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Sample records for zinc finger factor

  1. Role of zinc finger structure in nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tatsuo; Azumano, Makiko; Uwatoko, Chisana; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates gene expression. Our previous study demonstrated that the carboxyl terminal region of Sp1 containing 3-zinc finger region as DNA binding domain can also serve as nuclear localization signal (NLS). However, the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 has not been well understood. In this study, we performed a gene expression study on mutant Sp1 genes causing a set of amino acid substitutions in zinc finger domains to elucidate nuclear import activity. Nuclear localization of the GFP-fused mutant Sp1 proteins bearing concomitant substitutions in the first and third zinc fingers was highly inhibited. These mutant Sp1 proteins had also lost the binding ability as to the GC box sequence. The results suggest that the overall tertiary structure formed by the three zinc fingers is essential for nuclear localization of Sp1 as well as dispersed basic amino acids within the zinc fingers region.

  2. Mechanisms of inhibition of zinc-finger transcription factors by selenium compounds ebselen and selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabee, Jason L; Hocker, James R; Hanas, Jay S

    2009-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory selenium compounds, ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3[2H]-one) and selenite, were found to alter the DNA binding mechanisms and structures of cysteine-rich zinc-finger transcription factors. As assayed by DNase I protection, DNA binding by TFIIIA (transcription factor IIIA, prototypical Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein), was inhibited by micromolar amounts of ebselen. In a gel shift assay, ebselen inhibited the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger-containing DNA binding domain (DBD) of the NF-kappaB mediated transcription factor Sp1. Ebselen also inhibited DNA binding by the p50 subunit of the pro-inflammatory Cys-containing NF-kappaB transcription factor. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was utilized to elucidate mechanisms of chemical interaction between ebselen and a zinc-bound Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger polypeptide modeled after the third finger of Sp1 (Sp1-3). Exposing Sp1-3 to micromolar amounts of ebselen resulted in Zn(2+) release from this peptide and the formation of a disulfide bond by oxidation of zinc finger SH groups, the likely mechanism for DNA binding inhibition. Selenite was shown by ESI-MS to also eject zinc from Sp1-3 as well as induce disulfide bond formation through SH oxidation. The selenite-dependent inhibition/oxidation mechanism differed from that of ebselen by inducing the formation of a stable selenotrisulfide bond. Selenite-induced selenotrisulfide formation was dependent upon the structure of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger as alteration in the finger structure enhanced this reaction as well as selenite-dependent zinc release. Ebselen and selenite-dependent inhibition/oxidation of Cys-rich zinc finger proteins, with concomitant release of zinc and finger structural changes, points to mechanisms at the atomic and protein level for selenium-induced alterations in Cys-rich proteins, and possible amelioration of certain inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and oncogenic responses.

  3. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin α. → Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. → Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin α in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin α including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin α. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  4. Regulation of Nitrogen Metabolism by GATA Zinc Finger Transcription Factors in Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Baker, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungi accumulate lipids in a manner dependent on the quantity and quality of the nitrogen source on which they are growing. In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, growth on a complex source of nitrogen enables rapid growth and limited accumulation of neutral lipids, while growth on a simple nitrogen source promotes lipid accumulation in large lipid droplets. Here we examined the roles of nitrogen catabolite repression and its regulation by GATA zinc finger transcription factors...

  5. Design, construction, and analysis of specific zinc finger nucleases for microphthalmia - associate transcription factor

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    Wenwen Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the design, construction, and cleavage analysis of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs that could cut the specific sequences within microphthalmia - associate transcription factor (mitfa of zebra fish. The target site and ZFPs were selected and designed with zinc finger tools, while the ZFPs were synthesized using DNAWorks and two-step PCR. The ZFNs were constructed, expressed, purified, and analyzed in vitro. As expected, the designed ZFNs could create a double-stand break (DSB at the target site in vitro. The DNAWorks, two-step PCR, and an optimized process of protein expression were firstly induced in the construction of ZFNs successfully, which was an effective and simplified protocol. These results could be useful for further application of ZFNs - mediated gene targeting.

  6. Fear-of-intimacy-mediated zinc transport controls the function of zinc-finger transcription factors involved in myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Rando, Marta; Atienza-Manuel, Alexandra; Martín, Paloma; Burke, Richard; Ruiz-Gómez, Mar

    2016-06-01

    Zinc is a component of one-tenth of all human proteins. Its cellular concentration is tightly regulated because its dyshomeostasis has catastrophic health consequences. Two families of zinc transporters control zinc homeostasis in organisms, but there is little information about their specific developmental roles. We show that the ZIP transporter Fear-of-intimacy (Foi) is necessary for the formation of Drosophila muscles. In foi mutants, myoblasts segregate normally, but their specification is affected, leading to the formation of a misshapen muscle pattern and distorted midgut. The observed phenotypes could be ascribed to the inactivation of specific zinc-finger transcription factors (ZFTFs), supporting the hypothesis that they are a consequence of intracellular depletion of zinc. Accordingly, foi phenotypes can be rescued by mesodermal expression of other ZIP members with similar subcellular localization. We propose that Foi acts mostly as a transporter to regulate zinc intracellular homeostasis, thereby impacting on the activity of ZFTFs that control specific developmental processes. Our results additionally suggest a possible explanation for the presence of large numbers of zinc transporters in organisms based on differences in ion transport specificity and/or degrees of activity among transporters. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. The Zinc Finger of Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Protein 2 Is Essential for Efficient Hydroxylation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Patrick R; Song, Daisheng; Chung, Yu Jin; Khurana, Tejvir S; Lee, Frank S

    2016-09-15

    Prolyl hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) (also known as EGLN1) is a key oxygen sensor in mammals that posttranslationally modifies hypoxia-inducible factor α (HIF-α) and targets it for degradation. In addition to its catalytic domain, PHD2 contains an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger domain, which we have previously proposed recruits PHD2 to the HSP90 pathway to promote HIF-α hydroxylation. Here, we provide evidence that this recruitment is critical both in vitro and in vivo We show that in vitro, the zinc finger can function as an autonomous recruitment domain to facilitate interaction with HIF-α. In vivo, ablation of zinc finger function by a C36S/C42S Egln1 knock-in mutation results in upregulation of the erythropoietin gene, erythrocytosis, and augmented hypoxic ventilatory response, all hallmarks of Egln1 loss of function and HIF stabilization. Hence, the zinc finger ordinarily performs a critical positive regulatory function. Intriguingly, the function of this zinc finger is impaired in high-altitude-adapted Tibetans, suggesting that their adaptation to high altitude may, in part, be due to a loss-of-function EGLN1 allele. Thus, these findings have important implications for understanding both the molecular mechanism of the hypoxic response and human adaptation to high altitude. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Zinc finger protein 521 antagonizes early B-cell factor 1 and modulates the B-lymphoid differentiation of primary hematopoietic progenitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Amodio, Nicola; Horton, Sarah J.; Mesuraca, Maria; Pelaggi, Daniela; Agosti, Valter; Grieco, Michele; Chiarella, Emanuela; Spina, Raffaella; Moore, Malcolm A. S.; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Bond, Heather M.; Morrone, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a multi-functional transcription co-factor containing 30 zinc fingers and an N-terminal motif that binds to the nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex. ZNF521 is believed to be a relevant player in the regulation of the homeostasis of

  9. Overexpression of a New Zinc Finger Protein Transcription Factor OsCTZFP8 Improves Cold Tolerance in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Mei Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold stress is one of the most important abiotic stresses in rice. C2H2 zinc finger proteins play important roles in response to abiotic stresses in plants. In the present study, we isolated and functionally characterized a new C2H2 zinc finger protein transcription factor OsCTZFP8 in rice. OsCTZFP8 encodes a C2H2 zinc finger protein, which contains a typical zinc finger motif, as well as a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS and a leucine-rich region (L-box. Expression of OsCTZFP8 was differentially induced by several abiotic stresses and was strongly induced by cold stress. Subcellular localization assay and yeast one-hybrid analysis revealed that OsCTZFP8 was a nuclear protein and has transactivation activity. To characterize the function of OsCTZFP8 in rice, the full-length cDNA of OsCTZFP8 was isolated and transgenic rice with overexpression of OsCTZFP8 driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter was generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Among 46 independent transgenic lines, 6 single-copy homozygous overexpressing lines were selected by Southern blot analysis and Basta resistance segregation assay in both T1 and T2 generations. Transgenic rice overexpressing OsCTZFP8 exhibited cold tolerant phenotypes with significantly higher pollen fertilities and seed setting rates than nontransgenic control plants. In addition, yield per plant of OsCTZFP8-expressing lines was significantly (p<0.01 higher than that of nontransgenic control plants under cold treatments. These results demonstrate that OsCTZFP8 was a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor that plays an important role in cold tolerance in rice.

  10. C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors in foxtail millet define response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Bonthala, Venkata Suresh; Mishra, Awdhesh Kumar; Khandelwal, Rohit; Khan, Yusuf; Roy, Riti; Prasad, Manoj

    2014-09-01

    C2H2 type of zinc finger transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant stress response and hormone signal transduction. Hence considering its importance, genome-wide investigation and characterization of C2H2 zinc finger proteins were performed in Arabidopsis, rice and poplar but no such study was conducted in foxtail millet which is a C4 Panicoid model crop well known for its abiotic stress tolerance. The present study identified 124 C2H2-type zinc finger TFs in foxtail millet (SiC2H2) and physically mapped them onto the genome. The gene duplication analysis revealed that SiC2H2s primarily expanded in the genome through tandem duplication. The phylogenetic tree classified these TFs into five groups (I-V). Further, miRNAs targeting SiC2H2 transcripts in foxtail millet were identified. Heat map demonstrated differential and tissue-specific expression patterns of these SiC2H2 genes. Comparative physical mapping between foxtail millet SiC2H2 genes and its orthologs of sorghum, maize and rice revealed the evolutionary relationships of C2H2 type of zinc finger TFs. The duplication and divergence data provided novel insight into the evolutionary aspects of these TFs in foxtail millet and related grass species. Expression profiling of candidate SiC2H2 genes in response to salinity, dehydration and cold stress showed differential expression pattern of these genes at different time points of stresses.

  11. Zinc finger transcription factors displaced SREBP proteins as the major Sterol regulators during Saccharomycotina evolution.

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    Sarah L Maguire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In most eukaryotes, including the majority of fungi, expression of sterol biosynthesis genes is regulated by Sterol-Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs, which are basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators. However, in yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans sterol synthesis is instead regulated by Upc2, an unrelated transcription factor with a Gal4-type zinc finger. The SREBPs in S. cerevisiae (Hms1 and C. albicans (Cph2 have lost a domain, are not major regulators of sterol synthesis, and instead regulate filamentous growth. We report here that rewiring of the sterol regulon, with Upc2 taking over from SREBP, likely occurred in the common ancestor of all Saccharomycotina. Yarrowia lipolytica, a deep-branching species, is the only genome known to contain intact and full-length orthologs of both SREBP (Sre1 and Upc2. Deleting YlUPC2, but not YlSRE1, confers susceptibility to azole drugs. Sterol levels are significantly reduced in the YlUPC2 deletion. RNA-seq analysis shows that hypoxic regulation of sterol synthesis genes in Y. lipolytica is predominantly mediated by Upc2. However, YlSre1 still retains a role in hypoxic regulation; growth of Y. lipolytica in hypoxic conditions is reduced in a Ylupc2 deletion and is abolished in a Ylsre1/Ylupc2 double deletion, and YlSre1 regulates sterol gene expression during hypoxia adaptation. We show that YlSRE1, and to a lesser extent YlUPC2, are required for switching from yeast to filamentous growth in hypoxia. Sre1 appears to have an ancestral role in the regulation of filamentation, which became decoupled from its role in sterol gene regulation by the arrival of Upc2 in the Saccharomycotina.

  12. Zinc Finger Transcription Factors Displaced SREBP Proteins as the Major Sterol Regulators during Saccharomycotina Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Sarah L.; Wang, Can; Holland, Linda M.; Brunel, François; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Zavrel, Martin; White, Theodore C.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, including the majority of fungi, expression of sterol biosynthesis genes is regulated by Sterol-Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs), which are basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators. However, in yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans sterol synthesis is instead regulated by Upc2, an unrelated transcription factor with a Gal4-type zinc finger. The SREBPs in S. cerevisiae (Hms1) and C. albicans (Cph2) have lost a domain, are not major regulators of sterol synthesis, and instead regulate filamentous growth. We report here that rewiring of the sterol regulon, with Upc2 taking over from SREBP, likely occurred in the common ancestor of all Saccharomycotina. Yarrowia lipolytica, a deep-branching species, is the only genome known to contain intact and full-length orthologs of both SREBP (Sre1) and Upc2. Deleting YlUPC2, but not YlSRE1, confers susceptibility to azole drugs. Sterol levels are significantly reduced in the YlUPC2 deletion. RNA-seq analysis shows that hypoxic regulation of sterol synthesis genes in Y. lipolytica is predominantly mediated by Upc2. However, YlSre1 still retains a role in hypoxic regulation; growth of Y. lipolytica in hypoxic conditions is reduced in a Ylupc2 deletion and is abolished in a Ylsre1/Ylupc2 double deletion, and YlSre1 regulates sterol gene expression during hypoxia adaptation. We show that YlSRE1, and to a lesser extent YlUPC2, are required for switching from yeast to filamentous growth in hypoxia. Sre1 appears to have an ancestral role in the regulation of filamentation, which became decoupled from its role in sterol gene regulation by the arrival of Upc2 in the Saccharomycotina. PMID:24453983

  13. The zinc finger transcription factor 191 is required for early embryonic development and cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianzhong; Chen Xia; Yang Hua; Wang Shuiliang; Guo Baoyu; Yu Long; Wang Zhugang; Fu Jiliang

    2006-01-01

    Human zinc finger protein 191 (ZNF191/ZNF24) was cloned and characterized as a SCAN family member, which shows 94% identity to its mouse homologue zinc finger protein 191 (Zfp191). ZNF191 can specifically interact with an intronic polymorphic TCAT repeat (HUMTH01) in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. Allelic variations of HUMTH01 have been stated to have a quantitative silencing effect on TH gene expression and to correlate with quantitative and qualitative changes in the binding by ZNF191. Zfp191 is widely expressed during embryonic development and in multiple tissues and organs in adult. To investigate the functions of Zfp191 in vivo, we have used homologous recombination to generate mice that are deficient in Zfp191. Heterozygous Zfp191 +/- mice are normal and fertile. Homozygous Zfp191 -/- embryos are severely retarded in development and die at approximately 7.5 days post-fertilization. Unexpectedly, in Zfp191 -/- and Zfp191 +/- embryos, TH gene expression is not affected. Blastocyst outgrowth experiments and the RNA interference-mediated knockdown of ZNF191 in cultured cells revealed an essential role for Zfp191 in cell proliferation. In further agreement with this function, no viable Zfp191 -/- cell lines were obtained by derivation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from blastocysts of Zfp191 +/- intercrosses or by forced homogenotization of heterozygous ES cells at high concentrations of G418. These data show that Zfp191 is indispensable for early embryonic development and cell proliferation

  14. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, B.L.; Auld, D.S.; Coleman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a zinc cluster akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is ∼3.5 angstrom. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is ∼13 angstrom, and in this instance, a zinc twist is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native zinc fingers, structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent

  15. The pro1(+) gene from Sordaria macrospora encodes a C6 zinc finger transcription factor required for fruiting body development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masloff, S; Pöggeler, S; Kück, U

    1999-05-01

    During sexual morphogenesis, the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora differentiates into multicellular fruiting bodies called perithecia. Previously it has been shown that this developmental process is under polygenic control. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation, we generated the protoperithecia forming mutant pro1, in which the normal development of protoperithecia into perithecia has been disrupted. We succeeded in isolating a cosmid clone from an indexed cosmid library, which was able to complement the pro1(-) mutation. Deletion analysis, followed by DNA sequencing, subsequently demonstrated that fertility was restored to the pro1 mutant by an open reading frame encoding a 689-amino-acid polypeptide, which we named PRO1. A region from this polypeptide shares significant homology with the DNA-binding domains found in fungal C6 zinc finger transcription factors, such as the GAL4 protein from yeast. However, other typical regions of C6 zinc finger proteins, such as dimerization elements, are absent in PRO1. The involvement of the pro1(+) gene in fruiting body development was further confirmed by trying to complement the mutant phenotype with in vitro mutagenized and truncated versions of the pro1 open reading frame. Southern hybridization experiments also indicated that pro1(+) homologues are present in other sexually propagating filamentous ascomycetes.

  16. Molecular Characterization of the Schistosoma mansoni Zinc Finger Protein SmZF1 as a Transcription Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Astolfo, Diego S.; Cardoso, Fernanda C.; Rajão, Matheus A.; Mourão, Marina M.; Gava, Elisandra; Oliveira, Sérgio C.; Macedo, Andréa M.; Machado, Carlos R.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Kitten, Gregory T.; Franco, Glória R.

    2009-01-01

    Background During its development, the parasite Schistosoma mansoni is exposed to different environments and undergoes many morphological and physiological transformations as a result of profound changes in gene expression. Characterization of proteins involved in the regulation of these processes is of importance for the understanding of schistosome biology. Proteins containing zinc finger motifs usually participate in regulatory processes and are considered the major class of transcription factors in eukaryotes. It has already been shown, by EMSA (Eletrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay), that SmZF1, a S. mansoni zinc finger (ZF) protein, specifically binds both DNA and RNA oligonucleotides. This suggests that this protein might act as a transcription factor in the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study we extended the characterization of SmZF1 by determining its subcellular localization and by verifying its ability to regulate gene transcription. We performed immunohistochemistry assays using adult male and female worms, cercariae and schistosomula to analyze the distribution pattern of SmZF1 and verified that the protein is mainly detected in the cells nuclei of all tested life cycle stages except for adult female worms. Also, SmZF1 was heterologously expressed in mammalian COS-7 cells to produce the recombinant protein YFP-SmZF1, which was mainly detected in the nucleus of the cells by confocal microscopy and Western blot assays. To evaluate the ability of this protein to regulate gene transcription, cells expressing YFP-SmZF1 were tested in a luciferase reporter system. In this system, the luciferase gene is downstream of a minimal promoter, upstream of which a DNA region containing four copies of the SmZF1 putative best binding site (D1-3DNA) was inserted. SmZF1 increased the reporter gene transcription by two fold (p≤0.003) only when its specific binding site was present. Conclusion Taken together, these results strongly support the hypothesis

  17. Conversion of Human Fibroblasts to Stably Self-Renewing Neural Stem Cells with a Single Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor

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    Ebrahim Shahbazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct conversion of somatic cells into neural stem cells (NSCs by defined factors holds great promise for mechanistic studies, drug screening, and potential cell therapies for different neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we report that a single zinc-finger transcription factor, Zfp521, is sufficient for direct conversion of human fibroblasts into long-term self-renewable and multipotent NSCs. In vitro, Zfp521-induced NSCs maintained their characteristics in the absence of exogenous factor expression and exhibited morphological, molecular, developmental, and functional properties that were similar to control NSCs. In addition, the single-seeded induced NSCs were able to form NSC colonies with efficiency comparable with control NSCs and expressed NSC markers. The converted cells were capable of surviving, migrating, and attaining neural phenotypes after transplantation into neonatal mouse and adult rat brains, without forming tumors. Moreover, the Zfp521-induced NSCs predominantly expressed rostral genes. Our results suggest a facilitated approach for establishing human NSCs through Zfp521-driven conversion of fibroblasts.

