. The proposal for basic criteria described should stimulate discussion on eco-labelling of SSBs. It should help to pass

  20. Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongshaug, K.O.; Fjellvaag, Helmer

    2004-01-01

    The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn 2 (OH) 2 (ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn 3 (OH) 4 (bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4'biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two μ 2 -OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers are pillared by ndc to form a three-dimensional structure. In CPO-7, the zinc hydroxide layers are containing four-, five- and six coordinated zinc atoms, and the layers are built like stairways running along the [001] direction. Each step is composed of three infinite chains running in the [010] direction. Both crystal structures were solved from conventional single crystal data. Crystal data for CPO-6: Monoclinic space group P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=11.9703(7), b=7.8154(5), c=6.2428(4) A, β=90.816(2) deg., V=583.97(6) A 3 and Z=4. Crystal data for CPO-7: Monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15), a=35.220(4), b=6.2658(8), c=14.8888(17) A, β=112.580(4) deg., V=3033.8(6) A 3 and Z=8. The compounds were further characterized by thermogravimetric- and chemical analysis

  1. Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Zinc Coordination and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Savarimuthu, Baskar Raj; Ferraro, Daniel J.; Rubach, Jon K.; Brown, Eric N.; Ramaswamy, S. (Iowa)

    2017-07-07

    During catalysis by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a water bound to the catalytic zinc is replaced by the oxygen of the substrates. The mechanism might involve a pentacoordinated zinc or a double-displacement reaction with participation by a nearby glutamate residue, as suggested by studies of human ADH3, yeast ADH1, and some other tetrameric ADHs. Zinc coordination and participation of water in the enzyme mechanism were investigated by X-ray crystallography. The apoenzyme and its complex with adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose have an open protein conformation with the catalytic zinc in one position, tetracoordinated by Cys-46, His-67, Cys-174, and a water molecule. The bidentate chelators 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline displace the water and form a pentacoordinated zinc. The enzyme–NADH complex has a closed conformation similar to that of ternary complexes with coenzyme and substrate analogues; the coordination of the catalytic zinc is similar to that found in the apoenzyme, except that a minor, alternative position for the catalytic zinc is ~1.3 Å from the major position and closer to Glu-68, which could form the alternative coordination to the catalytic zinc. Complexes with NADH and N-1-methylhexylformamide or N-benzylformamide (or with NAD+ and fluoro alcohols) have the classical tetracoordinated zinc, and no water is bound to the zinc or the nicotinamide rings. The major forms of the enzyme in the mechanism have a tetracoordinated zinc, where the carboxylate group of Glu-68 could participate in the exchange of water and substrates on the zinc. Hydride transfer in the Michaelis complexes does not involve a nearby water.

  2. HUBUNGAN ANTARA ZINC SERUM DENGAN STATUS GIZI LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrah Emawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINC SERUM AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ELDERLY PEOPLE.Background: The findings of study that 30% in Bogor and 27% in Jakarta of elderly people were undernourished. Malnutrition may occur due to infection and low food intake. Among elderly people, one of the factors that causes low food intake is affected by impairment of taste sensory and teeth function. The impairment of taste sensory is influenced by zinc status in the body.Objective: To collect food consumption pattem data of zinc rich foods, zinc concentration in serum and to analyze association of zinc concentration and nutritional status.Methods: Research design was cross sectional, and conducted in two sub districts in Bogor city. The respondents were women in 60-75 years of age, no suffering from illnesses and chronically disease. The total respondent was 90 people, and divided into three groups of 30 peoples. Data gathered included respondent identity, physical examination, anthropometry, blood biochemical and zinc dietary consumption.Results: Zinc dietary consumption adequacy of underweight group was only 30% of recommended dietary allowance, while for normal and overweight groups were 40% of dietary allowance. Zinc serum concentration of underweight group (82 ug/dl was not significantly different with normal group (85 ug/dl, however differed significantly (p<0.05 with overweight group (95 ug/dl. Underweight group suffered 40% zinc deficiency, 27% for normal and only 7% for overweight group.Conclusions: Zinc deficiency was more prevalent in underweight group than that of normal and overweight group. [Panel Gizi Makan 2002,25: 26-33.Keywords: zinc serum concentration, zinc dietary consumption, underweight

  3. Behavioral impairments in animal models for zinc deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eHagmeyer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from teratogenic and pathological effects of zinc deficiency such as the occurrence of skin lesions, anorexia, growth retardation, depressed wound healing, altered immune function, impaired night vision, and alterations in taste and smell acuity, characteristic behavioral changes in animal models and human patients suffering from zinc deficiency have been observed. Given that it is estimated that about 17% of the worldwide population are at risk for zinc deficiency and that zinc deficiency is associated with a variety of brain disorders and disease states in humans, it is of major interest to investigate, how these behavioral changes will affect the individual and a putative course of a disease. Thus, here, we provide a state of the art overview about the behavioral phenotypes observed in various models of zinc deficiency, among them environmentally produced zinc deficient animals as well as animal models based on a genetic alteration of a particular zinc homeostasis gene. Finally, we compare the behavioral phenotypes to the human condition of mild to severe zinc deficiency and provide a model, how zinc deficiency that is associated with many neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders might modify the disease pathologies.

  4. Zinc-Catalyzed Synthesis of Conjugated Dienoates through Unusual Cross-Couplings of Zinc Carbenes with Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Sergio; González, María J; González, Jesús; López, Luis A; Vicente, Rubén

    2017-01-23

    Zinc-catalyzed selective cross-coupling of two carbene sources, such as vinyl diazo compounds and enynones, enabled the synthesis of conjugated dienoate derivatives. This reaction involved the unprecedented coupling of a zinc furyl carbene with vinyl diazo compounds through the γ-carbon. Alternatively, dienoates were also prepared by a commutative cross-coupling of zinc vinyl carbenes generated from cyclopropenes and simple diazo compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fluorescent zinc sensor with minimized proton-induced interferences: photophysical mechanism for fluorescence turn-on response and detection of endogenous free zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Eon; Lee, Sumin; You, Youngmin; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Ohkubo, Kei; Cho, Jaeheung; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Shin, Injae; Park, Soo Young; Nam, Wonwoo

    2012-08-20

    A new fluorescent zinc sensor (HNBO-DPA) consisting of 2-(2'-hydroxy-3'-naphthyl)benzoxazole (HNBO) chromophore and a di(2-picolyl)amine (DPA) metal chelator has been prepared and examined for zinc bioimaging. The probe exhibits zinc-induced fluorescence turn-on without any spectral shifts. Its crystal structure reveals that HNBO-DPA binds a zinc ion in a pentacoordinative fashion through the DPA and HNBO moieties. Steady-state photophysical studies establish zinc-induced deprotonation of the HNBO group. Nanosecond and femtosecond laser flash photolysis and electrochemical measurements provide evidence for zinc-induced modulation of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) from DPA to HNBO. Thus, the zinc-responsive fluorescence turn-on is attributed to suppression of PeT exerted by deprotonation of HNBO and occupation of the electron pair of DPA, a conclusion that is further supported by density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TD-DFT) calculations. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.0), the probe displays a 44-fold fluorescence turn-on in response to zinc ions with a K(d) value of 12 pM. The fluorescent response of the probe to zinc ions is conserved over a broad pH range with its excellent selectivity for zinc ions among biologically relevant metal ions. In particular, its sensing ability is not altered by divalent transition metal ions such as Fe(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II). Cell experiments using HNBO-DPA show its suitability for monitoring intracellular zinc ions. We have also demonstrated applicability of the probe to visualize intact zinc ions released from cells that undergo apoptosis. More interestingly, zinc-rich pools in zebrafish embryos are traced with HNBO-DPA during early developmental stages. The results obtained from the in vitro and in vivo imaging studies demonstrate the practical usefulness of the probe to detect zinc ions.

  6. Research and application of zinc injection in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lei

    2012-01-01

    In the middle 1990s, some PWRs in USA and Germany started to inject Zinc into the reactor coolant system for reducing both radiation fields and primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). Based on data from the labs and experience in the demonstration pants, Zinc injection obviously reduced radiation fields, and effectively mitigated PWSCC. Plants in USA injected high concentration zinc that is 15 ppb to 40 ppb to restrained PWSCC. Whereas, plants in Germany injected low concentration zinc that is 5 ppb to 10 ppb to reduce radiation fields. There are more than ten years at aspect of zinc rejection in overseas PWR, but domestic plants don't add zinc. The building PWR in Zhejiang Sanmen is the first AP1000 unit in the world, according to requirement of designers, it will start to inject zinc in the initial fuel cycle. (author)

  7. ZINC MITIGATION INTERIM REPORT - THERMODYNAMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    An experimental program was initiated in order to develop and validate conditions that will effectively trap Zn vapors that are released during extraction. The proposed work is broken down into three tasks. The first task is to determine the effectiveness of various pore sizes of filter elements. The second task is to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor deposition. The final task is to determine whether the zinc vapors can be chemically bound. The approach for chemically binding the zinc vapors has two subtasks, the first is a review of literature and thermodynamic calculations and the second is an experimental approach using the best candidates. This report details the results of the thermodynamic calculations to determine feasibility of chemically binding the zinc vapors within the furnace module, specifically the lithium trap (1). A review of phase diagrams, literature, and thermodynamic calculations was conducted to determine if there are suitable materials to capture zinc vapor within the lithium trap of the extraction basket. While numerous elements exist that form compounds with zinc, many of these also form compounds with hydrogen or the water that is present in the TPBARs. This relatively comprehensive review of available data indicates that elemental cobalt and copper and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) may have the requisite properties to capture zinc and yet not be adversely affected by the extraction gases and should be considered for testing.

  8. Zinc biofortification of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc...... and other essential nutrients. Major bottlenecks in plant biofortification appear to be the root-shoot barrier and - in cereals - the process of grain filling. New findings demonstrate that the root-shoot distribution of zinc is controlled mainly by heavy metal transporting P1B-ATPases and the metal...... tolerance protein (MTP) family. A greater understanding of zinc transport is important to improve crop quality and also to help alleviate accumulation of any toxic metals....

  9. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    Background In developing countries, diarrhoea causes around 500,000 child deaths annually. Zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea is currently recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Objectives To evaluate oral zinc supplementation for treating children with acute or persistent diarrhoea. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 5), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, mRCT, and reference lists up to 30 September 2016. We also contacted researchers. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared oral zinc supplementation with placebo in children aged one month to five years with acute or persistent diarrhoea, including dysentery. Data collection and analysis Both review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, extracted and analysed data, and drafted the review. The primary outcomes were diarrhoea duration and severity. We summarized dichotomous outcomes using risk ratios (RR) and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses (using either a fixed-effect or random-effects model) and assessed heterogeneity. We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met our inclusion criteria. Most included trials were conducted in Asian countries that were at high risk of zinc deficiency. Acute diarrhoea There is currently not enough evidence from well-conducted RCTs to be able to say whether zinc supplementation during acute diarrhoea reduces death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months of age, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (MD −11.46 hours, 95% CI −19.72 to −3.19; 2581 children, 9 trials, low

  10. The Relevance of the Colon to Zinc Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Lavaniya Gopalsamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, zinc deficiency is widespread, despite decades of research highlighting its negative effects on health, and in particular upon child health in low-income countries. Apart from inadequate dietary intake of bioavailable zinc, other significant contributors to zinc deficiency include the excessive intestinal loss of endogenously secreted zinc and impairment in small intestinal absorptive function. Such changes are likely to occur in children suffering from environmental (or tropical enteropathy (EE—an almost universal condition among inhabitants of developing countries characterized by morphologic and functional changes in the small intestine. Changes to the proximal gut in environmental enteropathy will likely influence the nature and amount of zinc delivered into the large intestine. Consequently, we reviewed the current literature to determine if colonic absorption of endogenous or exogenous (dietary zinc could contribute to overall zinc nutriture. Whilst we found evidence that significant zinc absorption occurs in the rodent colon, and is favoured when microbially-fermentable carbohydrates (specifically resistant starch are consumed, it is unclear whether this process occur in humans and/or to what degree. Constraints in study design in the few available studies may well have masked a possible colonic contribution to zinc nutrition. Furthermore these few available human studies have failed to include the actual target population that would benefit, namely infants affected by EE where zinc delivery to the colon may be increased and who are also at risk of zinc deficiency. In conducting this review we have not been able to confirm a colonic contribution to zinc absorption in humans. However, given the observations in rodents and that feeding resistant starch to children is feasible, definitive studies utilising the dual stable isotope method in children with EE should be undertaken.

  11. A biokinetic model for zinc for use in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of the essential trace element zinc has been studied extensively in human subjects using kinetic analysis of time-dependent measurements of administered zinc tracers. A number of biokinetic models describing zinc exchange between plasma and tissues and endogenous excretion of zinc have been derived as fits to data for specific study groups. More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed to estimate radiation doses from internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc. The latter models are designed to provide broadly accurate estimates of cumulative decays of zinc radioisotopes in tissues and are not intended as realistic descriptions of the directions of movement of zinc in the body. This paper reviews biokinetic data for zinc and proposes a physiologically meaningful biokinetic model for systemic zinc for use in radiation protection. The proposed model bears some resemblance to zinc models developed in physiological studies but depicts a finer division of systemic zinc and is based on a broader spectrum of data than previous models. The proposed model and the model for zinc currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection yield reasonably similar estimates of total-body retention and effective dose for internally deposited radioisotopes of zinc but much different systemic distributions of activity and much different dose estimates for some individual tissues, particularly the liver. - Highlights: ► Zinc is an essential trace element with numerous functions in the human body. ► Several biokinetic models for zinc have been developed from tracer studies on humans. ► More rudimentary biokinetic models for zinc have been developed in radiation protection. ► Biokinetic data for zinc are reviewed and a new biokinetic model is proposed for radiation protection. ► The proposed model may also be useful for investigation of zinc physiology and homeostasis.

  12. Fishy Business: Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Zinc Transporters and Free Zinc Availability in Human Neuronal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damitha De Mel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 (ω-3 fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA. Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

  13. Fishy business: effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and free zinc availability in human neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mel, Damitha; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2014-08-15

    Omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids are one of the two main families of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The main omega-3 fatty acids in the mammalian body are α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Central nervous tissues of vertebrates are characterized by a high concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Moreover, in the human brain, DHA is considered as the main structural omega-3 fatty acid, which comprises about 40% of the PUFAs in total. DHA deficiency may be the cause of many disorders such as depression, inability to concentrate, excessive mood swings, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, dry skin and so on. On the other hand, zinc is the most abundant trace metal in the human brain. There are many scientific studies linking zinc, especially excess amounts of free zinc, to cellular death. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, are characterized by altered zinc metabolism. Both animal model studies and human cell culture studies have shown a possible link between omega-3 fatty acids, zinc transporter levels and free zinc availability at cellular levels. Many other studies have also suggested a possible omega-3 and zinc effect on neurodegeneration and cellular death. Therefore, in this review, we will examine the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on zinc transporters and the importance of free zinc for human neuronal cells. Moreover, we will evaluate the collective understanding of mechanism(s) for the interaction of these elements in neuronal research and their significance for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegeneration.

  14. [Effect of cultivation in zinc media on the growth of and the degree of zinc in organic form in transgenic metallothionein mushroom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ji-Ping; Shen, Lin; Ru, Bing-Gen

    2009-03-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) are a family of low molecular weight, cysteine-rich and metal-binding functional proteins. Transgenic MT mushroom can be used as functional food additives, but its zinc-enriching ability has not been studied systemically until now. The zinc contents in mycelia of transgenic MT mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and wild type mushroom mycelia cultivated in different zinc concentration media were analyzed by ICP-OES. The growth status, zinc-enriching ability and degree of zinc in organic form (DZOF) were also analyzed. Results showed that MT mushroom mycelia grew rapidly, but the growth was inhibited when the zinc content in solid media was higher than 1.6 mmol x L(-1). MT mushroom mycelia could enrich more zinc than that of wild type, and the zinc content in MT mushroom mycelia could be 2.56-27.49 mg x kg(-1) when it was cultivated in a liquid media with 0.6-1.2 mmol x L(-1) zinc. DZOF of MT mushroom mycelia in a liquid media with 0.6 mmol x L(-1) zinc at 7 d was significantly higher (88.7%) than that in the wild type (82.1%, alpha = 0.05), but there was no significant difference in DZOF when the MT mushroom mycelia was cultivated in a liquid media with different zinc content at 7 d.

  15. BWR radiation buildup control with ionic zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marble, W.J.; Wood, C.J.; Leighty, C.E.; Green, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    In 1983 a hypothesis was disclosed which suggested that the presence of ionic zinc in the reactor water of the BWR could reduce radiation buildup. This hypothesis was developed from correlations of plant data, and subsequently, from laboratory experiments which demonstrated clearly that ionic zinc inhibits the corrosion of stainless steel. The benefits of zinc addition have been measured at the Vallecitos Nuclear Center under and EPRI/GE project. Experimentation and analyses have been performed to evaluate the impact of intentional zinc addition on the IGSCC characteristics of primary system materials and on the performance of the nuclear fuel. It has been concluded that no negative effects are expected. The author conclude that the intentional addition of ionic zinc to the BWR reactor water at a concentration of approximately 10 ppb will provide major benefits in controlling the Co-60 buildup on primary system stainless steel surfaces. The intentional addition of zinc is now a qualified technique for use in BWRs

  16. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc

  17. Microwave Synthesis of Zinc Hydroxy Sulfate Nanoplates and Zinc Oxide Nanorods in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Rafal M.; Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Peterson, Greta M.; Martínez-Herna´ndez, Kermin J.

    2014-01-01

    In this hands-on, inquiry-based lab, high school and undergraduate students learn about nanotechnology by synthesizing their own nanoparticles in a single class period. This simple synthesis of zinc oxide nanorods and zinc hydroxy sulfate nanoplates can be done in 15 min using a household microwave oven. Reagent concentration, reaction…

  18. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luptáková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on zinc oxide manufacturing process. The present work deals with the character and morphology of the input material for the production of ZnO by the indirect pyrometallurgical process. Undesirable phases in the feedstock can be identified through profound recognition of the source material and the nature of its microstructure. If these compounds diffuse into the lining during thermal processes, they become the cause of stress in metallurgical ceramics. The emergence of these chemical reactions may subsequently affect the entire metallurgical zinc smelting process. The results obtained by analysis are used to minimize waste - zinc slag and to eliminate the conditions which enable the formation of the undesired product, thereby increasing the productivity of the ZnO production.

