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Sample records for zinc ion fluctuations

  1. Transient fluctuations of intracellular zinc ions in cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan [Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Maret, Wolfgang, E-mail: womaret@utmb.edu [Division of Human Nutrition, Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Zinc is essential for cell proliferation, differentiation, and viability. When zinc becomes limited for cultured cells, DNA synthesis ceases and the cell cycle is arrested. The molecular mechanisms of actions of zinc are believed to involve changes in the availability of zinc(II) ions (Zn{sup 2+}). By employing a fluorescent Zn{sup 2+} probe, FluoZin-3 acetoxymethyl ester, intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations were measured in undifferentiated and in nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations are pico- to nanomolar in PC12 cells and are higher in the differentiated than in the undifferentiated cells. When following cellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations for 48 h after the removal of serum, a condition that is known to cause cell cycle arrest, Zn{sup 2+} concentrations decrease after 30 min but, remarkably, increase after 1 h, and then decrease again to about one half of the initial concentration. Cell proliferation, measured by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, decreases after both serum starvation and zinc chelation. Two peaks of Zn{sup 2+} concentrations occur within one cell cycle: one early in the G1 phase and the other in the late G1/S phase. Thus, fluctuations of intracellular Zn{sup 2+} concentrations and established modulation of phosphorylation signaling, via an inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases at commensurately low Zn{sup 2+} concentrations, suggest a role for Zn{sup 2+} in the control of the cell cycle. Interventions targeted at these picomolar Zn{sup 2+} fluctuations may be a way of controlling cell growth in hyperplasia, neoplasia, and diseases associated with aberrant differentiation.

  2. Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations and ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. E. Forme

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of observations showing enhanced ion acoustic echoes observed by means of incoherent scatter radars have been reported in the literature. The received power is extremely enhanced by up to 1 or 2 orders of magnitude above usual values, and it is mostly contained in one of the two ion acoustic lines. This spectral asymmetry and the intensity of the received signal cannot be resolved by the standard analysis procedure and often causes its failure. As a result, and in spite of a very clear spectral signature, the analysis is unable to fit the plasma parameters inside the regions of ion acoustic turbulence. We present European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT observations of large ion outflows associated with the simultaneous occurrence of enhanced ion acoustic echoes. The ion fluxes can reach 1014 m-2 s-1 at 800 km altitude. From the very clear spectral signatures of these echoes, a method is presented to extract estimates of the electron temperature and the ion drift within the turbulent regions. It is shown that the electron gas is strongly heated up to 11 000 K. Also electron temperature gradients of about 0.02 K/m exist. Finally, the estimates of the electron temperature and of the ion drift are used to study the possible implications for the plasma transport inside turbulent regions. It is shown that strong electron temperature gradients cause enhancement of the ambipolar electric field and can account for the observed ion outflows.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; plasma waves and instabilities.

  3. Total charge fluctuation in heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Garg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations of positive, negative, total and net charge produced in relativistic nuclear collisions have been of interest to explore phase transition and/or a critical end point (CEP) which is believed to exist somewhere between the hadronic phase and the quark-gluon phase of the QCD phase diagram. The entropy is closely related to the particle multiplicity, and it is expected to be approximately conserved during the evolution of the matter created at the early stage. The entropy fluctuations are not directly observed but can be inferred from the experimentally measured quantities. The final state mean multiplicity is proportional to the entropy of the initial state ( ∼ S). The particle multiplicity can be measured on an event-by-event basis, whereas the entropy is defined by averaging the particle multiplicities in the ensemble of events. Thus, the dynamical entropy fluctuations can be measured experimentally by measuring the fluctuations in the mean multiplicity

  4. Event by event fluctuations in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the physics underlying event-by-event fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We will argue that the fluctuations of the ratio of positively over negatively charged particles may serve as a unique signature for the Quark Gluon Plasma.

  5. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  6. Two mechanisms of oral malodor inhibition by zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Hanioka, Takashi

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanisms by which zinc ions inhibit oral malodor. The direct binding of zinc ions to gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was assessed in comparison with other metal ions. Nine metal chlorides and six metal acetates were examined. To understand the strength of H2S volatilization inhibition, the minimum concentration needed to inhibit H2S volatilization was determined using serial dilution methods. Subsequently, the inhibitory activities of zinc ions on the growth of six oral bacterial strains related to volatile sulfur compound (VSC) production and three strains not related to VSC production were evaluated. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl2, CdCl2, CuCl2, (CH3COO)2Zn, (CH3COO)2Cd, (CH3COO)2Cu, and CH3COOAg inhibited H2S volatilization almost entirely. The strengths of H2S volatilization inhibition were in the order Ag+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+. The effect of zinc ions on the growth of oral bacteria was strain-dependent. Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586 was the most sensitive, as it was suppressed by medium containing 0.001% zinc ions. Zinc ions have an inhibitory effect on oral malodor involving the two mechanisms of direct binding with gaseous H2S and suppressing the growth of VSC-producing oral bacteria.

  7. Rechargeable Aqueous Zinc-Ion Battery Based on Porous Framework Zinc Pyrovanadate Intercalation Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Lei, Yongjiu; Liang, Hanfeng; Zhao, Chao; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    metal pyrovanadate compounds. The zinc pyrovanadate nanowires show significantly improved electrochemical performance when used as intercalation cathode for aqueous zinc–ion battery. Specifically, the ZVO cathode delivers high capacities of 213 and 76 m

  8. Memory versus fluctuations in heavy ion fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chushnyakova, M. V.; Gontchar, I. I.

    2013-09-01

    We model collisions of complex nuclei leading to capture using the Langevin equations, with white and colored noises and with instant and retarding friction, respectively. The friction force is supposed to be proportional to the squared derivative of the strong nucleus-nucleus interaction potential (SnnP). The SnnP is calculated within the framework of the double folding model with the density-dependent M3Y NN-forces possessing the finite range exchange term. Comparing results obtained in the presence and in the absence of fluctuations, we found that the fluctuations influence the capture cross sections weakly, typically within 5%. In contradistinction, the influence of the memory effects is found to be about 20%.

  9. Ion Channels and Zinc: Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah R. Morris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors, are ligand-gated ion channels that mediate much of the excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Not only do these receptors bind glutamate, but they are also regulated by and facilitate the postsynaptic uptake of the trace metal zinc. This paper discusses the role of the excitotoxic influx and accumulation of zinc, the mechanisms responsible for its cytotoxicity, and a number of disorders of the central nervous system that have been linked to these neuronal ion channels and zinc toxicity including ischemic brain injury, traumatic brain injury, and epilepsy.

  10. Zinc as Allosteric Ion Channel Modulator: Ionotropic Receptors as Metalloproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Francisco Andrés; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential metal to life. This transition metal is a structural component of many proteins and is actively involved in the catalytic activity of cell enzymes. In either case, these zinc-containing proteins are metalloproteins. However, the amino acid residues that serve as ligands for metal coordination are not necessarily the same in structural proteins compared to enzymes. While crystals of structural proteins that bind zinc reveal a higher preference for cysteine sulfhydryls rather than histidine imidazole rings, catalytic enzymes reveal the opposite, i.e., a greater preference for the histidines over cysteines for catalysis, plus the influence of carboxylic acids. Based on this paradigm, we reviewed the putative ligands of zinc in ionotropic receptors, where zinc has been described as an allosteric modulator of channel receptors. Although these receptors do not strictly qualify as metalloproteins since they do not normally bind zinc in structural domains, they do transitorily bind zinc at allosteric sites, modifying transiently the receptor channel’s ion permeability. The present contribution summarizes current information showing that zinc allosteric modulation of receptor channels occurs by the preferential metal coordination to imidazole rings as well as to the sulfhydryl groups of cysteine in addition to the carboxyl group of acid residues, as with enzymes and catalysis. It is remarkable that most channels, either voltage-sensitive or transmitter-gated receptor channels, are susceptible to zinc modulation either as positive or negative regulators. PMID:27384555

  11. Development of ion-acoustic double layers through ion-acoustic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, A.N.; Saxena, Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental results on the formation of ion acoustic double layers resembling asymmetric ion-holes are presented. In a double plasma device, modified suitably to inject electron beam into the target plasma, modulation of the beam through step potential leads to excitation of ion-acoustic fluctuation. The ion-acoustic fluctuation, growing away from the grids separating source and target plasmas, developed into weak asymmetric ion-acoustic double layer. The observations are in qualitative agreement with theoretical models and computer simulations. (author)

  12. Immersion autometallography: histochemical in situ capturing of zinc ions in catalytic zinc-sulfur nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, Gorm; Stoltenberg, Meredin; Bruhn, Mikkel; Søndergaard, Chris; Jensen, Dorete

    2004-12-01

    In the mid-1980s, two versions of Timm's original immersion sulfide silver method were published. The authors used immersion of tissue in a sulfide solution as opposed to Timm, who used immersion of tissue blocks in hydrogen sulfide-bubbled alcohol. The autometallography staining resulting from the "sulfide only immersion" was not particularly impressive, but the significance of this return to an old approach became obvious when Wenzel and co-workers presented their approach in connection with introduction by the Palmiter group of zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3). The Wenzel/Palmiter pictures are the first high-resolution, high-quality pictures taken from tissues in which free and loosely bound zinc ions have been captured in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals by immersion. The trick was to place formalin-fixed blocks of mouse brains in a solution containing 3% glutaraldehyde and 0.1% sodium sulfide, ingredients used for transcardial perfusion in the zinc-specific NeoTimm method. That the NeoTimm technique results in silver enhancement of zinc-sulfur nanocrystals has been proved by proton-induced X-ray multielement analyses (PIXE) and in vivo chelation with diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC). The aims of the present study were (a) to make the immersion-based capturing of zinc ions in zinc-sulfur nanocrystals work directly on sections and slices of fixed brain tissue, (b) to work out protocols that ensure zinc specificity and optimal quality of the staining, (c) to apply "immersion autometallography" (iZnSAMG) to other tissues that contain zinc-enriched (ZEN) cells, and (d) to make the immersion approach work on unfixed fresh tissue.

  13. short communication binding of nickel and zinc ions with activated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the activated carbon was studied using a range of ... their toxicity, accumulative behaviour and effects on human health, heavy metal pollution has become ... The determination of the total surface charge was made .... These values suggest high efficiency of the activated carbon,.

  14. The study of zinc ions binding to casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomastowski, P; Sprynskyy, M; Buszewski, B

    2014-08-01

    The presented research was focused on physicochemical study of casein properties and the kinetics of zinc ions binding to the protein. Moreover, a fast and simple method of casein extraction from cow's milk has been proposed. Casein isoforms, zeta potential (ζ) and particle size of the separated caseins were characterized with the use of capillary electrophoresis, zeta potential analysis and field flow fractionation (FFF) technique, respectively. The kinetics of the metal-binding process was investigated in batch adsorption experiments. Intraparticle diffusion model, first-order and zero-order kinetic models were applied to test the kinetic experimental data. Analysis of changes in infrared bands registered for casein before and after zinc binding was also performed. The obtained results showed that the kinetic process of zinc binding to casein is not homogeneous but is expressed with an initial rapid stage with about 70% of zinc ions immobilized by casein and with a much slower second step. Maximum amount of bound zinc in the experimental conditions was 30.04mgZn/g casein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Consideration of fluctuation in secondary beam intensity of heavy ion beam probe measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Lee, S.; Hamada, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Heavy ion beam probes have capability to detect local electron density fluctuation in the interior of plasmas through the detected beam intensity fluctuation. However, the intensity fluctuation should suffer a certain degree of distortion from electron density and temperature fluctuations on the beam orbits, and as a result the signal can be quite different from the local density fluctuation. This paper will present a condition that the intensity fluctuation can be regarded as being purely local electron density fluctuation, together with discussion about the contamination of the fluctuation along the beam orbits to the beam intensity fluctuation. (author)

  16. Dissipation and thermal fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froebrich, P.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of friction has turned out to be a useful one not only in solid state physics but also in the description of heavy-ion collisions and fisson. In the following I concentrate on applications to low energy (E << 10 MeV/nucleon) heavy-ion collisions. I put emphasis on the phenomenological side in showing that by using frictional forces (and the associated fluctuating forces) in a semi-phenomenological model one is able to put some order into a large variety of experimental data. These concern above- and below-barrier fusion, spin distributions, deep-inelastic scattering and the emission of δ electrons in deep-ineleastic collisions. (orig.)

  17. 1/f Fluctuations in ion implanted metal semiconductor contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovic, M.; Marjanovic, N.; Radojevic, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ion implanted Metal-Semiconductor contacts is the most widely used structures in electrical devices. Weather complete devices or some parts are of interest, properties of metal-semiconductor junction strongly influence the quality and external characteristic of electronic devices. That is the reason why special attention is paid to the investigation of factor (noise for example) that could influence given junction. Low frequency 1/f fluctuations (noise) are constantly present in metal-semiconductor junction, so measurement of their level as well as the dependence on factors such as temperature must be taken into account in detailed analysis of electrical characteristics of devices such as contact, nuclear detector with surface barrier etc. In this paper we present the results of low frequency noise level measurements on TiN-Ti-Si structures produced by As + ion implantation. (author)

  18. Potentiometric Zinc Ion Sensor Based on Honeycomb-Like NiO Nanostructures

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    Magnus Willander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study honeycomb-like NiO nanostructures were grown on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal growth method. The NiO nanostructures were characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The characterized NiO nanostructures were uniform, dense and polycrystalline in the crystal phase. In addition to this, the NiO nanostructures were used in the development of a zinc ion sensor electrode by functionalization with the highly selective zinc ion ionophore 12-crown-4. The developed zinc ion sensor electrode has shown a good linear potentiometric response for a wide range of zinc ion concentrations, ranging from 0.001 mM to 100 mM, with sensitivity of 36 mV/decade. The detection limit of the present zinc ion sensor was found to be 0.0005 mM and it also displays a fast response time of less than 10 s. The proposed zinc ion sensor electrode has also shown good reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and selectivity. The zinc ion sensor based on the functionalized NiO nanostructures was also used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations and it has demonstrated an acceptable stoichiometric relationship for the determination of zinc ion in unknown samples. The NiO nanostructures-based zinc ion sensor has potential for analysing zinc ion in various industrial, clinical and other real samples.

  19. Influence of lead ions on the macromorphology of electrodeposited zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Tetsuaki [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The morphology of zinc as it is electrodeposited from acid solutions demonstrates a remarkable imprint of electrolyte flow conditions. The development of macromorphology of zinc deposits has been investigated under galvanostatic conditions on a rotating plantinum disk electrode by use of photomacrography, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and Auger microprobe analysis. Logarithmic spiral markings, which reflect the hydrodynamic flow on a rotating disk, appear in a certain region of current density well below the limiting current density. Morphological observations revealed the major influence of trace lead ions on the amplifications of surface roughness through coalescence and preferred growth of initial protrusions. Results obtained from ultra-pure electrolyte suggest preferred crystal growth towards well-mixed orientation in the concentration field caused by slight differences in crystallization overpotential. A qualitative model involving a coupling mechanism between the evolving surface roughness and instability phenomena in the boundary layer is advanced to explain the formation of spiral patterns.

  20. Quinoline-substituted Zinc(II) phthalocyanine for the dual detection of ferric and zinc ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ankush [Lyallpur Khalsa College of Engineering, Jalandhar (India); Kim, A Rong [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Sub; Na, Kun [The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Myung Seok [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong S. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Here we present the synthesis and properties of quinoline-substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine, Zn[Pc(O-QN){sub 4} ]. Zn[Pc(O-QN){sub 4} ] can function as a highly selective chemosensor against Fe{sup 3+} and Zn{sup 2+} ions, exhibiting efficient fluorescence quenching and enhancement, respectively. Various characterization techniques were employed to investigate the intermolecular interactions of Zn[Pc(O-QN){sub 4} ] with metal ions. A double-electron exchange and a forbidden photoinduced electron transfer behavior in Zn[Pc(O-QN){sub 4} ] were attributed to such opposite responses. Furthermore, by taking advantage of selectivity, we successfully employed Zn[Pc(O-QN)-4 ] to stain and record confocal fluorescence microscopy images of Chang liver cells in the presence of metal ions.

  1. Ion heating and MHD dynamo fluctuations in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, E.; Hokin, S.; Watts, C.; Mattor, N.

    1992-01-01

    Ion temperature measurements, time resolved to 10 μs, have been made in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a five channel charge exchange analyzer. The ion temperature, T i ∼ 200 eV for I = 350 kA, increases by as much as 100% during discrete dynamo bursts in MST discharges. Magnetic field fluctuations in the range 0.5--5 MHz were also measured. Structure in the fluctuation frequency spectrum at the ion cyclotron frequency appears as the bursts terminate, suggesting that the mechanism of ion heating involves the dissipation of dynamo fluctuations at ion gyro-orbit scales

  2. Study of ion cyclotron fluctuations. Application to the measurement of the ion temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehner, T.

    1982-02-01

    A diagnostic technique for measuring the ion temperature of tokamak-type plasmas was developed. A theoretical study was made of the form factor associated with the ion cyclotron waves; the influence of Te/Ti on the frequency of the extrema of the dispersion relations was demonstrated. The different effects able to modify the spectral density (in particular the drift velocity and the impurities) were investigated. The mechanisms of suprathermal excitation of cylotron waves in tokamaks were reviewed together with the various effects stabilizing the spectrum: collisions, shear of the magnetic field lines. The experimental realization of the diagnostic technique is based on Thomson scattering by the electron density fluctuations [fr

  3. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  4. Rechargeable Aqueous Zinc-Ion Battery Based on Porous Framework Zinc Pyrovanadate Intercalation Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2017-12-11

    In this work, a microwave approach is developed to rapidly synthesize ultralong zinc pyrovanadate (Zn3V2O7(OH)2·2H2O, ZVO) nanowires with a porous crystal framework. It is shown that our synthesis strategy can easily be extended to fabricate other metal pyrovanadate compounds. The zinc pyrovanadate nanowires show significantly improved electrochemical performance when used as intercalation cathode for aqueous zinc–ion battery. Specifically, the ZVO cathode delivers high capacities of 213 and 76 mA h g−1 at current densities of 50 and 3000 mA g−1, respectively. Furthermore, the Zn//ZVO cells show good cycling stability up to 300 cycles. The estimated energy density of this Zn cell is ≈214Wh kg−1, which is much higher than commercial lead–acid batteries. Significant insight into the Zn-storage mechanism in the pyrovanadate cathodes is presented using multiple analytical methods. In addition, it is shown that our prototype device can power a 1.5 V temperature sensor for at least 24 h.

  5. Kinetic modelling for zinc (II) ions biosorption onto Luffa cylindrica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, I.; Aluyor, E.; Audu, T.

    2015-01-01

    The biosorption of Zinc (II) ions onto a biomaterial - Luffa cylindrica has been studied. This biomaterial was characterized by elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy, and the biomaterial before and after sorption, was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectrometer. The kinetic nonlinear models fitted were Pseudo-first order, Pseudo-second order and Intra-particle diffusion. A comparison of non-linear regression method in selecting the kinetic model was made. Four error functions, namely coefficient of determination (R 2 ), hybrid fractional error function (HYBRID), average relative error (ARE), and sum of the errors squared (ERRSQ), were used to predict the parameters of the kinetic models. The strength of this study is that a biomaterial with wide distribution particularly in the tropical world and which occurs as waste material could be put into effective utilization as a biosorbent to address a crucial environmental problem

  6. Manganese Sesquioxide as Cathode Material for Multivalent Zinc Ion Battery with High Capacity and Long Cycle Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Baozheng; Xu, Chengjun; Wu, Changle; Dong, Liubing; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Manganese oxides with Mn(III) state is firstly reported to store zinc ion. • Zinc ion battery with α-Mn 2 O 3 cathode is assembled. • Storage mechanism of zinc ion in α-Mn 2 O 3 is investigated. - Abstract: Rechargeable zinc ion battery is considered as one of the most potential energy storage devices for large-scale energy storage system due to its safety, low-cost, high capacity and nontoxicity. However, only a few cathode materials have been studied for rechargeable zinc ion batteries. Here, we firstly report manganese sesquioxide (Mn 2 O 3 ) with Mn(III) state as cathode material for rechargeable zinc ion battery. The α-Mn 2 O 3 cathode displays a reversible capacity of 148 mAh g −1 , which is relatively high among all the reported cathode materials for ZIB. The cathode also exhibits good rate capability and excellent cycling stability with a long cycle life up to 2000 times. The ion storage mechanism of α-Mn 2 O 3 in zinc ion battery was also revealed. The pristine α-Mn 2 O 3 undergoes a reversible phase transition from bixbyite structure to layered-type zinc birnessite during the electrochemical zinc ion insertion and extraction. The results not only benefit for the practical application of rechargeable zinc ion battery, but also broaden the horizons of understanding the electrochemical behavior and mechanism of rechargeable zinc ion batteries.

  7. Ion Implantation of Calcium and Zinc in Magnesium for Biodegradable Implant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahadev Somasundaram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, magnesium was implanted with calcium-ion and zinc-ion at fluences of 1015, 1016, and 1017 ion·cm−2, and its in vitro degradation behaviour was evaluated using electrochemical techniques in simulated body fluid (SBF. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS revealed that the implanted ions formed layers within the passive magnesium-oxide/hydroxide layers. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS results demonstrated that calcium-ion implantation at a fluence of 1015 ions·cm−2 increased the polarisation resistance by 24%, but higher fluences showed no appreciable improvement. In the case of zinc-ion implantation, increase in the fluence decreased the polarisation resistance. A fluence of 1017 ion·cm−2 decreased the polarisation resistance by 65%, and fluences of 1015 and 1016 showed only marginal effect. Similarly, potentiodynamic polarisation results also suggested that low fluence of calcium-ion decreased the degradation rate by 38% and high fluence of zinc-ion increased the degradation rate by 61%. All the post-polarized ion-implanted samples and the bare metal revealed phosphate and carbonate formation. However, the improved degradative behaviour in calcium-ion implanted samples can be due to a relatively better passivation, whereas the reduction in degradation resistance in zinc-ion implanted samples can be attributed to the micro-galvanic effect.

  8. An Optical Fiber-Based Sensor Array for the Monitoring of Zinc and Copper Ions in Aqueous Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Kopitzke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper and zinc are elements commonly used in industrial applications as aqueous solutions. Before the solutions can be discharged into civil or native waterways, waste treatment processes must be undertaken to ensure compliance with government guidelines restricting the concentration of ions discharged in solution. While currently there are methods of analysis available to monitor these solutions, each method has disadvantages, be it high costs, inaccuracy, and/or being time-consuming. In this work, a new optical fiber-based platform capable of providing fast and accurate results when performing solution analysis for these metals is described. Fluorescent compounds that exhibit a high sensitivity and selectivity for either zinc or copper have been employed for fabricating the sensors. These sensors demonstrated sub-part-per-million detection limits, 30-second response times, and the ability to analyze samples with an average error of under 10%. The inclusion of a fluorescent compound as a reference material to compensate for fluctuations from pulsed excitation sources has further increased the reliability and accuracy of each sensor. Finally, after developing sensors capable of monitoring zinc and copper individually, these sensors are combined to form a single optical fiber sensor array capable of simultaneously monitoring concentration changes in zinc and copper in aqueous environments.

  9. Ion heating and MHD dynamo fluctuations in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, E.E.

    1992-05-01

    Ion temperature measurements, time resolved to 10 μs, have been made in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) with a five channel charge exchange analyzer. The characteristic anomalously high ion temperature of RFP discharges has been observed in the MST. The evolution of the ion and electron temperature, as well as density and charge exchange power loss, were measured for a series of reproducible discharges. The ion heating expected from collisional processes with the electrons is calculated and shown too small to explain the measured ion temperatures. The charge exchange determined ion temperature is also compared to measurements of the thermally broadened CV 227.1 nm line. The ion temperature, T i ∼ 250 eV for I = 360 kA, increases by more than 100% during discrete dynamo bursts in MST discharges. Magnetic field fluctuations in the range 0.5 endash 5 MHz were also measured during the dynamo bursts. Structure in the fluctuation frequency spectrum at the ion cyclotron frequency appears as the bursts terminate, suggesting that the mechanism of ion heating involves the dissipation of dynamo fluctuations at ion cyclotron frequencies. Theoretical models for ion heating are reviewed and discussed in light of the experimental results. Similar electron heating mechanisms may be responsible for the discrepancy between measured and expected loop voltages in the RFP. The electrons, as well as the ions, may be heated by turbulent mechanisms, and a RFP energy budget including such phenomena is described

  10. Consideration of magnetic field fluctuation measurements in a torus plasma with heavy ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujisawa, A.; Ohshima, S.; Nakano, H.

    2004-03-01

    The article discusses feasibility of magnetic fluctuation measurement with a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in an axisymmetric torus configuration. In the measurements, path integral fluctuation along the probing beam orbit should be considered as is similar to the density fluctuation measurements with HIBP. A calculation, based on an analytic formula, is performed to estimate the path integral effects for fluctuation patterns that have difference in profile, the correlation length, the radial wavelength, and the poloidal mode number. In addition, the large distance between the plasma and the detector is considered to lessen the path integral effect. As a result, it is found that local fluctuation of magnetic field can be properly detected with a heavy ion beam probe. (author)

  11. Comparative effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and dissolved zinc on zebrafish embryos and eleuthero-embryos: Importance of zinc ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, N.R.; Lenz, M.; Wehrli, B.; Fent, K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and their associated environmental occurrence make it necessary to assess their potential effects on aquatic organisms. Upon water contact, nZnO dissolve partially to zinc (Zn(II)). To date it is not yet completely understood, whether effects of

  12. Parameters Influencing Zinc in Experimental Systems in Vivo and in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Ollig; Veronika Kloubert; Inga Weßels; Hajo Haase; Lothar Rink

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the role of zinc in biological systems has been a subject of intense research. Despite wide increase in our knowledge and understanding of zinc homeostasis, numerous questions remain to be answered, encouraging further research. In particular, the quantification of intracellular zinc ions and fluctuation, as well as the function of zinc in signaling processes are being intensely investigated. The determination of free intracellular zinc ions is difficult and error-prone, as c...

  13. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  14. Removal of lead and zinc ions from water by low cost adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P C; Patel, R K

    2009-08-30

    In this study, activated carbon, kaolin, bentonite, blast furnace slag and fly ash were used as adsorbent with a particle size between 100 mesh and 200 mesh to remove the lead and zinc ions from water. The concentration of the solutions prepared was in the range of 50-100 mg/L for lead and zinc for single and binary systems which are diluted as required for batch experiments. The effect of contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage on removal of lead and zinc by adsorption was investigated. The equilibrium time was found to be 30 min for activated carbon and 3h for kaolin, bentonite, blast furnace slag and fly ash. The most effective pH value for lead and zinc removal was 6 for activated carbon. pH value did not effect lead and zinc removal significantly for other adsorbents. Adsorbent doses were varied from 5 g/L to 20 g/L for both lead and zinc solutions. An increase in adsorbent doses increases the percent removal of lead and zinc. A series of isotherm studies was undertaken and the data evaluated for compliance was found to match with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. To investigate the adsorption mechanism, the kinetic models were tested, and it follows second order kinetics. Kinetic studies reveals that blast furnace slag was not effective for lead and zinc removal. The bentonite and fly ash were effective for lead and zinc removal.

  15. Anisotropic flow fluctuations in hydro-inspired freeze-out model for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Bravina, L V; Korotkikh, V L; Lokhtin, I P; Malinina, L V; Nazarova, E N; Petrushanko, S V; Snigirev, A M; Zabrodin, E E

    2015-01-01

    The possible mechanisms contributing to anisotropic flow fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed. The LHC data on event-by-event harmonic flow coefficients measured in PbPb collisions at center-of-mass energy 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair are analyzed and interpreted within the HYDJET++ model. To compare the model results with the experimental data the unfolding procedure is employed. It is shown that HYDJET++ correctly reproduces dynamical fluctuations of elliptic and triangular flows and related to it eccentricity fluctuations of the initial state.

  16. Fluorescent zinc sensor with minimized proton-induced interferences: photophysical mechanism for fluorescence turn-on response and detection of endogenous free zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ji Eon; Lee, Sumin; You, Youngmin; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Ohkubo, Kei; Cho, Jaeheung; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Shin, Injae; Park, Soo Young; Nam, Wonwoo

    2012-08-20

    A new fluorescent zinc sensor (HNBO-DPA) consisting of 2-(2'-hydroxy-3'-naphthyl)benzoxazole (HNBO) chromophore and a di(2-picolyl)amine (DPA) metal chelator has been prepared and examined for zinc bioimaging. The probe exhibits zinc-induced fluorescence turn-on without any spectral shifts. Its crystal structure reveals that HNBO-DPA binds a zinc ion in a pentacoordinative fashion through the DPA and HNBO moieties. Steady-state photophysical studies establish zinc-induced deprotonation of the HNBO group. Nanosecond and femtosecond laser flash photolysis and electrochemical measurements provide evidence for zinc-induced modulation of photoinduced electron transfer (PeT) from DPA to HNBO. Thus, the zinc-responsive fluorescence turn-on is attributed to suppression of PeT exerted by deprotonation of HNBO and occupation of the electron pair of DPA, a conclusion that is further supported by density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory (DFT/TD-DFT) calculations. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.0), the probe displays a 44-fold fluorescence turn-on in response to zinc ions with a K(d) value of 12 pM. The fluorescent response of the probe to zinc ions is conserved over a broad pH range with its excellent selectivity for zinc ions among biologically relevant metal ions. In particular, its sensing ability is not altered by divalent transition metal ions such as Fe(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Hg(II). Cell experiments using HNBO-DPA show its suitability for monitoring intracellular zinc ions. We have also demonstrated applicability of the probe to visualize intact zinc ions released from cells that undergo apoptosis. More interestingly, zinc-rich pools in zebrafish embryos are traced with HNBO-DPA during early developmental stages. The results obtained from the in vitro and in vivo imaging studies demonstrate the practical usefulness of the probe to detect zinc ions.

  17. Rechargeable nickel-3D zinc batteries: An energy-dense, safer alternative to lithium-ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph F; Chervin, Christopher N; Pala, Irina R; Machler, Meinrad; Burz, Michael F; Long, Jeffrey W; Rolison, Debra R

    2017-04-28

    The next generation of high-performance batteries should include alternative chemistries that are inherently safer to operate than nonaqueous lithium-based batteries. Aqueous zinc-based batteries can answer that challenge because monolithic zinc sponge anodes can be cycled in nickel-zinc alkaline cells hundreds to thousands of times without undergoing passivation or macroscale dendrite formation. We demonstrate that the three-dimensional (3D) zinc form-factor elevates the performance of nickel-zinc alkaline cells in three fields of use: (i) >90% theoretical depth of discharge (DOD Zn ) in primary (single-use) cells, (ii) >100 high-rate cycles at 40% DOD Zn at lithium-ion-commensurate specific energy, and (iii) the tens of thousands of power-demanding duty cycles required for start-stop microhybrid vehicles. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Effects of ion temperature fluctuations on the stability of resistive ballooning modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Nordman, H.; Jarmen, A.; Weiland, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ion temperature fluctuations on the stability of resistive drift- and ballooning-modes is investigated using a two-fluid model. The Eigenmode equations are derived and solved analytically in a low beta model equilibrium. Parameters relevant to L-mode edge plasmas from the Texas Experimental Tokamak are used. The resistive modes are found to be destabilized by ion temperature fluctuations over a broad range of mode numbers. The scaling of the growth rate with magnetic shear and mode number is elucidated. 13 refs, 4 figs

  19. Continuum modeling of ion-beam eroded surfaces under normal incidence: Impact of stochastic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimann, Karsten; Linz, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Deterministic surface pattern (left) and its stochastic counterpart (right) arising in a stochastic damped Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation that serves as a model equation for ion-beam eroded surfaces and is systematically investigated. - Abstract: Using a recently proposed field equation for the surface evolution of ion-beam eroded semiconductor target materials under normal incidence, we systematically explore the impact of additive stochastic fluctuations that are permanently present during the erosion process. Specifically, we investigate the dependence of the surface roughness, the underlying pattern forming properties and the bifurcation behavior on the strength of the fluctuations.

  20. Collisionless damping of nonlinear dust ion acoustic wave due to dust charge fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Samiran; Chaudhuri, Tushar K.; Sarkar, Susmita; Khan, Manoranjan; Gupta, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    A dissipation mechanism for the damping of the nonlinear dust ion acoustic wave in a collisionless dusty plasma consisting of nonthermal electrons, ions, and variable charge dust grains has been investigated. It is shown that the collisionless damping due to dust charge fluctuation causes the nonlinear dust ion acoustic wave propagation to be described by the damped Korteweg-de Vries equation. Due to the presence of nonthermal electrons, the dust ion acoustic wave admits both positive and negative potential and it suffers less damping than the dust acoustic wave, which admits only negative potential

  1. Hydration study of ordinary portland cement in the presence of zinc ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Adriana Trezza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydration products of Portland cement pastes, hydrated in water and in the presence of zinc ions were studied comparatively at different ages. Hydration products were studied by X ray diffractions (XRD and infrared spectroscopy (IR. Although IR is not frequently used in cement chemistry, it evidenced a new phase Ca(Zn(OH32. 2H2O formed during cement hydration in the presence of zinc. The significant retardation of early cement hydration in the presence of zinc is assessed in detail by differential calorimetry as a complement to the study carried out by IR and XRD, providing evidence that permits to evaluate the kinetic of the early hydration.

  2. Solution NMR characterization of Sgf73(1-104) indicates that Zn ion is required to stabilize zinc finger motif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chaohua; Wu, Minhao; Li, Pan; Shi, Chaowei; Tian, Changlin; Zang, Jianye

    2010-01-01

    Zinc finger motif contains a zinc ion coordinated by several conserved amino acid residues. Yeast Sgf73 protein was identified as a component of SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase) multi-subunit complex and Sgf73 protein was known to contain two zinc finger motifs. Sgf73(1-104), containing the first zinc finger motif, was necessary to modulate the deubiquitinase activity of SAGA complex. Here, Sgf73(1-104) was over-expressed using bacterial expression system and purified for solution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) structural studies. Secondary structure and site-specific relaxation analysis of Sgf73(1-104) were achieved after solution NMR backbone assignment. Solution NMR and circular dichroism analysis of Sgf73(1-104) after zinc ion removal using chelation reagent EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid) demonstrated that zinc ion was required to maintain stable conformation of the zinc finger motif.

  3. Comparison of the effects and distribution of zinc oxide nanoparticles and zinc ions in activated sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Trzcinski, Antoine P; Oh, Hyun-Suk; Chew, Evelyn; Liu, Yu; Tan, Soon Keat; Ng, Wun Jern

    2017-09-19

    Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being increasingly applied in the industry, which results inevitably in the release of these materials into the hydrosphere. In this study, simulated waste-activated sludge experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of Zinc Oxide NPs and to compare it with its ionic counterpart (as ZnSO 4 ). It was found that even 1 mg/L of ZnO NPs could have a small impact on COD and ammonia removal. Under 1, 10 and 50 mg/L of ZnO NP exposure, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiencies decreased from 79.8% to 78.9%, 72.7% and 65.7%, respectively. The corresponding ammonium (NH 4 + N) concentration in the effluent significantly (P zinc ions were more toxic towards microorganisms compared to ZnO NPs. Under 50 mg/L exposure, the effluent Zn level was 5.69 mg/L, implying that ZnO NPs have a strong affinity for activated sludge. The capacity for adsorption of ZnO NPs onto activated sludge was found to be 2.3, 6.3, and 13.9 mg/g MLSS at influent ZnO NP concentrations of 1.0, 10 and 50 mg/L respectively, which were 1.74-, 2.13- and 2.05-fold more than under Zn ion exposure.

  4. Ekpyrosis and inflationary dynamics in heavy ion collisions: the role of quantum fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusling, K.; Venugopalan, R.; Gelis, F.

    2011-05-23

    We summarize recent significant progress in the development of a first-principles formalism to describe the formation and evolution of matter in very high energy heavy ion collisions. The key role of quantum fluctuations both before and after a collision is emphasized. Systematic computations are now feasible to address early time isotropization, flow, parton energy loss and the Chiral Magnetic Effect.

  5. Potential interaction between zinc ions and a cyclodextrin-based diclofenac formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Imad I; El-Sabawi, Dina; Abdel Jalil, Mariam

    2016-03-01

    Complexes of diclofenac sodium (DF-Na) with hydroxypropyl betacyclodextrin (HPβCD) were prepared by co-evaporation in a 1:1 ratio and characterized in light of previously reported data. Phase solubility diagrams were obtained for DF-Na with HPβCD in the presence and absence of zinc ions. Dissolution profiles were obtained for DF-Na and its HPβCD complex at acidic (pH 1.2) as well as in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8), in the presence and absence of zinc. HPβCD, as expected, was shown to improve the dissolution of DF-Na in acidic medium but not in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). The presence of zinc ions decreased the in vitro dissolution of DF-HPβCD complex in acidic medium (pH 1.2) but not in phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). It was confirmed that the precipitate that was formed by zinc ions in the presence of HPβCD and DF-Na contained no cyclodextrin and most likely it was a mixture of the complexes: DF 2 -Zn and DF-Zn with some molecules of water. In vivo experiments on rats have shown that HPβCD has no statistically significant effect on absorption or bioavailability of DF-Na in spite of the observed improvement of its in vitro dissolution by HPβCD. Moreover, zinc ions were shown to decrease the absorption rate of DF-Na in rats model but did neither significantly alter the absorption nor bioavailability of DF-HPβCD complex. The zinc induced precipitates of DF were shown to have significantly different crystalline properties when HPβCD was present. Therefore, the pharmaceutical details of a DF-Na preparation should be considered when designing the formulation and predicting possible interaction between DF-Na (or other potential NSAIDs) and zinc metal.

  6. Zinc ions bind to and inhibit activated protein C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Tianqing; Ubhayasekera, Wimal; Nickolaus, Noëlle

    2010-01-01

    fold enhanced, presumably due to the Ca2+-induced conformational change affecting the conformation of the Zn2+-binding site. The inhibition mechanism was non-competitive both in the absence and presence of Ca2+. Comparisons of sequences and structures suggested several possible sites for zinc binding...

  7. Observation of fluctuations responsible for stochastic ion heating in a turbulent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagishi, Y.; Iguchi, H.; Ito, Y.; Kawabe, T.

    1977-10-01

    Experiments are described in which the correlation time and fluctuation level of ion acoustic waves are measured under the condition of turbulent heating using twin capacitive probes. At the anomalously resistive time, the correlation time becomes shorter, typically several periods of ion waves, and the energy density of the waves is of the order of 10 -2 n sub(e)T sub(e). The ion heating rate previously reported is well explained by these results to be due to stochastic mechanism. (auth.)

  8. Elsaesser variable analysis of fluctuations in the ion foreshock and undisturbed solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, James; Treumann, Rudolf A.; Marsch, Eckart

    1994-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) fluctuations in the solar wind have been investigated previously by use of Elsaesser variables. In this paper, we present a comparison of the spectra of Elsaesser variables in the undisturbed solar wind at 1 AU and in the ion foreshock in front of the Earth. Both observations take place under relatively strong solar wind flow speed conditions (approximately equal 600 km/s). In the undisturbed solar wind we find that outward propagating Alfven waves dominate, as reported by other observers. In the ion foreshock the situation is more complex, with neither outward nor inward propagation dominating over the entire range investigated (1-10 mHz). Measurements of the Poynting vectors associated with the fluctuations are consistent with the Elsaesser variable analysis. These results generally support interpretations of the Elsaesser variables which have been made based strictly on solar wind data and provide additional insight into the nature of the ion foreshock turbulence.

  9. Excitation and propagation of electromagnetic fluctuations with ion-cyclotron range of frequency in magnetic reconnection laboratory experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomoto, Michiaki; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Ono, Yasushi; Kuwahata, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    Large-amplitude electromagnetic fluctuations of ion-cyclotron-frequency range are detected in a laboratory experiment inside the diffusion region of a magnetic reconnection with a guide field. The fluctuations have properties similar to kinetic Alfvén waves propagating obliquely to the guide field. Temporary enhancement of the reconnection rate is observed during the occurrence of the fluctuations, suggesting a relationship between the modification in the local magnetic structure given by these fluctuations and the intermittent fast magnetic reconnection

  10. Conserved charge fluctuations using the D measure in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Garg, P.

    2017-05-01

    We study the net-charge fluctuation D -measure variable, in high-energy heavy-ion collisions in heavy-ion jet interaction generator (HIJING), ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD), and hadron resonance gas (HRG) models for various center-of-mass energies (√{sNN}). The effects of kinematic acceptance and resonance decay, in the pseudorapidity acceptance interval (Δ η ) and lower transverse momentum (pTmin) threshold, on fluctuation measures are discussed. A strong dependence of D with the Δ η in HIJING and UrQMD models is observed as opposed to results obtained from the HRG model. The dissipation of fluctuation signal is estimated by fitting the D measure as a function of the Δ η . An extrapolated function for higher Δ η values at lower √{sNN} is different from the results obtained from models. Particle species dependence of D and the effect of the pTmin selection threshold are discussed in HIJING and HRG models. The comparison of D , at midrapidity, of net-charge fluctuations at various √{sNN} obtained from the models with the data from the A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) experiment is discussed. The results from the present paper as a function of Δ η and √{sNN} will provide a baseline for comparison to experimental measurements.

  11. Effects of angular momentum dissipation on fluctuations of excitation functions in heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, S.Yu.; Noerenberg, W.; Technische Hochschule Darmstadt

    1992-02-01

    We study the effect from dissipation of relative angular momentum on fluctuations of exitations functions in dissipative heavy-ion collisions. Dissipation and fluctuation of relative angular momentum modify and smooth the time-angle localization of the roating dinuclear system. The secondary maxima in the energy correlation function of the cross-section are shifted to smaller values of the energy difference, the shift depending on the relaxation time and the diffusion coefficient for the angular-momentum dissipation. The results are illustrated for the collision 28 Si(E lab =130MeV)+ 48 Ti. (orig.)

  12. Binding of nickel and zinc ions with activated carbon prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500 oC for 30 minutes. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the ...

  13. Effect of beam-attenuation modulation on fluctuation measurements by heavy-ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.W.; Sloan, M.L.; Wootton, A.J.

    1991-03-01

    Beam-attenuation modulation arising from density fluctuations along the orbit of the heavy-ion beam probe can distort the local amplitude, coherence, and phase derived from one- and two-point correlation measurements. Path-integral expressions for these effects are derived and applications to TEXT data are discussed. The effects depend critically on the ratio of the average fluctuation amplitude, n e , along the beam path to the local n e at the sample volume. Because the fluctuation amplitude is small in the core and rises sharply toward the plasma edge, the contamination effect is negligible in a radial zone near the edge but rises sharply to the interior of a critical radius. With increasing average plasma density, bar n e , the interior contamination increases strongly and the critical radius moves outward. 16 refs., 12 figs

  14. Characterization of initial fluctuations for the hydrodynamical description of heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations in the initial conditions for a hydrodynamical description of heavy-ion collisions are characterized. We propose a Bessel-Fourier decomposition with respect to the azimuthal angle, the radius in the transverse plane and rapidity. This allows for a complete characterization of fluctuations in all hydrodynamical fields including energy density, pressure, fluid velocity, shear stress and bulk viscous pressure. It has the advantage that fluctuations can be ordered with respect to their wave length and that they can be propagated mode-by-mode within the hydrodynamical formalism. Event ensembles can then be characterized in terms of a functional probability distribution. For the event ensemble of a Monte Carlo Glauber model, we provide evidence that the latter is close to Gaussian form, thus allowing for a particularly simple characterization of the event distribution.

  15. Energy loss of ions by electric-field fluctuations in a magnetized plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B; Deutsch, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the energy loss of charged particles in a magnetized classical plasma due to the electric-field fluctuations are reported. The energy loss for a test particle is calculated through the linear-response theory. At vanishing magnetic field, the electric-field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the charged particle for all velocities. It has been shown that in the presence of strong magnetic field, this effect occurs only at low velocities. In the case of high velocities, the test particle systematically loses its energy due to the interaction with a stochastic electric field. The net effect of the fluctuations is the systematic reduction of the total energy loss (i.e., the sum of the polarization and stochastic energy losses) at vanishing magnetic field and reduction or enhancement at strong field, depending on the velocity of the particle. It is found that the energy loss of the slow heavy ion contains an anomalous term that depends logarithmically on the projectile mass. The physical origin of this anomalous term is the coupling between the cyclotron motion of the plasma electrons and the long-wavelength, low-frequency fluctuations produced by the projectile ion. This effect may strongly enhance the stochastic energy gain of the particle.

  16. STUDIES ON DETERMINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL LEVELS OF ZINC IONS IN THE PHARYNGEAL TONSILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Nogaj

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The zinc is one of the most important microelements. Element this conditions has corrected the functioning the nervous system of, immunological, sense of taste and smell. It the weakness of activity was manifested was the shortage of zinc and children’s motive development. The aim of this study was samples of pharyngeal tonsils from children living on Malopolska Region, Silesia and village (made up the area of reference of Southern Poland. We investigated population 95 children, in this 40 girls (42% and 55 boys (58% in age from 2 till 15 years (average 6,8 years. The content of zinc was determined by ICP – AES method. Average the content of zinc in pharyngeal tonsils in whole studied children’s population carried out 74,51 µg/g. The statistical differences were not affirmed among average (the average geometrical content of ions of zinc in studied come from girls – 73,15 µg/g and the boys – 75,49 µg/g. The differences between sex appear, in case of ranges of changes, at boys range this it is clearly larger (55,86–97,59 µg/g in comparison to girls (58,34–88,68 µg/g how also near comparison of content answering 95 percentylowi (the incidental resulting with large environmental exposition contents it in the pharyngeal boys’ tonsils is larger – (87,73 µg/g in comparison to young girls (81,98 µg/g. It was established, on basis of report of changes quotient content zinc in pharyngeal tonsils in function of changes of content zinc in air dust, the physiological quantities of zinc in pharyngeal tonsil on level 42 µg/g.

  17. Studies of adsorption and desorption of zinc ions on zeolites by means of 65Zn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldesova, M.; Dillinger, P.; Lukac, P.

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of different metals by natural and chemically modified ion-exchangers, including zeolites, were studied in order to minimize the contamination of environment with metals in ionic form. In recent years considerable attention has been devoted to the studies of chemically modified zeolites their properties and applications. The used zeolite originated from the deposit Nizny Hrabovec, eastern Slovakia (NH) and from deposit of Ukraine (U). The zeolite from Slovakia is a clinoptilolite /40 -70%/ type, the zeolite from Ukraine is a mixed mordenite /75%/ and clinoptilolite /25%/ type. A fraction of 1.5 -2.5 mm was separated from the grained zeolite by sieving. The sedimentary zeolites, being the siliceous zeolites, should exhibit substantial non-selectivity for the divalent cations having a high hydration enthalpy , including zinc ( -2026 kJ/g). Zinc is an essential trace element in all-living systems from bacteria to humans. The toxicity of zinc and most of zinc compounds is generally low, however, sometimes industrial and household wastes contain zinc in concentrations, which can be harmful to the environment. The zinc-accompanying impurities, such as cadmium and lead, are of much greater danger .The main source of zinc are waste waters and continuous emission from the production and processing of zinc, other nonferrous smelters, from coal power plants and fossil combustion. The static radio-exchange method using model radioactive solutions was utilized for the determination of the sorption of Zn by the mentioned above zeolitic materials. For this purpose the aqueous solution of 5 · 10 -2 mol dm -3 ZnCl 2 labelled with 65 Zn was used. The areas of application of natural zeolites have been well defined. However, their use can become more efficient after chemical modification. The zeolites acquire new valuable properties, while retaining their original ones. The obtained results make these materials excellent candidates for their potential use for waste water

  18. Seaweeds for the remediation of wastewaters contaminated with zinc(II) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, R.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Thilakavathi, M.; Iyer, P.V.R.; Velan, M.

    2006-01-01

    Eleven different species of marine macroalgae were screened at different pH conditions on the basis of zinc(II) biosorption potential. Among the seaweeds, a green alga, Ulva reticulata, exhibited a highest uptake of 36.1 mg/g at pH 5.5 and 100 mg/l initial zinc(II) concentration. Further experiments were conducted to evaluate the zinc(II) biosorption potential of U. reticulata. Sorption isotherm data obtained at different pH (5-6) and temperature (25-35 deg. C) conditions were fitted well with Sips model followed by Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir models. A maximum zinc(II) biosorption capacity of 135.5 mg/g was observed at optimum conditions of 5.5 (pH) and 30 deg. C (temperature), according to the Langmuir model. It was observed from the kinetic data that the zinc(II) biosorption process using U. reticulata follows pseudo-second-order kinetics. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o were calculated and they indicated that the present system was a spontaneous and an endothermic process. The influence of the co-ions (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ) along with zinc(II) present in the wastewater was also studied. Desorption of zinc(II) ions from the zinc(II)-loaded biomass were examined using 0.1 M CaCl 2 at different pH conditions in three sorption-desorption cycles. A fixed-bed column (2 cm i.d. and 35 cm height) was employed to evaluate the continuous biosorption performance of U. reticulata. The column experiments at different bed heights and flow rates revealed that the maximum zinc(II) uptake was obtained at the highest bed height (25 cm) and the lowest flow rate (5 ml/min). Column data were fitted well with Thomas, Yoon-Nelson and modified dose-response models. The column regeneration studies were carried out for three sorption-desorption cycles. A loss of sorption performance was observed during regeneration cycles indicated by a shortened breakthrough time and a decreased zinc(II) uptake

  19. An Aqueous Metal-Ion Capacitor with Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes and Metallic Zinc Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yuheng; Amal, Rose; Wang, Da-Wei, E-mail: da-wei.wang@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-10-03

    An aqueous metal ion capacitor comprising of a zinc anode, oxidized carbon nanotubes (oCNTs) cathode, and a zinc sulfate electrolyte is reported. Since the shuttling cation is Zn{sup 2+}, this typical metal ion capacitor is named as zinc-ion capacitor (ZIC). The ZIC integrates the divalent zinc stripping/plating chemistry with the surface-enabled pseudocapacitive cation adsorption/desorption on oCNTs. The surface chemistry and crystallographic structure of oCNTs were extensively characterized by combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The function of the surface oxygen groups in surface cation storage was elucidated by a series of electrochemical measurement and the surface-enabled ZIC showed better performance than the ZIC with an un-oxidized CNT cathode. The reaction mechanism at the oCNT cathode involves the additional reversible Faradaic process, while the CNTs merely show electric double layer capacitive behavior involving a non-Faradaic process. The aqueous hybrid ZIC comprising the oCNT cathode exhibited a specific capacitance of 20 mF cm{sup −2} (corresponding to 53 F g{sup −1}) in the range of 0–1.8 V at 10 mV s{sup −1} and a stable cycling performance up to 5000 cycles.

  20. An Aqueous Metal-ion Capacitor with Oxidised Carbon Nanotubes and Metallic Zinc Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous metal ion capacitor comprising of a zinc anode, an oxidized carbon nanotubes (oCNTs cathode and a zinc sulfate electrolyte is reported. Since the shuttling cation is Zn2+, this typical metal ion capacitor is named as zinc-ion capacitor (ZIC. The ZIC integrates the divalent zinc stripping/plating chemistry with the surface-enabled pseudocapacitive cation adsorption/desorption on oCNTs. The surface chemistry and crystallographic structure of oCNTs were extensively characterized by combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The function of the surface oxygen groups in surface cation storage was elucidated by a series of electrochemical measurement and the surface-enabled ZIC showed better performance than the ZIC with an un-oxidized CNT cathode. The reaction mechanism at the oCNT cathode involves the additional reversible Faradaic process, while the CNTs merely show electric double layer capacitive behavior involving a non-Faradaic process. The aqueous hybrid ZIC comprising the oCNT cathode exhibited a specific capacitance of 20 mF cm-2 (corresponding to 53 F g-1 in the range of 0-1.8 V at 10 mV s-1 and a stable cycling performance up to 5000 cycles.

  1. The role of magnetic field fluctuations in nonadiabatic acceleration of ions during dipolarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Y.; Nosé, M.; Christon, S. P.; Lui, A. T. Y.

    2009-05-01

    We statistically examine changes in the composition of two different ion species, proton and oxygen ions, in the near-Earth plasma sheet (X = -16 R E ˜ -6 R E ) during substorm-associated dipolarization. We use 10 years of energetic (9-212 keV/e) ion data obtained by the suprathermal ion composition spectrometer (STICS) sensor of the energetic particles and ion composition (EPIC) instrument on board the Geotail spacecraft. The results are as follows: (1) Although the percentage increase in the energy density of O+ ions before and after a dipolarization exceeds that of H+ ions in the low-energy range (9-36 keV/e), this property is not evident in the high-energy range (56-212 keV/e); (2) the energy spectrum of H+ and that of O+ become harder after dipolarization in almost all events; and (3) in some events the energy spectrum of O+ becomes harder than that of H+ as reported by previous studies, and, importantly, in other events, the spectrum of H+ becomes harder than that of O+. In order to investigate what mechanism causes these observational results, we focus on magnetic field fluctuations during dipolarization. It is found that the increase of the spectrum slope is positively correlated with the power of waves whose frequencies are close to the gyrofrequency of H+ or O+, respectively (the correlation coefficient is 0.48 for H+ and 0.68 for O+). In conclusion, ions are nonadiabatically accelerated by the electric field induced by the magnetic field fluctuations whose frequencies are close to their gyrofrequencies.