  18. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-01-01

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms. -- Highlights: •PARIS can be SUMOylated in vivo and in vitro. •SUMOylation of PARIS functions in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. •PIASy interacts with PARIS and enhances its SUMOylation. •PIASy influences PARIS-mediated repression of PGC-1a promoter activity.

  19. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishida, Tamotsu, E-mail: nishida@gene.mie-u.ac.jp; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-05-13

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms. -- Highlights: •PARIS can be SUMOylated in vivo and in vitro. •SUMOylation of PARIS functions in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. •PIASy interacts with PARIS and enhances its SUMOylation. •PIASy influences PARIS-mediated repression of PGC-1a promoter activity.

  20. Expression and function of the zinc finger transcription factor Sp6-9 in the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königsmann, Tatiana; Turetzek, Natascha; Pechmann, Matthias; Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2017-11-01

    Zinc finger transcription factors of the Sp6-9 group are evolutionarily conserved in all metazoans and have important functions in, e.g., limb formation and heart development. The function of Sp6-9-related genes has been studied in a number of vertebrates and invertebrates, but data from chelicerates (spiders and allies) was lacking so far. We have isolated the ortholog of Sp6-9 from the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum and the cellar spider Pholcus phalangioides. We show that the Sp6-9 gene in these spider species is expressed in the developing appendages thus suggesting a conserved role in limb formation. Indeed, RNAi with Sp6-9 in P. tepidariorum leads not only to strong limb defects, but also to the loss of body segments and head defects in more strongly affected animals. Together with a new expression domain in the early embryo, these data suggest that Sp6-9 has a dual role P. tepidariorum. The early role in head and body segment formation is not known from other arthropods, but the role in limb formation is evolutionarily highly conserved.

  1. Expression of zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox factor 1 in epithelial ovarian cancer: A clinicopathological analysis of 238 patients

    OpenAIRE

    LI, XIUFANG; HUANG, RUIXIA; LI, RUTH HOLM; TROPE, CLAES G.; NESLAND, JAHN M.; SUO, ZHENHE

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that aberrant activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a key role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox factor 1 (ZEB1), as a crucial mediator of EMT, contributes to the malignant progression of various epithelial tumors. To determine whether ZEB1 is involved in the progression of ovarian cancer, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of ZEB1 in 238 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC...

  2. Regulation of Nitrogen Metabolism by GATA Zinc Finger Transcription Factors in Yarrowia lipolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomraning, Kyle R.; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Baker, Scott E.

    2017-02-15

    ABSTRACT

    Fungi accumulate lipids in a manner dependent on the quantity and quality of the nitrogen source on which they are growing. In the oleaginous yeastYarrowia lipolytica, growth on a complex source of nitrogen enables rapid growth and limited accumulation of neutral lipids, while growth on a simple nitrogen source promotes lipid accumulation in large lipid droplets. Here we examined the roles of nitrogen catabolite repression and its regulation by GATA zinc finger transcription factors on lipid metabolism inY. lipolytica. Deletion of the GATA transcription factor genesgzf3andgzf2resulted in nitrogen source-specific growth defects and greater accumulation of lipids when the cells were growing on a simple nitrogen source. Deletion ofgzf1, which is most similar to activators of genes repressed by nitrogen catabolite repression in filamentous ascomycetes, did not affect growth on the nitrogen sources tested. We examined gene expression of wild-type and GATA transcription factor mutants on simple and complex nitrogen sources and found that expression of enzymes involved in malate metabolism, beta-oxidation, and ammonia utilization are strongly upregulated on a simple nitrogen source. Deletion ofgzf3results in overexpression of genes with GATAA sites in their promoters, suggesting that it acts as a repressor, whilegzf2is required for expression of ammonia utilization genes but does not grossly affect the transcription level of genes predicted to be controlled by nitrogen catabolite repression. Both GATA transcription factor mutants exhibit decreased expression of genes controlled by carbon catabolite repression via the repressormig1, including genes for beta-oxidation, highlighting the complex interplay between regulation of carbon, nitrogen, and lipid metabolism.

    IMPORTANCENitrogen source is

  3. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Sp9 Is Required for the Development of Striatopallidal Projection Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, composed of striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, are derived from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE. We find that the transcription factor Sp9 is expressed in LGE progenitors that generate nearly all striatal MSNs and that Sp9 expression is maintained in postmitotic striatopallidal MSNs. Sp9-null mice lose most striatopallidal MSNs because of decreased proliferation of striatopallidal MSN progenitors and increased Bax-dependent apoptosis, whereas the development of striatonigral neurons is largely unaffected. ChIP qPCR provides evidence that Ascl1 directly binds the Sp9 promoter. RNA-seq and in situ hybridization reveal that Sp9 promotes expression of Adora2a, P2ry1, Gpr6, and Grik3 in the LGE and striatum. Thus, Sp9 is crucial for the generation, differentiation, and survival of striatopallidal MSNs.

  4. The creation of the artificial RING finger from the cross-brace zinc finger by α-helical region substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Togiya, Kayo

    2010-01-01

    The creation of the artificial RING finger as ubiquitin-ligating enzyme (E3) has been demonstrated. In this study, by the α-helical region substitution between the EL5 RING finger and the Williams-Beuren syndrome transcription factor (WSTF) PHD finger, the artificial E3 (WSTF PHD R ING finger) was newly created. The experiments of the chemical modification of residues Cys and the circular dichroism spectra revealed that the WSTF PHD R ING finger binds two zinc atoms and adopts the zinc-dependent ordered-structure. In the substrate-independent ubiquitination assay, the WSTF PHD R ING finger functions as E3 and was poly- or mono-ubiquitinated. The present strategy is very simple and convenient, and consequently it might be widely applicable to the creation of various artificial E3 RING fingers with the specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-binding capability.

  5. Zinc finger protein 521 antagonizes early B-cell factor 1 and modulates the B-lymphoid differentiation of primary hematopoietic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Tiziana; Lupia, Michela; Amodio, Nicola; Horton, Sarah J; Mesuraca, Maria; Pelaggi, Daniela; Agosti, Valter; Grieco, Michele; Chiarella, Emanuela; Spina, Raffaella; Moore, Malcolm A S; Schuringa, Jan Jacob; Bond, Heather M; Morrone, Giovanni

    2011-07-01

    Zinc finger protein 521 (EHZF/ZNF521) is a multi-functional transcription co-factor containing 30 zinc fingers and an amino-terminal motif that binds to the nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase (NuRD) complex. ZNF521 is believed to be a relevant player in the regulation of the homeostasis of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell compartment, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Here, we show that this protein plays an important role in the control of B-cell development by inhibiting the activity of early B-cell factor-1 (EBF1), a master factor in B-lineage specification. In particular, our data demonstrate that: (1) ZNF521 binds to EBF1 via its carboxyl-terminal portion and this interaction is required for EBF1 inhibition; (2) NuRD complex recruitment by ZNF521 is not essential for the inhibition of transactivation of EBF1-dependent promoters; (3) ZNF521 represses EBF1 target genes in a human B-lymphoid molecular context; and (4) RNAi-mediated silencing of ZNF521/Zfp521 in primary human and murine hematopoietic progenitors strongly enhances the generation of B-lymphocytes in vitro. Taken together, our data indicate that ZNF521 can antagonize B-cell development and lend support to the notion that it may contribute to conserve the multipotency of primitive lympho-myeloid progenitors by preventing or delaying their EBF1-driven commitment toward the B-cell lineage.

  6. The solution structure of the N-terminal zinc finger of GATA-1 reveals a specific binding face for the transcriptional co-factor FOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, K.; Czolij, R.; King, G.F.; Crossley, M.; Mackay, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Zinc fingers (ZnFs) are generally regarded as DNA-binding motifs. However, a number of recent reports have implicated particular ZnFs in the mediation of protein-protein interactions. The N-terminal ZnF of GATA-1 (NF) is one such finger, having been shown to interact with a number of other proteins, including the recently discovered transcriptional co-factor FOG. Here we solve the three-dimensional structure of the NF in solution using multidimensional 1H/15N NMR spectroscopy, and we use 1H/15N spin relaxation measurements to investigate its backbone dynamics. The structure consists of two distorted β-hairpins and a single α-helix, and is similar to that of the C-terminal ZnF of chicken GATA-1. Comparisons of the NF structure with those of other C4-type zinc binding motifs, including hormone receptor and LIM domains, also reveal substantial structural homology. Finally, we use the structure to map the spatial locations of NF residues shown by mutagenesis to be essential for FOG binding, and demonstrate that these residues all lie on a single face of the NF. Notably, this face is well removed from the putative DNA- binding face of the NF, an observation which is suggestive of simultaneous roles for the NF; that is, stabilisation of GATA-1 DNA complexes and recruitment of FOG to GATA-1-controlled promoter regions

  7. Engineered zinc-finger transcription factors inhibit the replication and transcription of HBV in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Wang, Junxia; Xu, Dengfeng; Bai, Huili; Zhang, Yangli; Zhang, Yuhong; Li, Xiaosong

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, an artificial zinc-finger transcription factor eukaryotic expression vector specifically recognizing and binding to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) enhancer (Enh) was constructed, which inhibited the replication and expression of HBV DNA. The HBV EnhI‑specific pcDNA3.1‑artificial transcription factor (ATF) vector was successfully constructed, and then transformed or injected into HepG2.2.15 cells and HBV transgenic mice, respectively. The results demonstrated that the HBV EnhI (1,070‑1,234 bp)‑specific ATF significantly inhibited the replication and transcription of HBV DNA in vivo and in vitro. The HBV EnhI‑specific ATF may be a meritorious component of progressive combination therapies for eliminating HBV DNA in infected patients. A radical cure for chronic HBV infection may become feasible by using this bioengineering technology.

  8. A multiscale approach to simulating the conformational properties of unbound multi-C₂H₂ zinc finger proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wade, Rebecca C; Heermann, Dieter W

    2015-09-01

    The conformational properties of unbound multi-Cys2 His2 (mC2H2) zinc finger proteins, in which zinc finger domains are connected by flexible linkers, are studied by a multiscale approach. Three methods on different length scales are utilized. First, atomic detail molecular dynamics simulations of one zinc finger and its adjacent flexible linker confirmed that the zinc finger is more rigid than the flexible linker. Second, the end-to-end distance distributions of mC2H2 zinc finger proteins are computed using an efficient atomistic pivoting algorithm, which only takes excluded volume interactions into consideration. The end-to-end distance distribution gradually changes its profile, from left-tailed to right-tailed, as the number of zinc fingers increases. This is explained by using a worm-like chain model. For proteins of a few zinc fingers, an effective bending constraint favors an extended conformation. Only for proteins containing more than nine zinc fingers, is a somewhat compacted conformation preferred. Third, a mesoscale model is modified to study both the local and the global conformational properties of multi-C2H2 zinc finger proteins. Simulations of the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), an important mC2H2 zinc finger protein for genome spatial organization, are presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of the linkers between the zinc fingers in zinc finger protein 809 on gene silencing and nuclear localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, Yu, E-mail: ichida-y@ncchd.go.jp; Utsunomiya, Yuko; Onodera, Masafumi

    2016-03-18

    Zinc finger protein 809 (ZFP809) belongs to the Kruppel-associated box-containing zinc finger protein (KRAB-ZFP) family and functions in repressing the expression of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV). ZFP809 binds to the primer-binding site (PBS)located downstream of the MoMLV-long terminal repeat (LTR) and induces epigenetic modifications at integration sites, such as repressive histone modifications and de novo DNA methylation. KRAB-ZFPs contain consensus TGEKP linkers between C2H2 zinc fingers. The phosphorylation of threonine residues within linkers leads to the inactivation of zinc finger binding to target sequences. ZFP809 also contains consensus linkers between zinc fingers. However, the function of ZFP809 linkers remains unknown. In the present study, we constructed ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers and examined their ability to silence transgene expression driven by MLV, binding ability to MLV PBS, and cellular localization. The results of the present study revealed that the linkers affected the ability of ZFP809 to silence transgene expression. Furthermore, this effect could be partly attributed to changes in the localization of ZFP809 proteins containing mutated linkers. Further characterization of ZFP809 linkers is required for understanding the functions and features of KRAB-ZFP-containing linkers. - Highlights: • ZFP809 has three consensus linkers between the zinc fingers. • Linkers are required for ZFP809 to silence transgene expression driven by MLV-LTR. • Linkers affect the precise nuclear localization of ZFP809.

  10. A Zinc-Finger-Family Transcription Factor, AbVf19, Is Required for the Induction of a Gene Subset Important for Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Akhil [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Ohm, Robin A. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Oxiles, Lindsay [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Brooks, Fred [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Lawrence, Christopher B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Grigoriev, Igor V. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Cho, Yangrae [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States)

    2011-10-26

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen with a broad host range within the family Brassicaceae. It produces secondary metabolites that marginally affect virulence. Cell wall degrading enzymes (CDWE) have been considered important for pathogenesis but none of them individually have been identified as significant virulence factors in A. brassicicola. In this study, knockout mutants of a gene, AbVf19, were created and produced considerably smaller lesions than the wild type on inoculated host plants. The presence of tandem zinc-finger domains in the predicted amino acid sequence and nuclear localization of AbVf19- reporter protein suggested that it was a transcription factor. Gene expression comparisons using RNA-seq identified 74 genes being downregulated in the mutant during a late stage of infection. Among the 74 downregulated genes, 28 were putative CWDE genes. These were hydrolytic enzyme genes that composed a small fraction of genes within each family of cellulases, pectinases, cutinases, and proteinases. The mutants grew slower than the wild type on an axenic medium with pectin as a major carbon source. This study demonstrated the existence and the importance of a transcription factor that regulates a suite of genes that are important for decomposing and utilizing plant material during the late stage of plant infection.

  11. Sda1, a Cys2-His2 zinc finger transcription factor, is involved in polyol metabolism and fumonisin B1 production in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Malapi-Wight

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous ascomycete Fusarium verticillioides causes ear rot and stalk rot of maize, both of which reduce grain quality and yield. Additionally, F. verticillioides produces the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1 during infection of maize kernels, and thus potentially compromises human and animal health. The current knowledge is fragmentary regarding the regulation of FB1 biosynthesis, particularly when considering interplay with environmental factors such as nutrient availability. In this study, SDA1 of F. verticillioides, predicted to encode a Cys-2 His-2 zinc finger transcription factor, was shown to play a key role in catabolizing select carbon sources. Growth of the SDA1 knock-out mutant (Δsda1 was completely inhibited when sorbitol was the sole carbon source and was severely impaired when exclusively provided mannitol or glycerol. Deletion of SDA1 unexpectedly increased FB1 biosynthesis, but reduced arabitol and mannitol biosynthesis, as compared to the wild-type progenitor. Trichoderma reesei ACE1, a regulator of cellulase and xylanase expression, complemented the F. verticillioides Δsda1 mutant, which indicates that Ace1 and Sda1 are functional orthologs. Taken together, the data indicate that Sda1 is a transcriptional regulator of carbon metabolism and toxin production in F. verticillioides.

  12. A conserved function of the zinc finger transcription factor Sp8/9 in allometric appendage growth in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeper, Nina D; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-08-01

    The genes encoding the closely related zinc finger transcription factors Buttonhead (Btd) and D-Sp1 are expressed in the developing limb primordia of Drosophila melanogaster and are required for normal growth of the legs. The D-Sp1 homolog of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, Sp8 (appropriately termed Sp8/9), is also required for the proper growth of the leg segments. Here we report on the isolation and functional study of the Sp8/9 gene from the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. We show that Sp8/9 is expressed in the developing appendages throughout development and that the downregulation of Sp8/9 via RNAi leads to antennae, rostrum, and legs with shortened and fused segments. This supports a conserved role of Sp8/9 in allometric leg segment growth. However, all leg segments including the claws are present and the expression of the leg genes Distal-less, dachshund, and homothorax are proportionally normal, thus providing no evidence for a role of Sp8/9 in appendage specification.

  13. The novel BTB/POZ and zinc finger factor Zbtb45 is essential for proper glial differentiation of neural and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Södersten, Erik; Lilja, Tobias; Hermanson, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling the fate decisions of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a crucial issue to shed new light on mammalian central nervous system (CNS) development in health and disease. We have investigated a possible role for the previously uncharacterized BTB/POZ-doma......Understanding the regulatory mechanisms controlling the fate decisions of neural stem cells (NSCs) is a crucial issue to shed new light on mammalian central nervous system (CNS) development in health and disease. We have investigated a possible role for the previously uncharacterized BTB....../POZ-domain containing zinc finger factor Zbtb45 in the differentiation of NSCs and postnatal oligodendrocyte precursors. In situ hybridization histochemistry and RT-qPCR analysis revealed that Zbtb45 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in the developing CNS in mouse embryos at embryonic day (E) 12.5 and 14.5. Zbtb45 m......RNA knockdown in embryonic forebrain NSCs by siRNA resulted in a rapid decrease in the expression of oligodendrocyte-characteristic genes after mitogen (FGF2) withdrawal, whereas the expression of astrocyte-associated genes such as CD44 and GFAP increased compared to control. Accordingly, the number...