  19. The protective nature of passivation films on zinc: surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muster, Tim H.; Cole, Ivan S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of oxide surface charge on the corrosion performance of zinc metals was investigated. Oxidised zinc species (zinc oxide, zinc hydroxychloride, zinc hydroxysulfate and zinc hydroxycarbonate) with chemical compositions similar to those produced on zinc during atmospheric corrosion were formed as particles from aqueous solution, and as passive films deposited onto zinc powder, and rolled zinc, surfaces. Synthesized oxides were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The zeta potentials of various oxide particles, as determined by microelectrophoresis, are reported as a function of pH. Particulates containing a majority of zinc hydroxycarbonate and zinc hydroxysulfate crystallites were found to possess a negative surface charge below pH 6, whilst zinc oxide-hydroxide and zinc hydroxychloride crystallites possessed isoelectric points (IEP's) higher than pH 8. The ability of chloride species to pass through a bed of 3 μm diameter zinc powder was found to increase for surfaces possessing carboxy and sulfate surface species, suggesting that negatively charged surfaces can aid in the repulsion of chloride ions. Electrochemical analysis of the open-circuit potential as a function of time at a fixed pH of 6.5 showed that the chemical composition of passive films on zinc plates influenced the ability of chloride ions to access anodic sites for periods of approximately 1 h

  20. Zinc status in South Asian populations--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-06-01

    This article attempts to highlight the prevalence of zinc deficiency and its health and economic consequences in South Asian developing countries and to shed light on possible approaches to combating zinc deficiency. A computer-based search was performed on PubMed, Google, and ScienceDirect.com to retrieve relevant scientific literature published between 2000 and 2012. The search yielded 194 articles, of which 71 were culled. Studies were further screened on the basis of population groups, age and sex, pregnancy, and lactation. The most relevant articles were included in the review. Cutoffs for serum zinc concentration defined for zinc deficiency were 65 microg/dL for males and females aged or = 10 years. Population segments from rural and urban areas of South Asian developing countries were included in the analysis. They comprised pregnant and lactating women, preschool and school children. The analysis reveals that zinc deficiency is high among children, pregnant and lactating women in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Diarrhoea has been established as a leading cause to intensify zinc deficiency in Bangladesh. Little has been done in Sri Lanka and Nepal to estimate the prevalence of zinc deficiency precisely. A substantial population segment of the South Asian developing countries is predisposed to zinc deficiency which is further provoked by increased requirements for zinc under certain physiological conditions. Supplementation, fortification, and dietary diversification are the most viable strategies to enhancing zinc status among various population groups.

  1. Zinc injection helps reduce radiation field buildup in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1991-01-01

    The injection of zinc into the reactor water of BWRs (Boiling Water Reactors) was a technique developed by General Electric (GE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to control the buildup of radiation fields from cobalt-60 on out-of-core piping. The presence of 5-10ppb zinc in the reactor water reduces the growth of oxide films on stainless steel surfaces, thereby reducing the number of sites available for the incorporation of cobalt; zinc also competes with cobalt for the sites. In September 1990, EPRI organized a workshop at the request of several US utilities to provide a forum to discuss experiences with zinc injection. The meeting focused on six main issues: the effect of zinc on radiation fields in normal water chemistry; the radiation buildup in hydrogen water chemistry, with and without zinc; the effects of zinc-65; the corrosion of fuel cladding and structural materials; the performance of zinc injection and monitoring equipment; and planning for zinc injection. (author)

  2. Recent trends and current practices for secondary processing of zinc and lead. Part II: zinc recovery from secondary sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kamala Kanta; Agrawal, Archana; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2004-08-01

    Almost all metallurgical processes are associated with the generation of wastes and residues that may be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature depending upon the criteria specified by institutions such as the US Environment Protection Agency, etc. Wastes containing heavy and toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, copper, mercury, zinc, etc., that are present beyond permissible limits deemed to be treated or disposed of, and non-hazardous wastes can be utilized for metal recovery or safe disposal. Zinc is in growing demand all over the world. In India, a major amount of zinc is imported and therefore processing of zinc secondaries will assist in satisfying the gap between demand and supply to some extent. This report mainly focuses on the current practices and recent trends on the secondary processing of zinc. Attempts made by various laboratories to develop ecofriendly processes for the recovery of zinc from secondary raw materials are also described and discussed.

  3. Serum zinc status of neonates with seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olia Sharmeen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Seizure is a common neurological disorder in neonatal age group!. Primary metabolic derangement is one of the important reason behind this convulsion during this period. Among primary metabolic derangement hypoglycemia, is most common followed by bypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia, low zinc status etc. As causes of many cases of convul­sion remain unknown in neonate. Objectives: To see the zinc status in the sera of neonate with convulsion. So that if needed early intervention can be taken up and thereby prevent complications. Method: A total of 50 neonates (1-28 days who had convulsion with no apparent reasons of convulsion were enrolled as cases and 50 healthy age and sex matched neonates were enrolled as controls. After a quick clinical evaluation serum zinc status was estimated from venous blood by atomic absorption method in Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre. Low zinc was considered if serum value was <0.7mg/L. Results: Among a total of 50 cases 6% had low zinc value & 2% of controls also had low zinc level. The mean serwu zinc level of cases and controls were 1.57±0.95 and 2.37±1.06 mmol/1 respectively (p<0.01. Conclusion: From the study it is seen that low zinc value is an important cause of neonatal seizure due to primary metabolic abnormalities. So early recognition and treatment could save these babies from long term neurological sequelies.

  4. Low-temperature solution-processed zinc oxide field effect transistor by blending zinc hydroxide and zinc oxide nanoparticle in aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeonwoo; Kang, Chan-mo; Baek, Kyu-Ha; Kim, Jun Young; Do, Lee-Mi; Lee, Changhee

    2018-05-01

    We present a novel methods of fabricating low-temperature (180 °C), solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) transistors using a ZnO precursor that is blended with zinc hydroxide [Zn(OH)2] and zinc oxide hydrate (ZnO • H2O) in an ammonium solution. By using the proposed method, we successfully improved the electrical performance of the transistor in terms of the mobility (μ), on/off current ratio (I on/I off), sub-threshold swing (SS), and operational stability. Our new approach to forming a ZnO film was systematically compared with previously proposed methods. An atomic forced microscopic (AFM) image and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that our method increases the ZnO crystallite size with less OH‑ impurities. Thus, we attribute the improved electrical performance to the better ZnO film formation using the blending methods.

  5. Critical rate of electrolyte circulation for preventing zinc dendrite formation in a zinc-bromine redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeon Sun; Park, Jong Ho; Ra, Ho Won; Jin, Chang-Soo; Yang, Jung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    In a zinc-bromine redox flow battery, a nonaqueous and dense polybromide phase formed because of bromide oxidation in the positive electrolyte during charging. This formation led to complicated two-phase flow on the electrode surface. The polybromide and aqueous phases led to different kinetics of the Br/Br- redox reaction; poor mixing of the two phases caused uneven redox kinetics on the electrode surface. As the Br/Br- redox reaction was coupled with the zinc deposition reaction, the uneven redox reaction on the positive electrode was accompanied by nonuniform zinc deposition and zinc dendrite formation, which degraded battery stability. A single-flow cell was operated at varying electrolyte circulation rates and current densities. Zinc dendrite formation was observed after cell disassembly following charge-discharge testing. In addition, the flow behavior in the positive compartment was observed by using a transparent version of the cell. At low rate of electrolyte circulation, the polybromide phase clearly separated from the aqueous phase and accumulated at the bottom of the flow frame. In the corresponding area on the negative electrode, a large amount of zinc dendrites was observed after charge-discharge testing. Therefore, a minimum circulation rate should be considered to avoid poor mixing of the positive electrolyte.

  6. Influence of ageing on zinc bioavailability in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R

    2003-12-01

    Currently, soil quality criteria or soil risk assessments of metals are based on laboratory toxicity tests which are carried out in soils freshly spiked with metal salts. With these data, species sensitivity distributions are fitted, from which hazardous concentrations and predicted no effect concentrations are derived. However, due to long-term processes, called ageing, soil metal availability decreases with time. Here we show that pH is the most important parameter determining the effect of ageing on zinc partitioning in soils, with the effect of ageing becoming more important with increasing pH. Furthermore, zinc bioavailability, expressed as the internal zinc concentrations in red clover (Trifolium pratense) is closely related to pore water zinc concentration. In addition, there is a clear dose-response relationship between the survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida and the calcium chloride-extracted zinc fraction. These results indicate that zinc partitioning can be used to predict zinc bioavailability to terrestrial organisms. However, the use of spiked soils in toxicity assays can result in an over-estimation of the effects of zinc, especially at a high pH. - Zn ageing is affected by pH, while Zn partitioning can be used to predict its bioavailability.

  7. Introducing zinc cations into zeolite Y via the reduction of HY with zinc metal vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, A.; Boddenberg, B.

    1996-01-01

    Zeolites HY and NaY which were contacted with zinc metal vapour at 420°C were investigated by carbon monoxide and xenon adsorption as well as 129Xe NMR spectroscopy. The reaction of zeolite HY results in the incorporation of Zn 2+ cations which are shown to populate the supercage positions S II and S III to an unusually high extent. The supercage zinc cation concentration strongly decreases when the material is saturated with water and subsequently dehydrated at 400°C. The zeolite NaY turns out to be inert towards the reaction with zinc metal vapour.

  8. Improved electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. C.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.; Zhang, R. H.

    2018-04-01

    Conventional zinc bromide electrolytes offer low ionic conductivity and often trigger severe zinc dendrite growth in zinc-bromine flow batteries. Here we report an improved electrolyte modified with methanesulfonic acid, which not only improves the electrolyte conductivity but also ameliorates zinc dendrite. Experimental results also reveal that the kinetics and reversibility of Zn2+/Zn and Br2/Br- are improved in this modified electrolyte. Moreover, the battery's internal resistance is significantly reduced from 4.9 to 2.0 Ω cm2 after adding 1 M methanesulfonic acid, thus leading to an improved energy efficiency from 64% to 75% at a current density of 40 mA cm-2. More impressively, the battery is capable of delivering an energy efficiency of about 78% at a current density of as high as 80 mA cm-2 when the electrode is replaced by a thermally treated one. Additionally, zinc dendrite growth is found to be effectively suppressed in methanesulfonic acid supported media, which, as a result, enables the battery to be operated for 50 cycles without degradation, whereas the one without methanesulfonic acid suffers from significant decay after only 40 cycles, primarily due to severe zinc dendrite growth. These superior results indicate methanesulfonic acid is a promising supporting electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries.

  9. Zinc and Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines: Implications for Cardiometabolic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Meika; Samman, Samir

    2012-01-01

    In atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, the concomitant presence of low-grade systemic inflammation and mild zinc deficiency highlights a role for zinc nutrition in the management of chronic disease. This review aims to evaluate the literature that reports on the interactions of zinc and cytokines. In humans, inflammatory cytokines have been shown both to up- and down-regulate the expression of specific cellular zinc transporters in response to an increased demand for zinc in inflammatory conditions. The acute phase response includes a rapid decline in the plasma zinc concentration as a result of the redistribution of zinc into cellular compartments. Zinc deficiency influences the generation of cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, and in response to zinc supplementation plasma cytokines exhibit a dose-dependent response. The mechanism of action may reflect the ability of zinc to either induce or inhibit the activation of NF-κB. Confounders in understanding the zinc-cytokine relationship on the basis of in vitro experimentation include methodological issues such as the cell type and the means of activating cells in culture. Impaired zinc homeostasis and chronic inflammation feature prominently in a number of cardiometabolic diseases. Given the high prevalence of zinc deficiency and chronic disease globally, the interplay of zinc and inflammation warrants further examination. PMID:22852057

  10. Erythrocyte zinc levels in children with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik Yilmaz, E; Ozmen, S; Bostanci, I; Misirlioglu, E Dibek; Ertan, U

    2011-12-01

    Zinc deficiency may be suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis, control, and severity of asthma because of its antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. We aimed to investigate whether there was any relationship between erythrocyte zinc levels and childhood asthma. The erythrocyte zinc levels of 67 asthmatic and 45 healthy children were analyzed in this case-control study. The mean concentrations of erythrocyte zinc were 1215.8 ± 145.1 µg/dl in asthma patients and 1206.9 ± 119.5 µg/dl in controls with no significant difference (P = 0.472). The erythrocyte zinc level was below 1,000 µg/dl in 6 asthmatic patients (8.9%) and 2 control group patients (4.4%). There was no relationship between erythrocyte zinc levels and duration of follow-up, severity, and control of the asthma (P > 0.05). On the other hand, patients hospitalized for an asthma attack had significantly lower erythrocyte zinc levels compared with nonhospitalized patients and the control group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.004 respectively). This study's findings indicate that asthmatic children are not a risk group for zinc deficiency. We emphasize that checking zinc levels in children who are hospitalized for an asthma attack may be useful. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Zinc vanadate nanorods and their visible light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, L.Z.; Lin, N.; Wei, T.; Liu, H.D.; Yu, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. • The size of zinc vanadate nanorods can be controlled by growth conditions. • Zinc vanadate nanorods show good photocatalytic activities of methylene blue under solar light. - Abstract: Zinc vanadate nanorods have been synthesized by a simple hydrothermal process using zinc acetate and sodium vanadate as the raw materials. The zinc vanadate nanorods have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum. XRD pattern and HRTEM image show that the zinc vanadate nanorods are composed of single crystalline monoclinic Zn 2 V 2 O 7 phase. SEM and TEM observations show that the diameter and length of the zinc vanadate nanorods are 50–100 nm and about 5 μm, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) has an essential role in the formation of zinc vanadate nanorods. The SDS-assisted nucleation and growth process have been proposed to explain the formation and growth of the zinc vanadate nanorods. Solid UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum shows that the zinc vanadate nanorods have a band gap of 2.76 eV. The photocatalytic activities of the zinc vanadate nanorods have been evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) under solar light irradiation. The MB with the concentration of 10 mg L −1 can be degraded totally under the solar light irradiation for 4 h. It is suggested that the zinc vanadate nanorods exhibit promising application potential for the degradation of organic pollutants under solar light irradiation

  12. Comparative studies on acid leaching of zinc waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz; Szatan, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    Three industrial waste materials were characterized in terms of their elemental and phase compositions, leaching behaviour in 10% sulfuric acid solution as well as leaching thermal effects. Slag from melting of mixed metallic scrap contained about 50% Zn and 10% Pb. It consisted mainly of various oxides and oxy-chlorides of metals. Zinc spray metallizing dust contained about 77% Zn in form of zinc and/or zinc-iron oxides, zinc metal and Zn-Fe intermetallic. Zinc ash from hot dip galvanizing was a mixture of zinc oxide, metallic zinc and zinc hydroxide chloride and contained about 80% Zn. Dissolution efficiency of zinc from the first material was 80% (independently on the solid to liquid ratio, 50-150 kg/m3), while decrease of the efficacy from 80% to 60% with increased solid to liquid ratio for the two remaining materials was observed. Both increase in the temperature (20 °C to 35 °C) and agitation rate (300 rpm to 900 rpm) did not improve seriously the leaching results. In all cases, transfer of zinc ions to the leachate was accompanied by different levels of solution contamination, depending on the type of the waste. Leaching of the materials was exothermic with the similar reaction heats for two high oxide-type products (slag, zinc ash) and higher values for the spray metallizing dust.

  13. Results of zinc injection test for Hamaoka Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, K.; Masuda, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Sudo, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    1998-01-01

    A zinc injection test was preformed at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 for suppressing radiation dose rate on primary coolant recirculation piping after the replacement of piping. Zinc ion was injected by using injection system where Depleted Zinc Oxide was dissolved in carbonated water. Controllability of the system was sufficient to maintain concentration of zinc in primary water. The concentration of zinc in the primary coolant was controlled from 1 ppb to 5 ppb gradually. The increasing trend of concentration of Co-60 in the coolant was suppressed at zinc concentration of 3 ppb. It is evaluated that the deposition coefficient of Co-60 onto the surface of primary coolant recirculation piping was suppressed to one-third of previous cycle in average, and one-fourth of that just before injection start at zinc concentration of 5 ppb. We concluded that zinc injection is effective for suppressing dose rate on the primary coolant piping and no adverse effect occurs by zinc injection up to 5 ppb in the primary coolant. (J.P.N.)

  14. Implication of zinc excess on soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Boros-Lajszner, Edyta; Borowik, Agata; Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Tomkiel, Monika

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate zinc's influence on the resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse of the University of Warmia and Mazury (UWM) in Olsztyn, Poland. Plastic pots were filled with 3 kg of sandy loam with pHKCl - 7.0 each. The experimental variables were: zinc applied to soil at six doses: 100, 300, 600, 1,200, 2,400 and 4,800 mg of Zn(2+) kg(-1) in the form of ZnCl2 (zinc chloride), and species of plant: oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Chwat and white mustard (Sinapis alba) cv. Rota. Soil without the addition of zinc served as the control. During the growing season, soil samples were subjected to microbiological analyses on experimental days 25 and 50 to determine the abundance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces and fungi, and the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase and urease, which provided a basis for determining the soil resistance index (RS). The physicochemical properties of soil were determined after harvest. The results of this study indicate that excessive concentrations of zinc have an adverse impact on microbial growth and the activity of soil enzymes. The resistance of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces, fungi, dehydrogenases, catalase and urease decreased with an increase in the degree of soil contamination with zinc. Dehydrogenases were most sensitive and urease was least sensitive to soil contamination with zinc. Zinc also exerted an adverse influence on the physicochemical properties of soil and plant development. The growth of oat and white mustard plants was almost completely inhibited in response to the highest zinc doses of 2,400 and 4,800 mg Zn(2+) kg(-1).

  15. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  16. Serum zinc level in children with malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mahmood, M.T.; Baluch, G.R.; Bhatti, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Serum zinc level amongst children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) was evaluated in a control study conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, Allama Iqbal Medical College and Jinnah Hospital, Lahore. Twenty-five children with PEM and 25 healthy children as control from the community were screened. Mean serum zinc level was found to be 54.48 -+ 18.91 mg/dl in children with PEM while it was 72.72 -+ 8.21 mg/dl in control group (P < 0.001). No significant difference in zinc level was noted between both sexes in each group. Marasmic 16 children revealed mean serum zinc level of 57.55 -+ 18.16 mg/dl while in Kwashiorkor it was 44.57 -+ 13.66 mg/dl. Serum zinc was significantly low in Kwashiorkor than in marasmus (P < 0.001). It was also significantly low in children with acute or chronic diarrhea associated with malnutrition (44.66 -+ 16.0 mg/dl). Acute respiratory infections in these children were not associated with low serum zinc level (71.66 -+ 16.51 mg/dl). (author)

  17. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-04-01

    Ethambutol, (CH/sub 3/CH/sub 2/-CH(CH/sub 2/OH)-NH-CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/ (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by /sup 65/Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, /sup 65/Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption.

  18. Effects of the antituberculous drug ethambutol on zinc absorption, turnover and distribution in rats fed diet marginal and adequate in zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.B.; Schwartz, R.