  2. Solubilization of insoluble zinc compounds by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and the detrimental action of zinc ion (Zn2+) and zinc chelates on root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, V S; Kalaiarasan, P; Madhaiyan, M; Thangaraju, M

    2007-03-01

    To examine the zinc (Zn) solubilization potential and nematicidal properties of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Differential Pulse Polarography and Gas Chromatography Coupled Mass Spectrometry were used to estimate the total Zn and Zn(2+) ions and identify the organic acids present in the culture supernatants. The effect of culture filtrate of Zn-amended G. diazotrophicus PAl5 on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato was examined under gnotobiotic conditions. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl5 effectively solubilized the Zn compounds tested and 5-ketogluconic acid was identified as the major organic acid aiding the solubilization of zinc oxide. The presence of Zn compounds in the culture filtrates of G. diazotrophicus enhanced the mortality and reduced the root penetration of M. incognita under in vitro conditions. 5-ketogluconic acid produced by G. diazotrophicus mediated the solubilization process and the available Zn(2+) ions enhanced the nematicidal activity of G. diazotrophicus against M. incognita. Zn solubilization and enhanced nematicidal activity of Zn-amended G. diazotrophicus provides the possibility of exploiting it as a plant growth promoting bacteria.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and application of ion imprinted poly(vinylimidazole for zinc ion extraction/preconcentration with faas determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queila O. dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the synthesis of an ion imprinted polymer (IIP by homogeneous polymerization and its use in solid-phase to extract and preconcentrate zinc ions. Under optimal conditions (pH 5.0, preconcentration flow rate of 12.0 mL min-1, and eluted with 1.0 mol L-1 HNO3 this procedure allows the determination of zinc with an enrichment factor of 10.2, and with limits of detection and quantification of 1.5 and 5.0 µg L-1, respectively. The accuracy of our results was confirmed by analysis of tap water and certified reference materials: NIST 1570a (Spinach leaves and NIST 1515 (Apple leaves.

  4. CONFORMATION CHANGES OF HUMAN SERUM γ–GLOBULIN IN THE PRESENCE OF ZINC IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Cheknev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Conformational changes of human serum γ–globulin during interaction with the zinc ions were studied in a solution. It has been shown that the presence of zinc in over its physiological concentrations led to increase in optical density across the whole spectrum of γ–globulin ultraviolet absorption. On the contrary, hypochromia in the spectrum was registered after interaction of the protein with zinc used in subphisiological concentrations. Possible role of divalent metal cations in changes in conformation of the blood serum γ–globulins, and thereby in regulation of their effector functions was discussed. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 4, pp. 375–380

  5. Free zinc ion and dissolved orthophosphate effects on phytoplankton from Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, J.S.; Topping, B.R.; Woods, P.F.; Carter, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Coeur d'Alene Lake in northern Idaho is fed by two major rivers: the Coeur d'Alene River from the east and the St. Joe River from the south, with the Spokane River as its outlet to the north. This phosphorus-limited lake has been subjected to decades of mining (primarily for zinc and silver) and other anthropogenic inputs. A 32 full-factorial experimental design was used to examine the interactive effects of free (uncomplexed) zinc ion and dissolved-orthophosphate concentrations on phytoplankton that were isolated from two sites along a longitudinal zinc-concentration gradient in Coeur d'Alene Lake. The two sites displayed different dominant taxa. Chlorella minutissima, a dominant species near the southern St. Joe River inlet, exhibited greater sensitivity to free Zn ions than Asterionella formosa, collected nearer the Coeur d'Alene River mouth with elevated dissolved-zinc concentrations. Empirical phytoplankton-response models were generated to describe phytoplankton growth in response to remediation strategies in the surrounding watershed. If dissolved Zn can be reduced in the water column from >500 nM (i.e., current concentrations near and down stream of the Coeur d'Alene River plume) to management of phosphorus inputs by surrounding communities will ultimately determine the limnologic state of the lake.

  6. On the microscopic fluctuations driving the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carof, Antoine; Salanne, Mathieu; Rotenberg, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.rotenberg@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, Case 51, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Charpentier, Thibault [CEA, IRAMIS, NIMBE, LSDRM, UMR CEA-CNRS 3685, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2015-11-21

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation is sensitive to the local structure and dynamics around the probed nuclei. The Electric Field Gradient (EFG) is the key microscopic quantity to understand the NMR relaxation of quadrupolar ions, such as {sup 7}Li{sup +}, {sup 23}Na{sup +}, {sup 25}Mg{sup 2+}, {sup 35}Cl{sup −}, {sup 39}K{sup +}, or {sup 133}Cs{sup +}. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the statistical and dynamical properties of the EFG experienced by alkaline, alkaline Earth, and chloride ions at infinite dilution in water. Specifically, we analyze the effect of the ionic charge and size on the distribution of the EFG tensor and on the multi-step decay of its auto-correlation function. The main contribution to the NMR relaxation time arises from the slowest mode, with a characteristic time on the picosecond time scale. The first solvation shell of the ion plays a dominant role in the fluctuations of the EFG, all the more that the ion radius is small and its charge is large. We propose an analysis based on a simplified charge distribution around the ion, which demonstrates that the auto-correlation of the EFG, hence the NMR relaxation time, reflects primarily the collective translational motion of water molecules in the first solvation shell of the cations. Our findings provide a microscopic route to the quantitative interpretation of NMR relaxation measurements and open the way to the design of improved analytical theories for NMR relaxation for small ionic solutes, which should focus on water density fluctuations around the ion.

  7. How to resolve microsecond current fluctuations in single ion channels: The power of beta distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Indra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A main ingredient for the understanding of structure/function correlates of ion channels is the quantitative description of single-channel gating and conductance. However, a wealth of information provided from fast current fluctuations beyond the temporal resolution of the recording system is often ignored, even though it is close to the time window accessible to molecular dynamics simulations. This kind of current fluctuations provide a special technical challenge, because individual opening/closing or blocking/unblocking events cannot be resolved, and the resulting averaging over undetected events decreases the single-channel current. Here, I briefly summarize the history of fast-current fluctuation analysis and focus on the so-called “beta distributions.” This tool exploits characteristics of current fluctuation-induced excess noise on the current amplitude histograms to reconstruct the true single-channel current and kinetic parameters. A guideline for the analysis and recent applications demonstrate that a construction of theoretical beta distributions by Markov Model simulations offers maximum flexibility as compared to analytical solutions. PMID:26368656

  8. Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.

    2017-01-01

    Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.

  9. Effects of extracellular zinc ion on the rate of oxygen consumption of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inhibitory effect of extracellular zinc ion on the rate of oxygen consumption of rat brain mitochondria pre-incubated in 1.0 mM Ca2+EDTA were determined. There was a significant increase [P<0.01] in the rate of oxygen consumption in the rat brain mitochondria pre-incubated in 1.0 mM. Ca2+EDTA in a succinate ...

  10. Ion temperature and ∇B effects on ULF fluctuations at the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present an extension of the work by Lakhina, Shukla and Stenflo (Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2419 1993) on the generation of ultralow frequency (ULF) fluctuations at the earth's magnetopause. A high beta model for the generation of these short wavelength fluctuations is described. In this model, drifts due to density and magnetic field gradients, present at the magnetopause, act as free energy sources for the excitation of the ULF waves. The model also considers both warm electrons and ions and is based on the SS equations (Shukla and Stenflo. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 57, 692 1993) for low-frequency EM waves in non-uniform high beta magnetoplasmas. Using fluid theory the associated dispersion relation is first established, then numerically solved for unstable modes in different regions of parameter space. (orig.)

  11. Elliptic Flow, Initial Eccentricity and Elliptic Flow Fluctuations in Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouicer, Rachid; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.

    2008-12-01

    We present measurements of elliptic flow and event-by-event fluctuations established by the PHOBOS experiment. Elliptic flow scaled by participant eccentricity is found to be similar for both systems when collisions with the same number of participants or the same particle area density are compared. The agreement of elliptic flow between Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions provides evidence that the matter is created in the initial stage of relativistic heavy ion collisions with transverse granularity similar to that of the participant nucleons. The event-by-event fluctuation results reveal that the initial collision geometry is translated into the final state azimuthal particle distribution, leading to an event-by-event proportionality between the observed elliptic flow and initial eccentricity.

  12. Study of silicon doped with zinc ions and annealed in oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privezentsev, V. V., E-mail: v.privezentsev@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation); Kirilenko, E. P.; Goryachev, A. N. [Zelenograd, National Research University of Electronic Technology “MIET” (Russian Federation); Batrakov, A. A. [National Research University “MEI” (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The results of studies of the surface layer of silicon and the formation of precipitates in Czochralski n-Si (100) samples implanted with {sup 64}Zn{sup +} ions with an energy of 50 keV and a dose of 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup –2} at room temperature and then oxidized at temperatures from 400 to 900°C are reported. The surface is visualized using an electron microscope, while visualization of the surface layer is conducted via profiling in depth by elemental mapping using Auger electron spectroscopy. The distribution of impurity ions in silicon is analyzed using a time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometer. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the chemical state of atoms of the silicon matrix and zinc and oxygen impurity atoms is studied, and the phase composition of the implanted and annealed samples is refined. After the implantation of zinc, two maxima of the zinc concentration, one at the wafer surface and the other at a depth of 70 nm, are observed. In this case, nanoparticles of the Zn metal phase and ZnO phase, about 10 nm in dimensions, are formed at the surface and in the surface layer. After annealing in oxygen, the ZnO · Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Zn · ZnO phases are detected near the surface and at a depth of 50 nm, respectively.

  13. Study of silicon doped with zinc ions and annealed in oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privezentsev, V. V.; Kirilenko, E. P.; Goryachev, A. N.; Batrakov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The results of studies of the surface layer of silicon and the formation of precipitates in Czochralski n-Si (100) samples implanted with "6"4Zn"+ ions with an energy of 50 keV and a dose of 5 × 10"1"6 cm"–"2 at room temperature and then oxidized at temperatures from 400 to 900°C are reported. The surface is visualized using an electron microscope, while visualization of the surface layer is conducted via profiling in depth by elemental mapping using Auger electron spectroscopy. The distribution of impurity ions in silicon is analyzed using a time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometer. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the chemical state of atoms of the silicon matrix and zinc and oxygen impurity atoms is studied, and the phase composition of the implanted and annealed samples is refined. After the implantation of zinc, two maxima of the zinc concentration, one at the wafer surface and the other at a depth of 70 nm, are observed. In this case, nanoparticles of the Zn metal phase and ZnO phase, about 10 nm in dimensions, are formed at the surface and in the surface layer. After annealing in oxygen, the ZnO · Zn_2SiO_4 and Zn · ZnO phases are detected near the surface and at a depth of 50 nm, respectively.

  14. Improved corrosion resistance on biodegradable magnesium by zinc and aluminum ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruizhen; Yang, Xiongbo; Suen, Kai Wong; Wu, Guosong; Li, Penghui; Chu, Paul K.

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have promising applications as biodegradable materials, and plasma ion implantation can enhance the corrosion resistance by modifying the surface composition. In this study, suitable amounts of zinc and aluminum are plasma-implanted into pure magnesium. The surface composition, phases, and chemical states are determined, and electrochemical tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are conducted to investigate the surface corrosion behavior and elucidate the mechanism. The corrosion resistance enhancement after ion implantation is believed to stem from the more compact oxide film composed of magnesium oxide and aluminum oxide as well as the appearance of the β-Mg17Al12 phase.

  15. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Said, A. S., E-mail: elsaid@kfupm.edu.sa, E-mail: a.s.el-said@hzdr.de [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), 01328 Dresden (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, 35516 Mansoura (Egypt); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); Djebli, M. [Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics USTHB, B.P. 32 Bab Ezzour, 16079 Algiers (Algeria)

    2014-06-09

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1 keV and 23.3 keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  16. Surface nanostructuring by ion-induced localized plasma expansion in zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Said, A. S.; Moslem, W. M.; Djebli, M.

    2014-01-01

    Creation of hillock-like nanostructures on the surface of zinc oxide single crystals by irradiation with slow highly charged ions is reported. At constant kinetic energy, the nanostructures were only observed after irradiation with ions of potential energies above a threshold between 19.1 keV and 23.3 keV. The size of the nanostructures increases as a function of potential energy. A plasma expansion approach is used to explain the nanostructures creation. The calculations showed that the surface nanostructures became taller with the increase of ionic temperature. The influence of charged cluster formation and the relevance of their polarity are discussed.

  17. Dispersion relations of density fluctuations observed by heavy ion beam probe in the TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.W.

    1990-09-01

    Wave numbers as functions of frequency for density fluctuations in the core of the TEXT tokamak are measured in Heavy Ion Beam Probe experiments by analyzing the relative phases of signals originating from nearby points in the plasma. The adjacent points are typically 2 cm apart, with their relative orientation (δr, δθ) depending on position (r,θ). for angular frequencies ω ≤ 10 6 /s the signals are quite coherent, leading to reasonably well-defined ''dispersion relations.'' These do not correspond to known modes of the drift wave type, i.e., ballooning or slab-like electron drift waves or ion temperature gradient modes. The effect of finite sample volume size does not significantly alter this conclusion. 25 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Initial state fluctuations and final state correlations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzum, Matthew; Petersen, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    We review the phenomenology and theory of bulk observables in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, focusing on recent developments involving event-by-event fluctuations in the initial stages of a heavy-ion collision, and how they manifest in observed correlations. We first define the relevant observables and show how each measurement is related to underlying theoretical quantities. Then we review the prevailing picture of the various stages of a collision, including the state-of-the-art modeling of the initial stages of a collision and subsequent hydrodynamic evolution, as well as hadronic scattering and freeze-out in the later stages. We then discuss the recent results that have shaped our current understanding and identify the challenges that remain. Finally, we point out open issues and the potential for progress in the field. (topical review)

  19. New Development on Modelling Fluctuations and Fragmentation in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao; Danielewicz, Pawel

    2017-09-01

    During heavy-ion collisions (HIC), colliding nuclei form an excited composite system. Instabilities present in the system may deform the shape of the system exotically, leading to a break-up into fragments. Many experimental efforts have been devoted to the nuclear multifragmentation phenomenon, while traditional HIC models, lacking in proper treatment of fluctuations, fall short in explaining it. In view of this, we are developing a new model to implement realistic fluctuations into transport simulation. The new model is motivated by the Brownian motion description of colliding particles. The effects of two-body collisions are recast in one-body diffusion processes. Vastly different dynamical paths are sampled by solving Langevin equations in momentum space. It is the stochastic sampling of dynamical paths that leads to a wide spread of exit channels. In addition, the nucleon degree of freedom is used to enhance the fluctuations. The model has been tested in reactions such as 112Sn + 112Sn and 58Ni + 58Ni, where reasonable results are yielded. An exploratory comparison on the 112Sn + 112Sn reaction at 50 MeV/nucleon with two other models, the stochastic mean-field (SMF) and the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) models, has also been conducted. Work supported by the NSF Grant No. PHY-1403906.

  20. Defect induced modification of structural, topographical and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite thin films by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghavan, Lisha [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India); Inter University Accelerator Center, New Delhi 110067 (India); Joy, P.A. [National Chemical Laboratory, Pune (India); Vijaykumar, B. Varma; Ramanujan, R.V. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Anantharaman, M.R., E-mail: mraiyer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022 (India)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Zinc ferrite films exhibited room temperature ferrimagnetic property. • On ion irradiation amorphisation of films were observed. • The surface morphology undergoes changes with ion irradiation. • The saturation magnetisation decreases on ion irradiation. - Abstract: Swift heavy ion irradiation provides unique ways to modify physical and chemical properties of materials. In ferrites, the magnetic properties can change significantly as a result of swift heavy ion irradiation. Zinc ferrite is an antiferromagnet with a Neel temperature of 10 K and exhibits anomalous magnetic properties in the nano regime. Ion irradiation can cause amorphisation of zinc ferrite thin films; thus the role of crystallinity on magnetic properties can be examined. The influence of surface topography in these thin films can also be studied. Zinc ferrite thin films, of thickness 320 nm, prepared by RF sputtering were irradiated with 100 MeV Ag ions. Structural characterization showed amorphisation and subsequent reduction in particle size. The change in magnetic properties due to irradiation was correlated with structural and topographical effects of ion irradiation. A rough estimation of ion track radius is done from the magnetic studies.

  1. Spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses doped with Yb3 + and Er3 + ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Gökhan; Kaya, Ayfer; Cinkaya, Hatun; Eryürek, Gönül

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses with the compositions (0.80 - x - y) TeO2 + (0.20) ZnO + xEr2O3 + yYb2O3 (x = 0, y = 0; x = 0.004, y = 0; x = 0, y = 0.05 and x = 0.004, y = 0.05 per moles). The samples were synthesized by the conventional melt quenching method. The optical absorption and emission measurements were conducted at room temperature to determine the spectral properties of lanthanides doped zinc tellurite glasses and, to study the energy transfer processes between dopant lanthanide ions. The band gap energies for both direct and indirect possible transitions and the Urbach energies were measured from the absorption spectra. The absorption spectra of the samples were analyzed by using the Judd-Ofelt approach. The effect of the ytterbium ions on the emission properties of erbium ions was investigated and the energy transfer processes between dopant ions were studied by measuring the up-conversion emission properties of the materials. The color quality parameters of obtained visible up-conversion emission were also determined as well as possibility of using the Er3 + glasses as erbium doped fiber amplifiers at 1.55 μm in infrared emission region.

  2. Spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses doped with Yb(3+) and Er(3+) ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Gökhan; Kaya, Ayfer; Cinkaya, Hatun; Eryürek, Gönül

    2016-08-05

    This paper presents a detailed spectroscopic investigation of zinc tellurite glasses with the compositions (0.80-x-y) TeO2+(0.20) ZnO+xEr2O3+yYb2O3 (x=0, y=0; x=0.004, y=0; x=0, y=0.05 and x=0.004, y=0.05 per moles). The samples were synthesized by the conventional melt quenching method. The optical absorption and emission measurements were conducted at room temperature to determine the spectral properties of lanthanides doped zinc tellurite glasses and, to study the energy transfer processes between dopant lanthanide ions. The band gap energies for both direct and indirect possible transitions and the Urbach energies were measured from the absorption spectra. The absorption spectra of the samples were analyzed by using the Judd-Ofelt approach. The effect of the ytterbium ions on the emission properties of erbium ions was investigated and the energy transfer processes between dopant ions were studied by measuring the up-conversion emission properties of the materials. The color quality parameters of obtained visible up-conversion emission were also determined as well as possibility of using the Er(3+) glasses as erbium doped fiber amplifiers at 1.55μm in infrared emission region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. THE EFFECTS OF COPPER AND ZINC IONS DURING THEIR BINDING WITH HUMAN SERUM γ-GLOBULIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Cheknev

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Conformational changes of human serum γ-globulin were studied during and after its binding with copper and zinc ions, using molecular ultrafiltration and differential spectrophotometry. The contents of nonbound metals in the filtrate were evaluated, resp., with sodium diethyl thyocarbamate and o-phenanthroline. It has been shown that copper and zinc exhibited common biological properties during their interactions with protein, but the binding differed sufficiently under similar experimental conditions. E.g., it was confirmed that copper was more active at the external sites of γ-globulin molecule, whereas zinc demonstrated tropicity for the areas of protein intraglobular compartments. The metal-binding sites have been described that differ in their parameters of interactions with cations and their spatial location within globular domains. Approaches are suggested for dynamic analysis of saturation for these differently located sites by the metal ions. We discuss the issues of altered conformational state of the γ-globulin molecule during the binding of cations, as well as potential usage of these data in clinical immunology.

  4. Radiation effects in zinc oxide: zinc under bombardment with KeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, J.W.L.

    1967-01-01

    The energy loss, light output, depth of deterioration and the deterioration constant have been determined as a function of energy for various atomic projectiles impinging upon samples of a powdered Zn:Zn phosphor at energies below 105 KeV. The energy loss was observed as a reduction in the light output when projectiles traversed thin regions of previously damaged phosphor. The energy losses for heavier projectiles ( 14 N, 40 Ar, 84 Kr), relative to hydrogen, were found to be lower than those predicted for an amorphous stopping medium. The light output for a given projectile was found to be approximately proportional to the amount of energy lost in electronic collisions. When a phosphor is subjected to prolonged bombardment by heavy ions the deterioration depth is fairly well defined and its value was determined by a measurement of the energy loss of a hydrogen beam in traversing the damaged region. The depths are very large, are proportional to the projectile velocity and seem to be determined to a significant degree by electronic stopping. The deterioration constant, C, is a measure of the ability of a projectile to deteriorate a phosphor and its value is proportional to the number of defects introduced in unit distance along the trajectory of the projectile. The constant was determined from measurements of the efficiencies η, and η o , of partly damaged and undamaged phosphor, respectively, using the observed relationship, C (η/η o - 1) n -1 where n is the irradiation dose. The relative magnitudes of the C values for 14 N, 40 Ar were found to be in agreement with measured nuclear energy loss cross sections for these projectiles. (author)

  5. Probing QCD critical fluctuations from light nuclei production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jia Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the coalescence model for light nuclei production, we show that the yield ratio Op-d-t=NH3Np/Nd2 of p, d, and 3H in heavy-ion collisions is sensitive to the neutron relative density fluctuation Δn=〈(δn2〉/〈n〉2 at kinetic freeze-out. From recent experimental data in central Pb+Pb collisions at sNN=6.3 GeV, 7.6 GeV, 8.8 GeV, 12.3 GeV and 17.3 GeV measured by the NA49 Collaboration at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS, we find a possible non-monotonic behavior of Δn as a function of the collision energy with a peak at sNN=8.8 GeV, indicating that the density fluctuations become the largest in collisions at this energy. With the known chemical freeze-out conditions determined from the statistical model fit to experimental data, we obtain a chemical freeze-out temperature of ∼144 MeV and baryon chemical potential of ∼385 MeV at this collision energy, which are close to the critical endpoint in the QCD phase diagram predicted by various theoretical studies. Our results thus suggest the potential usefulness of the yield ratio of light nuclei in relativistic heavy-ion collisions as a direct probe of the large density fluctuations associated with the QCD critical phenomena.

  6. Zinc terephthalates ZnC_8H_4O_4 as anodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liping; Zou, Jian; Chen, Shulin; Yang, Jingyi; Qing, Fangzhu; Gao, Peng; Li, Jingze

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Both of well-crystalline and amorphous zinc terephthalates ZnC_8H_4O_4 are synthesized and amorphous structure demonstrates a higher capacity and better cycling performance. - Highlights: • Crystalline and amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 are obtained. • Both crystalline and amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 have σ_e of 10"−"7 S m"−"1. • Lithium ion diffusion is the rate-determine process. • Amorphous has a high capacity and durable performance. • Amorphous ZnC_8H_4O_4 has a high apparent lithium ion diffusion coefficient. - Abstract: Organic materials offer the advantages of cost-effective, environmental benignity, and molecular structural diversity as applications of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries. In fact, their lithium storage behaviors in terms of dynamics and kinetics intrinsically lie in ion migration in solids. Thus the solid forms including crystalline and amorphous states are crucial for the properties. In this study, a conventional carbonyl type organic material, namely zinc terephthalate (ZnC_8H_4O_4), is obtained in both well-crystalline and amorphous forms and applied as anodes for lithium ion batteries. ZnC_8H_4O_4 with amorphous structure shows higher lithium storage capacity and better capacity retention compared with that of crystalline one. It is ascribed that the amorphous phase provides a higher lithium ion diffusion coefficient than the crystalline one under the conditions of similar electronic conductivity.

  7. Geometric and energetic considerations of surface fluctuations during ion transfer across the water-immiscible organic liquid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnes, John J.; Benjamin, Ilan, E-mail: benjamin@chemistry.ucsc.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations and umbrella sampling free energy calculations are used to examine the thermodynamics, energetics, and structural fluctuations that accompany the transfer of a small hydrophilic ion (Cl{sup −}) across the water/nitrobenzene interface. By examining several constrained interface structures, we isolate the energetic costs of interfacial deformation and co-transfer of hydration waters during the ion transfer. The process is monitored using both energy-based solvation coordinates and a geometric coordinate recently introduced by Morita and co-workers to describe surface fluctuations. Our simulations show that these coordinates provide a complimentary description of the water surface fluctuations during the transfer and are necessary for elucidating the mechanism of the ion transfer.

  8. Dissipation, fluctuations and the fusion of heavy ions near the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, L F

    1989-01-09

    We study the role of internal degrees of freedom in the transmission of a classical particle over a potential barrier. The internal degrees of freedom are represented by harmonic oscillators and a linear approximation is adopted for the coupling. The frequency spectrum of the oscillators and the coupling strength are assumed to be such as to give rise to a weak friction in the particle coordinate. We show that the interaction with the oscillators leads to an effective increase epsilon/sub 0/ in the height of the potential barrier and to an energy-spread sigma in the transmission factor. We show also that epsilon/sub 0/ and sigma satisfy a dissipation-fluctuation relation. The theory is applied to the fusion of heavy ions at energies near the Coulomb barrier and the results are shown to be in agreement with the data.

  9. On the importance of high-altitude low-frequency electric fluctuations for the escape of ionospheric ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, R.; Gustafsson, G.; Eriksson, A.I.; Marklund, G.

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of electric fields and upward moving ionospheric ions from the Viking satellite show that upward escape of ionospheric ions in the tens of eV to tens of keV energy range occurs together with low-frequency electric fluctuations, LEFs (frequencies less than ∼1 Hz). Upward flowing ions are observed when the electric field fluctuations are sufficiently strong in the altitude range ∼2,000-13,500 km covered by Viking. Furthermore, the temperature of the upflowing ions is found to be well correlated with the power spectral density (PSD) of the LEFs. This suggests a conversion of electric field energy into ion thermal energy. A good correlation between the ion temperature and the wave power in the electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) frequency range is also found. However, the heating/acceleration and the corresponding escape of ionospheric ions is believed to be primarily caused by LEFs, first because of the much higher power in the LEFs than the power in the EIC frequency range and second because the PSD clearly peaks below ∼1 Hz while the frequency range of the EIC mostly appears as a monotonic tail or background of an overall PSD increase at low frequencies. Electric fluctuations, and the associated escape of ionospheric ions, are mainly observed inside or above the acceleration region. Below the acceleration region, predominantly downward accelerated electrons are observed. This can be understood as a short-circuiting of electric fluctuations by the plasma in the topside ionosphere where the plasma is gaining kinetic energy by the electric field. Thus the electric energy from the source/dynamo in the outer magnetosphere is dissipated in the topside layer of the ionosphere, causing an acceleration and escape of ionospheric plasma

  10. Highly Stable Aqueous Zinc-ion Storage Using Layered Calcium Vanadium Oxide Bronze Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2018-02-12

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn2+ intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of Zn2+ ions in aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that calcium based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, good rate capability and very long cycling life (96% retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn2+ storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 53.4 W kg-1.

  11. Highly Stable Aqueous Zinc-ion Storage Using Layered Calcium Vanadium Oxide Bronze Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2018-01-01

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn2+ intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of Zn2+ ions in aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that calcium based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, good rate capability and very long cycling life (96% retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn2+ storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 53.4 W kg-1.

  12. A theoretical and experimental study of calcium, iron, zinc, cadmium, and sodium ions absorption by aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnam, Karim; Raisi, Fatame

    2017-03-01

    Aspartame (L-Aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) is a sweet dipeptide used in some foods and beverages. Experimental studies show that aspartame causes osteoporosis and some illnesses, which are similar to those of copper and calcium deficiency. This raises the issue that aspartame in food may interact with cations and excrete them from the body. This study aimed to study aspartame interaction with calcium, zinc, iron, sodium, and cadmium ions via molecular dynamics simulation (MD) and spectroscopy. Following a 480-ns molecular dynamics simulation, it became clear that the aspartame is able to sequester Fe 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions for a long time. Complexation led to increasing UV-Vis absorption spectra and emission spectra of the complexes. This study suggests a potential risk of cationic absorption of aspartame. This study suggests that purification of cadmium-polluted water by aspartame needs a more general risk assessment.

  13. Concentration effect on the spectroscopic behavior of Tb3+ ions in zinc phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavulu, C.R.; Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine; Dousti, M.R.; Dantas, Noelio Oliveira; Camargo, A.S.S. de; Catunda, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    Zinc phosphate glasses (PZABPTb) in the compositional system: P 2 O 5 –ZnO–Al 2 O 3 –BaO–PbO doped with variable Tb 3+ concentrations (1–5 wt% Tb 2 O 3 ) were prepared and characterized through absorption, excitation, emission and intensity decay rate measurements. The Judd–Ofelt model has been adopted to evaluate the radiative properties of the 5 D 4 → 7 F 6–3 emission transitions. The effect of Tb 3+ ion concentration on the emissions from the 5 D 3,4 excited levels is discussed in detail. Analysis of the intensity decay curves corresponding to blue and green emissions from levels 5 D 3 and 5 D 4 , respectively, allowed determination of effective lifetimes, which confirmed the Tb 3+ ion concentration quenching of the blue emission in these glasses. The decay curves for the 5 D 3 level are found to be non-exponential in nature for all the studied concentrations due to ion–ion energy transfer through cross-relaxation. In an attempt to identify the origin of the energy transfer mechanism, the decay curves were well fitted to the Inokuti–Hirayama model for S=6, which indicates that the energy transfer process is of dipole–dipole type. The optical band gap energy (E opt ) has been evaluated taking into account the ultraviolet edge of absorption spectra. - Highlights: • Tb 3+ -doped zinc phosphate glasses have been prepared by melt quenching technique. • Spectroscopic parameters were evaluated using the Judd–Ofelt theory. • Effects of Tb 3+ concentration on luminescence of the glasses were studied. • Strong intense laser transition for Tb 3+ ion in PZABPTb glasses is 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 (0.54 μm). • PZABPTb glasses could be used in the development of green color display devices and solid state visible lasers

  14. Retention Behaviour of Copper, Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Ions on Synthesized Zirconium Titanate Ion Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Abdel-Galil, E.A.; Moustafa, M.E.; Mahmoud, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Zr(IV) titanate as inorganic ion exchange material has been synthesized and utilized as the adsorbent for the removal of Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions from aqueous waste solutions. The experimental data were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption. The results suggest that the adsorption of the studied metals Cu 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ and Pb 2+ ions on Zr(IV) titanate was favourable for the Freundlich isotherm more than Langmuir isotherm. The numerical values of 1/n for the studied metal ions were found to be smaller than the one (1/n L ) was found to be R L > 1 which confirmed that the prepared Zr(IV) titanate unfavourable the Langmuir isotherm. Based on the obtained results, practical separation experiments for the above mentioned cations on Zr(IV) titanate (ZrTi) column from aqueous waste solutions were carried out.

  15. Modification of structural chromosome mutations by zinc ions at wavelike kinetics of radiation mutagenesis in Crepis Capillaris seed cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafaev, Kh. B.; Pomanov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    The resting seeds Cr. capillaris have been irradiated by gamma rays in the 4 kR dose. Immediately after irradiation and within different terms of storage the seeds have been grown in the 3.5x10 -5 M solution ZnCl 2 and in the distilled water. Chromosome structural mutations in the K-mitosis of the first cell cycle have been studied. The frequency modification of chromosomal rearrangement by zinc ions at the waveline kinetics of the radiation mutagenesis is revealed as follows: zinc ions increase the mutation frequency at the points of waveline kinetics maximum and exert no influence at minimum points

  16. The influence of initial state fluctuations on heavy quark energy loss in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shanshan; Bass, Steffen A; Huang, Yajing; Qin, Guang-You

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of initial state fluctuations on the dynamical evolution of heavy quarks inside a quark–gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The evolution of heavy quarks in QGP matter is described utilizing a modified Langevin equation that incorporates the contributions from both collisional and radiative energy loss. The spacetime evolution of the fireball medium is simulated with a (2 + 1)-dimensional viscous hydrodynamic model. We find that when the medium traversed by the heavy quark contains a fixed amount of energy, heavy quarks tend to lose more energy for greater fluctuations of the medium density. This may result in a larger suppression of heavy flavor observables in a fluctuating QGP matter than in a smooth one. The possibility of using hard probes to infer the information of initial states of heavy-ion collisions is discussed. (paper)

  17. Effect of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on accumulation of selenium and zinc ions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz, Urszula; Sujka, Monika; Kowalski, Radosław; Mazurek, Artur; Włodarczyk-Stasiak, Marzena; Jamroz, Jerzy

    2017-04-15

    The cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were treated with pulsed electric fields (PEF) in order to obtain a maximum accumulation of selenium and zinc ions (simultaneously) in the biomass. The following concentrations: 100μgSe/ml and 150μgZn/ml medium were assumed to be optimal for the maximum accumulation of these ions, that is 43.07mg/gd.m. for selenium and 14.48mg/gd.m. for zinc, in the cultures treated with PEF. At optimal PEF parameters: electric field strength of 3kV/cm and pulse width of 10μs after the treatment of 20-h culture for 10min, the maximum accumulation of both ions in the yeast cells was observed. Application of PEF caused the increase of ions accumulation by 65% for selenium and 100% for zinc. Optimization of PEF parameters led to the further rise in the both ions accumulation resulting in over 2-fold and 2.5-fold higher concentration of selenium and zinc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calibration and fluctuation of the secular frequency peak amplitude versus initial condition distribution of the ion cloud confined into a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap using a fourier transform operating mode and a steady ion flow injection mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janulyte, A.; Andre, J.; Carette, M.; Mercury, M.; Reynard, C; Zerega, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A specific Fourier transform operating mode is applied to a 3-dimensional quadrupolar ion trap for mass analysis (Fourier Transform Quadrupolar Ion Trap (FTQIT) Operating Mode or Mass Spectrometer). With this operating mode, an image signal, which is representative of the collective motion of simultaneously confined ions, is made up from a set of recorded time-of-flight histograms. In an ion trap, the secular frequency of ion motion depends on m/Z ratio of the ion. By Fourier transformation of the image signal, one observes the frequency peak of each confined ionic species. When only one ionic species is confined, the peak amplitude is proportional to the maximal amplitude of the image signal. The maximal amplitude of the image signal is expressed according to the operating parameters, the initial conditions of the ions and the number of ions. Simulation tools lead to fluctuation calculation of the maximal amplitude of the image signal. Two origins are explored: (1) the fluctuation of the numbers of ions according to the steady ion flow injection mode (SIFIM) used with this operating mode and (2) the distribution fluctuation of the initial positions and velocities. Initial confinement conditions, obtained with SIFIM injection mode, lead to optimal detection with small fluctuations of the peak amplitude for Fourier transform operating mode applied to an ion trap. (authors)

  19. Effect of bismuth ion substitution on structural properties of zinc ferrite nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraavula Suresh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth doped nano zinc ferrite particles having the general formula ZnFe2-xBixO4 (x = 0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 were synthesized by sol-gel combustion method. The effect of bismuth doping on structural properties were investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD spectra confirm the single phase cubic spinel structure. The average crystallite sizes of all the samples were determined by Debye-Scherrer equation and are in the range 16–20 nm. The lattice parameter increases with the increase of bismuth ion concentration. This is due to the larger ionic radius of Bi3+ ions substituting smaller Fe3+ ions at octahedral sites (B-sites. The surface morphology of all compounds was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The microstructure analysis and the particle size were examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM. The compositional stoichiometry of these samples was verified by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analysis.

  20. Zinc-ion implanted and deposited titanium surfaces reduce adhesion of Streptococccus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Juan; Ding Gang; Li Jinlu; Yang Shenhui; Fang Bisong; Sun Hongchen; Zhou Yanmin

    2010-01-01

    While titanium (Ti) is a commonly used dental implant material with advantageous biocompatible and mechanical properties, native Ti surfaces do not have the ability to prevent bacterial colonization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and bacterial adhesive properties of zinc (Zn) ion implanted and deposited Ti surfaces (Zn-PIIID-Ti) as potential dental implant materials. Surfaces of pure Ti (cp-Ti) were modified with increasing concentrations of Zn using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID), and elemental surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). To evaluate bacterial responses, Streptococcus mutans were seeded onto the modifiedTi surfaces for 48 h and subsequently observed by scanning electron microscopy. Relative numbers of bacteria on each surface were assessed by collecting the adhered bacteria, reculturing and counting colony forming units after 48 h on bacterial grade plates. Ti, oxygen and carbon elements were detected on all surfaces by XPS. Increased Zn signals were detected on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces, correlating with an increase of Zn-deposition time. Substantial numbers of S. mutans adhered to cp-Ti samples, whereas bacterial adhesion on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces signficantly decreased as the Zn concentration increased (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PIIID can successfully introduce Zn onto a Ti surface, forming a modified surface layer bearing Zn ions that consequently deter adhesion of S. mutans, a common bacterium in the oral environment.

  1. Zinc-ion implanted and deposited titanium surfaces reduce adhesion of Streptococccus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Juan, E-mail: doctorxue@126.com [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China) and Stomatological Hospital, Urumqi, Xinjiang (China); Ding Gang [Department of Stomatology, Yidu Central Hospital, Weifang, Shandong (China); Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Li Jinlu; Yang Shenhui; Fang Bisong [Capital Medical University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Sun Hongchen, E-mail: hcsun@jlu.edu.cn [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China); Zhou Yanmin, E-mail: zhouym62@126.com [Implant Center, School of Stomatology Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin (China)

    2010-10-01

    While titanium (Ti) is a commonly used dental implant material with advantageous biocompatible and mechanical properties, native Ti surfaces do not have the ability to prevent bacterial colonization. The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and bacterial adhesive properties of zinc (Zn) ion implanted and deposited Ti surfaces (Zn-PIIID-Ti) as potential dental implant materials. Surfaces of pure Ti (cp-Ti) were modified with increasing concentrations of Zn using plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID), and elemental surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). To evaluate bacterial responses, Streptococcus mutans were seeded onto the modifiedTi surfaces for 48 h and subsequently observed by scanning electron microscopy. Relative numbers of bacteria on each surface were assessed by collecting the adhered bacteria, reculturing and counting colony forming units after 48 h on bacterial grade plates. Ti, oxygen and carbon elements were detected on all surfaces by XPS. Increased Zn signals were detected on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces, correlating with an increase of Zn-deposition time. Substantial numbers of S. mutans adhered to cp-Ti samples, whereas bacterial adhesion on Zn-PIIID-Ti surfaces signficantly decreased as the Zn concentration increased (p < 0.01). In conclusion, PIIID can successfully introduce Zn onto a Ti surface, forming a modified surface layer bearing Zn ions that consequently deter adhesion of S. mutans, a common bacterium in the oral environment.

  2. Structural and luminescence properties of Mn2+ ions doped calcium zinc borophosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Ming Hua; Wong, Poh Sum; Hussin, Rosli; Lintang, Hendrik O.; Endud, Salasiah

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • FT-IR revealed that the network structures are from borate and phosphate network. • The PL spectrum exhibits a green emission band at 582 nm ( 4 T 1g → 6 A 1g ). • As the concentration of Mn 2+ ions is increased, the emission band had been red shifted. • These glasses are found to have potential applications as luminescent optical materials. - Abstract: Calcium zinc borophosphate glasses (CaZnBP) doped with various concentrations of Mn 2+ ions and borate and phosphate as variable were prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. The structure of obtained glasses were examined by means of use: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). XRD analysis confirmed amorphous nature of glass samples. The FT-IR spectra reveals the presence of both borate and phosphate vibrational modes in the prepared glasses. The doping of Mn 2+ ions (2–10 mol%) shows no significant changes in the main IR vibrational bands. Optical properties were studied by measuring the near infrared photoluminescence (PL) spectra. CaZnBP glasses exhibited intense green emission peak (582 nm) (tetrahedral symmetry), which is assigned to a transition from the upper 4 T 1g → 6 A 1g ground state of Mn 2+ ions. As the concentration of Mn 2+ ions increases, the emission band increases from 582 nm to 650 nm and exhibited a red light emission (octahedral symmetry). The decay curves of 4 T 1g level were examined for all concentrations and the measured lifetimes are found to depend strongly on Mn 2+ concentrations. From the emission characteristic parameters of 6 A 1g (S) level, it shows that the CaZnBP glasses could have potential applications as luminescent optical materials, visible lasers and fluorescent display devices

  3. Ion exchange of alkaline metals on the thin-layer zinc ferrocyanide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betenekov, N.D.; Buklanov, G.V.; Ipatova, E.G.; Korotkin, Yu.S.

    1991-01-01

    Basic regularities of interphase distribution in the system of thin-layer sorbent on the basis of mixed zinc ferrocyanide (FZ)-alkaline metal solution (Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) in the column chromatography made are studied. It is established that interphase distribution of microgram amounts of alkaline metals in the systems thin-layer FZ-NH 4 NO 3 electrolyte solutions is of ion-exchange character and subjected to of law effective mass. It is shown that FZ thin-layer material is applicable for effective chromatographic separation of alkaline metal trace amounts. An approach to the choice of a conditions of separate elution of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr in the column chromatography mode

  4. Selective Production of Aromatics from 2-Octanol on Zinc Ion-Exchanged MFI Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakazu Iwamoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aromatization of 2-octanol derived from castor oil as a byproduct in the formation of sebacic acid was investigated on various zeolite catalysts. Zn ion-exchanged MFI (ZSM-5 zeolites with small silica/alumina ratios and zinc contents of 0.5 to 2.0 wt. % were determined to exhibit good and stable activity for the reaction at 623 to 823 K. The yield of aromatics was 62% at 773 K and the space velocity 350 to 1400 h−1. The temperature and contact time dependences of the product distributions indicated the reaction pathways of 2-octanol→dehydration to 2-octene→decomposition to C5 and C3 compounds→further decomposition to small alkanes and alkenes→aromatization with dehydrogenation. Alcohols with carbon numbers of 5 to 8 exhibited similar distributions of products compared to 2-octanol, while corresponding carbonyl compounds demonstrated different reactivity.

  5. Identification and rejection of fake reconstructed jets from a fluctuating heavy ion background in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full jet reconstruction in relativistic heavy ion collisions provides new and unique insights to the physics of parton energy loss. Because of the large underlying event multiplicity in A+A collisions, random and correlated fluctuations in the background can result in the reconstruction of fake jets. These fake jets must be identified and rejected to obtain the purest jet sample possible. A large but reducible fake rate of jets reconstructed using an iterative cone algorithm on HIJING events is observed. The absolute rate of fake jets exceeds the binary-scaled p+p jet rate below 50 GeV and is not negligible until 100 GeV. The variable Σj T , the sum of the jet constituent's E T perpendicular to the jet axis, is introduced to identify and reject fake jets at by a factor of 100 making it negligible. This variable is shown to not strongly depend on jet energy profiles modified by energy loss. By studying azimuthal correlations of reconstructed di-jets, the fake jet rate can be evaluated in data. (orig.)

  6. Concentration effect on the spectroscopic behavior of Tb{sup 3+} ions in zinc phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesavulu, C.R., E-mail: crkesavulu2005@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador Sãocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Almeida Silva, Anielle Christine [Laboratorio de Novos Materials Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberândia, MG (Brazil); Dousti, M.R. [Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador Sãocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dantas, Noelio Oliveira [Laboratorio de Novos Materials Isolantes e Semicondutores (LNMIS), Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Uberândia, MG (Brazil); Camargo, A.S.S. de; Catunda, Tomaz [Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Trabalhador Sãocarlense 400, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Zinc phosphate glasses (PZABPTb) in the compositional system: P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–ZnO–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–BaO–PbO doped with variable Tb{sup 3+} concentrations (1–5 wt% Tb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were prepared and characterized through absorption, excitation, emission and intensity decay rate measurements. The Judd–Ofelt model has been adopted to evaluate the radiative properties of the {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 6–3} emission transitions. The effect of Tb{sup 3+} ion concentration on the emissions from the {sup 5}D{sub 3,4} excited levels is discussed in detail. Analysis of the intensity decay curves corresponding to blue and green emissions from levels {sup 5}D{sub 3} and {sup 5}D{sub 4}, respectively, allowed determination of effective lifetimes, which confirmed the Tb{sup 3+} ion concentration quenching of the blue emission in these glasses. The decay curves for the {sup 5}D{sub 3} level are found to be non-exponential in nature for all the studied concentrations due to ion–ion energy transfer through cross-relaxation. In an attempt to identify the origin of the energy transfer mechanism, the decay curves were well fitted to the Inokuti–Hirayama model for S=6, which indicates that the energy transfer process is of dipole–dipole type. The optical band gap energy (E{sub opt}) has been evaluated taking into account the ultraviolet edge of absorption spectra. - Highlights: • Tb{sup 3+}-doped zinc phosphate glasses have been prepared by melt quenching technique. • Spectroscopic parameters were evaluated using the Judd–Ofelt theory. • Effects of Tb{sup 3+} concentration on luminescence of the glasses were studied. • Strong intense laser transition for Tb{sup 3+} ion in PZABPTb glasses is {sup 5}D{sub 4}→{sup 7}F{sub 5} (0.54 μm). • PZABPTb glasses could be used in the development of green color display devices and solid state visible lasers.

  7. Pure zinc sulfide quantum dot as highly selective luminescent probe for determination of hazardous cyanide ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Rajabi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    A rapid and simple fluorescence method is presented for selective and sensitive determination of hazardous cyanide ion in aqueous solution based on functionalized zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dot (QD) as luminescent prob. The ultra-small ZnS QDs were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) as an efficient capping agent. The prepared pure ZnS QDs was applied as an optical sensor for determination of cyanide ions in aqueous solutions. ZnS nanoparticles have exhibited a strong fluorescent emission at about 424 nm. The fluorescence intensity of QDs is linearly proportional to the cyanide ion concentration in the range 2.44 × 10 −6 to 2.59 × 10 −5 M with a detection limit of 1.70 × 10 −7 M at pH 11. The designed fluorescent sensor possesses remarkable selectivity for cyanide ion over other anions such as Cl − , Br − , F − , I − , IO 3 − , ClO 4 − , BrO 3 − , CO 3 2− , NO 2 − , NO 3 − , SO 4 2− , S 2 O 4 2− , C 2 O 4 2− , SCN − , N 3 − , citrate and tartarate with negligible influences on the cyanide detection by fluorescence spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Preparation of functionalized ZnS quantum dots in aqueous media • Highly selective quantum dot based luminescent probe for determination of cyanide • Fast and sensitive determination of hazardous CN − by fluorescence quenching

  8. Pure zinc sulfide quantum dot as highly selective luminescent probe for determination of hazardous cyanide ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba, E-mail: mshamsipur@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, Hamid Reza, E-mail: h.rajabi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    A rapid and simple fluorescence method is presented for selective and sensitive determination of hazardous cyanide ion in aqueous solution based on functionalized zinc sulfide (ZnS) quantum dot (QD) as luminescent prob. The ultra-small ZnS QDs were synthesized using a chemical co-precipitation method in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) as an efficient capping agent. The prepared pure ZnS QDs was applied as an optical sensor for determination of cyanide ions in aqueous solutions. ZnS nanoparticles have exhibited a strong fluorescent emission at about 424 nm. The fluorescence intensity of QDs is linearly proportional to the cyanide ion concentration in the range 2.44 × 10{sup −6} to 2.59 × 10{sup −5} M with a detection limit of 1.70 × 10{sup −7} M at pH 11. The designed fluorescent sensor possesses remarkable selectivity for cyanide ion over other anions such as Cl{sup −}, Br{sup −}, F{sup −}, I{sup −}, IO{sub 3}{sup −}, ClO{sub 4}{sup −}, BrO{sub 3}{sup −}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 2}{sup −}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}, C{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2−}, SCN{sup −}, N{sub 3}{sup −}, citrate and tartarate with negligible influences on the cyanide detection by fluorescence spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Preparation of functionalized ZnS quantum dots in aqueous media • Highly selective quantum dot based luminescent probe for determination of cyanide • Fast and sensitive determination of hazardous CN{sup −} by fluorescence quenching.

  9. Solid-phase extraction of copper, iron and zinc ions on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Melek, Esra [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: msoylak@gmail.com

    2008-11-30

    Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis loaded on Dowex optipore V-493 as new adsorbent for the separation-preconcentration of heavy metal ions has been proposed. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of copper(II), iron(III) and zinc(II) including pH, amounts of adsorbent, sample volume, etc. were investigated. The influences of alkaline and earth alkaline ions were also reported. The recovery values for the analytes are generally higher than 95%. The preconcentration factor was 37. The limit of detections of the analyte ions (k = 3, N = 21) were 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for copper, 2.01 {mu}g L{sup -1} for iron and 0.14 {mu}g L{sup -1} for zinc. The relative standard deviations of the determinations were found to be lower than 9%. The procedure was validated by analyzing copper, iron and zinc contents in two certified reference materials, NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine water and NIST SRM 1515 Apple leaves. Agreements between the obtained results and the certified values were achieved. The developed preconcentration method was applied in the flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in several samples including a multivitamin-multimineral tablet, dialysis solutions, natural waters and some food samples.

  10. Magnetic field fluctuations analysis for the ion trap implementation of the quantum Rabi model in the deep strong coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, Ricardo; Casanova, Jorge; Plenio, Martin B.

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of the quantum Rabi model (QRM) in the deep strong coupling regime is theoretically analyzed in a trapped-ion set-up. Recognizably, the main hallmark of this regime is the emergence of collapses and revivals, whose faithful observation is hindered under realistic magnetic dephasing noise. Here, we discuss how to attain a faithful implementation of the QRM in the deep strong coupling regime which is robust against magnetic field fluctuations and at the same time provides a large tunability of the simulated parameters. This is achieved by combining standing wave laser configuration with continuous dynamical decoupling. In addition, we study the role that amplitude fluctuations play to correctly attain the QRM using the proposed method. In this manner, the present work further supports the suitability of continuous dynamical decoupling techniques in trapped-ion settings to faithfully realize different interacting dynamics.

  11. Optical basicity and electronic polarizability of zinc borotellurite glass doped La3+ ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.K. Halimah

    Full Text Available Zinc borotellurite glasses doped with lanthanum oxide were successfully prepared through melt-quenching technique. The amorphous nature of the glass system was validated by the presence of a broad hump in the XRD result. The refractive index of the prepared glass samples was calculated by using the equation proposed by Dimitrov and Sakka. The theoretical value of molar refraction, electronic polarizability, oxide ion polarizability and metallization criterion were calculated by using Lorentz-Lorenz equation. Meanwhile, expression proposed by Duffy and Ingram for the theoretical value of optical basicity of multi-component glasses were applied to obtain energy band gap based optical basicity and refractive index based optical basicity. The optical basicity of prepared glasses decreased with the increasing concentration of lanthanum oxide. Metallization criterion on the basis of refractive index showed an increasing trend while energy band gap based metallization criterion showed a decreasing trend. The small metallization criterion values of the glass samples represent that the width of the conduction band becomes larger which increase the tendency for metallization of the glasses. The results obtained indicates that the fabricated glasses have high potential to be applied on optical limiting devices in photonic field. Keywords: Borotellurite glasses, Refractive index, Electronic polarizability, Oxide ion polarizability, Optical basicity, Metallization criterion

  12. Optical properties of zinc borotellurite glass doped with trivalent dysprosium ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ami Hazlin, M. N.; Halimah, M. K.; Muhammad, F. D.; Faznny, M. F.

    2017-04-01

    The zinc borotellurite doped with dysprosium oxide glass samples with chemical formula {[(TeO2) 0 . 7(B2O3) 0 . 3 ] 0 . 7(ZnO) 0 . 3 } 1 - x(Dy2O3)x (where x=0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0.05 M fraction) were prepared by using conventional melt quenching technique. The structural and optical properties of the proposed glass systems were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-VIS spectroscopy. The amorphous nature of the glass systems is confirmed by using XRD technique. The infrared spectra of the glass systems indicate three obvious absorption bands which are assigned to BO3 and TeO4 vibrational groups. Based on the absorption spectra obtained, the direct and indirect optical band gaps, as well as the Urbach energy were calculated. It is observed that both the direct and indirect optical band gaps increase with the concentration of Dy3+ ions. On the other hand, the Urbach energy is observed to decrease as the concentration of Dy3+ ions increases.

  13. Highly stable aqueous zinc-ion storage using a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N. [Materials Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2018-04-03

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn{sup 2+} intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as the anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as the cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of the Zn{sup 2+} ions in the aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that the calcium-based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mA h g{sup -1} at 0.2 C, good rate capability, and very long cycling life (96 % retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn{sup 2+} storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 W h kg{sup -1} at a power density of 53.4 W kg{sup -1}. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Beam Energy Scan of Specific Heat Through Temperature Fluctuations in Heavy Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sumit; Nandi, Basanta K.; Chatterjee, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rupa; Nayak, Tapan

    2016-01-01

    Temperature fluctuations may have two distinct origins, first, quantum fluctuations that are initial state fluctuations, and second, thermodynamical fluctuations. We discuss a method of extracting the thermodynamic temperature from the mean transverse momentum of pions, by using controllable parameters such as centrality of the system, and range of the transverse momenta. Event-by-event fluctuations in global temperature over a large phase space provide the specific heat of the system. We present Beam Energy Scan of specific heat from data, AMPT and HRG model prediction. Experimental results from NA49, STAR, PHENIX, PHOBOS and ALICE are combined to obtain the specific heat as a function of beam energy. These results are compared to calculations from AMPT event generator, HRG model and lattice calculations, respectively.