  14. Solution structure of an archaeal DNA binding protein with an eukaryotic zinc finger fold.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Guillière

    Full Text Available While the basal transcription machinery in archaea is eukaryal-like, transcription factors in archaea and their viruses are usually related to bacterial transcription factors. Nevertheless, some of these organisms show predicted classical zinc fingers motifs of the C2H2 type, which are almost exclusively found in proteins of eukaryotes and most often associated with transcription regulators. In this work, we focused on the protein AFV1p06 from the hyperthermophilic archaeal virus AFV1. The sequence of the protein consists of the classical eukaryotic C2H2 motif with the fourth histidine coordinating zinc missing, as well as of N- and C-terminal extensions. We showed that the protein AFV1p06 binds zinc and solved its solution structure by NMR. AFV1p06 displays a zinc finger fold with a novel structure extension and disordered N- and C-termini. Structure calculations show that a glutamic acid residue that coordinates zinc replaces the fourth histidine of the C2H2 motif. Electromobility gel shift assays indicate that the protein binds to DNA with different affinities depending on the DNA sequence. AFV1p06 is the first experimentally characterised archaeal zinc finger protein with a DNA binding activity. The AFV1p06 protein family has homologues in diverse viruses of hyperthermophilic archaea. A phylogenetic analysis points out a common origin of archaeal and eukaryotic C2H2 zinc fingers.

  15. The artificial zinc finger coding gene 'Jazz' binds the utrophin promoter and activates transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbi, N; Libri, V; Fanciulli, M; Tinsley, J M; Davies, K E; Passananti, C

    2000-06-01

    Up-regulation of utrophin gene expression is recognized as a plausible therapeutic approach in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). We have designed and engineered new zinc finger-based transcription factors capable of binding and activating transcription from the promoter of the dystrophin-related gene, utrophin. Using the recognition 'code' that proposes specific rules between zinc finger primary structure and potential DNA binding sites, we engineered a new gene named 'Jazz' that encodes for a three-zinc finger peptide. Jazz belongs to the Cys2-His2 zinc finger type and was engineered to target the nine base pair DNA sequence: 5'-GCT-GCT-GCG-3', present in the promoter region of both the human and mouse utrophin gene. The entire zinc finger alpha-helix region, containing the amino acid positions that are crucial for DNA binding, was specifically chosen on the basis of the contacts more frequently represented in the available list of the 'code'. Here we demonstrate that Jazz protein binds specifically to the double-stranded DNA target, with a dissociation constant of about 32 nM. Band shift and super-shift experiments confirmed the high affinity and specificity of Jazz protein for its DNA target. Moreover, we show that chimeric proteins, named Gal4-Jazz and Sp1-Jazz, are able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the human utrophin promoter.

  16. Zinc finger protein 521 overexpression increased transcript levels of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... Zinc finger protein 521 is highly expressed in brain, neural stem cells and early progenitors of the human .... Membranes were blocked for 1 h with 10% skim milk and ..... fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis.

  17. Prediction of DNA-binding specificity in zinc finger proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a state-of-the-art classifica- tion technique. Using canonical binding model, the C2H2 zinc finger protein–DNA interaction interface is modelled by the pairwise amino acid–base interactions. Using a classification framework, known examples of non-binding ZF–DNA pairs.

  18. Lead inhibition of DNA-binding mechanism of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanas, J S; Rodgers, J S; Bantle, J A; Cheng, Y G

    1999-11-01

    The association of lead with chromatin in cells suggests that deleterious metal effects may in part be mediated through alterations in gene function. To elucidate if and how lead may alter DNA binding of cysteine-rich zinc finger proteins, lead ions were analyzed for their ability to alter the DNA binding mechanism of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA). As assayed by DNase I protection, the interaction of TFIIIA with the 50-bp internal control region of the 5S ribosomal gene was partially inhibited by 5 microM lead ions and completely inhibited by 10 to 20 microM lead ions. Preincubation of free TFIIIA with lead resulted in DNA-binding inhibition, whereas preincubation of a TFIIIA/5S RNA complex with lead did not result in DNA-binding inhibition. Because 5S RNA binds TFIIIA zinc fingers, this result is consistent with an inhibition mechanism via lead binding to zinc fingers. The complete loss of DNase I protection on the 5S gene indicates the mechanism of inhibition minimally involves the N-terminal fingers of TFIIIA. Inhibition was not readily reversible and occurred in the presence of an excess of beta-mercaptoethanol. Inhibition kinetics were fast, progressing to completion in approximately 5 min. Millimolar concentrations of sulfhydryl-specific arsenic ions were not inhibitory for TFIIIA binding. Micromolar concentrations of lead inhibited DNA binding by Sp1, another Cys(2)His(2) finger protein, but not by the nonfinger protein AP2. Inhibition of Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger transcription factors by lead ions at concentrations near those known to have deleterious physiological effects points to new molecular mechanisms for lead toxicity in promoting disease.

  19. Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factor activity by HIM-8 and the related Zinc-Finger ZIM proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongliu; Nelms, Brian L; Sleiman, Sama F; Chamberlin, Helen M; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2007-10-01

    The previously reported negative regulatory activity of HIM-8 on the Sox protein EGL-13 is shared by the HIM-8-related ZIM proteins. Furthermore, mutation of HIM-8 can modulate the effects of substitution mutations in the DNA-binding domains of at least four other transcription factors, suggesting broad regulatory activity by HIM-8.

  20. Characterization of two novel nuclear BTB/POZ domain zinc finger isoforms. Association with differentiation of hippocampal neurons, cerebellar granule cells, and macroglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchelmore, Cathy; Kjaerulff, Karen M; Pedersen, Hans C

    2002-01-01

    BTB/POZ (broad complex tramtrack bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger) zinc finger factors are a class of nuclear DNA-binding proteins involved in development, chromatin remodeling, and cancer. However, BTB/POZ domain zinc finger factors linked to development of the mammalian cerebral cortex......, cerebellum, and macroglia have not been described previously. We report here the isolation and characterization of two novel nuclear BTB/POZ domain zinc finger isoforms, designated HOF(L) and HOF(S), that are specifically expressed in early hippocampal neurons, cerebellar granule cells, and gliogenic...

  1. Zinc-finger proteins in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandri, Matteo; Smirnov, Artem; Novelli, Flavia; Pitolli, Consuelo; Agostini, Massimiliano; Malewicz, Michal; Melino, Gerry; Raschellà, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Zinc-finger proteins (ZNFs) are one of the most abundant groups of proteins and have a wide range of molecular functions. Given the wide variety of zinc-finger domains, ZNFs are able to interact with DNA, RNA, PAR (poly-ADP-ribose) and other proteins. Thus, ZNFs are involved in the regulation of several cellular processes. In fact, ZNFs are implicated in transcriptional regulation, ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, signal transduction, actin targeting, DNA repair, cell migration, and numerous other processes. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the current state of knowledge of this class of proteins. Firstly, we describe the actual classification of ZNFs, their structure and functions. Secondly, we focus on the biological role of ZNFs in the development of organisms under normal physiological and pathological conditions.

  2. Engineering drought tolerant tomato plants over-expressing BcZAT12 gene encoding a C₂H₂ zinc finger transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Avinash Chandra; Singh, Major; Shah, Kavita

    2013-01-01

    Efficient genetic transformation of cotyledonary explants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. H-86, Kashi vishesh) was obtained. Disarmed Agrobacterium tumifaciens strain GV 3101 was used in conjugation with binary vector pBinAR containing a construct consisting of the coding sequence of the BcZAT12 gene under the regulatory control of the stress inducible Bclea1a promoter. ZAT12 encodes a C₂H₂ zinc finger protein which confers multiple abiotic stress tolerance to plants. Integration of ZAT12 gene into nuclear genome of individual kanamycin resistant transformed T₀ tomato lines was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization with segregation analysis of T(1) plants showing Mendelian inheritance of the transgene. Expression of ZAT12 in drought-stressed transformed tomato lines was verified in T₂ generation plants using RT-PCR. Of the six transformed tomato lines (ZT1-ZT6) the transformants ZT1 and ZT5 showed maximum expression of BcZAT12 gene transcripts when exposed to 7 days drought stress. Analysis of relative water content (RWC), electrolyte leakage (EL), chlorophyll colour index (CCI), H₂O₂ level and catalase activity suggested that tomato BcZAT12 transformants ZT1 and ZT5 have significantly increased levels of drought tolerance. These results suggest that BcZAT12 transformed tomato cv. H-86 has real potential for molecular breeding programs aimed at augmenting yield of tomato in regions affected with drought stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of protein structure and the role of individual fingers in zinc finger protein-DNA recognition: a molecular dynamics simulation study and free energy calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Mazen Y.

    2018-05-01

    Molecular dynamics and MM_GBSA energy calculations on various zinc finger proteins containing three and four fingers bound to their target DNA gave insights into the role of each finger in the DNA binding process as part of the protein structure. The wild type Zif 268 (PDB code: 1AAY) gave a ΔG value of - 76.1 (14) kcal/mol. Zinc fingers ZF1, ZF2 and ZF3 were mutated in one experiment and in another experiment one finger was cut and the rest of the protein was studied for binding. The ΔΔG values for the Zinc Finger protein with both ZF1 and ZF2 mutated was + 80 kcal/mol, while mutating only ZF1 the ΔΔG value was + 52 kcal/mol (relative to the wild type). Cutting ZF3 and studying the protein consisting only of ZF1 linked to ZF2 gave a ΔΔG value of + 68 kcal/mol. Upon cutting ZF1, the resulting ZF2 linked to ZF3 protein gave a ΔΔG value of + 41 kcal/mol. The above results shed light on the importance of each finger in the binding process, especially the role of ZF1 as the anchoring finger followed in importance by ZF2 and ZF3. The energy difference between the binding of the wild type protein Zif268 (1AAY) and that for individual finger binding to DNA according to the formula: ΔΔGlinkers, otherstructuralfactors = ΔGzif268 - (ΔGF1+F2+F3) gave a value = - 44.5 kcal/mol. This stabilization can be attributed to the contribution of linkers and other structural factors in the intact protein in the DNA binding process. DNA binding energies of variant proteins of the wild type Zif268 which differ in their ZF1 amino acid sequence gave evidence of a good relationship between binding energy and recognition and specificity, this finding confirms the reported vital role of ZF1 in the ZF protein scanning and anchoring to the target DNA sequence. The role of hydrogen bonds in both specific and nonspecific amino acid-DNA contacts is discussed in relation to mutations. The binding energies of variant Zinc Finger proteins confirmed the role of ZF1 in the recognition

  4. ZifBASE: a database of zinc finger proteins and associated resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punetha Ankita

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the occurrence of zinc finger protein motifs in genomes is crucial to the developing field of molecular genome engineering. The knowledge of their target DNA-binding sequences is vital to develop chimeric proteins for targeted genome engineering and site-specific gene correction. There is a need to develop a computational resource of zinc finger proteins (ZFP to identify the potential binding sites and its location, which reduce the time of in vivo task, and overcome the difficulties in selecting the specific type of zinc finger protein and the target site in the DNA sequence. Description ZifBASE provides an extensive collection of various natural and engineered ZFP. It uses standard names and a genetic and structural classification scheme to present data retrieved from UniProtKB, GenBank, Protein Data Bank, ModBase, Protein Model Portal and the literature. It also incorporates specialized features of ZFP including finger sequences and positions, number of fingers, physiochemical properties, classes, framework, PubMed citations with links to experimental structures (PDB, if available and modeled structures of natural zinc finger proteins. ZifBASE provides information on zinc finger proteins (both natural and engineered ones, the number of finger units in each of the zinc finger proteins (with multiple fingers, the synergy between the adjacent fingers and their positions. Additionally, it gives the individual finger sequence and their target DNA site to which it binds for better and clear understanding on the interactions of adjacent fingers. The current version of ZifBASE contains 139 entries of which 89 are engineered ZFPs, containing 3-7F totaling to 296 fingers. There are 50 natural zinc finger protein entries ranging from 2-13F, totaling to 307 fingers. It has sequences and structures from literature, Protein Data Bank, ModBase and Protein Model Portal. The interface is cross linked to other public

  5. Luciferase-Zinc-Finger System for the Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chu; Xu, Qing; Ge, Yue; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He

    2017-08-09

    Rapid and reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial for food safety control. Here, we present a novel luciferase-zinc finger system for the detection of pathogens that offers rapid and specific profiling. The system, which uses a zinc-finger protein domain to probe zinc finger recognition sites, was designed to bind the amplified conserved regions of 16S rDNA, and the obtained products were detected using a modified luciferase. The luciferase-zinc finger system not only maintained luciferase activity but also allowed the specific detection of different bacterial species, with a sensitivity as low as 10 copies and a linear range from 10 to 10 4 copies per microliter of the specific PCR product. Moreover, the system is robust and rapid, enabling the simultaneous detection of 6 species of bacteria in artificially contaminated samples with excellent accuracy. Thus, we envision that our luciferase-zinc finger system will have far-reaching applications.

  6. Localized frustration and binding-induced conformational change in recognition of 5S RNA by TFIIIA zinc finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng; Li, Wenfei; Wang, Wei

    2013-12-19

    Protein TFIIIA is composed of nine tandemly arranged Cys2His2 zinc fingers. It can bind either to the 5S RNA gene as a transcription factor or to the 5S RNA transcript as a chaperone. Although structural and biochemical data provided valuable information on the recognition between the TFIIIIA and the 5S DNA/RNA, the involved conformational motions and energetic factors contributing to the binding affinity and specificity remain unclear. In this work, we conducted MD simulations and MM/GBSA calculations to investigate the binding-induced conformational changes in the recognition of the 5S RNA by the central three zinc fingers of TFIIIA and the energetic factors that influence the binding affinity and specificity at an atomistic level. Our results revealed drastic interdomain conformational changes between these three zinc fingers, involving the exposure/burial of several crucial DNA/RNA binding residues, which can be related to the competition between DNA and RNA for the binding of TFIIIA. We also showed that the specific recognition between finger 4/finger 6 and the 5S RNA introduces frustrations to the nonspecific interactions between finger 5 and the 5S RNA, which may be important to achieve optimal binding affinity and specificity.

  7. Zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits XMRV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinlu Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP is a host factor that specifically inhibits the replication of certain viruses, including Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV, HIV-1, and certain alphaviruses and filoviruses. ZAP binds to specific viral mRNAs and recruits cellular mRNA degradation machinery to degrade the target RNA. The common features of ZAP-responsive RNA sequences remain elusive and thus whether a virus is susceptible to ZAP can only be determined experimentally. Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV is a recently identified γ-retrovirus that was originally thought to be involved in prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome but recently proved to be a laboratory artefact. Nonetheless, XMRV as a new retrovirus has been extensively studied. Since XMRV and MoMLV share only 67.9% sequence identity in the 3'UTRs, which is the target sequence of ZAP in MoMLV, whether XMRV is susceptible to ZAP remains to be determined. FINDINGS: We constructed an XMRV-luc vector, in which the coding sequences of Gag-Pol and part of Env were replaced with luciferase-coding sequence. Overexpression of ZAP potently inhibited the expression of XMRV-luc in a ZAP expression-level-dependent manner, while downregulation of endogenous ZAP rendered cells more sensitive to infection. Furthermore, ZAP inhibited the spreading of replication-competent XMRV. Consistent with the previously reported mechanisms by which ZAP inhibits viral infection, ZAP significantly inhibited the accumulation of XMRV-luc mRNA in the cytoplasm. The ZAP-responsive element in XMRV mRNA was mapped to the 3'UTR. CONCLUSIONS: ZAP inhibits XMRV replication by preventing the accumulation of viral mRNA in the cytoplasm. Documentation of ZAP inhibiting XMRV helps to broaden the spectrum of ZAP's antiviral activity. Comparison of the target sequences of ZAP in XMRV and MoMLV helps to better understand the features of ZAP-responsive elements.

  8. Intracellular HIV-1 Gag localization is impaired by mutations in the nucleocapsid zinc fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriaux Delphine

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC is formed of two CCHC zinc fingers flanked by highly basic regions. HIV-1 NC plays key roles in virus structure and replication via its nucleic acid binding and chaperoning properties. In fact, NC controls proviral DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase (RT, gRNA dimerization and packaging, and virion assembly. Results We previously reported a role for the first NC zinc finger in virion structure and replication 1. To investigate the role of both NC zinc fingers in intracellular Gag trafficking, and in virion assembly, we generated series of NC zinc fingers mutations. Results show that all Zinc finger mutations have a negative impact on virion biogenesis and maturation and rendered defective the mutant viruses. The NC zinc finger mutations caused an intracellular accumulation of Gag, which was found either diffuse in the cytoplasm or at the plasma membrane but not associated with endosomal membranes as for wild type Gag. Evidences are also provided showing that the intracellular interactions between NC-mutated Gag and the gRNA were impaired. Conclusion These results show that Gag oligomerization mediated by gRNA-NC interactions is required for correct Gag trafficking, and assembly in HIV-1 producing cells and the release of infectious viruses.

  9. Myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1(Mipu1):zinc finger protein 667 - a multifunctional KRAB/C{sub 2}H{sub 2} zinc finger protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D.; Zhang, C. [Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Post-doctoral Mobile Stations for Basic Medicine, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China); Fan, W.J. [Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Post-doctoral Mobile Stations for Basic Medicine, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China); The Second Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China); Pan, W.J.; Feng, D.M.; Qu, S.L.; Jiang, Z.S. [Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, Post-doctoral Mobile Stations for Basic Medicine, University of South China, Hengyang City, Hunan Province (China)

    2014-10-31

    Myocardial ischemic preconditioning upregulated protein 1 (Mipu1) is a newly discovered upregulated gene produced in rats during the myocardial ischemic preconditioning process. Mipu1 cDNA contains a 1824-base pair open reading frame and encodes a 608 amino acid protein with an N-terminal Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) domain and classical zinc finger C{sub 2}H{sub 2} motifs in the C-terminus. Mipu1 protein is located in the cell nucleus. Recent studies found that Mipu1 has a protective effect on the ischemia-reperfusion injury of heart, brain, and other organs. As a nuclear factor, Mipu1 may perform its protective function through directly transcribing and repressing the expression of proapoptotic genes to repress cell apoptosis. In addition, Mipu1 also plays an important role in regulating the gene expression of downstream inflammatory mediators by inhibiting the activation of activator protein-1 and serum response element.