    1987-01-01

    Ethambutol, [CH 3 CH 2 -CH(CH 2 OH)-NH-CH 2 ] 2 (EMB), is an oral antituberculous agent that is administered therapeutically over extended time periods. It has chelating properties and may affect mineral metabolism. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats received 0, 400 or 600 mg EMB per kilogram body weight daily by gavage for 30 d. They were fed a casein-based diet with either adequate (49 ppm) or marginal (11 ppm) zinc. Both adequate-Zn (AZn) and marginal-Zn (MZn) rats receiving EMB showed alopecia and dose-dependent reductions in feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency. None of these changes was seen in rats fed the MZn diet without EMB. Serum and tissue zinc levels were similar in rats not receiving EMB, regardless of the dietary zinc level. Serum zinc was consistently lower in AZn and MZn rats receiving EMB than in rats without EMB. Apparent zinc absorption, measured by 65 Zn balance, was higher in AZn rats receiving EMB than in AZn rats without EMB. Thus, changes in absorption could not account for lower serum zinc levels in EMB-treated rats. However, 65 Zn turnover was also higher in EMB groups. This suggests that EMB may have increased urinary zinc losses resulting in reduced circulating zinc and a consequent increase in zinc absorption

  19. Influence of structural and surface properties of whey-derived peptides on zinc-chelating capacity, and in vitro gastric stability and bioaccessibility of the zinc-peptide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udechukwu, M Chinonye; Downey, Brianna; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2018-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stability of zinc-peptide complexes is essential for zinc delivery. As peptide surface charge can influence their metal complex stability, we evaluated the zinc-chelating capacity and stability of zinc complexes of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH), produced with Everlase (WPH-Ever; ζ-potential, -39mV) and papain (WPH-Pap; ζ-potential, -7mV), during simulated digestion. WPH-Ever had lower amount of zinc-binding amino acids but showed higher zinc-chelating capacity than WPH-Pap. This is attributable to the highly anionic surface charge of WPH-Ever for electrostatic interaction with zinc. Release of zinc during peptic digestion was lower for WPH-Ever-zinc, and over 50% of zinc remained bound in both peptide complexes after peptic-pancreatic digestion. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests the involvement of carboxylate ion, and sidechain carbon-oxygen of aspartate/glutamate and serine/threonine in zinc-peptide complexation. The findings indicate that strong zinc chelation can promote gastric stability and impede intestinal release, for peptides intended for use as dietary zinc carriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Alsop, Richard J; Soomro, Asfia; Yang, Fei-Chi; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-01-01

    The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3-90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  1. Effect of shampoo, conditioner and permanent waving on the molecular structure of human hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchen Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The hair is a filamentous biomaterial consisting of the cuticle, the cortex and the medulla, all held together by the cell membrane complex. The cortex mostly consists of helical keratin proteins that spiral together to form coiled-coil dimers, intermediate filaments, micro-fibrils and macro-fibrils. We used X-ray diffraction to study hair structure on the molecular level, at length scales between ∼3–90 Å, in hopes of developing a diagnostic method for diseases affecting hair structure allowing for fast and noninvasive screening. However, such an approach can only be successful if common hair treatments do not affect molecular hair structure. We found that a single use of shampoo and conditioner has no effect on packing of keratin molecules, structure of the intermediate filaments or internal lipid composition of the membrane complex. Permanent waving treatments are known to break and reform disulfide linkages in the hair. Single application of a perming product was found to deeply penetrate the hair and reduce the number of keratin coiled-coils and change the structure of the intermediate filaments. Signals related to the coiled-coil structure of the α-keratin molecules at 5 and 9.5 Å were found to be decreased while a signal associated with the organization of the intermediate filaments at 47 Å was significantly elevated in permed hair. Both these observations are related to breaking of the bonds between two coiled-coil keratin dimers.

  2. Zinc absorption and kinetics during pregnancy and lactation in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Carmen M; Zapata, Carmiña L Vargas; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Shames, David M; Mukherjea, Ratna; King, Janet C

    2005-07-01

    Adjustments in zinc absorption and endogenous excretion maintain zinc homeostasis in nonpregnant adults fed low-zinc diets. The effects on zinc homeostasis of a low zinc intake during pregnancy and lactation have not been described in a longitudinal study. We examined longitudinal changes in fractional zinc absorption (FZA) and zinc kinetics in 10 healthy Brazilian women who habitually consumed a marginal zinc diet ( approximately 9 mg Zn/d). Zinc status was measured at 10-12 (early pregnancy; EP) and 34-36 (late pregnancy; LP) wk of pregnancy and at 7-8 wk after delivery (early lactation; EL). Zinc kinetics and FZA were studied by using stable isotopic tracers. Zinc intake averaged 9 +/- 3 mg/d throughout the study. FZA increased from 29 +/- 6% at EP to 43 +/- 10% at LP and to 39 +/- 13% at EL (P zinc at EL (r = -0.73, P = 0.02) and LP (r = -0.72, P = 0.07). Plasma zinc mass was 23% greater at LP than at EP or EL (P zinc (mg/d) that fluxed between plasma and the most-rapidly-turning-over extravascular pool was 53% greater at LP than at EP or EL (P zinc flux between plasma and the less-rapidly-turning-over zinc pool at EL was 27% greater than that at EP or LP, but this difference was not significant. FZA increased significantly in women with marginal zinc intakes during pregnancy and lactation; the increase was higher in women with low plasma zinc. Plasma zinc was distributed into a different exchangeable pool at LP than at EL.

  3. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk in Varamini ewes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zali, A.; Ganjkhanlou, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding supplemental zinc (zinc sulfate) in different levels (15, 30, or 45 mg/kg) on trace mineral concentrations in milk of ewes. Thirty lactating Varaminni ewes were assigned to three experimental groups according to their live body weights, milk

  4. First stages of zinc runoff in humid tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meraz, E.; Veleva, L.; Acosta, M.

    2007-01-01

    Frequently used metals in building application are Zinc and hot dip galvanized steel. The zinc has a relatively good atmospheric resistance, due to its oxidation in air and formation of protective layer. However, some of the zinc corrosion products can be dissolved by pluvial precipitations and water condensed on the metal surface. This process is called metal runoff. In order to estimate el zinc runoff in humid tropical climate, since its firs stages, samples of pure zinc and hot dip galvanized steel have been exposed during 2 years in outdoor atmosphere (rural and urban). The data reveal high annual values of zinc runoff (8,20-12,40±0.30 g/m''2 ano), being this process 80% of total mass loss of corroded zinc. The runoff and corrosion processes are more accelerated for zinc, than that of galvanized steel. The principal factors that control the runoff process are discussed. (Author) 48 refs

  5. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum zinc concentration and T cell proliferation in nursing home elderly:A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Zinc is essential for the regulation of immune response. T cell function declines with age. Zinc supplementation has the potential to improve serum zinc concentrations and immunity of nursing home elderly with low serum zinc concentration. Objective: We aimed to determine the effect of ...

  6. Zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Nakajima, Satoko; Fuke, Sayuri; Sakurada, Naomi; Minami, Akira; Oku, Naoto

    2006-02-15

    On the basis of the evidence that approximately 45% of Schaffer collateral boutons are zinc-positive, zinc release from Schaffer collaterals and its action were examined in hippocampal slices. When zinc release from Schaffer collaterals was examined using ZnAF-2, a membrane-impermeable zinc indicator, ZnAF-2 signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 was increased by tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s, suggesting that zinc is released from Schaffer collaterals in a calcium- and impulse-dependent manner. An in vivo microdialysis experiment indicated that the perfusion with 10 microM zinc significantly decreases extracellular glutamate concentration in the CA1. When tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 5s were delivered to the dentate granule cells, the increase in calcium signal in the stratum radiatum of the CA1, as well as in the stratum lucidum of the CA3, was attenuated by addition of 10 microM zinc, while enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. The increase in calcium signal in the CA1, in which Schaffer collateral synapses exist, during delivery of tetanic stimuli at 100 Hz for 1s to the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway was also significantly enhanced by addition of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from Schaffer collaterals suppressively modulates presynaptic and postsynaptic calcium signaling in the CA1, followed by the suppression of glutamate release.

  7. A regenerative zinc-air fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, Stuart I. [Electrochemical Technology Development Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Zhang, X. Gregory [Teck Cominco Metals Ltd., 2380 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-20

    The zinc regenerative fuel cell (ZRFC) developed by the former Metallic Power Inc. over the period from 1998 to 2004 is described. The component technologies and engineering solutions for various technical issues are discussed in relation to their functionality in the system. The system was designed to serve as a source of backup emergency power for remote or difficult to access cell phone towers during periods when the main power was interrupted. It contained a 12 cell stack providing 1.8 kW, a separate fuel tank containing zinc pellet fuel and electrolyte, and a zinc electrolyzer to regenerate the zinc pellets during standby periods. Offsite commissioning and testing of the system was successfully performed. The intellectual property of the ZRFC technology is now owned by Teck Cominco Metals Ltd. (author)

  8. Zinc bioavailability from legumes in non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, S.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc bioavailability from legumes in non-human primates (M. Fascicularis) was studied by: (1) determining zinc requirements of adolescent monkeys, (2) validating the use of extrinsic zinc label in peas, (3) validating the blood appearance and disappearance technique, and (4) measuring zinc absorption and endogenous excretion from control and legume diets. Ten monkeys were assigned to the control (CG) and legume groups (LG) based on their initial body weights and plasma zinc concentrations. Zinc salt or legumes served as the source of zinc for CG and LG, respectively. The animals were adapted for three weeks to 2.23, 5.70, 11.67, 16.70 and 30.00 ppm dietary zinc for the requirement and bioavailability experiments and 5.70 ppm dietary zinc for the extrinsic labeling study and the blood appearance and disappearance study. Zinc requirement was determined using the following criteria: body weight, clinical signs and plasma, leukocyte and erythrocyte zinc concentrations. The use of the extrinsic label was validated by comparing percent absorption of 65 Zn (salt) and intrinsically labeled 65 Zn from peas. The blood appearance and disappearance of orally administered /sup 69m/Zn (CG) and 65 Zn(LG) and intravenously administered 65 Zn was determined serially in blood over an eight hour period. Zinc absorption and regulation in the CG and LG was determined by the fecal balance method and endogenous excretion of intravenously administered 65 Zn. The zinc requirement for adolescent M. Fascicularis was between 11.67 and 16.70 ppm dietary zinc per day

  9. Hair Zinc: an Index for Zinc Status in Under-Five Children from Low-Income Communities in Kanam Area of North-Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaryum, Kiri H; Okoye, Zebulon Sunday C; Stoecker, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of trace elements are among the top ten causes of death in Sub Saharan Africa. In Kanam Local Government Area of Nigeria, the problem is compounded by high levels of poverty and illiteracy. Abnormally low hair zinc levels are important, sensitive diagnostic biochemical indices of Zinc deficiency. The purpose of this study is to assess the zinc status of children less than 5 years in Kanam local government area, north-central Nigeria, by measuring the zinc level in hair samples collected from 44 under-5 children across the area. A household survey was made to assess the pattern and frequency of consumption of zinc-rich foods which was done by means of questionnaire. Hair samples were analysed for zinc content by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS). The data were analysed statistically using the Student's t test, z test, and Pearson correlation, while questionnaire-captured data were analysed by simple arithmetic. The results of the analyses showed that the average hair zinc level was 74.35 ± 48.05 μg/g. This was below the normal range of 130-140 μg/g, for children less than 5 years. Based on the results, 86.36% have hair zinc level below the lower limit of the normal range of 130 μg/g. Between the gender, boys have higher hair zinc content than girls. Data from the questionnaire showed that 53.45% of the population studied have poor/inadequate intake of zinc-rich foods of animal origin, a dietary behaviour reported to predispose to micronutrient deficiency, including zinc.

  10. Recent advances in knowledge of zinc nutrition and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hotz, Christine; Rivera, Juan A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2009-03-01

    Zinc deficiency increases the risk and severity of a variety of infections, restricts physical growth, and affects specific outcomes of pregnancy. Global recognition of the importance of zinc nutrition in public health has expanded dramatically in recent years, and more experience has accumulated on the design and implementation of zinc intervention programs. Therefore, the Steering Committee of the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) completed a second IZiNCG technical document that reexamines the latest information on the intervention strategies that have been developed to enhance zinc nutrition and control zinc deficiency. In particular, the document reviews the current evidence regarding preventive zinc supplementation and the role of zinc as adjunctive therapy for selected infections, zinc fortification, and dietary diversification or modification strategies, including the promotion and protection of breastfeeding and biofortification. The purposes of this introductory paper are to summarize new guidelines on the assessment of population zinc status, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and IZiNCG, and to provide an overview on several new advances in zinc metabolism. The following papers will then review the intervention strategies individually.

  11. Effect of phosphorus and organic matter on zinc availability on rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, G.N.; Kamath, M.B.; Motsara, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Pot culture experiment was conducted on grey brown podzolic soil (Palampur) and Tarai soil (Pantnagar) to study the influence of the addition of organic matter, phosphorus and zinc on the uptake and utilization of zinc by rice crop. In podzolic soils the combined application of Zn-P and Zn-organic matter resulted in reduced zinc content in crop but the crop yield was not affected. The uptake and utilization of applied zinc increased with P application. In Tarai soil, crop response to Zn, P and organic matter was obtained when applied separately. A negative zinc x P and zinc x organic matter interaction was obtained on yield. However, zinc content of the crop increased due to the application of P, organic matter and zinc. The uptake and utilization of applied zinc increased with P application. The analysis of soils after crop harvest indicated an increased amount of 0.1 N HCl extractable zinc in soils treated with zinc in Tarai soils while in podzolic soil from Palampur, the available zinc increased only under the combined application of zinc and P. (author)

  12. Electrochemical assessing corrosion inhibiting effects of zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) as a modified zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderi, R.; Attar, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Undesirable anti-corrosion performance of zinc phosphate pigment, the classical chromate replacement, has led researchers to take modification into account. Polyphosphate-based anti-corrosion pigments as a result of modification of zinc orthophosphate have been found to function much more efficiently. This study aimed to evaluate performance of steel samples immersed in 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution-containing zinc aluminum polyphosphate (ZAPP) pigment extract compared to those involving conventional zinc phosphate (ZP) pigment extract and also no pigment (blank) using electrochemical tests such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and linear polarization (LP) as well as surface analysis. Impedance spectra and polarization curves revealed two different trends, showing the superiority of ZAPP pigment. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), presence of a precipitated layer on the surface was confirmed when steel sample was immersed into the solution-containing ZAPP

  13. Zinc movement in the brain under kainate-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Hirate, Maki; Tamano, Haruna; Oku, Naoto

    2003-05-01

    On the basis of the evidence that elimination of 65Zn from the brain of epilepsy (EL) mice is facilitated by induction of seizures, zinc movement in the brain was studied in mice injected with kainate (12 mg/kg x 3), which exhibited status epilepticus within 120 min after the last injection of kainate. Zinc concentrations in the brain were determined 24 h after the last injection of kainate. Zinc concentrations in the hippocampus, amygdala and cerebral cortex, in which zinc-containing glutamatergic neuron terminals exist, were significantly decreased by the treatment with kainate, while that in the cerebellum was not decreased. Timm's stain in the brain was extensively attenuated 24 h after the last injection of kainate. These results indicate that zinc homeostasis in the brain is affected by kainate-induced seizures. In the hippocampus of rats injected with kainate (10 mg/kg), furthermore, the release of zinc and glutamate into the extracellular fluid was studied using in vivo microdialysis. The levels of zinc and glutamate in the perfusate were increased along with seizure severity after injection of kainate. It is likely that zinc concentration in the synaptic vesicles is decreased by the excess excitation of glutamatergic neurons. The present study suggests that the excessive release of zinc and glutamate from the neuron terminals under kainate-induced seizures is associated with the loss of zinc from the brain.

  14. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  15. Zinc oxide's hierarchical nanostructure and its photocatalytic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjwal, Muzafar Ahmed; Sheikh, Faheem A.; Barakat, Nasser A. M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a new hierarchical nanostructure that consists of zinc oxide (ZnO) was produced by the electrospinning process followed by a hydrothermal technique. First, electrospinning of a colloidal solution that consisted of zinc nanoparticles, zinc acetate dihydrate and poly(vinyl alcohol...

  16. Efficacy of highly bioavailable zinc from fortified water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetti, Valeria; Kujinga, Prosper; Mitchikpè, C.E.S.; Zeder, Christophe; Tay, Fabian; Tossou, Félicien; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Zimmermann, Michael B.; Moretti, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zinc deficiency and contaminated water are major contributors to diarrhea in developing countries. Food fortification with zinc has not shown clear benefits, possibly because of low zinc absorption from inhibitory food matrices. We used a novel pointof-use water ultrafiltration device

  17. Zinc deficiency is common in several psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Grønli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4% and the patient group (41.0% (χ(2 = 44.81, df = 1, p<0.001. In a logistic model with relevant predictors, zinc deficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2 = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. LIMITATIONS: This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points

  18. Zinc removal from wastewater by complexation-microfiltration process

    OpenAIRE

    Trivunac Katarina; Sekulić Zoran; Stevanović Slavica

    2012-01-01

    As a result of its wide industrial applications, zinc has become an important contaminant in aquatic environment since it is a toxic heavy metal and some of its compounds such as zinc arsenate and zinc cyanide, may be extremely hazardous. Therefore, there is a growing need for developing simple methods capable of separating and recovering trace zinc from environmental waters. Nowadays, the ultra and microfiltration method for trace metals removal from waters by the addition of water-sol...

  19. Zinc Bioavailability from Phytate-Rich Foods and Zinc Supplements. Modeling the Effects of Food Components with Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Donor Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Skibsted, Leif H

    2017-10-04

    Aqueous solubility of zinc phytate (K sp = (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10 -47 mol 7 /L 7 ), essential for zinc bioavailability from plant foods, was found to decrease with increasing temperature corresponding to ΔH dis of -301 ± 22 kJ/mol and ΔS dis of -1901 ± 72 J/(mol K). Binding of zinc to phytate was found to be exothermic for the stronger binding site and endothermic for the weaker binding site. The solubility of the slightly soluble zinc citrate and insoluble zinc phytate was found to be considerably enhanced by the food components with oxygen donor, nitrogen donor, and sulfur donor ligands. The driving force for the enhanced solubility is mainly due to the complex formation between zinc and the investigated food components rather than ligand exchange and ternary complex formation as revealed by quantum mechanical calculations and isothermal titration calorimetry. Histidine and citrate are promising ligands for improving zinc absorption from phytate-rich foods.

  20. Zinc Levels Modulate Lifespan through Multiple Longevity Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Kumar

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace metal that has integral roles in numerous biological processes, including enzymatic function, protein structure, and cell signaling pathways. Both excess and deficiency of zinc can lead to detrimental effects on development and metabolism, resulting in abnormalities and disease. We altered the zinc balance within Caenorhabditis elegans to examine how changes in zinc burden affect longevity and healthspan in an invertebrate animal model. We found that increasing zinc levels in vivo with excess dietary zinc supplementation decreased the mean and maximum lifespan, whereas reducing zinc levels in vivo with a zinc-selective chelator increased the mean and maximum lifespan in C. elegans. We determined that the lifespan shortening effects of excess zinc required expression of DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1 proteins, whereas the lifespan lengthening effects of the reduced zinc may be partially dependent upon this set of proteins. Furthermore, reducing zinc levels led to greater nuclear localization of DAF-16 and enhanced dauer formation compared to controls, suggesting that the lifespan effects of zinc are mediated in part by the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Additionally, zinc status correlated with several markers of healthspan in worms, including proteostasis, locomotion and thermotolerance, with reduced zinc levels always associated with improvements in function. Taken together, these data support a role for zinc in regulating both development and lifespan in C. elegans, and that suggest that regulation of zinc homeostasis in the worm may be an example of antagonistic pleiotropy.