  15. Structural and luminescence properties of Mn{sup 2+} ions doped calcium zinc borophosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Ming Hua, E-mail: wanminghua819@gmail.com [Phosphor Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Wong, Poh Sum, E-mail: pohsumwong@gmail.com [Phosphor Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Hussin, Rosli, E-mail: roslihussin@utm.my [Phosphor Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Lintang, Hendrik O., E-mail: hendrik@ibnusina.utm.my [Catalytic Science and Technology (CST) Research Group, Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia); Endud, Salasiah, E-mail: salasiah@kimia.fs.utm.my [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • FT-IR revealed that the network structures are from borate and phosphate network. • The PL spectrum exhibits a green emission band at 582 nm ({sup 4}T{sub 1g} → {sup 6}A{sub 1g}). • As the concentration of Mn{sup 2+} ions is increased, the emission band had been red shifted. • These glasses are found to have potential applications as luminescent optical materials. - Abstract: Calcium zinc borophosphate glasses (CaZnBP) doped with various concentrations of Mn{sup 2+} ions and borate and phosphate as variable were prepared using conventional melt quenching technique. The structure of obtained glasses were examined by means of use: X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). XRD analysis confirmed amorphous nature of glass samples. The FT-IR spectra reveals the presence of both borate and phosphate vibrational modes in the prepared glasses. The doping of Mn{sup 2+} ions (2–10 mol%) shows no significant changes in the main IR vibrational bands. Optical properties were studied by measuring the near infrared photoluminescence (PL) spectra. CaZnBP glasses exhibited intense green emission peak (582 nm) (tetrahedral symmetry), which is assigned to a transition from the upper {sup 4}T{sub 1g} → {sup 6}A{sub 1g} ground state of Mn{sup 2+} ions. As the concentration of Mn{sup 2+} ions increases, the emission band increases from 582 nm to 650 nm and exhibited a red light emission (octahedral symmetry). The decay curves of {sup 4}T{sub 1g} level were examined for all concentrations and the measured lifetimes are found to depend strongly on Mn{sup 2+} concentrations. From the emission characteristic parameters of {sup 6}A{sub 1g} (S) level, it shows that the CaZnBP glasses could have potential applications as luminescent optical materials, visible lasers and fluorescent display devices.

  16. Binding of nickel and zinc ions with activated carbon prepared from sugar cane fibre (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.U. Ikhuoria

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon was prepared from sugar cane fibre by carbonizing at 500 oC for 30 minutes. This was followed by activation with ammonium chloride. The activated carbon was characterised in terms of pH, bulk density, ash content, surface area and surface charge. Equilibrium sorption of nickel and zinc ions by the activated carbon was studied using a range of metal ion concentrations. The sorption data was observed to have an adequate fit for the Langmuir isotherm equation. The level of metal ion uptake was found to be of the order: Ni2+ > Zn2+. The difference in the removal efficiency could be explained in terms of the hydration energy of the metal ions. The distribution coefficient for a range of concentration of the metal ions at the sorbent water interface is found to be higher than the concentration in the continuous phase.

  17. Experimental evidence and theoretical implications of fluctuations in deep inelastic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1981-04-01

    The role of fluctuations in deep inelastic collisions is discussed. The relevance of the statistical equilibrium limit to the description of substantially relaxed degrees of freedom is assessed. The effects of fluctuations are considered specifically for the following processes: (a) the correlation between entrance-channel angular momentum and exit-channel kinetic energy; (b) the sharing of the dissipated kinetic energy between the two fragments; (c) the alignment of the fragment angular momentum. It is found that statistical fluctuations play a major role and that the statistical equilibrium limit seems to have been reached in a number of instances

  18. Zinc, nickel, and cobalt ions removal from aqueous solution and plating plant wastewater by modified Aspergillus flavus biomass: A dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Foroutan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomass of Aspergillus flavus was modified by calcium chloride to achieve a bioadsorbent for treating nickel, cobalt, and zinc ions from aqueous solutions. The information of pH, bioadsorbent dose, contact time, and temperature effect on the removal efficiency are presented. The data of Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models are also depicted. The data showed that the maximum bioadsorption capacity of nickel, cobalt, and zinc ions is 32.26, 31.06 and 27.86 mg/g, respectively. The suitability of the bioadsorbent in heavy metals removal at field condition was tested with a real wastewater sample collected from a plating plant in the final part of this dataset. Based on the findings, the bioadsorbent was shown to be an affordable alternative for the removal of metals in the wastewater.

  19. Fabrication of Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor by using Focused Ion Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wencong

    Compared with other transparent semiconductors, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) has both good uniformity and high electron mobility, which make it as a good candidate for displays or large-scale transparent circuit. The goal of this research is to fabricate alpha-IGZO thin film transistor (TFT) with channel milled by focused ion beam (FIB). TFTs with different channel geometries can be achieved by applying different milling strategies, which facilitate modifying complex circuit. Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) was also introduced to understand the effect of trapped charges on the device performance. The investigation of the trapped charge at IGZO/SiO2 interface was performed on the IGZO TFT on p-Silicon substrate with thermally grown SiO2 as dielectric. The subgap density-of-state model was used for the simulation, which includes conduction band-tail trap states and donor-like state in the subgap. The result shows that the de-trapping and donor-state ionization determine the interface trapped charge density at various gate biases. Simulation of IGZO TFT with FIB defined channel on the same substrate was also applied. The drain and source were connected intentionally during metal deposition and separated by FIB milling. Based on the simulation, the Ga ions in SiO2 introduced by the ion beam was drifted by gate bias and affects the saturation drain current. Both side channel and direct channel transparent IGZO TFTs were fabricated on the glass substrate with coated ITO. Higher ion energy (30 keV) was used to etch through the substrate between drain and source and form side channels at the corner of milled trench. Lower ion energy (16 keV) was applied to stop the milling inside IGZO thin film and direct channel between drain and source was created. Annealing after FIB milling removed the residual Ga ions and the devices show switch feature. Direct channel shows higher saturation drain current (~10-6 A) compared with side channel (~10-7 A) because

  20. Evolution of critical fluctuations in a heavy-ion collision scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Christoph; Nahrgang, Marlene; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Limphirat, Ayut; Yan, Yupeng

    2017-11-01

    We study fluctuations of the sigma field and the net-baryon number on the crossover side of the critical point within the model of nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics (NχFD). Herein, the sigma field as the chiral order parameter is propagated explicitly and coupled to a fluid of quarks. Before investigating these fluctuations in an expanding nonequilibrium medium, we scrutinize the NχFD model by comparing cumulants of the sigma fluctuations in a thermalized box to (ratios of) susceptibilities as they are obtained from derivatives of the grand canonical potential. The dynamically determined cumulants follow the trend of the thermodynamic susceptibilities. In an expanding inhomogeneous medium, however, the behavior of the fluctuations is shown to be different as a result of memory effects.

  1. Goatpoxvirus ATPase activity is increased by dsDNA and decreased by zinc ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Li; Wang, Chi-Young; Chen, Hui-Yu; Lin, Fong-Yuan; Chang, Ming-Huang; Chang, Hong-You; Wong, Min-Liang; Chan, Kun-Wei

    2016-10-01

    Viral-encoded ATPase can act as a part of molecular motor in genome packaging of DNA viruses, such as vaccinia virus and adenovirus, by ATP hydrolysis and interaction with DNA. Poxviral ATPase (also called A32) is involved in genomic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) encapsidation, and inhibition of the expression of A32 causes formation of immature virions lacking viral DNA. However, the role of A32 in goatpoxvirus genome packaging and its dsDNA binding property are not known. In this study, purified recombinant goatpoxvirus A32 protein (rA32) was examined for its dsDNA binding property as well as the effect of dsDNA on ATP hydrolysis. We found that rA32 could bind dsDNA, and its ATPase activity was significant increased with dsDNA binding. Effects of magnesium and calcium ions on ATP hydrolysis were investigated also. The ATPase activity was dramatically enhanced by dsDNA in the presence of Mg(2+); in contrast, ATPase function was not altered by Ca(2+). Furthermore, the enzyme activity of rA32 was completely blocked by Zn(2+). Regarding DNA-protein interaction, the rA32-ATP-Mg(2+) showed lower dsDNA binding affinity than that of rA32-ATP-Ca(2+). The DNA-protein binding was stronger in the presence of zinc ion. Our results implied that A32 may play a role in viral genome encapsidation and DNA condensation.

  2. Direct separation of 67Ga citrate from zinc and copper target materials by an ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Azony, K.M.; Ferieg, Kh.; Saleh, Z.A.

    2004-01-01

    The separation of 6 7G a from zinc and copper target materials using an anion- f:exchanger (Dowex21K) and 0.1 M citrate buffer at pH 6 is described. The gallium-67 was separated in citrate solution and can be directly used for medical applications. Gallium-67 with a half-life of 78.3 h and gamma-rays with energies of 93, 185 and 300 keV is a cyclotron produced radioisotope for which a considerable demand exists. 6 7G a is frequently produced through proton or deuteron bombardment of natural or enriched Zn targets (Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973). It is usually separated from Zn by ion exchange chromatography (Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973; van der Walt and Strelow, 1983) or by liquid extraction Helus and Maier-Borst, 1973; Hupf and Beaver, 1970). The isotope is usually supplied in citrate solution which is widely used as 6 7G a Gallium citrate which is a well-established radiopharmaceutical for imaging soft tissue tumors and abscesses. Several routes for large scale production of 6 7G a and the development of medical applications have been reported (Silvester and Thakur, 1970; Dahl and Tilbury, 1972; Steyn and Meyer,1973; Vlatkovic et al., 1975; Neirinckx, 1976; Thakur, 1977). Various attempts were carried out to separate gallium-67 by using different ion exchange methods (Strelow et al., 1971; Das and Ramamoorthy, 1995; Boothe et al.,1991) through the labelling of citrate by using 6 7G a was carried out for medical applications

  3. Development of surface plasmon resonance sensor for determining zinc ion using novel active nanolayers as probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fen, Yap Wing; Yunus, W Mahmood Mat; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Yusof, Nor Azah

    2015-01-05

    In this study, novel active nanolayers in combination with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) system for zinc ion (Zn(2+)) detection has been developed. The gold surface used for the SPR system was modified with the novel developed active nanolayers, i.e. chitosan and chitosan-tetrabutyl thiuram disulfide (chitosan-TBTDS). Both chitosan and chitosan-TBTDS active layers were fabricated on the gold surface by spin coating technique. The system was used to monitor SPR signal for Zn(2+) in aqueous media with and without sensitivity enhancement by TBTDS. For both active nanolayers, the shift of resonance angle is directly proportional to the concentration of Zn(2+) in aqueous media. The higher shift of resonance angle was obtained for chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer due to a specific binding of TBTDS with Zn(2+). The chitosan-TBTDS active nanolayer enhanced the sensitivity of detection down to 0.1 mg/l and also induced a selective detection towards Zn(2+). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Nanoscale zinc-based metal-organic framework with high capacity for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changdong [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Gao, Yuanrui; Liu, Lili [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Song, Yidan; Wang, Xianmei [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China); Liu, Hong-Jiang, E-mail: liuhj@shu.edu.cn [Shanghai University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: liuqi62@163.com [Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology, and Advanced Catalysis and Green Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Center (China)

    2016-12-15

    Layered zinc-based metal-organic framework ([Zn(4,4′-bpy)(tfbdc)(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}], Zn-LMOF) nanosheets were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method (4,4′-bpy = 4,4′-bipyridine, H{sub 2}tfbdc = tetrafluoroterephthalic acid). The materials were characterized by IR spectrum, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface. When the Zn-LMOF nanosheets with the thickness of about 24 ± 8 nm were used as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries, not only the Zn-LMOF electrode shows a high reversible capacity, retaining 623 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at a current density of 50 mA g{sup −1} but also exhibits an excellent cyclic stability and a higher rate performance.

  5. Stability Dust-Ion-Acoustic Wave In Dusty Plasmas With Stream -Influence Of Charge Fluctuation Of Dust Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zuchowski, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    There is a quickly increasing wealth of experimental data on so-called dusty plasmas i. e. ionized gases or usual plasmas that contain micron sized charged particles. Interest in these structures is driven both by their importance in many astrophysical as well as commercial situations. Among them are linear and nonlinear wave phenomena. We consider the influence of dust charge fluctuations on stability of the ion-acoustic waves when the stream of particles is present. It is assumed that all grains of dust have equal masses but charges are not constant in time-they may fluctuate in time. The dust charges are not really independent of the variations of the plasma potentials. All modes will influence the charging mechanism, and feedback will lead to several new interesting and unexpected phenomena. The charging of the grains depends on local plasma characteristics. If the waves disturb these characteristic, then charging of the grains is affected and the grain charge is modified, with a resulting feedback on the wave mode. In case considering here, when temperature of electrons is much greater then the temperature of the ions and temperature of electrons is not great enough for further ionization of the ions, we show that stability of the acoustic wave depends only one phenomenological coefficient

  6. Theory of collective dynamics: flow, fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denicol, Gabriel S. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Lab, Building 510A, Upton, NY, 11973 (United States); Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    I review recent developments in the hydrodynamic modeling of ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions and the extraction of the properties of bulk QCD matter from heavy ion collision measurements. I briefly summarize the current framework used for the theoretical modeling of heavy ion collisions and report the recent progress on the extraction of the temperature dependence of the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients, the development of statistical tools for data-to-model comparison, and anisotropic hydrodynamics. All these recent developments in our field pave the way for more quantitative determination of the transport properties of bulk QCD matter from the experimental heavy ion collision program.

  7. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortolaz de Oliveira, Henrique; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO 4 2− /g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO 4 2− /g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated. - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate were synthesized. • The interlayer anions were replaced by chromate anions at pH=8.0. • Only Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate have the structure preserved after exchange. • Fast exchange reaction and high capacity of chromate removal were observed. • Magnetic materials were obtained to facilitate the solids removal the from solutions.

  8. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolaz de Oliveira, Henrique; Wypych, Fernando, E-mail: wypych@ufpr.br

    2016-11-15

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO{sub 4}{sup 2−}/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated. - Highlights: • Zinc hydroxide nitrate and Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate were synthesized. • The interlayer anions were replaced by chromate anions at pH=8.0. • Only Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate or acetate have the structure preserved after exchange. • Fast exchange reaction and high capacity of chromate removal were observed. • Magnetic materials were obtained to facilitate the solids removal the from solutions.

  9. Inhibitory zinc-enriched terminals in mouse spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Jo, S M; Varea, E

    2001-01-01

    The ultrastructural localization of zinc transporter-3, glutamate decarboxylase and zinc ions in zinc-enriched terminals in the mouse spinal cord was studied by zinc transporter-3 and glutamate decarboxylase immunohistochemistry and zinc selenium autometallography, respectively.The distribution...

  10. Separation of cadmium from solutions containing high concentration of zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.D.; Bhutani, A.K.; Parvathisem, P.

    1984-01-01

    In hydrometallurgical process of extracting cadmium as a byproduct, zinc dust is added for separation of cadmium as cadimum sponge. High amounts of zinc are quite often noticed in the cadmium electrolyte subjected for electrowinning of the metal. This leads to poor quality of cadmium deposit and lower current efficiencies. Study of cadmium sponge cementation process revealed that zinc dust may be added to an acidic cadmium solution for precipitation of cadmium sponge without neutralization of the free acidity present in the system. This fact is utilized for obtaining a high cadmium sponge with 75-80 per cent cadmium and 5-10 per cent zinc with 98 per cent recovery of cadmium from the solution as sponge. The suggested process is confirmed in a cadmium production plant producing 11.0 MT of cadmium per month. (author)

  11. Proton and heavy ion acceleration by stochastic fluctuations in the Earth's magnetotail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapano, Filomena; Zimbardo, Gaetano; Perri, Silvia; Greco, Antonella [Calabria Univ., Rende (Italy). Dept. of Physics; Artemyev, Anton V. [Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation). Space Research Inst.; California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth, Planetary, and Space Science and Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft observations show that energetic ions are found in the Earth's magnetotail, with energies ranging from tens of keV to a few hundreds of keV. In this paper we carry out test particle simulations in which protons and other ion species are injected in the Vlasov magnetic field configurations obtained by Catapano et al. (2015). These configurations represent solutions of a generalized Harris model, which well describes the observed profiles in the magnetotail. In addition, three-dimensional time-dependent stochastic electromagnetic perturbations are included in the simulation box, so that the ion acceleration process is studied while varying the equilibrium magnetic field profile and the ion species. We find that proton energies of the order of 100 keV are reached with simulation parameters typical of the Earth's magnetotail. By changing the ion mass and charge, we can study the acceleration of heavy ions such as He{sup ++} and O{sup +}, and it is found that energies of the order of 100-200 keV are reached in a few seconds for He{sup ++}, and about 100 keV for O{sup +}.

  12. Proton and heavy ion acceleration by stochastic fluctuations in the Earth's magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Catapano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spacecraft observations show that energetic ions are found in the Earth's magnetotail, with energies ranging from tens of keV to a few hundreds of keV. In this paper we carry out test particle simulations in which protons and other ion species are injected in the Vlasov magnetic field configurations obtained by Catapano et al. (2015. These configurations represent solutions of a generalized Harris model, which well describes the observed profiles in the magnetotail. In addition, three-dimensional time-dependent stochastic electromagnetic perturbations are included in the simulation box, so that the ion acceleration process is studied while varying the equilibrium magnetic field profile and the ion species. We find that proton energies of the order of 100 keV are reached with simulation parameters typical of the Earth's magnetotail. By changing the ion mass and charge, we can study the acceleration of heavy ions such as He+ +  and O+, and it is found that energies of the order of 100–200 keV are reached in a few seconds for He+ + , and about 100 keV for O+.

  13. Preparation of Polyimide/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite Films via an Ion-Exchange Technique and Their Photoluminescence Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Mu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyimide (PI composite films with ZnO nanoparticles embedded in the surface layer were prepared by alkali hydrolyzation following ion exchange in Zn(NO32 solution and thermal treatment of the zinc ion-doped PI films in air atmosphere. The effect of alkali treatment, ion exchange, and thermal treatment conditions was investigated in relation to the amount of zinc atomic loading, morphology, photoluminescence (PL, and thermal properties of the PI/ZnO composite films using ICP, XPS, FE-SEM, TEM, Raman microscope, TGA, and DSC. ZnO nanoparticles were formed slowly and dispersed uniformly in the surface-modified layers of PI films with an average diameter of 20 nm. The PL spectra of all the PI/ZnO nanocomposite films obtained at 350°C/7 h possessed a weak ultraviolet emission peak and a broad and strong visible emission band. The PI/ZnO nanocomposite films maintained the excellent thermal property of the host PI films.

  14. The Influence of Doping with Transition Metal Ions on the Structure and Magnetic Properties of Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenica Neamtu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zn1−xNixO (x=0.03÷0.10 and Zn1−xFexO (x=0.03÷0.15 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel method. The structure and the surface morphology of zinc oxide thin films doped with transition metal (TM ions have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The magnetic studies were done using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM at room temperature. Experimental results revealed that the substitution of Ni ions in ZnO wurtzite lattice for the contents x=0.03÷0.10 (Ni2+ leads to weak ferromagnetism of thin films. For Zn1-xFexO with x=0.03÷0.05, the Fe3+ ions are magnetic coupling by superexchange interaction via oxygen ions in wurtzite structure. For x=0.10÷0.15 (Fe3+ one can observe the increasing of secondary phase of ZnFe2O4 spinel. The Zn0.9Fe0.1O film shows a superparamagnetic behavior due to small crystallite sizes and the net spin magnetic moments arisen from the interaction between the iron ions through an oxygen ion in the spinel structure.

  15. Evaluation of layered zinc hydroxide nitrate and zinc/nickel double hydroxide salts in the removal of chromate ions from solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Henrique Bortolaz; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZnHN) and Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts were synthesized and used to remove chromate ions from solutions at pH 8.0. The materials were characterized by many instrumental techniques before and after chromate ion removal. ZnHN decomposed after contact with the chromate solution, whereas the layered structure of Zn/Ni hydroxide nitrate (Zn/NiHN) and Zn/Ni hydroxide acetate (Zn/NiHA) remained their layers intact after the topotactic anionic exchange reaction, only changing the basal distances. ZnHN, Zn/NiHN, and Zn/NiHA removed 210.1, 144.8, and 170.1 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively. Although the removal values obtained for Zn/NiHN and Zn/NiHA were smaller than the values predicted for the ideal formulas of the solids (194.3 and 192.4 mg of CrO42-/g of material, respectively), the measured capacities were higher than the values achieved with many materials reported in the literature. Kinetic experiments showed the removal reaction was fast. To facilitate the solid/liquid separation process after chromium removal, Zn/Ni layered double hydroxide salts with magnetic supports were also synthesized, and their ability to remove chromate was evaluated.

  16. The association effect of human serum albumin under different zinc ion concentrations studied by small angle of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jian; Xu Yanping; Yang Tonghua; He Jintian; Li Lianzhi; Zhou Yongqia

    1997-01-01

    The microscopic parameters of the HSA-Zn 2+ , R g and I(0), are obtained directedly by small angle of neutron scattering (SANS) under different concentrations of zinc ion. Comparing with other relevant experimental results, e.g. equilibrium dialysis, we can determine and distinguish the apparent interactive subsequences into more detailed sub-actions, such as self-association, inter-association, disintegration and deconformation et al., or even certain combination of them, other than some indirect and microscopic results. Results obtained by SANS can qualitatively and readily interpret the characteristics from the viewpoint of microscopic process

  17. Temperature fluctuation and heat capacity in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Guo Liang; Chen Jin Gen; He Ze-Jun; Long Jia-Li; Lu Zhao-Hui; Ma Yu-Gang; Sá Ben-Hao; Shen Wen-Qing; Wang Kun; Wei Yi-Bin; Zhang Hu-Yong; Zhong Chen

    2004-01-01

    We used LUCIAE3.0 model to simulate the Pb+Pb and C+C in SPS energy. The heat capacity was then extracted from event-by-event temperature fluctuation. It is found that the heat capacity per hadron multiplicity decreases with the increasing of beam energy and impact parameter for a given reaction system. While the hadron mass increases, the heat capacity per hadron multiplicity rises. In addition, we found that, for a given hadron, the heat capacity per hadron multiplicity is almost the same regardless of the reaction system. Some discussions were also given.

  18. Late quaternary fluctuations in carbonate and carbonate ion content in the northern Indian ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.

    -normalized carbonate ion (CO3=*) range from 90 to 125µmol kg-1 in the tropical region of the world oceans with a weight los of 0.3 ± 0.05µg mol -1kg-1 (Broecker and Clark, 201d). Botm water CO3=* concentration bathing the core tops are in the range of 88 to 13 μmolkg-1...

  19. Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, Robert John; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals o...

  20. Critical current enhancement driven by suppression of superconducting fluctuation in ion-gated ultrathin FeSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, T.; Shiogai, J.; Miyakawa, T.; Nojima, T.; Tsukazaki, A.

    2018-05-01

    The framework of phase transition, such as superconducting transition, occasionally depends on the dimensionality of materials. Superconductivity is often weakened in the experimental conditions of two-dimensional thin films due to the fragile superconducting state against defects and interfacial effects. In contrast to this general trend, superconductivity in the thin limit of FeSe exhibits an opposite trend, such as an increase in critical temperature (T c) and the superconducting gap exceeding the bulk values; however, the dominant mechanism is still under debate. Here, we measured thickness-dependent electrical transport properties of the ion-gated FeSe thin films to evaluate the superconducting critical current (I c) in the ultrathin FeSe. Upon systematically decreasing the FeSe thickness by the electrochemical etching technique in the Hall bar-shaped electric double-layer transistors, we observed a dramatic enhancement of I c reaching about 10 mA and corresponding to about 107 A cm‑2 in the thinnest condition. By analyzing the transition behavior, we clarify that the suppressed superconducting fluctuation is one of the origins of the large I c in the ion-gated ultrathin FeSe films. These results indicate the existence of a robust superconducting state possibly with dense Cooper pairs at the thin limit of FeSe.

  1. The effect of electron cyclotron heating on density fluctuations at ion and electron scales in ITER baseline scenario discharges on the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoni, A.; Pinsker, R. I.; Porkolab, M.; Rost, J. C.; Davis, E. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Candy, J.; Staebler, G. M.; Grierson, B. A.; McKee, G. R.; Rhodes, T. L.; The DIII-D Team

    2017-12-01

    Experiments simulating the ITER baseline scenario on the DIII-D tokamak show that torque-free pure electron heating, when coupled to plasmas subject to a net co-current beam torque, affects density fluctuations at electron scales on a sub-confinement time scale, whereas fluctuations at ion scales change only after profiles have evolved to a new stationary state. Modifications to the density fluctuations measured by the phase contrast imaging diagnostic (PCI) are assessed by analyzing the time evolution following the switch-off of electron cyclotron heating (ECH), thus going from mixed beam/ECH to pure neutral beam heating at fixed βN . Within 20 ms after turning off ECH, the intensity of fluctuations is observed to increase at frequencies higher than 200 kHz in contrast, fluctuations at lower frequency are seen to decrease in intensity on a longer time scale, after other equilibrium quantities have evolved. Non-linear gyro-kinetic modeling at ion and electron scales scales suggest that, while the low frequency response of the diagnostic is consistent with the dominant ITG modes being weakened by the slow-time increase in flow shear, the high frequency response is due to prompt changes to the electron temperature profile that enhance electron modes and generate a larger heat flux and an inward particle pinch. These results suggest that electron heated regimes in ITER will feature multi-scale fluctuations that might affect fusion performance via modifications to profiles.

  2. Efficiency in the avail (by Com) of zinc (65ZnCl2) and phosphorus (Na H2 PO4) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, Marcelo.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiency of corn to use phosphorus and zinc ions at different growing periods was determined in two soils Udic Eutrandept and Andic Haplustoll of Pichincha Province, after adding 10 ppm zinc labelled with 65Zn (gamma emisor, 1.115 meV), 50 and 100 ppm phosphorus, and a complementary fertilization. Root, stem and leaf samples were analyzed at 15 days intervals during the growing period. Zinc efficiency use was determined by isotopic method, and phosphorus by the non-isotopic. Significant differences were found for sampling period and soil types. The efficiency of use of zinc and phosphorus fertilizer increased with the age of the crop, being higher for the soil originally containing less Zn and P. Dry matter content increased linearly with phosphorus fertilizer addition

  3. Zinc ion coordination as a modulating factor of the ZnuA histidine-rich loop flexibility: A molecular modeling and fluorescence spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, Silvia [Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Stella, Lorenzo [Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Neuromed, IRCCS, Pozzilli 86077 (Italy); Petrarca, Patrizia [Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Battistoni, Andrea [Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium, National Institute Biostructure and Biosystem (INBB), Viale delle Medaglie D' Oro 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Desideri, Alessandro [Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata and CIBB, Center of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium, National Institute Biostructure and Biosystem (INBB), Viale delle Medaglie D' Oro 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Falconi, Mattia, E-mail: falconi@uniroma2.it [Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata and CIBB, Center of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium, National Institute Biostructure and Biosystem (INBB), Viale delle Medaglie D' Oro 305, 00136 Rome (Italy)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence data indicate that the His-loop of ZnuA interacts with Zn{sup +2} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ZnuA structural model proposed validates these spectroscopic findings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is proposed that a zinc loaded His-loop may facilitate the ZnuA-ZnuB recognition. -- Abstract: ZnuA is the soluble component of the high-affinity ZnuABC zinc transporter belonging to the ATP-binding cassette-type periplasmic Zn-binding proteins. The zinc transporter ZnuABC is composed by three proteins: ZnuB, the membrane permease, ZnuC, the ATPase component and ZnuA, the soluble periplasmic metal-binding protein which captures Zn and delivers it to ZnuB. The ZnuA protein contains a charged flexible loop, rich in histidines and acidic residues, showing significant species-specific differences. Various studies have established that this loop contributes to the formation of a secondary zinc binding site, which has been proposed to be important in the acquisition of periplasmic Zn for its delivery to ZnuB or for regulation of zinc uptake. Due to its high mobility the structure of the histidine-rich loop has never been solved by X-ray diffraction studies. In this paper, through a combined use of molecular modeling, mutagenesis and fluorescence spectroscopy, we confirm the presence of two zinc binding sites characterized by different affinities for the metal ion and show that the flexibility of the loop is modulated by the binding of the zinc ions to the protein. The data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy have then be used to validate a 3D model including the unsolved histidine-rich loop.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of porcine pancreatic carboxypeptidase B with an acetate ion and two zinc atoms in the active site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akparov, V. Kh., E-mail: valery@akparov.ru [State Research Institute for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms (Russian Federation); Timofeev, V. I., E-mail: tostars@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Maghsoudi, N. N., E-mail: maghsudi@yahoo.com [Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Neuroscience Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kuranova, I. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Crystals of porcine pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (CPB) were grown by the capillary counter-diffusion method in the presence of polyethylene glycol and zinc acetate. The three-dimensional structure of CPB was determined at 1.40 Å resolution using the X-ray diffraction data set collected from the crystals of the enzyme at the SPring 8 synchrotron facility and was refined to R{sub fact} = 17.19%, R{sub free} = 19.78%. The structure contains five zinc atoms, two of which are present in the active site of the enzyme, and an acetate ion. The arrangement of an additional zinc atom in the active site and the acetate ion is different from that reported by Yoshimoto et al.

  5. Respondence Between Electrochemical Fluctuations and Phenomenon for Localized Corrosion of Less-Noble Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoi, Yasuhiko; Take, Seisho; Tsuru, Tooru

    2008-01-01

    We have been studying application of electrochemical noise (Fluctuation) analysis for localized corrosion. Foils of Zinc, Aluminum and Magnesium were used as specimens for electrochemical cell simulating localized corrosion. These specimens were dipped in sodium chloride solutions adjusted to each exponent of hydrogen ion concentration (pH) condition of 5.5, 10, 12 respectively. Time variations of potential and current were measured in those solutions, and simultaneously the surfaces of specimens were observed using microscope with television monitor. Two types of electrochemical cells were arranged for experiments simulated localized corrosion. The fluctuations on trendy component of short-circuited potential and short-circuited current were appeared in synchronization. It was seemed that these fluctuations result from hydrogen evolution on the aluminum active site in the crevice from the microscopic observation. In the case of zinc and magnesium, fluctuations appeared on the trendy component of the corrosion potential. Two types fluctuation were detected. First one is the fluctuation varied periodically. The second one is the random fluctuation. It was seemed that these fluctuations result from generation of corrosion products and hydrogen evolution on the active site in the crevice of zinc and magnesium from the microscopic observation

  6. Microwave and conventional preparation of Zinc borate glass: Eu3+ ion as luminescent probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Ashis K.; Balaji, S.; Sen, Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • IR transparent Zinc borate glass is prepared using microwave heating. • Glass transition temperature of microwave melted glass is found higher than that of glass prepared in conventional melting. • Low OH concentration in glass can be prepared in microwave heating. • We report higher reduction of Eu 3+ to Eu 2+ in microwave processing of Zinc borate glass. - Abstract: Transparent Zinc borate glass is melted using microwave energy as an alternative heating route to conventional resistive heating. A comparative study of the properties of the glasses prepared by both the methods is conducted by adopting X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV–VIS–NIR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Refractive Indices (RI). Amorphous nature of samples is confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. Glass transition temperature (T g ) of microwave melted glass is found ∼7–9 °C higher than that of glass prepared in conventional melting. OH content is found less than 250 ppm in microwave melted glass whereas it is above 330 ppm in conventional melted glasses. Photoluminescence study of Eu 2 O 3 doped glass prepared in microwave heating indicates higher reduction of Eu 3+ → Eu 2+ than the glass melted in conventional route. Thus, microwave processing can be an alternative energy efficient, time saving, environmental friendly glass preparation method

  7. Physicochemical analysis of zinc and cadmium ions interaction with unithiol; Fiziko-khimicheskij analiz vzaimodejstviya ionov tsinka i kadmiya s unitiolom v vodykh rastvorakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubinina, L K; Shejkkh, M A; Ospanov, Kh K; Gemanova, L N [Kazakhskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan)

    1995-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium interaction with sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate in aqueous solution is studied by means of physicochemical analysis techniques (pH-metry, conductometry, viscosimetry, volumetry). Cadmium is determined to form 1:1 and 1:2 composition complex compounds. Formation constants of complex ions are determined. Mechanism of interaction of initial reagents is suggested. 7 refs.; 1 fig.

  8. Highly Durable Na2V6O16·1.63H2O Nanowire Cathode for Aqueous Zinc-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Zhu, Ting; Wang, Xuanpeng; Wei, Xiujuan; Yan, Mengyu; Li, Jiantao; Luo, Wen; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Wencui; Zhou, Liang; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Mai, Liqiang

    2018-03-14

    Rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries are highly desirable for grid-scale applications due to their low cost and high safety; however, the poor cycling stability hinders their widespread application. Herein, a highly durable zinc-ion battery system with a Na 2 V 6 O 16 ·1.63H 2 O nanowire cathode and an aqueous Zn(CF 3 SO 3 ) 2 electrolyte has been developed. The Na 2 V 6 O 16 ·1.63H 2 O nanowires deliver a high specific capacity of 352 mAh g -1 at 50 mA g -1 and exhibit a capacity retention of 90% over 6000 cycles at 5000 mA g -1 , which represents the best cycling performance compared with all previous reports. In contrast, the NaV 3 O 8 nanowires maintain only 17% of the initial capacity after 4000 cycles at 5000 mA g -1 . A single-nanowire-based zinc-ion battery is assembled, which reveals the intrinsic Zn 2+ storage mechanism at nanoscale. The remarkable electrochemical performance especially the long-term cycling stability makes Na 2 V 6 O 16 ·1.63H 2 O a promising cathode for a low-cost and safe aqueous zinc-ion battery.

  9. Zinc and magnesium ions synergistically inhibit superoxide generation by cultured human neutrophils--a promising candidate formulation for amnioinfusion fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Hiroaki; Nakamura, Yuki; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Hirai, Kyuya; Suzuki, Kazunao; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Kanayama, Naohiro; Hiramatsu, Mitsuo

    2010-06-01

    Oligohydramnios is often caused by the premature rupturing of membranes and subsequent intrauterine infections, such as chorioamnionitis, in which event oxidative stress is hypothesized to be closely associated with the damage to the fetal organs. The clinical efficiency of amnioinfusion using warmed saline in cases of premature rupture of membranes is still controversial, especially concerning the prognosis for the fetus. In the present study, we found that human amniotic fluid per se suppresses the release of superoxide from cultured human neutrophils, suggesting an acute or chronic shortage of amniotic fluid in cases of premature rupture of membranes can affect the shielding of intrauterine organs from oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to propose a formula of zinc and magnesium ions in saline for amnioinfusion, by assessing antioxidative activities. A combination of 5 microM zinc and 5mM magnesium in saline synergistically inhibited superoxide production by cultured human neutrophils, equivalent to human amniotic fluid. The intraperitoneal administration of this formula significantly improved the survival rate in a rat model of peritonitis compared to the saline control (46.7% vs. 10%). The combination of these metals with saline may thus be a promising formula for an amnioinfusion fluid with the capacity to protect fetal organs from oxidative stress. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Observation of ion scale fluctuations in the pedestal region during the edge-localized-mode cycle on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, A.; Kramer, G. J.; Bell, R. E.; Guttenfelder, W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Smith, D. R.; McKee, G. J. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831 (United States); Fonck, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Characterization of the spatial structure of turbulence fluctuations during the edge localized mode cycle in the pedestal region is reported. Using the beam emission spectroscopy and the correlation reflectometry systems, measurements show spatial structure-k{sub Up-Tack }{rho}{sub i}{sup ped}-ranging from 0.2 to 0.7 propagating in the ion diamagnetic drift direction at the pedestal top. These propagating spatial scales are found to be anisotropic and consistent with ion-scale microturbulence of the type ion temperature gradient and/or kinetic ballooning modes.

  11. Heteroepitaxy of zinc-blende SiC nano-dots on Si substrate by organometallic ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Kiuchi, M.; Sugimoto, S.; Goto, S.

    2006-01-01

    The self-assembled SiC nano-dots were fabricated on Si(111) substrate at low-temperatures using the organometallic ion beam deposition technique. The single precursor of methylsilicenium ions (SiCH 3 + ) with the energy of 100 eV was deposited on Si(111) substrate at 500, 550 and 600 deg. C. The characteristics of the self-assembled SiC nano-dots were analyzed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). The RHEED patterns showed that the crystal structure of the SiC nano-dots formed on Si(111) substrate was zinc-blende SiC (3C-SiC) and it was heteroepitaxy. The self-assembled SiC nano-dots were like a dome in shape, and their sizes were the length of 200-300 nm and the height of 10-15 nm. Despite the low-temperature of 500 deg. C as SiC crystallization the heteroepitaxial SiC nano-dots were fabricated on Si(111) substrate using the organometallic ion beam

  12. Paper-Based Analytical Device for Zinc Ion Quantification in Water Samples with Power-Free Analyte Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Kudo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient sensitivity is a general issue of colorimetric paper-based analytical devices (PADs for trace analyte detection, such as metal ions, in environmental water. This paper demonstrates the colorimetric detection of zinc ions (Zn2+ on a paper-based analytical device with an integrated analyte concentration system. Concentration of Zn2+ ions from an enlarged sample volume (1 mL has been achieved with the aid of a colorimetric Zn2+ indicator (Zincon electrostatically immobilized onto a filter paper substrate in combination with highly water-absorbent materials. Analyte concentration as well as sample pretreatment, including pH adjustment and interferent masking, has been elaborated. The resulting device enables colorimetric quantification of Zn2+ in environmental water samples (tap water, river water from a single sample application. The achieved detection limit of 0.53 μM is a significant improvement over that of a commercial colorimetric Zn2+ test paper (9.7 μM, demonstrating the efficiency of the developed analyte concentration system not requiring any equipment.

  13. Synergistic effect of graphene nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles for effective adsorption of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadadian, Mahboubeh; Goharshadi, Elaheh K.; Fard, Mina Matin; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    The threat of toxic substances such as heavy metals to public health and wildlife has led to an increasing public awareness. Different techniques for neutralizing the toxic effects of heavy metals in wastewater have been used. Here, we prepared a new and efficient type of adsorbent, zinc oxide-graphene nanocomposite (ZnO-Gr), via a green method to remove Ni (II) ions from aqueous solutions. A facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique in the presence of an ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [C6mim] [NTf2], was used to prepare ZnO-Gr. The synergistic effect between graphene nanosheets and ZnO nanoparticles in this new adsorbent for Ni (II) ions caused a maximum adsorption capacity of 66.7 mg g-1 at room temperature which is much higher than that of graphene nanosheets (3.8 mg g-1) and other carbonaceous nanomaterials used as an adsorbent in the literature. The maximum desorption percentage (90.32%) was achieved at pH 3.6. By thermodynamic study, we found that the adsorption of this heavy metal ion on ZnO-Gr was spontaneous (Δ G° = -6.14 kJ mol-1) and endothermic (Δ H° = 53.31 kJ mol-1) with entropy change of Δ S° = 199.45 J K-1 mol- 1.

  14. Kinetics of adsorption of zinc-ions by doped manganese dioxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rophael, M.W.; Mourad, W.E.; Khalil, L.B.; Malati, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Using 65 Zn-labelled solutions, the kinetics of the specific adsorption of Zn 2+ -ions by doped manganese dioxides was studied, at pH values corresponding to their isoelectric points (IEP's), by γ-ray scintillation counting. The rate of the fast adsorption of Zn 2+ -ions by doped dioxides increased in the series: Li + -doped 2+ -ions in about 10 minutes exhibited a similar increase. Compared to the undoped sample, the extent and the rate of adsorption were lower for the samples doped with an ion of valence 4. (author)

  15. Fluorescence and chemiluminescence behavior of distyrylbenzene bearing two arms of dipicolylaminomethyl groups: Interactions with zinc ion and ATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyoshiya, Jiro; Wada, Jun-ya; Itoh, Keiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuaki; Maruyama, Takayuki; Ono, Kazuki; Fukasawa, Kota; Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Akaiwa, Yuji; Nonaka, Eiji

    2018-04-01

    The absorption and fluorescence spectral study of the distyrylbenzene bearing two arms of the dipicolylaminomethyl groups, the effective ligands for Zn2+, was studied in the presence of Zn2+ and ATP. Upon complexation of the distyrylbenzene with zinc ions in acetonitrile, enhancement of the fluorescence intensity was observed due to inhibition of intramolecular PET (photo-induced electron transfer) quenching, but no effect was found in aqueous media because the equilibrium laid to the free form of the ligands. In contrast, the addition of ATP disodium salt was effective to enhance the fluorescence intensity of the combination of the distyrylbenzne and Zn2+ in aqueous media. This assembly was applied to the peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system and a significant increase in the intensity was observed, which provides a potential detection for ATP by chemiluminescence.

  16. Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larciprete, M.C.; Passeri, D.; Michelotti, F.; Paoloni, S.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Belardini, A.; Sarto, F.; Somma, F.; Lo Mastro, S.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated second order optical nonlinearity of zinc oxide thin films, grown on glass substrates by the dual ion beam sputtering technique under different deposition conditions. Linear optical characterization of the films was carried out by spectrophotometric optical transmittance and reflectance measurements, giving the complex refractive index dispersion. Resistivity of the films was determined using the four-point probe sheet resistance method. Second harmonic generation measurements were performed by means of the Maker fringes technique where the fundamental beam was originated by nanosecond laser at λ=1064 nm. We found a relatively high nonlinear optical response, and evidence of a dependence of the nonlinear coefficient on the deposition parameters for each sample. Moreover, the crystalline properties of the films were investigated by x-ray diffraction measurements and correlation with second order nonlinearity were analyzed. Finally, we investigated the influence of the oxygen flow rate during the deposition process on both the second order nonlinearity and the structural properties of the samples

  17. Zinc-ion-dependent acid phosphatase exhibits magnesium-ion-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, S; Okano, I; Tanaka, Y; Sumida, Y; Tsuda, J; Kawakami, N; Shimohama, S

    1996-06-01

    We have purified bovine brain Zn(2+)-dependent acid phosphatase (Zn(2+)-APase), which requires Zn2+ ions to hydrolyze the substrate p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) in an acidic environment. The substrate specificity and metal requirement of Zn(2+)-APase at a physiological pH was also studied. The enzyme exhibited hydrolytic activity on myo-inositol-1- and -2-monophosphates, 2'-adenosine monophosphate, 2'-guanosine monophosphate, and the alpha- and beta-glycerophosphates, glucose-1-phosphate, and fructose-6-phosphate in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) in the presence of Mg2+ ions, but not on pNPP and phosphotyrosine. Zn2+, Mn2+ and Co2+ ions were less effective for activation. Among the above substrates, myo-inositol-1-phosphate was the most susceptible to hydrolysis by the enzyme in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ ions. The enzyme exhibited an optimum pH at around 8 for myo-inositol-1-phosphate in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ ions. The Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity of the enzyme was significantly inhibited by Li+ ions. The Zn(2+)-dependent p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity and Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity of the purified enzyme fraction exhibited similar behavior on Sephadex G-100 and Mono Q colomns. These findings suggest that Zn(2+)-APase also exhibits Mg(2+)-dependent myo-inositol-1-phosphatase activity under physiological conditions.

  18. Incorporation of zinc oxide to dispersions of biopolymers and release of the metallic ion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, Marina S.R.; Ferreira, Willian H.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, obtained from a commercial product, were dispersed in different biopolymers, to be added to piglet feeds. The resulting products, prepared with sodium alginate (SA), chitosan (CH) and low methoxyl pectin (LMP) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The release of Zn"2"+ was investigated under simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA). The results showed that the structural factors, which have influence on the biopolymer/ZnO interactions, govern the behavior of Zn"2"+ release. (author)

  19. Spectroscopic study of Pr3+ ions doped Zinc Lead Tungsten Tellurite glasses for visible photonic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ritu; Rao, A. S.; Deopa, Nisha; Venkateswarlu, M.; Jayasimhadri, M.; Haranath, D.; Prakash, G. Vijaya

    2018-04-01

    Zinc Lead Tungsten Tellurite (ZnPbWTe) glasses doped with different Pr3+ ion concentrations having the composition 5ZnO + 15PbO + 20WO3 + (60-x)TeO2 + xPr6O11 (where x = 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mol%) were prepared by using sudden quenching technique and characterized to understand their visible emission characteristic features using spectroscopic techniques such as absorption, excitation and emission. The Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory has been applied to the absorption spectral features with an aim to evaluate various radiative properties for the prominent fluorescent levels of Pr3+ions in the as-prepared glasses. The emission spectra recorded for the as-prepared glasses under 468 nm excitation show three prominent emission transitions 3P0→3H6, 3P0→3F2 and 3P1→3F4, of which 3P0→3F2 observed in visible red region (648 nm), is relatively more intense. The intensity of 3P0→3F2 emission transition in the titled glasses increases up to 1mol% of Pr3+ ions and beyond concentration quenching is observed. Branching ratios (βR) and emission cross-sections (σse) were estimated for 3P0→3F2 transition to understand the luminescence efficiency in visible red region (648 nm). The CIE chromaticity coordinates were also evaluated in order to understand the suitability of these glasses for visible red luminescence devices. From the emission cross-sections, quantum efficiency and CIE coordinates, it was concluded that 1mol% of Pr3+ ions in ZnPbWTe glasses are quite suitable for preparing visible reddish orange luminescent devices.

  20. Role of lithium ions on the physical, structural and optical properties of zinc boro tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, S.; Ahlawat, N.; Parmar, R.; Dhankhar, S.; Kundu, R. S.

    2018-01-01

    Lithium zinc boro tellurite glasses with compositions xLi2O-(100-x) [0.25ZnO-0.15B2O3-0.60TeO2] [where x = 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol%] have been prepared by melt-quench technique. The amorphous nature of the prepared system is ascertained by X-ray diffraction. The density and molar volume are found to decrease with the increase in concentration of Li2O. The differential scanning calorimetry is used to calculate the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the observed values are found to be decreased. The IR and Raman spectra indicate that Li2O acts as a network modifier in the glass matrix. In the present system, tellurium exists as TeO4 and TeO3, B2O3 in the form of BO4 and BO3 and zinc oxide exists as ZnO4 structural units. The values of the optical band gap are estimated from the fitting of Mott and Davis's and model. A better convergence is achieved between experimental observed spectra of absorption coefficient and hydrogenic excitonic model. The optical band gap energy increases, whereas refractive index and molar refractivity follow the reverse trend with Li2O. The range of metallization criterion suggests that these glasses may be a potential candidate for nonlinear optical materials.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, R.H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report

  2. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc, and copper. Comprehensive progress report, October 1, 1975--December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasserman, R. H.

    1978-10-01

    Investigations were undertaken to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of potentially toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, with primary attention given to cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. In addition, the toxic effects of cadmium on the metabolism of vitamin D and calcium have been investigated in some detail. Several approaches have been taken, including studies on the localization of heavy metals in the intestinal mucosa, the effects of cadmium on various parameters of calcium metabolism, the modes of intestinal absorption of cadmium, arsenate, and zinc, and the interactions of heavy metals with each other and with calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D. Details of these experiments are attached in the Comprehensive Progress Report.

  3. Preconcentration and determination of zinc and lead ions by a combination of cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavallali, H. [Chemistry Department, Payamenore University, Shiraz (Iran); Shokrollahi, A.; Zahedi, M. [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj (Iran); Niknam, K. [Chemistry Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr (Iran); Soylak, M. [Chemistry Department, University of Erciyes, Kayseri (Turkey); Ghaedi, M.

    2009-04-15

    The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of lead(II) and zinc(II). After complexation with 3-[(4-bromophenyl) (1-H-inden-3-yl)methyl]-1 H-indene (BPIMI), the analytes were quantitatively extracted to a phase rich in Triton X-114 after centrifugation. Methanol acidified with 1 mol/L HNO{sub 3} was added to the surfactant rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentration of bis((1H-benzo [d] imidazol-2yl)ethyl)sulfane, Triton X-114, pH and amount of surfactant were all optimized. Detection limits (3 SDb/m) of 2.5 and 1.6 ng/mL for Pb{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} along with preconcentration factors of 30 and an enrichment factor of 32 and 48 for Pb{sup 2+}and Zn {sup 2+} ions were obtained, respectively. The proposed cloud point extraction was been successfully applied for the determination of these ions in real samples with complicated matrices such as food and soil samples, with high efficiency. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase is activated through a sulfenic acid intermediate at a copper ion entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetherolf, Morgan M; Boyd, Stefanie D; Taylor, Alexander B; Kim, Hee Jong; Wohlschlegel, James A; Blackburn, Ninian J; Hart, P John; Winge, Dennis R; Winkler, Duane D

    2017-07-21

    Metallochaperones are a diverse family of trafficking molecules that provide metal ions to protein targets for use as cofactors. The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (Ccs1) activates immature copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) by delivering copper and facilitating the oxidation of the Sod1 intramolecular disulfide bond. Here, we present structural, spectroscopic, and cell-based data supporting a novel copper-induced mechanism for Sod1 activation. Ccs1 binding exposes an electropositive cavity and proposed "entry site" for copper ion delivery on immature Sod1. Copper-mediated sulfenylation leads to a sulfenic acid intermediate that eventually resolves to form the Sod1 disulfide bond with concomitant release of copper into the Sod1 active site. Sod1 is the predominant disulfide bond-requiring enzyme in the cytoplasm, and this copper-induced mechanism of disulfide bond formation obviates the need for a thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase in that compartment. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Microstructured Optical Fiber-based Biosensors: Reversible and Nanoliter-Scale Measurement of Zinc Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Sabrina; McDevitt, Christopher A; Kostecki, Roman; Morey, Jacqueline R; Eijkelkamp, Bart A; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M; Abell, Andrew D

    2016-05-25

    Sensing platforms that allow rapid and efficient detection of metal ions would have applications in disease diagnosis and study, as well as environmental sensing. Here, we report the first microstructured optical fiber-based biosensor for the reversible and nanoliter-scale measurement of metal ions. Specifically, a photoswitchable spiropyran Zn(2+) sensor is incorporated within the microenvironment of a liposome attached to microstructured optical fibers (exposed-core and suspended-core microstructured optical fibers). Both fiber-based platforms retains high selectivity of ion binding associated with a small molecule sensor, while also allowing nanoliter volume sampling and on/off switching. We have demonstrated that multiple measurements can be made on a single sample without the need to change the sensor. The ability of the new sensing platform to sense Zn(2+) in pleural lavage and nasopharynx of mice was compared to that of established ion sensing methodologies such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and a commercially available fluorophore (Fluozin-3), where the optical-fiber-based sensor provides a significant advantage in that it allows the use of nanoliter (nL) sampling when compared to ICP-MS (mL) and FluoZin-3 (μL). This work paves the way to a generic approach for developing surface-based ion sensors using a range of sensor molecules, which can be attached to a surface without the need for its chemical modification and presents an opportunity for the development of new and highly specific ion sensors for real time sensing applications.

  6. Microstructure and spectroscopic investigations of calcium zinc bismuth phosphate glass ceramics doped with manganese ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneel Kumar, A.; Sambasiva Rao, M. V.; Chinna Ram, G.; Krishna Rao, D.

    2018-01-01

    Multi-component 10CaF2-20ZnO-(15 - x)Bi2O3-55P2O5:xMnO (0 ≤ x ≤ 2.5) glass ceramics were synthesised by melt quenching technique and heat treatment. The prepared glass ceramics were characterised by XRD, DTA, EDS and SEM. Spectroscopic studies such as optical absorption, EPR, FTIR and Raman were also carried out on these glass ceramics. The XRD and SEM studies have indicated that ceramic samples contain well defined and randomly distributed grains of different crystalline phases. The observed increase of enthalpy from DTA patterns up to 1 mol% of MnO indicates that the crystallisation starts initially from the surface of the material then gradually it is extended to the volume of the material and this influence is meagre at higher concentrations of MnO. The absorption spectra of manganese doped glass ceramics have exhibited two types of conventional bands; one due to Mn2+ ions and other due to Mn3+ ions. The EPR spectra of MnO doped glass ceramics showed a resonance signal around g2 = 2.023 with a six line hyperfine structure and another signal at about g1 = 4.314. The relative intensity and half-width of these two signals are observed to increase with the increase in the concentration of manganese ions up to 1 mol% beyond this concentration it is found to decrease. Such observation indicates the conversion of part of Mn2+ ions into Mn3+ ions in the glass ceramic matrix. The observed increase in the intensity of symmetrical structural units at the expense of asymmetrical structural units from the FTIR and Raman spectra at higher concentration of MnO indicating that Mn2+ ions occupy the network forming positions in the glass ceramic structure.