  10. The Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein: Two Decades of Molecular Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, Bandar Ali; Xu, Dakang; Williams, Bryan Raymond George

    2012-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein, also known as Zbtb16 or Zfp145, was first identified in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia, where a reciprocal chromosomal translocation t(11;17)(q23;q21) resulted in a fusion with the RARA gene encoding retinoic acid receptor alpha. The wild-type Zbtb16 gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the POK (POZ and Krüppel) family of transcriptional repressors. In addition to nine Krüppel-type sequence-specific zinc fingers, which make it a member of the Krüppel-like zinc finger protein family, the PLZF protein contains an N-terminal BTB/POZ domain and RD2 domain. PLZF has been shown to be involved in major developmental and biological processes, such as spermatogenesis, hind limb formation, hematopoiesis, and immune regulation. PLZF is localized mainly in the nucleus where it exerts its transcriptional repression function, and many post-translational modifications affect this ability and also have an impact on its cytoplasmic/nuclear dissociation. PLZF achieves its transcriptional regulation by binding to many secondary molecules to form large multi-protein complexes that bind to the regulatory elements in the promoter region of the target genes. These complexes are also capable of physically interacting with its target proteins. Recently, PLZF has become implicated in carcinogenesis as a tumor suppressor gene, since it regulates the cell cycle and apoptosis in many cell types. This review will examine the major advances in our knowledge of PLZF biological activities that augment its value as a therapeutic target, particularly in cancer and immunological diseases.

  11. Finger millet (Eleucine coracana) flour as a vehicle for fortification with zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Bhumika; Platel, Kalpana

    2010-01-01

    Millets, being less expensive compared to cereals and the staple for the poorer sections of population, could be the choice for fortification with micronutrients such as zinc. In view of this, finger millet, widely grown and commonly consumed in southern India, was explored as a vehicle for fortification with zinc in this investigation. Finger millet flour fortified with either zinc oxide or zinc stearate so as to provide 50mg zinc per kg flour, was specifically examined for the bioaccessibility of the fortified mineral, as measured by in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion procedure and storage stability. Addition of the zinc salts increased the bioaccessible zinc content by 1.5-3 times that of the unfortified flour. Inclusion of EDTA along with the fortified salt significantly enhanced the bioaccessibility of zinc from the fortified flours, the increase being three-fold. Inclusion of citric acid along with the zinc salt and EDTA during fortification did not have any additional beneficial effect on zinc bioaccessiblity. Moisture and free fatty acid contents of the stored fortified flours indicated the keeping quality of the same, up to 60 days. Both zinc oxide and zinc stearate were equally effective as fortificants, when used in combination with EDTA as a co-fortificant. The preparation of either roti or dumpling from the fortified flours stored up to 60 days did not result in any significant compromise in the bioaccessible zinc content. Thus, the present study has revealed that finger millet flour can effectively be used as a vehicle for zinc fortification to derive additional amounts of bioaccessible zinc, with reasonably good storage stability, to combat zinc deficiency. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Herpes simplex virus induces the marked up-regulation of the zinc finger transcriptional factor INSM1, which modulates the expression and localization of the immediate early protein ICP0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs rapidly shut off macromolecular synthesis in host cells. In contrast, global microarray analyses have shown that HSV infection markedly up-regulates a number of host cell genes that may play important roles in HSV-host cell interactions. To understand the regulatory mechanisms involved, we initiated studies focusing on the zinc finger transcription factor insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1, a host cell protein markedly up-regulated by HSV infection. Results INSM1 gene expression in HSV-1-infected normal human epidermal keratinocytes increased at least 400-fold 9 h after infection; INSM1 promoter activity was also markedly stimulated. Expression and subcellular localization of the immediate early HSV protein ICP0 was affected by INSM1 expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed binding of INSM1 to the ICP0 promoter. Moreover, the role of INSM1 in HSV-1 infection was further clarified by inhibition of HSV-1 replication by INSM1-specific siRNA. Conclusions The results suggest that INSM1 up-regulation plays a positive role in HSV-1 replication, probably by binding to the ICP0 promoter.

  13. Conservation, diversification and expansion of C2H2 zinc finger proteins in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böhm Siegfried

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The classical C2H2 zinc finger domain is involved in a wide range of functions and can bind to DNA, RNA and proteins. The comparison of zinc finger proteins in several eukaryotes has shown that there is a lot of lineage specific diversification and expansion. Although the number of characterized plant proteins that carry the classical C2H2 zinc finger motifs is growing, a systematic classification and analysis of a plant genome zinc finger gene set is lacking. Results We found through in silico analysis 176 zinc finger proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana that hence constitute the most abundant family of putative transcriptional regulators in this plant. Only a minority of 33 A. thaliana zinc finger proteins are conserved in other eukaryotes. In contrast, the majority of these proteins (81% are plant specific. They are derived from extensive duplication events and form expanded families. We assigned the proteins to different subgroups and families and focused specifically on the two largest and evolutionarily youngest families (A1 and C1 that are suggested to be primarily involved in transcriptional regulation. The newly defined family A1 (24 members comprises proteins with tandemly arranged zinc finger domains. Family C1 (64 members, earlier described as the EPF-family in Petunia, comprises proteins with one isolated or two to five dispersed fingers and a mostly invariant QALGGH motif in the zinc finger helices. Based on the amino acid pattern in these helices we could describe five different signature sequences prevalent in C1 zinc finger domains. We also found a number of non-finger domains that are conserved in these families. Conclusions Our analysis of the few evolutionarily conserved zinc finger proteins of A. thaliana suggests that most of them could be involved in ancient biological processes like RNA metabolism and chromatin-remodeling. In contrast, the majority of the unique A. thaliana zinc finger proteins are known or

  14. Krüppel-like factors: Three fingers in control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamynathan Shivalingappa K

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Krüppel-like factors (KLFs, members of the zinc-finger family of transcription factors capable of binding GC-rich sequences, have emerged as critical regulators of important functions all over the body. They are characterised by a highly conserved C-terminal DNA-binding motif containing three C2H2 zinc-finger domains, with variable N-terminal regulatory domains. Currently, there are 17 KLFs annotated in the human genome. In spite of their structural similarity to one another, the genes encoding different KLFs are scattered all over the genome. By virtue of their ability to activate and/or repress the expression of a large number of genes, KLFs regulate a diverse array of developmental events and cellular processes, such as erythropoiesis, cardiac remodelling, adipogenesis, maintenance of stem cells, epithelial barrier formation, control of cell proliferation and neoplasia, flow-mediated endothelial gene expression, skeletal and smooth muscle development, gluconeogenesis, monocyte activation, intestinal and conjunctival goblet cell development, retinal neuronal regeneration and neonatal lung development. Characteristic features, nomenclature, evolution and functional diversities of the human KLFs are reviewed here.

  15. Krüppel-like factors: three fingers in control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K

    2010-04-01

    Krüppel-like factors (KLFs), members of the zinc-finger family of transcription factors capable of binding GC-rich sequences, have emerged as critical regulators of important functions all over the body. They are characterised by a highly conserved C-terminal DNA-binding motif containing three C2H2 zinc-finger domains, with variable N-terminal regulatory domains. Currently, there are 17 KLFs annotated in the human genome. In spite of their structural similarity to one another, the genes encoding different KLFs are scattered all over the genome. By virtue of their ability to activate and/or repress the expression of a large number of genes, KLFs regulate a diverse array of developmental events and cellular processes, such as erythropoiesis, cardiac remodelling, adipogenesis, maintenance of stem cells, epithelial barrier formation, control of cell proliferation and neoplasia, flow-mediated endothelial gene expression, skeletal and smooth muscle development, gluconeogenesis, monocyte activation, intestinal and conjunctival goblet cell development, retinal neuronal regeneration and neonatal lung development. Characteristic features, nomenclature, evolution and functional diversities of the human KLFs are reviewed here.

  16. Solution NMR characterization of Sgf73(1-104) indicates that Zn ion is required to stabilize zinc finger motif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Chaohua; Wu, Minhao; Li, Pan; Shi, Chaowei; Tian, Changlin; Zang, Jianye

    2010-01-01

    Zinc finger motif contains a zinc ion coordinated by several conserved amino acid residues. Yeast Sgf73 protein was identified as a component of SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase) multi-subunit complex and Sgf73 protein was known to contain two zinc finger motifs. Sgf73(1-104), containing the first zinc finger motif, was necessary to modulate the deubiquitinase activity of SAGA complex. Here, Sgf73(1-104) was over-expressed using bacterial expression system and purified for solution NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) structural studies. Secondary structure and site-specific relaxation analysis of Sgf73(1-104) were achieved after solution NMR backbone assignment. Solution NMR and circular dichroism analysis of Sgf73(1-104) after zinc ion removal using chelation reagent EDTA (ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid) demonstrated that zinc ion was required to maintain stable conformation of the zinc finger motif.

  17. The Solanum lycopersicum Zinc Finger2 Cysteine-2/Histidine-2 Repressor-Like Transcription Factor Regulates Development and Tolerance to Salinity in Tomato and Arabidopsis(1[W])

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hichri, I.; Muhovski, Y.; Žižková, Eva; Dobrev, Petre; Franco-Zorrilla, J.M.; Solano, R.; Lopez-Vidriero, I.; Motyka, Václav; Lutts, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 4 (2014), s. 1967-1990 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/0774 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : RICE ORYZA-SATIVA * AGROBACTERIUM-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION * TARGET-SEQUENCE RECOGNITION Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.841, year: 2014

  18. The unique N-terminal zinc finger of synaptotagmin-like protein 4 reveals FYVE structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuhide; Nakatani, Arisa; Saito, Kazuki

    2017-12-01

    Synaptotagmin-like protein 4 (Slp4), expressed in human platelets, is associated with dense granule release. Slp4 is comprised of the N-terminal zinc finger, Slp homology domain, and C2 domains. We synthesized a compact construct (the Slp4N peptide) corresponding to the Slp4 N-terminal zinc finger. Herein, we have determined the solution structure of the Slp4N peptide by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Furthermore, experimental, chemical modification of Cys residues revealed that the Slp4N peptide binds two zinc atoms to mediate proper folding. NMR data showed that eight Cys residues coordinate zinc atoms in a cross-brace fashion. The Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool database predicted the structure of Slp4N as a RING finger. However, the actual structure of the Slp4N peptide adopts a unique C 4 C 4 -type FYVE fold and is distinct from a RING fold. To create an artificial RING finger (ARF) with specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2)-binding capability, cross-brace structures with eight zinc-ligating residues are needed as the scaffold. The cross-brace structure of the Slp4N peptide could be utilized as the scaffold for the design of ARFs. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  19. Nucleolin modulates the subcellular localization of GDNF-inducible zinc finger protein 1 and its roles in transcription and cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambara, Atsushi; Morinaga, Takatoshi; Fukuda, Naoyuki; Yamakawa, Yoshinori; Kato, Takuya; Enomoto, Atsushi; Asai, Naoya; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Matsuo, Seiichi; Takahashi, Masahide

    2007-01-01

    GZF1 is a zinc finger protein induced by glial cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). It is a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor with a BTB/POZ (Broad complex, Tramtrack, Bric a brac/Poxvirus and zinc finger) domain and ten zinc finger motifs. In the present study, we used immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify nucleolin as a GZF1-binding protein. Deletion analysis revealed that zinc finger motifs 1-4 of GZF1 mediate its association with nucleolin. When zinc fingers 1-4 were deleted from GZF1 or nucleolin expression was knocked down by short interference RNA (siRNA), nuclear localization of GZF1 was impaired. These results suggest that nucleolin is involved in the proper subcellular distribution of GZF1. In addition, overexpression of nucleolin moderately inhibited the transcriptional repressive activity of GZF1 whereas knockdown of nucleolin expression by siRNA enhanced its activity. Thus, the repressive activity of GZF1 is modulated by the level at which nucleolin is expressed. Finally, we found that knockdown of GZF1 and nucleolin expression markedly impaired cell proliferation. These findings suggest that the physiological functions of GZF1 may be regulated by the protein's association with nucleolin

  20. ZNF328, a novel human zinc-finger protein, suppresses transcriptional activities of SRE and AP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Ying; Wang Shenqiu; Cai Zhenyu; Wang Yuequn; Wang Canding; Li Yongqing; Li Fang; Yuan Wuzhou; Liu Bisheng; Wu Xiushan; Liu Mingyao

    2005-01-01

    The zinc finger proteins containing the Kruppel-associated box domain (KRAB-ZFPs) are the single largest class of transcription factors in human genome. Many of the KRAB-ZFPs are involved in cardiac development or cardiovascular diseases. Here, we have identified a novel human KRAB zinc finger gene, named ZNF328, from the human fetal heart cDNA library. The complete sequence of ZNF328 cDNA contains a 2376-bp open reading frame (ORF) and encodes a 792 amino acid protein with an N-terminal KRAB domain and classical zinc finger C 2 H 2 motifs in the C-terminus. Northern blot analysis indicates that the protein is expressed in most of the examined human adult and embryonic tissues. ZNF328 is a transcription suppressor when fused to Gal-4 DNA-binding domain and cotransfected with VP-16. Overexpression of ZNF328 in COS-7 cells inhibits the transcriptional activities of SRE and AP-1. Deletion analysis with a series of truncated fusion proteins indicates that the KRAB motif is a basal repression domain when cotransfected with VP-16. Similar results were obtained when the truncated fusion proteins were assayed for the transcriptional activities of SRE and AP-1. These results suggest that ZNF328 protein may act as a transcriptional repressor in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway to mediate cellular functions

  1. Upregulation of neuronal zinc finger protein A20 expression is required for electroacupuncture to attenuate the cerebral inflammatory injury mediated by the nuclear factor-kB signaling pathway in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jian; Qin, Wenyi; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Jing; Ma, Hongmei; Li, Qiongli; Luo, Yong

    2016-10-03

    Zinc finger protein A20 (tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3) functions as a potent negative feedback inhibitor of the nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) signaling. It exerts these effects by interrupting the activation of IkB kinase beta (IKKβ), the most critical kinase in upstream of NF-kB, and thereby controlling inflammatory homeostasis. We reported previously that electroacupuncture (EA) could effectively suppress IKKβ activation. However, the mechanism underlying these effects was unclear. Therefore, the current study further explored the effects of EA on A20 expression in rat brain and investigated the possible mechanism of A20 in anti-neuroinflammation mediated by EA using transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. Rats were treated with EA at the "Baihui (GV20)," "Hegu (L14)," and "Taichong (Liv3)" acupoints once a day starting 2 h after focal cerebral ischemia. The spatiotemporal expression of A20, neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, cytokine levels, glial cell activation, and the NF-kB signaling were assessed at the indicated time points. A20 gene interference (overexpression and silencing) was used to investigate the role of A20 in mediating the neuroprotective effects of EA and in regulating the interaction between neuronal and glial cells by suppressing neuronal NF-kB signaling during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neuroinflammation. EA treatment increased A20 expression with an earlier peak and longer lasting upregulation. The upregulated A20 protein was predominantly located in neurons in the cortical zone of the ischemia/reperfusion. Furthermore, neuronal A20 cell counts were positively correlated with neurobehavioral scores but negatively correlated with infarct volume, the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and glial cell activation. Moreover, the effects of EA on improving the neurological outcome and suppressing neuroinflammation in the brain were reversed by A20 silencing. Finally, A20 silencing also

  2. Mining the O-glycoproteome using zinc-finger nuclease-glycoengineered SimpleCell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Vester-Christensen, Malene B

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) gene targeting is emerging as a versatile tool for engineering of multiallelic gene deficiencies. A longstanding obstacle for detailed analysis of glycoproteomes has been the extensive heterogeneities in glycan structures and attachment sites. Here we applied ZFN target...

  3. DUF581 is plant specific FCS-like zinc finger involved in protein-protein interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Jamsheer K

    Full Text Available Zinc fingers are a ubiquitous class of protein domain with considerable variation in structure and function. Zf-FCS is a highly diverged group of C2-C2 zinc finger which is present in animals, prokaryotes and viruses, but not in plants. In this study we identified that a plant specific domain of unknown function, DUF581 is a zf-FCS type zinc finger. Based on HMM-HMM comparison and signature motif similarity we named this domain as FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ domain. A genome wide survey identified that FLZ domain containing genes are bryophytic in origin and this gene family is expanded in spermatophytes. Expression analysis of selected FLZ gene family members of A. thaliana identified an overlapping expression pattern suggesting a possible redundancy in their function. Unlike the zf-FCS domain, the FLZ domain found to be highly conserved in sequence and structure. Using a combination of bioinformatic and protein-protein interaction tools, we identified that FLZ domain is involved in protein-protein interaction.

  4. High-frequency genome editing using ssDNA oligonucleotides with zinc-finger nucleases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fuqiang; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M; Huang, Yuping

    2011-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have enabled highly efficient gene targeting in multiple cell types and organisms. Here we describe methods for using simple ssDNA oligonucleotides in tandem with ZFNs to efficiently produce human cell lines with three distinct genetic outcomes: (i) targeted point...

  5. A DHHC-type zinc finger protein gene regulates shoot branching in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    Arabidopsis. Key words: Arabidopsis, DHHC-type zinc finger protein, At5g04270, shoot branching. ..... and human HIP14 (Ducker et al., 2004), were isolated and identified to .... the control of branching in the rms1 mutant of pea. Plant Physiol.

  6. Targeting Ligandable Pockets on Plant Homeodomain (PHD) Zinc Finger Domains by a Fragment-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Anastasia; Lucas, Xavier; Bortoluzzi, Alessio; Wright, David; Ciulli, Alessio

    2018-04-20

    Plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc fingers are histone reader domains that are often associated with human diseases. Despite this, they constitute a poorly targeted class of readers, suggesting low ligandability. Here, we describe a successful fragment-based campaign targeting PHD fingers from the proteins BAZ2A and BAZ2B as model systems. We validated a pool of in silico fragments both biophysically and structurally and solved the first crystal structures of PHD zinc fingers in complex with fragments bound to an anchoring pocket at the histone binding site. The best-validated hits were found to displace a histone H3 tail peptide in competition assays. This work identifies new chemical scaffolds that provide suitable starting points for future ligand optimization using structure-guided approaches. The demonstrated ligandability of the PHD reader domains could pave the way for the development of chemical probes to drug this family of epigenetic readers.