  1. Zinc Levels Modulate Lifespan through Multiple Longevity Pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Barhydt, Tracy; Awasthi, Anjali; Lithgow, Gordon J.; Killilea, David W.; Kapahi, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace metal that has integral roles in numerous biological processes, including enzymatic function, protein structure, and cell signaling pathways. Both excess and deficiency of zinc can lead to detrimental effects on development and metabolism, resulting in abnormalities and disease. We altered the zinc balance within Caenorhabditis elegans to examine how changes in zinc burden affect longevity and healthspan in an invertebrate animal model. We found that increasing zinc levels in vivo with excess dietary zinc supplementation decreased the mean and maximum lifespan, whereas reducing zinc levels in vivo with a zinc-selective chelator increased the mean and maximum lifespan in C. elegans. We determined that the lifespan shortening effects of excess zinc required expression of DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1 proteins, whereas the lifespan lengthening effects of the reduced zinc may be partially dependent upon this set of proteins. Furthermore, reducing zinc levels led to greater nuclear localization of DAF-16 and enhanced dauer formation compared to controls, suggesting that the lifespan effects of zinc are mediated in part by the insulin/IGF-1 pathway. Additionally, zinc status correlated with several markers of healthspan in worms, including proteostasis, locomotion and thermotolerance, with reduced zinc levels always associated with improvements in function. Taken together, these data support a role for zinc in regulating both development and lifespan in C. elegans, and that suggest that regulation of zinc homeostasis in the worm may be an example of antagonistic pleiotropy. PMID:27078872

  2. Metallic Zinc Exhibits Optimal Biocompatibility for Bioabsorbable Endovascular Stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Patrick K.; Guillory, Roger J.; Shearier, Emily R.; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Bocks, Martin; Zhao, Feng; Goldman, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Although corrosion resistant bare metal stents are considered generally effective, their permanent presence in a diseased artery is an increasingly recognized limitation due to the potential for long-term complications. We previously reported that metallic zinc exhibited an ideal biocorrosion rate within murine aortas, thus raising the possibility of zinc as a candidate base material for endovascular stenting applications. This study was undertaken to further assess the arterial biocompatibility of metallic zinc. Metallic zinc wires were punctured and advanced into the rat abdominal aorta lumen for up to 6.5 months. This study demonstrated that metallic zinc did not provoke responses that often contribute to restenosis. Low cell densities and neointimal tissue thickness, along with tissue regeneration within the corroding implant, point to optimal biocompatibility of corroding zinc. Furthermore, the lack of progression in neointimal tissue thickness over 6.5 months or the presence of smooth muscle cells near the zinc implant suggest that the products of zinc corrosion may suppress the activities of inflammatory and smooth muscle cells. PMID:26249616

  3. [Interaction among the trace elements zinc, copper and iron after depletion and repletion of dairy cows with zinc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgessner, M; Schwarz, F J; Roth, H P; Schwarz, W A

    1978-12-01

    Imbalances in the supply with trace elements may be caused by the excessive administration of one or several elements or the insufficient administration in relation to other trace elements. This article deals with the interactions between the trace elements zinc and copper resp. zinc and iron under the conditions of the insufficient supply with Zn (6 mg per kg dry matter of the fodder) and the supply according to the demand with other trace elements (14 mg copper resp. 83 mg iron per dry matter of the fodder). For this purpose we investigated the copper, iron and zinc content of the milk and the serum of cows that were first depleted of zinc through a semi-synthetic zinc deficiency diet and then repleted with extra allowances of zinc. The closest connections exist between the copper and zinc content of the milk. Thus extreme Zn-deficiency feeding conditions the decreased Zn-content on the one hand and increased Cu-content on the other. In contrast to this, the cows' Zn-excretion in the milk increases after Zn-repletion whereas the Cu-content decreases. This shows a distinctly negative correlation. A loose connection could only be detected for the Cu- and Zn-content of the serum. Though the Zn-content changed considerably in dependence on the Zn-supply, the Cu-content remained largely uninfluenced. The Fe-content of both milk and serum shows no interaction with the nutritive Zn-supply. Only after 19 test weeks of extreme Zn-deficiency could a slight increase of the Fe-concentration be indicated.

  4. Zinc Deficiency‐Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Majzoub‐Altweck, M.; Trefz, F.M.; Seifert, C.; Knubben‐Schweizer, G.; Fries, R.; Hermanns, W.; Gollnick, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency‐like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. Objectives To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Animals Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Methods Prospective and retrospective case series. Results The 9 calves (age: 5–53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. Conclusions and Clinical Importance ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. PMID:29424482

  5. Neurotoxicity of dental amalgam is mediated by zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobner, D; Asrari, M

    2003-03-01

    The use of dental amalgam is controversial largely because it contains mercury. We tested whether amalgam caused toxicity in neuronal cultures and whether that toxicity was caused by mercury. In this study, we used cortical cell cultures to show for the first time that amalgam causes nerve cell toxicity in culture. However, the toxicity was not blocked by the mercury chelator, 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulphonate (DMPS), but was blocked by the metal chelator, calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (CaEDTA). DMPS was an effective mercury chelator in this system, since it blocked mercury toxicity. Of the components that comprise amalgam (mercury, zinc, tin, copper, and silver), only zinc neurotoxicity was blocked by CaEDTA. These results indicate that amalgam is toxic to nerve cells in culture by releasing zinc. While zinc is known to be neurotoxic, ingestion of zinc is not a major concern because zinc levels in the body are tightly regulated.

  6. Large zinc cation occupancy of octahedral sites in mechanically activated zinc ferrite powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, S. A.; Harris, V. G.; Hamdeh, H. H.; Ho, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    The cation site occupancy of a mechanically activated nanocrystalline zinc ferrite powder was determined as (Zn 0.55 2+ Fe 0.18 3+ ) tet [Zr 0.45 2+ Fe 1.82 3+ ] oct O 4 through analysis of extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements, showing a large redistribution of cations between sites compared to normal zinc ferrite samples. The overpopulation of cations in the octahedral sites was attributed to the ascendance in importance of the ionic radii over the crystal energy and bonding coordination in determining which interstitial sites are occupied in this structurally disordered powder. Slight changes are observed in the local atomic environment about the zinc cations, but not the iron cations, with respect to the spinel structure. The presence of Fe 3+ on both sites is consistent with the measured room temperature magnetic properties. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  7. Kinetic analysis of zinc metabolism and its regulation in normal humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastney, M.E.; Aamodt, R.L.; Rumble, W.F.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc metabolism was studied in 32 normal volunteers after oral or intravenous administration of 65 Zn. Data were collected from the blood, urine, feces, whole body, and over the liver and thigh regions for 9 mo while the subjects consumed their regular diets (containing 10 mg Zn ion/day) and for an additional 9 mo while the subjects received an exogenous oral supplement of 100 mg Zn ion/day. Data from each subject were fitted by a compartmental model for zinc metabolism that was developed previously for patients with taste and smell dysfunction. These data from normal subjects were used to determine the absorption, distribution, and excretion of zinc and the mass of zinc in erythrocytes, liver, thigh, and whole body. By use of additional data obtained from the present study, the model was refined further such that a large compartment, which was previously determined to contain 90% of the body zinc, was subdivided into two compartments to represent zinc in muscle and bone. When oral zinc intake was increased 11-fold three new sites of regulation of zinc metabolism were identified in addition to the two sites previously defined in patients with taste and smell dysfunction (absorption of zinc from gut and excretion of zinc in urine). The three new sites are exchange of zinc with erythrocytes, release of zinc by muscle, and secretion of zinc into gut. Regulation at these five sites appears to maintain some tissue concentrations of zinc when dietary zinc increases

  8. Two zinc-binding domains in the transporter AdcA from Streptococcus pyogenes facilitate high-affinity binding and fast transport of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kun; Li, Nan; Wang, Hongcui; Cao, Xin; He, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Bing; He, Qing-Yu; Zhang, Gong; Sun, Xuesong

    2018-04-20

    Zinc is an essential metal in bacteria. One important bacterial zinc transporter is AdcA, and most bacteria possess AdcA homologs that are single-domain small proteins due to better efficiency of protein biogenesis. However, a double-domain AdcA with two zinc-binding sites is significantly overrepresented in Streptococcus species, many of which are major human pathogens. Using molecular simulation and experimental validations of AdcA from Streptococcus pyogenes , we found here that the two AdcA domains sequentially stabilize the structure upon zinc binding, indicating an organization required for both increased zinc affinity and transfer speed. This structural organization appears to endow Streptococcus species with distinct advantages in zinc-depleted environments, which would not be achieved by each single AdcA domain alone. This enhanced zinc transport mechanism sheds light on the significance of the evolution of the AdcA domain fusion, provides new insights into double-domain transporter proteins with two binding sites for the same ion, and indicates a potential target of antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic Streptococcus species. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  10. Histidine protects against zinc and nickel toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T Murphy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element involved in a wide range of biological processes and human diseases. Zinc excess is deleterious, and animals require mechanisms to protect against zinc toxicity. To identify genes that modulate zinc tolerance, we performed a forward genetic screen for Caenorhabditis elegans mutants that were resistant to zinc toxicity. Here we demonstrate that mutations of the C. elegans histidine ammonia lyase (haly-1 gene promote zinc tolerance. C. elegans haly-1 encodes a protein that is homologous to vertebrate HAL, an enzyme that converts histidine to urocanic acid. haly-1 mutant animals displayed elevated levels of histidine, indicating that C. elegans HALY-1 protein is an enzyme involved in histidine catabolism. These results suggest the model that elevated histidine chelates zinc and thereby reduces zinc toxicity. Supporting this hypothesis, we demonstrated that dietary histidine promotes zinc tolerance. Nickel is another metal that binds histidine with high affinity. We demonstrated that haly-1 mutant animals are resistant to nickel toxicity and dietary histidine promotes nickel tolerance in wild-type animals. These studies identify a novel role for haly-1 and histidine in zinc metabolism and may be relevant for other animals.

  11. Properties of ice-cream fortified with zinc and Lactobacillus casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisari, Hamid R; Ahadi, Leila; Khezli, Sanaz; Dehnavi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the possible effects of zinc on physicochemical properties of ice cream and the survival of Lactobacillus casei during a 90 days storage at -18°C was investigated. Samples were divided into four experimental groups as follows: control, zinc fortified ice cream, probiotic ice cream, zinc fortified and probiotic ice cream. The physicochemical, texture, organoleptic properties and the survival of probiotics, were investigated. Results showed that the addition of zinc did not affect the textural properties of ice creams. Viscosity and pH were independently decreased in all groups in the presence of zinc. A significant increase in the lipid oxidation rate especially in the zinc fortified group was also observed. The probiotic counts were maintained above the least advised quantities (106 cfu/g) which were subsequently reduced following the three months of storage. In the zinc fortified samples, the counts were higher compared to the other groups with no zinc addition. The addition of probiotics and zinc had no significant effect on the sensory properties of ice cream. As a final conclusion, the commercial production of zinc fortified ice cream is recommended.

  12. Zinc oxide tetrapod: a morphology with multifunctional applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide has emerged as a material of great interest due to its unique optical, electrical and magnetic properties. This review comprehensively covers the various aspects of zinc oxide tetrapods. Tetrapod is a one dimensional zinc oxide nano-microstructure and has been found to have very promising applications in diverse fields. The growth model, properties, synthesis methods and variations in the tetrapod morphology by varying the synthesis conditions have been discussed. The promising applications of zinc oxide tetrapod morphology have been also discussed in detail. (review)

  13. Bioavailability of zinc to aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:Arbuscular mycorrhiza, Exudation, Oryza sativa , Rhizosphere, Rice, Soil, ZincZinc deficiency is a wide-spread constraint for crop production and human health. This thesis should contribute to alleviation of Zn deficiency problems and aimed at identifying soil

  14. Lead and Zinc pollution of soils in the Kabwe lead-zinc mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musonda, B.M.; Tembo, F

    2004-01-01

    Lead and Zinc pollution of soils related to mining activities in Kabwe district is one of the major environmental problems in Zambia today. In this study, we investigated the distribution of lead and zinc in topsoil and subsoil. Samples were collected from topsoil(0-20cm) and subsoil(20-50cm)at predetermined sites using a 5km x 5km regional grid and a 500m x 500m local grid. After preparation 260 local and 200 regional samples were analysed for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The background levels of cold HNO3 extractable lead and zinc are 50mg/kg and 70mg/kg respectively. The degree of Pb and Zn contamination of the soils varies with proximity of the soils to Kabwe mining centre. The content of Pb and Zn in topsoil that is very close to the mine is up to 1.6% and 3.9% respectively while soils that are very far from the mine generally contain less than 10mg/kg Pb and 20mg/kg Zn. The heavy metal contamination patterns in soils adjacent to the mine have been formed by wind dispersion of particulate matter and dry deposition. The risk of exposure of humans to lead and zinc is very high in areas that are adjacent to the mining centre. (author)

  15. Sorption of zinc on human teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helal, A.; Amin, H.; Alian, G.

    1997-01-01

    Zinc containing dental amalgams are sometimes used as fillings by dentists. The freshly mixed mass of the amalgam alloy and liquid mercury packed or condensed into a prepared tooth cavity. Zinc has been included in amalgams alloys up to 2% as an aid in manufacturing by helping to produce clean sound castings of the ingots. Although such restorations have a relatively long service life, they are subject to corrosion and galvanic action, thus releasing metallic products into the oral environment. The aim of this paper is to investigate the uptake (sorption) of Zinc ionic species on human teeth using the radioactive tracer technique. For this purpose the isotope Zn-65 produced from pile-irradiation of zinc metal was used. The various liquids studied were drinking water (tap water), tea, coffee, red tea and chicken soup. Sorption was studied through immersion of a single human tooth (extracted) in each of these liquids

  16. Enrichment and identification of the most abundant zinc binding proteins in developing barley grains by Zinc-IMAC capture and nano LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Vincze, Eva

    2018-01-01

    exhibited zinc binding. In the aleurone/subaleurone, zinc affinity captured proteins were late abundant embryogenesis proteins, dehydrins, many isoforms of non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and alpha amylase trypsin inhibitor. Conclusions: We have shown evidence that abundant barley grain proteins have......Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc...

  17. Comparison of the Effects of Pre-training Administration of Zinc Oxide and ‎Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Long-term Memory of Adult Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Issapare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Zinc oxide nanoparticles are one of the most widely used nanoparticles in fields of industry, medicine, pharmaceutical sciences, cosmetics, and nutrition. Multiple studies have demonstrated the negative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the nervous system, while others have revealed their enhancing effects on the activity of nerve cells, involved in memory processes. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide on long-term memory of mice. METHODS: In this experimental study, 49 NMRI adult male mice, with the mean weight of 25±5 g, were randomly divided into seven groups, each consisting of seven mice: control group, three treatment groups receiving zinc oxide nanoparticles (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg of  zinc oxide nanoparticles, respectively, and three treatment groups receiving zinc oxide (1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg of zinc oxide, respectively. Intraperitoneal injections were performed before training (electric shock. Passive avoidance memory of mice was evaluated, using the Step-Down device. The latency time to descend the platform was regarded as an indicator of memory on days 1, 3, and 7 following training. FINDINGS: Pre-training administration of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc oxide at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg yielded no effects on the motor activity of mice. However, a significant decline was reported in the latency time to descend the platform on days 1, 3, and 7 following training (58±17, 45±13, and 39±14 in the zinc oxide group and 93±18, 62±12, and 14±3 in the nano zinc oxide group, respectively (p<0.01 however, the dosage of 5 mg/kg had less significant short-term effects (130±38, 49±14, and 68±10 in the zinc oxide group and 132±46, 41±13, and 58±24 in the nano zinc oxide group, respectively. Also, the dosage of 1 mg/kg was almost ineffective. CONCLUSION: The results showed that weakened long-term memory, caused by zinc oxide administration, is not

  18. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Rostami Mogaddam

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Vitiligo is an acquired, idiopathic disorder characterized by circumscribed depigmented macules and patches, which affects approximately 0.1–2% of the general population worldwide. Zinc is an essential trace element that is necessary for growth and development at all stages of life. Some studies have reported an association between serum zinc levels and vitiligo. Aim : To measure the serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo compared to healthy subjects. Material and methods : One hundred patients with vitiligo and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic. The two groups were matched for age and sex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results : The mean serum level of zinc in vitiligo patients and controls was 80.11 ±17.10 µg/dl and 96.10 ±16.16 µg/dl, respectively. The serum zinc level in patients with vitiligo was significantly lower than in healthy controls (p = 0.0001. Conclusions : The results of our study revealed a significant association between vitiligo and serum zinc levels. A relative decrease in the serum zinc level in vitiligo patients can highlight the role of zinc in the pathogenesis of vitiligo, and large-scale studies need to be conducted to confirm these findings and assess the effect of oral zinc supplements in patients with low zinc levels.

  19. Effect of zinc supplements on the intestinal absorption of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Rubio, N.; Kramer, L.; Norris, C.; Osis, D.

    1987-01-01

    Pharmacologic doses of zinc are widely used as zinc supplements. As calcium and zinc may compete for common absorption sites, a study was carried out on the effect of a pharmacologic dose of zinc on the intestinal absorption of calcium in adult males. The analyzed dietary zinc intake in the control studies was normal, averaging 14.6 mg/day. During the high zinc study, 140 mg zinc as the sulfate was added daily for time periods ranging from 17 to 71 days. The studies were carried out during both a low calcium intake averaging 230 mg/day and during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day. Calcium absorption studies were carried out during the normal and high zinc intake by using an oral tracer dose of Ca-47 and determining plasma levels and urinary and fecal excretions of Ca-47. The study has shown that, during zinc supplementation, the intestinal absorption of calcium was significantly lower during a low calcium intake than in the control study, 39.3% vs 61% respectively, p less than 0.001. However, during a normal calcium intake of 800 mg/day, the high zinc intake had no significant effect on the intestinal absorption of calcium. These studies have shown that the high zinc intake decreased the intestinal absorption of calcium during a low calcium intake but not during a normal calcium intake

  20. Zinc injection in German PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, K.

    2004-01-01

    Operating experience acquired at PWR NNPs shows that zinc injection at low concentrations of 5 ppb is a very effective source term reduction measure. This method does not lead to any operating restrictions or other negative effects on plant systems and components. The nuclear industry has been very successful in reducing radiation exposures within the past two decades. Annual exposures could be significantly decreased and are now at a level of around 1 man-Sv per plant and year. This great success can mainly be attributed to the general commitment of plant operators to maintaining radiation exposures of workers in the controlled access area as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA principle). The ALARA principle, of course, also implies evaluation of the economic benefit of radiation protection measures. Radiation source term reduction has drawn increasing attention of plant operators in recent years. For the new PWRs cobalt-based alloys in the primary system have successively been eliminated already at the design and construction phase within the last decade. Use of wear-resistant cobalt-free substitute materials in combination with the general use of advanced alloys for the steam generator tubing of PWRs resulted in low values for the two most common sources of plant radiation fields, namely 58 Co and 60 Co. Investigations showed that the beneficial effect of zinc can be related to its high affinity for mixed spinel oxide phases, resulting in the following two basic effects: -Zinc is incorporated preferentially into the oxide layer on primary system surfaces and thus reduces pickup of 58 Co and 60 Co and - Zinc can displace cobalt isotopes from existing oxide layers. In German PWRs with Incoloy 800 steam generator tubing material (Ni-content -32%), the observed reductions correspond to a decrease in dose rates of around 10 to 15% per year and thus follow, as predicted, the half-life time of 60 Co. Overall reductions in high radiation areas are now in the range of

  1. Zinc Deficiency-Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenmayer, M C; Jung, S; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Trefz, F M; Seifert, C; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Fries, R; Hermanns, W; Gollnick, N S

    2018-03-01

    Zinc deficiency-like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Prospective and retrospective case series. The 9 calves (age: 5-53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni; Dona, Artemis; Papoutsis, John; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2006-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 ± 23.56 μg/dl and 77.11 ± 17.67 μg/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries

  3. Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouremenou-Dona, Eleni [A' Hospital of IKA, Athens (Greece); Dona, Artemis [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: artedona@med.uoa.gr; Papoutsis, John [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece); Spiliopoulou, Chara [Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Medical School, University of Athens, M. Asias 75, Goudi, 11527 Athens (Greece)

    2006-04-15

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations of 506 (414 males and 92 females) apparently healthy Greek blood donors aged 18-60 years old were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean copper and zinc concentrations were 115.46 {+-} 23.56 {mu}g/dl and 77.11 {+-} 17.67 {mu}g/dl, respectively. The mean value for copper and zinc in females was higher than in males, although the difference for zinc was smaller than the one observed for copper. When the subjects were divided into various age groups there appeared to be some increase in copper concentration as a function of age, whereas zinc concentration did not change. There were no significant variations in serum copper and zinc concentrations due to place of residence, occupation and socioeconomic status. This study is the first one evaluating the serum status of copper and zinc in healthy Greeks and it has shown that they are at the highest concentration range for copper and the lowest for zinc compared to literature data on copper and zinc levels for various countries.