  7. Excitation of short-scale fluctuations by parametric decay of helicon waves into ion-sound and Trivelpiece-Gould waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B; Kraemer, M; Selenin, V L; Aliev, Yu M

    2005-01-01

    The helicon wave field and the excitation of short-scale electrostatic fluctuations in a helicon-produced plasma are closely related as both the helicon wave damping and the fluctuation level are shown to increase with the launched rf power. Correlation methods using electrostatic probes as well as microwave back-scattering at the upper-hybrid resonance are applied to obtain the dispersion relations of the fluctuations in the low-frequency and high-frequency ranges. The frequency and wavenumber spectra measured for all components of the wave vector allow us to identify the fluctuations as ion-sound and Trivelpiece-Gould waves that originate from parametric decay of the helicon pump wave. The growth rates and thresholds inferred from the evolution of the fluctuations in a wide range of helicon plasma parameters are in good agreement with predictions for the parametric decay instability that takes into account realistic damping rates for the decay waves as well as non-vanishing parallel wavenumber of the helicon pump

  8. Thermal, structural and magnetic properties of some zinc phosphate glasses doped with manganese ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuta, Petru; Bosca, Maria; Borodi, Gheorghe; Culea, Eugen

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → MnO) x .(P 2 O 5 ) 40 .(ZnO) 60-x glasses (0 ≤ x ≤ 20 mol%) were prepared by the melt-quenching technique. → The DTA data indicate a good thermal stability of the studied glasses. → EPR spectra shows isolated Mn 2+ ions in octahedral symmetric sites or to associated ones when the Mn 2+ ions are involved in dipole-dipole and/or superexchange interactions. → The magnetic susceptibility data revealed superexchange magnetic interactions involving manganese ions, antiferromagnetically coupled for the sample containing 20 mol% MnO. - Abstract: (MnO) x .(P 2 O 5 ) 40 .(ZnO) 60-x glasses containing different concentrations of MnO ranging from 0 to 20 mol% were prepared by the melt-quenching technique. The samples had a fixed P 2 O 5 content of 40 mol% and the MnO:ZnO ratio was varied. The thermal, structural and magnetic properties of these glasses were investigated by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Compositional dependence of the glass transition (T g ), crystallization (T p ) and melting temperatures were determined by DTA investigations. From the dependence of the T g on the heating rate (a), the activation energy of the glass transition (E g ) was calculated. The fragility index (F) for the studied glasses was determined to see whether these materials are obtained from kinetically strong-glass-forming (KS) or kinetically fragile-glass forming (KF) liquids. The EPR spectra of the studied glasses revealed absorptions centered at g ∼ 2.0, 3.3 and 4.3. The compositional variations of the intensity and line width of these absorption lines was interpreted in terms of the variation in the concentration of the Mn 2+ and Mn 3+ ions in the glass and the interaction between the manganese ions. EPR and magnetic susceptibility data reveal that both Mn 2+ and Mn 3+ ions are present in the studied glasses, their relative concentration being dependent on

  9. Using fluorescence measurement of zinc ions liberated from ZnS nanoparticle labels in bioassay for Escherichia coli O157:H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowles, Chad L.; Zhu Xiaoshan; Pai, Chi-Yun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, an alternative approach using ZnS nanoparticle biolabels as fluorescence signal transducers is reported for the immunoassay of E. coli O157:H7 in tap water samples. Instead of measuring the fluorescence of ZnS nanoparticles in the assay, the fluorescence signal is generated through the binding of zinc ions released from nanoparticle labels with zinc-ion sensitive fluorescence indicator Fluozin-3. In the assay, ZnS nanoparticles around 50 nm in diameter were synthesized, bioconjugated, and applied for the detection of E. coli O157:H7. The assay shows a detection range over two orders of magnitude and a detection limit around 1000 colony-forming units (cfu) of E. coli O157:H7.

  10. The use of retardion 11A8 amphoteric ion exchange resin for separation and determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samczynski, Z.; Dybczynski, R.

    2001-01-01

    In this work the ion exchange separation scheme with the use of amphoteric ion exchange resin Retardion 11A8 underlying the method for the determination of cadmium and zinc in geological and environmental materials by neutron activation analysis has been devised. The accuracy of the elaborated method was tested by determining Cd and Zn content in two reference materials: Lake Sediment (SL-1) of environmental and Zinnwaldite ZW-C of geological origin. The results of quantitative determinations show good agreement with the certified values. Gamma ray spectra of zinc and cadmium fractions are practically free from other activities apart from those, which are normally observed in the background. Analytical results were corrected for the blank resulting from using reagents, glassware and contact with atmosphere when isolation of analytes before neutron activation is accomplished. Considerable minimization and good reproducibility of the blank was finally achieved.(authors)

  11. [Unification of methods for determining the trace quantities of lead, zinc, sodium and potassium ions in the assessment of drinking water adn transfusion fluid quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, V A; Golovina, N V; Evgrafov, A A

    2001-01-01

    The results of long-term studies made by the Department of General Chemistry, I. M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy, that deals with unification of methods for determining some ions of metals (lead, zinc, sodium, and potassium) in the assessment of the quality of drinking water and transfusion fluids are summarized. A procedure was developed to determine the trace impurities of zinc, lead, and silver by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) by using sorption concentration. C-80-2-aminothiazole, a new sorbent synthesized at the Research Institute of Polymers, was used to detect these ions in the drinking water. With regards to the chosen optimal conditions, drinking water samples were analyzed via their direct spraying in the air-acetylene flame. The prior sorption concentration determined drinking water zinc and lead ions in the concentrations equal to or less than their permissible dose concentrations. The studies indicated that the used methods to determine the trace quantities of metals in the drinking water and aqueous solutions show a high sensitivity, rapidity, simplicity of sample preparation.

  12. Effects of mouthrinses with chlorhexidine and zinc ions combined with fluoride on the viability and glycolytic activity of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giertsen, E; Scheie, A A

    1995-10-01

    Inhibition of plaque acidogenicity by a mouthrinse with chlorhexidine (CHX) or zinc ions has been ascribed to a prolonged bacteriostasis due to substantive properties of the agents. The present aim was to study the effects of mouthrinses with CHX and Zn ions combined with fluoride on the viability and glycolytic activity of dental plaque in order to assess the bacteriostatic versus possible bactericidal effects. Following 2 d of plaque accumulation, 4 groups of 10 students rinsed with either 12 mM NaF (F), 0.55 mM CHX diacetate+F (F-CHX), 10 mM Zn acetate+F (F-Zn), or with the three agents in combination (F-CHX-Zn). Plaque samples were collected before and 90 min after mouthrinsing. Thereafter, the in vivo plaque pH response to sucrose was monitored in each student using touch microelectrodes. F-CHX and F-CHX-Zn reduced the in vivo pH fall significantly as compared with F, whereas F-Zn exerted a non-significant inhibition. Pooled pre- and post-rinse plaque samples were used to measure the pH fall during fermentation of [14C]-glucose, and the glycolytic profiles were analyzed by HPLC. Bacterial viability was assessed by counting the colony-forming units (CFU). All mouthrinses except F reduced glucose consumption and acid formation and thus the pH fall. F-CHX reduced the CFU equal to the reduction of glucose consumption, indicating that inhibition of plaque acidogenicity was due to a bactericidal rather than a bacteriostatic effect. F and F-Zn did not reduce the CFU, thus F-Zn decreased glucose metabolism without affecting plaque viability. F-CHX-Zn reduced both the CFU and glucose metabolism of surviving plaque microorganisms.

  13. EPR Study of Vanadium Ion in Zinc-Boro-Vanadate Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renuka, C.; Gowda, V. C. Veeranna; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Reddy, C. Narayana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes EPR studies on x V 2 O 5 -(40-x)ZnO-60B 2 O 3 (where x 5, 10, 15 and 20 mol %) glass system. These studies indicate a strong compositional dependent trend and existence of characteristic boro-vanadate groups in these glasses. The EPR spectra show a distinct hyperfine structure of 51 V. Spectral analysis shows that the vanadium is present in the glass as vanadyl ion [VO] 2+ at tetragonally distorted octahedral site. The decrease of A || and A perpendicular with increase of V 2 O 5 concentration suggests an increase in the covalence between the central atom and the surrounding oxygen ligands.

  14. Isotopic exchange kinetics of zinc ions in Zn-A zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radak, V M; Gal, I J; Salai, J J [Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia)

    1976-01-01

    The isotopic exchange kinetics of Zn/sup 2 +/ ions in hydrated Zn-A zeolite of composition (Znsub(5.55)Nasub(0.90)(A10/sub 2/)/sub 12/(Si0/sub 2/)/sub 12/.aq) have been investigated by measuring the fractional attainment of isotopic equilibrium between a ZnCl/sub 2/ solution and a /sup 65/Zn-labelled Zn-A zeolite (30 and 45 ..mu..m particle radii) as a function of time, in the temperature range 25 to 60/sup 0/C. The exchange mechanism is a two-step process which has been resolved, using the Brown-Sherry-Krambeck model (J.Phys.Chem.;75:3846(1971)) into diffusion in the solid particles, with Zn/sup 2 +/ diffusivity of D = 10sup(-3.97 + -0.03) exp(-Esub(D)/RT)m/sup 2/ s/sup -1/, Esub(D) = 67.1 +- 0.5 kJ molee/sup -1/, and an intracrystalline first-order exchange between bound and mobile Zn/sup 2 +/ ions in the network, with a rate constant of k/sub 2/ = 10sup(3.05 +- 0.25) exp(-Esub(k)/RT)s/sup -1/, Esub(k) = 56.5 +- 1.5 kJ mol/sup -1/.

  15. Influence of samarium ions (Sm3+) on the optical properties of lithium zinc phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwetha, M.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-05-01

    New glass samples with composition xSm2O3-(15-x) Li2O-45ZnO-40P2O5, where x= 0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mol % are prepared by conventional melt-quenching method. X-ray Diffraction measurements were performed to confirm their amorphous nature. Densities of these glasses were measured by Archimedes method. Optical properties were studied using optical absorption spectra which was recorded at room temperature in the UV-Vis region. Electronic transitions specific to the rare earth ion were observed from the UV-Visible spectroscopy. Optical direct band gap and indirect band gap energies were measured and their values were found to be between 4.23-4.74 eV and 3.02-3.67 eV, respectively. Refractive index has been measured with respect to different concentrations of Sm2O3. Polaron radius, inter-nuclear distance, field strength, dielectric constant and polarizability of oxide ions have been calculated. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements have been performed by excitation in the UV-Visible range, which resulted in the significant fluorescence peaks. The luminescence color of the glass system has been characterized using Commission International de l'Eclairage de France 1931 chromaticity diagram.

  16. Carboxylated dithiafulvenes and tetrathiafulvalene vinylogues: synthesis, electronic properties, and complexation with zinc ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfei Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A class of carboxyl and carboxylate ester-substituted dithiafulvene (DTF derivatives and tetrathiafulvalene vinylogues (TTFVs has been synthesized and their electronic and electrochemical redox properties were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric analyses. The carboxyl-TTFV was applied as a redox-active ligand to complex with Zn(II ions, forming a stable Zn-TTFV coordination polymer. The structural, electrochemical, and thermal properties of the coordination polymer were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetric analyses. Furthermore, the microscopic porosity and surface area of the Zn-TTFV coordination polymer were measured by nitrogen gas adsorption analysis, showing a BET surface of 148.2 m2 g−1 and an average pore diameter of 10.2 nm.

  17. Efecto de adición de iones hierro y zinc sobre la producción de etanol de dos cepas recombinantes de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Peña Serna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La producción de etanol por fermentación es influenciada por la presencia de iones metálicos como hierro y zinc dado que son cofactores de la enzima alcohol deshidrogenasa. El estudio de este efecto permitiría identificar el comportamiento de los microorganismos fermentadores en sustratos industriales que contienen altas concentraciones de este tipo de iones. Este trabajo evaluó la producción de biomasa, los azúcares residuales y la producción de etanol por fermentación de tres cepas de S. cerevisiae, CBS8066, recombinantes GG570-CIBI y GG570-CIBII, bajo el efecto de la adición de hierro a 0, 50 y 150 M, y zinc a 0 y 50 M. Las cepas presentaron inhibición en la producción de biomasa y etanol bajo efecto de iones de hierro y zinc, siendo dicha inhibición mayor al estar en presencia de zinc o alta concentración de hierro. GG570-CIBI mostró disminución en producción de biomasa de 4 g/L y una caída en producción de etanol de 40% en el tratamiento 150 M hierro-50 M zinc (con respecto al tratamiento basal. GG570-CIBII fue la menos afectada con inhibición en la producción de etanol inferior a 11% a las 20 h de fermentación. Adicionalmente, presentó la mayor producción de etanol cuando hubo adición de 150 M Fe con o sin adición de zinc, siendo dicha producción entre un 9 y 14% superior a la de las cepas CBS8066 y GG570-CIBI respectivamente, bajo las mismas condiciones. Posteriormente, GG570-CIBII será evaluada en sustratos industriales debido a su menor inhibición en la producción de etanol, permitiendo así obtener mejores rendimientos.

  18. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  19. Selective adsorption of Pb (II) over the zinc-based MOFs in aqueous solution-kinetics, isotherms, and the ion exchange mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhao, Xinhua; Zhang, Jinmiao; Xiong, Zhenhu

    2017-06-01

    Two series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with similar formula units but different central metal ions (M) or organic linkers (L), M-BDC (BDC = terephthalate, M = Zn, Zr, Cr, or Fe), or Zn-L (L = imidazolate-2-methyl, BDC, BDC-NH 2 ), were prepared and employed as the receptors for adsorption lead ions. It was found that the Zn-BDC exhibited a much higher adsorption capacity than the other M-BDC series with various metal ions which have very closely low capacities at same conditions. Furthermore, the Zn-L (L = imidazolate-2-methyl, BDC, BDC-NH 2 ) still have highly efficient adsorption capacity of lead ions, although the adsorption capacity varies with different ligand, as well as the adsorption rate and the equilibrium pH of the solution. This significant high adsorption over Zn-L, different from other M-BDC series with various metal ions (Zr, Cr, or Fe), can be explained by ion exchange between the central metal ions of Zn-L and lead ion in solution. Based on the analysis of FT-IR, X-ray diffraction pattern, the nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the zeta potentials, and the results, a plausible adsorption mechanism is proposed. When equivalent Zn-L were added to equal volume of aqueous solution with different concentration of lead ion, the content of zinc ion in the solution increases with the increase of the initial concentration of lead ions. The new findings could provide a potential way to fabricate new metal organic frameworks with high and selective capacities of the heavy metal ions.

  20. Hadronic Correlations and Fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker

    2008-10-09

    We will provide a review of some of the physics which can be addressed by studying fluctuations and correlations in heavy ion collisions. We will discuss Lattice QCD results on fluctuations and correlations and will put them into context with observables which have been measured in heavy-ion collisions. Special attention will be given to the QCD critical point and the first order co-existence region, and we will discuss how the measurement of fluctuations and correlations can help in an experimental search for non-trivial structures in the QCD phase diagram.

  1. Zinc Oxide-Based Self-Powered Potentiometric Chemical Sensors for Biomolecules and Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israr-Qadir, Muhammad; Jamil-Rana, Sadaf; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2017-07-19

    Advances in the miniaturization and portability of the chemical sensing devices have always been hindered by the external power supply problem, which has focused new interest in the fabrication of self-powered sensing devices for disease diagnosis and the monitoring of analytes. This review describes the fabrication of ZnO nanomaterial-based sensors synthesized on different conducting substrates for extracellular detection, and the use of a sharp borosilicate glass capillary (diameter, d = 700 nm) to grow ZnO nanostructures for intracellular detection purposes in individual human and frog cells. The electrocatalytic activity and fast electron transfer properties of the ZnO materials provide the necessary energy to operate as well as a quick sensing device output response, where the role of the nanomorphology utilized for the fabrication of the sensor is crucial for the production of the operational energy. Simplicity, design, cost, sensitivity, selectivity and a quick and stable response are the most important features of a reliable sensor for routine applications. The review details the extra- and intra-cellular applications of the biosensors for the detection and monitoring of different metallic ions present in biological matrices, along with the biomolecules glucose and cholesterol.

  2. Removal of copper, nickel and zinc ions from aqueous solution by chitosan-8-hydroxyquinoline beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Francisco C.F.; Dias, Francisco S.; Vasconcellos, Luiz C.G. [Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica, Campus do Pici - Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Sousa, Francisco W. [Departamento de Engenharia Hidraulica e Ambiental, Campus do Pici - Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Cavalcante, Rivelino M.; Carvalho, Tecia V.; Queiroz, Danilo C. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica e Fisico Quimica, Campus do Pici - Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza (Brazil); Nascimento, Ronaldo F.

    2008-03-15

    In this work, 8-hydroxyquinoline is used as the active sites in cross-linked chitosan beads with epichlorohydrin (CT-8HQ). The CT-8HQ material was shaped in bead form and used for heavy metal removal from aqueous solution. The study was carried out at pH 5.0 with both batch and column methods and the maximum adsorption capacity of metal ions by the CT-8HQ was attained in 4 h in the batch experiment. The adsorption capacity order was: Cu{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} for both mono- and multi-component systems with batch conditions. From breakthrough curves with column conditions, the adsorption capacity followed the order Cu{sup 2+} > Zn{sup 2+} > Ni{sup 2+} for both mono- and multi-component systems. The CT-8HQ beads maintained good metal adsorption capacity for all five cycles with absorbent restoration achieved with the use of 1.0 mol L{sup -1} HCl solution, with 90% regeneration. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Zinc oxide nanostructures by chemical vapour deposition as anodes for Li-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurenti, M., E-mail: marco.laurenti@iit.it [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Garino, N. [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Porro, S.; Fontana, M. [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Gerbaldi, C., E-mail: claudio.gerbaldi@polito.it [Center for Space Human Robotics @Polito, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Corso Trento, 21, 10129 Turin (Italy); Department of Applied Science and Technology – DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanostructures are grown by simple chemical vapour deposition. • Polycrystalline nanostructured porous thin film is obtained. • Film exhibits stable specific capacity (∼400 mA h g{sup −1}) after prolonged cycling. • CVD-grown ZnO nanostructures show promising prospects as Li-ion battery anode. - Abstract: ZnO nanostructures are grown by a simple chemical vapour deposition method directly on a stainless steel disc current collector and successfully tested in lithium cells. The structural/morphological characterization points out the presence of well-defined polycrystalline nanostructures having different shapes and a preferential orientation along the c-axis direction. In addition, the high active surface of the ZnO nanostructures, which accounts for a large electrode/electrolyte contact area, and the complete wetting with the electrolyte solution are considered to be responsible for the good electrical transport properties and the adequate electrochemical behaviour, as confirmed by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling. Indeed, despite no binder or conducting additives are used, when galvanostatically tested in lithium cells, after an initial decay, the ZnO nanostructures can provide a rather stable specific capacity approaching 70 μA h cm{sup −2} (i.e., around 400 mA h g{sup −1}) after prolonged cycling at 1 C, with very high Coulombic efficiency and an overall capacity retention exceeding 62%.

  4. Prominent spectral features of Sm3+ ion in disordered zinc tellurite glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Tanko

    Full Text Available Trivalent rare earth doped glasses with modified spectroscopic features are essential for solid state lasers and diverse photonic applications. Glass composition optimisation may fulfil such demand. Stimulating the spectral properties of samarium (Sm3+ ions in tellurite glass host with desired enhancement is the key issue. Glasses with composition (80 − xTeO2–20ZnO–(xSm2O3, where 0 ⩽ x ⩽ 1.5 mol% are prepared using melt quenching method. The role of varying Sm3+ contents to improving the absorption and emission properties of the prepared glasses are determined. XRD pattern verifies amorphous nature of synthesised glasses. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to observe the structural modification of (TeO4 trigonal bipyramid structural units. DTA traces display prominent transition peaks for glass transition, crystallisation and melting temperature. Samples are discerned to be stable with desired Hruby parameter and superior glass forming ability. The UV–Vis–NIR absorption spectra reveals nine peaks centred at 470, 548, 947, 1085, 1238, 1385, 1492, 1550 and 1589 nm. These bands arise due to 6H5/2 → 4I11/2, 4G5/2, 6F11/2, 6F9/2, 6F7/2, 6F5/2, 6F3/2, 6H15/2 and 6F1/2 transitions, respectively. The direct, indirect band gap and Urbach energy calculated from the absorption edge of UV–Vis–NIR spectra are found to appear within (2.75–3.18 eV, (3.22–3.40 eV, and (0.20–0.31 eV, respectively. The observed increase in refractive index from 2.45 to 2.47 is ascribed to the generation of non-bridging oxygen atoms via the conversion of TeO4 into TeO3 units. Conversely the decrease in refractive index to 2.39 is attributed to the lower ionic radii (1.079 Å of Sm3+. PL spectra under the excitation of 452 nm display four emission bands centred at 563, 600, 644 and 705 nm corresponding to 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 transitions of samarium ions. Excellent features of the results nominate these compositions

  5. High rate capacity nanocomposite lanthanum oxide coated lithium zinc titanate anode for rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Haoqing; Zan, Lingxing; Zhu, Jiangtao; Ma, Yiheng; Zhao, Naiqin; Tang, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Lithium zinc titanate (Li_2ZnTi_3O_8) is an important titanium material of promising candidates for anode materials with superior electrochemical performance and thus has attracted extensive attention. Herein, high capacity, stable Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 nanocomposite for lithium-ion battery anode is prepared by a facile strategy. Compared to unmodified Li_2ZnTi_3O_8, the Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 electrode display a high specific capacity of 188.6 mAh g"−"1 and remain as high as 147.7 mAh g"−"1 after 100 cycles at 2.0 A g"−"1. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 76.3 mAh g"−"1 can be obtained after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g"−"1 and the retention is 42.7% for Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3, which is much higher than un-coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8. The superior lithium storage performances of the Li_2ZnTi_3O_8/La_2O_3 can be ascribed to the stable layer of protection, small particle size and large surface area. Cyclic voltammograms result reveals that the La_2O_3 coating layer reduces the polarization and improves the electrochemical activity of anode. - Highlights: • Nano layer La_2O_3 coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8 particles have been prepared via a suspension mixing process followed by heat treatment. • Coated Li_2ZnTi_3O_8 has enhanced high rate capability, cyclic stability and long lifespan performance. • Electrochemical properties were tested in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0–0.05 V (vs. Li/Li"+).

  6. Facile fabrication of dual emissive nanospheres via the self-assembling of CdSe@CdS and zinc phthalocyanine and their application for silver ion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuning; Liu, Chenchen; Luan, Xinying; Yao, Rui; Feng, Yakai

    2017-09-01

    The far-red/near infrared photoluminescence of zinc phthalocyanines would be strongly quenched once they are aggregated, which will obviously hinder their wide applications in environmental, energy related and biomedical fields. Herein, the ultra-small sized semiconductor quantum dots with core-shell structures (CdSe@CdS) have been firstly synthesized and then assembled with a dendritic zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) in the H2O/DMF mixed solvent to obtain monodispersed nanospheres. Finally, it was found that the resultant ethanolic colloids can be employed as a sensitive and specific fluorescent nanoprobe for silver ions discrimination with a limit of detection (LOD) approaching to 10-8 mol/L.

  7. Insect cold tolerance and repair of chill-injury at fluctuating thermal regimes: Role of ion homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Vladimír; Renault, D.; Mehrabianová, A.; Bastl, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 1, (2007), s. 231-238 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Insecta * cold hardiness * thermal fluctuations Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.863, year: 2007

  8. Irradiation of zinc single crystal with 500 keV singly-charged carbon ions: surface morphology, structure, hardness, and chemical modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas Khaliq, M.; Butt, M. Z.; Saleem, Murtaza

    2017-07-01

    Cylindrical specimens of (1 0 4) oriented zinc single crystal (diameter  =  6 mm and length  =  5 mm) were irradiated with 500 keV C+1 ions with the help of a Pelletron accelerator. Six specimens were irradiated in an ultra-high vacuum (~10‒8 Torr) with different ion doses, namely 3.94  ×  1014, 3.24  ×  1015, 5.33  ×  1015, 7.52  ×  1015, 1.06  ×  1016, and 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-2. A field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) was utilized for the morphological study of the irradiated specimens. Formation of nano- and sub-micron size rods, clusters, flower- and fork-like structures, etc, was observed. Surface roughness of the irradiated specimens showed an increasing trend with the ions dose. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) helped to determine chemical modifications in the specimens. It was found that carbon content varied in the range 22.86-31.20 wt.% and that oxygen content was almost constant, with an average value of 10.16 wt.%. The balance content was zinc. Structural parameters, i.e. crystallite size and lattice strain, were determined by Williamson-Hall analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the irradiated specimens. Both crystallite size and lattice strain showed a decreasing trend with the increasing ions dose. A good linear relationship between crystallite size and lattice strain was observed. Surface hardness depicted a decreasing trend with the ions dose and followed an inverse Hall-Petch relation. FTIR spectra of the specimens revealed that absorption bands gradually diminish as the dose of singly-charged carbon ions is increased from 3.94  ×  1014 ions cm-1 to 1.30  ×  1016 ions cm-1. This indicates progressive deterioration of chemical bonds with the increase in ion dose.

  9. Zinc, copper and lead contents of wines. Comparison between the total concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry and the concentrations of the free ions by polarography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Fournier

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction of this article, some examples of the use of trace element data in the characterisation of viticultural produce are reminded. This paper described the determination of zinc, copper and lead by two techniques based on radically different principles. The atomic absorption spectrometry, applied after the mineralisation of the samples by wet process, allows the determination of the total element contents in wine. The polarography allows the analysis of the concentrations of these elements that are under labile chemical forms, and which are dissolved under the ionic forms Zn++, Cu++ and Pb++. The wines analysed in this study were produced from three different parcels chosen in relation to their geological qualities. The vines implanted on these parcels are strictly identical, and three fermentation techniques were applied to each lots of grapes. The results obtained shows that the copper is only under ionic form and that the temperature of the fermentation influences the total copper level in the final wine. At the opposite, there is no ion Pb++ in the samples, but a long duration of maceration increases the lead content. Concerning zinc, only the ions Zn++ are present in the wine in case of a short duration of the maceration. When this duration increases, some other chemical forms of zinc are dissolved in addition to the ions Zn++ which are instantaneously dissociated in aqueous solutions. The problem of the contamination of grapes by the materials used, the phytosanitary treatments and the atmospheric pollution is discussed. The knowledge of the proportion of a trace element that is under ionic forms is indispensable to evaluate the bio-availability of the considered element and the toxicologic risks. The advent and the expansion of the electrochemical methods is expected as an important advance in this field of research.

  10. Spin and isospin fluctuations in heavy ion collisions and their dependence upon the shape of the dinuclear complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1980-08-01

    The relevance of higher multipoles of giant isovector modes in the charge distribution of deep inelastic fragments is discussed and found to depend strongly on mass asymmetry. The sources of angular momentum fluctuations are investigated. Quantal effects are considered as well as effects arising from non-equilibrium and equilibrium statistical fluctuations. A model based upon equilibrium statistical mechanics is considered in detail, and used to predict both 2nd moments of the angular momentum distributions and the angular momentum misalignment. Analytical expressions are derived to calculate the angular distributions of sequentially emitted particles, fission fragments, as well as gamma rays in terms of the angular momentum misalignment. Recent data on the angular distributions of sequential alphas, fission and gamma rays are analyzed in terms of the model. 29 figures, 1 table.

  11. Spin and isospin fluctuations in heavy ion collisions and their dependence upon the shape of the dinuclear complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1980-08-01

    The relevance of higher multipoles of giant isovector modes in the charge distribution of deep inelastic fragments is discussed and found to depend strongly on mass asymmetry. The sources of angular momentum fluctuations are investigated. Quantal effects are considered as well as effects arising from non-equilibrium and equilibrium statistical fluctuations. A model based upon equilibrium statistical mechanics is considered in detail, and used to predict both 2nd moments of the angular momentum distributions and the angular momentum misalignment. Analytical expressions are derived to calculate the angular distributions of sequentially emitted particles, fission fragments, as well as gamma rays in terms of the angular momentum misalignment. Recent data on the angular distributions of sequential alphas, fission and gamma rays are analyzed in terms of the model. 29 figures, 1 table

  12. Energy dependence of multiplicity fluctuations in heavy ion collisions at 20A to 158A GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Alt, C.; Baatar, B.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, Helena; Blume, Christoph; Boimska, B.; Botje, Michiel; Bracinik, J.; Bramm, R.; Buncic, P.; Cerny, V.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Dinkelaker, P.; Eckardt, V.; Flierl, D.; Fodor, Zoltan; Foka, P.; Friese, Volker; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, Marek; Genchev, V.; Georgopoulos, G.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, K.; Hegyi, S.; Hohne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kikola, D.; Kliemant, M.; Kniege, S.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kornas, E.; Korus, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kraus, I.; Kreps, M.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, Roy A.; van Leeuwen, M.; Levai, P.; Litov, Leandar; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mischke, A.; Mitrovski, M.; Molnar, J.; Mrowczynski, St.; Nicolic, V.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, Apostolos D.; Panayotov, D.; Peryt, W.; Pikna, M.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Puhlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, Gunther; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, Andres; Schmitz, Norbert; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stock, R.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Szuba, M.; Szymanski, P.; Trubnikov, V.; Utvic, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wetzler, A.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek, A.; Yoo, I.K.

    2008-01-01

    Multiplicity fluctuations of positively, negatively and all charged hadrons in the forward hemisphere were studied in central Pb+Pb collisions at 20A, 30A, 40A, 80A and 158A GeV. The multiplicity distributions and their scaled variances $\\omega$ are presented in dependence of collision energy as well as of rapidity and transverse momentum. The distributions have bell-like shape and their scaled variances are in the range from 0.8 to 1.2 without any significant structure in their energy dependence. No indication of the critical point fluctuations are observed. The string-hadronic model UrQMD significantly overpredicts the mean, but approximately reproduces the scaled variance of the multiplicity distributions. The predictions of the statistical hadron-resonance gas model obtained within the grand-canonical and canonical ensembles disagree with the measured scaled variances. The narrower than Poissonian multiplicity fluctuations measured in numerous cases may be explained by the impact of conservation laws on f...

  13. Generación de entornos celulares con iones bioactivos de zinc y su efecto sobre la diferenciación neural.

    OpenAIRE

    GUILLOT FERRIOLS, MARÍA TERESA

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El zinc es uno de los metales de transición más abundantes en el organismo. Es un elemento esencial para el crecimiento y el desarrollo y está ampliamente implicado en la dinámica celular, debido a su presencia en la estructura tanto de enzimas como de factores de transcripción. La importancia de este ion en el sistema nervioso central es considerable, existiendo evidencias directas de su función señalizadora, actuando como neurotransmisor. El presente proyecto se basa en la hipótesi...

  14. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  15. High rate capacity nanocomposite lanthanum oxide coated lithium zinc titanate anode for rechargeable lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Haoqing, E-mail: tanghaoqing@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zan, Lingxing [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Bonn, Bonn 53117 (Germany); Zhu, Jiangtao; Ma, Yiheng [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Naiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tang, Zhiyuan, E-mail: zytang46@163.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Lithium zinc titanate (Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) is an important titanium material of promising candidates for anode materials with superior electrochemical performance and thus has attracted extensive attention. Herein, high capacity, stable Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite for lithium-ion battery anode is prepared by a facile strategy. Compared to unmodified Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}, the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode display a high specific capacity of 188.6 mAh g{sup −1} and remain as high as 147.7 mAh g{sup −1} after 100 cycles at 2.0 A g{sup −1}. Moreover, a reversible capacity of 76.3 mAh g{sup −1} can be obtained after 1000 cycles at 2.0 A g{sup −1} and the retention is 42.7% for Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which is much higher than un-coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}. The superior lithium storage performances of the Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be ascribed to the stable layer of protection, small particle size and large surface area. Cyclic voltammograms result reveals that the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating layer reduces the polarization and improves the electrochemical activity of anode. - Highlights: • Nano layer La{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} particles have been prepared via a suspension mixing process followed by heat treatment. • Coated Li{sub 2}ZnTi{sub 3}O{sub 8} has enhanced high rate capability, cyclic stability and long lifespan performance. • Electrochemical properties were tested in a charge/discharge voltage range of 3.0–0.05 V (vs. Li/Li{sup +}).

  16. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: Comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojković Aleksandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO42(Cl2(ciprofloxacin2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  17. Biopharmaceutical characterisation of ciprofloxacin-metallic ion interactions: comparative study into the effect of aluminium, calcium, zinc and iron on drug solubility and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Aleksandra; Tajber, Lidia; Paluch, Krzysztof J; Djurić, Zorica; Parojčić, Jelena; Corrigan, Owen I

    2014-03-01

    Ciprofloxacin bioavailability may be reduced when ciprofloxacin is co-administered with metallic ion containing preparations. In our previous study, physicochemical interaction between ciprofloxacin and ferrous sulphate was successfully simulated in vitro. In the present work, comparative in vitro ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution studies were performed in the reactive media containing aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate or zinc sulphate. Solid phases collected from the dissolution vessel with aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and zinc sulphate were investigated for their properties. The results obtained indicate that different types of adducts may form and retard ciprofloxacin solubility and dissolution. In the case of aluminium, no phase changes were observed. The solid phase generated in the presence of calcium carbonate was identified as hydrated ciprofloxacin base. Similarly to iron, a new complex consistent with Zn(SO4)2(Cl)2(ciprofloxacin)2 × nH2O stoichiometry was generated in the presence of relatively high concentrations of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and zinc sulphate, indicating that small volume dissolution experiments can be useful for biorelevant dissolution tests.

  18. Selective sorption of lead, cadmium and zinc ions by a polymeric cation exchanger containing nano-Zr(HPO3S)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingrui; Pan, Bingcai; Pan, Bingjun; Zhang, Weiming; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Quanxing

    2008-06-01

    A novel polymeric hybrid sorbent, namely ZrPS-001, was fabricated for enhanced sorption of heavy metal ions by impregnating Zr(HPO3S)2 (i.e., ZrPS) nanoparticles within a porous polymeric cation exchanger D-001. The immobilized negatively charged groups bound to the polymeric matrix D-001 would result in preconcentration and permeation enhancement of target metal ions prior to sequestration, and ZrPS nanoparticles are expected to sequester heavy metals selectively through an ion-exchange process. Highly effective sequestration of lead, cadmium, and zinc ions from aqueous solution can be achieved by ZrPS-001 even in the presence of competing calcium ion at concentration several orders of magnitude greater than the target species. The exhausted ZrPS-001 beads are amenable to regeneration with 6 M HCI solution for repeated use without any significant capacity loss. Fixed-bed column treatment of simulated waters containing heavy metals at high or trace levels was also performed. The content of heavy metals in treated effluent approached or met the WHO drinking water standard.

  19. Partial agonism through a zinc-Ion switch constructed between transmembrane domains III and VII in the tachykinin NK(1) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Elling, C E; Schwartz, T W

    2000-01-01

    switch located exactly one helical turn below the two previously identified interaction points for Substance P in, respectively, TM-III and -VII. The metal-ion chelator, phenantroline, which in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor increased both the potency and the agonistic efficacy of Zn(2+) or Cu(2......Partly due to lack of detailed knowledge of the molecular recognition of ligands the structural basis for partial versus full agonism is not known. In the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor the agonist binding site has previously been structurally and functionally exchanged with an activating metal....... In contrast to the similarly mutated beta(2)-adrenergic receptor, signal transduction-i.e., inositol phosphate turnover-could be stimulated by both Zn(2+) and by the natural agonist, Substance P in the mutated NK(1) receptor. The metal-ion acted as a 25% partial agonist through binding to the bidentate zinc...

  20. Zinc-enriched boutons in rat spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Danscher, G; Jo, S M

    2000-01-01

    The rat spinal cord reveals a complex pattern of zinc-enriched (ZEN) boutons. As a result of in vivo exposure to selenide ions, nanosized clusters of zinc selenide are created in places where zinc ions are present, including the zinc-containing synaptic vesicles of ZEN boutons. The clusters can...

  1. Fluctuation Induced Conductivity Studies of 100 MeV Oxygen Ion Irradiated Pb Doped Bi-2223 Superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banerjee, Tamalika; Kumar, Ravi; Kanjilal, D.; Ramasamy, S.

    2000-01-01

    We report on 100 MeV oxygen ion irradiation in Pb doped Bi-2223 superconductors. Resistivity measurements reveal that both grains as well as the grain boundaries are affected by such irradiation. An analysis of the excess conductivity has been made within the framework of Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) and

  2. Preliminary results on σZ and τint fluctuations as a function of incident energy in dissipative heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berceanu, I.; Andronic, A.; Duma, M.

    1998-01-01

    Non-statistical fluctuations in the excitation functions (EF) of dissipative heavy ion collisions (DHIC) was rather unexpected due to the fact that cross sections are always obtained on a 'coarse cell' of TKEL and θ cm . The contribution of a large number of microchannels, N, is expected to attenuate the amplitude of such fluctuations as σ(E) has a χ 2 distribution with 2N degrees of freedom. In the framework of the Partially Overlapping Molecular Levels the observation of the fluctuations of the cross section as a function of the incident energy is explained by the fact that the levels of the dinuclear system formed in the first stage of a dissipative process are excited in a region of low density situated in the vicinity of the yrast line. The time evolution of dinuclear (DNS) system with different mass asymmetries with the total mass of the nuclear system 19 F + 27 Al system configuration and its time evolution, the excitation function for this system has been measured between 111.4 MeV and 136.9 MeV with a 250 keV energy step. Fluctuations with amplitude larger than the statistical errors were observed. Large Z and angular cross correlation coefficients show their nonstatistical nature. An average energy correlation width of 170±65 keV, to which corresponds a DNS lifetime τ int (3.9 ± 1.1)·10 -21 s, was obtained by the energy autocorrelation function (EAF). The experimental EAF secondary structure period agrees with that predicted by Kun model when the deformation of the outgoing fragments is taken into account. To get more insight in the reaction mechanism, the dependence of the charge distribution variance for two total kinetic energy loss windows, W1 = 20 ± 2.5 and W2 = 30 ± 2.5 MeV, was obtained as a function of E lab . The second moments of the experimental charge distributions have been calculated and the obtained values were represented for W1 and W2. Fluctuations with quite large amplitude are present. In a transport approach of deep inelastic

  3. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of three-dimensional transition metal ions doped zinc oxide based dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Kousik

    Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS), especially 3d-transition metal (TM) doped ZnO based DMS materials are the most promising candidates for optoelectronics and spintronics applications; e.g. in spin light emitting diode (SLED), spin transistors, and spin field effect transistors (SFET), etc. In the present dissertation, thin films of Zn1-xTMxO (TM = Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+) were grown on (0001) oriented Al2O3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The films were highly c-axis oriented, nearly single crystalline, and defects free for a limited concentration of the dilution of transition metal ions. In particular, we have obtained single crystalline phases of Zn1-xTMxO thin films for up to 10, 3, and 5 stoichiometric percentages of Co2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ respectively. Raman micro-probe system was used to understand the structural and lattice dynamical properties at different physical conditions. The confinement of optical phonons in the disorder lattice was explained by alloy potential fluctuation (APF) using a spatial correlation (SC) model. The detailed analysis of the optical phonon behavior in disorder lattice confirmed the substitution of the transition metal ions in Zn 2+ site of the ZnO host lattice. The secondary phases of ZnCo 2O4, CuO, and ZnMn2O4 were detected in higher Co, Cu, and Mn doped ZnO thin films respectively; where as, XRD did not detect these secondary phases in the same samples. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Co2+ and Cu2+ ions doped ZnO thin films with maximum saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1.0 and 0.76 muB respectively. The origin of the observed ferromagnetism in Zn1-xCoxO thin films was tested by the controlled introduction of shallow donors (Al) in Zn0.9-x Co0.1O:Alx (x = 0.005 and 0.01) thin films. The saturation magnetization for the 10% Co-doped ZnO (1.0 muB /Co) at 300K reduced (˜0.25 muB/Co) due to Al doping. The observed ferromagnetism and the reduction due to Al doping can be explained by the Bound

  5. Lithium position and occupancy fluctuations in a cathode during charge/discharge cycling of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, N.; Yu, D.; Zhu, Y.; Wu, Y.; Peterson, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are undergoing rapid development to meet the energy demands of the transportation and renewable energy-generation sectors. The capacity of a lithium-ion battery is dependent on the amount of lithium that can be reversibly incorporated into the cathode. Neutron diffraction provides greater sensitivity towards lithium relative to other diffraction techniques. In conjunction with the penetration depth afforded by neutron diffraction, the information concerning lithium gained in a neutron diffraction study allows commercial lithium-ion batteries to be explored with respect to the lithium content in the whole cathode. Furthermore, neutron diffraction instruments featuring area detectors that allow relatively fast acquisitions enable perturbations of lithium location and occupancy in the cathode during charge/discharge cycling to be determined in real time. Here, we present the time, current, and temperature dependent lithium transfer occurring within a cathode functioning under conventional charge-discharge cycling. The lithium location and content, oxygen positional parameter, and lattice parameter of the Li 1+y Mn 2 0 4 cathode are measured and linked to the battery's charge/discharge characteristics (performance). We determine that the lithium-transfer mechanism involves two crystallographic sites, and that the mechanism differs between discharge and charge, explaining the relative ease of discharging (compared with charging) this material. Furthermore, we find that the rate of change of the lattice is faster on charging than discharging, and is dependent on the lithium insertion/ extraction processes (e.g. dependent on how the site occupancies evolve). Using in situ neutron diffraction data the atomic-scale understanding of cathode functionality is revealed, representing detailed information that can be used to direct improvements in battery performance at both the practical and fundamental level.

  6. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  7. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Wessels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14, zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10, and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic behaviour during core transport barrier experiments with ion Bernstein wave heating in PBX-M: I ELMs fluctuations and crash events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesnic, S.; Kaita, R.; Batha, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    If the ion Bernstein wave (IBW) heating power in an H mode discharge of the PBX-M experiment exceeds a threshold power of about 200 kW, a core transport barrier is created in the central region of the plasma. At lower neutral beam injection (NBI) powers, the core barrier is accompanied by an edge L mode. The high edge localized mode (ELM) repetition frequency (1 kHz) prevents the creation of a strong barrier, so the edge first has to make an H-to-L transition before a strong core transport barrier can be created. At higher NBI powers, the ELM repetition frequency is lowered to less than 200 Hz, which allows the immediate creation of a strong core barrier. Edge localized mode loss, which propagates radially first on a fast (non-diffusive) and then on a slow (diffusive) time-scale all the way to the plasma core, is strongly reduced in the core barrier region. Correlated with the reduced ELM loss, the fluctuations in the core barrier region are also strongly reduced, both during the ELM and during the quite periods between the ELMs. There is strong evidence that the IBW induced poloidal flow shear is responsible for the stabilization of core turbulence and the creation of the core transport barrier. The large perpendicular E x B flow shear component of the measured toroidal velocity in co-injection neutral beam heated discharges seems to be largely cancelled by the ion diamagnetic drift shear produced by large ion pressure gradients in the core barrier region. The value of IBW induced poloidal flow has not been experimentally determined, but its numerical value is found to be a factor of 4 larger than either the toroidal velocity or the ion diamagnetic drift shear components, leaving only IBW induced flow shear as the most probable cause for the turbulence stabilization. The core turbulence suppression and the creation of the core transport barrier is also consistent with expectations from a comparison between the E x B flow shear rate and a rough estimate of the

  9. S-Mercuration of rat sorbitol dehydrogenase by methylmercury causes its aggregation and the release of the zinc ion from the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hironori; Toyama, Takashi; Shinohara-Kanda, Azusa; Iwamatsu, Akihiro; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kikushima, Makoto; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2012-11-01

    We previously developed a screening method to identify proteins that undergo aggregation through S-mercuration by methylmercury (MeHg) and found that rat arginase I is a target protein for MeHg (Kanda et al. in Arch Toxicol 82:803-808, 2008). In the present study, we characterized another S-mercurated protein from a rat hepatic preparation that has a subunit mass of 42 kDa, thereby facilitating its aggregation. Two-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequent peptide mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry revealed that the 42 kDa protein was NAD-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). With recombinant rat SDH, we found that MeHg is covalently bound to SDH through Cys44, Cys119, Cys129 and Cys164, resulting in the inhibition of its catalytic activity, release of zinc ions and facilitates protein aggregation. Mutation analysis indicated that Cys44, which ligates the active site zinc atom, and Cys129 play a crucial role in the MeHg-mediated aggregation of SDH. Pretreatment with the cofactor NAD, but not NADP or FAD, markedly prevented aggregation of SDH. Such a protective effect of NAD on the aggregation of SDH caused by MeHg is discussed.

  10. Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xue

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780. Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity.

  11. Optical properties and energy transfer behavior from Tb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions in co-doped zinc strontium phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Xiaoluan [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Xing Zhongwen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu Yinyao; Xu Weina; Yang Yunxia [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Chen Guorong, E-mail: grchen@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} We choose Tb{sup 3+} as the sensitizer to enhance the emission of Mn{sup 2+} ions in ZSP glasses. {yields} We make a serious of characterization on the optical properties of the glasses. {yields} Tb{sup 3+} can transfer its energy to the neighbor Mn{sup 2+} during excitation process. {yields} The energy transfer mechanism is dipolar-quadrupole interaction in phosphate glasses. {yields} Meanwhile, this process is taken by two modes: cross-relaxation and resonant transfer. - Abstract: In this paper, we report optical properties and energy transfer behavior between Tb and Mn in zinc strontium phosphate glasses. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectra indicate a stronger hyperfine interaction of Mn{sup 2+}-Mn{sup 2+} pairs with higher MnO concentrations. The co-existence of Tb{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} ions in glasses is clearly evident in the transmittance spectra. Emission spectra show an obvious energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions in glasses. Based on Dexter's energy transfer formula and Reisfeld's approximation, the energy transfer mechanism was postulated to proceed via a dipolar-quadrupole interaction. The energy transfer carries out with resonant and cross-relaxation transfer modes with the understanding of Tb{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} energy level diagrams. The decreasing in mean-duration time ({tau}{sub mean}) of Tb{sup 3+} ions obtained from the decay curves make a further evidence of energy transfer from Tb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions in glasses.

  12. EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS CRYSTALLIZER PERFORMANCE ON STRUVITE CRYSTALS PRODUCED IN REACTION CRYSTALLIZATION FROM SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PHOSPHATE(V AND ZINC(II IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hutnik

    Full Text Available Abstract Continuous reaction crystallization of struvite from aqueous solutions containing phosphate(V (1.0 mass % and zinc(II ions (from 0.1 to 2.0 mg kg-1 in a continuous DT MSMPR crystallizer was investigated. The influence of pH (9 - 11 and mean residence time (900 - 3600 s on the product characteristics and its chemical composition was tested. Struvite crystals of mean size 22-41 µm were produced. An increase in Zn2+ concentration decreased the mean crystal size and homogeneity. An elevation of the pH also decreased the struvite crystal size. Augmenting the mean residence time influenced product quality advantageously. Coexistence of struvite and Zn(OH2 in the product was confirmed analytically.

  13. Formation of zinc-containing nanoparticles from Zn²⁺ ions in cell culture media: implications for the nanotoxicology of ZnO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Terence W; Duriska, Martin B; Jayaratne, Vidura; Elbaz, Abdulkareem; O'Keefe, Sean J; Hastings, Andrew S; Piva, Terrence J; Wright, Paul F A; Feltis, Bryce N

    2012-10-15

    Zinc ions generate a range of poorly soluble Zn-containing nanoparticles when added to commonly used mammalian cell culture media. The formation of these nanoparticles confounds the use of soluble Zn salts as positive controls during cytotoxicity testing of other Zn-containing nanoparticles, such as ZnO. These nanoprecipitates can either be crystalline or amorphous and vary in composition depending upon the concentration of Zn(II) within the medium. The cytotoxicity and immune system response of these nanoparticles in situ are similar to those of 30 nm ZnO nanoparticles. The low residual level of truly soluble Zn species (taken as species passing through a 2 kDa membrane) in cell culture media with serum is insufficient to elicit any appreciable cytotoxicity. These observations highlight the importance of employing appropriate controls when studying ZnO nanoparticle toxicity and suggest a re-evaluation of the conclusions drawn in some previous cytotoxicity studies.

  14. Impact of residual defects caused by extension ion implantation in FinFETs on parasitic resistance and its fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Takashi; Liu, Yongxun; Mori, Takahiro; Morita, Yukinori; Otsuka, Shintaro; O'uchi, Shin-ichi; Fuketa, Hiroshi; Migita, Shinji; Masahara, Meishoku

    2017-06-01

    The influence of extension doping on parasitic resistance and its variability has been investigated for FinFETs. Electrical characterization of FinFETs and crystallinity evaluation of the doped fin structure are carried out for different fin thicknesses and different donor species for ion implantation, i.e., As and P. Reducing the fin thickness and the use of donor species with a larger mass cause serious degradation in the variability and median value of the parasitic resistance. Crystallinity evaluation by transmission electron microscope reveals that significant crystal defects remain after dopant activation annealing for the cases of smaller fin thickness and the implanted dopant with a larger mass. The unrecovered defects cause serious degradation in the parasitic resistance and its variability. In 1998, he joined the Electrotechnical Laboratory, which is former organization of National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). He has been working on development of front-end process technology, variability issues of the FinFETs and technologies for suppressing the variability. He is now a group leader of the AIST and leads the research on the silicon-based CMOS devices. He is a member of the IEEE Electron Devices Society, and the Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  15. Zinc ions regulate opening of tight junction favouring efflux of macromolecules via the GSK3β/snail-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ruyue; Yuan, Lan; He, Weijiang; Yang, Xiaoda

    2018-01-24

    Zinc is an essential trace element presenting in particularly high concentration in the brain. In some regions, e.g. lateral amygdala, subiculum and hippocampus, rapidly-exchangeable zinc may transiently reach even up to 600 μM. To explore the possible roles of high-concentration Zn 2+ in regulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we investigated the effects of Zn 2+ on the functions and structures of the tight junction (TJ) with an in vitro model of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer. The experimental results indicated that high concentrations (>200 μM) of Zn 2+ can affect the TJ integrity in a polarized manner. Basolateral addition of Zn 2+ led to reversible TJ opening with pore paths of r ∼ 2 nm or more depending on Zn 2+ concentration. The efflux/influx ratios of different sized probes were found to be ∼4.6 for FD4 (M W 4000) and ∼1.8 for Eu-DTPA (M W 560), suggesting that the Zn 2+ -induced paracelluar channels favour efflux especially for macromolecules. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the elevated intracellular Zn 2+ taken from the basolateral side can increase phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β, primarily due to the inhibition of calcineurin (CaN), thus resulting in the elevation of the snail transcriptional repressors. Subsequently, Zn 2+ can cause the down-regulation of claudin-1, breakage of occludin and ZO-1 rings, and collapse of basolateral F-actin structures. These overall factors result in the formation of a trumpet-like paracellular channel, which allows asymmetric solute permeation. The ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 pathways may also be involved in the Zn 2+ -induced TJ opening process, while the activation of matrix metalloproteinase was not observed. Our results may suggest a potential role of zinc in regulation of BBB permeability associated with brain clearance of metabolites through the glymphatic system.

  16. Removal of zinc (II) ion from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated palm midrib bio-sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulana, F.; Mariana; Muslim, A.; Mohibah, M.; Halim, K. H. Ku

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, palm midrib that was activated with mixed citric acid and tartaric acid as biosorbent was used to remove Zn (II) ion from aqueous solution. The aim of this research is to activate palm midrib by using a mixed citric acid and tartaric acid and to determine adsorption capacity of activated palm midrib biosorbent on Zn (II) ion uptake from aqueous solution. The effect of several parameters such as contact time, initial Zn (II) ion concentration and activator concentration on the degree of Zn (II) ion removal was examined. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy method was performed to determine adsorbed amount of Zn (II) ion into activated biosorbent. The result showed that the adsorption process was relatively not so fast and equilibrium was reached after contact time of 120 min. The adsorption capacity of biosorbent reached a maximum when the concentration of mixed citric acid and tartaric acid was 1.6 M. The optimum adsorption capacity was 5.72 mg/g. The result was obtained on initial Zn (II) ion concentration of 80 ppm for 120-min contact time. Langmuir isotherm was found as the best fit for the equilibrium data indicating homogeneous adsorption of metal ions onto the biosorbent surface.

  17. Turn-on fluorescent sensor for Zinc and Cadmium ions based on quinolone and its sequential response to phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Peng; Fu, Jiaxin; Yao, Kun; Xue, Kun [Engineering Laboratory for Flame Retardant and Functional Materials of Hennan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Xu, Kuoxi, E-mail: xukx@henu.edu.cn [Engineering Laboratory for Flame Retardant and Functional Materials of Hennan Province, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Institute of Environmental and Analytical Sciences, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2017-06-15

    Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors(L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions in CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mol·L{sup −1}, pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. The results of Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn{sup 2+}/ Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media. - Graphical abstract: Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors (L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective and sensitive fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions in CH{sub 3}OH/H{sub 2}O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mM, pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup -} and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. Zn{sup 2+}/Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn{sup 2+}/ Cd{sup 2+} ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media.

  18. Turn-on fluorescent sensor for Zinc and Cadmium ions based on quinolone and its sequential response to phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Peng; Fu, Jiaxin; Yao, Kun; Xue, Kun; Xu, Kuoxi

    2017-01-01

    Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors(L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions in CH 3 OH/H 2 O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mol·L −1 , pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H 2 PO 4 - and HPO 4 2- anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. The results of Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn 2+ / Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media. - Graphical abstract: Sequential fluorescence sensing of Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion by new quinoline based sensors (L1 and L2) have been presented. Sensors exhibit highly selective and sensitive fluorescence “turn-on” sensing properties to Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions in CH 3 OH/H 2 O(1/1, v/v, Tris, 10 mM, pH 7.4) solution with a 1:1 binding stoichiometry. The complexes display high selectivity to H 2 PO 4 - and HPO 4 2- anions through fluorescence “turn-off” respond. Zn 2+ /Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion sequential recognition via fluorescence changes make sensors L1 and L2 have potential utility for Zn 2+ / Cd 2+ ions and phosphate anion detection in aqueous media.

  19. The sorption of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc ions from aqueous solutions on a raw diatomite from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, Messaouda; Larouci, Mohammed; Meddah, Boumediene; Valemens, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions from aqueous solution by Algerian raw diatomite was studied. The influences of different sorption parameters such as contact pH solution, contact time and initial metal ions concentration were studied to optimize the reaction conditions. The metals ions adsorption was strictly pH dependent. The maximum adsorption capacities towards Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) were 0.319, 0.311, 0.18 and 0.096 mmol g(-1), respectively. The kinetic data were modelled using the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations. Among the kinetic models studied, the pseudo-second-order equation was the best applicable model to describe the sorption process. Equilibrium isotherm data were analysed using the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms; the results showed that the adsorption equilibrium was well described by both model isotherms. The negative value of free energy change ΔG indicates feasible and spontaneous adsorption of four metal ions on raw diatomite. According to these results, the high exchange capacities of different metal ions at high and low concentration levels, and given the low cost of the investigated adsorbent in this work, Algerian diatomite was considered to be an excellent adsorbent.