  7. The Effect of Salts in Promoting Specific and Competitive Interactions between Zinc Finger Proteins and Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongyu; Yuan, Siming; Zheng, Shihui; Chen, Yuting; Zheng, Zhen; Liu, Yangzhong; Huang, Guangming

    2017-12-01

    Specific protein-metal interactions (PMIs) fulfill essential functions in cells and organic bodies, and activation of these functions in vivo are mostly modulated by the complex environmental factors, including pH value, small biomolecules, and salts. Specifically, the role of salts in promoting specific PMIs and their competition among various metals has remained untapped mainly due to the difficulty to distinguish nonspecific PMIs from specific PMIs by classic spectroscopic techniques. Herein, we report Hofmeister salts differentially promote the specific PMIs by combining nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry and spectroscopic techniques (fluorescence measurement and circular dichroism). Furthermore, to explore the influence of salts in competitive binding between metalloproteins and various metals, we designed a series of competitive experiments and applied to a well-defined model system, the competitive binding of zinc (II) and arsenic (III) to holo-promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML). These experiments not only provided new insights at the molecular scale as complementary to previous NMR and spectroscopic results, but also deduced the relative binding ability between zinc finger proteins and metals at the molecular scale, which avoids the mass spectrometric titration-based determination of binding constants that is frequently affected and often degraded by variable solution conditions including salt contents. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. ZNF322, a novel human C2H2 Krueppel-like zinc-finger protein, regulates transcriptional activation in MAPK signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongqing; Wang Yuequn; Zhang Caibo; Yuan Wuzhou; Wang Jun; Zhu Chuanbing; Chen Lei; Huang Wen; Zeng Weiqi; Wu Xiushan; Liu Mingyao

    2004-01-01

    Cardiac differentiation involves a cascade of coordinated gene expression that regulates cell proliferation and matrix protein formation in a defined temporal-spatial manner. The C 2 H 2 zinc finger-containing transcription factors have been implicated as critical regulators of multiple cardiac-expressed genes and are important for human heart development and diseases. Here we have identified and characterized a novel zinc-finger gene named ZNF322 using degenerated primers from a human embryo heart cDNA library. The gene contains four exons and spans 23.2 kb in chromosome 6p22.1 region, and transcribes a 2.7 kb mRNA that encodes a protein with 402 amino acid residues. The predicted protein contains 9 tandem C 2 H 2 -type zinc-finger motifs. Northern blot analysis shows that ZNF322 is expressed in every human tissue examined at adult stage and during embryonic developmental stages from 80 days to 24 weeks. When overexpressed in COS-7 cells, ZNF322-EGFP fusion protein is detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Reporter gene assays show that ZNF322 is a transcriptional activator. Furthermore, overexpression of ZNF322 in COS-7 cells activates the transcriptional activity of SRE and AP-1. Together, these results suggest that ZNF322 is a member of the zinc-finger transcription factor family and may act as a positive regulator in gene transcription mediated by the MAPK signaling pathways

  9. Glycoengineering of Human Cell Lines Using Zinc Finger Nuclease Gene Targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Bennett, Eric Paul; Clausen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Lectin affinity chromatography is a powerful technique for isolation of glycoproteins carrying a specific glycan structure of interest. However, the enormous diversity of glycans present on the cell surface, as well as on individual proteins, makes it difficult to isolate an entire glycoproteome...... with one or even a series of lectins. Here we present a technique to generate cell lines with homogenous truncated O-glycans using zinc finger nuclease gene targeting. Because of their simplified O-glycoproteome, the cells have been named SimpleCells. Glycoproteins from SimpleCells can be isolated...... in a single purification step by lectin chromatography performed on a long lectin column. This protocol describes Zinc finger nuclease gene targeting of human cells to simplify the glycoproteome, as well as lectin chromatography and isolation of glycopeptides from total cell lysates of SimpleCells....

  10. Chemical Approach to Biological Safety: Molecular-Level Control of an Integrated Zinc Finger Nuclease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Németh, Eszter; Asaka, Masamitsu N; Kato, Kohsuke

    2018-01-01

    circular dichroism spectroscopy, and nano-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. In situ intramolecular activation of the nuclease domain was observed, resulting in specific cleavage of DNA with moderate activity. This study represents a new approach to AN design through integrated nucleases consisting......Application of artificial nucleases (ANs) in genome editing is still hindered by their cytotoxicity related to off-target cleavages. This problem can be targeted by regulation of the nuclease domain. Here, we provide an experimental survey of computationally designed integrated zinc finger...... nucleases, constructed by linking the inactivated catalytic centre and the allosteric activator sequence of the colicin E7 nuclease domain to the two opposite termini of a zinc finger array. DNA specificity and metal binding were confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, synchrotron radiation...

  11. Investigating the DNA-binding ability of GATA-1-N-terminal zinc finger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, R.; Newton, A.; Crossley, M.; Mackay, J.

    2001-01-01

    Erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 interacts with both DNA and other proteins through its zinc finger domains (ZnFs). While it has been known for me time that the C-terminal ZnF binds DNA at GATA sites, only recently has it been observed that the N-terminal finger (NF) is capable of interacting with GATC sites. Further, a number of naturally occurring mutations in NF (V205M, G208S, R216Q, D218G) that lead to anaemia and thrombocytopenia have been identified. We are interested in characterising the NF-DNA interaction and determining the effects of mutation upon this interaction. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we have observed an interaction between recombinant NF and a 16-mer DNA duplex containing a core GATC sequence. This result forms the basis from which residues in NF involved in DNA binding can be identified, and work is being carried out to improve the quality of the NMR data with the aim of determining the solution structure of the NF-DNA complex. The DNA-binding affinity of both wild-type and mutant NFs mentioned above is also being investigated using isothermal titration calorimetry. These data suggest that the strength of the interaction between NF and the 16-mer DNA duplex is in the sub-micromolar range, and comparisons between the DNA-binding affinities of the NF mutants are being made. Together, these studies will help us to understand how GATA-1 acts as a transcriptional regulator and how mutations in NF domain of GATA-1 may lead to blood disorders

  12. The zinc fingers of the Small Optic Lobes (SOL) calpain bind polyubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Margaret H; Qiu, Alvin; Zha, Congyao; Farah, Carole A; Mahdid, Yacine; Ferguson, Larissa; Sossin, Wayne S

    2018-05-28

    The Small Optic Lobes (SOL) calpain is a highly conserved member of the calpain family expressed in the nervous system. A dominant negative form of the SOL calpain inhibited consolidation of one form of synaptic plasticity, non-associative facilitation, in sensory-motor neuronal cultures in Aplysia, presumably by inhibiting cleavage of protein kinase Cs (PKCs) into constitutively active protein kinase Ms (PKMs) (Hu et al, 2017a). SOL calpains have a conserved set of 5-6 N-terminal zinc fingers. Bioinformatic analysis suggests that these zinc fingers could bind to ubiquitin. In this study, we show that both the Aplysia and mouse SOL calpain (also known as Calpain 15) zinc fingers bind ubiquitinated proteins, and we confirm that Aplysia SOL binds poly- but not mono or di-ubiquitin. No specific zinc finger is required for polyubiquitin binding. Neither polyubiquitin nor calcium was sufficient to induce purified Aplysia SOL calpain to autolyse or to cleave the atypical PKC to PKM in vitro. In Aplysia, overexpression of the atypical PKC in sensory neurons leads to an activity-dependent cleavage event and an increase in nuclear ubiquitin staining. Activity-dependent cleavage is partially blocked by a dominant negative SOL calpain, but not by a dominant negative classical calpain. The cleaved PKM was stabilized by the dominant negative classical calpain and destabilized by a dominant negative form of the PKM stabilizing proteinKIdney/BRAin protein(KIBRA). These studies provide new insight into SOL calpain's function and regulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate the Inflammatory Function of NKT Cells through Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeung-Hyen; Kumar, Ajay; Chang, Cheong-Hee; Pyaram, Kalyani

    2017-11-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of aerobic metabolism and contribute to both physiological and pathological conditions as second messengers. ROS are essential for activation of T cells, but how ROS influence NKT cells is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of ROS in NKT cell function. We found that NKT cells, but not CD4 or CD8 T cells, have dramatically high ROS in the spleen and liver of mice but not in the thymus or adipose tissues. Accordingly, ROS-high NKT cells exhibited increased susceptibility and apoptotic cell death with oxidative stress. High ROS in the peripheral NKT cells were primarily produced by NADPH oxidases and not mitochondria. We observed that sorted ROS-high NKT cells were enriched in NKT1 and NKT17 cells, whereas NKT2 cells were dominant in ROS-low cells. Furthermore, treatment of NKT cells with antioxidants led to reduced frequencies of IFN-γ- and IL-17-expressing cells, indicating that ROS play a role in regulating the inflammatory function of NKT cells. The transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) seemed to control the ROS levels. NKT cells from adipose tissues that do not express PLZF and those from PLZF haplodeficient mice have low ROS. Conversely, ROS were highly elevated in CD4 T cells from mice ectopically expressing PLZF. Thus, our findings demonstrate that PLZF controls ROS levels, which in turn governs the inflammatory function of NKT cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Zinc finger protein 598 inhibits cell survival by promoting UV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaohong; Gupta, Romi

    2018-01-19

    UV is one of the major causes of DNA damage induced apoptosis. However, cancer cells adopt alternative mechanisms to evade UV-induced apoptosis. To identify factors that protect cancer cells from UV-induced apoptosis, we performed a genome wide short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) screen, which identified Zinc finger protein 598 (ZNF598) as a key regulator of UV-induced apoptosis. Here, we show that UV irradiation transcriptionally upregulates ZNF598 expression. Additionally, ZNF598 knockdown in cancer cells inhibited UV-induced apoptosis. In our study, we observe that ELK1 mRNA level as well as phosphorylated ELK1 levels was up regulated upon UV irradiation, which was necessary for UV irradiation induced upregulation of ZNF598. Cells expressing ELK1 shRNA were also resistant to UV-induced apoptosis, and phenocopy ZNF598 knockdown. Upon further investigation, we found that ZNF598 knockdown inhibits UV-induced apoptotic gene expression, which matches with decrease in percentage of annexin V positive cell. Similarly, ectopic expression of ZNF598 promoted apoptotic gene expression and also increased annexin V positive cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ZNF598 is a UV irradiation regulated gene and its loss results in resistance to UV-induced apoptosis.

  15. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-01-01

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06041.001 PMID:25985087

  16. ZNF383, a novel KRAB-containing zinc finger protein, suppresses MAPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Lei; Wang Zhi; Zhu Chuanbing; Zhao Yulian; Yuan Wuzhou; Li Jing; Wang Yuequn; Ying Zhaochu; Li Yongqing; Yu Weishi; Wu Xiushan; Liu Mingyao

    2005-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are major components of pathways controlling embryogenesis, cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and cell death. One of the most explored functions of MAPK signaling is the regulation of gene expression by direct or indirect phosphorylation and subsequent activation of transcription factors. In this article, we isolated a novel KRAB-related zinc finger gene named ZNF383 from an early embryo heart cDNA library. The cDNA of ZNF383 is 2220 bp, encoding a protein of 475 amino acids. The protein is conserved in evolution across different species. Northern blot analysis indicates that a 2.2 kb transcript specific for ZNF383 is detected in most of the examined human adult and embryonic tissues with a higher level in skeletal muscle. In COS-7 cells, ZNF383 protein is localized to nucleus and cytoplasm. ZNF383 is a transcription repressor when fused to Gal-4 DNA-binding domain and cotransfected with VP-16. Deletion analysis indicates that the KRAB box of ZNF383 is responsible for the transcriptional repressor activity. Overexpression of ZNF383 in cells inhibits the transcriptional activities of AP-1 and SRE, suggesting that ZNF383 may act as a negative regulator in MAPK-mediated signaling pathways

  17. A FYVE zinc finger domain protein specifically links mRNA transport to endosome trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Thomas; Baumann, Sebastian; Haag, Carl; Albrecht, Mario; Feldbrügge, Michael

    2015-05-18

    An emerging theme in cellular logistics is the close connection between mRNA and membrane trafficking. A prominent example is the microtubule-dependent transport of mRNAs and associated ribosomes on endosomes. This coordinated process is crucial for correct septin filamentation and efficient growth of polarised cells, such as fungal hyphae. Despite detailed knowledge on the key RNA-binding protein and the molecular motors involved, it is unclear how mRNAs are connected to membranes during transport. Here, we identify a novel factor containing a FYVE zinc finger domain for interaction with endosomal lipids and a new PAM2-like domain required for interaction with the MLLE domain of the key RNA-binding protein. Consistently, loss of this FYVE domain protein leads to specific defects in mRNA, ribosome, and septin transport without affecting general functions of endosomes or their movement. Hence, this is the first endosomal component specific for mRNP trafficking uncovering a new mechanism to couple mRNPs to endosomes.

  18. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  19. The DnaJ-like zinc finger domain protein PSA2 affects light acclimation and chloroplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wen eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis of chlorophylls and carotenoids and the assembly of thylakoid membranes are critical for the photoautotrophic growth of plants. Different factors are involved in these two processes. In recent years, members of the DnaJ-like zinc finger domain proteins have been found to take part in the biogenesis and/or the maintenance of plastids. One member of this family of proteins, PSA2, was recently found to localize to the thylakoid lumen and regulate the accumulation of photosystem I. In this study, we report that the silencing of PSA2 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in variegated leaves and retarded growth. Although both chlorophylls and total carotenoids decreased in the psa2 mutant, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin accumulated in the mutant seedlings grown under growth condition. Lower levels of non-photochemical quenching and electron transport rate were also found in the psa2 mutant seedlings under growth condition compared with those of the wild-type plants, indicating an impaired capability to acclimate to normal light irradiance when PSA2 was silenced. Moreover, we also observed an abnormal assembly of grana thylakoids and poorly developed stroma thylakoids in psa2 chloroplasts. Taken together, our results demonstrate that PSA2 is a member of the DnaJ-like zinc finger domain protein family that affects light acclimation and chloroplast development.

  20. Co(II) Coordination in Prokaryotic Zinc Finger Domains as Revealed by UV-Vis Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Valeria; D'Abrosca, Gianluca; Russo, Luigi; Iacovino, Rosa; Pedone, Paolo Vincenzo; Fattorusso, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Co(II) electronic configuration allows its use as a spectroscopic probe in UV-Vis experiments to characterize the metal coordination sphere that is an essential component of the functional structure of zinc-binding proteins and to evaluate the metal ion affinities of these proteins. Here, exploiting the capability of the prokaryotic zinc finger to use different combinations of residues to properly coordinate the structural metal ion, we provide the UV-Vis characterization of Co(II) addition to Ros87 and its mutant Ros87_C27D which bears an unusual CysAspHis2 coordination sphere. Zinc finger sites containing only one cysteine have been infrequently characterized. We show for the CysAspHis2 coordination an intense d-d transition band, blue-shifted with respect to the Cys2His2 sphere. These data complemented by NMR and CD data demonstrate that the tetrahedral geometry of the metal site is retained also in the case of a single-cysteine coordination sphere. PMID:29386985

  1. Characterization of the SUMO-binding activity of the myeloproliferative and mental retardation (MYM-type zinc fingers in ZNF261 and ZNF198.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Guzzo

    Full Text Available SUMO-binding proteins interact with SUMO modified proteins to mediate a wide range of functional consequences. Here, we report the identification of a new SUMO-binding protein, ZNF261. Four human proteins including ZNF261, ZNF198, ZNF262, and ZNF258 contain a stretch of tandem zinc fingers called myeloproliferative and mental retardation (MYM-type zinc fingers. We demonstrated that MYM-type zinc fingers from ZNF261 and ZNF198 are necessary and sufficient for SUMO-binding and that individual MYM-type zinc fingers function as SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs. Our binding studies revealed that the MYM-type zinc fingers from ZNF261 and ZNF198 interact with the same surface on SUMO-2 recognized by the archetypal consensus SIM. We also present evidence that MYM-type zinc fingers in ZNF261 contain zinc, but that zinc is not required for SUMO-binding. Immunofluorescence microscopy studies using truncated fragments of ZNF198 revealed that MYM-type zinc fingers of ZNF198 are necessary for localization to PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs. In summary, our studies have identified and characterized the SUMO-binding activity of the MYM-type zinc fingers in ZNF261 and ZNF198.

  2. Control of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by the Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu; Qian, Jinchun; Shi, Xiaoli; Gao, Tingting; Liang, Tingming

    2014-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein is involved in major biological processes including energy metabolism, although its role remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that hepatic PLZF expression was induced in fasted or diabetic mice. PLZF promoted gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose output, leading to hyperglycemia. In contrast, hepatic PLZF knockdown improved glucose homeostasis in db/db mice. Mechanistically, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and the glucocorticoid receptor synergistically activated PLZF expression. We conclude that PLZF is a critical regulator of hepatic gluconeogenesis. PLZF manipulation may benefit the treatment of metabolic diseases associated with gluconeogenesis. PMID:25333514

  3. ZFNGenome: A comprehensive resource for locating zinc finger nuclease target sites in model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytas Daniel F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs have tremendous potential as tools to facilitate genomic modifications, such as precise gene knockouts or gene replacements by homologous recombination. ZFNs can be used to advance both basic research and clinical applications, including gene therapy. Recently, the ability to engineer ZFNs that target any desired genomic DNA sequence with high fidelity has improved significantly with the introduction of rapid, robust, and publicly available techniques for ZFN design such as the Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN method. The motivation for this study is to make resources for genome modifications using OPEN-generated ZFNs more accessible to researchers by creating a user-friendly interface that identifies and provides quality scores for all potential ZFN target sites in the complete genomes of several model organisms. Description ZFNGenome is a GBrowse-based tool for identifying and visualizing potential target sites for OPEN-generated ZFNs. ZFNGenome currently includes a total of more than 11.6 million potential ZFN target sites, mapped within the fully sequenced genomes of seven model organisms; S. cerevisiae, C. reinhardtii, A. thaliana, D. melanogaster, D. rerio, C. elegans, and H. sapiens and can be visualized within the flexible GBrowse environment. Additional model organisms will be included in future updates. ZFNGenome provides information about each potential ZFN target site, including its chromosomal location and position relative to transcription initiation site(s. Users can query ZFNGenome using several different criteria (e.g., gene ID, transcript ID, target site sequence. Tracks in ZFNGenome also provide "uniqueness" and ZiFOpT (Zinc Finger OPEN Targeter "confidence" scores that estimate the likelihood that a chosen ZFN target site will function in vivo. ZFNGenome is dynamically linked to ZiFDB, allowing users access to all available information about zinc finger reagents, such as the

  4. Structural and dynamical characterization of the Miz-1 zinc fingers 5-8 by solution-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, David; Bedard, Mikaeel; Bilodeau, Josee; Lavigne, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.lavigne@usherbrooke.ca [Universite de Sherbrooke, Departement de Biochimie, Faculte de Medecine et des Sciences de la Sante, Institut de Pharmacologie de Sherbrooke (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Myc-interacting zinc finger protein-1 (Miz-1) is a BTB/POZ transcription factor that activates the transcription of cytostatic genes, such as p15{sup INK4B} or p21{sup CIP1}. The C-terminus of Miz-1 contains 13 consensus C{sub 2}H{sub 2} zinc finger domains (ZF). ZFs 1-4 have been shown to interact with SMAD3/4, while the remaining ZFs are expected to bind the promoters of target genes. We have noted unusual features in ZF 5 and the linker between ZFs 5 and 6. Indeed, a glutamate is found instead of the conserved basic residue two positions before the second zinc-coordinating histidine on the ZF 5 helix, and the linker sequence is DTDKE in place of the classical TGEKP sequence. In a canonical {beta}{beta}{alpha} fold, such unusual primary structure elements should cause severe electrostatic repulsions. In this context, we have characterized the structure and the dynamics of a Miz-1 construct comprising ZFs 5-8 (Miz 5-8) by solution-state NMR. Whilst ZFs 5, 7 and 8 were shown to adopt the classical {beta}{beta}{alpha} fold for C{sub 2}H{sub 2} ZFs, the number of long-range NOEs was insufficient to define a classical fold for ZF 6. We show by using {sup 15}N-relaxation dispersion experiments that this lack of NOEs is due to the presence of extensive motions on the {mu}s-ms timescale. Since this negatively charged region would have to be located near the phosphodiester backbone in a DNA complex, we propose that in addition to promoting conformational searches, it could serve as a hinge region to keep ZFs 1-4 away from DNA.