  4. A shortcut hydrothermal strategy for the synthesis of zinc nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jianqiang; Chen Zhiwu; Xie Jingsi; Yu Ying

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of metal nanowires has opened many new possibilities for designing ideal building blocks for future nanodevices. In this work, zinc nanowires with lengths of micrometre magnitude were synthesized in high yield by a shortcut hydrothermal strategy. The synthesis involves a template-free, non-seed and catalyst-free solution-phase process to high-quality zinc nanowires, which is low-cost and proceeds at relatively short time. In this process, zinc nanowires were prepared through the reduction of zinc acetate with absolute ethanol in the presence of silver nitrate under hydrothermal atmosphere. The strategy suggests that silver ion plays a vital role in the synthesis of zinc nanowires, without which the substituted product is zinc oxide nanowires. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the final formation of zinc nanowires and component transformation from zinc oxide nanowires in the introduction of silver ion. We believe that with the efficient synthesis, longer zinc nanowires can be fabricated and may find potential applications for superconductors and nanodevices. (fast track communication)

  5. The immune system and the impact of zinc during aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Hajo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The trace element zinc is essential for the immune system, and zinc deficiency affects multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. There are remarkable parallels in the immunological changes during aging and zinc deficiency, including a reduction in the activity of the thymus and thymic hormones, a shift of the T helper cell balance toward T helper type 2 cells, decreased response to vaccination, and impaired functions of innate immune cells. Many studies confirm a decline of zinc levels with age. Most of these studies do not classify the majority of elderly as zinc deficient, but even marginal zinc deprivation can affect immune function. Consequently, oral zinc supplementation demonstrates the potential to improve immunity and efficiently downregulates chronic inflammatory responses in the elderly. These data indicate that a wide prevalence of marginal zinc deficiency in elderly people may contribute to immunosenescence.

  6. Prevalence of zinc deficiency among primary school children in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Few zinc-rich sources appeared in the diet that was predominantly plant-based. Mean dietary zinc intake was 4.6±2.2 mg/day. The mean value of serum zinc was 66.4±21.5 μg/dL, with 46% of the children having values less than the 70 μg/dL cutoff. The findings indicate a high risk of zinc deficiency and suboptimal zinc ...

  7. Adhesion of Zinc Hot-dip Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is focused on verification of quality adhesion of zinc coating. It describes elements which affect quality and adhesive solidity within the coating. For assessment itself it will be neccessary to get know the basic elements which can affect adhesion of hot-dip coating which will be essential for choosing suitable samples for verification itself. These elements characterise acoustic responses during delamination coating. They affect elements influencing progress of signal. In research there is also a summary of existing methods for testing adhesion of coatings. As a result a new proposal of a new method comes out for purpose of quality testing of adhesion zinc hot-dip coating. The results of verification of this method are put to scientific analysis and findings lead to assessment of proposed method and its application in technical practise.The goal of this contribution is also include to proposed methodology testing adhesion zinc coating by nondestructive diagnostic method of acoustic emission (AE, which would monitor characterise progress of coating delamination of hot-dip zinc from basic material in way to adhesion tests would be practicable in situ. It can be enabled by analysis and assessment of results acquired by method AE and its application within verification of new method of adhesion anti-corrosive zinc coating.

  8. Zinc-based electrolyte compositions, and related electrochemical processes and articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniajanski, Sergei; Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2018-02-20

    An aqueous electrolyte composition is described, including a zinc salt based on zinc acetate or zinc glocolate. The saturation concentration of zinc in the electrolyte composition is in the range of about 2.5M to about 3.5M. The composition also contains at least one salt of a monovalent cation. The molar ratio of zinc to the monovalent cation is about 1:2. An aqueous zinc electroplating bath, containing the aqueous electrolyte composition, is also disclosed, along with a method for the electrochemical deposition of zinc onto a substrate surface, using the electroplating bath. Related flow batteries are also described, including a catholyte, as well as an anolyte based on the aqueous electrolyte composition, with a membrane between the catholyte and the anolyte.

  9. Zinc supplements for preventing otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulani, Anjana; Sachdev, Harshpal S

    2014-06-29

    Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear and is usually caused by infection. It affects people of all ages but is particularly common in young children. Around 164 million people worldwide have long-term hearing loss caused by this condition, 90% of them in low-income countries. As zinc supplements prevent pneumonia in disadvantaged children, we wanted to investigate whether zinc supplements could also prevent otitis media. To evaluate whether zinc supplements prevent otitis media in adults and children of different ages. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to February week 4, 2014) and EMBASE (1974 to March 2014). Randomised, placebo-controlled trials of zinc supplements given at least once a week for at least a month for preventing otitis media. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and methodological quality of the included trials and extracted and analysed data. We summarised results using risk ratios (RRs) or rate ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. We combined trial results where appropriate. No new trials were identified for inclusion in this update. We identified 12 trials for inclusion, 10 of which contributed outcomes data. There were a total of 6820 participants. In trials of healthy children living in low-income communities, two trials did not demonstrate a significant difference between the zinc-supplemented and placebo groups in the numbers of participants experiencing an episode of definite otitis media during follow-up (3191 participants); another trial showed a significantly lower incidence rate of otitis media in the zinc group (rate ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 0.79, n = 1621). A small trial of 39 infants undergoing treatment for severe malnutrition suggested a benefit of zinc for the mean number of episodes of otitis media (mean difference (MD) -1.12 episodes, 95% CI -2.21 to -0.03). Zinc supplements did not seem to cause any serious adverse

  10. Large zinc cation occupancy of octahedral sites in mechanically activated zinc ferrite powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, S. A. [Center for Electromagnetic Research, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Harris, V. G. [Complex Materials Section, Code 6342, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Hamdeh, H. H. [Department of Physics, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260 (United States); Ho, J. C. [Department of Physics, Wichita State University, Wichita, Kansas 67260 (United States)

    2000-05-08

    The cation site occupancy of a mechanically activated nanocrystalline zinc ferrite powder was determined as (Zn{sub 0.55}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 0.18}{sup 3+}){sub tet}[Zr{sub 0.45}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 1.82}{sup 3+}]{sub oct}O{sub 4} through analysis of extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements, showing a large redistribution of cations between sites compared to normal zinc ferrite samples. The overpopulation of cations in the octahedral sites was attributed to the ascendance in importance of the ionic radii over the crystal energy and bonding coordination in determining which interstitial sites are occupied in this structurally disordered powder. Slight changes are observed in the local atomic environment about the zinc cations, but not the iron cations, with respect to the spinel structure. The presence of Fe{sup 3+} on both sites is consistent with the measured room temperature magnetic properties. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  11. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  12. Studies on the fate of applied zinc and its distribution among different chemical pools using zinc-65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Sultana; Rahaman, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to study the fate of applied zinc and its distribution among different soil zinc fractions in 15 surface soils (0 to 30 cm depth) of Bangladesh. 65 Zn was used in the study. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Directed spatial organization of zinc oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Julia [Albuquerque, NM; Liu, Jun [Richland, WA

    2009-02-17

    A method for controllably forming zinc oxide nanostructures on a surface via an organic template, which is formed using a stamp prepared from pre-defined relief structures, inking the stamp with a solution comprising self-assembled monolayer (SAM) molecules, contacting the stamp to the surface, such as Ag sputtered on Si, and immersing the surface with the patterned SAM molecules with a zinc-containing solution with pH control to form zinc oxide nanostructures on the bare Ag surface.

  14. Protection against ionising radiation and synergism with thiols by zinc aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floersheim, G.L.; Floersheim, P.

    1986-01-01

    Pre-treatment with zinc aspartate protected mice against the lethal effects of radiation and raised the LD 50 from 8 gy to 12.2 Gy. Zinc chloride and zinc sulphate were clearly less active. The radioprotective effect of zinc aspartate was equivalent to cysteamine and slightly inferior to S,2-aminoethylisothiourea (AET). Zinc aspartate displayed a similar therapeutic index to the thiols but could be applied at an earlier time before irradiation. Synergistic effects occurred with the combined administration of zinc aspartate and thiols. By giving zinc aspartate with cysteamine, the LD 50 was increased to 13.25 Gy and, by combining it in the optimal protocol with AET, to 17.3 Gy. The radioprotection by zinc and its synergism with thiols is explained by the stabilisation of thiols through the formation of zinc complexes. (author)

  15. Efficiency of zinc incorporated urea on wheat in two Bihar soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutatkar, V.K.; Parik, B.L.; Sahay, R.N.; Dhua, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of zinc application as zinc sulphate alone and incorporated with urea (granulated zincated urea) on wheat was compared in pot culture study using 62 Zn as tracer. Two typical alluvial calcareous soils from Samastipur and Dholi, Bihar were used for the study. The crop responded to zinc application and the increase in dry matter yield was significant. Total uptake and concentration of zinc in plant, zinc percent derived from fertilizer source and its utilization, were non-significant between the two sources, although there was a significant differences in all the parameters because of the higher dose of zinc application. Relative efficiency of zincated urea was slightly higher in Samastipur soil having low available zinc and similar to zinc sulphate in Dholi soil containing medium amount of available zinc. The field experiment carried out at Sindri (Bihar) confirmed the above finding. (author)

  16. Differences in zinc status between patients with osteoarthritis and osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Janne; Møller-Madsen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Poul Torben

    2009-01-01

    Zinc has been suggested to play an important role in the development of osteoporosis, whereas the influence of zinc on osteoarthritis has attracted much less attention. The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the zinc status and bone turnover, density, and biomechanical properties...... of osteoarthritic and osteoporotic patients. The study comprised 40 women who underwent hip replacement due to osteoarthritis or osteoporosis. Serum and urine zinc content, and bone resorption markers and serum bone formation markers were determined. The unaffected hip and the exarticulated affected femoral head...... underwent DEXA scanning. Bone biopsies were obtained from the femoral heads and the biomechanical properties were determined. The biopsies were ashed and the bone zinc content was ascertained. Osteoarthritic patients had significantly higher serum zinc concentrations and lower urine zinc concentrations than...

  17. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Jackie H. [School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University, P.O. Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280 (Australia) and Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia) and School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)]. E-mail jhmyers@deakin.edu.au; Gunthorpe, Leanne [Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia)]. E-mail Leanne.Gunthorpe@dpi.vic.gov.au; Allinson, Graeme [School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University, P.O. Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280 (Australia)]. E-mail graemea@deakin.edu.au; Duda, Susan [Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia)]. E-mail Susan.Duda@dpi.vic.gov.au

    2006-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact.

  18. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Jackie H. . E-mail jhmyers@deakin.edu.au; Gunthorpe, Leanne . E-mail Leanne.Gunthorpe@dpi.vic.gov.au; Allinson, Graeme . E-mail graemea@deakin.edu.au; Duda, Susan . E-mail Susan.Duda@dpi.vic.gov.au

    2006-01-01

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact

  19. Potential ecological risk assessment and predicting zinc accumulation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Agnieszka; Wieczorek, Jerzy; Mazurek, Ryszard; Urbański, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate zinc content in the studied soils; evaluate the efficiency of geostatistics in presenting spatial variability of zinc in the soils; assess bioavailable forms of zinc in the soils and to assess soil-zinc binding ability; and to estimate the potential ecological risk of zinc in soils. The study was conducted in southern Poland, in the Malopolska Province. This area is characterized by a great diversity of geological structures and types of land use and intensity of industrial development. The zinc content was affected by soil factors, and the type of land use (arable lands, grasslands, forests, wastelands). A total of 320 soil samples were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties (texture, pH, organic C content, total and available Zn content). Based on the obtained data, assessment of the ecological risk of zinc was conducted using two methods: potential ecological risk index and hazard quotient. Total Zn content in the soils ranged from 8.27 to 7221 mg kg -1 d.m. Based on the surface semivariograms, the highest variability of zinc in the soils was observed from northwest to southeast. The point sources of Zn contamination were located in the northwestern part of the area, near the mining-metallurgical activity involving processing of zinc and lead ores. These findings were confirmed by the arrangement of semivariogram surfaces and bivariate Moran's correlation coefficients. The content of bioavailable forms of zinc was between 0.05 and 46.19 mg kg -1 d.m. (0.01 mol dm -3 CaCl 2 ), and between 0.03 and 71.54 mg kg -1 d.m. (1 mol dm -3 NH 4 NO 3 ). Forest soils had the highest zinc solubility, followed by arable land, grassland and wasteland. PCA showed that organic C was the key factor to control bioavailability of zinc in the soils. The extreme, very high and medium zinc accumulation was found in 69% of studied soils. There is no ecological risk of zinc to living organisms in the study area, and in 90

  20. Retention of zinc and calcium from the human colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, B.C.; Cederblad, A.; Kivistoe, B.S.; Stenquist, B.; Andersson, H.

    1986-01-01

    Colonic retention of zinc and calcium was studied after installation during colonoscopy of 30 mumol of zinc and 6.4 mmol of calcium labeled with 65 Zn and 47 Ca, and measurement of the whole-body retention of the radionuclides. After cecal installation in nine patients, retention (day 13) of zinc was 3.5 +/- 2.1% (mean +/- SD) and of calcium 3.5 +/- 2.7%. The calculated mean absorption was 4.1% for zinc and 14.1% for calcium. Application at the hepatic flexure in four patients resulted in a mean retention (day 13) of 1.2% for zinc and 0.6% for calcium. Under prevailing conditions, colonic absorption of zinc is relatively small, compared to the uptake after oral administration. Colonic absorption of calcium could, however, account for a substantial part of the total calcium uptake

  1. Intensification of zinc dissolution process in sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many high purity salts are produced by dissolving pure metal in non-oxidizing mineral acids. If hydrogen overpotential on the given metal is high, then the rate of overall process is defined by reaction of hydrogen ion reduction. This study investigated the possibility of accelerated dissolving of metal zinc in sulphuric acid by introducing copper cathode on which evolving hydrogen is much easier than on zinc. It was found out that the acceleration of zinc dissolving is possible and, at constant surface of copper cathode depends on the quality of electrical contact between copper electrode and zinc.

  2. Soybean extracts increase cell surface ZIP4 abundance and cellular zinc levels: a potential novel strategy to enhance zinc absorption by ZIP4 targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayako; Ohkura, Katsuma; Takahashi, Masakazu; Kizu, Kumiko; Narita, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Shuichi; Miyamae, Yusaku; Masuda, Seiji; Nagao, Masaya; Irie, Kazuhiro; Ohigashi, Hajime; Andrews, Glen K; Kambe, Taiho

    2015-12-01

    Dietary zinc deficiency puts human health at risk, so we explored strategies for enhancing zinc absorption. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter ZIP4 functions as an essential component of zinc absorption. Overexpression of ZIP4 protein increases zinc uptake and thereby cellular zinc levels, suggesting that food components with the ability to increase ZIP4 could potentially enhance zinc absorption via the intestine. In the present study, we used mouse Hepa cells, which regulate mouse Zip4 (mZip4) in a manner indistinguishable from that in intestinal enterocytes, to screen for suitable food components that can increase the abundance of ZIP4. Using this ZIP4-targeting strategy, two such soybean extracts were identified that were specifically able to decrease mZip4 endocytosis in response to zinc. These soybean extracts also effectively increased the abundance of apically localized mZip4 in transfected polarized Caco2 and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells and, moreover, two apically localized mZip4 acrodermatitis enteropathica mutants. Soybean components were purified from one extract and soyasaponin Bb was identified as an active component that increased both mZip4 protein abundance and zinc levels in Hepa cells. Finally, we confirmed that soyasaponin Bb is capable of enhancing cell surface endogenous human ZIP4 in human cells. Our results suggest that ZIP4 targeting may represent a new strategy to improve zinc absorption in humans. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. Zinc hexacyanoferrate film as an effective protecting layer in two-step and one-step electropolymerization of pyrrole on zinc substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pournaghi-Azar, M.H. [Electroanalytical Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: pournaghiazar@tabrizu.ac.ir; Nahalparvari, H. [Electroanalytical Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    The two-step and one-step electrosynthesis processes of polypyrrole (PPy) films on the zinc substrate are described. The two-step process includes (i) the zinc surface pretreatment with hexacyanoferrate ion in the aqueous medium in order to form a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) film non-blocking passive layer on the surface and with the view to prevent its reactivity and (ii) electropolymerization of pyrrole on the ZnHCF vertical bar Zn-modified electrode in aqueous pyrrole solution. In this context, both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic procedures were adapted, and the effect of some experimental conditions such as supporting electrolyte, pH and temperature of the solution at the zinc surface pretreatment step as well as pyrrole concentration and electrochemical techniques at the polymerization step was investigated. By optimizing the experimental conditions in both steps, we have obtained a homogeneous and strongly adherent PPy films on the zinc substrate. The one-step process is based on the use of an aqueous medium containing Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-} and pyrrole. The ferrocyanide ion passivates the substrate by formation of ZnHCF film during the electropolymerization process of pyrrole and therefore makes it possible to obtain strongly adherent PPy films, with controlled thickness, either by cyclic voltammetry or by electrolysis at constant current or constant potential without any previously treatment of the zinc electrode surface. The polypyrrole films deposited on the zinc electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) measurement.