  20. Insights into the Effects of Zinc Doping on Structural Phase Transition of P2-Type Sodium Nickel Manganese Oxide Cathodes for High-Energy Sodium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xuehang; Xu, Gui-Liang; Zhong, Guiming; Gong, Zhengliang; McDonald, Matthew J.; Zheng, Shiyao; Fu, Riqiang; Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil; Yang, Yong

    2016-08-31

    P2-type sodium nickel manganese oxide-based cathode materials with higher energy densities are prime candidates for applications in rechargeable sodium ion batteries. A systematic study combining in situ high energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD), ex situ Xray absorption fine spectroscopy (XAFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) techniques was carried out to gain a deep insight into the structural evolution of P2-Na0.66Ni0.33-xZnxMn0.67O2 (x = 0, 0.07) during cycling. In situ HEXRD and ex situ TEM measurements indicate that an irreversible phase transition occurs upon sodium insertion-extraction of Na0.66Ni0.33Mn0.67O2. Zinc doping of this system results in a high structural reversibility. XAFS measurements indicate that both materials are almost completely dependent on the Ni4+/Ni3+/ Ni2+ redox couple to provide charge/discharge capacity. SS-NMR measurements indicate that both reversible and irreversible migration of transition metal ions into the sodium layer occurs in the material at the fully charged state. The irreversible migration of transition metal ions triggers a structural distortion, leading to the observed capacity and voltage fading. Our results allow a new understanding of the importance of improving the stability of transition metal layers.

  1. Role of Zinc and Magnesium Ions in the Modulation of Phosphoryl Transfer in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Elisa; Abro, Asma; Hogstrand, Christer; Maret, Wolfgang; Domene, Carmen

    2018-03-28

    While the majority of phosphatases are metalloenzymes, the prevailing model for the reactions catalyzed by protein tyrosine phosphatases does not involve any metal ion, yet both metal cations and oxoanions affect their enzymatic activity. Mg 2+ and Zn 2+ activate and inhibit, respectively, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Molecular dynamics simulations, metadynamics, and quantum chemical calculations in combination with experimental investigations demonstrate that Mg 2+ and Zn 2+ compete for the same binding site in the active site only in the closed conformation of the enzyme in its phosphorylated state. The two cations have different effects on the arrangements and activities of water molecules that are necessary for the hydrolysis of the phosphocysteine intermediate in the second catalytic step of the reaction. Remarkable differences between the established structural enzymology of PTP1B investigated ex vivo and the function of PTP1B in vivo become evident. Different reaction pathways are viable when the presence of metal ions and their cellular concentrations are considered. The findings suggest that the substrate delivers the inhibitory Zn 2+ ion to the active site. The inhibition and activation can be ascribed to the different coordination chemistries of Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ ions and the orientation of the metal-coordinated water molecules. Metallochemistry adds an additional dimension to the regulation of PTP1B and presumably other members of this enzyme family.

  2. Characterization and spectroscopic studies of multi-component calcium zinc bismuth phosphate glass ceramics doped with iron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A. Suneel; Narendrudu, T.; Suresh, S.; Ram, G. Chinna; Rao, M. V. Sambasiva; Tirupataiah, Ch.; Rao, D. Krishna

    2018-04-01

    Glass ceramics with the composition 10CaF2-20ZnO-(15-x)Bi2O3-55P2O5:x Fe2O3(0≤x≤2.5) were synthesized by melt-quenching technique and heat treatment. These glass ceramics were characterized by XRD and SEM. Spectroscopic studies such as optical absorption, EPR were also carried out on these glass ceramics. From the absorption spectra the observed bands around 438 and 660nm are the octahedral transitions of Fe3+ (d5) ions and another band at about 536 nm is the tetrahedral transition of Fe3+ (d5) ions. The absorption spectrum also consist of a band around 991 nm and is attributed to the octahedral transition of Fe2+ ions. The EPR spectra of the prepared glass ceramics have exhibited two resonance signals one at g1=4.32 and another signal at g2=2.008. The observed decrease in band gap energy up to 2 mol% Fe2O3 doped glass ceramics is an evidence for the change of environment around iron ions and ligands from more covalent to less covalent (ionic) and induces higher concentration of NBOs which causes the depolymerization of the glass ceramic network.

  3. Potentiated virucidal activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE and punicalagin against Herpes simplex virus (HSV when co-administered with zinc (II ions, and antiviral activity of PRE against HSV and aciclovir-resistant HSV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M J Houston

    Full Text Available There is a clinical need for new therapeutic products against Herpes simplex virus (HSV. The pomegranate, fruit of the tree Punica granatum L, has since ancient times been linked to activity against infection. This work probed the activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE and co-administered zinc (II ions.PRE was used in conjunction with zinc (II salts to challenge HSV-1 and aciclovir-resistant HSV in terms of virucidal plaque assay reduction and antiviral activities in epithelial Vero host cells. Cytotoxicity was determined by the MTS assay using a commercial kit.Zinc sulphate, zinc citrate, zinc stearate and zinc gluconate demonstrated similar potentiated virucidal activity with PRE against HSV-1 by up to 4-fold. A generally parabolic relationship was observed when HSV-1 was challenged with PRE and varying concentrations of ZnSO4, with a maximum potentiation factor of 5.5. Punicalagin had 8-fold greater virucidal activity than an equivalent mass of PRE. However, antiviral data showed that punicalagin had significantly lower antiviral activity compared to the activity of PRE (EC50 = 0.56 μg mL-1 a value comparable to aciclovir (EC50 = 0.18 μg mL-1; however, PRE also demonstrated potency against aciclovir-resistant HSV (EC50 = 0.02 μg mL-1, whereas aciclovir showed no activity. Antiviral action of PRE was not influenced by ZnSO4. No cytotoxicity was detected with any test solution.The potentiated virucidal activity of PRE by coadministered zinc (II has potential as a multi-action novel topical therapeutic agent against HSV infections, such as coldsores.

  4. Synthesis and Luminescence Properties of New Metal-Organic Frameworks Based on Zinc(II Ions and 2,5-Thiophendicarboxylate Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lysova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Six new metal-organic frameworks based on 2,5-thiophendicarboxylate (tdc2– and zinc(II ions were prepared in different reaction conditions, and their crystal structures were determined by XRD analysis. The compound [Zn(tdc(dabco(H2O]∙DMF (1 is based on mononuclear Zn(II ions connected by tdc2– and dabco linkers into square-grid layered nets. The compound [Zn3(tdc3(dabco2] (2 is a rare example of monocoordinated dabco ligands in the metal-organic framework chemistry. Its crystal structure contains trinuclear linear carboxylate building units, connected into a distorted primitive cubic net. Similar trinuclear units were also found in [Zn5(tdc4(Htdc2(dabco2]∙4DMF∙14H2O (3, although as a part of more complicated pentanuclear motives. The compound [Na2Zn(tdc2(DMF2] (4, quantitatively isolated by the addition of NaOH to the mixture of Zn(NO32 and H2tdc, is based on 1D chain motives, interconnected by tdc2– linkers into a three-dimensional framework. The compounds [Zn3(tdc3(DMF2]∙0.8DMF∙1.1H2O (5 and [Zn3(tdc3(DMF3]∙0.8DMF∙1.3H2O (6 were prepared in very similar reaction conditions, but with different times of heating, indirectly indicating higher thermodynamic stability of the three-dimensional metal-organic framework 6, compared to the two-dimensional metal-organic framework 5. The crystal structures of both 5 and 6 are based on the same trinuclear linear units as in 2. Luminescence properties of the compounds 4–6 were studied and compared with those for Na2tdc salt. In particular, the luminescence spectra of 4 practically coincide with those for the reference Na2tdc, while 5 and 6 exhibit coherent shifts of peaks to higher energies. Such hypsochromic shifts are likely associated with a different effective charge on the tdc2– anions in Na2tdc and sodium-containing 4, compared to zinc-based 5 and 6.

  5. Determination of Zinc Ions in Environmental Samples by Dispersive Liquid- Liquid Micro Extraction and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Arabi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work preconcentration of the Zn ions was investigated in water sample by Dispersive liquid- liquid micro extraction (DLLME using chloroform as an extraction solvent, methanol as a disperser solvent and 8-Hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. The determination of extracted ions was done by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The influence of various analytical parameters including pH, extraction and disperser solvent type and volume and concentration of the chelating agent on the extraction efficiency of analyses was investigated. After extraction, the enrichment factor was 26 and the detection limit of the method was 0.0033 µg l-1 and the relative standard deviations (R.S.D for five determinations of 1 ng/ml Zn were 7.41%. 

  6. Use of magnesium-aluminium and zinc-aluminium hydroxycompounds as adsorbents of uranium ions in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    It was found that precipitates formed by adding NaOH solution to the mixed solutions of MgSO 4 and Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 with Mg/Al molar ratios of 2 to 4 and to the mixed solution of ZnSO 4 and Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 with Zn/Al molar ratio of 2, respectively, can be used as efficient adsorbents of [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ] 4- ions in aqueous alkaline carbonate solutions. The ideal structural formulas of the precipitates formed from the mixed Mg-Al solution with Mg/Al ratio of 2.0 and the mixed Zn-Al solution with Zn/Al ratio of 2.0 were estimated to be [Mg 4 Al 2 (OH) 12 ] 2+ [SO 4 .3H 2 O] 2- and [Zn 4 Al 2 (OH) 12 ] 2+ [SO 4 .3H 2 O] 2- , respectively. It has been shown that 0.1 g of the Mg-Al and Zn-Al double hydroxysulphate powders (particle size 70 - 170 μ uptake >97% of the U(VI) ions from 50 ml of an aqueous alkaline carbonate solution containing 100 ppm of U(VI) within 2 h at room temperature. The rates of adsorption of [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ] 4- ions for the Mg-Al and Zn-Al double hydroxysulphate powders were both about 2 times that for the hydrous Ti(IV) oxide powders. Five weight percent sodium bicarbonate solution was found to be effective for the desorption of [UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ] 4- ions from the double hydroxysulphate powders. Adsorption capacity of the double hydroxysulphates was discussed in relation to their structure. (author)

  7. Selective Solid-Phase Extraction of Zinc(II) from Environmental Water Samples Using Ion Imprinted Activated Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniri, Elham; Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Aghdam, Khaledeh; Sharif, Amir Abdollah Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    A simple ion imprinted amino-functionalized sorbent was synthesized by coupling activated carbon with iminodiacetic acid, a functional compound for metal chelating, through cyanoric chloride spacer. The resulting sorbent has been characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis and evaluated for the preconcentration and determination of trace Zn(II) in environmental water samples. The optimum pH value for sorption of the metal ion was 6-7.5. The sorption capacity of the functionalized sorbent was 66.6 mg/g. The chelating sorbent can be reused for 10 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption capacity. A recovery of 100% was obtained for the metal ion with 0.5 M nitric acid as the eluent. Compared with nonimprinted polymer particles, the prepared Zn-imprinted sorbent showed high adsorption capacity, significant selectivity, and good site accessibility for Zn(II). Scatchard analysis revealed that the homogeneous binding sites were formed in the polymer. The equilibrium sorption data of Zn(II) by modified resin were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Redlich-Peterson models. Based on equilibrium adsorption data, the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin constants were determined as 0.139, 12.82, and 2.34, respectively, at 25°C.

  8. Photophysical studies of the interactions of poly(amidoamine) generation zero (PAMAM G0) with copper and zinc ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Cabaña, Z.E.; Valdés, O.; Vergara, C.E.; Camarada, M.B.; Nachtigall, F.M.; González-Nilo, F.D.; Santos, Leonardo S.

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the photophysical behavior of poly(amidoamine) generation zero (PAMAM G0) in the presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions in aqueous solutions using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Theoretical and experimental results confirmed the presence of a strong covalent metal–ligand interaction between PAMAM G0 and copper ion that favored the formation of a ligand–metal charge transfer band coordination complex. In the case of Zn(II), no complex formation with PAMAM G0 was registered. Structure analysis identified the presence of aggregate like PAMAM G0–Zn moieties that generated an enhancement in the fluorescence emission of PAMAM G0. - Highlights: • Photophysical behavior of PAMAM G0 dendrimer with Cu and Zn ions was studied. • Strong covalent metal–ligand interaction was confirmed between PAMAM G0–Cu(II). • No complex formation with PAMAM G0 was registered in the case of Zn(II). • Dendrimer aggregate generated an enhancement in fluorescence emission

  9. Photophysical studies of the interactions of poly(amidoamine) generation zero (PAMAM G0) with copper and zinc ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Cabaña, Z.E. [Laboratory of Asymmetric Synthesis, Chemistry Institute of Natural Resources, University of Talca (Chile); Valdés, O. [Nanobiotechnology Division at University of Talca, Fraunhofer Chile Research Foundation – Center for Systems Biotechnology, FCR-CSB, P.O. Box 747 Talca (Chile); Vergara, C.E. [Laboratory of Asymmetric Synthesis, Chemistry Institute of Natural Resources, University of Talca (Chile); Camarada, M.B. [Universidad Andrés Bello, Facultad de Biología, Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology (CBIB), República 239, Santiago (Chile); Fundación Fraunhofer Chile Research, M. Sánchez Fontecilla 310 piso 14, Las Condes (Chile); Nachtigall, F.M. [Nanobiotechnology Division at University of Talca, Fraunhofer Chile Research Foundation – Center for Systems Biotechnology, FCR-CSB, P.O. Box 747 Talca (Chile); González-Nilo, F.D. [Universidad Andrés Bello, Facultad de Biología, Center for Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology (CBIB), República 239, Santiago (Chile); Fundación Fraunhofer Chile Research, M. Sánchez Fontecilla 310 piso 14, Las Condes (Chile); Santos, Leonardo S., E-mail: lssantos@utalca.cl [Laboratory of Asymmetric Synthesis, Chemistry Institute of Natural Resources, University of Talca (Chile); Nanobiotechnology Division at University of Talca, Fraunhofer Chile Research Foundation – Center for Systems Biotechnology, FCR-CSB, P.O. Box 747 Talca (Chile)

    2015-08-15

    This study reports the photophysical behavior of poly(amidoamine) generation zero (PAMAM G0) in the presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions in aqueous solutions using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Theoretical and experimental results confirmed the presence of a strong covalent metal–ligand interaction between PAMAM G0 and copper ion that favored the formation of a ligand–metal charge transfer band coordination complex. In the case of Zn(II), no complex formation with PAMAM G0 was registered. Structure analysis identified the presence of aggregate like PAMAM G0–Zn moieties that generated an enhancement in the fluorescence emission of PAMAM G0. - Highlights: • Photophysical behavior of PAMAM G0 dendrimer with Cu and Zn ions was studied. • Strong covalent metal–ligand interaction was confirmed between PAMAM G0–Cu(II). • No complex formation with PAMAM G0 was registered in the case of Zn(II). • Dendrimer aggregate generated an enhancement in fluorescence emission.

  10. Quantum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, S.; Giacobino, S.; Zinn-Justin, J.

    1997-01-01

    This course is dedicated to present in a pedagogical manner the recent developments in peculiar fields concerned by quantum fluctuations: quantum noise in optics, light propagation through dielectric media, sub-Poissonian light generated by lasers and masers, quantum non-demolition measurements, quantum electrodynamics applied to cavities and electrical circuits involving superconducting tunnel junctions. (A.C.)

  11. Protection of color and chemical degradation of anthocyanin from purple corn (Zea mays L.) by zinc ions and alginate through chemical interaction in a beverage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vital, Diego; Cortez, Regina; Ongkowijoyo, Paulina; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2018-03-01

    Anthocyanin-rich purple corn pericarp water extract (PCW) has the potential to be used as a natural pigment in beverages. However, it has a limited shelf-life in aqueous solutions. The aim was to evaluate the effect of zinc ion (Zn 2+ ) and alginate on color and chemical stability of anthocyanins from colored corn (PCW) in a beverage model for 12weeks. PCW was incorporated to Kool-Aid® Invisible™ along with ZnCl 2 and/or alginate. Individual ANC were quantified through HPLC, and color stability was evaluated through the CIE-L*a*b* color system. Complexation between PCW and Zn/alginate was evaluated with fluorescence spectroscopy. The combination of Zn and alginate was the most effective treatment improving the half-life of total ANC concentration (10.4weeks), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (7.5weeks) and chroma (18.4weeks), compared to only PCW (6.6, 4.5 and 12.7weeks, respectively). Zn and alginate had bimolecular quenching constants (Zn k q : 3.4×10 11 M -1 S -1 and AA k q : 1.0×10 12 M -1 S -1 ) suggesting that fluorescence quenching was binding rather than collisional. Results suggested that Zn/alginate interacted with ANC from purple corn slowing its chemical degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soft solution synthesis and intense visible photoluminescence of lamellar zinc oxide hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sağlam, Özge

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis of layered zinc oxide films intercalated with dodecyl sulphate ions by a simple soft solution process. The presence of potassium (K + ) and lithium (Li + ) ions in the precursor solution of layered zinc hydroxide resulted in lamellar hybrid zinc oxide films instead of layered zinc hydroxides. On the other hand, the addition of nickel phthalocyanine induces zinc hydroxide host layers which exhibit an intense blue emission. This is also promoted by K + and Li + ions

  13. Quinoline group based fluorescent sensor for detecting zinc ions in aqueous media and its logic gate behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zhengping; Guo, Yueping; Tian, Xin; Ma, Jiantai

    2013-01-01

    A highly sensitive method for quantitative determination of Zn 2+ in water has been developed by using a novel fluorescent sensor NQA: (N-Quinolin-8-yl-2-[(quinolin-8-ylcarbamoylmethyl)-amino]-acetamide). The sensor displays great selectivity for Zn 2+ in the presence of other metal ions in aqueous solution and possesses an excellent sensitivity of about 2×10 −8 M for Zn 2+ . The binding stoichiometry, binding affinity, and pH sensitivity of the sensor have also been studied. Furthermore, the fluorescent changes of NQA upon the addition of cations (Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ ) are utilized to construct an INHIBIT logic gate at the molecular level, using Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ as chemical inputs and the fluorescence intensity as output. NQA has ideal chemical and spectroscopic properties that satisfy the criteria for further biological and environmental applications. - Highlights: ► A novel fluorescent sensor for Zn 2+ in water has been synthesized. ► The sensor displays high selectivity for Zn 2+ in the presence of other ions. ► The sensor exhibits excellent sensing ability under the physiological pH window. ► The sensor can be utilized as an INHIBIT logic gate at the molecular level.

  14. Correlation between heavy metal ions (copper, zinc, lead concentrations and root length of Allium cepa L. in polluted river water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Moreno Palacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed using the common onion (Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator of toxicity of heavy metals in river water. The test waters were collected at two sampling sites: at the beginning and the end of the Toledo River. The bulbs of A. cepa L. were grown in test water with nine concentration levels of copper, zinc and lead from 0.1 to 50 ppm. In the laboratory, the influence of these test liquids on the root growth was examined during five days. For test liquids containing below 0.03-ppm dissolved Cu the root growth was reduced by 40% However, the same reduction occurred for 1-ppm dissolved Zn. For dissolved Pb, results reveal toxicity above 0.1 and 0.6 ppm at the beginning and the end of the Toledo river water, respectively.O presente trabalho foi realizado utilizando a cebola comum (Allium cepa L. como bioindicador da toxicidade de metais pesados em água de rio. As águas de teste foram coletadas em dois locais: na nascente e na foz do rio Toledo. Os bulbos de A. cepa L. foram cultivados em água de teste com nove níveis de concentração de cobre, zinco e chumbo de 0,1 a 50 ppm. Em laboratório a influência destes líquidos de teste em crescimento de raiz foi examinada durante cinco dias. Em todos os líquidos de teste o metal dissolvido contido foi medido pela técnica TXRF. Para líquidos de teste contendo 0,1-ppm de Cu dissolvido o crescimento da raiz foi reduzido em 50%. Entretanto, ocorreu a mesma redução para 1-ppm de Zn dissolvido. Para Pb dissolvido, o método do Allium teste revela toxidade acima de 0,1 e 0,5 ppm para a nascente e a foz do rio Toledo, respectivamente.

  15. Event-by-event fluctuations of the particle yield ratios in heavy-ion collisions at 20 - 158 AGeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresan, Dmytro

    2010-12-22

    Non-statistical event-by-event fluctuations are considered as an important signal for the critical endpoint of the QCD phase diagram. Event-by-event fluctuations of different observables are thus investigated in detail in current experiments but are also an important observable to be studied at the future CBM experiment at FAIR. In this work we present the energy and centrality dependence of event-by-event fluctuations of particle yield ratios measured by the NA49 experiment in Pb+Pb collisions at 20-158 AGeV. Systematic studies of the influence of the dE/dx resolution on the particle identification and the centrality bin size were performed. Results can be compared to event-by-event fluctuations measured by NA49 for different observables such as or the mean charged particle multiplicity. Main results of these studies are an increase of absolute value of the dynamical particle ratio fluctuations with decreasing centrality for all considered ratios, saturation of the K/{pi} and K/p ratio fluctuations for peripheral Pb + Pb collisions at 158A GeV and scaling of the energy and centrality dependences of the p/{pi} ratio fluctuations with N{sub p}N{sub {pi}}. The measured energy and centrality dependences of the K/{pi} and K/p ratio fluctuations scale with N{sub K} in a different way. The saturation of the mentioned ratios fluctuations was attributed to the development of pronounced spike at zero in the eventwise ratio distributions, which, as was shown by Monte Carlo simulations, influence the measured fluctuations in the very peripheral Pb + Pb collisions at 158A GeV. In future, the CBM experiment at FAIR will investigate the intermediate region of the QCD phase diagram in great detail searching for the first order phase transition line and the expected critical endpoint. It is therefore important to closely investigate its sensitivity towards particle ratio fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at 10-45 AGeV beam energy. Detailed simulation studies are

  16. Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles for Enhanced Adsorption of Lead Ions from Aqueous Solutions: Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Azizi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ZnO nanoparticles (NPs were synthesized in zerumbone solution by a green approach and appraised for their ability to absorb Pb(II ions from aqueous solution. The formation of as-synthesized NPs was established by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, and UV–visible studies. The XRD and TEM analyses revealed high purity and wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO NPs with a mean size of 10.01 ± 2.6 nm. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the impact of process parameters viz. Pb(II concentration, pH of solution, adsorbent mass, solution temperature, and contact time variations on the removal efficiency of Pb(II. The adsorption isotherm data provided that the adsorption process was mainly monolayer on ZnO NPs. The adsorption process follows pseudo-second-order reaction kinetic. The maximum removal efficiencies were 93% at pH 5. Thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change (ΔH0, free energy change (ΔG0, and entropy change (ΔS0 were calculated; the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. The good efficiency of the as-synthesized NPs makes them attractive for applications in water treatment, for removal of heavy metals from aqueous system.

  17. Retention behavior of nickel, copper, cadmium and zinc ions from aqueous solutions on silico-titanate and silico-antimonate used as inorganic ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Mesalam, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Silico-titanate (SiTi) and silico-antimonate (SiSb) have been synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared and thermal analysis techniques. Divalent cations such as Ni 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ in the pH range 2 to 8 have been exchanged with the exchangeable active sites of the exchangers using a batch technique. From the results obtained, the equilibrium capacities and distribution coefficient values were calculated indicating high selectivity values for Ni 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ and Cu 2+ ions on silico-titanate and silico-antimonate compared to other titanates and antimonates. Also SiTi and SiSb show high chemical stability in H 2 O, nitric and hydrochloric acids. All these results support the suitability of the prepared materials for the removal of the toxic metals concerned from waste waters. Based on the results obtained, practical separation experiments for the above mentioned cations on SiTi and SiSb columns from aqueous waste solutions were carried out. (author)

  18. Batch sorption dynamics and equilibrium for the removal of lead ions from aqueous phase using activated carbon developed from coffee residue activated with zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrahem, F; Aissani-Benissad, F; Aït-Amar, H

    2009-07-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are good precursors for the production of activated carbon. In this work, coffee residue has been used as raw material in the preparation of powder activated carbon by the method of chemical activation with zinc chloride for the sorption of Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solutions. The influence of impregnation ratio (ZnCl2/coffee residue) on the physical and chemical properties of the prepared carbons was studied in order to optimize this parameter. The optimum experimental condition for preparing predominantly microporous activated carbons with high pore surface area (890 m2/g) and micropore volume (0.772 cm3/g) is an impregnation ratio of 100%. The developed activated carbon shows substantial capability to sorb lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions and for relative impregnation ratios of 75 and 100%, the maximum uptake is practically the same. Thus, 75% represents the optimal impregnation ratio. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of the main parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of Pb(II), solution pH, ionic strength and temperature. The maximum uptake of lead(II) at 25 degrees C was about 63 mg/g of adsorbent at pH 5.8, initial Pb(II) concentration of 10 mg/L, agitation speed of 200 rpm and ionic strength of 0.005 M. The kinetic data were fitted to the models of pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order, and follow closely the pseudo-second order model. Equilibrium sorption isotherms of Pb(II) were analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The Freundlich model gives a better fit than the others. Results from this study suggest that activated carbon produced from coffee residue is an effective adsorbent for the removal of lead from aqueous solutions and that ZnCl2 is a suitable activating agent for the preparation of high-porosity carbons.

  19. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  20. The protective nature of passivation films on zinc: surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muster, Tim H.; Cole, Ivan S.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of oxide surface charge on the corrosion performance of zinc metals was investigated. Oxidised zinc species (zinc oxide, zinc hydroxychloride, zinc hydroxysulfate and zinc hydroxycarbonate) with chemical compositions similar to those produced on zinc during atmospheric corrosion were formed as particles from aqueous solution, and as passive films deposited onto zinc powder, and rolled zinc, surfaces. Synthesized oxides were characterised by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The zeta potentials of various oxide particles, as determined by microelectrophoresis, are reported as a function of pH. Particulates containing a majority of zinc hydroxycarbonate and zinc hydroxysulfate crystallites were found to possess a negative surface charge below pH 6, whilst zinc oxide-hydroxide and zinc hydroxychloride crystallites possessed isoelectric points (IEP's) higher than pH 8. The ability of chloride species to pass through a bed of 3 μm diameter zinc powder was found to increase for surfaces possessing carboxy and sulfate surface species, suggesting that negatively charged surfaces can aid in the repulsion of chloride ions. Electrochemical analysis of the open-circuit potential as a function of time at a fixed pH of 6.5 showed that the chemical composition of passive films on zinc plates influenced the ability of chloride ions to access anodic sites for periods of approximately 1 h

  1. Fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews sources of noise in Josephson junctions, and the limits they impose on the sensitivity of dc and rf SQUIDS. The results are strictly valid only for a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) with zero capacitance, but should be applicable to point contact junctions and microbridges in so far as these devices can be approximated by the RSJ model. Fluctuations arising from Nyquist noise in the resistive shunt of a single junction are discussed in the limit eI/sub o/R/k/sub B/T << 1 in which a classical treatment is appropriate, and then extend the treatment to the limit eI/sub o/R/k/sub B/T greater than or equal to 1 in which quantum effects become important. The Nyquist limit theory is used to calculate the noise in a dc SQUID, and the results are compared with a number of practical devices. The quantum limit is briefly considered. Results for the predicted sensitivity of rf SQUIDS are presented, and also compared with a number of practical devices. Finally, the importance of l/f noise (f is the frequency) in limiting the low frequency performance of SQUIDS is discussed

  2. Regulation of S100A8/A9 (calprotectin) binding to tumor cells by zinc ion and its implication for apoptosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yuichi; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Chazin, Walter J; Yui, Satoru

    2005-10-24

    S100A8/A9 (calprotectin), which is released by neutrophils under inflammatory conditions, has the capacity to induce apoptosis in various cells. We previously reported that S100A8/A9 induces apoptosis of EL-4 lymphoma cells via the uptake of extracellular zinc in a manner similar to DTPA, a membrane-impermeable zinc chelator. In this study, S100A8/A9-induced apoptosis was examined in several cell lines that are weakly sensitive to DTPA, suggesting S100A8/A9 is directly responsible for apoptosis in these cells. Since zinc inhibits apoptosis of MM46, one of these cells, the regulation by zinc of the capacity of S100A8/A9 to bind MM46 cells was studied. When MM46 cells were incubated with S100A8/A9 in standard or zinc-depleted medium, the amounts of S100A8/A9 bound to cells was markedly lower at 3 h than at 1 h. In contrast, when MM46 cells were incubated with S100A8/A9 in the presence of high levels of zinc, binding to cells was the same at 1 and 3 h. When the cells were permeabilized with saponin prior to analysis, a larger amount of cell-associated S100A8/A9 was detected at 3 h. The amount was further increased in cells treated with chloroquine, suggesting that S100A8/A9 was internalized and degraded in lysosomes. Although it has been reported that S100A8/A9 binds to heparan sulfate on cell membranes, the amount of S100A8/A9 bound to MM46 cells was not reduced by heparinase treatment, but was reduced by trypsin treatment. These results suggest that S100A8/A9 induces apoptosis by direct binding to MM46 cells, and that this activity is regulated by zinc.

  3. Zinc: a multipurpose trace element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanidou, M.; Maravelias, C.; Dona, A.; Spiliopoulou, C. [University of Athens, Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Athens (Greece)

    2006-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the most important trace elements in the body and it is essential as a catalytic, structural and regulatory ion. It is involved in homeostasis, in immune responses, in oxidative stress, in apoptosis and in ageing. Zinc-binding proteins (metallothioneins, MTs), are protective in situations of stress and in situations of exposure to toxic metals, infections and low Zn nutrition. Metallothioneins play a key role in Zn-related cell homeostasis due to their high affinity for Zn, which is in turn relevant against oxidative stress and immune responses, including natural killer (NK) cell activity and ageing, since NK activity and Zn ion bioavailability decrease in ageing. Physiological supplementation of Zn in ageing and in age-related degenerative diseases corrects immune defects, reduces infection relapse and prevents ageing. Zinc is not stored in the body and excess intakes result in reduced absorption and increased excretion. Nevertheless, there are cases of acute and chronic Zn poisoning. (orig.)

  4. Further Aspects of Ochratoxin A-Cation Interactions: Complex Formation with Zinc Ions and a Novel Analytical Application of Ochratoxin A-Magnesium Interaction in the HPLC-FLD System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin produced by different Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Since its mechanism of action is not fully understood yet, it is important to gain further insight into different interactions of OTA at the molecular level. OTA is found worldwide in many foods and drinks. Moreover, it can also be detected in human and animal tissues and body fluids, as well. Therefore, the development of highly sensitive quantitative methods for the determination of OTA is of utmost importance. OTA most likely forms complexes with divalent cations, both in cells and body fluids. In the present study, the OTA-zinc interaction was investigated and compared to OTA-magnesium complex formation using fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Our results show that zinc(II ion forms a two-fold higher stable complex with OTA than magnesium(II ion. In addition, based on the enhanced fluorescence emission of OTA in its magnesium-bound form, a novel RP-HPLC-fluorescence detector (FLD method was also established. Our results highlight that the application of magnesium chloride in alkaline eluents results in an approximately two-fold increase in sensitivity using the HPLC-FLD technique.

  5. Zinc in calcium phosphate mediates bone induction: in vitro and in vivo model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Xiaoman; Barbieri, D.; Davison, N.; Yan, Y.; de Bruijn, Joost Dick; Yuan, Huipin

    2014-01-01

    Zinc-containing tricalcium phosphate (Zn-TCP) was synthesized to investigate the role of zinc in osteoblastogenesis, osteoclastogenesis and in vivo bone induction in an ectopic implantation model. Zinc ions were readily released in the culture medium. Zn-TCP with the highest zinc content enhanced

  6. The role of zinc in the interplay between pathogenic streptococci and their hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shafeeq, Sulman; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kloosterman, Tomas G.

    Recent studies on pathogenic streptococci have revealed that zinc is a pivotal metal ion in their interaction with the host. In these streptococci, systems exist that ensure optimal use of zinc from the surrounding milieu, as well as export of zinc when concentrations exceed tolerance levels. Zinc

  7. Comparative Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Heavy Ion Interactions at a Few GeV to a Few Hundred GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopa Bhoumik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the multifractality of pion emission process in 16O-AgBr interactions at 2.1 AGeV  and  60 AGeV, 12C-AgBr  and  24Mg-AgBr interactions at 4.5 AGeV, and 32S-AgBr interactions at 200 AGeV using Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA method which is capable of extracting the actual multifractal property filtering out the average trend of fluctuation. The analysis reveals that the pseudorapidity distribution of the shower particles is multifractal in nature for all the interactions; that is, pion production mechanism has inbuilt multiscale self-similarity property. We have employed MFDFA method for randomly generated events for 32S-AgBr interactions at 200 AGeV. Comparison of expt. results with those obtained from randomly generated data set reveals that the source of multifractality in our data is the presence of long range correlation. Comparing the results obtained from different interactions, it may be concluded that strength of multifractality decreases with projectile mass for the same projectile energy and for a particular projectile it increases with energy. The values of ordinary Hurst exponent suggest that there is long range correlation present in our data for all the interactions.

  8. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  9. Fluctuations in quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, G.; Chirikov, B.V.

    1996-01-01

    Various fluctuations in quantum systems with discrete spectrum are discussed, including recent unpublished results. Open questions and unexplained peculiarities of quantum fluctuations are formulated [ru

  10. Zinc and magnesium in the uterus of the pregnant and pseudopregnant mouse and the effects of Mg2+ ions on uterine alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, L E; Murdoch, R N

    1981-01-01

    The levels of zinc and magnesium in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy and pseudopregnancy were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques. The total zinc and magnesium content of the uterus increased between days 5 and 12 of pregnancy and between days 5 and 9 of content of the pseudopregnancy when decidual cells were present. However, the metals were not accumulated at a rate sufficient to match increases in uterine weight and constant concentrations (micrograms of metals per gram wet weight ot tissue) were not maintained over the various reproductive stages studied. The accumulation of the metals was associated with the presence of decidual cells, and non-decidualized horns of pseudopregnant mice failed to increase their total content of zinc and magnesium between days 5 and 9. The magnesium content of each uterus was usually between 5- and 13-fold greater than the total zinc content. mg2+ in low concentration (0-2mM) stimulated both the pyrophosphatase and orthophosphatase activities of purified preparations of the mouse uterine metalloenzyme, alkaline phosphatase. Higher concentrations (up to 8 mM) of the cation decreased pyrophosphatase activity but did not alter orthophosphatase activity. Mg/+ was more effective, however, in increasing the orthophosphatase activity of the enzyme and its stimulating effects in this case were greater in carbonate-bicarbonate buffer than in glycine-NaOH buffer. Mg2+ did not significantly influence apparent Km values or the response of the enzyme to changes in temperature. Zn2+, however, was required to maintain the stability of alkaline phosphatase apoenzyme preparations. It was concluded that during normal pregnancy and pseudopregnancy zinc and magnesium would always be present in amounts considerably greater than those required to saturate alkaline phosphatase for full catalytic activity. Thus, while the metals exert major effects on the activity and stability of the enzyme in vitro, they may not be major

  11. Fragment production in central heavy-ion collisions: reconciling the dominance of dynamics with observed phase transition signals through universal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.; Hudan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Fragment production in central collisions of Xe+Sn has been systematically studied with the INDRA multidetector from 25 to 150 AMeV. The predominant role of collision dynamics is evidenced in multiple intermediate mass fragment production even at the lowest energies, around the so-called multifragmentation threshold. For beam energies 50 AMeV and above, a promising agreement with suitably modified Anti-symmetrized Molecular Dynamics calculations has been achieved. Intriguingly the same reactions have recently been interpreted as evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in thermodynamically equilibrated systems. The universal fluctuation theory, thanks to its lack of any equilibrium hypothesis, shows clearly that in all but a tiny minority of carefully-selected central collisions fragment production is incompatible with either critical or phase coexistence behaviour. On the other hand, it does not exclude some similarity with aggregation scenarios such as the lattice-gas or Fisher droplet models. (authors)

  12. Fragment production in central heavy-ion collisions: reconciling the dominance of dynamics with observed phase transition signals through universal fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankland, J.D.; Chbihi, A.; Hudan, S. [and others

    2002-07-01

    Fragment production in central collisions of Xe+Sn has been systematically studied with the INDRA multidetector from 25 to 150 AMeV. The predominant role of collision dynamics is evidenced in multiple intermediate mass fragment production even at the lowest energies, around the so-called multifragmentation threshold. For beam energies 50 AMeV and above, a promising agreement with suitably modified Anti-symmetrized Molecular Dynamics calculations has been achieved. Intriguingly the same reactions have recently been interpreted as evidence for a liquid-gas phase transition in thermodynamically equilibrated systems. The universal fluctuation theory, thanks to its lack of any equilibrium hypothesis, shows clearly that in all but a tiny minority of carefully-selected central collisions fragment production is incompatible with either critical or phase coexistence behaviour. On the other hand, it does not exclude some similarity with aggregation scenarios such as the lattice-gas or Fisher droplet models. (authors)

  13. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the simultaneous separation of trace amounts of zinc and cadmium ions in water samples prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Zia Mohammadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed method, carbon tetrachloride and ethanol were used as extraction and dispersive solvents. Several factors that may be affected on the extraction process, such as extraction solvent, disperser solvent, the volume of extraction and disperser solvent, pH of the aqueous solution and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, linearity was maintained between 1.0 ng mL-1 to 1.5 mg mL-1 for zinc and 1.0 ng mL-1 to 0.4 mg mL-1 for cadmium. The proposed method has been applied for determination of trace amount of zinc and cadmium in standard and water samples with satisfactory results.

  14. Electric Field Fluctuations in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Dayton; Limmer, David; Chandler, David

    2013-03-01

    Charge transfer in solution, such as autoionization and ion pair dissociation in water, is governed by rare electric field fluctuations of the solvent. Knowing the statistics of such fluctuations can help explain the dynamics of these rare events. Trajectories short enough to be tractable by computer simulation are virtually certain not to sample the large fluctuations that promote rare events. Here, we employ importance sampling techniques with classical molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water to study statistics of electric field fluctuations far from their means. We find that the distributions of electric fields located on individual water molecules are not in general gaussian. Near the mean this non-gaussianity is due to the internal charge distribution of the water molecule. Further from the mean, however, there is a previously unreported Bjerrum-like defect that stabilizes certain large fluctuations out of equilibrium. As expected, differences in electric fields acting between molecules are gaussian to a remarkable degree. By studying these differences, though, we are able to determine what configurations result not only in large electric fields, but also in electric fields with long spatial correlations that may be needed to promote charge separation.

  15. Transfer functions for solid-solution partitioning of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in soils. Derivation of relationships for free metal ion activities and validation with independent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; De Vries, W. [Soil Science Centre, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Luster, J. [Research Unit Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111 CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Pampura, T. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Soils, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science RAS, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 (Russian Federation); Shotbolt, L. [Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Models to predict the solid-solution partitioning of trace metals are important tools in risk assessment, providing information on the biological availability of metals and their leaching. Empirically based models, or transfer functions, published to date differ with respect to the mathematical model used, the optimization method, the methods used to determine metal concentrations in the solid and solution phases and the soil properties accounted for. Here we review these methodological aspects before deriving our own transfer functions that relate free metal ion activities to reactive metal contents in the solid phase. One single function was able to predict free-metal ion activities estimated by a variety of soil solution extraction methods. Evaluation of the mathematical formulation showed that transfer functions derived to optimize the Freundlich adsorption constant (Kf ), in contrast to functions derived to optimize either the solid or solution concentration, were most suitable for predicting concentrations in solution from solid phase concentrations and vice versa. The model was shown to be generally applicable on the basis of a large number of independent data, for which predicted free metal activities were within one order of magnitude of the observations. The model only over-estimated free-metal ion activities at alkaline pH (>7). The use of the reactive metal content measured by 0.43 m HNO3 rather than the total metal content resulted in a close correlation with measured data, particularly for nickel and zinc.

  16. Antimicrobial properties of zeolite-X and zeolite-A ion-exchanged with silver, copper, and zinc against a broad range of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Selami; Ustaoğlu, Zeynep; Yılmazer, Gonca Altın; Sahin, Fikrettin; Baç, Nurcan

    2014-02-01

    Zeolites are nanoporous alumina silicates composed of silicon, aluminum, and oxygen in a framework with cations, water within pores. Their cation contents can be exchanged with monovalent or divalent ions. In the present study, the antimicrobial (antibacterial, anticandidal, and antifungal) properties of zeolite type X and A, with different Al/Si ratio, ion exchanged with Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) ions were investigated individually. The study presents the synthesis and manufacture of four different zeolite types characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The ion loading capacity of the zeolites was examined and compared with the antimicrobial characteristics against a broad range of microorganisms including bacteria, yeast, and mold. It was observed that Ag(+) ion-loaded zeolites exhibited more antibacterial activity with respect to other metal ion-embedded zeolite samples. The results clearly support that various synthetic zeolites can be ion exchanged with Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) ions to acquire antimicrobial properties or ion-releasing characteristics to provide prolonged or stronger activity. The current study suggested that zeolite formulations could be combined with various materials used in manufacturing medical devices, surfaces, textiles, or household items where antimicrobial properties are required.

  17. Construction of Insulin 18-mer Nanoassemblies Driven by Coordination to Iron(II) and Zinc(II) Ions at Distinct Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik K.; Nygaard, Jesper; Christensen, Niels Johan

    2016-01-01

    coordination with two different metal ions. Selective attachment of an abiotic 2,2′-bipyridine (bipy) ligand to HI, yielding HI–bipy, enabled ZnII-binding hexamers to SA into trimers of hexamers, [[HI–bipy]6]3, driven by octahedral coordination to a FeII ion. The structures were studied in solution by small...

  18. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  19. Zinc Binding by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mrvčić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential trace element in all organisms. A common method for the prevention of zinc deficiency is pharmacological supplementation, especially in a highly available form of a metalloprotein complex. The potential of different microbes to bind essential and toxic heavy metals has recently been recognized. In this work, biosorption of zinc by lactic acid bacteria (LAB has been investigated. Specific LAB were assessed for their ability to bind zinc from a water solution. Significant amount of zinc ions was bound, and this binding was found to be LAB species-specific. Differences among the species in binding performance at a concentration range between 10–90 mg/L were evaluated with Langmuir model for biosorption. Binding of zinc was a fast process, strongly influenced by ionic strength, pH, biomass concentration, and temperature. The most effective metal-binding LAB species was Leuconostoc mesenteroides (27.10 mg of Zn2+ per gram of dry mass bound at pH=5 and 32 °C, during 24 h. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis and electron microscopy demonstrated that passive adsorption and active uptake of the zinc ions were involved.

  20. Sensores de zinc para aplicaciones en neurociencias

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Falla, Aldo David; Estela Falla, Aldo David; Estela Falla, Aldo David

    2011-01-01

    En los últimos años, los estudios realizados con respecto a la química involucrada en los procesos neurológicos han logrado dar una idea de la importancia del zinc en las funciones nerviosas, así como también en el estudio de enfermedades neurodegenerativas tales como la Enfermedad de Alzheimer. A nivel biológico, el zinc tiene representantes en los seis grupos de enzimas que existen, lo cual demuestra su gran importancia en los sistemas biológicos. En estas enzimas, el zinc como ion metál...

  1. Current carrying properties of double layers and low frequency auroral fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical simulations showed recurring interruption and recovery of electron and ion currents through double layers. The time period tau of the recurring phenomena is governed by the ion dynamics; for ions with a drift V/sub i/ entering the simulation plasma such that V/sub i/ V/sub ti/ ion-acoustic modes also appear in the electron- and ion-current fluctuations. The electron current fluctuations are governed by the ion current through the Langmuir criterion. It is suggested that some low frequency auroral fluctuations could possibly be explained by current fluctuations through double layers

  2. Current-dependent electrode lattice fluctuations and anode phase evolution in a lithium-ion battery investigated by in situ neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Neeraj; Peterson, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Links between time-dependent structural parameters and battery performance. ► Current-dependent evolution of the anode. ► Direct correlation of LixCoO 2 and LiC 6 structure with battery capacity. -- Abstract: This work uses real-time in situ neutron powder diffraction to study the electrode lattice response and anode phase evolution in a commercial lithium-ion battery. We show that the time-resolved lattice response of the Li x CoO 2 cathode and Li x C 6 anode under non-equilibrium conditions varies proportionally with the applied current, where higher current results in faster structural change. Higher current also reduces the Li x CoO 2 cathode c lattice parameter and the LiC 6 quantity that forms at the charged state of the battery, both of which are related to lower battery capacity. At the anode, we find that the Li x C 6 phase evolution is current-dependent

  3. Application of cloud point preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of cadmium and zinc ions in urine, blood serum and water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardeshir Shokrollahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and selective cloud point extraction procedure is described for the preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions in water and biological samples, after complexation with 3,3',3",3'"-tetraindolyl (terephthaloyl dimethane (TTDM in basic medium, using Triton X-114 as nonionic surfactant. Detection limits of 3.0 and 2.0 µg L-1 and quantification limits 10.0 and 7.0 µg L-1were obtained for Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, respectively. Relative standard deviation was 2.9 and 3.3, and enrichment factors 23.9 and 25.6, for Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, respectively. The method enabled determination of low levels of Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions in urine, blood serum and water samples.

  4. Fluctuating hydrodynamics for ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaridis, Konstantinos [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States); Wickham, Logan [Department of Computer Science, Washington State University, Richland, 99354 (United States); Voulgarakis, Nikolaos, E-mail: n.voulgarakis@wsu.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Washington State University, Pullman, 99163 (United States)

    2017-04-25

    We present a mean-field fluctuating hydrodynamics (FHD) method for studying the structural and transport properties of ionic liquids in bulk and near electrified surfaces. The free energy of the system consists of two competing terms: (1) a Landau–Lifshitz functional that models the spontaneous separation of the ionic groups, and (2) the standard mean-field electrostatic interaction between the ions in the liquid. The numerical approach used to solve the resulting FHD-Poisson equations is very efficient and models thermal fluctuations with remarkable accuracy. Such density fluctuations are sufficiently strong to excite the experimentally observed spontaneous formation of liquid nano-domains. Statistical analysis of our simulations provides quantitative information about the properties of ionic liquids, such as the mixing quality, stability, and the size of the nano-domains. Our model, thus, can be adequately parameterized by directly comparing our prediction with experimental measurements and all-atom simulations. Conclusively, this work can serve as a practical mathematical tool for testing various theories and designing more efficient mixtures of ionic liquids. - Highlights: • A new fluctuating hydrodynamics method for ionic liquids. • Description of ionic liquid morphology in bulk and near electrified surfaces. • Direct comparison with experimental measurements.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of the epithelial transport of toxic metal ions, particularly mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, zinc and copper. Progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations were continued to elucidate the mode of transepithelial transport of toxic metal ions across the gastrointestinal tract, as well as their interactions with biological processes and other metal ions. All experimental details that are either published, submitted for publication or in press during this report period are included in the Appendix. Primary attention for this report has been given to the intestinal absorption of lead and its interaction with other biological moieties

  6. Production of zinc pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  7. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  8. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  9. Fluctuations and Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2007-01-01

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence

  10. Fluctuations and Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2007-02-01

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.

  11. Fluctuations and Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sourendu [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2007-02-15

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.

  12. Event-by-Event Elliptic Flow Fluctuations from PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosiek, B.; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Woźniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wysłouch, B.

    2009-04-01

    Recently PHOBOS has focused on the study of fluctuations and correlations in particle production in heavy-ion collisions at the highest energies delivered by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this report, we present results on event-by-event elliptic flow fluctuations in (Au+Au) collisions at sqrt {sNN}=200 GeV. A data-driven method was used to estimate the dominant contribution from non-flow correlations. Over the broad range of collision centralities, the observed large elliptic flow fluctuations are in agreement with the fluctuations in the initial source eccentricity.

  13. Kinetic analysis of zinc metabolism and its regulation in normal humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastney, M.E.; Aamodt, R.L.; Rumble, W.F.; Henkin, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    Zinc metabolism was studied in 32 normal volunteers after oral or intravenous administration of 65 Zn. Data were collected from the blood, urine, feces, whole body, and over the liver and thigh regions for 9 mo while the subjects consumed their regular diets (containing 10 mg Zn ion/day) and for an additional 9 mo while the subjects received an exogenous oral supplement of 100 mg Zn ion/day. Data from each subject were fitted by a compartmental model for zinc metabolism that was developed previously for patients with taste and smell dysfunction. These data from normal subjects were used to determine the absorption, distribution, and excretion of zinc and the mass of zinc in erythrocytes, liver, thigh, and whole body. By use of additional data obtained from the present study, the model was refined further such that a large compartment, which was previously determined to contain 90% of the body zinc, was subdivided into two compartments to represent zinc in muscle and bone. When oral zinc intake was increased 11-fold three new sites of regulation of zinc metabolism were identified in addition to the two sites previously defined in patients with taste and smell dysfunction (absorption of zinc from gut and excretion of zinc in urine). The three new sites are exchange of zinc with erythrocytes, release of zinc by muscle, and secretion of zinc into gut. Regulation at these five sites appears to maintain some tissue concentrations of zinc when dietary zinc increases

  14. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Room temperature deposition of high figure of merit Al-doped zinc oxide by pulsed-direct current magnetron sputtering: Influence of energetic negative ion bombardment on film's optoelectronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumagalli, F., E-mail: francesco.fumagalli@iit.it; Martí-Rujas, J., E-mail: javier.rujas@iit.it; Di Fonzo, F., E-mail: fabio.difonzo@iit.it

    2014-10-31

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide is regarded as a promising indium-free transparent conductive oxide for photovoltaic and transparent electronics. In this study high transmittance (up to 90,6%) and low resistivity (down to 8,4°1{sup −4} Ω cm) AZO films were fabricated at room temperature on thermoplastic and soda-lime glass substrates by means of pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering in argon gas. Morphological, optical and electrical film properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis–nIR photo-spectrometer, X-ray spectroscopy and four probes method. Optimal deposition conditions were found to be strongly related to substrate position. The dependence of functional properties on substrate off-axis position was investigated and correlated to the angular distributions of negative ions fluxes emerging from the plasma discharge. Figure of merit as high as 2,15 ± 0,14 Ω{sup −1} were obtained outside the negative oxygen ions confinement region. Combination of high quality AZO films deposited on flexible polymers substrates by means of a solid and scalable fabrication technique is of interest for application in cost-effective optoelectrical devices, organic photovoltaics and polymer based electronics. - Highlights: • High figure of merit transparent conductive oxide's deposited at room temperature. • High transmittance and low resistivity obtained on thermoplastic substrates. • Competitive optoelectrical properties compared to high temperature deposition. • Negative ion fluxes confinement influence structural and optoelectrical properties. • Easily adaptable for scaled-up low temperature AZO film deposition installations.

  16. Oxygen consumption by sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L. ) exposed to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brafield, A.E.; Matthiessen, P.

    1976-10-01

    The rate of oxygen consumption by sticklebacks has been studied by long-term continuous-flow respirometry. Exposure to 1 ppM zinc in calcium-free water causes wide variations in individual responses, but oxygen uptake tends to rise and then become extremely erratic, before declining as death approaches. Behavioural abnormalities such as increased ventilation rate, loss of balance, and long periods of inactivity alternating with spasmodic swimming also occur. Exposure to 6.5 ppM zinc in high-calcium water generally causes a rise in oxygen consumption, followed by fluctuations in the rate of uptake, but no behavioural abnormalities occur and deaths are rare even after exposure for 400 h. If restored to zinc-free water after 40 h exposure to zinc, recovery is generally complete, although fluctuating rates of oxygen uptake persist. These results are discussed in relation to previous work on the effects of heavy metals on fish respiration.

  17. Accelerated bone ingrowth by local delivery of Zinc from bioactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-19

    Oct 19, 2015 ... Aims: This study aims to evaluate in vivo the performance therapy of zinc-doped bioactive glass (BG-Zn) and ... Keywords: zinc metallic ion; bioactive glass; osteoporosis; trabecular bone architecture; mechanical property; oxidative stress ..... Ducheyne P, Qiu Q. Bioactive ceramics: the effect of surface.

  18. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  19. Effect of annealing on properties of gallium-nitrogen Co-doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by sputtering and ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickyngerova, S.; Vojs, M.; Novotny, I.; Tvarozek, V.; Shtereva, K. S.; Sutta, P.; Vincze, A.; Milosavlevic, M.; Jeynes, Ch.; Peng, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report an influence of post-implantation annealing (in O 2 and N 2 up to 600 grad C) on electrical and structural properties of RF sputtered ZnO:Ga thin films implanted by double energy (40 keV and 80 keV) N + ions. (authors)

  20. Self-assembly of π-conjugated bis(terpyridine) ligands with zinc(II) ions : new metallosupramolecular materials for optoelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, A.; Friebe, C.; Chiper, C.M.; Hager, M.D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    A series of main-chain metallopolymers (P1-P10) was prepared by the self-assembly of rigid-linear p-conjugated bis(terpyridine) monomers (1-10) with Zn11 ions and was fully characterized. The polymerization was additionally confirmed by UV/vis titration experiments, A strong increase in viscosities

  1. Construction of Insulin 18-mer Nanoassemblies Driven by Coordination to Iron(II) and Zinc(II) Ions at Distinct Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik K.; Nygaard, Jesper; Christensen, Niels Johan

    2016-01-01

    Controlled self-assembly (SA) of proteins offers the possibility to tune their properties or to create new materials. Herein, we present the synthesis of a modified human insulin (HI) with two distinct metal-ion binding sites, one native, the other abiotic, enabling hierarchical SA through...