  5. Functional analysis of a novel KRAB/C2H2 zinc finger protein Mipu1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Lei; Tang, Daolin; Wang, Kangkai; Zhang, Huali; Yuan, Can; Duan, Dayue; Xiao, Xianzhong

    2007-01-01

    A novel rat gene, Mipu1, encodes a 608 amino acid protein with an amino-terminal KRAB domain and 14 carboxyl-terminal C 2 H 2 zinc finger motifs. Mipu1 is localized to the nucleus through its KRAB domain or the linker adjacent to its zinc finger region. Using the GST-Mipu1 bound to glutathione-Sepharose beads, a consensus putative DNA binding site (5'-TGTCTTATCGAA-3') was extracted from a random oligonucleotide library. EMSA and target detection assay showed that the probe containing the putative site can bind to purified GST-Mipu1 fusion protein. The oligonucleotide containing the putative site was inserted into the pGL3-promotor vector to produce a reporter construct. The expression of reporter gene was repressed by overexpression of Mipu1 in a dose-dependent manner. Mutation analysis of the consensus sequence indicated that the repression mediated by Mipu1 is sequence-dependent. These results suggest that Mipu1 is a nuclear protein, which functions as a transcriptional repressor

  6. Zinc Finger Nuclease induced DNA double stranded breaks and rearrangements in MLL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, To Uyen; Ho, Bay; Shih, Shyh-Jen; Vaughan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) targeting a leukemogenic hot spot for rearrangement in MLL is created. ► The novel ZFN efficiently cleaves MLL exon 13. ► Despite MLL cleavage and evidence of mis-repair, no leukemogenic translocations were produced. ► MLL cleavage alone is insufficient to generate leukemogenic translocations. - Abstract: Radiation treatment or chemotherapy has been linked with a higher risk of secondary cancers such as therapy related Acute Myeloid Leukemia (tAML). Several of these cancers have been shown to be correlated to the introduction of double stranded breaks (DSB) and rearrangements within the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene. We used Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) to introduce precise cuts within MLL to examine how a single DNA DSB might lead to chromosomal rearrangements. A ZFN targeting exon 13 within the Breakpoint Cluster Region of MLL was transiently expressed in a human lymphoblast cell line originating from a CML patient. Although FISH analysis showed ZFN DSB at this region increased the rate of MLL fragmentation, we were unable to detect leukemogenic rearrangements or translocations via inverse PCR. Interestingly, gene fragmentation as well as small interstitial deletions, insertions and base substitutions increased with the inhibition of DNA-PK, suggesting repair of this particular DSB is linked to non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Although mis-repair of DSBs may be necessary for the initiation of leukemogenic translocations, a MLL targeted DNA break alone is insufficient

  7. Zinc Finger Nuclease induced DNA double stranded breaks and rearrangements in MLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Do, To Uyen [Graduate Group in Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA 95817 (United States); Ho, Bay; Shih, Shyh-Jen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA 95817 (United States); Vaughan, Andrew, E-mail: Andrew.vaughan@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Graduate Group in Immunology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Sacramento CA 95817 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: ► A Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) targeting a leukemogenic hot spot for rearrangement in MLL is created. ► The novel ZFN efficiently cleaves MLL exon 13. ► Despite MLL cleavage and evidence of mis-repair, no leukemogenic translocations were produced. ► MLL cleavage alone is insufficient to generate leukemogenic translocations. - Abstract: Radiation treatment or chemotherapy has been linked with a higher risk of secondary cancers such as therapy related Acute Myeloid Leukemia (tAML). Several of these cancers have been shown to be correlated to the introduction of double stranded breaks (DSB) and rearrangements within the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene. We used Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs) to introduce precise cuts within MLL to examine how a single DNA DSB might lead to chromosomal rearrangements. A ZFN targeting exon 13 within the Breakpoint Cluster Region of MLL was transiently expressed in a human lymphoblast cell line originating from a CML patient. Although FISH analysis showed ZFN DSB at this region increased the rate of MLL fragmentation, we were unable to detect leukemogenic rearrangements or translocations via inverse PCR. Interestingly, gene fragmentation as well as small interstitial deletions, insertions and base substitutions increased with the inhibition of DNA-PK, suggesting repair of this particular DSB is linked to non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Although mis-repair of DSBs may be necessary for the initiation of leukemogenic translocations, a MLL targeted DNA break alone is insufficient.

  8. A plant EPF-type zinc-finger protein, CaPIF1, involved in defence against pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Park, Jeong Mee; Joung, Young Hee; Lee, Sanghyeob; Chung, Eunsook; Kim, Soo-Yong; Yu, Seung Hun; Choi, Doil

    2005-05-01

    SUMMARY To understand better the defence responses of plants to pathogen attack, we challenged hot pepper plants with bacterial pathogens and identified transcription factor-encoding genes whose expression patterns were altered during the subsequent hypersensitive response. One of these genes, CaPIF1 (Capsicum annuum Pathogen-Induced Factor 1), was characterized further. This gene encodes a plant-specific EPF-type protein that contains two Cys(2)/His(2) zinc fingers. CaPIF1 expression was rapidly and specifically induced when pepper plants were challenged with bacterial pathogens to which they are resistant. In contrast, challenge with a pathogen to which the plants are susceptible only generated weak CaPIF1 expression. CaPIF1 expression was also strongly induced in pepper leaves by the exogenous application of ethephon, an ethylene-releasing compound, and salicylic acid, whereas methyl jasmonate had only moderate effects. CaPIF1 localized to the nuclei of onion epidermis when expressed as a CaPIF1-smGFP fusion protein. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing CaPIF1 driven by the CaMV 35S promoter showed increased resistance to challenge with a tobacco-specific pathogen or non-host bacterial pathogens. These plants also showed constitutive up-regulation of multiple defence-related genes. Moreover, virus-induced silencing of the CaPIF1 orthologue in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced susceptibility to the same host or non-host bacterial pathogens. These observations provide evidence that an EPF-type Cys(2)/His(2) zinc-finger protein plays a crucial role in the activation of the pathogen defence response in plants.

  9. Zinc fingers 1, 2, 5 and 6 of transcriptional regulator, PRDM4, are required for its nuclear localisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunbak, Hale, E-mail: h.tunbak@ucl.ac.uk [The Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Georgiou, Christiana, E-mail: christiana.georgiou.10@ucl.ac.uk [The Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Guan, Cui, E-mail: c.guan@qmul.ac.uk [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Richardson, William David, E-mail: w.richardson@ucl.ac.uk [The Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Chittka, Alexandra, E-mail: a.chittka@ucl.ac.uk [The Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-27

    PRDM4 is a member of the PRDM family of transcriptional regulators which control various aspects of cellular differentiation and proliferation. PRDM proteins exert their biological functions both in the cytosol and the nucleus of cells. All PRDM proteins are characterised by the presence of two distinct structural motifs, the PR/SET domain and the zinc finger (ZF) motifs. We previously observed that deletion of all six zinc fingers found in PRDM4 leads to its accumulation in the cytosol, whereas overexpressed full length PRDM4 is found predominantly in the nucleus. Here, we investigated the requirements for single zinc fingers in the nuclear localisation of PRDM4. We demonstrate that ZF's 1, 2, 5 and 6 contribute to the accumulation of PRDM4 in the nucleus. Their effect is additive as deleting either ZF1-2 or ZF 5–6 redistributes PRDM4 protein from being almost exclusively nuclear to cytosolic and nuclear. We investigated the potential mechanism of nuclear shuttling of PRDM4 via the importin α/β-mediated pathway and find that PRDM4 nuclear targeting is independent of α/β-mediated nuclear import. -- Highlights: •Zinc fingers 1, 2, 5, and 6 are necessary for efficient nuclear localisation of PRDM4. •Zinc fingers 3 and 4 are dispensable for nuclear localisation of PRDM4. •Zinc knuckle is dispensable for nuclear localisation of PRDM4. •PRDM4 nuclear transport is independent of importin α/β-mediated pathway of nuclear import.

  10. Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger maintains self-renewal of male germline stem cells (mGSCs) and its expression pattern in dairy goat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W; Zhu, H; Li, M; Li, N; Wu, J; Mu, H; Yao, X; Han, W; Liu, W; Hua, J

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF) is a spermatogonia-specific transcription factor in the testis, required to regulate self-renewal and maintenance of the spermatogonia stem cell. Up to now, expression and function of PLZF in the goat testis has not been known. The objectives of this study were to investigate PLZF expression pattern in the dairy goat and its effect on male goat germline stem cell (mGSC) self-renewal and differentiation. Testis development and expression patterns of PLZF in the dairy goat were analysed by haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, effects of PLZF overexpression on mGSC self-renewal and differentiation were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR (QRT-PCR), immunofluorescence and BrdU incorporation assay. Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger was essential for dairy goat testis development and expression of several proliferation and pluripotency-associated proteins including OCT4, C-MYC were upregulated by PLZF overexpression. The study demonstrated that PLZF played a key role in maintaining self-renewal of mGSCs and its overexpression enhanced expression of proliferation-associated genes. Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger could function in the dairy goat as well as in other species in maintaining self-renewal of germline stem cells and this study provides a model to study the mechanism on self-renewal and differentiation of mGSCs in livestock. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Predicting success of oligomerized pool engineering (OPEN for zinc finger target site sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodwin Mathew J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise and efficient methods for gene targeting are critical for detailed functional analysis of genomes and regulatory networks and for potentially improving the efficacy and safety of gene therapies. Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN is a recently developed method for engineering C2H2 zinc finger proteins (ZFPs designed to bind specific DNA sequences with high affinity and specificity in vivo. Because generation of ZFPs using OPEN requires considerable effort, a computational method for identifying the sites in any given gene that are most likely to be successfully targeted by this method is desirable. Results Analysis of the base composition of experimentally validated ZFP target sites identified important constraints on the DNA sequence space that can be effectively targeted using OPEN. Using alternate encodings to represent ZFP target sites, we implemented Naïve Bayes and Support Vector Machine classifiers capable of distinguishing "active" targets, i.e., ZFP binding sites that can be targeted with a high rate of success, from those that are "inactive" or poor targets for ZFPs generated using current OPEN technologies. When evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation on a dataset of 135 experimentally validated ZFP target sites, the best Naïve Bayes classifier, designated ZiFOpT, achieved overall accuracy of 87% and specificity+ of 90%, with an ROC AUC of 0.89. When challenged with a completely independent test set of 140 newly validated ZFP target sites, ZiFOpT performance was comparable in terms of overall accuracy (88% and specificity+ (92%, but with reduced ROC AUC (0.77. Users can rank potentially active ZFP target sites using a confidence score derived from the posterior probability returned by ZiFOpT. Conclusion ZiFOpT, a machine learning classifier trained to identify DNA sequences amenable for targeting by OPEN-generated zinc finger arrays, can guide users to target sites that are most likely to function

  12. Zinc finger protein 139 expression in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhao, Qun; Fan, Li-Qiao; Wang, Li-Li; Tan, Bi-Bo; Leng, Yan-Li; Liu, Yu; Wang, Dong

    2014-12-28

    To investigate the expression of zinc finger protein 139 (ZNF139) in gastric cancer (GC), and to analyze its clinical significance. A total of 108 patients who were diagnosed with GC and underwent surgery between January 2005 and March 2007 were enrolled in this study. Gastric tumor specimens and paired tumor-adjacent tissues were collected and paraffin-embedded, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis were recorded. The expression of ZNF139, Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 were determined by immunohistochemistry, and apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling. SPSS 13.0 software was used for data processing and analyses, and significance was determined at P stage, lymphatic metastasis, and blood vessel invasion (all Ps < 0.05). Patients with overexpression of ZNF139 had a poorer prognosis (P < 0.01), and overexpression of ZNF139 was an independent factor for the prognosis of GC patients by a Cox survival analysis (P = 0.02). A negative relationship between ZNF139 and the apoptosis index was observed (r = -0.686; P < 0.01). The expression of Bcl-2 in GC was stronger than in tumor-adjacent tissues (66.67% vs 41.67%), whereas the expression levels of Bax and caspase-3 were lower in primary tumors (54.63% and 47.22%, respectively) than in tumor-adjacent tissues (73.15% and 73.15%, respectively) (all Ps < 0.05). The expression of ZNF139 negatively correlated with caspase-3 (r = -0.370; P < 0.01). The expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax were also negatively correlated (r = -0.231; P = 0.02). The expressions of caspase-3 and Bax protein were positively correlated (r = 0.217; P = 0.024). ZNF139 is related to clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of GC. Furthermore, it is overexpressed and involved in apoptosis in GC tissues by regulating caspase-3.

  13. Design of a colicin E7 based chimeric zinc-finger nuclease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Eszter; Schilli, Gabriella K.; Nagy, Gábor; Hasenhindl, Christoph; Gyurcsik, Béla; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2014-08-01

    Colicin E7 is a natural bacterial toxin. Its nuclease domain (NColE7) enters the target cell and kills it by digesting the nucleic acids. The HNH-motif as the catalytic centre of NColE7 at the C-terminus requires the positively charged N-terminal loop for the nuclease activity—offering opportunities for allosteric control in a NColE7-based artificial nuclease. Accordingly, four novel zinc finger nucleases were designed by computational methods exploiting the special structural features of NColE7. The constructed models were subjected to MD simulations. The comparison of structural stability and functional aspects showed that these models may function as safely controlled artificial nucleases. This study was complemented by random mutagenesis experiments identifying potentially important residues for NColE7 function outside the catalytic region.

  14. Knockout of Myostatin by Zinc-finger Nuclease in Sheep Fibroblasts and Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin (MSTN can negatively regulate the growth and development of skeletal muscle, and natural mutations can cause “double-muscling” trait in animals. In order to block the inhibiting effect of MSTN on muscle growth, we transferred zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN which targeted sheep MSTN gene into cultured fibroblasts. Gene targeted colonies were isolated from transfected fibroblasts by serial dilution culture and screened by sequencing. Two colonies were identified with mono-allele mutation and one colony with bi-allelic deletion. Further, we introduced the MSTN-ZFN mRNA into sheep embryos by microinjection. Thirteen of thirty-seven parthenogenetic embryos were targeted by ZFN, with the efficiency of 35%. Our work established the technical foundation for generation of MSTN gene editing sheep by somatic cloning and microinjection ZFN into embryos.

  15. FYVE zinc-finger proteins in the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R B; La Cour, T; Albrethsen, J

    2001-01-01

    Classic FYVE zinc-finger domains recognize the phosphoinositide signal PtdIns3P and share the basic (R/K)(1)(R/K)HHCR(6) (single-letter amino acid codes) consensus sequence. This domain is present in predicted PtdIns3P 5-kinases and lipases from Arabidopsis thaliana. Other Arabidopsis proteins......) of the basic motif. Dot-blot and liposome-binding assays were used in vitro to examine the phospholipid-binding ability of isolated PRAF domains. Whereas the PH domain preferentially bound PtdIns(4,5)P(2), the variant FYVE domain showed a weaker charge-dependent binding of phosphoinositides. In contrast....... A biochemical function for PRAF was indicated by its ability to catalyse guanine nucleotide exchange on some of the small GTPases of the Rab family, permitting a discussion of the biological roles of plant FYVE proteins and their regulation by phosphoinositides....

  16. An engineered split M.HhaI-zinc finger fusion lacks the intended methyltransferase specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, Glenna E.; Chandrasegaran, Srinivasan; Ostermeier, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The ability to site-specifically methylate DNA in vivo would have wide applicability to the study of basic biomedical problems as well as enable studies on the potential of site-specific DNA methylation as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diseases. Natural DNA methyltransferases lack the specificity required for these applications. Nomura and Barbas [W. Nomura, C.F. Barbas 3rd, In vivo site-specific DNA methylation with a designed sequence-enabled DNA methylase, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (2007) 8676-8677] have reported that an engineered DNA methyltransferase comprised of fragments of M.HhaI methyltransferase and zinc finger proteins has very high specificity for the chosen target site. Our analysis of this engineered enzyme shows that the fusion protein methylates target and non-target sites with similar efficiency

  17. Functional promoter variant in zinc finger protein 202 predicts severe atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, R.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grande, Peer

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to test the hypotheses that single nucleotide polymorphisms ( SNPs), in zinc finger protein 202 ( ZNF202), predict severe atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease ( IHD). Background ZNF202 is a transcriptional repressor controlling promoter elements in genes...... involved in vascular maintenance and lipid metabolism. Methods We first determined genotype association for 9 ZNF202 SNPs with severe atherosclerosis ( ankle brachial index >0.7 vs. ...,998 controls. Finally, we determined whether g. -660A>G altered transcriptional activity of the ZNF202 promoter in vitro. Results Cross-sectionally, ZNF202 g. -660 GG versus AA homozygosity predicted an odds ratio for severe atherosclerosis of 2.01 ( 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34 to 3.01). Prospectively...