  4. Zinc hexacyanoferrate film as an effective protecting layer in two-step and one-step electropolymerization of pyrrole on zinc substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pournaghi-Azar, M.H.; Nahalparvari, H.

    2005-01-01

    The two-step and one-step electrosynthesis processes of polypyrrole (PPy) films on the zinc substrate are described. The two-step process includes (i) the zinc surface pretreatment with hexacyanoferrate ion in the aqueous medium in order to form a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) film non-blocking passive layer on the surface and with the view to prevent its reactivity and (ii) electropolymerization of pyrrole on the ZnHCF vertical bar Zn-modified electrode in aqueous pyrrole solution. In this context, both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic procedures were adapted, and the effect of some experimental conditions such as supporting electrolyte, pH and temperature of the solution at the zinc surface pretreatment step as well as pyrrole concentration and electrochemical techniques at the polymerization step was investigated. By optimizing the experimental conditions in both steps, we have obtained a homogeneous and strongly adherent PPy films on the zinc substrate. The one-step process is based on the use of an aqueous medium containing Fe(CN) 6 4- and pyrrole. The ferrocyanide ion passivates the substrate by formation of ZnHCF film during the electropolymerization process of pyrrole and therefore makes it possible to obtain strongly adherent PPy films, with controlled thickness, either by cyclic voltammetry or by electrolysis at constant current or constant potential without any previously treatment of the zinc electrode surface. The polypyrrole films deposited on the zinc electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) measurement

  5. The anodic dissolution of zinc and zinc alloys in alkaline solution. II. Al and Zn partial dissolution from 5% Al–Zn coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, T.N.; Mokaddem, M.; Volovitch, P.; Ogle, K.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The polarization behavior of a 5 wt% Al–Zn steel coating (Galfan™) has been investigated in alkaline solution using atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC). The instantaneous Zn and Al dissolution rates were measured as a function of time during a linear scan and potential step transients. The formation rate of insoluble oxides was determined from the difference between the convoluted total current and the sum of the elemental dissolution currents. It was found that, over a wide potential range, the zinc and aluminum partial currents behaved in a similar way to pure zinc and pure aluminum independently. However, during the period in which zinc was active, aluminum dissolution was inhibited. This is attributed to the inhibitive effect of the first and/or the second states of zinc oxide that are formed during the active potential domain. The third form of zinc oxide, observed at higher potential and responsible for the passivation of zinc dissolution, does not have a measurable effect on the Al dissolution rate.

  6. Response of hippocampal mossy fiber zinc to excessive glutamate release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Atsushi; Minami, Akira; Sakurada, Naomi; Nakajima, Satoko; Oku, Naoto

    2007-01-01

    The response of hippocampal mossy fiber zinc to excessive glutamate release was examined to understand the role of the zinc in excessive excitation in the hippocampus. Extracellular zinc and glutamate concentrations during excessive stimulation with high K(+) were compared between the hippocampal CA3 and CA1 by the in vivo microdialysis. Zinc concentration in the CA3 was more increased than that in the CA1, while glutamate concentration in the CA3 was less increased than that in the CA1. It is likely that more increase in extracellular zinc is linked with less increase in extracellular glutamate in the CA3. To see zinc action in mossy fiber synapses during excessive excitation, furthermore, 1mM glutamate was regionally delivered to the stratum lucidum in the presence of zinc or CaEDTA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator, and intracellular calcium signal was measured in the CA3 pyramidal cell layer. The persistent increase in calcium signal during stimulation with glutamate was significantly attenuated in the presence of 100 microM zinc, while significantly enhanced in the presence of 1mM CaEDTA. These results suggest that zinc released from mossy fibers attenuates the increase in intracellular calcium signal in mossy fiber synapses and postsynaptic CA3 neurons after excessive inputs to dentate granular cells.

  7. Enrichment and Identification of the Most Abundant Zinc Binding Proteins in Developing Barley Grains by Zinc-IMAC Capture and Nano LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Dionisio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc binding proteins in different grain tissues, we microdissected barley grains into (1 seed coats; (2 aleurone/subaleurone; (3 embryo; and (4 endosperm. Initial screening for putative zinc binding proteins from the different tissue types was performed by fractionating proteins according to solubility (Osborne fractionation, and resolving those via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane blotting and dithizone staining. Selected protein fractions were subjected to Zn2+-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and the captured proteins were identified using nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS. Results: In the endosperm, the most abundant zinc binding proteins were the storage protein B-hordeins, gamma-, and D-hordeins, while in the embryo, 7S globulins storage proteins exhibited zinc binding. In the aleurone/subaleurone, zinc affinity captured proteins were late abundant embryogenesis proteins, dehydrins, many isoforms of non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and alpha amylase trypsin inhibitor. Conclusions: We have shown evidence that abundant barley grain proteins have been captured by Zn-IMAC, and their zinc binding properties in relationship to the possibility of zinc storage is discussed.

  8. Range-extending Zinc-air battery for electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Sherman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle model is used to evaluate a novel powertrain that is comprised of a dual energy storage system (Dual ESS. The system includes two battery packs with different chemistries and the necessary electronic controls to facilitate their coordination and optimization. Here, a lithium-ion battery pack is used as the primary pack and a Zinc-air battery as the secondary or range-extending pack. Zinc-air batteries are usually considered unsuitable for use in vehicles due to their poor cycle life, but the model demonstrates the feasibility of this technology with an appropriate control strategy, with limited cycling of the range extender pack. The battery pack sizes and the battery control strategy are configured to optimize range, cost and longevity. In simulation the vehicle performance compares favourably to a similar vehicle with a single energy storage system (Single ESS powertrain, travelling up to 75 km further under test conditions. The simulation demonstrates that the Zinc-air battery pack need only cycle 100 times to enjoy a ten-year lifespan. The Zinc-air battery model is based on leading Zinc-air battery research from literature, with some assumptions regarding achievable improvements. Having such a model clarifies the performance requirements of Zinc-air cells and improves the research community's ability to set performance targets for Zinc-air cells.

  9. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for water disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelita Asuncion S. Dimapilis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The world faces a growing challenge for adequate clean water due to threats coming from increasing demand and decreasing supply. Although there are existing technologies for water disinfection, their limitations, particularly the formation of disinfection-by-products, have led to researches on alternative methods. Zinc oxide, an essential chemical in the rubber and pharmaceutical industries, has attracted interest as antimicrobial agent. In nanoscale, zinc oxide has shown antimicrobial properties which make its potential great for various applications. This review discusses the synthesis of zinc oxide with focus on precipitation method, its antimicrobial property and the factors affecting it, disinfection mechanisms, and the potential application to water disinfection.

  10. Selection of organic acid leaching reagent for recovery of zinc and manganese from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Amiliana, R. A.; Wulandari, P. T.; Ramadhan, I. T.; Kusumadewi, F. A.

    2018-03-01

    Zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries are often used in electronic equipment that requires small quantities of power. The waste from these batteries contains valuable metals, such as zinc and manganese, that are needed in many industries and can pollute the environment if not treated properly. This paper concerns the recovery of zinc and manganese metals from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries with leaching method and using organic acid as the environmental friendly leaching reagent. Three different organic acids, namely citric acid, malic acid and aspartic acid, were used as leaching reagents and compared with sulfuric acid as non-organic acid reagents that often used for leaching. The presence of hydrogen peroxide as manganese reducers was investigated for both organic and non-organic leaching reagents. The result showed that citric acid can recover 64.37% Zinc and 51.32% Manganese, while malic acid and aspartic acid could recover less than these. Hydrogen peroxide gave the significant effect for leaching manganese with non-organic acid, but not with organic acid.

  11. Potential ecological risk assessment and predicting zinc accumulation in soils

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Agnieszka; Wieczorek, Jerzy; Mazurek, Ryszard; Urbański, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate zinc content in the studied soils; evaluate the efficiency of geostatistics in presenting spatial variability of zinc in the soils; assess bioavailable forms of zinc in the soils and to assess soil–zinc binding ability; and to estimate the potential ecological risk of zinc in soils. The study was conducted in southern Poland, in the Malopolska Province. This area is characterized by a great diversity of geological structures and types of land use and...

  12. Dandruff: How to Treat

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on the scalp. If you are Caucasian or Asian, shampoo daily and use dandruff shampoo twice a week: If using one dandruff shampoo does not bring relief, try alternating between dandruff shampoos with different active ingredients. If you are African-American, only shampoo once a week using a dandruff ...

  13. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales Zinc deficiency and its functional implications

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE L ROSADO

    1998-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructur...

  14. Electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide: thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhairusnizam Md Darus; Abdul Jalil Yeop Majlis; Anis Faridah Md Nor; Burhanuddin Kamaluddin

    1992-01-01

    Zinc oxide films have been prepared by high temperature oxidation of thermally evaporated zinc films on glass substrates. The resulting films are characterized using X-ray diffraction, optical absorption and electrical conductivity measurements. These zinc oxide films are very transparent and photoconductive

  15. Zinc, nitrogen and salinity interaction on agronomic traits and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... percentage decreased due to nitrogen, zinc and salinity in the first year but .... Analysis of variance on canola traits affected by nitrogen, zinc and salinity at ...... a result less of the latter are available for fat synthesis ... Na+ and Cl- in plant tissues, effects of nitrogen and zinc ... Zinc alleviates cadmium-induced.

  16. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  17. Effect of zinc on grain characteristics of draught-resistant rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A.M.T.; Rofail, N.B.; Eissa, E.A.; Hassan, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Through the use of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), zinc concentration was determined in kernels resulted on plants of six drought-resistant rice mutant lines fertilized with zinc sulphate. It was found that zinc fertilization increased zinc residues in the kernels with varying concentrations depending on the line, each line reacted and responded to zinc independently. Zinc content in the kernels ranged from 5.63 to 91.4 ppm in the unfertilized control lines. This range was enlarged due to zinc fertilization of the plants to be from 93.51 to 554.53 ppm. It was also noticed that zinc fertilization increased seed heaviness in varying degrees depending on the line itself. This increase may be due to the increase in kernel thickness rather than in kernel width or length. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs

  18. Efficacy of zinc against common cold viruses: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulisz, Darrell

    2004-01-01

    To review the laboratory and clinical evidence of the medicinal value of zinc for the treatment of the common cold. Published articles identified through Medline (1980-2003) using the search terms zinc, rhinovirus, and other pertinent subject headings. Additional sources were identified from the bibliographies of the retrieved articles. By the author. By the author. Human rhinoviruses, by attaching to the nasal epithelium via the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) receptor, cause most colds. Ionic zinc, based on its electrical charge, also has an affinity for ICAM-1 receptor sites and may exert an antiviral effect by attaching to the ICAM-1 receptors in the rhinovirus structure and nasal epithelial cells. Clinical tests of zinc for treatment of common colds have been inconsistent, primarily because of study design, blinding, and lozenge contents. Early formulations of lozenges also were unpalatable. In three trials with similar study designs, methodologies, and efficacy assessments, zinc effectively and significantly shortened the duration of the common cold when it was administered within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms. Recent reports of trials with zinc gluconate administered as a nasal gel have supported these findings; in addition, they have shown that treatment with zinc nasal gel is effective in reducing the duration and severity of common cold symptoms in patients with established illness. Clinical trial data support the value of zinc in reducing the duration and severity of symptoms of the common cold when administered within 24 hours of the onset of common cold symptoms. Additional clinical and laboratory evaluations are warranted to further define the role of ionic zinc for the prevention and treatment of the common cold and to elucidate the biochemical mechanisms through which zinc exerts its symptom-relieving effects.

  19. Properties of tire rubber with zinc-containing technological additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Kayushnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the influence of zinc-containing technological additives on partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid on deformation-strength and performance properties of tire elastomeric compositions based on polyisoprene rubber and combination of oil-filled butadiene-styrene and polybutadiene rubbers. It was revealed that partial replacement of zinc oxide and stearic acid with zinc-containing technological additives does not significantly affect the basic physico-mechanical properties of rubbers based on synthetic rubbers of general use. It was determined that the introduction of zinc-containing technological additives SCC2 in combination with zinc oxide in all the studied ratios and SCC3 in combination with zinc oxide in 4: 1 and 3: 1 ratios leads to increase (up to 10.4% of the resistance of these rubbers under the action of temperature-force fields, which is probably due to a more even distribution of polar components of curing system in non-polar elastomeric matrix, as well as the type of cross-links formed during vulcanization under the action of surface-active additives. It has been found that the introduction of zinc-containing additives into the elastomeric compositions based on SRMS-30 ARKM-15 + SRD in combination with zinc oxide leads to increase to 6.3% of wear resistance of rubbers, which may be due to a lower defectiveness of vulcanization structure of these rubbers, concentration of stress centers in the material. For rubbers based on SRI-3, preservation of bond strength of rubber with a textile cord at a sufficiently high level is shown.

  20. Importance of zinc for foetal and post-natal development in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palludan, B.; Wegger, I.

    1976-01-01

    Maternal zinc deficiency during the third trimester led to redeced zinc concentration in foetal plasma, liver, pancreas and bone. Zinc deposition in foetuses was an exponential function of time, the relative rate being 5.8 and 3.0% daily in normal and deficient foetuses respectively. Distribution of orally administered 65 Zn between maternal and foetal organs was studied. The percentage of absorbed 65 Zn transferred to the foeto-placental unit tended to be highest in zinc-deficient gilts. The greater the liver zinc pool the more 65 Zn accumulated in liver and the less in most other organs in both gilts and foetuses. The gestation period was prolonged and parturition impaired in gilts depleted of zinc late in pregnancy. Persistent loss of umbilical blood was seen and viability of the offspring was poor. However, clinical symptoms and morphological malformations were few. Abnormal ossification occurred as a result of the zinc deficiency. The nature of the changes depended on the period of gestation during which the gilts were depleted of zinc. Absorption of 65 Zn in newborn pigs was unaffected by the zinc status, and the same pattern of distribution among organs as in foetuses was seen. Litter size and weight were not influenced by maternal zinc depletion, and growth of surviving piglets was normal. Zinc stores were low in the newborn, but even when zinc depletion of the mother was continued during lactation, clinical symptoms of zinc deficiency in the piglets were not seen until shortly before weaning. (author)

  1. Zinc deficiency in the pediatric age group is common but underevaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuralli, Dogus; Tumer, Leyla; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2017-08-01

    Subclinical micronutrient deficiencies have been gradually becoming more important as a public health problem and drawing attention of the health authorities. Today it has been known that detecting and treating people having deficiency symptoms alone is no longer sufficient. It is important to detect and prevent any deficiency before it displays clinical manifestations. Zinc deficiency is one of the most widespread micronutrient deficiencies. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the zinc status and the associated factors in healthy school-age children. The study was carried out in schools in Altindag, the district of Ankara. A total of 1063 healthy children, 585 girls and 478 boys, aged 5-16 years were included in the study. Serum zinc, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and white blood cell count were measured. A serum zinc level zinc deficiency for children zinc concentration were set at 66 μg/dL for females and 70 μg/dL for males. A questionnaire was developed to collect socioeconomic and demographic information of the participants. The prevalence of subclinical zinc deficiency in children attending the study was detected to be 27.8%. This high ratio showed zinc deficiency was an important health problem in the Altindag district of Ankara, Turkey. Evaluating the indicators of zinc deficiency such as serum zinc concentration, dietary zinc intake and stunting prevalence, this study is the most comprehensive epidemiological study performed in children in Turkey. This study reveals the high prevalence of subclinical zinc deficiency and indicates that zinc deficiency is a public health concern for the study population.

  2. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in ...

  3. Benefits and drawbacks of zinc in glass ionomer bone cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G [Unit of Dental Physical Sciences, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Gentleman, Eileen; Stevens, Molly M [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Farrar, David F, E-mail: d.brauer@qmul.ac.uk [Smith and Nephew Research Centre, York Science Park, Heslington YO10 5DF (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Glass polyalkenoate (ionomer) cements (GPCs) based on poly(acrylic acid) and fluoro-alumino-silicate glasses are successfully used in a variety of orthopaedic and dental applications; however, they release small amounts of aluminium, which is a neurotoxin and inhibits bone mineralization in vivo. Therefore there has been significant interest in developing aluminium-free glasses containing zinc for forming GPCs because zinc can play a similar structural role in the glass, allowing for glass degradation and subsequent cement setting, and is reported to have beneficial effects on bone formation. We created zinc-containing GPCs and characterized their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Zinc-containing cements showed adhesion to bone close to 1 MPa, which was significantly greater than that of zinc-free cements (<0.05 MPa) and other currently approved biological adhesives. However, zinc-containing cements produced significantly lower metabolic activity in mouse osteoblasts exposed to cell culture medium conditioned with the cements than controls. Results show that although low levels of zinc may be beneficial to cells, zinc concentrations of 400 {mu}M Zn{sup 2+} or more resulted in cell death. In summary, we demonstrate that while zinc-containing GPCs possess excellent mechanical properties, they fail basic biocompatibility tests, produce an acute cytotoxic response in vitro, which may preclude their use in vivo.

  4. The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in pregnant and lactating women: A systematic review with dose-response meta-analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall Moran, V.; Skinner, A.L.; Warthon Medina, M.; Patel, S.; Dykes, F.; Souverein, O.W.; Dullemeijer, C.; Lowe, N.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations for zinc intake during pregnancy and lactation vary widely across Europe. Using data on zinc intake and biomarkers of zinc status reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies can provide estimates of dose–response relationships that may be used for

  5. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, S. B.; Jones, K. W.; Kraner, H. W.; Shroy, R. E.; Hanson, A. L.

    1981-03-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port has been used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton microprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determination in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Our measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage.

  6. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, S.B.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Shroy, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.