  2. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  3. Incorporation of zinc oxide to dispersions of biopolymers and release of the metallic ion in vitro; Incorporacao de oxido de zinco a dispersoes de biopolimeros e liberacao do ion metalico in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Marina S.R.; Ferreira, Willian H.; Andrade, Cristina T., E-mail: marinarodriguesbarreto@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, obtained from a commercial product, were dispersed in different biopolymers, to be added to piglet feeds. The resulting products, prepared with sodium alginate (SA), chitosan (CH) and low methoxyl pectin (LMP) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The release of Zn{sup 2+} was investigated under simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA). The results showed that the structural factors, which have influence on the biopolymer/ZnO interactions, govern the behavior of Zn{sup 2+} release. (author)

  4. The Silver Oxide-Zinc Alkaline Primary Cell. Part 2. Effects of Various Types of Negative Electrodes on Cell Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shepherd, C. M

    1951-01-01

    ... (generally a potassium hydroxide solution). During discharge, the silver peroxide in the positive electrode is reduced to metallic silver and the metallic zinc in the negative electrode is oxidized either to zinc oxide or to a complex zincate ion...

  5. The role of natural zeolite and of zeolite modified with ammnonium ions to reduce the uptake of lead, zinc, copper and iron ions in Hieracium aurantium and Rumex acetosella grown on tailing ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca PETER

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine if zeolite modified with ammonium ions has a higher capacity than natural zeolite to protect Hieracium aurantium and Rumex acetosella growing on tailing ponds, by reducing the quantity of metal ions these plants would accumulate in their roots and leaves. The influence of the amount of zeolite in the substrate (5% and 10% mass percentage was also studied. The experiments were carried out in laboratory and the concentration of the ions of heavy metal in roots and leaves, after 38 days of growth was established by Flame Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy. The pH, conductivity and redox potential for each of the substrate considered were measured. The results were statistically processed using the one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA. FTIR analyses were performed to establish the structural differences between the natural and modified zeolite. Hieracium aurantium and Rumex acetosella accumulate a smaller quantity of metal ions in roots and leaves in the presence of zeolite modified with ammonium ions than in the presence of natural zeolite. Laboratory tests showed that Hieracium aurantium is more tolerant to ions of heavy metals than Rumex acetosella, as demonstrated by their translocation factors.In terms of reducing the uptake of ions of heavy metals, only the zeolite modified with ammonium has a significant protective effecton Hieracium aurantium, while both natural zeolite and zeolite modified demonstrate a significant role for Rumex acetosella, asrevealed by statistical tests.

  6. short communication determination of trace amounts of zinc by flame

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Zinc ions were separated by solid phase extraction onto modified natural ... short analysis time, high enrichment factor, low cost and consumption of organic ... Up to now, several kinds of sorbents, such as thiol cotton [18], activated carbon [19],.

  7. Comparative studies on acid leaching of zinc waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz; Szatan, Leszek

    2017-11-01

    Three industrial waste materials were characterized in terms of their elemental and phase compositions, leaching behaviour in 10% sulfuric acid solution as well as leaching thermal effects. Slag from melting of mixed metallic scrap contained about 50% Zn and 10% Pb. It consisted mainly of various oxides and oxy-chlorides of metals. Zinc spray metallizing dust contained about 77% Zn in form of zinc and/or zinc-iron oxides, zinc metal and Zn-Fe intermetallic. Zinc ash from hot dip galvanizing was a mixture of zinc oxide, metallic zinc and zinc hydroxide chloride and contained about 80% Zn. Dissolution efficiency of zinc from the first material was 80% (independently on the solid to liquid ratio, 50-150 kg/m3), while decrease of the efficacy from 80% to 60% with increased solid to liquid ratio for the two remaining materials was observed. Both increase in the temperature (20 °C to 35 °C) and agitation rate (300 rpm to 900 rpm) did not improve seriously the leaching results. In all cases, transfer of zinc ions to the leachate was accompanied by different levels of solution contamination, depending on the type of the waste. Leaching of the materials was exothermic with the similar reaction heats for two high oxide-type products (slag, zinc ash) and higher values for the spray metallizing dust.

  8. Depolymerization of cellulose into high-value chemicals by using synergy of zinc chloride hydrate and sulfate ion promoted titania catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Weiqi; Wu, Shubin

    2017-10-01

    Experiments for cellulose depolymerization by synergy of zinc chloride hydrate (ZnCl 2 ·RH 2 O) and sulfated titania catalyst (SO 4 2- /TiO 2 ) were investigated in this study. The results showed the introduction of sulfate into the TiO 2 significantly enhanced the catalyst acid amount, especially for Brønsted acid site, which is beneficial for subsequent cellulose depolymerization. ZnCl 2 ·RH 2 O hydrate, only a narrow composition range of water, specifically 3.0≤R≤4.0, can dissolve cellulose, which finally resulted the cellulose with low crystallinity and weak intrachain and interchain hydrogen bond network. Coupling of ZnCl 2 ·RH 2 O hydrate and SO 4 2- /TiO 2 catalyst as a mixed reaction system promoted cellulose depolymerization, and the products can be adjusted by the control of reaction conditions, the low temperature (80-100°C) seemed beneficial for glucose formation (maximal yield 50.5%), and the high temperature (120-140°C) favored to produce levulinic acid (maximal yield 43.1%). Besides, the addition of organic co-solvent making HMF as the main product (maximal yield 38.3%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  10. Correlations and fluctuations '98. Collected abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csoergoe, T.; Hegyi, S.; Hwa, R.C.; Jancso, G.

    1998-01-01

    The proceedings of the 8. International workshop on multiparticle production contains the abstracts of papers on various topics of correlations and fluctuations. Hydrodynamic models, Bose-Einstein correlations, hadron-hadron interactions, heavy ion reactions are discussed in detail. 54 items are indexed separately for the INIS database. (K.A.)

  11. Phase space dynamics and collective variable fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Idier, D.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.; Schuck, P.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamical study of collective variable fluctuations in heavy ion reactions is performed within the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin theory. A general method to extract dispersions on collective variables from numerical simulations based on test particles models is presented and its validity is checked by comparison with analytical equilibrium results. (authors)

  12. Phase space dynamics and collective variable fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Idier, D.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F. [Laboratoire de Physique Nucleaire de Nantes, 44 (France); Schuck, P. [Institut des Sciences Nucleaires, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1995-12-31

    A dynamical study of collective variable fluctuations in heavy ion reactions is performed within the framework of the Boltzmann-Langevin theory. A general method to extract dispersions on collective variables from numerical simulations based on test particles models is presented and its validity is checked by comparison with analytical equilibrium results. (authors) 10 refs.

  13. Structural properties of the formation of zinc-containing nanoparticles obtained by ion implantation in Si (001 and subsequent thermal annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenia B. Eidelman

    2017-09-01

    We show that a damaged layer with a large concentration of radiation induced defects forms near the surface as a result of the implantation of Zn+ ions with an energy of 50 keV. In the as-implanted state, nanoparticles of metallic Zn with a size of about 25 nm form at a depth of 40 nm inside the damaged silicon layer. Subsequent annealing at 800 °C in a dry oxygen atmosphere leads to structural changes in the defect layer and the formation of Zn2SiO4 nanoparticles at a depth of 25 nm with an average size of 3 nm, as well as oxidation of the existing Zn particles to the Zn2SiO4 phase. The oxidation of the metallic Zn nanoparticles starts from the surface of the particles and leads to the formation of particles with a “core-shell” structure. Analysis of the phase composition of the silicon layer after two-stage implantation with O+ and Zn+ ions showed that Zn and Zn2SiO4 particles form in the as-implanted state. Subsequent annealing at 800 °C in a dry oxygen atmosphere leads to an increase in the particle size but does not change the phase composition of the near-surface layer. ZnO nanoparticles were not observed under these experimental conditions of ion beam synthesis.

  14. Edge fluctuation studies in Heliotron J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuuchi, T.; Chechkin, V.V.; Ohashi, K.; Sorokovoy, E.L.; Chechkin, A.V.; Gonchar, V.Yu.; Takahashi, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Sano, F.; Kondo, K.; Nishino, N.; Kawazome, H.; Shidara, H.; Kaneko, S.; Fukagawa, Y.; Morita, Y.; Nakazawa, S.; Nishio, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Yamada, M.

    2005-01-01

    Low frequency and small-scale fluctuations of density and potential near the last closed flux surface are investigated by using Langmuir probes for the second harmonic ECH plasmas in a helical-axis heliotron device, Heliotron J. The existence of a plasma layer with a radial electric field shear was indicated near the last closed flux surface. Near this layer, the reversal of phase velocity and de-correlation of the fluctuations were observed. On the other hand, it is suggested that a considerable fraction of the fluctuation induced particle flux is carried off through the intermittent events. Preliminary analyses to classify the PDFs of the ion-saturation current fluctuation as stable Levy distributions demonstrate that the Levy index decreases from the inner to the outer region of edge plasma, suggesting that the PDFs near the boundary region of Heliotron J are nearly Gaussian, whereas at the outer regions of plasma they become strongly non-Gaussian

  15. Intensification of zinc dissolution process in sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many high purity salts are produced by dissolving pure metal in non-oxidizing mineral acids. If hydrogen overpotential on the given metal is high, then the rate of overall process is defined by reaction of hydrogen ion reduction. This study investigated the possibility of accelerated dissolving of metal zinc in sulphuric acid by introducing copper cathode on which evolving hydrogen is much easier than on zinc. It was found out that the acceleration of zinc dissolving is possible and, at constant surface of copper cathode depends on the quality of electrical contact between copper electrode and zinc.

  16. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of zinc carbonate and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Marashianpour, Zahra; Karimi, Meisam Sadeghpour; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    Zinc oxide and its precursor i.e., zinc carbonate is widely utilized in various fields of industry, especially in solar energy conversion, optical, and inorganic pigments. In this work, a facile and clean electrodeposition method was utilized for the synthesis of zinc carbonate nanoparticles. Also, zinc oxide nanoparticles were produced by calcination of the prepared zinc carbonate powder. Zinc carbonate nanoparticles with different sizes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of a zinc plate as anode in the solution of sodium carbonate. It was found that the particle size of zinc carbonate might be tuned by process parameters, i.e., electrolysis voltage, carbonate ion concentration, solvent composition and stirring rate of the electrolyte solution. An orthogonal array design was utilized to identify the optimum experimental conditions. The experimental results showed that the minimum size of the electrodeposited ZnCO3 particles is about 24 nm whereas the maximum particle size is around 40 nm. The TG-DSC studies of the nanoparticles indicated that the main thermal degradation of ZnCO3 occurs in two steps over the temperature ranges of 150-250 and 350-400 °C. The electrosynthesized ZnCO3 nanoparticles were calcined at the temperature of 600 °C to prepare ZnO nanoparticles. The prepared ZnCO3 and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and FT-IR techniques.

  17. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  18. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  19. A shortcut hydrothermal strategy for the synthesis of zinc nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jianqiang; Chen Zhiwu; Xie Jingsi; Yu Ying

    2008-01-01

    Synthesis of metal nanowires has opened many new possibilities for designing ideal building blocks for future nanodevices. In this work, zinc nanowires with lengths of micrometre magnitude were synthesized in high yield by a shortcut hydrothermal strategy. The synthesis involves a template-free, non-seed and catalyst-free solution-phase process to high-quality zinc nanowires, which is low-cost and proceeds at relatively short time. In this process, zinc nanowires were prepared through the reduction of zinc acetate with absolute ethanol in the presence of silver nitrate under hydrothermal atmosphere. The strategy suggests that silver ion plays a vital role in the synthesis of zinc nanowires, without which the substituted product is zinc oxide nanowires. X-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements confirm the final formation of zinc nanowires and component transformation from zinc oxide nanowires in the introduction of silver ion. We believe that with the efficient synthesis, longer zinc nanowires can be fabricated and may find potential applications for superconductors and nanodevices. (fast track communication)

  20. Zinc and glutamate dehydrogenase in putative glutamatergic brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, G; Schmidt, W

    1983-01-01

    A certain topographic parallelism between the distribution of histochemically (TIMM staining) identified zinc and putative glutamatergic structures in the rat brain was demonstrated. Glutamate dehydrogenase as a zinc containing protein is in consideration to be an enzyme synthesizing transmitter glutamate. In a low concentration range externally added zinc ions (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) induced an increase in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) originating from rat hippocampal formation, neocortex, and cerebellum up to 142.4%. With rising molarity of Zn(II) in the incubation medium, the enzyme of hippocampal formation and cerebellum showed a biphasic course of activation. Zinc ions of a concentration higher than 10(-6) M caused a strong inhibition of GDH. The effect of Zn(II) on GDH originating from spinal ganglia and liver led only to a decrease of enzyme activity. These results are discussed in connection with a functional correlation between zinc and putatively glutamatergic system.

  1. Superconductivity and spin fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalapino, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    The organizers of the Memorial Session for Herman Rietschel asked that the author review some of the history of the interplay of superconductivity and spin fluctuations. Initially, Berk and Schrieffer showed how paramagnon spin fluctuations could suppress superconductivity in nearly-ferromagnetic materials. Following this, Rietschel and various co-workers wrote a number of papers in which they investigated the role of spin fluctuations in reducing the Tc of various electron-phonon superconductors. Paramagnon spin fluctuations are also believed to provide the p-wave pairing mechanism responsible for the superfluid phases of 3 He. More recently, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations have been proposed as the mechanism for d-wave pairing in the heavy-fermion superconductors and in some organic materials as well as possibly the high-Tc cuprates. Here the author will review some of this early history and discuss some of the things he has learned more recently from numerical simulations

  2. Zinc-sensitive MRI contrast agent detects differential release of Zn(II) ions from the healthy vs. malignant mouse prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavijo Jordan, M Veronica; Lo, Su-Tang; Chen, Shiuhwei; Preihs, Christian; Chirayil, Sara; Zhang, Shanrong; Kapur, Payal; Li, Wen-Hong; De Leon-Rodriguez, Luis M; Lubag, Angelo J M; Rofsky, Neil M; Sherry, A Dean

    2016-09-13

    Many secretory tissues release Zn(II) ions along with other molecules in response to external stimuli. Here we demonstrate that secretion of Zn(II) ions from normal, healthy prostate tissue is stimulated by glucose in fasted mice and that release of Zn(II) can be monitored by MRI. An ∼50% increase in water proton signal enhancement is observed in T1-weighted images of the healthy mouse prostate after infusion of a Gd-based Zn(II) sensor and an i.p. bolus of glucose. Release of Zn(II) from intracellular stores was validated in human epithelial prostate cells in vitro and in surgically exposed prostate tissue in vivo using a Zn(II)-sensitive fluorescent probe known to bind to the extracellular surface of cells. Given the known differences in intracellular Zn(II) stores in healthy versus malignant prostate tissues, the Zn(II) sensor was then evaluated in a transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model in vivo. The agent proved successful in detecting small malignant lesions as early as 11 wk of age, making this noninvasive MR imaging method potentially useful for identifying prostate cancer in situations where it may be difficult to detect using current multiparametric MRI protocols.

  3. Analysis of fluctuations in semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Petru

    The random nature of ion implantation and diffusion processes as well as inevitable tolerances in fabrication result in random fluctuations of doping concentrations and oxide thickness in semiconductor devices. These fluctuations are especially pronounced in ultrasmall (nanoscale) semiconductor devices when the spatial scale of doping and oxide thickness variations become comparable with the geometric dimensions of devices. In the dissertation, the effects of these fluctuations on device characteristics are analyzed by using a new technique for the analysis of random doping and oxide thickness induced fluctuations. This technique is universal in nature in the sense that it is applicable to any transport model (drift-diffusion, semiclassical transport, quantum transport etc.) and it can be naturally extended to take into account random fluctuations of the oxide (trapped) charges and channel length. The technique is based on linearization of the transport equations with respect to the fluctuating quantities. It is computationally much (a few orders of magnitude) more efficient than the traditional Monte-Carlo approach and it yields information on the sensitivity of fluctuations of parameters of interest (e.g. threshold voltage, small-signal parameters, cut-off frequencies, etc.) to the locations of doping and oxide thickness fluctuations. For this reason, it can be very instrumental in the design of fluctuation-resistant structures of semiconductor devices. Quantum mechanical effects are taken into account by using the density-gradient model as well as through self-consistent Poisson-Schrodinger computations. Special attention is paid to the presenting of the technique in a form that is suitable for implementation on commercial device simulators. The numerical implementation of the technique is discussed in detail and numerous computational results are presented and compared with those previously published in literature.

  4. Influence of lead and the metallic ions of copper, zinc, thorium, beryllium and thallium on the germination of seeds. [Pepidium sativum; Sinapis alba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilling, W J

    1926-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether lead salts had any special retarding influence on the germination and early growth of seeds and whether any other metals (Cu, Zn, Th, Be, Tl) possessed the action in more marked degree. The experiments were done chiefly with cress (Pepidium sativum) and mustard (Sinapis alba). Results indicated that lead has a definite inhibiting action on germination and, in strengths of 0.27%, practically checks it, while exercising a deleterious effect on the growth of the seedling. With 0.12% strength, germination is delayed four days and averages 40% below the control with slow and stunted growth. 0.05% lead reduces germination by 20%, delays it by a day, but the young plants make good growth. The results indicated that other metallic ions possess, like lead, the power of inhibiting germination and growth of seeds.

  5. Sulfidation of zinc plating sludge with Na2S for zinc resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchar, D.; Fukuta, T.; Onyango, M.S.; Matsuda, H.

    2006-01-01

    A high amount of zinc disposed in the landfill sites as a mixed-metal plating sludge represents a valuable zinc source. To recover zinc from the plating sludge, a sulfidation treatment is proposed in this study, while it is assumed that ZnS formed could be separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was conducted by contacting simulated zinc plating sludge with Na 2 S solution at S 2- to Zn 2+ molar ratio of 1.5 for a period of 1-48 h, while changing the solid to liquid (S:L) ratio from 0.25:50 to 1.00:50. The conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS was determined based on the consumption of sulfide ions. The reaction products formed by the sulfidation of zinc were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). As a result, it was found that the conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS increased with an increase in S:L ratio. A maximum conversion of 0.809 was obtained at an S:L ratio of 1.00:50 after 48 h. However, when the zinc sludge treated at S:L ratio of 1.00:50 for 48 h was subjected to XRD analyses, only ZnS was identified in the treated zinc sludge. The result suggested that the rest of zinc sludge remained unreacted inside the agglomerates of ZnS. The formation behavior of ZnS was predicted by Elovich equation, which was found to describe the system satisfactorily indicating the heterogeneous nature of the sludge

  6. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J A Craddock

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau, and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1 used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2 performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3 used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of

  7. The zinc dyshomeostasis hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Chopra, Deepak; Casey, Noel; Goldstein, Lee E; Hameroff, Stuart R; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly. Hallmark AD neuropathology includes extracellular amyloid plaques composed largely of the amyloid-β protein (Aβ), intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyper-phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein tau (MAP-tau), and microtubule destabilization. Early-onset autosomal dominant AD genes are associated with excessive Aβ accumulation, however cognitive impairment best correlates with NFTs and disrupted microtubules. The mechanisms linking Aβ and NFT pathologies in AD are unknown. Here, we propose that sequestration of zinc by Aβ-amyloid deposits (Aβ oligomers and plaques) not only drives Aβ aggregation, but also disrupts zinc homeostasis in zinc-enriched brain regions important for memory and vulnerable to AD pathology, resulting in intra-neuronal zinc levels, which are either too low, or excessively high. To evaluate this hypothesis, we 1) used molecular modeling of zinc binding to the microtubule component protein tubulin, identifying specific, high-affinity zinc binding sites that influence side-to-side tubulin interaction, the sensitive link in microtubule polymerization and stability. We also 2) performed kinetic modeling showing zinc distribution in extra-neuronal Aβ deposits can reduce intra-neuronal zinc binding to microtubules, destabilizing microtubules. Finally, we 3) used metallomic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) to show anatomically-localized and age-dependent zinc dyshomeostasis in specific brain regions of Tg2576 transgenic, mice, a model for AD. We found excess zinc in brain regions associated with memory processing and NFT pathology. Overall, we present a theoretical framework and support for a new theory of AD linking extra-neuronal Aβ amyloid to intra-neuronal NFTs and cognitive dysfunction. The connection, we propose, is based on β-amyloid-induced alterations in zinc ion concentration inside neurons affecting stability of polymerized

  8. Quantum fluctuations and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Bublik, G.J.

    1986-05-01

    We study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the roll-down rate of the inflation field in a semiclassical approximation; this is done by treating the inflation field as a classical random field. The quantum fluctuations are simulated by a noise term in the equation of motion. We consider two different inflationary scenarios (new and chaotic inflation) and find that the roll-down rate of the median value of the inflation field is increased by the quantum fluctuations. Non-linear effects may become important in the later stages of the inflationary regime. 8 refs., 2 figs

  9. Quantum fluctuations and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, J.M.; Bublik, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the roll-down rate of the inflation field in a semiclassical approximation; this is done by treating the inflation field as a classical random field. The quantum fluctuations are simulated by a noise term in the equation of motion. Two different inflationary scenarios (new and chaotic inflation) are considered and it is found that the roll-down rate of the median value of the inflation field is increased by the quantum fluctuations. Non-linear effects may become important in the later stages of the inflationary regime. (author)

  10. Sol-Gel Derived Mg-Based Ceramic Scaffolds Doped with Zinc or Copper Ions: Preliminary Results on Their Synthesis, Characterization, and Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S. Theodorou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramic scaffolds containing Mg have shown recently the potential to enhance the proliferation, differentiation, and biomineralization of stem cells in vitro, property that makes them promising candidates for dental tissue regeneration. An additional property of a scaffold aimed at dental tissue regeneration is to protect the regeneration process against oral bacteria penetration. In this respect, novel bioactive scaffolds containing Mg2+ and Cu2+ or Zn2+, ions known for their antimicrobial properties, were synthesized by the foam replica technique and tested regarding their bioactive response in SBF, mechanical properties, degradation, and porosity. Finally their ability to support the attachment and long-term proliferation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs was also evaluated. The results showed that conversely to their bioactive response in SBF solution, Zn-doped scaffolds proved to respond adequately regarding their mechanical strength and to be efficient regarding their biological response, in comparison to Cu-doped scaffolds, which makes them promising candidates for targeted dental stem cell odontogenic differentiation and calcified dental tissue engineering.

  11. Simultaneous Automatic Electrochemical Detection of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Lead Ions in Environmental Samples Using a Thin-Film Mercury Electrode and an Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kudr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study a device for automatic electrochemical analysis was designed. A three electrodes detection system was attached to a positioning device, which enabled us to move the electrode system from one well to another of a microtitre plate. Disposable carbon tip electrodes were used for Cd(II, Cu(II and Pb(II ion quantification, while Zn(II did not give signal in this electrode configuration. In order to detect all mentioned heavy metals simultaneously, thin-film mercury electrodes (TFME were fabricated by electrodeposition of mercury on the surface of carbon tips. In comparison with bare electrodes the TMFEs had lower detection limits and better sensitivity. In addition to pure aqueous heavy metal solutions, the assay was also performed on mineralized rock samples, artificial blood plasma samples and samples of chicken embryo organs treated with cadmium. An artificial neural network was created to evaluate the concentrations of the mentioned heavy metals correctly in mixture samples and an excellent fit was observed (R2 = 0.9933.

  12. Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS)

    CERN Document Server

    Tetin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    This new volume of Methods in Enzymology continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and includes chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells. Continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field Covers fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy Contains chapters on such topics as Förster resonance energy transfer (fret) with fluctuation algorithms, protein corona on nanoparticles by FCS, and FFS approaches to the study of receptors in live cells.

  13. Fully Quantum Fluctuation Theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg, Johan

    2018-02-01

    Systems that are driven out of thermal equilibrium typically dissipate random quantities of energy on microscopic scales. Crooks fluctuation theorem relates the distribution of these random work costs to the corresponding distribution for the reverse process. By an analysis that explicitly incorporates the energy reservoir that donates the energy and the control system that implements the dynamic, we obtain a quantum generalization of Crooks theorem that not only includes the energy changes in the reservoir but also the full description of its evolution, including coherences. Moreover, this approach opens up the possibility for generalizations of the concept of fluctuation relations. Here, we introduce "conditional" fluctuation relations that are applicable to nonequilibrium systems, as well as approximate fluctuation relations that allow for the analysis of autonomous evolution generated by global time-independent Hamiltonians. We furthermore extend these notions to Markovian master equations, implicitly modeling the influence of the heat bath.

  14. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales

    OpenAIRE

    ROSADO JORGE L

    1998-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructur...

  15. Mobile trap algorithm for zinc detection using protein sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamdar, Munish V.; Lastoskie, Christian M.; Fierke, Carol A.; Sastry, Ann Marie

    2007-01-01

    We present a mobile trap algorithm to sense zinc ions using protein-based sensors such as carbonic anhydrase (CA). Zinc is an essential biometal required for mammalian cellular functions although its intracellular concentration is reported to be very low. Protein-based sensors like CA molecules are employed to sense rare species like zinc ions. In this study, the zinc ions are mobile targets, which are sought by the mobile traps in the form of sensors. Particle motions are modeled using random walk along with the first passage technique for efficient simulations. The association reaction between sensors and ions is incorporated using a probability (p 1 ) upon an ion-sensor collision. The dissociation reaction of an ion-bound CA molecule is modeled using a second, independent probability (p 2 ). The results of the algorithm are verified against the traditional simulation techniques (e.g., Gillespie's algorithm). This study demonstrates that individual sensor molecules can be characterized using the probability pair (p 1 ,p 2 ), which, in turn, is linked to the system level chemical kinetic constants, k on and k off . Further investigations of CA-Zn reaction using the mobile trap algorithm show that when the diffusivity of zinc ions approaches that of sensor molecules, the reaction data obtained using the static trap assumption differ from the reaction data obtained using the mobile trap formulation. This study also reveals similar behavior when the sensor molecule has higher dissociation constant. In both the cases, the reaction data obtained using the static trap formulation reach equilibrium at a higher number of complex molecules (ion-bound sensor molecules) compared to the reaction data from the mobile trap formulation. With practical limitations on the number sensors that can be inserted/expressed in a cell and stochastic nature of the intracellular ionic concentrations, fluorescence from the number of complex sensor molecules at equilibrium will be the measure

  16. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-06-09

    Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs) and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn 2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn 2+ , the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn 2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn 2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn 2+ and Cu⁺ match the biological requirements for controlling-binding and delivering-these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn 2+ and Cu⁺. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms.

  17. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Krężel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn2+, the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn2+ and Cu+ match the biological requirements for controlling—binding and delivering—these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn2+ and Cu+. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms.

  18. Interdependence of free zinc changes and protein complex assembly - insights into zinc signal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyła, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Krężel, Artur

    2018-01-24

    Cellular zinc (Zn(ii)) is bound with proteins that are part of the proteomes of all domains of life. It is mostly utilized as a catalytic or structural protein cofactor, which results in a vast number of binding architectures. The Zn(ii) ion is also important for the formation of transient protein complexes with a Zn(ii)-dependent quaternary structure that is formed upon cellular zinc signals. The mechanisms by which proteins associate with and dissociate from Zn(ii) and the connection with cellular Zn(ii) changes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to examine how zinc protein domains with various Zn(ii)-binding architectures are formed under free Zn(ii) concentration changes and how formation of the Zn(ii)-dependent assemblies is related to the protein concentration and reactivity. To accomplish these goals we chose four zinc domains with different Zn(ii)-to-protein binding stoichiometries: classical zinc finger (ZnP), LIM domain (Zn 2 P), zinc hook (ZnP 2 ) and zinc clasp (ZnP 1 P 2 ) folds. Our research demonstrated a lack of changes in the saturation level of intraprotein zinc binding sites, despite various peptide concentrations, while homo- and heterodimers indicated a concentration-dependent tendency. In other words, at a certain free Zn(ii) concentration, the fraction of a formed dimeric complex increases or decreases with subunit concentration changes. Secondly, even small or local changes in free Zn(ii) may significantly affect protein saturation depending on its architecture, function and subcellular concentration. In our paper, we indicate the importance of interdependence of free Zn(ii) availability and protein subunit concentrations for cellular zinc signal regulation.

  19. Results of zinc injection test for Hamaoka Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, K.; Masuda, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Sudo, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    1998-01-01

    A zinc injection test was preformed at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 for suppressing radiation dose rate on primary coolant recirculation piping after the replacement of piping. Zinc ion was injected by using injection system where Depleted Zinc Oxide was dissolved in carbonated water. Controllability of the system was sufficient to maintain concentration of zinc in primary water. The concentration of zinc in the primary coolant was controlled from 1 ppb to 5 ppb gradually. The increasing trend of concentration of Co-60 in the coolant was suppressed at zinc concentration of 3 ppb. It is evaluated that the deposition coefficient of Co-60 onto the surface of primary coolant recirculation piping was suppressed to one-third of previous cycle in average, and one-fourth of that just before injection start at zinc concentration of 5 ppb. We concluded that zinc injection is effective for suppressing dose rate on the primary coolant piping and no adverse effect occurs by zinc injection up to 5 ppb in the primary coolant. (J.P.N.)

  20. Event-by-Event Observables and Fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    In this talk the status and open questions of the phenomenological description of all the stages of a heavy ion reaction are highlighted. Special emphasis is put on event-by-event fluctuations and associated observables. The first part is concentrated on high RHIC and LHC energies and the second part reviews the challenges for modeling heavy ion reactions at lower beam energies in a more realistic fashion. Overall, the main conclusion is that sophisticated theoretical dynamical approaches that describe many observables in the same framework are essential for the quantitative understanding of the properties of hot and dense nuclear matter

  1. Transform and filtration methods in fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Digitized fluctuation signals from an ex-core ion-chamber of a PWR were analysed to produce a Power Spectral Density, (PSD), curve by two means: (1) by digital filter techniques and (2) by a Fast Fourier Transform program. For both these methods, the effects of the precision of the input data were investigated and it is shown that reasonably good PSD curves may be obtained using very poor input precision. (author)

  2. K/pi Fluctuations at Relativistic Energies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L.H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tlustý, David; Tokarev, M. V.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Molen, A.M.V.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.M.S.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, P.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 9 (2009), 092301/1-092301/6 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079; GA MŠk LC07048; GA MŠk LA09013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : heavy-ion collisions * strangeness * fluctuations Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009

  3. Thermalization vs. isotropization and azimuthal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Hydrodynamic description requires a local thermodynamic equilibrium of the system under study but an approximate hydrodynamic behaviour is already manifested when a momentum distribution of liquid components is not of equilibrium form but merely isotropic. While the process of equilibration is relatively slow, the parton system becomes isotropic rather fast due to the plasma instabilities. Azimuthal fluctuations observed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are argued to distinguish between a fully equilibrated and only isotropic parton system produced in the collision early stage

  4. Zinc-zincate electrochemical behaviour in NaOH medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessine, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of zinc/NaOH-zincate system was investigated with the rotating disk electrode technique, using both the surfaces of mercury film and zinc in 1M NaOH concentration and 25 0 C temperature. It was found that, at the mercury surface, the zincate ion deposition reaction occurs by two steps with one electron each, with comparable rates, with b sup(-) sub(K1) = (132+ -20)mV/decade and b sup(-) sub(K2) = (74 + - 9)mV/decade cathodic Tafel slopes. At the zinc surface the mechanism of the anodic and cathodic reactions is the same and is by two steps with one electron each. The rate-determining step is the first reaction in the cathodic direction. The exchange current density was found to be between 1.00 and 6.00mA/cm 2 , with b sup(-) sub(K) = (95+ -3)mV/decade cathodic and b sup(-) sub(a) = (61+ -5)mV/decade anodic Tafel slopes. The mechanism of passivation of zinc occurs as a result of the two reactions, the adsorption of the dissolved species of zinc II and the precipitation of the zincate ions over the electrode active sites. It has been verified that of all the chemical species studied namely the zincate, chloride, benzoate, silicate ions and the benzotriazole that affect the zinc anodic reaction the silicate ion is the one that change the reaction rate. However, for all the species studied we have the same anodic reaction mechanism (active dissolution). The deposition reaction mechanism of the zincate ion on zinc electrode is the same with NaOH plus benzoate or chloride. The diffusion coefficient found for the diffusion of the zincate ion in 1M NaOH with the mercury film RDE is D sup(-) = (4,90+ -0,20) x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 . (Author) [pt

  5. Universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of conductance fluctuations in disordered metallic systems with size large compared to the mean free path of the electron but small compared to localization length is considered. It is demonstrates that fluctuations have an universal character and are due to repulsion between levels and spectral rigidity. The basic fluctuation measures for the energy spectrum in the mesoscopic regime of disordered systems are consistent with the Gaussian random matrix ensemble predictions. Although our disordered electron random matrix ensemble does not belong to the Gaussian ensemble the two ensembles turn out to be essentially similar. The level repulsion and the spectral rigidity found in nuclear spectra should also be observed in the metallic regime of Anderson localization. 7 refs. (orig.)

  6. Spin fluctuations and the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Loktev

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the spectral properties of a phenomenological model for a weakly doped two-dimensional antiferromagnet, in which the carriers move within one of the two sublattices where they were introduced. Such a constraint results in the free carrier spectra with the maxima at k=(± π/2 , ± π/2 observed in some cuprates. We consider the spectral properties of the model by taking into account fluctuations of the spins in the antiferromagnetic background. We show that such fluctuations lead to a non-pole-like structure of the single-hole Green's function and these fluctuations can be responsible for some anomalous "strange metal" properties of underdoped cuprates in the nonsuperconducting regime.

  7. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  8. In-house zinc SAD phasing at Cu Kα edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Kyu; Lee, Sangmin; An, Young Jun; Jeong, Chang-Sook; Ji, Chang-Jun; Lee, Jin-Won; Cha, Sun-Shin

    2013-07-01

    De novo zinc single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (Zn-SAD) phasing has been demonstrated with the 1.9 Å resolution data of glucose isomerase and 2.6 Å resolution data of Staphylococcus aureus Fur (SaFur) collected using in-house Cu Kα X-ray source. The successful in-house Zn-SAD phasing of glucose isomerase, based on the anomalous signals of both zinc ions introduced to crystals by soaking and native sulfur atoms, drove us to determine the structure of SaFur, a zinc-containing transcription factor, by Zn-SAD phasing using in-house X-ray source. The abundance of zinc-containing proteins in nature, the easy zinc derivatization of the protein surface, no need of synchrotron access, and the successful experimental phasing with the modest 2.6 Å resolution SAD data indicate that inhouse Zn-SAD phasing can be widely applicable to structure determination.

  9. The fluctuating gap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-15

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T{sub c} in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the

  10. The fluctuating gap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional systems exhibit some unusual phenomenon, such as the Peierls instability, the pseudogap phenomena and the absence of a Fermi-Dirac distribution function line shape in the photoemission spectroscopy. Ever since the discovery of materials with highly anisotropic properties, it has been recognized that fluctuations play an important role above the three-dimensional phase transition. This regime where the precursor fluctuations are presented can be described by the so called fluctuating gap model (FGM) which was derived from the Froehlich Hamiltonian to study the low energy physics of the one-dimensional electron-phonon system. Not only is the FGM of great interest in the context of quasi-one-dimensional materials, liquid metal and spin waves above T c in ferromagnets, but also in the semiclassical approximation of superconductivity, it is possible to replace the original three-dimensional problem by a directional average over effectively one-dimensional problem which in the weak coupling limit is described by the FGM. In this work, we investigate the FGM in a wide temperature range with different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. We derive a formally exact solution to this problem and calculate the density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. In our calculation, we show that a Dyson singularity appears in the low energy density of states for Gaussian fluctuations in the commensurate case. In the incommensurate case, there is no such kind of singularity, and the zero frequency density of states varies differently as a function of the correlation lengths for different statistics of the order parameter fluctuations. Using the density of states we calculated with non-Gaussian order parameter fluctuations, we are able to calculate the static spin susceptibility which agrees with the experimental data very well. In the calculation of the spectral functions, we show that as the correlation increases, the quasi

  11. Studies of Fluctuation Processes in Nuclear Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayik, Sakir [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-04-14

    The standard one-body transport approaches have been extensively applied to investigate heavy-ion collision dynamics at low and intermediate energies. At low energies the approach is the mean-field description of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory. At intermediate energies the approach is extended by including a collision term, and its application has been carried out mostly in the semi-classical framework of the Boltzmann-Uhling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) model. The standard transport models provide a good understanding of the average properties of the collision dynamics in terms of the effective interactions in both low and intermediate energies. However, the standard models are inadequate for describing the fluctuation dynamics of collective motion at low energies and disassembling of the nuclear system into fragments at intermediate energies resulting from the growth of density fluctuations in the spinodal region. Our tasks have been to improve the standard transport approaches by incorporating fluctuation mechanisms into the description. There are mainly two different mechanisms for fluctuations: (i) Collisional fluctuations generated by binary nucleon collisions, which provide the dominant mechanism at intermediate energies, and (ii) One-body mechanism or mean-field fluctuations, which is the dominant mechanism at low energies. In the first part of our project, the PI extended the standard transport model at intermediate energies by incorporating collisional mechanism according to the “Generalized Langevin Description” of Mori formalism. The PI and his collaborators carried out a number of applications for describing dynamical mechanism of nuclear multi fragmentations, and nuclear collective response in the semi-classical framework of the approach, which is known as the Boltzmann-Langevin model. In the second part of the project, we considered dynamical description at low energies. Because of the effective Pauli blocking, the collisional dissipation and

  12. Fluctuating Asymmetry and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C.

    2007-01-01

    The general factor of mental ability ("g") may reflect general biological fitness. If so, "g"-loaded measures such as Raven's progressive matrices should be related to morphological measures of fitness such as fluctuating asymmetry (FA: left-right asymmetry of a set of typically left-right symmetrical body traits such as finger…

  13. LiZIP3 is a cellular zinc transporter that mediates the tightly regulated import of zinc in Leishmania infantum parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sandra; da Silva, Rosa Barreira; Shawki, Ali; Castro, Helena; Lamy, Márcia; Eide, David; Costa, Vítor; Mackenzie, Bryan; Tomás, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cellular zinc homeostasis ensures that the intracellular concentration of this element is kept within limits that enable its participation in critical physiological processes without exerting toxic effects. We report here the identification and characterization of the first mediator of zinc homeostasis in Leishmania infantum, LiZIP3, a member of the ZIP family of divalent metal-ion transporters. The zinc transporter activity of LiZIP3 was first disclosed by its capacity to rescue the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains deficient in zinc acquisition. Subsequent expression of LiZIP3 in Xenopus laevis oocytes was shown to stimulate the uptake of a broad range of metal ions, among which Zn2+ was the preferred LiZIP3 substrate (K0.5 ≈ 0.1 μM). Evidence that LiZIP3 functions as a zinc importer in L. infantum came from the observations that the protein locates to the cell membrane and that its overexpression leads to augmented zinc internalization. Importantly, expression and cell-surface location of LiZIP3 are lost when parasites face high zinc bioavailability. LiZIP3 decline in response to zinc is regulated at the mRNA level in a process involving (a) short-lived protein(s). Collectively, our data reveal that LiZIP3 enables L. infantum to acquire zinc in a highly regulated manner, hence contributing to zinc homeostasis. PMID:25644708

  14. Fluctuations in high-energy particle collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronqvist, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    We study fluctuations that are omnipresent in high-energy particle collisions. These fluctuations can be either of either classical or quantum origin and we will study both. Firstly, we consider the type of quantum fluctuations that arise in proton-proton collisions. These are computable perturbatively in quantum field theory and we will focus on a specific class of diagrams in this set-up. Secondly, we will consider the fluctuations that are present in collisions between nuclei that can be heavier than protons. These are the quantum laws of nature that describe the positions of nucleons within a nucleus, but also the hydrodynamic fluctuations of classical, thermal origin that affect the evolution of the medium produced in heavy-ion collisions. The fluctuations arising in proton-proton collisions can be computed analytically up to a certain order in perturbative quantum field theory. We will focus on one-loop diagrams of a fixed topology. Loop diagrams give rise to integrals that typically are hard to evaluate. We show how modern mathematical methods can be used to ease their computation. We will study the relations among unitarity cuts of a diagram, the discontinuity across the corresponding branch cut and the coproduct. We show how the original integral corresponding to a given diagram can be reconstructed from the information contained in the coproduct. We expect that these methods can be applied to solve more complicated topologies and help in the computation of new amplitudes in the future. Finally, we study the two types of fluctuations arising in heavy-ion collisions. These are related either to the initial state or the intermediate state of matter produced in such collisions. The initial state fluctuations are experimentally observed to give rise to non-Gaussianities in the final-state spectra. We show how these non-Gaussianities can be explained by the random position and interaction energy of 'sources' in the colliding nuclei. Furthermore, we

  15. Radioisotopic studies concerning the efficacy of standard washing procedures for the cleansing of hair before zinc analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, R.A.; Dreosti, I.E.

    1984-01-01

    Various standard procedures were investigated in relation to the removal of exogenously applied 65Zn from human hair and endogenously incorporated 65Zn from rat hair. Human hair was found to adsorb zinc and a variety of other metal ions from aqueous solutions in a manner which suggested some ion-exchange capacity. Uptake of zinc varied considerably between human hair samples, but in most cases accumulation of zinc occurred rapidly and often resulted in hair zinc levels several-fold higher than found in control samples. Extraction of zinc and other metal ions was greatest after treatment with disodium EDTA and sodium lauryl sulfate than after washing with water or aqueous Triton X-100. However, no procedure effectively removed all exogenous zinc, while all treatments extracted varying proportions of the endogenous zinc component. Because of the inability of standard washing procedures to remove exogenous zinc without reducing endogenous or indicator zinc levels, use of hair zinc analyses to indicate nutritional zinc status are inadvisable if hair zinc contamination is likely to have occurred

  16. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales Zinc deficiency and its functional implications

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE L ROSADO

    1998-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructur...

  17. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    from dehydration. Giving fluids by mouth (using an oral rehydration solution (ORS)) has been shown to save children's lives, but it has no effect on the length of time the children suffer with diarrhoea. Zinc supplementation could help reduce the duration and the severity of diarrhoea, and therefore have an additional benefit over ORS in reducing children mortality. What is oral zinc and how may it shorten the duration and severity of diarrhoea Zinc is usually given as zinc sulphate, zinc acetate, or zinc gluconate, which are all water-soluble compounds. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommend 10 mg to 20 mg of zinc per day for children with diarrhoea. There are several mechanism of action of zinc on acute diarrhoea, some of which are specific to the gastrointestinal system: zinc restores mucosal barrier integrity and enterocyte brush-border enzyme activity, it promotes the production of antibodies and circulating lymphocytes against intestinal pathogens, and has a direct effect on ion channels, acting as a potassium channel blocker of adenosine 3-5-cyclic monophosphate-mediated chlorine secretion. Cochrane researchers examined the evidence available up to 30 September 2016. What the evidence in the review suggests Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met the inclusion criteria of this review. Among children with acute diarrhoea, we don't know if treating children with zinc has an effect on death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (low certainty evidence), and probably reduces the number of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven (moderate certainty evidence). In children with signs of malnutrition the effect appears greater, reducing the duration of diarrhoea by around a day (high certainty evidence). Conversely, in children younger than six

  18. In vitro activity of zinc oxide-eugenol and glass ionomer cements on Candida albicans Atividade in vitro dos cimentos de óxido de zinco e eugenol e ionômero de vidro sobre Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina Aguiar Cassanho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of glass ionomer (GIC and zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE cements against Candida albicans. Standardized GIC and ZOE specimens were maintained in contact with C. albicans suspension (1 ´ 10(6 cells/ml at 37°C for 24 h, 48 h or 7 days. A control group without any testing cement was included. After the incubation period, aliquots of 0.1 ml were plated on Sabouraud's agar, and then the number of colonies was counted. The results were expressed as values of logarithms of colony-forming units per milliliter (log CFU/mL and were analyzed statistically by Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA. After 48 h of incubation, the ZOE group presented no growth of C. albicans. GIC and control groups presented similar mean values at all tested periods. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that, under the experimental conditions, ZOE cement was more effective in vitro against C. albicans than GIC.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana dos cimentos de ionômero de vidro (CIV e óxido de zinco e eugenol (OZE sobre Candida albicans. Corpos-de-prova padronizados de CIV e OZE foram mantidos em contato com suspensão (1 ´ 10(6 células/ml de C. albicans a 37°C por 24 horas, 48 horas ou 7 dias. Um grupo controle sem nenhum cimento teste foi incluído. Após o período de incubação, alíquotas de 0,1 ml foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud e o número de colônias foi contado. Os resultados foram expressos em logaritmos de valores de unidades formadoras de colônias por ml (log UFC/mL e analisados estatisticamente pelo teste ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis. Após 48 horas de incubação, o grupo OZE não apresentou crescimento de C. albicans. Os grupos CIV e controle apresentaram médias similares em todos os períodos testados. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, pode ser concluído que, sob as condições experimentais testadas, o cimento OZE apresentou-se mais efetivo in

  19. A novel thiolated human-like collage zinc complex as a promising zinc supplement: physicochemical characteristics and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenhui; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Yonghui; Mi, Yu; Fan, Daidi; Deng, Jianjun; Xue, Wenjiao

    2014-11-01

    To improve zinc binding ability to human-like collagen (HLC) and stability of metal complex, HLC was thiolated by mercaptosuccinylation reaction with S-acetylmercaptosuccinic anhydride (S-AMSA) at pH8.0. One mole of thiolated HLC-Zn (SHLC-Zn) complex possessed 24.3mol zinc ions when pH was 8.0 and zinc concentration was 15 mM. The physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of thiolated HLC-Zn (SHLC-Zn) complex were investigated by UV-vis, CD, electrophoresis analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and cell viability assay, respectively. The results showed that SHLC-Zn complex(1) exhibited higher zinc ions than that of native HLC and still maintained the secondary structure of HLC though interaction occurred between SHLC and zinc ions, (2) increased the apparent molecular weight when compared with native HLC, (3) exhibited greater thermal stability than native HLC, and (4) presented toxicity free for BHK cells. This study suggests that the SHLC-Zn complex is a potential nutrition as well as zinc supplement in the medical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins, e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed

  1. Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Loukas

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed.

  2. Fluctuations in quantum devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Haken

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of composite quantum systems.

  3. Controlling fluctuations in an ITB and comparison with gyrokinetic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, D. R.; Fiore, C. L.; Dominguez, A.; Podpaly, Y.; Reinke, M. L.; Terry, J. L.; Tsujii, N.; Bespamyatnov, I.; Churchill, M.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Lee, J.; Ma, Y.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.

    2011-10-01

    We have modulated on-axis ICRF minority heating to trigger fluctuations and core electron transport in Alcator C-Mod Internal Transport Barriers (ITB's). Temperature swings of 50% produced strong bursts of density fluctuations, measured by phase contrast imaging (PCI), while edge fluctuations from reflectometry, Mirnov coils, and gas puff imaging (GPI) simultaneously diminished. The PCI fluctuations are in phase with sawteeth, further evidence that they originate within the ITB foot. Linear gyrokinetic analysis with GS2 shows TEMs are driven unstable in the ITB by the on-axis heating, as in Refs.,. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of turbulence in the ITB are compared with fluctuation data using a synthetic diagnostic. Strong ITB's were produced with high quality ion and electron profile data. Supported by U.S. DoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512, DE-FG02-91ER54109, DE-FC02-08ER54966.

  4. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, B.L.; Auld, D.S.; Coleman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a zinc cluster akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is ∼3.5 angstrom. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is ∼13 angstrom, and in this instance, a zinc twist is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native zinc fingers, structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent

  5. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSADO JORGE L

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructural en membranas biológicas, y guarda una estrecha relación con la síntesis de proteínas, entre otras cosas. Es por esto que la deficiencia de zinc está asociada con consecuencias importantes en la salud y la funcionalidad de los individuos, especialmente durante las primeras etapas de la vida. De relevancia para México es la existencia de una deficiencia moderada de zinc en los niños y las consecuencias que ésta pueda tener en la salud de los mismos. Los estudios realizados sugieren que la deficiencia moderada de zinc se presenta asociada con la ingestión de dietas basadas en alimentos de origen vegetal, las cuales contienen cantidades importantes de inhibidores de la absorción de zinc. Este tipo de dietas se consume habitualmente en las zonas rurales y en la población marginal de las ciudades en el país. Entre las consecuencias más importantes de esta deficiencia se encontró un aumento en la presencia de enfermedades infecciosas, especialmente de diarrea, y posibles alteraciones en el desarrollo de la capacidad cognoscitiva.

  6. Collective fluctuations in magnetized plasma: Transition probability approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical plasma electrodynamics is elaborated with special emphasis on the transition probability approach and quasi-particles, and on modern applications to magnetized plasmas. Fluctuation spectra in the magnetized plasma are calculated in the range of low frequencies (with respect to the cyclotron one), and the conditions for the transition from incoherent to collective fluctuations are established. The role of finite-Larmor-radius effects and particle polarization drift in such a transition is explained. The ion collective features in fluctuation spectra are studied. 63 refs., 30 figs

  7. Changes in atomic populations due to edge plasma fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammami, R., E-mail: ramzi.hammami@univ-provence.fr [PIIM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS, centre Saint Jérôme, Marseille 13397 (France); Capes, H. [PIIM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS, centre Saint Jérôme, Marseille 13397 (France); Catoire, F. [CELIA, Université de Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Domaine du Haut Carré, Talence 33405 (France); Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Marandet, Y.; Mekkaoui, A.; Rosato, J.; Stamm, R. [PIIM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS, centre Saint Jérôme, Marseille 13397 (France)

    2013-07-15

    The population balance of atoms or ions in an edge plasma is calculated in the presence of fluctuating density or temperature. We have used a stochastic model taking advantage of the knowledge of the plasma parameter statistical properties, and assuming a stepwise constant stochastic process for the fluctuating variable. The model is applied to simplified atomic systems such as three level hydrogen atoms or the ionization balance of carbon affected by electronic temperature or density fluctuations obeying a gamma PDF, and an exponential waiting time distribution.

  8. Edge plasma fluctuations in STOR-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Hirose, A.; Zhang, L.; Xiao, C.; Conway, G.D.; Skarsgard, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the STOR-M tokamak, the coherence and propagation nature of the density (n e ) and magnetic (B r ) fluctuations are investigated both in the scrape-off layer (SOL, r/a > 1) and at the plasma edge (r/a -2 is of the order of the reverse electron skin depth kθ ≅ ω pe /c. In terms of the hybrid ion Larmor radius ρ s = c s /Ω i , it corresponds to k θρ s ≅ 0.1. These observations support the skin size electromagnetic drift mode which predicts that a low β tokamak discharge is unstable against the skin size electromagnetic instability with a phase velocity significantly smaller than the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. Edge fluctuations observed in STOR-M appear to propagate at the local E x B drift, and the phase velocity in the plasma from is υ theta ≅ 5 x 10 4 cm/sec, compared with the local electron diamagnetic drift, υ e ≅ 2.5 x 10 5 cm/sec. In the SOL region, the density fluctuations propagate in the ion diamagnetic drift, but still with the local E x B drift because E r changes its sign at r/a ≅ 1

  9. The mechanism of zinc uptake in excised roots and leaf discs of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van As, J.A.

    1991-03-01

    The mechanism and nature of zinc uptake was studied with the aid of 65 Zn. Uptake of zinc was also compared to that of potassium and phosphate, which are known to be ATP-dependent. Zinc uptake was characterized by a rapid initial uptake, followed by a slower linear phase. Decreasing the temperature from 25 to 2 deg C resulted in a decrease of only 30% in the rate of zinc uptake. Uptake of zinc was insensitive to DNP - possibly indicating the non-metabolic nature of the uptake process. A possible role for zinc in protein synthesis could not be demonstrated as CHI did not inhibit zinc uptake. Cyanide reduced zinc uptake to almost zero, possibly due to complexation of zinc by cyanide. Light had no effect on the accumulation of Zn, whereas dark incubation reduced potassium uptake substantially. The relative high rate of zinc uptake and the passive nature of the uptake process might be due to the high binding capacity of the free space for zinc ions. Transport of the zinc in the xylem and phloem of intact bean plants, as well as the metabolic dependence of the latter, was also investigated. The bulk of the zinc absorbed by bean plants remained in the roots and stems with only a very small fraction being translocated to shoots. Adsorption was the major uptake mechanism in roots and stems. In contrast to transport in the xylem, zinc was readily transported in the phloem. Loading and unloading of zinc in the phloem was not influenced by low temperature or DNP. Opposed to this, loading of potassium and phosphate was inhibited by DNP, while unloading was inhibited by low temperature. It can therefore be concluded that the uptake and transport of zinc is probably a passive process. 33 figs., 282 refs

  10. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, É lisabeth; Hinch, John

    2011-01-01

    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations

  11. Density, potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS and ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbin, R.; Hidalgo, C.; Carlson, A.; Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; Herre, G.; Niedermeyer, H.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ion saturation current, floating potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS) and ASDEX tokamak have been carried out. A reciprocating Langmuir probe with an array of 19 graphite tips has been used to obtain the radial profiles of these fluctuations in W7-AS and ASDEX. In both devices, a reversal of the radial electric field and an associated velocity shear layer at the plasma boundary have been observed. At the radial position where the phase velocity the poloidal direction of the fluctuations goes to zero, the normalised ion saturation current fluctuation level of 0.2 is the same for edge plasma parameters of similar temperatures and densities. A spatial crosscorrelation between floating potential and ion saturation current fluctuations has been observed in both machines and this feature can be explained in terms of turbulent eddies. A comparison of fluctuations in a tokamak and stellarator therefore shows many features in common. (orig.)