  18. Engineering and Application of Zinc Finger Proteins and TALEs for Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Soo; Kini, Anu Ganesh

    2017-08-01

    Engineered DNA-binding domains provide a powerful technology for numerous biomedical studies due to their ability to recognize specific DNA sequences. Zinc fingers (ZF) are one of the most common DNA-binding domains and have been extensively studied for a variety of applications, such as gene regulation, genome engineering and diagnostics. Another novel DNA-binding domain known as a transcriptional activator-like effector (TALE) has been more recently discovered, which has a previously undescribed DNA-binding mode. Due to their modular architecture and flexibility, TALEs have been rapidly developed into artificial gene targeting reagents. Here, we describe the methods used to design these DNA-binding proteins and their key applications in biomedical research.

  19. ZNF307, a novel zinc finger gene suppresses p53 and p21 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Wang Yuequn; Fan Xiongwei; Mo Xiaoyang; Wang Zequn; Li Yongqing; Yin Zhaochu; Deng Yun; Luo Na; Zhu Chuanbing; Liu Mingyao; Ma Qian; Ocorr, Karen; Yuan Wuzhou; Wu Xiushan

    2007-01-01

    We have cloned a novel KRAB-related zinc finger gene, ZNF307, encoding a protein of 545 aa. ZNF307 is conserved across species in evolution and is differentially expressed in human adult and fetal tissues. The fusion protein of EGFP-ZNF307 localizes in the nucleus. Transcriptional activity assays show ZNF307 suppresses transcriptional activity of L8G5-luciferase. Overexpressing ZNF307 in different cell lines also inhibits the transcriptional activities of p53 and p21. Moreover, ZNF307 works by reducing the p53 protein level and p53 protein reduction is achieved by increasing transcription of MDM2 and EP300. ZNF307 might suppress p53-p21 pathway through activating MDM2 and EP300 expression and inducing p53 degradation

  20. Viral RNA annealing activities of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein require only peptide domains outside the zinc fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rocquigny, H; Gabus, C; Vincent, A; Fournié-Zaluski, M C; Roques, B; Darlix, J L

    1992-07-15

    The nucleocapsid (NC) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 consists of a large number of NC protein molecules, probably wrapping the dimeric RNA genome within the virion inner core. NC protein is a gag-encoded product that contains two zinc fingers flanked by basic residues. In human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions, NCp15 is ultimately processed into NCp7 and p6 proteins. During virion assembly the retroviral NC protein is necessary for core formation and genomic RNA encapsidation, which are essential for virus infectivity. In vitro NCp15 activates viral RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked in vivo to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Lys,3) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 NC protein necessary for its various functions, the 72-amino acid NCp7 and several derived peptides were synthesized in a pure form. We show here that synthetic NCp7 with or without the two zinc fingers has the RNA annealing activities of NCp15. Further deletions of the N-terminal 12 and C-terminal 8 amino acids, leading to a 27-residue peptide lacking the finger domains, have little or no effect on NC protein activity in vitro. However deletion of short sequences containing basic residues flanking the first finger leads to a complete loss of NC protein activity. It is proposed that the basic residues and the zinc fingers cooperate to select and package the genomic RNA in vivo. Inhibition of the viral RNA binding and annealing activities associated with the basic residues flanking the first zinc finger of NC protein could therefore be used as a model for the design of antiviral agents.

  1. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi; Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki; Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Zif268 fused to luciferase was used for E. coli O157, Salmonella and coliform detection. •Artificial zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was constructed for Norovirus detection. •An analyzer that automatically detects PCR products by zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was developed. •Target pathogens were specifically detected by the automatic analyzer with zinc finger protein fused to luciferase. -- Abstract: An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268–luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF–luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF–luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0 × 10 to 1.0 × 10 6 copies

  2. Automatic polymerase chain reaction product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger protein fused to luciferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Wataru; Kezuka, Aki; Murakami, Yoshiyuki; Lee, Jinhee; Abe, Koichi [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Motoki, Hiroaki; Matsuo, Takafumi; Shimura, Nobuaki [System Instruments Co., Ltd., 776-2 Komiya-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0031 (Japan); Noda, Mamoru; Igimi, Shizunobu [Division of Biomedical Food Research, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ikebukuro, Kazunori, E-mail: ikebu@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Zif268 fused to luciferase was used for E. coli O157, Salmonella and coliform detection. •Artificial zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was constructed for Norovirus detection. •An analyzer that automatically detects PCR products by zinc finger protein fused to luciferase was developed. •Target pathogens were specifically detected by the automatic analyzer with zinc finger protein fused to luciferase. -- Abstract: An automatic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product detection system for food safety monitoring using zinc finger (ZF) protein fused to luciferase was developed. ZF protein fused to luciferase specifically binds to target double stranded DNA sequence and has luciferase enzymatic activity. Therefore, PCR products that comprise ZF protein recognition sequence can be detected by measuring the luciferase activity of the fusion protein. We previously reported that PCR products from Legionella pneumophila and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 genomic DNA were detected by Zif268, a natural ZF protein, fused to luciferase. In this study, Zif268–luciferase was applied to detect the presence of Salmonella and coliforms. Moreover, an artificial zinc finger protein (B2) fused to luciferase was constructed for a Norovirus detection system. In the luciferase activity detection assay, several bound/free separation process is required. Therefore, an analyzer that automatically performed the bound/free separation process was developed to detect PCR products using the ZF–luciferase fusion protein. By means of the automatic analyzer with ZF–luciferase fusion protein, target pathogenic genomes were specifically detected in the presence of other pathogenic genomes. Moreover, we succeeded in the detection of 10 copies of E. coli BL21 without extraction of genomic DNA by the automatic analyzer and E. coli was detected with a logarithmic dependency in the range of 1.0 × 10 to 1.0 × 10{sup 6} copies.

  3. Revisiting and re-engineering the classical zinc finger peptide: consensus peptide-1 (CP-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besold, Angelique N; Widger, Leland R; Namuswe, Frances; Michalek, Jamie L; Michel, Sarah L J; Goldberg, David P

    2016-04-01

    Zinc plays key structural and catalytic roles in biology. Structural zinc sites are often referred to as zinc finger (ZF) sites, and the classical ZF contains a Cys2His2 motif that is involved in coordinating Zn(II). An optimized Cys2His2 ZF, named consensus peptide 1 (CP-1), was identified more than 20 years ago using a limited set of sequenced proteins. We have reexamined the CP-1 sequence, using our current, much larger database of sequenced proteins that have been identified from high-throughput sequencing methods, and found the sequence to be largely unchanged. The CCHH ligand set of CP-1 was then altered to a CAHH motif to impart hydrolytic activity. This ligand set mimics the His2Cys ligand set of peptide deformylase (PDF), a hydrolytically active M(II)-centered (M = Zn or Fe) protein. The resultant peptide [CP-1(CAHH)] was evaluated for its ability to coordinate Zn(II) and Co(II) ions, adopt secondary structure, and promote hydrolysis. CP-1(CAHH) was found to coordinate Co(II) and Zn(II) and a pentacoordinate geometry for Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) was implicated from UV-vis data. This suggests a His2Cys(H2O)2 environment at the metal center. The Zn(II)-bound CP-1(CAHH) was shown to adopt partial secondary structure by 1-D (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Both Zn(II)-CP-1(CAHH) and Co(II)-CP-1(CAHH) show good hydrolytic activity toward the test substrate 4-nitrophenyl acetate, exhibiting faster rates than most active synthetic Zn(II) complexes.

  4. Genetic analysis of Kruppel-like zinc finger 11 variants in 5864 Danish individuals: potential effect on insulin resistance and modified signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 binding by promoter variant -1659G>C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Ruth; Froguel, Philippe; Hamid, Yasmin H

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: The transcription factor Krüppel-like zinc finger 11 (KLF11) has been suggested to contribute to genetic risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our previous results showed that four KLF11 variants, in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD block including +185 A>G/Gln62Arg and -1659 G>C) were...

  5. TIF1alpha: a possible link between KRAB zinc finger proteins and nuclear receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Douarin, B; You, J; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    1998-01-01

    Ligand-induced gene activation by nuclear receptors (NRs) is thought to be mediated by transcriptional intermediary factors (TIFs), that interact with their ligand-dependent AF-2 activating domain. Included in the group of the putative AF-2 TIFs identified so far is TIF1alpha, a member of a new...... family of proteins which contains an N-terminal RBCC (RING finger-B boxes-coiled coil) motif and a C-terminal bromodomain preceded by a PHD finger. In addition to these conserved domains present in a number of transcriptional regulatory proteins, TIF1alpha was found to contain several protein......-protein interaction sites. Of these, one specifically interacts with NRs bound to their agonistic ligand and not with NR mutants that are defective in the AF-2 activity. Immediately adjacent to this 'NR box', TIF1alpha contains an interaction site for members of the chromatin organization modifier (chromo) family, HP...

  6. The ascorbate peroxidase APX1 is a direct target of a zinc finger transcription factor ZFP36 and a late embryogenesis abundant protein OsLEA5 interacts with ZFP36 to co-regulate OsAPX1 in seed germination in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Jia, Jing; Zhao, Xixi; Zhang, MengYao; Huang, Xingxiu; E Ji; Ni, Lan; Jiang, Mingyi

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination is a vital developmental process. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential repressor of seed germination, while ROS (reactive oxygen species) also plays a vital role in regulating seed germination. ABA could inhibit the production of ROS in seed germination, but the mechanism of ABA reduced ROS production in seed germination was hitherto unknown. Here, by ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation)-seq, we found that ZFP36, a rice zinc finger transcription factor, could directly bind to the promoter of OsAPX1, coding an ascorbate peroxidase (APX) which has the most affinity for H 2 O 2 (substrate; a type of ROS), and act as a transcriptional activator of OsAPX1 promoter. Moreover, ZFP36 could interact with a late embryogenesis abundant protein OsLEA5 to co-regulate the promoter activity of OsAPX1. The seed germination is highly inhibited in ZFP36 overexpression plants under ABA treatment, while an RNA interference (RNAi) mutant of OsLEA5 rice seeds were less sensitive to ABA, and exogenous ASC (ascorbate acid) could alleviate the inhibition induced by ABA. Thus, our conclusion is that OsAPX1 is a direct target of ZFP36 and OsLEA5 could interact with ZFP36 to co-regulate ABA-inhibited seed germination by controlling the expression of OsAPX1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Rmt1 catalyzes zinc-finger independent arginine methylation of ribosomal protein Rps2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, Rebecca S.; Webb, Kristofor J.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Rps2/rpS2 is a well conserved protein of the eukaryotic ribosomal small subunit. Rps2 has previously been shown to contain asymmetric dimethylarginine residues, the addition of which is catalyzed by zinc-finger-containing arginine methyltransferase 3 (Rmt3) in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3) in mammalian cells. Here, we demonstrate that despite the lack of a zinc-finger-containing homolog of Rmt3/PRMT3 in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rps2 is partially modified to generate asymmetric dimethylarginine and monomethylarginine residues. We find that this modification of Rps2 is dependent upon the major arginine methyltransferase 1 (Rmt1) in S. cerevisiae. These results are suggestive of a role for Rmt1 in modifying the function of Rps2 in a manner distinct from that occurring in S. pombe and mammalian cells.

  8. Characterization and chondrocyte differentiation stage-specific expression of KRAB zinc-finger protein gene ZNF470

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, Thomas M.; Kazmi, Najam H.; Huynh, Tru D.; Kollar, John; Xu, Laura; Hunyady, Aaron B.; Johnstone, Brian

    2004-01-01

    As part of a study to identify novel transcriptional regulators of chondrogenesis-related gene expression, we have cloned and characterized cDNA for zinc-finger protein 470 (ZNF470), the human ortholog of which encodes a 717 amino acid residue protein containing 17 Cys 2 His 2 zinc-finger domains, as well as KRAB-A and KRAB-B motifs. The cDNA library used to isolate the initial ZNF470 clone was prepared from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells at an intermediate stage of chondrogenic differentiation. We have determined the intron-exon structure of the human ZNF470 gene, which has been mapped to a zinc-finger cluster in a known imprinted region of human chromosome 19q13.4. ZNF470 is expressed at high levels in human testis and is expressed at low or undetectible levels in other adult tissues. Human ZNF470 expressed in mammalian cells as an EGFP fusion protein localizes predominantly to the nucleus, consistent with a role in transcriptional regulation. ZNF470, analyzed by quantitative real time PCR, was transiently expressed before the maximal expression of COL2A1 during chondrogenic differentiation in vitro. We have also characterized the bovine ortholog of human ZNF470, which encodes a 508 amino acid residue protein having 10 zinc-finger domains. A bovine ZNF470 cDNA clone was used to examine expression of ZNF470 in bovine articular chondrocytes treated with retinoic acid to stimulate dedifferentiation. Bovine ZNF470 expression was undetectable in freshly isolated bovine articular chondrocytes, but was dramatically upregulated in dedifferentiated retinoic acid-treated chondrocytes. These results, in two model systems, suggest a possible role for ZNF470 in the regulation of chondrogenesis-specific gene expression

  9. Dynamics of Linker Residues Modulate the Nucleic Acid Binding Properties of the HIV-1 Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargarian, Loussiné; Tisné, Carine; Barraud, Pierre; Xu, Xiaoqian; Morellet, Nelly; René, Brigitte; Mély, Yves; Fossé, Philippe; Mauffret, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) is a small basic protein containing two zinc fingers (ZF) separated by a short linker. It is involved in several steps of the replication cycle and acts as a nucleic acid chaperone protein in facilitating nucleic acid strand transfers occurring during reverse transcription. Recent analysis of three-dimensional structures of NC-nucleic acids complexes established a new property: the unpaired guanines targeted by NC are more often inserted in the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF2) than in the N-terminal zinc finger (ZF1). Although previous NMR dynamic studies were performed with NC, the dynamic behavior of the linker residues connecting the two ZF domains remains unclear. This prompted us to investigate the dynamic behavior of the linker residues. Here, we collected 15N NMR relaxation data and used for the first time data at several fields to probe the protein dynamics. The analysis at two fields allows us to detect a slow motion occurring between the two domains around a hinge located in the linker at the G35 position. However, the amplitude of motion appears limited in our conditions. In addition, we showed that the neighboring linker residues R29, A30, P31, R32, K33 displayed restricted motion and numerous contacts with residues of ZF1. Our results are fully consistent with a model in which the ZF1-linker contacts prevent the ZF1 domain to interact with unpaired guanines, whereas the ZF2 domain is more accessible and competent to interact with unpaired guanines. In contrast, ZF1 with its large hydrophobic plateau is able to destabilize the double-stranded regions adjacent to the guanines bound by ZF2. The linker residues and the internal dynamics of NC regulate therefore the different functions of the two zinc fingers that are required for an optimal chaperone activity. PMID:25029439

  10. Activation of transcriptional activities of AP-1 and SRE by a new zinc-finger protein ZNF641

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xingzhu; Li Yongqing; Xiao Jing; Yuan Wuzhou; Yan Yan; Wang Yuequn; Liang Shuyuan; Zhu Chuanbing; Chen Yingduan; Liu Mingyao; Wu Xiushan

    2006-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are evolutionarily conserved enzymes in cell signal transduction connecting cell-surface receptors to critical regulatory targets within cells and control cell survival, adaptation, and proliferation. Previous studies revealed that zinc-finger proteins are involved in the regulation of the MAPK signaling pathways. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel human zinc-finger protein, ZNF641. The cDNA of ZNF641 is 4.9 kb, encoding 438 amino acids in the nucleus. The protein is highly conserved in evolution across different vertebrate species from mouse to human. Northern blot analysis indicates that ZNF641 is expressed in most of the examined human tissues, with a high level in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of pCMV-Tag2B-ZNF641 in the COS-7 cells activates the transcriptional activities of AP-1 and SRE. Deletion analysis indicates that the linker between KRAB box and C 2 H 2 -type zinc-fingers represents the basal activation domain. These results suggest that ZNF641 may be a positive regulator in MAPK-mediated signaling pathways that lead to the activation of AP-1 and SRE

  11. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a zebrafish novel zinc finger protein gene rnf141

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqian Deng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ZNF230 is a novel zinc finger gene cloned by our laboratory. In order to understand the potential functions of this gene in vertebrate development, we cloned the zebrafish orthologue of human ZNF230, named rnf141. The cDNA fragment of rnf141 was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The open reading frame (ORF encodes a polypeptide of 222 amino acids which shares 75.65% identity with the human ZNF230. RT-PCR analysis in zebrafish embryo and adult tissues revealed that rnf141 transcripts are maternally derived and that rnf141 mRNA has a broad distribution. Zygotic rnf141 message is strongly localized in the central nervous system, as shown by whole-mount in situ hybridization. Knockdown and over expression of rnf141 can induce abnormal phenotypes, including abnormal development of brain, as well as yolk sac and axis extendsion. Marker gene analysis showed that rnf141 may play a role in normal dorsoventral patterning of zebrafish embryos, suggesting that rnf141 may have a broad function during early development of vertebrates.

  12. Regulation of hedgehog signaling by Myc-interacting zinc finger protein 1, Miz1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuyi Lu

    Full Text Available Smoothened (Smo mediated Hedgehog (Hh signaling plays an essential role in regulating embryonic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis. Aberrant activation of the Hh pathway contributes to the formation and progression of various cancers. In vertebrates, however, key regulatory mechanisms responsible for transducing signals from Smo to the nucleus remain to be delineated. Here, we report the identification of Myc-interacting Zinc finger protein 1 (Miz1 as a Smo and Gli2 binding protein that positively regulates Hh signaling. Overexpression of Miz1 increases Gli luciferase reporter activity, whereas knockdown of endogenous Miz1 has the opposite effect. Activation of Smo induces translocation of Miz1 to the primary cilia together with Smo and Gli2. Furthermore, Miz1 is localized to the nucleus upon Hh activation in a Smo-dependent manner, and loss of Miz1 prevents the nuclear translocation of Gli2. More importantly, silencing Miz1 expression inhibits cell proliferation in vitro and the growth of Hh-driven medulloblastoma tumors allografted in SCID mice. Taken together, these results identify Miz1 as a novel regulator in the Hh pathway that plays an important role in mediating Smo-dependent oncogenic signaling.