    1980-06-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port was used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton microprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determinations in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage

  7. Path coefficient analysis of zinc dynamics in varying soil environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattan, R.K.; Phung, C.V.; Singhal, S.K.; Deb, D.L.; Singh, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Influence of soil properties on labile zinc, as measured by diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and zinc-65, and self-diffusion coefficients of zinc was assessed on 22 surface soil samples varying widely in their characteristics following linear regression and path coefficient analysis techniques. DTPA extractable zinc could be predicted from organic carbon status and pH of the soil with a highly significant coefficient of determination (R 2 =0.84 ** ). Ninety seven per cent variation in isotopically exchangeable zinc was explained by pH, clay content and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soil. The self-diffusion coefficients (DaZn and DpZn) and buffer power of zinc exhibited exponential relationship with soil properties, pH being the most dominant one. Soil properties like organic matter, clay content etc. exhibited indirect effects on zinc diffusion rates via pH only. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Efecto del hialuronato de zinc sobre las úlceras en pacientes con diabetes Zinc hyaluronate effects on ulcers in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ramos Cuevas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: La úlcera en el pie diabético es una de las principales complicaciones de la diabetes en extremidades bajas. Del 50 al 70% de las amputaciones en extremidades bajas se realizan a pacientes con diabetes. El hialuronato de zinc ha sido probado en el tratamiento de las úlceras diabéticas del pie con resultados prometedores. Objetivo general: Determinar el grado de eficacia del hialuronato de zinc en la curación de úlceras del pie diabético. Diseño: Ensayo terapéutico abierto al azar. Se les dio seguimiento a los pacientes durante un período de doce semanas de junio a diciembre de 2004. Ubicación: Centro de cuidado terciario. Clínica del Pie Diabético. Pacientes: Fueron seleccionados por muestreo consecutivo cincuenta pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 con úlcera en pie, de ambos sexos y con edades entre los 40 y los 80 años y sin una isquemia más baja de la extremidad. Veinticinco de ellos fueron asignados aleatoriamente al grupo del hialuronato de zinc y el resto al grupo de control (tratamiento convencional. La distribución por sexo de género fue similar en ambos grupos, once del femenino (44% y 14 del masculino (56%. La edad promedio en el grupo de la combinación del ácido hialurónico y zinc fue 56,76 ± 8,78 y en el convencional 60,12 ± 8,42, NS. ningún paciente del grupo de hialuronato de zinc abandonó o fue retirado durante el período del estudio. Un paciente del grupo de control falleció. Intervención: El hialuronato de zinc fue aplicado una vez al día en la superficie de la úlcera después de limpiarla con la solución fisiológica salina. Medida principal del resultado: La eficacia del hialuronato de zinc fue determinada por las semanas que se requirieron para conseguir el cierre completo de la úlcera con el tejido fino epitelial (tiempo curativo medio. Material y métodos: Ensayo clínico controlado. Pacientes con úlceras propias del pie diabético. 1 de julio al 30 de septiembre de 2004, 25 pacientes

  9. Evaluation of the serum zinc level in adult patients with melasma: Is there a relationship with serum zinc deficiency and melasma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Iranparvar Alamdari, Manouchehr; Maleki, Nasrollah; Aghabalaei Danesh, Maryam

    2017-11-12

    Melasma is a common acquired hypermelanosis of sun-exposed skin, particularly on the face, which presents as symmetric, light- to gray-brown-colored macules and patches. There are several studies of serum zinc levels in cutaneous disorders. So far, no studies have been carried out to assess the serum zinc level in patients with melasma. The aim of this study is to determine the serum zinc level in patients with melasma compared to healthy subjects. A total of 118 patients with melasma and 118 healthy controls were enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. The two groups were matched for age and sex. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used to measure serum zinc levels. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. The mean serum level of zinc in melasma patients and controls was 77.4±23.2 μg/dL and 82.2±23.9 μg/dL, respectively (P-value=.0001). Serum zinc deficiency was found in 45.8% and 23.7% of melasma patients and control subjects, respectively. A positive family history of melasma in first-degree relatives was present in 46 (39%) of the cases, and a history of taking oral contraceptive pill was found in 95 (81%) of women with melasma. The aggravating factors for melasma were stated as: sun exposure (11.1%), pregnancy (15.3%), nutrition (2.5%), oral contraceptive pills (18.6%), and emotional stress (5.9%). The malar and centrofacial patterns were seen in 3.4% and 72% of cases, respectively, whereas 24.6% of the patients had both centrofacial distribution and malar distribution, and there was no patient with mandibular pattern. Among patients with melasma, 20.3% had thyroid dysfunction, while in the control subjects, 8.4% had thyroid dysfunction (P=.001). There is a significant relationship between low levels of zinc and melasma. Zinc deficiency may be involved in the pathogenesis of melasma. Also, treatment with oral zinc supplements can be tried in these patients to see the outcome. However, to make recommendations on

  10. Galvanostatic polarization of zinc microanodes in KOH electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.B.; Cook, G.M.; Yao, N.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report includes a critical review of the current literature on the anodic passivation of zinc electrodes, a description of supplementary experimental studies to extend the data to a low-current-density region and to provide a basis for evaluating conflicting results of published work, and a new interpretation of the anodic passivation mechanism. This work provides a starting point for understanding passivation phenomena in battery electrodes. The utilization of a zinc electrode in alkaline batteries depends on the ability of the electrode to remain active during the anodic dissolution process. This dissolution period is often terminated by the onset of passivation. Experiments were conducted on the effects of current density on passivation time of a small zinc anode (6.6 x 10/sup -3/ cm/sup 2/) in KOH at concentrations of 0.784, 2.92, 4.98 and 7.24M KOH as well as 7.24M KOH saturated with zinc oxide. It was concluded that there are two mechanisms for anodic passivation, one occurring at current densities below about 150 mA/cm/sup 2/ and another at higher current densities. Accordingly, in the overall mechanism, the total time to passivation includes the times to achieve the maximum zincate concentration as well as to form porous type I ZnO and compact type II ZnO. In Ni/Zn batteries under development for vehicle propulsion, the electrolyte is usually 30% KOH (7M) saturated with zinc oxide; and the zinc electrode is formed in-situ by electrodeposition of zinc onto the grid. For a current density of 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in a Ni/Zn battery cycled at a 2-h rate and a zinc electrode with a porosity of 0.6 at the fully charged state, a current density of 338 mA/cm/sup 2/ was calculated to be that above which the passivation limits the utilization of the zinc electrode. 7 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Cleaning the Soil from Zinc Using Red Clovers “Arimaičiai”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Mikalajūnė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Zinc as a nutrition element is required to plants in small quantities to maintain normal functions of metabolism mechanisms. Our work analyses the efficiency of red clovers “Arimaičiai” for cleaning zinc from the soil contaminated with zinc under laboratory conditions. Seeds were sown in three differently polluted soils: clean soil, once contaminated with zinc and periodically contaminated with zinc soil. Zinc concentration in one time contaminated soil was 45 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytoremediation, the remained zinc concentration in the soil was 3 times lower comparing with the initial concentration. It was also determined that under such conditions, the uptake of red clovers made approximately 65% of zinc. Permanent soil contamination with zinc increased concentration before phytoremediation up to 80 mg/kg. After 6 months of phytoremediation, zinc concentration was determined to be 1.9 times lower. Otherwise, the soil was permanently contaminated with larger zinc quantities and after application of which reached 300 mg/kg. In this case, following half a year of phytoremediation, zinc concentration in the soil was 1.7 times lower comparing with the initial concentration after contamination. It was determined that the uptake of red clovers made approximately 17% of zinc.Article in Lithuanian

  12. Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of zinc treatment on intestinal motility in experimentally induced diarrhea in rats. ... Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS) can reduce the ...

  13. Electrophoretic deposition of zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangfei; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Shengmin

    2014-06-01

    Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by the co-precipitation method were used to coat stainless steel plates by electrophoretic deposition in n-butanol with triethanolamine as a dispersant. The effect of zinc concentration in the synthesis on the morphology and microstructure of coatings was investigated. It is found that the deposition current densities significantly increase with the increasing zinc concentration. The zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is inferred that hydroxyapatite and triethanolamine predominate in the chemical composition of coatings. With the increasing Zn/Ca ratios, the contents of triethanolamine decrease in the final products. The triethanolamine can be burnt out by heat treatment. The tests of adhesive strength have confirmed good adhesion between the coatings and substrates. The formation of new apatite layer on the coatings has been observed after 7days of immersion in a simulated body fluid. In summary, the results show that dense, uniform zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings are obtained by electrophoretic deposition when the Zn/Ca ratio reaches 5%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  15. Corrosion inhibition by lithium zinc phosphate pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alibakhshi, E.; Ghasemi, E.; Mahdavian, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Synthesis of lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) by chemical co-precipitation method. •Corrosion inhibition activity of pigments compare with zinc phosphate (ZP). •LZP showed superior corrosion inhibition effect in EIS measurements. •Evaluation of adhesion strength and dispersion stability. -- Abstract: Lithium zinc phosphate (LZP) has been synthesized through a co-precipitation process and characterized by XRD and IR spectroscopy. The inhibitive performances of this pigment for corrosion of mild steel have been discussed in comparison with the zinc phosphate (ZP) in the pigment extract solution by means of EIS and in the epoxy coating by means of salt spray. The EIS and salt spray results revealed the superior corrosion inhibitive effect of LZP compared to ZP. Moreover, adhesion strength and dispersion stability of the pigmented epoxy coating showed the advantage of LZP compared to ZP

  16. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles by laser ablation of zinc in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thareja, R.K.; Shukla, Shobha

    2007-01-01

    We report formation of colloidal suspension of zinc oxide nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation of a zinc metal target at room temperature in different liquid environment. We have used photoluminescence, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction to characterize the nanoparticles. The sample ablated in deionized water showed the photoluminescence peak at 384 nm (3.23 eV), whereas peaks at 370 nm (3.35 eV) were observed for sample prepared in isopropanol. The use of water and isopropanol as a solvent yielded spherical nanoparticles of 14-20 nm while in acetone we found two types of particles, one spherical nanoparticles with sizes around 100 nm and another platelet-like structure of 1 μm in diameter and 40 nm in width. The absorption peak of samples prepared in deionized water and isopropanol are seen to be substantially blue shifted relative to that of the bulk zinc oxide due to the strong confinement effect. The technique offers an alternative for preparing the nanoparticles of active metal

  17. Finger millet (Eleucine coracana) flour as a vehicle for fortification with zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Bhumika; Platel, Kalpana

    2010-01-01

    Millets, being less expensive compared to cereals and the staple for the poorer sections of population, could be the choice for fortification with micronutrients such as zinc. In view of this, finger millet, widely grown and commonly consumed in southern India, was explored as a vehicle for fortification with zinc in this investigation. Finger millet flour fortified with either zinc oxide or zinc stearate so as to provide 50mg zinc per kg flour, was specifically examined for the bioaccessibility of the fortified mineral, as measured by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion procedure and storage stability. Addition of the zinc salts increased the bioaccessible zinc content by 1.5-3 times that of the unfortified flour. Inclusion of EDTA along with the fortified salt significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of zinc from the fortified flours, the increase being three-fold. Inclusion of citric acid along with the zinc salt and EDTA during fortification did not have any additional beneficial effect on zinc bioaccessiblity. Moisture and free fatty acid contents of the stored fortified flours indicated the keeping quality of the same, up to 60 days. Both zinc oxide and zinc stearate were equally effective as fortificants, when used in combination with EDTA as a co-fortificant. The preparation of either roti or dumpling from the fortified flours stored up to 60 days did not result in any significant compromise in the bioaccessible zinc content. Thus, the present study has revealed that finger millet flour can effectively be used as a vehicle for zinc fortification to derive additional amounts of bioaccessible zinc, with reasonably good storage stability, to combat zinc deficiency. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensores de zinc para aplicaciones en neurociencias

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Falla, Aldo David; Estela Falla, Aldo David; Estela Falla, Aldo David

    2011-01-01

    En los últimos años, los estudios realizados con respecto a la química involucrada en los procesos neurológicos han logrado dar una idea de la importancia del zinc en las funciones nerviosas, así como también en el estudio de enfermedades neurodegenerativas tales como la Enfermedad de Alzheimer. A nivel biológico, el zinc tiene representantes en los seis grupos de enzimas que existen, lo cual demuestra su gran importancia en los sistemas biológicos. En estas enzimas, el zinc como ion metál...

  19. Relationship between zinc and the growth and development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S; Tu, D N; Li, H; Cao, X; Jiang, J X; Shi, Y; Zhou, X Q; You, J B

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between zinc and the growth and development of young children. The parents of 8102 young children were surveyed in person by a trained surveyor using structured questionnaires. The hair zinc concentration of the children was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The height, weight, sitting height, and head circumference of the children were measured at follow-up visits. There was a positive correlation between hair zinc concentration and adaptive developmental quotient (ADQ; r = 0.3164, P = 0.0272) while no correlation was found between hair zinc concentration and body measurement Z scores or intelligence quotient (IQ). There was a strong positive correlation between hair zinc concentration and weight-for-age Z scores (r = 0.3618, P = 0.0416) and ADQ (r = 0.2761, P = 0.0387) in boys; there was no correlation between hair zinc concentration and body measurement Z scores, IQ, and ADQ in girls. In boys with normal hair zinc levels, ADQ was 9.58 (P = 0.0392), higher than in boys who had zinc-deficient hair. In girls with normal hair zinc levels, ADQ was 2.52 (P = 0.0296), lower than in girls with zinc-deficient hair. In conclusion, there is no significant correlation between hair zinc levels and IQ or Z scores for all body measurements in young children.

  20. Photocatalysis application of zinc oxide fibers obtained by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerchman, D.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Using the electrospinning technique, composite fibers of polyvinylbutyral and zinc nitrate were obtained. After a heat treatment at 600 deg C, nanostructured zinc oxide fibers were obtained. The fibers were characterized using X ray diffraction. The photocatalytic activity of the nanostructured fibers was determined using the photodegradation of a methyl orange solution. The increase in the heat treatment temperature decreases the photoactivity of the zinc oxide. The heat treatment, the phases and the surface area, affect the physical, chemical and photocatalytic activity of the zinc oxide. (author)

  1. Serum zinc level in patients with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, A.A.; Devrajani, B.R.; Shaikh, K.; Shah, S.Z.A.; Devrajani, T.; Bibi, I.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the serum zinc level in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methodology: This descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Liaquat University Hospital Hyderabad Sindh, Pakistan. All patients above 12 years of age, of either gender and known (diagnosed) cases of liver cirrhosis were further evaluated for their serum zinc level. The data was analyzed in statistical software (SPSS) and the p value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: One hundred twenty seven cirrhotic patients with means age 42.7559 +- 15.8894 were evaluated and assessed. The serum zinc was low in 69% patients. According to Child-Pugh classification 72% zinc deficient cirrhotic subjects were in class C, 16% in class B and 12% in class A. 94% subjects had hepatitis C virus infection, 4% had hepatitis B virus infection and 2% had history of alcoholism. Conclusion: The serum zinc level was low in patients with liver cirrhosis. (author)

  2. Effect of Extracellular Zinc Chelator on Rat Retinal Ganglion Cell Number, and Taurine and Zinc Transporters in These Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asarí Márquez García

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc deficiency in humans causes decreased antioxidants in the retina and is related with abnormal darkness adaptation, cataracts, blindness, and macular degeneration. There is little information about the effects of zinc on the taurine system in mammalian retinal cells. Therefore, we studied the effect of zinc on the taurine transporter (TAUT and zinc transporters (ZnT-1 and 3 using the extracellular zinc chelator, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA by fluorescence immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry in the ganglion cells (CG and cell layers of the retina of rats. Three days after administration of DTPA (10µM primary antibodies and secondary antibodies conjugated with rhodamine or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC were used as required. For immunocytochemical labeling approximately three hundred cells per condition were counted. For immunohistochemical labeling, the fluorescence intensity was measured as integrated optical density (DOI in four areas for each layer of tissue. DTPA produced a decrease of 32 % and 29 % in GC of the total cells labeled with antibody against glycoprotein Thy 1.1 and γ-synuclein, respectively. It also produced a significant decrease in TAUT localization in 27 and 28 % compared to controls. DTPA produced a decrease in the localization of ZnT-1 and ZnT-3 in the retina layers (ganglion cells, GCC and the outer and inner plexiform, CEP and CIP. The study of these molecules in the retina is relevant to understanding the interactions of taurine and zinc in this structure.

  3. Effect of the linkers between the zinc fingers in zinc finger protein 809 on gene silencing and nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, Yu, E-mail: ichida-y@ncchd.go.jp; Utsunomiya, Yuko; Onodera, Masafumi

    2016-03-18

    Zinc finger protein 809 (ZFP809) belongs to the Kruppel-associated box-containing zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) family and functions in repressing the expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV). ZFP809 binds to the primer-binding site (PBS)located downstream of the MoMLV-long terminal repeat (LTR) and induces epigenetic modifications at integration sites, such as repressive histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. KRAB-ZFPs contain consensus TGEKP linkers between C2H2 zinc fingers. The phosphorylation of threonine residues within linkers leads to the inactivation of zinc finger binding to target sequences. ZFP809 also contains consensus linkers between zinc fingers. However, the function of ZFP809 linkers remains unknown. In the present study, we constructed ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers and examined their ability to silence transgene expression driven by MLV, binding ability to MLV PBS, and cellular localization. The results of the present study revealed that the linkers affected the ability of ZFP809 to silence transgene expression. Furthermore, this effect could be partly attributed to changes in the localization of ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers. Further characterization of ZFP809 linkers is required for understanding the functions and features of KRAB-ZFP-containing linkers. - Highlights: • ZFP809 has three consensus linkers between the zinc fingers. • Linkers are required for ZFP809 to silence transgene expression driven by MLV-LTR. • Linkers affect the precise nuclear localization of ZFP809.

  4. Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-08-01

    Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.

  5. Zinc treatment ameliorates diarrhea and intestinal inflammation in undernourished rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Camila A A; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves C; Frota, Priscila B; Figueiredo, Italo L; Aragão, Karoline S; Magalhães, Carlos Emanuel C; de Carvalho, Cibele B M; Lima, Aldo Ângelo M; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Guerrant, Richard L; Moore, Sean R; Oriá, Reinaldo B

    2014-08-05

    WHO guidelines recommend zinc supplementation as a key adjunct therapy for childhood diarrhea in developing countries, however zinc's anti-diarrheal effects remain only partially understood. Recently, it has been recognized that low-grade inflammation may influence stunting. In this study, we examined whether oral zinc supplementation could improve weight, intestinal inflammation, and diarrhea in undernourished weanling rats. Rats were undernourished using a northeastern Brazil regional diet (RBD) for two weeks, followed by oral gavage with a saturated lactose solution (30 g/kg) in the last 7 days to induce osmotic diarrhea. Animals were checked for diarrhea daily after lactose intake. Blood was drawn in order to measure serum zinc levels by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Rats were euthanized to harvest jejunal tissue for histology and cytokine profiles by ELISA. In a subset of animals, spleen samples were harvested under aseptic conditions to quantify bacterial translocation. Oral zinc supplementation increased serum zinc levels following lactose-induced osmotic diarrhea. In undernourished rats, zinc improved weight gain following osmotic diarrhea and significantly reduced diarrheal scores by the third day of lactose intake (p diarrhea and undernutrition and support the use of zinc to prevent the vicious cycle of malnutrition and diarrhea.