  12. Plasma diagnostics during magnetron sputtering of aluminum doped zinc oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Crovetto, Andrea; Sanna, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity of the f......Plasma parameters during magnetron sputtering of aluminum-doped zinc oxide are investigated with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probes and mass spectrometry with the aim of understanding the role of negative ions of oxygen during the film growth and improving the uniformity...

  13. Zinc in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects Symptoms of zinc deficiency include: Frequent infections Hypogonadism in males Loss of hair Poor appetite Problems with the ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  14. Different roles of glutathione in copper and zinc chelation in Brassica napus roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobin, Ilya E; Kartashov, Alexander V; Shpakovski, George V

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the specific features of copper and zinc excess action on the roots of canola (Brassica napus L.) plants. Copper rapidly accumulated in canola root cells and reached saturation during several hours of treatment, whereas the root zinc content increased relatively slowly. Excessive copper and zinc entry inside the cell resulted in significant cell damage, as evidenced by alterations in plasmalemma permeability and decreases in cellular enzymatic activity. Zinc excess specifically damaged root hair cells, which correlated with a pronounced elevation of their labile zinc level. In vitro, we showed that reduced glutathione (GSH) readily reacted with copper ions to form complexes with blocked sulfhydryl groups. In contrast, zinc ions were ineffective as glutathione blockers, and glutathione molecules did not lose their specific chemical activity in the presence of Zn 2+ ions. The effect of copper and zinc excess on the glutathione pool in canola root cells was analysed by a combination of biochemical determination of total and oxidized glutathione contents and fluorescent staining of free reduced glutathione with monochlorobimane dye. Excess copper led to dose-dependent diminution of free reduced glutathione contents in the root cells, which could not be explained by the loss of total cellular glutathione or its oxidation. In contrast, we observed little effect of much higher intracellular zinc concentrations on the free reduced glutathione content. We concluded that GSH plays an important role in copper excess, but not zinc excess chelation, in canola root cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  16. Plasma processes and film growth of expanding thermal plasma deposited textured zinc oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenen, R.; Linden, J.L.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma processes and film growth of textured zinc oxide deposited from oxygen and diethyl zinc utilizing expanding thermal argon plasma created by a cascaded arc is discussed. In all conditions explored, an excess of argon ions and low temperature electrons is available, which represent the

  17. Influence Of pH On The Transport Of Nanoscale Zinc Oxide In Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread use of nanoscale zinc oxide (nZnO) in various fields causes subsurface environment contamination. Even though the transport of dissolved zinc ions in subsurface environments such as soils and sediments has been widely studied, the transport mechanism of nZnO in such e...

  18. The cellular and subcellular localization of zinc transporter 7 in the mouse spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present work addresses the cellular and subcellular localization of the zinc transporter 7 (ZNT7, SLC30a7) protein and the distribution of zinc ions (Zn2+) in the mouse spinal cord. Our results indicated that the ZNT7 immunoreactive neurons were widely distributed in the Rexed’s laminae of the g...

  19. Zinc-substituted ZIF-67 nanocrystals and polycrystalline membranes for propylene/propane separation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chongqing

    2016-09-09

    Continuous ZIF-67 polycrystalline membranes with effective propylene/propane separation performances were successfully fabricated through the incorporation of zinc ions into the ZIF-67 framework. The separation factor increases from 1.4 for the pure ZIF-67 membrane to 50.5 for the 90% zinc-substituted ZIF-67 membrane.

  20. Study on the effect of x-ray irradiation of seed on zinc uptake in maize (Zea Mays L.) plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Gargi; Singh, K.P.; Joshi, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiations by X-rays at the two dose levels (1.1 KR and 2.2 KR) of seeds on uptake of zinc ion in maize (Zea Mays L.) plants were studied. The uptake and internal distribution of zinc ion in the maize plants was carried out by incorporating radioactive zinc as zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ) in the nutrient solution to the plants. The localization and translocation of radioactive zinc was studied employing phosphor imaging systems (FX). The radioactivity measurement has been carried out using solid scintillation counter. It was observed that zinc ions uptake was higher in plants out of 2.2 KR X-rays irradiated seeds. (author)

  1. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  2. ttm-1 encodes CDF transporters that excrete zinc from intestinal cells of C. elegans and act in a parallel negative feedback circuit that promotes homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Cheol Roh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential metal involved in a wide range of biological processes, and aberrant zinc metabolism is implicated in human diseases. The gastrointestinal tract of animals is a critical site of zinc metabolism that is responsible for dietary zinc uptake and distribution to the body. However, the role of the gastrointestinal tract in zinc excretion remains unclear. Zinc transporters are key regulators of zinc metabolism that mediate the movement of zinc ions across membranes. Here, we identified a comprehensive list of 14 predicted Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF family zinc transporters in Caenorhabditis elegans and demonstrated that zinc is excreted from intestinal cells by one of these CDF proteins, TTM-1B. The ttm-1 locus encodes two transcripts, ttm-1a and ttm-1b, that use different transcription start sites. ttm-1b expression was induced by high levels of zinc specifically in intestinal cells, whereas ttm-1a was not induced by zinc. TTM-1B was localized to the apical plasma membrane of intestinal cells, and analyses of loss-of-function mutant animals indicated that TTM-1B promotes zinc excretion into the intestinal lumen. Zinc excretion mediated by TTM-1B contributes to zinc detoxification. These observations indicate that ttm-1 is a component of a negative feedback circuit, since high levels of cytoplasmic zinc increase ttm-1b transcript levels and TTM-1B protein functions to reduce the level of cytoplasmic zinc. We showed that TTM-1 isoforms function in tandem with CDF-2, which is also induced by high levels of cytoplasmic zinc and reduces cytoplasmic zinc levels by sequestering zinc in lysosome-related organelles. These findings define a parallel negative feedback circuit that promotes zinc homeostasis and advance the understanding of the physiological roles of the gastrointestinal tract in zinc metabolism in animals.

  3. Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej

    2015-08-01

    Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.

  4. Fluctuations in the hadronization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P.; Ploszajaczak, M.

    1992-01-01

    The multiscaling in the fluctuations of the multiparticle distributions at small scales is studied. Similarly to the multiscaling effect, recently found in multifractal models, the dependence of the intermittency patterns on the low density cut-off in the cascade is analyzed. The effect changes the scaling behaviour and leads to stronger dependence of the scaled factorial moments on the resolution than the power law. This could be an explanation of the behaviour observed recently in the experimental 3-dimensional data. The multiscaling analysis allows to restore the universality in the processes with different cut-offs and could be used in the analysis of the experimental data. (author) 17 refs., 5 figs

  5. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  6. Range-extending Zinc-air battery for electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Sherman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle model is used to evaluate a novel powertrain that is comprised of a dual energy storage system (Dual ESS. The system includes two battery packs with different chemistries and the necessary electronic controls to facilitate their coordination and optimization. Here, a lithium-ion battery pack is used as the primary pack and a Zinc-air battery as the secondary or range-extending pack. Zinc-air batteries are usually considered unsuitable for use in vehicles due to their poor cycle life, but the model demonstrates the feasibility of this technology with an appropriate control strategy, with limited cycling of the range extender pack. The battery pack sizes and the battery control strategy are configured to optimize range, cost and longevity. In simulation the vehicle performance compares favourably to a similar vehicle with a single energy storage system (Single ESS powertrain, travelling up to 75 km further under test conditions. The simulation demonstrates that the Zinc-air battery pack need only cycle 100 times to enjoy a ten-year lifespan. The Zinc-air battery model is based on leading Zinc-air battery research from literature, with some assumptions regarding achievable improvements. Having such a model clarifies the performance requirements of Zinc-air cells and improves the research community's ability to set performance targets for Zinc-air cells.

  7. Zinc in human serum. Biochemical and clinical aspects. Zink i humant serum. Biokemiske og kliniske aspekter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiilerich, S

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 percent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of protein binding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and ..cap alpha../sub 2/-macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a ..cap alpha../sup 2/-macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 percent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 percent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 percent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 percent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin.

  8. The components of the unique Zur regulon of Cupriavidus metallidurans mediate cytoplasmic zinc handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütof, Lucy; Schmidt-Vogler, Christopher; Herzberg, Martin; Große, Cornelia; Nies, Dietrich H

    2017-08-14

    bacteria. In contrast, the heavy metal-resistant bacterium C. metallidurans achieves high tolerance to zinc due to sophisticated zinc handling and efflux systems operating on periplasmic zinc ions, so that removal of surplus zinc is a periplasmic feature in this bacterium. It is shown here that this process is augmented by management of zinc through cytoplasmic zinc chaperones, whose syntheses are controlled by the Zur regulator. This demonstrates a new mechanism to organize zinc homeostasis through compartmentalization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Fear-of-intimacy-mediated zinc transport controls the function of zinc-finger transcription factors involved in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Rando, Marta; Atienza-Manuel, Alexandra; Martín, Paloma; Burke, Richard; Ruiz-Gómez, Mar

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a component of one-tenth of all human proteins. Its cellular concentration is tightly regulated because its dyshomeostasis has catastrophic health consequences. Two families of zinc transporters control zinc homeostasis in organisms, but there is little information about their specific developmental roles. We show that the ZIP transporter Fear-of-intimacy (Foi) is necessary for the formation of Drosophila muscles. In foi mutants, myoblasts segregate normally, but their specification is affected, leading to the formation of a misshapen muscle pattern and distorted midgut. The observed phenotypes could be ascribed to the inactivation of specific zinc-finger transcription factors (ZFTFs), supporting the hypothesis that they are a consequence of intracellular depletion of zinc. Accordingly, foi phenotypes can be rescued by mesodermal expression of other ZIP members with similar subcellular localization. We propose that Foi acts mostly as a transporter to regulate zinc intracellular homeostasis, thereby impacting on the activity of ZFTFs that control specific developmental processes. Our results additionally suggest a possible explanation for the presence of large numbers of zinc transporters in organisms based on differences in ion transport specificity and/or degrees of activity among transporters. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Influence of structural and surface properties of whey-derived peptides on zinc-chelating capacity, and in vitro gastric stability and bioaccessibility of the zinc-peptide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udechukwu, M Chinonye; Downey, Brianna; Udenigwe, Chibuike C

    2018-02-01

    Gastrointestinal stability of zinc-peptide complexes is essential for zinc delivery. As peptide surface charge can influence their metal complex stability, we evaluated the zinc-chelating capacity and stability of zinc complexes of whey protein hydrolysates (WPH), produced with Everlase (WPH-Ever; ζ-potential, -39mV) and papain (WPH-Pap; ζ-potential, -7mV), during simulated digestion. WPH-Ever had lower amount of zinc-binding amino acids but showed higher zinc-chelating capacity than WPH-Pap. This is attributable to the highly anionic surface charge of WPH-Ever for electrostatic interaction with zinc. Release of zinc during peptic digestion was lower for WPH-Ever-zinc, and over 50% of zinc remained bound in both peptide complexes after peptic-pancreatic digestion. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggests the involvement of carboxylate ion, and sidechain carbon-oxygen of aspartate/glutamate and serine/threonine in zinc-peptide complexation. The findings indicate that strong zinc chelation can promote gastric stability and impede intestinal release, for peptides intended for use as dietary zinc carriers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate in utero supply of zinc is essential for optimal fetal growth because of the role of zinc in cellular division, growth and differentiation. Low maternal serum zinc has been reported to be associated with low birth weight and the later is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in newborns.

  12. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pešlová, F.; Kliber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 43-46 ISSN 0543-5846 Grant - others:KEGA(SK) KEGA 007 TnUAD-4/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * production of zinc oxide * microstructure * chemical composition * zinc slag Subject RIV: JG - Metal lurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  13. Zinc biofortification of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc...... and other essential nutrients. Major bottlenecks in plant biofortification appear to be the root-shoot barrier and - in cereals - the process of grain filling. New findings demonstrate that the root-shoot distribution of zinc is controlled mainly by heavy metal transporting P1B-ATPases and the metal...... tolerance protein (MTP) family. A greater understanding of zinc transport is important to improve crop quality and also to help alleviate accumulation of any toxic metals....

  14. Fluctuation Relations for Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Akimov, Alexei; Chernyak, Vladimir; Chertkov, Michael

    2011-03-01

    We consider a non-equilibrium statistical system on a graph or a network. Identical particles are injected, interact with each other, traverse, and leave the graph in a stochastic manner described in terms of Poisson rates, possibly strongly dependent on time and instantaneous occupation numbers at the nodes of the graph. We show that the system demonstrates a profound statistical symmetry, leading to new Fluctuation Relations that originate from the supersymmetry and the principle of the geometric universality of currents rather than from the relations between probabilities of forward and reverse trajectories. NSF/ECCS-0925618, NSF/CHE-0808910 and DOE at LANL under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  15. Concentration Fluctuations and Capacitive Response in Dense Ionic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uralcan, Betul; Aksay, Ilhan A; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Limmer, David T

    2016-07-07

    We use molecular dynamics simulations in a constant potential ensemble to study the effects of solution composition on the electrochemical response of a double layer capacitor. We find that the capacitance first increases with ion concentration following its expected ideal solution behavior but decreases upon approaching a pure ionic liquid in agreement with recent experimental observations. The nonmonotonic behavior of the capacitance as a function of ion concentration results from the competition between the independent motion of solvated ions in the dilute regime and solvation fluctuations in the concentrated regime. Mirroring the capacitance, we find that the characteristic decay length of charge density correlations away from the electrode is also nonmonotonic. The correlation length first decreases with ion concentration as a result of better electrostatic screening but increases with ion concentration as a result of enhanced steric interactions. When charge fluctuations induced by correlated ion-solvent fluctuations are large relative to those induced by the pure ionic liquid, such capacitive behavior is expected to be generic.

  16. Fluctuations in email size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Yoshitsugu; Musashi, Yasuo

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain fluctuations in email size. We have previously investigated the long-term correlations between email send requests and data flow in the system log of the primary staff email server at a university campus, finding that email size frequency follows a power-law distribution with two inflection points, and that the power-law property weakens the correlation of the data flow. However, the mechanism underlying this fluctuation is not completely understood. We collected new log data from both staff and students over six academic years and analyzed the frequency distribution thereof, focusing on the type of content contained in the emails. Furthermore, we obtained permission to collect "Content-Type" log data from the email headers. We therefore collected the staff log data from May 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015, creating two subdistributions. In this paper, we propose a model to explain these subdistributions, which follow log-normal-like distributions. In the log-normal-like model, email senders -consciously or unconsciously- regulate the size of new email sentences according to a normal distribution. The fitting of the model is acceptable for these subdistributions, and the model demonstrates power-law properties for large email sizes. An analysis of the length of new email sentences would be required for further discussion of our model; however, to protect user privacy at the participating organization, we left this analysis for future work. This study provides new knowledge on the properties of email sizes, and our model is expected to contribute to the decision on whether to establish upper size limits in the design of email services.

  17. Fluctuating Thermodynamics for Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sihyun

    Because biomolecular processes are largely under thermodynamic control, dynamic extension of thermodynamics is necessary to uncover the mechanisms and driving factors of fluctuating processes. The fluctuating thermodynamics technology presented in this talk offers a practical means for the thermodynamic characterization of conformational dynamics in biomolecules. The use of fluctuating thermodynamics has the potential to provide a comprehensive picture of fluctuating phenomena in diverse biological processes. Through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics, we provide a thermodynamic perspective on the misfolding and aggregation of the various proteins associated with human diseases. In this talk, I will present the detailed concepts and applications of the fluctuating thermodynamics technology for elucidating biological processes. This work was supported by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1401-13.

  18. A moonlighting function of Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku in zinc homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Ambuj K; Deochand, Dinesh K; Grove, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Ku protein participates in DNA double-strand break repair via the nonhomologous end-joining pathway. The three-dimensional structure of eukaryotic Ku reveals a central core consisting of a β-barrel domain and pillar and bridge regions that combine to form a ring-like structure that encircles DNA. Homologs of Ku are encoded by a subset of bacterial species, and they are predicted to conserve this core domain. In addition, the bridge region of Ku from some bacteria is predicted from homology modeling and sequence analyses to contain a conventional HxxC and CxxC (where x is any residue) zinc-binding motif. These potential zinc-binding sites have either deteriorated or been entirely lost in Ku from other organisms. Using an in vitro metal binding assay, we show that Mycobacterium smegmatis Ku binds two zinc ions. Zinc binding modestly stabilizes the Ku protein (by ∼3°C) and prevents cysteine oxidation, but it has little effect on DNA binding. In vivo, zinc induces significant upregulation of the gene encoding Ku (∼sixfold) as well as a divergently oriented gene encoding a predicted zinc-dependent MarR family transcription factor. Notably, overexpression of Ku confers zinc tolerance on Escherichia coli. We speculate that zinc-binding sites in Ku proteins from M. smegmatis and other mycobacterial species have been evolutionarily retained to provide protection against zinc toxicity without compromising the function of Ku in DNA double-strand break repair. © 2014 The Protein Society.

  19. Dynamical charge fluctuation at FAIR energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment to be held at the Facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR) is being designed to investigate the baryonic matter under extreme thermodynamic conditions. The hot and dense matter produced in this experiment will be rich in baryon number. It would be worthwhile to examine how the signatures proposed for identifying and characterizing a baryon free QGP like state behave in a baryon rich environment. Event-by-event fluctuation of net electrical charge and/or baryon number is one such indicator of the formation of the QGP, used and tested in RHIC and LHC heavy-ion experiments. One starts by defining the net charge Q = (N + - N - ) and the total charge N ch = (N + + N - ) where the quantities N + and N - are respectively, the multiplicities of positively and negatively charged particles

  20. Deficiencia de zinc y sus implicaciones funcionales Zinc deficiency and its functional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE L ROSADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objeto revisar los aspectos teóricos y los estudios realizados en México que sugieren la existencia de la deficiencia moderada de zinc en niños de población rural, así como algunas de las consecuencias de dicha deficiencia en la salud. El zinc es un nutrimento indispensable para el organismo de los humanos y juega un papel importante en una serie de procesos metabólicos: participa en el sitio catalítico de varios sistemas enzimáticos; participa como ion estructural en membranas biológicas, y guarda una estrecha relación con la síntesis de proteínas, entre otras cosas. Es por esto que la deficiencia de zinc está asociada con consecuencias importantes en la salud y la funcionalidad de los individuos, especialmente durante las primeras etapas de la vida. De relevancia para México es la existencia de una deficiencia moderada de zinc en los niños y las consecuencias que ésta pueda tener en la salud de los mismos. Los estudios realizados sugieren que la deficiencia moderada de zinc se presenta asociada con la ingestión de dietas basadas en alimentos de origen vegetal, las cuales contienen cantidades importantes de inhibidores de la absorción de zinc. Este tipo de dietas se consume habitualmente en las zonas rurales y en la población marginal de las ciudades en el país. Entre las consecuencias más importantes de esta deficiencia se encontró un aumento en la presencia de enfermedades infecciosas, especialmente de diarrea, y posibles alteraciones en el desarrollo de la capacidad cognoscitiva.The purpose of this article is to review theoretical aspects and research performed in Mexico suggesting the existence of marginal zinc deficiency in rural children and its consequences on health. Zinc is an indispensable nutrient for humans since it plays an important role in several metabolic pathways: it participates in the catalytic site of several enzymes, as a structural ion of biological membranes and is

  1. Big Bang or vacuum fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, Ya.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some general properties of vacuum fluctuations in quantum field theory are described. The connection between the ''energy dominance'' of the energy density of vacuum fluctuations in curved space-time and the presence of singularity is discussed. It is pointed out that a de-Sitter space-time (with the energy density of the vacuum fluctuations in the Einstein equations) that matches the expanding Friedman solution may describe the history of the Universe before the Big Bang. (P.L.)

  2. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  3. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs

  4. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer

  5. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR

  6. Spectral density of electron concentration fluctuations in ionospheric D region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, S.I.

    1989-01-01

    Expression for spectral density of electron concentration fluctuations in D-region with regard to the effect of ionization-recombination proceses and negative ions is obtained in terms of atmospheric turbulence model which obeys Kolmogorov-Obukhov 2/3 law

  7. Zinc-Nickel Codeposition in Sulfate Solution Combined Effect of Cadmium and Boric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Addi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of cadmium and boric acid on the electrodeposition of zinc-nickel from a sulfate has been investigated. The presence of cadmium ion decreases zinc in the deposit. In solution, cadmium inhibits the zinc ion deposition and suppresses it when deposition potential value is more negative than −1.2 V. Low concentration of CdSO4 reduces the anomalous nature of Zn-Ni deposit. Boric acid decreases current density and shifts potential discharge of nickel and hydrogen to more negative potential. The combination of boric acid and cadmium increases the percentage of nickel in the deposit. Boric acid and cadmium.

  8. Characterization of Alfvenic fluctuations in the magnetopause boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezeau, L.; Morane, A.; Perraut, S.; Roux, A.; Schmidt, R.

    1989-01-01

    The European Space Agency GEOS 2 spacecraft happened to cross the magnetopause several times, at various local times. Intense electric and magnetic fluctuations, in the ultralow-frequency (ULF) range (0-10 Hz) have been detected during each such crossing, with a peak at the magnetopause and still large amplitudes in the adjacent magnetosheath and magnetopause boundary layer. By applying spectral analysis and correlations to the electric and magnetic fluctuations, and a minimum variance analysis to the magnetic fluctuations, the authors investigate the nature of these fluctuations which appear as short-lasting bursts in the spacecraft frame. Having reviewed possible interpretations, they show that the observed electric and magnetic signatures are consistent with small-scale (L ∼ ion Larmor radius) Alfvenic field-aligned structures passing by the spacecraft at high speed. It is suggested that these structures correspond to nonlinear Alfvenic structures

  9. Synthesis from zinc oxalate, growth mechanism and optical properties of ZnO nano/micro structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, C. Justin; Varma, K.B.R. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Joshi, R.K. [Special Center for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2011-11-15

    We report the synthesis of various morphological micro to nano structured zinc oxide crystals via simple precipitation technique. The growth mechanisms of the zinc oxide nanostructures such as snowflake, rose, platelets, porous pyramid and rectangular shapes were studied in detail under various growth conditions. The precursor powders were prepared using several zinc counter ions such as chloride, nitrate and sulphate along with oxalic acid as a precipitating agent. The precursors were decomposed by heating in air resulting in the formation of different shapes of zinc oxide crystals. Variations in ZnO nanostructural shapes were possibly due to the counter ion effect. Sulphate counter ion led to unusual rose-shape morphology. Strong ultrasonic treatment on ZnO rose shows that it was formed by irregular arrangement of micro to nano size hexagonal zinc oxide platelets. The X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the wurzite structure of all zinc oxide samples synthesized using different zinc counter ions. Functional groups of the zinc oxalate precursor and zinc oxide were identified using micro Raman studies. The blue light emission spectra of the various morphologies were recorded using luminescence spectrometer. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Thermodynamic theory of equilibrium fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The postulational basis of classical thermodynamics has been expanded to incorporate equilibrium fluctuations. The main additional elements of the proposed thermodynamic theory are the concept of quasi-equilibrium states, a definition of non-equilibrium entropy, a fundamental equation of state in the entropy representation, and a fluctuation postulate describing the probability distribution of macroscopic parameters of an isolated system. Although these elements introduce a statistical component that does not exist in classical thermodynamics, the logical structure of the theory is different from that of statistical mechanics and represents an expanded version of thermodynamics. Based on this theory, we present a regular procedure for calculations of equilibrium fluctuations of extensive parameters, intensive parameters and densities in systems with any number of fluctuating parameters. The proposed fluctuation formalism is demonstrated by four applications: (1) derivation of the complete set of fluctuation relations for a simple fluid in three different ensembles; (2) fluctuations in finite-reservoir systems interpolating between the canonical and micro-canonical ensembles; (3) derivation of fluctuation relations for excess properties of grain boundaries in binary solid solutions, and (4) derivation of the grain boundary width distribution for pre-melted grain boundaries in alloys. The last two applications offer an efficient fluctuation-based approach to calculations of interface excess properties and extraction of the disjoining potential in pre-melted grain boundaries. Possible future extensions of the theory are outlined.

  11. Nonlinear correlations in phase-space resolved fluctuations at drift wave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiff, F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Uzun, I [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Diallo, A [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasams EPF, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-12-15

    In an effort to better understand plasma transport, we measure fluctuations associated with drift instabilities resolved in the ion phase-space. Primary attention is given to fluctuations near the electron drift frequency where there are two general components to the observed fluctuations. From two (spatial) point measurements of the ion distribution function with a variable separation along the magnetic field, a number of statistical measures of the fluctuations are calculated including cross-correlation and cross-bicoherence. Both fluid ({omega}/k >> v{sub ti}) and kinetic ({omega}/k {approx} v{sub ti}) components are observed in the fluctuations. The nonlinear interactions are found to depend strongly on the ion particle velocity.

  12. Magnetic fluctuations associated with density fluctuations in the tokamak edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.J.; Gentle, K.W.; Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Electrostatic density and potential fluctuations occurring with high amplitude near the edge of a tokamak are correlated with components of the fluctuating magnetic field measured outside the limiter radius. It has been established that this turbulence is associated with fluctuations in current as well as density and potential. The correlation extends for substantial toroidal distances, but only if the probes are displaced approximately along field lines, consistent with the short coherence lengths poloidally but long coherence lengths parallel to the field which are characteristic for this turbulence. Furthermore, the correlation can be found only with density fluctuations measured inside the limiter radius; density fluctuations behind the limiter have no detectable magnetic concomitant for the toroidally spaced probes used here. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 12 refs, 3 figs

  13. Incorporation of zinc into the coccoliths of the microalga Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Giulia; Sun, Wei-Lin; Brümmer, Franz; Bill, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi is covered with elaborated calcite plates, the so-called coccoliths, which are produced inside the cells. We investigated the incorporation of zinc into the coccoliths of E. huxleyi by applying different zinc and calcium amounts via the culture media and subsequently analyzing the zinc content in the cells and the Zn/Ca ratio of the coccoliths. To investigate the Zn/Ca ratio of coccoliths built in the manipulated media, the algae have first to be decalcified, i.e. coccolith free. We used a newly developed decalcification method to obtain 'naked' cells for cultivation. E. huxleyi proliferated and produced new coccoliths in all media with manipulated Zn/Ca ratios. The cells and the newly built coccoliths were investigated regarding their zinc content and their Zn/Ca ratio, respectively. High zinc amounts were taken up by the algae. The Zn/Ca ratio of the coccoliths was positively correlated to the Zn/Ca ratio of the applied media. The unique feature of the coccoliths was maintained also at high Zn/Ca ratios. We suggest the following pathway of the zinc ions into the coccoliths: first, the zinc ions are bound to the cell surface, followed by their transportation into the cytoplasm. Obviously, the zinc ions are removed afterwards into the coccolith vesicle, where the zinc is incorporated into the calcite coccoliths which are then extruded. The incorporation of toxic zinc ions into the coccoliths possibly due to a new function of the coccoliths as detoxification sites is discussed.

  14. Effects of dissolved metals and other hydrominerals on in vivo intestinal zinc uptake in freshwater rainbow trout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Chris N.; Hogstrand, Christer

    2003-01-01

    For aquatic organisms, zinc is both an essential nutrient and an environmental contaminant. The intestine is potentially the most important route of zinc absorption, yet little is known regarding this uptake pathway for zinc in fish. A recently developed in vivo perfusion system was used to investigate the effect of luminal composition upon intestinal zinc uptake in freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Perfusate cadmium and copper had specific, yet distinct, antagonistic effects upon lumen to tissue zinc movement. Copper significantly reduced the proportion of zinc taken up from the perfusate, and concomitantly limited the passage of zinc into the circulation and beyond. Conversely, cadmium decreased subepithelial zinc accumulation, with rates falling to 29 nmol g -1 h -1 from the control (zinc alone) values of 53 nmol g -1 h -1 . Calcium had a similar action to copper, also reducing post-intestinal zinc accumulation from 0.06 to 0.02 nmol g -1 h -1 , an effect attributed to interactions between calcium and the zinc uptake pathway. In addition to these effects, luminal composition also had a marked influence upon epithelial response to zinc. Calcium, copper and magnesium all greatly reduced zinc-induced mucus secretion. Cadmium, a toxic metal, significantly increased mucus secretion. It is proposed that these modifications were related to the essentiality of each element, and their potential mechanisms of uptake. Despite changes at the epithelium, the post-epithelial accumulation of zinc was dependent mainly upon the nature of the competing cation. Intestinal saline ion substitution experiments suggested a potential link of potassium ion efflux to zinc uptake. The effect of pH buffering of luminal solutions was also investigated

  15. Electrostatic fluctuation in Low-{beta} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krane, B

    1997-11-01

    The thesis gives an overview, which by no means is complete, to two dimensional plasma flows. The plasma is taken to be strongly magnetized such that magnetic fields generated by internal currents are small compared to the background magnetic field. This requires that the magnetic pressure exerted by the ambient magnetic field is large compared to the pressure due to thermal fluctuations, i.e. low-{beta} plasma. The author also assume low frequency electrostatic fluctuations with {omega}<<{omega}{sub c}i where {omega}{sub c}i is the ion gyro frequency. A brief introduction to nonlinear phenomena in two dimensional plasma flows has been presented. Particular attention was given to simple models describing flute and drift modes. Although the derivations of the model equations are based on different assumptions regarding the plasma conditions, the resulting equations exhibit similar behavior in some respects. For instance, both the simple guiding center model and the Hasegawa-Mima model have stable dipolar structures. The inverse cascade was also found in both models. However, it is evident that there are significant differences, first of all the Hasegawa-Mima model assumes a background density gradient which makes it an inhomogeneous model. Secondly, in this model the electrons respond instantaneously to variations in the ion density by moving along the magnetic field, thereby introducing Debye shielding.

  16. Electrostatic fluctuation in Low-β plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, B

    1997-11-01

    The thesis gives an overview, which by no means is complete, to two dimensional plasma flows. The plasma is taken to be strongly magnetized such that magnetic fields generated by internal currents are small compared to the background magnetic field. This requires that the magnetic pressure exerted by the ambient magnetic field is large compared to the pressure due to thermal fluctuations, i.e. low-β plasma. The author also assume low frequency electrostatic fluctuations with ω c i where ω c i is the ion gyro frequency. A brief introduction to nonlinear phenomena in two dimensional plasma flows has been presented. Particular attention was given to simple models describing flute and drift modes. Although the derivations of the model equations are based on different assumptions regarding the plasma conditions, the resulting equations exhibit similar behavior in some respects. For instance, both the simple guiding center model and the Hasegawa-Mima model have stable dipolar structures. The inverse cascade was also found in both models. However, it is evident that there are significant differences, first of all the Hasegawa-Mima model assumes a background density gradient which makes it an inhomogeneous model. Secondly, in this model the electrons respond instantaneously to variations in the ion density by moving along the magnetic field, thereby introducing Debye shielding

  17. Zinc in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredholt, Mikkel; Fredriksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-01-01

    In the last 35 years, zinc (Zn) has been examined for its potential role in the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). This review gives an overview of the possible role of Zn in the pathogenesis of MS as well as a meta-analysis of studies having measured Zn in serum or plasma in patients with MS...

  18. Enrichment and Identification of the Most Abundant Zinc Binding Proteins in Developing Barley Grains by Zinc-IMAC Capture and Nano LC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Dionisio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc accumulates in the embryo, aleurone, and subaleurone layers at different amounts in cereal grains. Our hypothesis is that zinc could be stored bound, not only to low MW metabolites/proteins, but also to high MW proteins as well. Methods: In order to identify the most abundant zinc binding proteins in different grain tissues, we microdissected barley grains into (1 seed coats; (2 aleurone/subaleurone; (3 embryo; and (4 endosperm. Initial screening for putative zinc binding proteins from the different tissue types was performed by fractionating proteins according to solubility (Osborne fractionation, and resolving those via Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE followed by polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane blotting and dithizone staining. Selected protein fractions were subjected to Zn2+-immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and the captured proteins were identified using nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS. Results: In the endosperm, the most abundant zinc binding proteins were the storage protein B-hordeins, gamma-, and D-hordeins, while in the embryo, 7S globulins storage proteins exhibited zinc binding. In the aleurone/subaleurone, zinc affinity captured proteins were late abundant embryogenesis proteins, dehydrins, many isoforms of non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and alpha amylase trypsin inhibitor. Conclusions: We have shown evidence that abundant barley grain proteins have been captured by Zn-IMAC, and their zinc binding properties in relationship to the possibility of zinc storage is discussed.

  19. Determination of zinc stable isotopes in biological materials using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, K.Y.; Veillon, Claude

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for using isotope dilution to determine both the amount of natural zinc and enriched isotopes of zinc in biological samples. Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry offers a way to quantify not only the natural zinc found in a sample but also the enriched isotope tracers of zinc. Accurate values for the enriched isotopes and natural zinc are obtained by adjusting the mass count rate data for measurable instrumental biases. Analytical interferences from the matrix are avoided by extracting the zinc from the sample matrix using diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate. The extraction technique separates the zinc from elements which form interfering molecular ions at the same nominal masses as the zinc isotopes. Accuracy of the method is verified using standard reference materials. The detection limit is 0.06 μg Zn per sample. Precision of the abundance ratios range from 0.3-0.8%. R.S.D. for natural zinc concentrations is about 200-600 μg g -1 . The accuracy and precision of the measurements make it possible to follow enriched isotopic tracers of zinc in biological samples in metabolic tracer studies. (author). 19 refs.; 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic 65 Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%

  1. Charge Fluctuations in Nanoscale Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limmer, D.T.; Merlet, C.; Salanne, M.; Chandler, D.; Madden, P.A.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.; Rotenberg, B.

    2013-01-01

    The fluctuations of the charge on an electrode contain information on the microscopic correlations within the adjacent fluid and their effect on the electronic properties of the interface. We investigate these fluctuations using molecular dynamics simulations in a constant-potential ensemble with

  2. Fluctuating attention in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Aarsland, Dag; Janvin, Carmen

    2001-01-01

    Lewy body dementia (DLB), which share many clinical and pathological features with Parkinson’s disease (PD), is charac- terised by marked fluctuations in cognition and consciousness. Fluctuating cognition has not been formally studied in PD, although some studies indicate that PD patients show...

  3. Development of planar waveguides in zinc telluride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, Serge

    1977-02-01

    Zinc telluride (ZnTe) is one of the most attractive semi-conductors for monolithic integrated optics. In this study, the general characteristics of the planar optical waveguides achieved by implantation of light ions in ZnTe are investigated. Different aspects of prism-coupling and coherent light guiding have been taken up theoretically and experimentally. Some assumptions about the physical origin of these structures are discussed in order to explain all these results and the weak losses which have been measured. [fr

  4. Remediation of arsenic and lead with nanocrystalline zinc sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquette, Alan; Cannon, Cody; Apblett, Allen W

    2012-07-27

    Nanocrystalline (1.7 ± 0.3 nm) zinc sulfide with a specific surface area up to 360 m(2) g(-1) was prepared from the thermal decomposition of a single-source precursor, zinc ethylxanthate. Zinc ethylxanthate decomposes to cubic zinc sulfide upon exposure to temperatures greater than or equal to 125 °C. The resulting zinc sulfide was tested as a water impurity extractant. The target impurities used in this study were As(5+), As(3+), and Pb(2+). The reaction of the nanocrystalline ZnS with Pb(2+) proceeds as a replacement reaction where solid PbS is formed and Zn(2+) is released into the aqueous system. Removal of lead to a level of less than two parts per billion is achievable. The results of a detailed kinetics experiment between the ZnS and Pb(2+) are included in this study. Unlike the instance of lead, both As(5+) and As(3+) adsorb on the surface of the ZnS extractant as opposed to an ion-exchange process. An uptake capacity of > 25 mg g(-1) for the removal of As(5+) is possible. The uptake of As(3+) appears to proceed by a slower process than that of the As(5+) with a capacity of nearly 20 mg g(-1). The nanocrystalline zinc sulfide was extremely successful for the removal of arsenic and lead from simulated oil sand tailing pond water.

  5. Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, N; Ciliberto, S

    2005-06-01

    In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I, and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P = R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs' symmetries.

  6. Quantum fluctuations from thermal fluctuations in Jacobson formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir [University of British Columbia-Okanagan, Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, Kelowna, BC (Canada); University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lethbridge, AB (Canada); Ashour, Amani; Alcheikh, Mohammad [Damascus University, Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Alasfar, Lina [Universite Clermont Auvergne, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Aubiere (France); Alsaleh, Salwa; Mahroussah, Ahmed [King Saud University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-09-15

    In the Jacobson formalism general relativity is obtained from thermodynamics. This is done by using the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. However, as a black hole gets smaller, its temperature will increase. This will cause the thermal fluctuations to also increase, and these will in turn correct the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area relation. Furthermore, with the reduction in the size of the black hole, quantum effects will also start to dominate. Just as the general relativity can be obtained from thermodynamics in the Jacobson formalism, we propose that the quantum fluctuations to the geometry can be obtained from thermal fluctuations. (orig.)

  7. Mixed mobile ion effect in fluorozincate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S; Ghosh, A

    2005-01-01

    The mixed mobile ion effect has been investigated for the first time in zinc fluoride glasses where in addition to alkali cations fluorine anions also participate in the diffusion process, unlike mixed alkali oxide glasses. The minimum in the conductivity, conductivity relaxation frequency, crossover frequency and decoupling index indicates the existence of the mixed mobile ion effect in these fluoride glasses. It has been observed that the non-exponential parameter and the frequency exponent are independent of temperature. It has been established that alkali ions and fluorine anions exhibit lower dimensionality of the conduction pathways in mixed alkali zinc fluoride glasses than that in the single alkali lithium based zinc fluoride glasses while they are migrating. From the scaling of the conductivity spectra, it has been established that the relaxation dynamics in mixed alkali zinc fluoride glasses is independent of temperature and composition

  8. Zinc sulfide in intestinal cell granules of Ancylostoma caninum adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotti, A.J.; Clark, D.T.; Dash, J. (Portland State Univ., OR (USA))

    1991-04-01

    A source of confusion has existed since the turn of the century about the reddish brown, weakly birefringent 'sphaerocrystals' located in the intestines of strongyle nematodes, Strongylus and Ancylostoma. X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectrometric analyses were used for accurate determination of the crystalline order and elemental composition of the granules in the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. The composition of the intestinal pigmented granules was identified unequivocally as zinc sulfide. It seems most probable that the granules serve to detoxify high levels of metallic ions (specifically zinc) present due to the large intake of host blood.

  9. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and application of a Zn (II)-imprinted polymer grafted on graphene oxide/magnetic chitosan nanocomposite for selective extraction of zinc ions from different food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Elahe; Dadfarnia, Shayessteh; Haji Shabani, Ali Mohammad; Ranjbar, Mansoureh

    2017-12-15

    A novel Zn(II) imprinted polymer was synthesized via a co-precipitation method using graphene oxide/magnetic chitosan nanocomposite as supporting material. The synthesized imprinted polymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and applied as a sorbent for selective magnetic solid phase extraction of zinc followed by its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The kinetic and isothermal adsorption experiments were carried out and all parameters affecting the extraction process was optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the developed procedure exhibits a linear dynamic range of 0.5-5.0µgL -1 with a detection limit of 0.09µgL -1 and quantification limit of 0.3µgL -1 . The maximum sorption capacity of the sorbent was found to be 71.4mgg -1 . The developed procedure was successfully applied to the selective extraction and determination of zinc in various samples including well water, drinking water, black tea, rice, and milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA Recognition by the DNA Primase of Bacteriophage T7: A Structure Function Study of the Zinc-Binding Domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabayov, B.; Lee, S.; Akabayov, S.; Rekhi, S.; Zhu, B.; Richardson, C.

    2009-01-01

    Synthesis of oligoribonucleotide primers for lagging-strand DNA synthesis in the DNA replication system of bacteriophage T7 is catalyzed by the primase domain of the gene 4 helicase-primase. The primase consists of a zinc-binding domain (ZBD) and an RNA polymerase (RPD) domain. The ZBD is responsible for recognition of a specific sequence in the ssDNA template whereas catalytic activity resides in the RPD. The ZBD contains a zinc ion coordinated with four cysteine residues. We have examined the ligation state of the zinc ion by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and biochemical analysis of genetically altered primases. The ZBD of primase engaged in catalysis exhibits considerable asymmetry in coordination to zinc, as evidenced by a gradual increase in electron density of the zinc together with elongation of the zinc-sulfur bonds. Both wild-type primase and primase reconstituted from purified ZBD and RPD have a similar electronic change in the level of the zinc ion as well as the configuration of the ZBD. Single amino acid replacements in the ZBD (H33A and C36S) result in the loss of both zinc binding and its structural integrity. Thus the zinc in the ZBD may act as a charge modulation indicator for the surrounding sulfur atoms necessary for recognition of specific DNA sequences.

  12. Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1991-10-01

    The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f r >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range

  13. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and a non-absorbed marker, /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with /sup 65/Zn and /sup 51/Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption.

  14. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi 65 ZnCl 2 and a non-absorbed marker, 51 CrCl 3 , dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with 65 Zn and 51 Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption

  15. Electromagnetic Fluctuations during Fast Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantao Ji; Stephen Terry; Masaaki Yamada; Russell Kulsrud; Aleksey Kuritsyn; Yang Ren

    2003-01-01

    Clear evidence for a positive correlation is established between the magnitude of magnetic fluctuations in the lower-hybrid frequency range and enhancement of reconnection rates in a well-controlled laboratory plasma. The fluctuations belong to the right-hand polarized whistler wave branch, propagating obliquely to the reconnecting magnetic field, with a phase velocity comparable to the relative drift velocity between electrons and ions. The short coherence length and large variation along the propagation direction indicate their strongly nonlinear nature in three dimensions

  16. Zinc hexacyanoferrate film as an effective protecting layer in two-step and one-step electropolymerization of pyrrole on zinc substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pournaghi-Azar, M.H.; Nahalparvari, H.

    2005-01-01

    The two-step and one-step electrosynthesis processes of polypyrrole (PPy) films on the zinc substrate are described. The two-step process includes (i) the zinc surface pretreatment with hexacyanoferrate ion in the aqueous medium in order to form a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) film non-blocking passive layer on the surface and with the view to prevent its reactivity and (ii) electropolymerization of pyrrole on the ZnHCF vertical bar Zn-modified electrode in aqueous pyrrole solution. In this context, both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic procedures were adapted, and the effect of some experimental conditions such as supporting electrolyte, pH and temperature of the solution at the zinc surface pretreatment step as well as pyrrole concentration and electrochemical techniques at the polymerization step was investigated. By optimizing the experimental conditions in both steps, we have obtained a homogeneous and strongly adherent PPy films on the zinc substrate. The one-step process is based on the use of an aqueous medium containing Fe(CN) 6 4- and pyrrole. The ferrocyanide ion passivates the substrate by formation of ZnHCF film during the electropolymerization process of pyrrole and therefore makes it possible to obtain strongly adherent PPy films, with controlled thickness, either by cyclic voltammetry or by electrolysis at constant current or constant potential without any previously treatment of the zinc electrode surface. The polypyrrole films deposited on the zinc electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) measurement

  17. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by anomalous fluctuations of a magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, V. N.; Panchenko, V. G.

    1990-04-01

    Fluctuations and scattering of transverse electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of parametric decay of the pump wave are investigated. The spectral density of electron-density fluctuations is calculated. It is shown that the differential scattering cross-section has sharp maxima at the ion-acoustic and lower-hybrid frequencies when parametric decay of the lower-hybrid pump wave occurs. We note that scattering at the ion-acoustic frequency is dominant. When the pump-wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field the scattering cross-section increases anomalously, i.e. there is critical opalescence.

  18. Analyses of alloys for quelatometry, part one, alloys with copper, lead and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavijo Diaz, Alfonso

    1995-01-01

    A chemical-mathematic model and experimental method based on the acid base balances is developed for the analysis of metallic ions, isolated or in mixtures. The theoretical titling curves, including chelones-forming agents and metallo-chromic indicator were worked on a personal computer. This chelometric method was applied to the quantitative determination of copper, zinc and lead ions in alloys

  19. Localized description of valence fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alascio, B.; Allub, R.; Aligia, A.

    1979-07-01

    The authors set up a model for intermediate valence equivalent to the ''atomic'' limit of the Anderson Hamiltonian. Detailed analysis of this model shows that most of the essential characteristics of valence fluctuators are already present in this crudely simplified Hamiltonian. The spin-spin and the 4f charge-charge correlation functions are studied and it is shown that it is possible to define a spin fluctuation frequency ωsub(s.f.) and a charge fluctuation frequency ωsub(ch.f.).ωsub(s.f.) and ωsub(ch.f.) can differ considerably for some values of the parameters of the model. The magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat are calculated as functions of temperature and it is shown how the results simulate the behaviour found in valence fluctuators. (author)

  20. The Fluctuation Niche in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Terradas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical approaches to niche in coexisting plants have undervalued temporal fluctuations. We propose that fluctuation niche is an important dimension of the total niche and interacts with habitat and life-history niches to provide a better understanding of the multidimensional niche space where ecological interactions occur. To scale a fluctuation niche, it is necessary to relate environmental constrictions or species performance not only to the absolute values of the usual environmental and ecophysiological variables but also to their variances or other measures of variability. We use Mediterranean plant communities as examples, because they present characteristic large seasonal and interannual fluctuations in water and nutrient availabilities, along an episodic-constant gradient, and because the plant responses include a number of syndromes coupled to this gradient.

  1. The Fluctuation Niche in Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terradas, J.; Penuelas, J.; Lloret, F.; Penuelas, J.

    2009-01-01

    Classical approaches to niche in coexisting plants have undervalued temporal fluctuations. We propose that fluctuation niche is an important dimension of the total niche and interacts with habitat and life-history niches to provide a better understanding of the multidimensional niche space where ecological interactions occur. To scale a fluctuation niche, it is necessary to relate environmental constrictions or species performance not only to the absolute values of the usual environmental and eco physiological variables but also to their variances or other measures of variability. We use Mediterranean plant communities as examples, because they present characteristic large seasonal and inter annual fluctuations in water and nutrient availabilities, along an episodic-constant gradient, and because the plant responses include a number of syndromes coupled to this gradient.

  2. Insects in fluctuating thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinet, Hervé; Sinclair, Brent J; Vernon, Philippe; Renault, David

    2015-01-07

    All climate change scenarios predict an increase in both global temperature means and the magnitude of seasonal and diel temperature variation. The nonlinear relationship between temperature and biological processes means that fluctuating temperatures lead to physiological, life history, and ecological consequences for ectothermic insects that diverge from those predicted from constant temperatures. Fluctuating temperatures that remain within permissive temperature ranges generally improve performance. By contrast, those which extend to stressful temperatures may have either positive impacts, allowing repair of damage accrued during exposure to thermal extremes, or negative impacts from cumulative damage during successive exposures. We discuss the mechanisms underlying these differing effects. Fluctuating temperatures could be used to enhance or weaken insects in applied rearing programs, and any prediction of insect performance in the field-including models of climate change or population performance-must account for the effect of fluctuating temperatures.

  3. Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A E

    2014-09-01

    The concept of work is basic for statistical thermodynamics. To gain a fuller understanding of work and its (quantum) features, it needs to be represented as an average of a fluctuating quantity. Here I focus on the work done between two moments of time for a thermally isolated quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. I formulate two natural conditions needed for the fluctuating work to be physically meaningful for a system that starts its evolution from a nonequilibrium state. The existing definitions do not satisfy these conditions due to issues that are traced back to noncommutativity. I propose a definition of fluctuating work that is free of previous drawbacks and that applies for a wide class of nonequilibrium initial states. It allows the deduction of a generalized work-fluctuation theorem that applies for an arbitrary (out-of-equilibrium) initial state.

  4. Quantum fluctuations in insulating ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riseborough, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: It has been proposed that in a ferroelectric insulator, an applied magnetic field may couple the transverse phonon modes and produce left and right circularly polarized phonon modes which are no longer degenerate. We quantize the theory and examine the effects of quantal fluctuations. In particular, we show that the zero point fluctuations result in a large diamagnetic contribution to the magnetic susceptibility. - Abstract: It has been proposed that in a ferroelectric insulator, an applied magnetic field may couple the transverse phonon modes and produce left and right circularly polarized phonon modes which are no longer degenerate. We quantize the theory and examine the effects of quantal fluctuations. In particular, we show that the zero-point fluctuations result in a large diamagnetic contribution to the magnetic susceptibility.

  5. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth

    2011-01-21

    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy flux due to electromagnetic fluctuations during guide field magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Akihiro; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi; Yanai, Ryoma

    2016-01-01

    Large electromagnetic fluctuations inside the current sheet and large reconnection electric fields are observed during fast magnetic reconnection in the presence of a guide field. The fluctuations transport 2.5% of the dissipated magnetic energy from the reconnection region. Although the energy gains of the ions and electrons are approximately 60% and 12%, respectively, of the dissipated magnetic energy after the fast reconnection, the energy of fluctuations is not comparable to their energy gains. The fluctuations do not directly contribute to the energy conversion but might cause the fast reconnection leading to the rapid release of magnetic energy. (author)

  7. DENSITY FLUCTUATIONS UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM OF INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitňa, A.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Goncharov, O.; Němec, F.; Přech, L. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chen, C. H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zastenker, G. N., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Profsoyuznaya ul. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-01

    Interplanetary (IP) shocks as typical large-scale disturbances arising from processes such as stream–stream interactions or Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) launching play a significant role in the energy redistribution, dissipation, particle heating, acceleration, etc. They can change the properties of the turbulent cascade on shorter scales. We focus on changes of the level and spectral properties of ion flux fluctuations upstream and downstream of fast forward oblique shocks. Although the fluctuation level increases by an order of magnitude across the shock, the spectral slope in the magnetohydrodynamic range is conserved. The frequency spectra upstream of IP shocks are the same as those in the solar wind (if not spoiled by foreshock waves). The spectral slopes downstream are roughly proportional to the corresponding slopes upstream, suggesting that the properties of the turbulent cascade are conserved across the shock; thus, the shock does not destroy the shape of the spectrum as turbulence passes through it. Frequency spectra downstream of IP shocks often exhibit “an exponential decay” in the ion kinetic range that was earlier reported at electron scales in the solar wind or at ion scales in the interstellar medium. We suggest that the exponential shape of ion flux spectra in this range is caused by stronger damping of the fluctuations in the downstream region.

  8. Zinc chelates as new activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to apply several zinc chelates as activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrilebutadiene elastomer (NBR, in order to find alternatives for the conventionally used zinc oxide. In this article, we discuss the effects of different zinc complexes on the cure characteristics, crosslinks distribution in the elastomer network and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. Zinc chelates seem to be good substitutes for zinc oxide as activators for sulphur vulcanization of NBR rubber, without detrimental effects on the crosslinking process and physical properties of the obtained vulcanizates. Moreover, application of zinc complexes allows to reduce the amount of zinc ions in rubber compounds by 40% compared to conventionally crosslinked vulcanizates with zinc oxide. It is a very important ecological goal since zinc oxide is classified as toxic to aquatic species and its amount in rubber products must be reduced below 2.5% at least. From a technological point of view it is a very important challenge.

  9. Characterization and Analysis of Ionic Zinc Alloy Running a Potential Dynamic Polarization in Sea Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaifol Samsu; Muhammad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin

    2011-01-01

    Zinc is an active metal. The reactive nature of zinc allows it to be used for sacrificial anode in cathodic protection systems by electrically coupled to the protected metal. Zinc is especially well suited for cathodic protection on ships that move between salt water and harbors in brackish rivers or estuaries (1). Zinc anodes also are used to protect ballast tank, heat exchangers, and many mechanical components on ships, coastal power plants, and similar structures. Cathodic protective by zinc is used in sea water, brackish water, fresh water, and in some soil. The relative reactivity of zinc and its ability to attract oxidation to itself makes it an efficient sacrificial anode in cathodic protection (2). For example, cathodic protection of a buried pipeline can be achieved by connecting anodes made from zinc to the pipe. Zinc acts as the anode (negative terminus) by slowly corroding away as it passes electric current to the steel pipeline. When exposed to environment containing halide ions, of which the chloride (Cl-) is the most frequently encountered in service, the oxide film breaks down at specific points leading to the formation of pits on the zinc surface (3). (author)

  10. Principle of minimal work fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Gaoyang; Gong, Jiangbin

    2015-08-01

    Understanding and manipulating work fluctuations in microscale and nanoscale systems are of both fundamental and practical interest. For example, in considering the Jarzynski equality 〈e-βW〉=e-βΔF, a change in the fluctuations of e-βW may impact how rapidly the statistical average of e-βW converges towards the theoretical value e-βΔF, where W is the work, β is the inverse temperature, and ΔF is the free energy difference between two equilibrium states. Motivated by our previous study aiming at the suppression of work fluctuations, here we obtain a principle of minimal work fluctuations. In brief, adiabatic processes as treated in quantum and classical adiabatic theorems yield the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. In the quantum domain, if a system initially prepared at thermal equilibrium is subjected to a work protocol but isolated from a bath during the time evolution, then a quantum adiabatic process without energy level crossing (or an assisted adiabatic process reaching the same final states as in a conventional adiabatic process) yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW, where W is the quantum work defined by two energy measurements at the beginning and at the end of the process. In the classical domain where the classical work protocol is realizable by an adiabatic process, then the classical adiabatic process also yields the minimal fluctuations in e-βW. Numerical experiments based on a Landau-Zener process confirm our theory in the quantum domain, and our theory in the classical domain explains our previous numerical findings regarding the suppression of classical work fluctuations [G. Y. Xiao and J. B. Gong, Phys. Rev. E 90, 052132 (2014)].