  6. Age-dependent variations of zinc-65 metabolism in LACA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Liusheng; Yan Xiaoshan; Wu Dechang

    1991-01-01

    Mice were gavaged with zinc-65 solution, 8.6-19.3 kBq per mouse, and the whole-body retention and organ content of zinc-65 measured at diffe-rent times afterwards. The age-dependence of the fractional absorption of zinc-65 from the gastrointestinal tract (f 1 ) endogenous faecal excretion fraction of zinc-65 (EFEF), tissue distribution and whole-body retention were determined. f 1 values obtained were 0.86 ±0.15, 0.64±0.11, 0.52±0.07 and 0.39±0.02 in suckling, adolescent, young adult and older mice, respectively. The EFEF values determined were 0.083±0.008, 0.099±0.004, 0.122±0.018 and 0.144±0.005 of intraperitoneally injected zinc-65 was in suckling, adolescent, young adult and older mice at administration. Zinc-65 mainly distributed in the liver, muscle, lung, kidney and bone. In some tissues, there was an inverse relationship between relative content of gavaged zinc-65 and animal's age at administration. The whole-body biological half-lives of zinc-65 increased with animal age. (author)

  7. Interaction of Salmonella Gallinarum infection and zinc metabolism in chicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments to be reported was to determine whether or not the response of zinc metabolism to infection in chicks was similar to that reported for mammals and to determine the effect of maintaining serum zinc at normal levels in infected animals on the outcome of infection as determined by mortality. Within 48 hours after administration of the organism serum zinc concentrations declined to ca. half of the control value. The serum zinc concentrations remained depressed throughout the experimental infection (12 days). Isotope studies with 65 Zn indicated that the infection had no effect on absorption. The infection resulted in a sequestering of zinc in the liver, the kidney being relatively inert in this system. Fractionation of liver homogenates by column chromatography with Seph. G-75 revealed that the zinc in the livers of the infected animals eluted in a volume characteristic of metallothionein, while that of the control animals was associated with higher molecular weight proteins. Increasing the serum levels of zinc by injecting 200 μg Zn/100 g body weight twice a day for 5 days had no effect on mortality from the infection. They conclude that zinc metabolism in the chick is affected by infection in a manner similar to that reported for mammals and that the decrease in serum zinc concentration per se has no survival value for the chick in this infection

  8. Zinc Leaching from Tire Crumb Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E. P.; Ren, J.; Mays, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    Recent estimates indicate that more than 2 billion scrap tires are currently stockpiled in the United States and approximately 280 million more tires are added annually. Various engineering applications utilize recycled tires in the form of shredded tire crumb rubber. However, the use of tire crumb rubber may have negative environmental impacts, especially when the rubber comes into contact with water. A review of the literature indicates that leaching of zinc from tire crumb rubber is the most significant water quality concern associated with using this material. Zinc is generally used in tire manufacturing, representing approximately 1.3% of the final product by mass. This study will report results from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure, batch leaching tests, and column leaching tests performed to quantify the process by which zinc leaches from tire crumb rubber into water. Results are interpreted with a first-order kinetic attachment/detachment model, implemented with the U.S. Agricultural Research Service software HYDRUS-1D, in order to determine the circumstances when zinc leaching from tire crumb rubber would be expected to comply with the applicable discharge limits. One potential application for recycled tires is replacing sand with tire crumb rubber in granular media filters used for stormwater pollution control. For this to be a viable application, the total zinc in the stormwater discharge must be below the EPA’s benchmark value of 0.117 mg/L.

  9. Green–white electroluminescence and green photoluminescence of zinc complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janghouri, Mohammad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mostafa M.; Najafi, Ezzatollah [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 1983963113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A series of zinc complexes has been synthesized and utilized as fluorescent materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). All prepared complexes were characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), UV–vis, FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The energy levels of zinc complexes were determined by cyclic voltammetry measurements. Devices with fundamental structure of ITO/PVK:PBD (50 nm)/zinc complexes/BCP (5 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (25 nm)/Al (180 nm) were fabricated. A green electroluminescence was obtained from thin film complexes at 25 nm thickness. When thickness of the complex bis(2-methylquinolin-8-olato)-bis[(acetato)-(methanol)zinc(II)] (B) in thin film decreased from 25 nm to 20, 18, and 12 nm, a white electroluminescence obtained. The white emission which was composed of blue and green attributed to the PVK:PBD blend and thickness of complex, respectively. With 12 nm thickness of complex, a maximum luminance of 4530 cd/m{sup 2} at a current density 398.32 mA/cm{sup 2} with CIE coordinates of 0.22 and 0.36 at 20 V was achieved. - Highlights: • Several new zinc complexes have been synthesized and utilized as fluorescent materials in OLEDs. • Photoluminescence emission of zinc complexes showed a red shift in respect to PVK:PBD blend. • Green electroluminescence emission from zinc complexes was achieved. • White emission has been obtained for an OLED by changing thickness of the zinc complex.

  10. Green–white electroluminescence and green photoluminescence of zinc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janghouri, Mohammad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Amini, Mostafa M.; Najafi, Ezzatollah

    2014-01-01

    A series of zinc complexes has been synthesized and utilized as fluorescent materials in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). All prepared complexes were characterized by elemental analysis (CHN), UV–vis, FT-IR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The energy levels of zinc complexes were determined by cyclic voltammetry measurements. Devices with fundamental structure of ITO/PVK:PBD (50 nm)/zinc complexes/BCP (5 nm)/Alq 3 (25 nm)/Al (180 nm) were fabricated. A green electroluminescence was obtained from thin film complexes at 25 nm thickness. When thickness of the complex bis(2-methylquinolin-8-olato)-bis[(acetato)-(methanol)zinc(II)] (B) in thin film decreased from 25 nm to 20, 18, and 12 nm, a white electroluminescence obtained. The white emission which was composed of blue and green attributed to the PVK:PBD blend and thickness of complex, respectively. With 12 nm thickness of complex, a maximum luminance of 4530 cd/m 2 at a current density 398.32 mA/cm 2 with CIE coordinates of 0.22 and 0.36 at 20 V was achieved. - Highlights: • Several new zinc complexes have been synthesized and utilized as fluorescent materials in OLEDs. • Photoluminescence emission of zinc complexes showed a red shift in respect to PVK:PBD blend. • Green electroluminescence emission from zinc complexes was achieved. • White emission has been obtained for an OLED by changing thickness of the zinc complex

  11. Proton microprobe analysis of zinc in skeletal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, S.B.; Jones, K.W.; Kraner, H.W.; Shroy, R.E.; Hanson, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    A proton microprobe with windowless exit port has been used to study zinc distributions in various types of skeletal tissues. The use of an external beam facilitated positioning of the targets for examination of particular points of interest. The proton micorprobe is uniquely suited to this work since it combines high sensitivity for zinc determinations in thick samples with good spatial resolution. Our measurements on rat and rabbit Achilles tendon showed a significant increase in zinc concentrations as the beam moved from the unmineralized collagen into the mineralized attachment site. Cartilage gave a similar result, with calcified cartilage having a greater zinc level than the articular surface on unmineralized epiphyseal cartilage. (orig.)

  12. Subcellular distribution of zinc in the benign and malignant human prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leake, A.; Chrisholm, G.D.; Busuttil, A.; Habib, F.K

    1984-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of zinc and its interaction with androgens has been examined in the benign and malignant human prostate. Endogenously, most of the zinc was associated with the nuclear fraction but signigicant concentrations were also found in the cytosol. Furthermore, the epithelium contained more zinc than that found in either the stroma or the intact gland. Zinc concentrations were lower in the subcellular fractions of the cancerous tissue when compared to hyperplastic specimens. In vitro uptake of zinc into prostatic homogenates was rapid and at equilibrium the binding was stable for both the 4degC and the 37degC incubations. At low zinc concentrations (<5mM) the uptake was higher in the nucleus, whereas at higher concentraions, the cancerous tissue exhibited a greater capacity for the metal which was predominantly retained by the cytosol. Our data suggest the presence of a saturable zinc retention mechanism in the nucleus. The zinc uptake was found to be independent of any added androgen. In contrast, the total androgen uptake by the prostate was significantly enhanced by the addition of zinc. This effect was not due to increases in the nuclear and cytosolic receptor binding since zinc inhibited the binding of the androgen to these receptors. (author)

  13. A comparative study on zinc fertilizer brands available in the markets of Jessore region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GMM Islam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in Monirampur upazila under Jessore district from July to December, 2016 to collect information on names, numbers and comparative availability of different brands of Zinc fertilizers in order to aid the assessment of nutrient status for quality of the brands. For this purpose, information was collected from 54 randomly selected fertilizer shops (20 BCIC fertilizer dealers and 34 retailers through questionnaire interview. In the study total 77 brands [41 Zinc sulfate (mono, 11 Zinc sulfate (hepta and 25 Chelated zinc] of zinc fertilizer marketed by 49 companies were found in the upazila. Zingsul, Mim zinc, Grogin, Bumper mono zinc, Eon zinc and Geel mono of Zinc sulfate (mono brands, Topaz of Zinc sulfate (hepta brands and Mim zinc gold of Chelated zinc brands were mostly available. “Grogin” of Zinc sulfate (mono and “Topaz” of Zinc sulfate (hepta were the top most available. Ten percent of Zinc sulfate (hepta mentioned no registration number. There was a significant difference between highest and lowest MRP of all types (imported, supplied and manufactured of Zinc sulfate (mono and Zinc sulfate (hepta fertilizer as well as imported Chelated zinc brands.

  14. Cytoarchitectonic distribution of zinc in the hippocampus of man and the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederickson, C.J.; Klitenick, M.A.; Manton, W.I.; Kirkpatrick, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Zinc was measured in whole hippocampus and in hippocampal sub-regions by stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Lyophilized tissues were spiked by a precisely-known amount of zinc-64. The zinc-64/zinc-66 isotope ratio was determined by mass spectrometry. In both man and the rat, the most zinc (102-145 ppm, dry weight) was found in the hilar region, the least (27-35) in the fimbria. The amount of zinc directly associated with mossy-fiber axons was estimated to be approximately 8% of the total zinc in the hippocampus, and the concentration of mossy-fiber zinc was estimated at 220-300 μM. Methodological and theoretical implications of the quantitative findings were discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Zinc absorption study using an enriched stable isotope (70Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gongpan.

    1990-04-01

    A weaning food from fermented soybean was prepared for increasing the bioavailability of zinc. The zinc absorption was compared with that of a weaning food from non-fermented soybean and normal staple food. A stable isotope tracer technique ( 70 Zn) and neutron activation were used for determining the absorption of zinc. Nine children aged 7 to 18 months were tested. Zinc bioavailability of weaning food from fermented soybean is higher than that of normal weaning food. The weight increment and zinc nutrition of children having weaning food from fermented soybean are improved by this diet. 5 tabs

  16. Household Products Database: Personal Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... styling/sculpting haircolor hand cleaner hand cleaner, antibacterial hand sanitizer highlights holding spray insect repellent intimacy itch relief jewelry cleaner kids leather/fabric waterproofing legs lice shampoo lip ... hand cream semi-permanent shampoo shampoo & conditioner combo shampoo & ...

  17. Effects of Nano-zinc on Biochemical Parameters in Cadmium-Exposed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazy, Marzie; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic environmental and occupational pollutant with reported toxic effects on the kidneys, liver, lungs, bones, and the immunity system. Based on its physicochemical similarity to cadmium, zinc (Zn) shows protective effects against cadmium toxicity and cadmium accumulation in the body. Nano-zinc and nano-zinc oxide (ZnO), recently used in foods and pharmaceutical products, can release a great amount of Zn 2+ in their environment. This research was carried out to investigate the more potent properties of the metal zinc among sub-acute cadmium intoxicated rats. Seventy-five male Wistar rats were caged in 15 groups. Cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 ) was used in drinking water to induce cadmium toxicity. Different sizes (15, 20, and 30 nm) and doses of nano-zinc particles (3, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) were administered solely and simultaneously with CdCl 2 (2-5 mg/kg bw) for 28 days. The experimental animals were decapitated, and the biochemical biomarkers (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) were determined in their serum after oral exposure to nano-zinc and cadmium. Statistical analysis was carried out with a one-way ANOVA and t test. P zinc-treated rats. AST, ALT, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and free fatty acids increased significantly in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls. However, albumin, total protein, and HDLc significantly decreased in the cadmium- and nano-zinc-treated rats compared with the controls (P zinc, the smaller sizes with low doses and the larger sizes with high doses are more toxic than metallic zinc. In a few cases, an inverse dose-dependent relationship was seen as well. This research showed that in spite of larger sizes of zinc, smaller sizes of nano-zinc particles are not suitable for protection against cadmium intoxication.

  18. mRNA Levels of Placental Iron and Zinc Transporter Genes Are Upregulated in Gambian Women with Low Iron and Zinc Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobarteh, Modou Lamin; McArdle, Harry J; Holtrop, Grietje; Sise, Ebrima A; Prentice, Andrew M; Moore, Sophie E

    2017-07-01

    Background: The role of the placenta in regulating micronutrient transport in response to maternal status is poorly understood. Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the regulation of placental iron and zinc transport. Methods: In a randomized trial in rural Gambia [ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development)], pregnant women were allocated to 1 of 4 nutritional intervention arms: 1 ) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablets (FeFol group); 2 ) multiple micronutrient (MMN) tablets (MMN group); 3 ) protein energy (PE) as a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS; PE group); and 4 ) PE and MMN (PE+MMN group) as LNS. All arms included iron (60 mg/d) and folic acid (400 μg/d). The MMN and PE+MMN arms included 30 mg supplemental Zn/d. In a subgroup of ∼300 mother-infant pairs, we measured maternal iron status, mRNA levels of genes encoding for placental iron and zinc transport proteins, and cord blood iron levels. Results: Maternal plasma iron concentration in late pregnancy was 45% and 78% lower in the PE and PE+MMN groups compared to the FeFol and MMN groups, respectively ( P Zinc supplementation in the MMN arm was associated with higher maternal plasma zinc concentrations (10% increase; P zinc-uptake proteins, in this case zrt, irt-like protein (ZIP) 4 and ZIP8, were 96-205% lower in the PE+MMN arm than in the intervention arms without added zinc ( P zinc, the placenta upregulates the gene expression of iron and zinc uptake proteins, presumably in order to meet fetal demands in the face of low maternal supply. The ENID trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN49285450.

  19. 21 CFR 172.399 - Zinc methionine sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.399 Zinc methionine sulfate. Zinc methionine...

  20. Parameters Influencing Zinc in Experimental Systems in Vivo and in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Ollig; Veronika Kloubert; Inga Weßels; Hajo Haase; Lothar Rink

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the role of zinc in biological systems has been a subject of intense research. Despite wide increase in our knowledge and understanding of zinc homeostasis, numerous questions remain to be answered, encouraging further research. In particular, the quantification of intracellular zinc ions and fluctuation, as well as the function of zinc in signaling processes are being intensely investigated. The determination of free intracellular zinc ions is difficult and error-prone, as c...

  1. Alkaline Leaching of Low Zinc Content Iron-Bearing Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargul K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various types of waste materials containing zinc (e.g. dusts and sludges from gas dedusting process are obtained in steel industry. The contents of Zn in these materials may vary considerably. Even a low concentration of zinc in recirculated products precludes their recycling in ferrous metallurgy aggregates. Long storage of this type of material can lead to contamination of soil and water by zinc compounds which can be leached out by acid rain, for example. This paper focuses on research involving alkaline leaching tests of low zinc content iron-bearing materials. These tests were preceded by the analysis of the elemental, phase and grain size composition, and analysis of the thermodynamic conditions of the leaching process. The main aim of research was to decrease the content of the zinc in the sludge to the level where it is suitable as an iron-bearing material for iron production (~1% Zn. Leaching at elevated temperatures (368 K, 60 min has led to a decrease in the zinc content in the sludge of about 66%. The research revealed that long hour leaching (298 K, 100 hours carried out at ambient temperatures caused a reduction in zinc content by 60% to the value of 1.15-1.2% Zn.

  2. Nutritional status and phytate:zinc and phytate x calcium:zinc dietary molar ratios of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks: 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harland, B F; Smith, S A; Howard, M P; Ellis, R; Smith, J C

    1988-12-01

    A nutrition assessment of 16 members of a community of lacto-ovo vegetarian Trappist monks was conducted in 1977. Plasma zinc was found to be low-normal, which was attributed primarily to high intakes of phytate-containing foods. Individual and group counseling were instituted over a 10-year period in an attempt to emphasize the importance of wise food selection within the constraints of lacto-ovo vegetarianism. In 1987, a more comprehensive nutrition assessment of 21 members of the same community was performed. Food composites were analyzed, and 3-day instead of 24-hour dietary records were kept. Intakes of phytate-containing foods had decreased from 4,569 to 972 mg/day; intake of dietary zinc had increased from 7.4 to 9.7 mg/day; and the phytate:zinc molar ratio had decreased from 67 to 14 for the years 1977 and 1987, respectively. An analyzed phytate:zinc molar ratio of 9.8 and an analyzed phytate x calcium:zinc molar ratio of 0.3 were representative of the 1987 community. Both were within normal ranges. Plasma zinc had risen to upper-normal levels. The 1987 nutrition assessment showed that it is possible to be adequately nourished with a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet provided one has proper knowledge of the phytate-containing foods and the methods for compensating with foods of greater mineral density (primarily zinc).

  3. Effectiveness of Zinc Supplementation in Treating Dysmenorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Marezkha Farrah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dysmenorrhea has a high prevalence among women, especially in young women. Zinc has been proved to have a beneficial effect in treating pain. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in treating dysmenorrhoeal pain. Method: This is an experimental study, using pre and post-test design. The study participants were medical staffs of H. Adam Malik Hospital and other satellite hospitals. This study was conducted on March 2016 to June 2016. Thirty seven patients with moderate to severe primary menstrual pain were given 30 mg of zinc per day (divided into two doses, 2 days prior to menstruation until its cessation, for two to three months. The pain was assessed with the visual analog scale (VAS. Results: The mean age of participants was 22.95±1.33 years old and the mean body weight, height, and body mass index were 55.54 ± 9.36 kg, 160.16 ± 5.46 cm, 22.02 ± 3.44 kg/m2, respectively. The mean pain score is higher prior to zinc supplementation (4.92 ± 1.80; moderate pain and the score decreased over three months of zinc supplementation, resulting in a mean score of 2.7 ± 2.03 (moderate pain. The differences were found to be statistically significant (p = 0.000. Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea is frequently found in young women. Two to three months of zinc supplementation during menstruation is proved to be useful in reducing the intensity of dysmenorrheal pain.

  4. Zinc-oxide-based sorbents and processes for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh Kumar; Turk, Brian Scott; Gupta, Raghubir Prasael

    2010-03-23

    Zinc oxide-based sorbents, and processes for preparing and using them are provided. The sorbents are preferably used to remove one or more reduced sulfur species from gas streams. The sorbents comprise an active zinc component, optionally in combination with one or more promoter components and/or one or more substantially inert components. The active zinc component is a two phase material, consisting essentially of a zinc oxide (ZnO) phase and a zinc aluminate (ZnAl.sub.2O.sub.4) phase. Each of the two phases is characterized by a relatively small crystallite size of typically less than about 500 Angstroms. Preferably the sorbents are prepared by converting a precursor mixture, comprising a precipitated zinc oxide precursor and a precipitated aluminum oxide precursor, to the two-phase, active zinc oxide containing component.

  5. Electrodeposition behavior of nickel and nickel-zinc alloys from the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride low temperature molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Shiping; Sun, I.-W.

    2008-01-01

    The electrodeposition of nickel and nickel-zinc alloys was investigated at polycrystalline tungsten electrode in the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt. Although nickel(II) chloride dissolved easily into the pure chloride-rich 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic melt, metallic nickel could not be obtained by electrochemical reduction of this solution. The addition of zinc chloride to this solution shifted the reduction of nickel(II) to more positive potential making the electrodeposition of nickel possible. The electrodeposition of nickel, however, requires an overpotential driven nucleation process. Dense and compact nickel deposits with good adherence could be prepared by controlling the deposition potential. X-ray powder diffraction measurements indicated the presence of crystalline nickel deposits. Non-anomalous electrodeposition of nickel-zinc alloys was achieved through the underpotential deposition of zinc on the depo