  11. Density, potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS and ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbin, R; Hidalgo, C [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Carlson, A; Endler, M; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Rudyj, A; Theimer, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Measurements of density, potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS) and ASDEX tokamak have been carried out. The properties of plasma fluctuations in a tokamak and stellarator can then be compared. A reciprocating Langmuir probe with an array of 19 graphite tips has been used to measure the radial profiles of fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential in W7-AS and ASDEX. In both devices, a reversal in radial electric field and an associated velocity shear layer at the plasma boundary have been observed and in both cases the normalized ion saturation current fluctuation level decreases monotonically moving towards the plasma centre and through the shear layer. At the radial position where the phase velocity in the poloidal direction of the fluctuations goes to zero, the normalized ion saturation current fluctuation level of 0.25 are similar for edge plasma parameters of similar temperatures and densities. A spatial crosscorrelation between fluctuations in floating potential and ion saturation current has been observed in both machines. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Edge transport and fluctuation induced turbulence characteristics in early SST-1 plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakati, B., E-mail: bharat.kakati@ipr.res.in; Pradhan, S., E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Dhongde, J.; Semwal, P.; Yohan, K.; Banaudha, M.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Anomalous particle transport during the high MHD activity at SST-1. • Electrostatic turbulence is modulated by MHD activity at SST-1 tokamak. • Edge floating potential fluctuations shows poloidal long-range cross correlation. - Abstract: Plasma edge transport characteristics are known to be heavily influenced by the edge fluctuation induced turbulences. These characteristics play a critical role towards the confinement of plasma column in a Tokamak. The edge magnetic fluctuations and its subsequent effect on electrostatic fluctuations have been experimentally investigated for the first time at the edge of the SST-1 plasma column. This paper reports the correlations that exist and is experimentally been observed between the edge densities and floating potential fluctuations with the magnetic fluctuations. The edge density and floating potential fluctuations have been measured with the help of poloidally separated Langmuir probes, whereas the magnetic fluctuations have been measured with poloidally spaced Mirnov coils. Increase in magnetic fluctuations associated with enhanced MHD activities has been found to increase the floating potential and ion saturation current. These observations indicate electrostatic turbulence getting influenced with the MHD activities and reveal the edge anomalous particle transport during SST-1 tokamak discharge. Large-scale coherent structures have been observed in the floating potential fluctuations, indicating long-distance cross correlation in the poloidal directions. From bispectral analysis, a strong nonlinear coupling among the floating potential fluctuations is observed in the low-frequency range about 0–15 kHz.

  13. Recent results on event-by-event fluctuations in ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083375

    2015-01-01

    Non-statistical event-by-event fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions have been proposed as a probe of the phase transition of hadronic matter to a deconfined phase of quarks and gluons, the so-called Quark-Gluon Plasma. In a thermodynamical picture of the strongly interacting system formed in heavy-ion collisions, the dynamical fluctuations of net-charge, fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum, mean multiplicity and balance functions are related to the fundamental properties of the system, hence they may reveal information about the QCD phase transition. In this article, recent results on event-by-event measurements of net-charge fluctuations, the measurement of the balance function and mean transverse momentum fluctuations are discussed.

  14. Zinc oxide microcapsules obtained via a bio-inspired approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowsky, Peter; Hirscher, Michael; Hoffmann, Rudolf C; Bill, Joachim; Aldinger, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Hollow zinc oxide microcapsules have been synthesized by a sacrificial template route involving the chemical bath deposition of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films on sulfonate-modified polystyrene microspheres and subsequent removal of the polymer core by dissolution in a solvent or by thermolysis. Scanning electron micrographs show that uniform coating of the templates is achieved when ZnO is deposited from a solution containing zinc acetate, the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, and a base in methanol, and that the ZnO shells remain intact after removal of the cores. A focused ion beam is used to cut slices from the spheres and demonstrate their inner morphology and hollowness. X-ray diffraction yields evidence that the shells consist of nanocrystalline ZnO with the zincite structure

  15. Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

    2010-07-01

    Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined copper/zinc attachment to prion protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav; Bernholc, Jerry

    2013-03-01

    Misfolding of prion protein (PrP) is responsible for diseases such as ``mad-cow disease'' in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jacob in humans. Extensive experimental investigation has established that this protein strongly interacts with copper ions, and this ability has been linked to its still unknown function. Attachment of other metal ions (zinc, iron, manganese) have been demonstrated as well, but none of them could outcompete copper. Recent finding, however, indicates that at intermediate concentrations both copper and zinc ions can attach to the PrP at the octarepeat region, which contains high affinity metal binding sites. Based on this evidence, we have performed density functional theory simulations to investigate the combined Cu/Zn attachment. We consider all previously reported binding modes of copper at the octarepeat region and examine a possibility simultaneous Cu/Zn attachment. We find that this can indeed occur for only one of the known binding sites, when copper changes its coordination mode to allow for attachment of zinc ion. The implications of the simultaneous attachment on neural function remain to be explored.

  17. [Synergistic application of zinc and vitamin C to support memory, attention and the reduction of the risk of the neurological diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromova, O A; Torshin, I Yu; Pronin, A V; Kilchevsky, M A

    Zinc and vitamin C supplementation of the body is important for CNS functioning. Zinc ions are involved in the neurotransmission (signal transmission from acetylcholine, catecholamine, serotonin, prostaglandin receptors) and in ubiquitin-related protein degradation. Zinc deficits are associated with Alzheimer's disease and depression. Zinc supplementation (10-30 mg daily) improves neurologic recovery rate in patients with stroke and brain injury, has a positive impact on memory and reduces hyperactivity in children. Vitamin C, a zinc synergist, maintains antioxidant resources of the brain, synaptic activity and detoxification. Vitamin C in dose 130-500 mg daily should be used to prevent dementia and neurodegenerative pathology.

  18. Voltage fluctuations in neurons: signal or noise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarom, Yosef; Hounsgaard, Jorn

    2011-01-01

    , we discuss noise-free neuronal signaling and detrimental and beneficial forms of noise in large-scale functional neural networks. Evidence that noise and variability in some cases go hand in hand with behavioral variability and increase behavioral choice, richness, and adaptability opens new avenues......Noise and variability are fundamental companions to ion channels and synapses and thus inescapable elements of brain function. The overriding unresolved issue is to what extent noise distorts and limits signaling on one hand and at the same time constitutes a crucial and fundamental enrichment...... that allows and facilitates complex adaptive behavior in an unpredictable world. Here we review the growing experimental evidence that functional network activity is associated with intense fluctuations in membrane potential and spike timing. We trace origins and consequences of noise and variability. Finally...

  19. Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-08-01

    Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.

  20. Conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, P.; Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.K.; Singh, B.K.; Xu, N.

    2013-01-01

    Net-baryon, net-charge and net-strangeness number fluctuations in high energy heavy-ion collisions are discussed within the framework of a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. Ratios of the conserved number susceptibilities calculated in HRG are being compared to the corresponding experimental measurements to extract information about the freeze-out condition and the phase structure of systems with strong interactions. We emphasize the importance of considering the actual experimental acceptances in terms of kinematics (pseudorapidity (η) and transverse momentum (p T )), the detected charge state, effect of collective motion of particles in the system and the resonance decay contributions before comparisons are made to the theoretical calculations. In this work, based on HRG model, we report that the net-baryon number fluctuations are least affected by experimental acceptances compared to the net-charge and net-strangeness number fluctuations

  1. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  2. Fluctuation analysis of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doessing, T.; Bracco, A.; Broglia, R.A.; Matsuo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The compound state rotational degree of freedom is ''damped'' in the sense that the electric quadrupole decay of a single quantum state with angular momentum I exhibits a spectrum of final states all having spin I-2. In actual experiments, the cascade of γ-rays associated with each of the members of the ensemble of compound nuclei uses each of the ''discrete'' transitions many more times than the ''continuum'' transitions. Relatively large and small fluctuations in the recorded coincidence spectrum ensue, respectively. The analysis of the fluctuations will be shown to be instrumental to gain insight into the phenomenon of rotational damping. For this purpose, two- and higher-fold coincidence spectra emitted from rotating nuclei are analyzed with respect to the count fluctuations. The coincidences from consecutive γ-rays emitted from discrete rotational bands generate ridges in the E γ1 .E γ2 spectrum, and the fluctuation analysis of the ridges is based upon the ansatz of a random selection of transition energies from band to band. This ansatz is supported by a cranked mean-field calculation for the nucleus 168 Yb, as well as by analyzing resolved bands in 168 Yb and its neighbors. The fluctuation analysis of the central valley (E γ1 =E γ2 ) is based upon the ansatz of fluctuations in the intensity of the transitions of Porter-Thomas type superposed on a smooth spectrum of transition energies. This ansatz is again supported by a mixed-band calculation. The mathematical treatment of count fluctuations is formulated in general (orig.)

  3. High sensitive determination of zinc with novel water-soluble small molecular fluorescent sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Ying; Chen Zilin; Wang Fang; Xue Lin; Jiang Hua

    2009-01-01

    A high sensitive method of quantitative analysis for the determination of zinc in the nutrition supplements has been developed by using a novel water-soluble fluorescent sensor HQ3: (8-pyridylmethyloxy-2-methyl-quinoline). Under the optimized condition of 67 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, and 5% (v/v) DMSO, the zinc concentration showed good linear relationship with fluorescence intensity in the range of 7.5 x 10 -8 to 2.5 x 10 -5 M with the detection limit of 1.5 x 10 -8 M. HQ3 exhibited high selectivity to zinc comparing with other metal ions except for cadmium. The developed analytical method was successfully used for determining the content of zinc in a real sample of zinc gluconate solution of Sanchine.

  4. Influence of cysteine and selenodicysteine on the uptake of zinc by Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czauderna, M.; Samochocka, K.

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of zinc labelled with radioactive 65 Zn in the presence of cysteine and selenodicysteine by Chlorella vulgaris was examined. The concentration of zinc ions in the medium was 20 mg per 1. The uptake yield was found to be enhanced by selenodicysteine. At concentration of 10 - 7 -10 - 6 M the growth rate of Chlorella vulgaris was accelerated by the latter, provided that the specific activity of 65 Zn was 3.7 MBq/1. At this specific zinc activity cysteine increased the uptake yield during the initial 50 h of the incubation process. At specific 65 Zn-activity of 55.5 MBq/1 selenodicysteine and cysteine only slightly influenced the zinc uptake by Chlorella vulgaris. No increment in the biomass was observed at this specific zinc radioactivity. (author)

  5. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  6. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arízaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn 5 (OH) 8 Cl 2 ·2H 2 O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 °C and in the LDH at 276 °C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn 5 (OH) 8 Cl 2 ·2H 2 O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 °C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 °C, and in the LDH it was at 276 °C. Highlights: ► Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. ► ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. ► NH 3 molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. ► The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  7. Foliar uptake of zinc by vascular plants. Radiometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maresova, J.; Remenarova, L.; Hornik, M.; Pipiska, M.; Augustin, J.; Lesny, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to obtain quantitative data of foliar uptake kinetics and long distance transport of zinc in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and hop (Humulus lupulus L.) plants. Zinc was used as a model of microelement and toxic metal, tobacco and hop as a representatives of agriculturally important plants. A tip of leaf blade was immersed in the solution spiked with 65 ZnCl 2 and foliar uptake and translocation to other parts of the plant grown in nutrient solution was measured by gamma-spectrometry and autoradiography. We found that foliar zinc uptake by both plants is dependent on the initial metal concentration within the range C 0 = 10-100 μmol dm -3 ZnCl 2 . Zinc is immobilized mainly in immersed part of the contact leaf and only 0 = 0.1 mmol dm -3 ZnCl 2 concentrations >2.5 mg/g Zn and 4.8 mg/g Zn (dry wt.) in immersed part of tobacco and hop leaf plant, respectively were found after 5 days of exposure. Low mobility of zinc entering the plant via the leaf surface can be attributed to the immobilization of zinc into Zn-ligand complexes with high stability constants log K at pH 6.0-8.0, such as the reaction products of Zn 2+ ions with citric acid, histidine or phosphates. Zinc can be extracted from dried leaves by the solutions of inorganic salts, carboxylic acids, amino acids and synthetic complexing ligands such as EDTA. Anionic (SDS) and non-ionic (Tween 40) surfactants causes the decrease of the Zn foliar uptake, but not translocation of Zn from the contact leaf area. Obtained data are discussed from the point of view of possible limited efficiency of liquid formulations designed for practical applications as Zn foliar fertilizers. (author)

  8. Langmuir Isotherm application to the competitive adsorption of Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc on a Bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Giraldo, German Dario; Pinzon Bello, Jorge Alejo

    1999-01-01

    In the present work, it was studied the simultaneous adsorption of binary and ternary mixtures of cadmium, nickel and zinc ions in aqueous solution at 25oC over a bentonite from the Cauca Valley, in its native state as well as in its sodium homo ionic form. The Langmuir isotherm, initially introduced by Murali and Aylmore for the competitive adsorption of various adsorbents, adequately describes the simultaneous adsorption of the three ions over the studied bentonite. The lineal correlation coefficient is greater than 0.900 in the major part of the systems. The competitive effect was interpreted by means of the thermodynamic distribution coefficient, Kdm. The degree of adsorption in the binary mixtures is nickel > zinc, cadmium over the natural bentonite, and nickel > cadmium > zinc over the sodium homo ionic form, whereas in the ternary mixture the order Nickel > Cadmium > Zinc is found over both adsorbents

  9. Sorption Kinetics for the Removal of Cadmium and Zinc onto Palm Kernel Shell Based Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muhammad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics and mechanism of cadmium and zinc adsorption on palm kernel shell based activated carbons (PKSAC have been studied. A series of batch laboratory studies were conducted in order to investigate the suitability of palm kernel shell based activated carbon (PKSAC for the removal of cadmium (cadmium ions and zinc (zinc ions from their aqueous solutions. All batch experiments were carried out at pH 7.0 and a constant temperature of 30+-1°C using an incubator shaker that operated at 150 rpm. The kinetics investigated includes the pseudo first order, the pseudo-second order and the intraparticle diffusion models. The pseudo-second order model correlate excellently the experimental data, suggesting that chemisorption processes could be the rate-limiting step. Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, kinetics, palm kernel shell, zinc

  10. Zinc Finger Takes on a Whole New Meaning: Reducing and Monitoring Zinc Blanks in the Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, E. B.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    In terms of avoiding contamination, zinc is one of the most difficult elements to study isotopically. The reason for this is that zinc stearate is a very common mold release agent in the production of plastics, including those most often used in isotope geochemistry clean labs. While polyethylene bottles, polypropylene centrifuge tubes, pipette tips, and Kimwipes are all potential sources of contaminant zinc, by far the largest amount of zinc is introduced to the laboratory by gloves. Most items can be effectively rid of zinc by soaking in dilute hydrochloric acid, but gloves cannot be cleaned easily, and use of gloves can quickly lead to contamination on many surfaces throughout the lab. We recently conducted several experiments in which dissolved zinc was partly adsorbed onto synthetic Mn oxyhydroxide particles. The dissolved and adsorbed pools were separated by filtration, purified with ion exchange chemistry, and analyzed for isotope composition by MC-ICP-MS. We used a commercially purchased ICP standard solution both as our standard (delta66/64Zn = 0) and as the source of the zinc in the experiments. Whenever gloves were worn during purification, process blanks contained as much as 150 ng Zn, and both the dissolved and adsorbed pools of zinc came out enriched in heavy isotopes relative to the starting pool, contrary to our expectation of mass balance. When gloves were not worn, blanks were brands of vinyl gloves, including one brand recommended to us for being “low” in zinc, measured +10‰ relative to our standard. We therefore concluded that glove zinc contaminated most of our experimental samples. We were only able to see such clear evidence of contamination because (1) we were doing an experiment in which we expected one light and one heavy pool of zinc compared to our standard, and (2) we happened to use an ICP standard solution for delta = 0 that is strongly enriched in light isotopes relative to both brands of gloves. We caution others who measure

  11. Zinc: an essential oligoelement

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, C.; González Weller, D.; Martín-Izquierdo, R. E.; Revert, C.; Rodríguez, I.; Hardisson, A.

    2007-01-01

    En este artículo se hace una revisión exhaustiva del zinc, elemento metálico esencial para el funcionamiento del organismo. Repasamos y reflejamos aspectos relacionados con la farmacocinética, con las fuentes dietéticas más importantes, así como las IDR (Ingestas Dietéticas Recomendadas) del mismo. También se hace mención a los signos y síntomas relacionados tanto con una ingesta deficiente, como con posibles efectos tóxicos, derivados de ingestas excesivas.This article comprehensively review...

  12. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaya, N.M.; McLean, J.E.; Halverson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  13. Fruit peel extract mediated green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, O. J.; Soto-Robles, C. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Olivas, A.; Luque, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a study of the effects on the photocatalytic capabilities of zinc oxide nanoparticles when prepared via green synthesis using different fruit peel extracts as reducing agents. Zinc nitrate was used as a source of the zinc ions, while Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Citrus sinensis (orange), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) and Citrus aurantifolia (lemon) contributed their peels for extracts. The Synthesized Samples were studied and characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). All samples presented a band at 618 cm-1, indicating the presence of the Znsbnd O bond. The different samples all presented the same hexagonal crystal growth in their structure, the Wurtzite phase. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles showed that, depending on the extract used, the samples vary in size and shape distribution due to the chemical composition of the extracts. The photocatalytic properties of the zinc oxide samples were tested through UV light aided degradation of methylene blue. Most samples exhibited degradation rates at 180 min of around 97%, a major improvement when compared to chemically synthesized commercially available zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  14. The Antimicrobial Properties of Zinc-Releasing Bioceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin

    Up to 80% of nosocomial infections are caused by biofilm-producing bacteria such as Staphylococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These types of microorganisms can become resistant to antibiotics and are difficult to eliminate. As such, there is tremendous interest in developing bioactive implant materials that can help to minimize these post- operative infections. Using water-based chemistry, we developed an economical, biodegradable and biocompatible orthopedic implant material consisting of zinc- doped hydroxyapatite (HA), which mimics the main inorganic component of the bone. Because the crystallinity of HA is typically too compact for efficient drug release, we substituted calcium ions in HA with zinc during the synthesis step to perturb the crystal structure. An added benefit is that zinc itself is a microelement of the human body with anti-inflammatory property, and we hypothesized that Zn-doped HA is an inherently antibacterial material. All HA samples were synthesized by a co-precipitation method using aqueous solutions of Zinc nitrate, Calcium Nitrate, and Ammonium Phosphate. XRD data showed that Zn was successfully incorporated into the HA. The effectiveness of Zn-doped HA against a model biofilm-forming bacterium is currently being evaluated using a wild-type strain and a streptomycin- resistant strain of Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans (Psp) which is a plant pathogen isolated from diseased apples. Key words: Hydroxyapatite, Zinc, Citrate, Pseudomonas, Antibacterial.

  15. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Zahi Gammoh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB, a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  16. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  17. Topics in fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milner, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    Models of fluctuating nonlinear hydrodynamics have enjoyed much success in explaining the effect of long-wavelength fluctuations in diverse hydrodynamic systems. This thesis explores two such problems; in both, the body of hydrodynamic assumptions powerfully constrains the predictions of a well-posed theory. The effects of layer fluctuations in smectic-A liquid crystals are first examined. The static theory (introduced by Grinstein and Pelcovits) is reviewed. Ward identities, resulting from the arbitrariness of the layering direction, are derived and exploited. The static results motivate an examination of dynamic fluctuation effects. A new sound-damping experiment is proposed that would probe singular dependence of viscosities on applied stress. A theory of Procaccia and Gitterman that reaction rates of chemically reacting binary mixtures are drastically reduced near their thermodynamic critical points is analyzed. Hydrodynamic arguments and Van Hove theory are applied, concluding that the PG idea is drastically slowed, and spatially varying composition fluctuations are at best slowed down over a narrow range of wavenumbers

  18. Electrostatic potential fluctuation induced by charge discreteness in a nanoscale trench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taesang; Kim, S. S.; Jho, Y. S.; Park, Gunyoung; Chang, C. S.

    2007-01-01

    A simplified two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation is performed to estimate the charging potential fluctuations caused by strong binary Coulomb interactions between discrete charged particles in nanometer scale trenches. It is found that the discrete charge effect can be an important part of the nanoscale trench research, inducing scattering of ion trajectories in a nanoscale trench by a fluctuating electric field. The effect can enhance the ion deposition on the side walls and disperse the material contact energy of the incident ions, among others

  19. Signal yields, energy resolution, and recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Alsum, S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bramante, R.; Brás, P.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kamdin, K.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Palladino, K. J.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solmaz, M.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W. C.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Xu, J.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks in the dark-matter-search and calibration data from the first underground science run of the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) detector. Liquid xenon charge and light yields for electronic recoil energies between 5.2 and 661.7 keV are measured, as well as the energy resolution for the LUX detector at those same energies. Additionally, there is an interpretation of existing measurements and descriptions of electron-ion recombination fluctuations in liquid xenon as limiting cases of a more general liquid xenon recombination fluctuation model. Measurements of the standard deviation of these fluctuations at monoenergetic electronic recoil peaks exhibit a linear dependence on the number of ions for energy deposits up to 661.7 keV, consistent with previous LUX measurements between 2 and 16 keV with 3H. We highlight similarities in liquid xenon recombination for electronic and nuclear recoils with a comparison of recombination fluctuations measured with low-energy calibration data.

  20. Copper Removal from A-01 Outfall by Ion Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.N.

    1999-01-01

    Chelex100, a commercially available ion exchange resin, has been identified in this study as having a significant affinity for copper and zinc in the A-01 outfall water. Removal of copper and zinc from A-01 outfall water will ensure that the outfall meets the state of South Carolina's limit on these heavy metals

  1. Two different zinc sites in bovine 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase distinguished by extended x-ray absorption fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, A.J.; Hasnain, S.S.; Beyersmann, D.; Block, C.

    1990-01-01

    The zinc coordination in 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase was investigated by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) associated with the zinc K-edge. The enzyme binds 8 mol of zinc/mol of octameric protein, but only four zinc ions seem sufficient for full activity. The authors have undertaken a study on four forms of the enzyme: (a) the eight-zinc native enzyme; (b) the enzyme with only the four zinc sites necessary for full activation occupied; (c) the enzyme with the vacant sites of (b) occupied by four lead ions; (d) the product complex between (b) and porphobilinogen. They have shown that two structurally distinct types of zinc sites are available in the enzyme. The site necessary for activity has an average zinc environment best described by two/three histidines and one/zero oxygen from a group such as tyrosine or a solvent molecule at 2.06 ± 0.02 angstrom, one tyrosine or aspartate at 1.91 ± 0.03 angstrom, and one cysteine sulfur at 2.32 ± 0.03 angstrom with a total coordination of five ligands. The unoccupied site in (b) is dominated by a single contribution of four cysteinyl sulfur atoms at 2.28 ± 0.02 angstrom. Spectra from samples (c) and (d) show only small changes from that of (b), reflecting a slight rearrangement of the ligands around the zinc atom

  2. Avaliação da interação macromolécula/íon Zn+2 em meio aquoso: poli(acrilamida-co-ácido acrílico e taninos Estimation of the macromolecules/zinc ion interaction in the aqueous solution: poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid and tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia D. Clarisse

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa o estudo da interação entre polímeros sintéticos e produtos naturais à base de taninos com o íon zinco (Zn+2 em meio aquoso para sua utilização na remoção de metais em efluentes. Uma série de copolímeros poli(acrilamida-co-ácido acrílico de diferentes composições e homopolímeros de acrilamida e de ácido acrílico foram preparados, assim como, taninos comerciais foram utilizados como recebidos e purificados por extração. Uma metodologia de avaliação da eficiência de interação da macromolécula com o íon Zn+2 foi desenvolvida baseada em curva padrão de intensidade de absorção na região do ultravioleta-visível (UV-VIS em função da concentração do complexo formado, utilizando colorimetria. A capacidade de interação com o íon zinco foi ligeiramente maior para os polímeros sintéticos porém o produto natural tem a vantagem de apresentar um custo mais baixo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the interaction between natural and synthetic macromolecules with the zinc ion (Zn+2 in aqueous solution. Polyacrylamide, poly(acrylic acid and poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid were prepared and natural products (tannins were extracted and purified from commercial products. The methodology to evaluate the macromolecule/zinc ion interaction was based on colorimetry by using a standard curve. The interaction efficiency was slightly larger for the synthetic macromolecules when compared to the natural one. Nevertheless, the tanning has lower cost and its use could be recommended.

  3. Ferromagnetic Coupling between Copper(II) Centers through the Diamagnetic Zinc(II) Ion: Crystal Structure and Magnetic Properties of [Cu(2)Zn(Hdmg)(2)(dmg)(2)(H(2)O)].0.5H(2)dmg.H(2)O (H(2)dmg = Dimethylglyoxime).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Rafael; Julve, Miguel; Faus, Juan; Lloret, Francesc; Muñoz, M. Carmen; Journaux, Yves; Bois, Claudette

    1997-07-30

    ferromagnetic coupling in 1 are the diamagnetic zinc(II) ion and the out-of-plane double-oximato bridge, the magnitude of the magnetic coupling between the copper(II) ions through these bridging units being 3.9 and 5.1 cm(-)(1), respectively.

  4. Mutual effect of zinc (2) and cadmium (2) during extraction with tributil phosphate from lithium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokuev, V.A.; Belousov, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Mutual effect of zinc and cadmium chlorides during extraction with tributyl phosphate at 5, 25 and 45 deg C from LiCl solutions is studied. The conclusion about the suppression of zinc and cadmium extraction by extracting macroelement (cadmium and zinc correspondingly) as the result of manifestation of general ion effect (lithium ion) in the extraction systems is made. It is established that the suppression of zink and cadmium extraction increases with the temperature decrease. On the base of the obtained experimental data the different type of extraction element distribution curves at the extraction from the muriatic solutions and lithium chloride solutions with tributyl phosphate is discussed

  5. Comparative substoichiometric extraction of zinc with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Rangamannar, P.

    1995-01-01

    The comparative extractability of zinc with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, and benzyl xanthates from the pH range of 3.5-9.0 into chloroform has been studied, employing a sensitive and rapid substoichiometric radiochemical method. The extent of reproducibility was tested in each case. The effect of associated ions on the extraction was studied. The amount of zinc present in the standard solutions was determined employing each xanthate separately. The zinc content present in geological water samples in and around Tirupati was determined by the method developed and compared with the values obtained by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  6. Investigations of white light emitting europium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtaputre, S S; Nojima, A; Marathe, S K; Matsumura, D; Ohta, T; Tiwari, R; Dey, G K; Kulkarni, S K

    2008-01-01

    Europium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized using a chemical route. The amount of doped europium was varied which shows the changes in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity. The post synthesis annealing effect on the properties of ZnO nanoparticles has also been investigated. In general, PL is broad and a white light is emitted which originates from ZnO and the intra-4f transitions of Eu 3+ ions. The x-ray diffraction patterns do not show any Eu-related peaks for as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles as well as for annealed samples. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that europium ions are present on the surface of the core of ZnO and inside the shell of zinc hydroxide [Zn(OH 2 )] after annealing

  7. Strong blue emission from zinc hydroxide carbonate nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Jing; Chen, Xuemin; Ling, Tao; Du, Xiwen

    2016-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide carbonate (ZHC) is a typical layered salt composed of zinc hydroxide layers separated with carbonate ions and water molecules. Studies of morphology control and the constitution of functional ZHC material with intercalated ions has been widely developed. Also, ZnO can be easily obtained by anneal treatment of ZHC, and the porous structure as synthesized had great potential in gas sensors, photocatalysts and dye-sensitized solar cells. However, the optical of ZHC have rarely been investigated. In our research, a strong blue emission of ZHC is reported. The effect of growth time, annealing treatment and modification of surfactants on blue emission have been systematically studied. Combined with information of interior effect of OH groups, crystal structure and electronegativity of surfactants, a possible emission mechanism of ZHC has been proposed.

  8. Multiscale fluctuations in nuclear response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Chomaz, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear collective response is investigated in the framework of a doorway picture in which the spreading width of the collective emotion is described as a coupling to more and more complex configurations. It is shown that this coupling induces fluctuations of the observed strength. In the case of a hierarchy of overlapping decay channels, Ericson fluctuations are observed at different scales. Methods for extracting these scales and the related lifetimes are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the coupling of different states at one level of complexity to some common decay channels at the next level, may produce interference-like patterns in the nuclear response. This quantum effect leads to anew type of fluctuations with a typical width related to the level spacing. (author)

  9. Fluctuation relations for anomalous dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chechkin, A V; Klages, R

    2009-01-01

    We consider work fluctuation relations (FRs) for generic types of dynamics generating anomalous diffusion: Lévy flights, long-correlated Gaussian processes and time-fractional kinetics. By combining Langevin and kinetic approaches we calculate the probability distributions of mechanical and thermodynamical work in two paradigmatic nonequilibrium situations, respectively: a particle subject to a constant force and a particle in a harmonic potential dragged by a constant force. We check the transient FR for two models exhibiting superdiffusion, where a fluctuation-dissipation relation does not exist, and for two other models displaying subdiffusion, where there is a fluctuation-dissipation relation. In the two former cases the conventional transient FR is not recovered, whereas in the latter two it holds either exactly or in the long-time limit. (letter)

  10. Fluctuations in the multiparticle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, P.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1993-01-01

    The appearance and properties of intermittent fluctuations in physical systems, in particular the formation of rare structures in transport phenomena are discussed. The distribution of fluctuations approaches a limiting log-normal statistical distribution. The log-normal distribution is introduced as a simple parametrization of the energy fluctuations leading to the subthreshold production of particles in nuclear collisions, and it is shown that it fits all available data both for total π 0 production cross section as well as the π 0 kinetic energy spectra for E/A < 90 MeV. It is suggested that the same universal distribution should also describe the subthreshold production of other hadrons like η and K. (author) 36 refs., 11 figs

  11. Multiscale fluctuations in nuclear response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Chomaz, Ph

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear collective response is investigated in the framework of a doorway picture in which the spreading width of the collective emotion is described as a coupling to more and more complex configurations. It is shown that this coupling induces fluctuations of the observed strength. In the case of a hierarchy of overlapping decay channels, Ericson fluctuations are observed at different scales. Methods for extracting these scales and the related lifetimes are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the coupling of different states at one level of complexity to some common decay channels at the next level, may produce interference-like patterns in the nuclear response. This quantum effect leads to anew type of fluctuations with a typical width related to the level spacing. (author) 25 refs.

  12. Polyurethane/Polylactide-Blend Films Doped with Zinc Ions for the Growth and Expansion of Human Olfactory Ensheathing Cells (OECs and Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Stem Cells (ASCs for Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric biomaterials based on polyurethane and polylactide blends are promising candidates for regenerative medicine applications as biocompatible, bioresorbable carriers. In current research we showed that 80/20 polyurethane/polylactide blends (PU/PLDL with confirmed biological properties in vitro may be further improved by the addition of ZnO nanoparticles for the delivery of bioactive zinc oxide for cells. The PU/PLDL blends were doped with different concentrations of ZnO (0.001%, 0.01%, 0.05% and undertaken for in vitro biological evaluation using human adipose stromal stem cells (ASCs and olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs. The addition of 0.001% of ZnO to the biomaterials positively influenced the morphology, proliferation, and phenotype of cells cultured on the scaffolds. Moreover, the analysis of oxidative stress markers revealed that 0.001% of ZnO added to the material decreased the stress level in both cell lines. In addition, the levels of neural-specific genes were upregulated in OECs when cultured on sample 0.001 ZnO, while the apoptosis-related genes were downregulated in OECs and ASCs in the same group. Therefore, we showed that PU/PLDL blends doped with 0.001% of ZnO exert beneficial influence on ASCs and OECs in vitro and they may be considered for future applications in the field of regenerative medicine.

  13. Phase space fluctuations and dynamics of fluctuations of collective variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Idier, D.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F. (Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3/CNRS, 44 - Nantes (France) Nantes Univ., 44 (France)); Hernandez, E.S. (Dept. de Fisica, Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1992-08-03

    Within the framework of theoretical approaches based on stochastic transport equation of one-body distribution function, a numerical treatment of the fluctuations of collective observables is studied and checked in comparison with analytical results either at equilibrium or close to it. (orig.).

  14. Phase space fluctuations and dynamics of fluctuations of collective variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhassine, B.; Farine, M.; Idier, D.; Remaud, B.; Sebille, F.; Hernandez, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Within the framework of theoretical approaches based on stochastic transport equation of one-body distribution function, a numerical treatment of the fluctuations of collective observables is studied and checked in comparison with analytical results either at equilibrium or close to it. (orig.)

  15. Entropic Repulsion Between Fluctuating Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, W.

    The statistical mechanics of fluctuating surfaces plays an important role in a variety of physical systems, ranging from biological membranes to world sheets of strings in theories of fundamental interactions. In many applications it is a good approximation to assume that the surfaces possess no tension. Their statistical properties are then governed by curvature energies only, which allow for gigantic out-of-plane undulations. These fluctuations are the “entropic” origin of long-range repulsive forces in layered surface systems. Theoretical estimates of these forces for simple model surfaces are surveyed and compared with recent Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Origin of cosmological density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, B.J.

    1984-11-01

    The density fluctuations required to explain the large-scale cosmological structure may have arisen spontaneously as a result of a phase transition in the early Universe. There are several ways in which such fluctuations may have ben produced, and they could have a variety of spectra, so one should not necessarily expect all features of the large-scale structure to derive from a simple power law spectrum. Some features may even result from astrophysical amplification mechanisms rather than gravitational instability. 128 references

  17. Performance of Grass Filter Strip in Copper and Zinc Removal in Surface and Subsurface Runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Weijie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three filter strips were conducted on self-designed soil bins. Taking a filter strip with no vegetation as contrast, the effectiveness of vegetation and soil conditions on heavy metals (including copper and zinc removal efficiencies were investigated by simulated runoff experiment. The results showed that the adsorbed state is the main existing form of heavy metal. For surface runoff, most of total copper and total zinc are trapped in first 4m and it is ineffective to increase the distance beyond 4m for removal. Vegetation has no significant effect on total copper and total zinc removal, while the soil with higher content of organic matter is contributing to total Zn interception. For subsurface runoff, the removal efficiencies of total copper and total zinc can reach to above 95.38% and both vegetation and soil conditions have no significant effects. Vegetation is contributing to copper ion and zinc ion removal significantly. Soil condition is only a significant factor to zinc ion, with higher content of organic matter as a contributing factor.

  18. In vivo target bio-imaging of Alzheimer's disease by fluorescent zinc oxide nanoclusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lanmei; Zhao, Chunqiu; Su, Meina; Li, Xiaoqi; Liu, Xiaoli; Jiang, Hui; Amatore, Christian; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-07-21

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an irreversible neurodegenerative disease which is difficult to cure. When Alzheimer's disease occurs, the level of zinc ions in the brain changes, and the relevant amount of zinc ions continue decreasing in the cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of Alzheimer's patients with disease exacerbation. In view of these considerations, we have explored a new strategy for the in vivo rapid fluorescence imaging of Alzheimer's disease through target bio-labeling of zinc oxide nanoclusters which were biosynthesized in vivo in the Alzheimer's brain via intravenous injection of zinc gluconate solution. By using three-month-old and six-month-old Alzheimer's model mice as models, our observations demonstrate that biocompatible zinc ions could pass through the blood-brain barrier of the Alzheimer's disease mice and generate fluorescent zinc oxide nanoclusters (ZnO NCs) through biosynthesis, and then the bio-synthesized ZnO NCs could readily accumulate in situ on the hippocampus specific region for the in vivo fluorescent labeling of the affected sites. This study provides a new way for the rapid diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and may have promising prospects in the effective diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein with a di-nuclear ferroxidase center in a zinc or cadmium-bound form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Hideshi, E-mail: h-yokoya@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Tsuruta, Osamu; Akao, Naoya; Fujii, Satoshi [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structures of a metal-bound Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two zinc ions were tetrahedrally coordinated by ferroxidase center (FOC) residues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cadmium ions were coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal and octahedral manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second metal ion was more weakly coordinated than the first at the FOC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A zinc ion was found in one negatively-charged pore suitable as an ion path. -- Abstract: Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) is a Dps-like iron storage protein forming a dodecameric shell, and promotes adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells. The crystal structure of HP-NAP in a Zn{sup 2+}- or Cd{sup 2+}-bound form reveals the binding of two zinc or two cadmium ions and their bridged water molecule at the ferroxidase center (FOC). The two zinc ions are coordinated in a tetrahedral manner to the conserved residues among HP-NAP and Dps proteins. The two cadmium ions are coordinated in a trigonal-bipyramidal and distorted octahedral manner. In both structures, the second ion is more weakly coordinated than the first. Another zinc ion is found inside of the negatively-charged threefold-related pore, which is suitable for metal ions to pass through.

  20. Studies of fluctuation processes in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.

    1991-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress on grant No. DE-FG05-89ER40530 during the period April 15, 1990 to February 15, 1991. Our studies of heavy-ion collisions in the framework of ''a stochastic one-body transport model'' has progress in several directions. We developed a method for obtaining approximate numerical solutions of the transport-equation in semi-classical limit, i.e., Boltzmann-Langevin equation, and tested the method in realistic cases of heavy-ion collisions at energies below 100 MeV per nucleon. Some results of the numerical simulations for a head-on collision of 12 C + 12 C system is included in this report. Work has also continued on studying the stochastic one-body transport model in a quantal representation, which provides a microscopic basis for a consistent description of dissipation and fluctuation properties of large amplitude collective nuclear motion. The previous derivation of the stochastic one-body transport model was presented within the density matrix formalisam. We generalized this treatment and proposed an alternative derivation of the model by employing the Green's function approach within the real-time path formalism of Keldish. One manuscript has been submitted to Nucl. Phys. A for publication. Two other manuscripts are in preparation for publication. Several seminars and contributed talks were presented at various meeting

  1. Silver-zinc electrodeposition from a thiourea solution with added EDTA or HEDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.M. de; Carlos, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the study of silver-zinc electrodeposition from a thiourea solution with added (ethylenedinitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EDTA), disodium salt and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), trisodium salt. Voltammetric results indicated that silver-zinc alloy can be obtained applying overpotential higher than 0.495 V, in Tu solution containing 1.0 x 10 -1 mol L -1 Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + 2.5 x 10 -2 mol L -1 AgNO 3 . This was due to silver(I) ion complexation with thiourea, which shifted the silver deposition potential to more negative value and due to silver-zinc alloy deposition, which occurred at potentials more positive than the potential to zinc deposition alone. EDTA or HEDTA did not significantly affect the silver and zinc deposition potentials, but decreased the current density for silver-zinc deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the silver-zinc deposits showed that the morphology and composition changed as a function of the conditions of deposition, viz, deposition potential (E d ), deposition charge density (q d ) and solution composition (silver, EDTA and HEDTA concentrations). EDS analysis of the deposits showed sulphur (S) incorporated into the silver-zinc deposit, while SEM images showed that this sulphur content seemed to improve the silver-zinc morphology, as did the presence of EDTA and HEDTA in the solution, which enhanced the sulphur incorporation into the silver-zinc deposit. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the silver-zinc deposit showed that it was amorphous, irrespective of its composition and morphology

  2. The structural analysis of zinc borate glass by laboratory EXAFS and X-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajinami, Akihiko; Harada, Yasushi; Inoue, Shinsuke; Deki, Shigehito; Umesaki, Norimasa

    1999-01-01

    The structure of zinc borate glass has been investigated by laboratory EXAFS and X-ray diffraction measurement as preliminary investigations for the detailed study in SPring-8. The zinc borate glass was prepared in the range from 40 to 65 mol% of zinc oxide content. The X-ray diffraction was measured by horizontal θ-θ goniometer with 60 kV and 300 mA output of Mo target. The EXAFS of zinc borate glass was measured by laboratory EXAFS system with 20 kV, 100 mA output of Mo target for the K absorption edge of zinc atom. From the X-ray diffraction and the EXAFS measurements, it is found that the zinc ion is surrounded by four oxygen atoms and formed a tetrahedral structure whose (Zn-O) distance is about 2 A and that the structure is unchanged with the zinc oxide content. The diffraction data show that the neighboring structure of boron atom transforms from BO 4 tetrahedra to BO 3 tetragonal planar structure with increasing of the zinc oxide content. (author)

  3. Evolution of the degradation mechanism of pure zinc stent in the one-year study of rabbit abdominal aorta model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongtao; Wang, Cong; Liu, Chaoqiang; Chen, Houwen; Wu, Yifan; Han, Jintao; Jia, Zichang; Lin, Wenjiao; Zhang, Deyuan; Li, Wenting; Yuan, Wei; Guo, Hui; Li, Huafang; Yang, Guangxin; Kong, Deling; Zhu, Donghui; Takashima, Kazuki; Ruan, Liqun; Nie, Jianfeng; Li, Xuan; Zheng, Yufeng

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, pure zinc stents were implanted into the abdominal aorta of rabbits for 12 months. Multiscale analysis including micro-CT, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and histological stainings was performed to reveal the fundamental degradation mechanism of the pure zinc stent and its biocompatibility. The pure zinc stent was able to maintain mechanical integrity for 6 months and degraded 41.75 ± 29.72% of stent volume after 12 months implantation. No severe inflammation, platelet aggregation, thrombosis formation or obvious intimal hyperplasia was observed at all time points after implantation. The degradation of the zinc stent played a beneficial role in the artery remodeling and healing process. The evolution of the degradation mechanism of pure zinc stents with time was revealed as follows: Before endothelialization, dynamic blood flow dominated the degradation of pure zinc stent, creating a uniform corrosion mode; After endothelialization, the degradation of pure zinc stent depended on the diffusion of water molecules, hydrophilic solutes and ions which led to localized corrosion. Zinc phosphate generated in blood flow transformed into zinc oxide and small amounts of calcium phosphate during the conversion of degradation microenvironment. The favorable physiological degradation behavior makes zinc a promising candidate for future stent applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Spontaneous magnetic fluctuations and collisionless regulation of the Earth's plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, P. S.; Espinoza, C.; Stepanova, M. V.; Antonova, E. E.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Even in the absence of instabilities, plasmas often exhibit inherent electromagnetic fluctuations which are present due to the thermal motion of charged particles, sometimes called thermal (quasi-thermal) noise. One of the fundamental and challenging problems of laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasma physics is the understanding of the relaxation processes of nearly collisionless plasmas, and the resultant state of electromagnetic plasma turbulence. The study of thermal fluctuations can be elegantly addressed by using the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem that describes the average amplitude of the fluctuations through correlations of the linear response of the media with the perturbations of the equilibrium state (the dissipation). Recently, it has been shown that solar wind plasma beta and temperature anisotropy observations are bounded by kinetic instabilities such as the ion cyclotron, mirror, and firehose instabilities. The magnetic fluctuations observed within the bounded area are consistent with the predictions of the Fluctuation-Dissipation theorem even far below the kinetic instability thresholds, with an enhancement of the fluctuation level near the thresholds. Here, for the very first time, using in-situ magnetic field and plasma data from the THEMIS spacecraft, we show that such regulation also occurs in the Earth's plasma sheet at the ion scales and that, regardless of the clear differences between the solar wind and the magnetosphere environments, spontaneous fluctuation and their collisionless regulation seem to be fundamental features of space and astrophysical plasmas, suggesting the universality of the processes.

  5. Adsorption of zinc and lead on clay minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Jablonovská

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Clays (especially bentonite, zeolite and quartz sand are widely used as landfill barriers to prevent contamination of subsoil and groundwater by leachates containing heavy metals. The sorption of zinc and lead on these clays was studied as a function of time and it was found that the initial 1 h our was sufficient to exchange most of the metal ions. The retention efficiency of clay samples of Zn2+ and Pb2+ follows the order of bentonite > zeolite> quartz sand. Whatever the clay sample, lead is retained more than zinc. The concentration of elements in the solution was followed by atomic adsorption spectrofotometry. Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus, previously isolated from the kaoline deposit Horna Prievrana was added into the clay samples to comparise the accumulation of Zn2+ and Pb2+ from the model solution. The study of heavy metal adsorption capacity of bacteria- enriched clay adsorbent showed a high retention efficiency for lead ions as comparised with zinc ions. Biosorption is considered a potential instrument for the removal of metals from waste solutions and for the precious metals recovery as an alternative to the conventional processes.

  6. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  7. Two zinc-binding domains in the transporter AdcA from Streptococcus pyogenes facilitate high-affinity binding and fast transport of zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Kun; Li, Nan; Wang, Hongcui; Cao, Xin; He, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Bing; He, Qing-Yu; Zhang, Gong; Sun, Xuesong

    2018-04-20

    Zinc is an essential metal in bacteria. One important bacterial zinc transporter is AdcA, and most bacteria possess AdcA homologs that are single-domain small proteins due to better efficiency of protein biogenesis. However, a double-domain AdcA with two zinc-binding sites is significantly overrepresented in Streptococcus species, many of which are major human pathogens. Using molecular simulation and experimental validations of AdcA from Streptococcus pyogenes , we found here that the two AdcA domains sequentially stabilize the structure upon zinc binding, indicating an organization required for both increased zinc affinity and transfer speed. This structural organization appears to endow Streptococcus species with distinct advantages in zinc-depleted environments, which would not be achieved by each single AdcA domain alone. This enhanced zinc transport mechanism sheds light on the significance of the evolution of the AdcA domain fusion, provides new insights into double-domain transporter proteins with two binding sites for the same ion, and indicates a potential target of antimicrobial drugs against pathogenic Streptococcus species. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  9. Fluctuations in Overlapping Generations Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvede, Mich

    . The approach to existence of endogenous fluctuations is basic in the sense that the prime ingredients are the implicit function theorem and linear algebra. Moreover the approach is applied to show that for an open and dense set of utility functions there exist endowment vectors such that sunspot equilibria...

  10. Magnetic fluctuations in turbulent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    For dynamo excitation of the magnetic fluctuations in infinite fluid only a sufficient large magnetic Reynolds number is needed. In a infinite region an additional condition appears. Due to the diffusion of the magnetic field through the boundaries a size of the region must be large enough compare with a correlation length of the turbulence. Author)

  11. Firm default and aggregate fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobson, Tor; Linde, Jesper; Roszbach, Kasper

    This paper studies the relationship between macroeconomic fluctuations and corporate defaults while conditioning on industry affiliation and an extensive set of firm-specific factors. By using a panel data set for virtually all incorporated Swedish businesses over 1990-2009, a period which includes

  12. Plasma fluctuation measurements in tokamaks using beam-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Duperrex, P.A.; Paul, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    High-frequency observations of light emitted from the interactions between plasma ions and injected neutral beam atoms allow the measurement of moderate-wavelength fluctuations in plasma and impurity ion densities. To detect turbulence in the local plasma ion density, the collisionally excited fluorescence from a neutral beam is measured either separately at several spatial points or with a multichannel imaging detector. Similarly, the role of impurity ion density fluctuations is measured using charge exchange recombination excited transitions emitted by the ion species of interest. This technique can access the relatively unexplored region of long-wavelength plasma turbulence with k perpendicular ρ i much-lt 1, and hence complements measurements from scattering experiments. Optimization of neutral beam geometry and optical sightlines can result in very good localization and resolution (Δx≤1 cm) in the hot plasma core region. The detectable fluctuation level is determined by photon statistics, atomic excitation processes, and beam stability, but can be as low as 0.2% in a 100 kHz bandwidth over the 0--1 MHz frequency range. The choices of beam species (e.g., H 0 , He 0 , etc.), observed transition (e.g., H α , L α , He I singlet or triplet transitions, C VI Δn=1, etc.) are dictated by experiment-specific factors such as optical access, flexibility of beam operation, plasma conditions, and detailed experimental goals. Initial tests on the PBX-M tokamak using the H α emissions from a heating neutral beam show low-frequency turbulence in the edge plasma region

  13. Investigation of alkaline-cyanide electrolytes of zinc plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaburova, V.P.; Kolotij, O.Yu.

    1993-01-01

    Current values in their maxima on anodic potential curves of Cd, Sn and Zn in galvanizing electrolytes with equilibrium concentrations of free cyanide and hydroxide ions were compared. Anode signal of Cd in the presence of Zn complexes intensifies due to their lability and, therefore, it reflects not only the presence of free cyanide, but zinc complex ions, as well, in the solution mentioned. This is one of the reasons for a high information content of the signal in case of multicomponent analysis of cyanide galvanizing electrolytes

  14. Silver-zinc: status of technology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpinski, A.P.; Makovetski, B.; Russell, S.J.; Serenyi, J.R.; Williams, D.C. [Yardney Technical Products, Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Michel Yardney and Professor Henri Andre developed the first practical silver-zinc battery more than 55 years ago. Since then, primary and rechargeable silver-zinc batteries have attracted a variety of applications due to their high specific energy/energy density, proven reliability and safety, and the highest power output per unit weight and volume of all commercially available batteries. Although significant improvements have been achieved on traditional systems such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, and in spite of the advent of new electrochemistries such as lithium-ion and nickel/metal hydride, many users still rely on silver-zinc to satisfy their most demanding and critical requirements. Over the past few years, several of the internal components have been subject to many studies which resulted in significant improvements in the battery wet life and cycle life. Specifically, these include new separator materials which offer an alternative to the cellulosic membranes, improvements to the zinc electrode that include additives that help reduce shape-change and dendritic growth, and to a lesser extent, process changes to the silver electrode and additives to the electrolyte. In comparison, the commonly used secondary systems are lead-acid, nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion. Each has attributes which make them desirable for certain applications. Where low cost, high voltage, and high rate capability is required, the lead-acid battery is an obvious choice whenever size and weight are not critical. For applications requiring longer wet life, moderate rate capability, and high cycle life, nickel/cadmium or nickel/metal hydride can be used in spite of their poor charge retention and higher costs. Relatively newer systems are also available such as lithium-ion or lithium polymer technology which are preferred for their high voltage and excellent cycle life. Among the disadvantages of these systems are higher costs, limited configurations (usually

  15. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  16. Relative importance of food and water pathways in the bio-accumulation of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, W.C.; Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.; LaRosa, J.

    1974-01-01

    The relative importance of the food versus water pathway as a source of radionuclides to aquatic organisms is studied through laboratory experiments allowing groups of animals to accumulate 65 Zn from the two pathways simultaneously in the same simulated ecosystem. Mean whole body concentration factors of 65 Zn and stable zinc in shrimp, crab, fish and mussels are recorded. In shrimp and fish accumulation of 65 Zn through the food pathway is reported more than the water pathway though fluctuations in food quality and feeding rates could alter zinc absorption kinetics

  17. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating e...

  18. The mechanism of zinc uptake in excised roots and leaf discs of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Die meganisme van sinkopname in blaarskyfies en wortelpunte van Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van As, J A

    1991-03-01

    The mechanism and nature of zinc uptake was studied with the aid of {sup 65}Zn. Uptake of zinc was also compared to that of potassium and phosphate, which are known to be ATP-dependent. Zinc uptake was characterized by a rapid initial uptake, followed by a slower linear phase. Decreasing the temperature from 25 to 2 deg C resulted in a decrease of only 30% in the rate of zinc uptake. Uptake of zinc was insensitive to DNP - possibly indicating the non-metabolic nature of the uptake process. A possible role for zinc in protein synthesis could not be demonstrated as CHI did not inhibit zinc uptake. Cyanide reduced zinc uptake to almost zero, possibly due to complexation of zinc by cyanide. Light had no effect on the accumulation of Zn, whereas dark incubation reduced potassium uptake substantially. The relative high rate of zinc uptake and the passive nature of the uptake process might be due to the high binding capacity of the free space for zinc ions. Transport of the zinc in the xylem and phloem of intact bean plants, as well as the metabolic dependence of the latter, was also investigated. The bulk of the zinc absorbed by bean plants remained in the roots and stems with only a very small fraction being translocated to shoots. Adsorption was the major uptake mechanism in roots and stems. In contrast to transport in the xylem, zinc was readily transported in the phloem. Loading and unloading of zinc in the phloem was not influenced by low temperature or DNP. Opposed to this, loading of potassium and phosphate was inhibited by DNP, while unloading was inhibited by low temperature. It can therefore be concluded that the uptake and transport of zinc is probably a passive process. 33 figs., 282 refs.

  19. Fluctuations in collisional plasma in the presence of an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momot, A. I.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of large-scale fluctuations in a plasma is used to calculate the correlations functions of electron and ion density with regard to particle collisions described within the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model and the presence of a constant external electric field. The changes of plasma particle distribution functions due to an external electric field and their influence on the plasma dielectric response are taken into account. The dispersion relations for longitudinal waves in such a plasma are studied in details. It is shown that external electric field can lead to the ion-acoustic wave instability and anomalous growth of the fluctuation level. Detailed numerical studies of the general relations for electron number density fluctuations are performed and the effect of external electric field on the fluctuation spectra is studied.

  20. Electrostatic fluctuations measured in low temperature helical plasmas with low collisionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Ikeda, R.; Ito, T.; Toi, K.; Suzuki, C.; Matsunaga, G.

    2004-01-01

    Electrostatic fluctuations have been measured by Langmuir probes from edge to core plasma region in low temperature helical plasmas which are produced by 2.45 GHz microwaves at very low field less than 0.1 T. The principal dimensionless parameters of the plasmas, that is, the normalized electron-ion collision frequency ν ei , and averaged plasma β φ and others are in the same range of them in high temperature plasmas, except the normalized gyro radius ρ s . The data on fluctuation characteristics from the dimensionally similar low temperature plasmas may give an important insight into the understanding of turbulent transport in high temperature plasmas. Dependences of fluctuation amplitudes on the radial electric field shear, ρ s and ν ei are investigated. Electrostatic fluctuations propagating in electron-diamagnetic drift direction have been observed in the plasma edge region and in ion-diamagnetic drift direction in the plasma core region. (authors)