  13. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2015-12-16

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty.

  14. ZNF649, a novel Kruppel type zinc-finger protein, functions as a transcriptional suppressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Yuan Wuzhou; Wang Ying; Zhu Chuanbing; Liu Bisheng; Wang Yuequn; Yang, Dan; Li Yongqing; Wang Canding; Wu Xiushan; Liu Mingyao

    2005-01-01

    Cardiac differentiation involves a cascade of coordinated gene expression that regulates cell proliferation and matrix protein formation in a defined temporo-spatial manner. Many of the KRAB-ZFPs are involved in cardiac development or cardiovascular diseases. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel human zinc-finger gene named ZNF649. The cDNA of ZNF649 is 3176 bp, encoding a protein of 505 amino acids in the nuclei. Northern blot analysis indicates that ZNF649 is expressed in most of the examined human adult and embryonic tissues. ZNF649 is a transcription suppressor when fused to GAL-4 DNA-binding domain and cotransfected with VP-16. Overexpression of ZNF649 in COS-7 cells inhibits the transcriptional activities of SRE and AP-1. Deletion analysis with a series of truncated fusion proteins indicates that the KRAB motif is a basal repression domain when the truncated fusion proteins were assayed for the transcriptional activities of SRE and AP-1. These results suggest that ZNF649 protein may act as a transcriptional repressor in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway to mediate cellular functions

  15. Different Binding Properties and Function of CXXC Zinc Finger Domains in Dnmt1 and Tet1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meilinger, Daniela; Bultmann, Sebastian; Fellinger, Karin; Hasenöder, Stefan; Wang, Mengxi; Qin, Weihua; Söding, Johannes; Spada, Fabio; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    Several mammalian proteins involved in chromatin and DNA modification contain CXXC zinc finger domains. We compared the structure and function of the CXXC domains in the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 and the methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet1. Sequence alignment showed that both CXXC domains have a very similar framework but differ in the central tip region. Based on the known structure of a similar MLL1 domain we developed homology models and designed expression constructs for the isolated CXXC domains of Dnmt1 and Tet1 accordingly. We show that the CXXC domain of Tet1 has no DNA binding activity and is dispensable for catalytic activity in vivo. In contrast, the CXXC domain of Dnmt1 selectively binds DNA substrates containing unmethylated CpG sites. Surprisingly, a Dnmt1 mutant construct lacking the CXXC domain formed covalent complexes with cytosine bases both in vitro and in vivo and rescued DNA methylation patterns in dnmt1−/− embryonic stem cells (ESCs) just as efficiently as wild type Dnmt1. Interestingly, neither wild type nor ΔCXXC Dnmt1 re-methylated imprinted CpG sites of the H19a promoter in dnmt1−/− ESCs, arguing against a role of the CXXC domain in restraining Dnmt1 methyltransferase activity on unmethylated CpG sites. PMID:21311766

  16. Different binding properties and function of CXXC zinc finger domains in Dnmt1 and Tet1.

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    Carina Frauer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several mammalian proteins involved in chromatin and DNA modification contain CXXC zinc finger domains. We compared the structure and function of the CXXC domains in the DNA methyltransferase Dnmt1 and the methylcytosine dioxygenase Tet1. Sequence alignment showed that both CXXC domains have a very similar framework but differ in the central tip region. Based on the known structure of a similar MLL1 domain we developed homology models and designed expression constructs for the isolated CXXC domains of Dnmt1 and Tet1 accordingly. We show that the CXXC domain of Tet1 has no DNA binding activity and is dispensable for catalytic activity in vivo. In contrast, the CXXC domain of Dnmt1 selectively binds DNA substrates containing unmethylated CpG sites. Surprisingly, a Dnmt1 mutant construct lacking the CXXC domain formed covalent complexes with cytosine bases both in vitro and in vivo and rescued DNA methylation patterns in dnmt1⁻/⁻ embryonic stem cells (ESCs just as efficiently as wild type Dnmt1. Interestingly, neither wild type nor ΔCXXC Dnmt1 re-methylated imprinted CpG sites of the H19a promoter in dnmt1⁻/⁻ ESCs, arguing against a role of the CXXC domain in restraining Dnmt1 methyltransferase activity on unmethylated CpG sites.

  17. Intrinsic and extrinsic connections of Tet3 dioxygenase with CXXC zinc finger modules.

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    Nan Liu

    Full Text Available Tet proteins are emerging as major epigenetic modulators of cell fate and plasticity. However, little is known about how Tet proteins are targeted to selected genomic loci in distinct biological contexts. Previously, a CXXC-type zinc finger domain in Tet1 was shown to bind CpG-rich DNA sequences. Interestingly, in human and mouse the Tet2 and Tet3 genes are adjacent to Cxxc4 and Cxxc10-1, respectively. The CXXC domains encoded by these loci, together with those in Tet1 and Cxxc5, identify a distinct homology group within the CXXC domain family. Here we provide evidence for alternative mouse Tet3 transcripts including the Cxxc10-1 sequence (Tet3(CXXC and for an interaction between Tet3 and Cxxc4. In vitro Cxxc4 and the isolated CXXC domains of Tet1 and Tet3(CXXC bind DNA substrates with similar preference towards the modification state of cytosine at a single CpG site. In vivo Tet1 and Tet3 isoforms with and without CXXC domain hydroxylate genomic 5-methylcytosine with similar activity. Relative transcript levels suggest that distinct ratios of Tet3(CXXC isoforms and Tet3-Cxxc4 complex may be present in adult tissues. Our data suggest that variable association with CXXC modules may contribute to context specific functions of Tet proteins.

  18. Zinc finger protein rotund deficiency affects development of the thoracic leg in Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Yan; Zha, Xing-Fu; Liu, Hua-Wei; Xia, Qing-You

    2017-06-01

    The insect limb develops from the imaginal disc or larval leg during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in the development from the larval to the adult leg are poorly understood. Herein, we cloned the full length of a zinc finger gene rotund from Bombyx mori (Bmrn), which contained a 1419 bp open reading frame, and encoded a 473 amino acid protein. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses demonstrated that Bmrn was expressed at higher levels in the epidermis than in other tissues tested, and it showed a very high expression level during metamorphosis. Knock-down of Bmrn produced defects in the tarsus and pretarsus, including the fusion and reduction of tarsomeres, and the developmental arrest of pretarsus. Our data showed that Bmrn is involved in the formation of the tarsus and pretarsus, whereas its homologous gene in Drosophila has been shown to affect three tarsal segments (t2-t4), suggesting that the remodeling of the leg has involved changes in the patterning of gene regulation during evolution. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Targeted genome editing by lentiviral protein transduction of zinc-finger and TAL-effector nucleases.

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    Cai, Yujia; Bak, Rasmus O; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2014-04-24

    Future therapeutic use of engineered site-directed nucleases, like zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), relies on safe and effective means of delivering nucleases to cells. In this study, we adapt lentiviral vectors as carriers of designer nuclease proteins, providing efficient targeted gene disruption in vector-treated cell lines and primary cells. By co-packaging pairs of ZFN proteins with donor RNA in 'all-in-one' lentiviral particles, we co-deliver ZFN proteins and the donor template for homology-directed repair leading to targeted DNA insertion and gene correction. Comparative studies of ZFN activity in a predetermined target locus and a known nearby off-target locus demonstrate reduced off-target activity after ZFN protein transduction relative to conventional delivery approaches. Additionally, TALEN proteins are added to the repertoire of custom-designed nucleases that can be delivered by protein transduction. Altogether, our findings generate a new platform for genome engineering based on efficient and potentially safer delivery of programmable nucleases.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01911.001. Copyright © 2014, Cai et al.

  20. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Shen, Ming; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Lam, Sin-Man; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2017-04-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean ( Glycine max ) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351 , encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1 , BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2 , 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III , DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1 , and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean ( Glycine soja ) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Enhanced cellulase production from Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 by engineering with an artificial zinc finger protein library.

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    Zhang, Fei; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2016-10-01

    Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30 is a well-known cellulase producer, and improvement of its cellulase production is of great interest. An artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library is constructed for expression in T. reesei Rut-C30, and a mutant strain T. reesei U3 is selected based on its enhanced cellulase production. The U3 mutant shows a 55% rise in filter paper activity and 8.1-fold increased β-glucosidase activity, when compared to the native strain T. reesei Rut-C30. It is demonstrated that enhanced β-glucosidase activity was due to elevated transcription level of β-glucosidase gene in the U3 mutant. Moreover, significant elevation in transcription levels of several putative Azfp-U3 target genes is detected in the U3 mutant, including genes encoding hypothetical transcription factors and a putative glycoside hydrolase. Furthermore, U3 cellulase shows 115% higher glucose yield from pretreated corn stover, when compared to the cellulase of T. reesei Rut-C30. These results demonstrate that AZFP can be used to improve cellulase production in T. reesei Rut-C30. Our current work offers the establishment of an alternative strategy to develop fungal cell factories for improved production of high value industrial products. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of the Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Zinc Finger-Homeodomain Gene Family

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    Hao Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant zinc finger-homeodomain (ZHD genes encode a family of transcription factors that have been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we identified a total of 13 ZHD genes (VvZHD in the grape genome that were further classified into at least seven groups. Genome synteny analysis revealed that a number of VvZHD genes were present in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, indicating that they arose before the divergence of these two species. Gene expression analysis showed that the identified VvZHD genes displayed distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns, and were differentially regulated under various stress conditions and hormone treatments, suggesting that the grape VvZHDs might be also involved in plant response to a variety of biotic and abiotic insults. Our work provides insightful information and knowledge about the ZHD genes in grape, which provides a framework for further characterization of their roles in regulation of stress tolerance as well as other aspects of grape productivity.

  3. A novel cold-inducible zinc finger protein from soybean, SCOF-1, enhances cold tolerance in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Lee, S H; Cheong, Y H; Yoo, C M; Lee, S I; Chun, H J; Yun, D J; Hong, J C; Lee, S Y; Lim, C O; Cho, M J

    2001-02-01

    Cold stress on plants induces changes in the transcription of cold response genes. A cDNA clone encoding C2H2-type zinc finger protein, SCOF-1, was isolated from soybean. The transcription of SCOF-1 is specifically induced by low temperature and abscisic acid (ABA) but not by dehydration or high salinity. Constitutive overexpression of SCOF-1 induced cold-regulated (COR) gene expression and enhanced cold tolerance of non-acclimated transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. SCOF-1 localized to the nucleus but did not bind directly to either C-repeat/dehydration (CRT/DRE) or ABA responsive element (ABRE), cis-acting DNA regulatory elements present in COR gene promoters. However, SCOF-1 greatly enhanced the DNA binding activity of SGBF-1, a soybean G-box binding bZIP transcription factor, to ABRE in vitro. SCOF-1 also interacted with SGBF-1 in a yeast two-hybrid system. The SGBF-1 transactivated the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene driven by the ABRE element in Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts. Furthermore, the SCOF-1 enhanced ABRE-dependent gene expression mediated by SGBF-1. These results suggest that SCOF-1 may function as a positive regulator of COR gene expression mediated by ABRE via protein-protein interaction, which in turn enhances cold tolerance of plants.

  4. Protein, Calcium, Zinc, and Iron Contents of Finger Millet Grain Response to Varietal Differences and Phosphorus Application in Kenya

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    Wekha N. Wafula

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the influence of phosphorus fertilizers on the concentrations of nutrients, particularly calcium, protein, zinc, and iron in finger millet grains grown in different agro-ecologies in Kenya. The on-station experiments were carried out at Kiboko (Eastern Kenya, Kakamega, and Alupe (Western Kenya in 2015 during the short and long rainy seasons. The trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD in a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement with three replicates. The treatments comprised of four levels of phosphorus (0, 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 kg ha−1 P2O5 and three finger millet varieties (U-15, P-224 and a local variety. Application of phosphorus significantly (p ≤ 0.05 increased the protein content of finger millet grain in varieties in all the three sites. Variety U-15 had the highest protein content (11.0% at 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 with the control (zero P on variety P-224 eliciting the lowest (4.4% at Kiboko. At Kakamega, the 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 treatment with U-15 variety had the highest protein content (15.3% while the same variety at 12.5 kg ha−1 P2O5 rate elicited the highest protein content (15.0% at Alupe. Phosphorus application significantly enhanced the nutritional quality of finger millet grains specifically protein, calcium, iron, and zinc. Variety P-224 had the highest calcium content in all sites and highest iron content at Kakamega while the local varieties had the highest zinc content in all sites. The varieties responded differently to each quality component but generally, based on the protein content, the 25 kg ha−1 P2O5 is recommended.

  5. The zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (Zeb1) promotes the conversion of mouse fibroblasts into functional neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Long; Li, Yue; Shi, Zixiao; Lu, Xiaoyin; Ma, Jiao; Hu, Baoyang; Jiao, Jianwei; Wang, Hongmei

    2017-08-04

    The zinc finger E-box-binding transcription factor Zeb1 plays a pivotal role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Numerous studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms by which Zeb1 contributes to this process. However, the functions of Zeb1 beyond the epithelial-mesenchymal transition remain largely elusive. Using a transdifferentiation system to convert mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into functional neurons via the neuronal transcription factors achaete-scute family bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) transcription factor1 ( Ascl1 ), POU class 3 homeobox 2 (POU3F2/ Brn2 ), and neurogenin 2 (Neurog2, Ngn2 ) (ABN), we found that Zeb1 was up-regulated during the early stages of transdifferentiation. Knocking down Zeb1 dramatically attenuated the transdifferentiation efficiency, whereas Zeb1 overexpression obviously increased the efficiency of transdifferentiation from MEFs to neurons. Interestingly, Zeb1 improved the transdifferentiation efficiency induced by even a single transcription factor ( e.g. Asc1 or Ngn2 ). Zeb1 also rapidly promoted the maturation of induced neuron cells to functional neurons and improved the formation of neuronal patterns and electrophysiological characteristics. Induced neuron cells could form functional synapse in vivo after transplantation. Genome-wide RNA arrays showed that Zeb1 overexpression up-regulated the expression of neuron-specific genes and down-regulated the expression of epithelial-specific genes during conversion. Taken together, our results reveal a new role for Zeb1 in the transdifferentiation of MEFs into neurons. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. AAV-mediated delivery of zinc finger nucleases targeting hepatitis B virus inhibits active replication.

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    Nicholas D Weber

    Full Text Available Despite an existing effective vaccine, hepatitis B virus (HBV remains a major public health concern. There are effective suppressive therapies for HBV, but they remain expensive and inaccessible to many, and not all patients respond well. Furthermore, HBV can persist as genomic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA that remains in hepatocytes even during otherwise effective therapy and facilitates rebound in patients after treatment has stopped. Therefore, the need for an effective treatment that targets active and persistent HBV infections remains. As a novel approach to treat HBV, we have targeted the HBV genome for disruption to prevent viral reactivation and replication. We generated 3 zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs that target sequences within the HBV polymerase, core and X genes. Upon the formation of ZFN-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSB, imprecise repair by non-homologous end joining leads to mutations that inactivate HBV genes. We delivered HBV-specific ZFNs using self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV vectors and tested their anti-HBV activity in HepAD38 cells. HBV-ZFNs efficiently disrupted HBV target sites by inducing site-specific mutations. Cytotoxicity was seen with one of the ZFNs. scAAV-mediated delivery of a ZFN targeting HBV polymerase resulted in complete inhibition of HBV DNA replication and production of infectious HBV virions in HepAD38 cells. This effect was sustained for at least 2 weeks following only a single treatment. Furthermore, high specificity was observed for all ZFNs, as negligible off-target cleavage was seen via high-throughput sequencing of 7 closely matched potential off-target sites. These results show that HBV-targeted ZFNs can efficiently inhibit active HBV replication and suppress the cellular template for HBV persistence, making them promising candidates for eradication therapy.

  7. Selection-independent generation of gene knockout mouse embryonic stem cells using zinc-finger nucleases.

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    Anna Osiak

    Full Text Available Gene knockout in murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs has been an invaluable tool to study gene function in vitro or to generate animal models with altered phenotypes. Gene targeting using standard techniques, however, is rather inefficient and typically does not exceed frequencies of 10(-6. In consequence, the usage of complex positive/negative selection strategies to isolate targeted clones has been necessary. Here, we present a rapid single-step approach to generate a gene knockout in mouse ESCs using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs. Upon transient expression of ZFNs, the target gene is cleaved by the designer nucleases and then repaired by non-homologous end-joining, an error-prone DNA repair process that introduces insertions/deletions at the break site and therefore leads to functional null mutations. To explore and quantify the potential of ZFNs to generate a gene knockout in pluripotent stem cells, we generated a mouse ESC line containing an X-chromosomally integrated EGFP marker gene. Applying optimized conditions, the EGFP locus was disrupted in up to 8% of ESCs after transfection of the ZFN expression vectors, thus obviating the need of selection markers to identify targeted cells, which may impede or complicate downstream applications. Both activity and ZFN-associated cytotoxicity was dependent on vector dose and the architecture of the nuclease domain. Importantly, teratoma formation assays of selected ESC clones confirmed that ZFN-treated ESCs maintained pluripotency. In conclusion, the described ZFN-based approach represents a fast strategy for generating gene knockouts in ESCs in a selection-independent fashion that should be easily transferrable to other pluripotent stem cells.

  8. Efficient immunoglobulin gene disruption and targeted replacement in rabbit using zinc finger nucleases.

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    Tatiana Flisikowska

    Full Text Available Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research, yet techniques for their precise genetic modification are lacking. We demonstrate that zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs introduced into fertilized oocytes can inactivate a chosen gene by mutagenesis and also mediate precise homologous recombination with a DNA gene-targeting vector to achieve the first gene knockout and targeted sequence replacement in rabbits. Two ZFN pairs were designed that target the rabbit immunoglobulin M (IgM locus within exons 1 and 2. ZFN mRNAs were microinjected into pronuclear stage fertilized oocytes. Founder animals carrying distinct mutated IgM alleles were identified and bred to produce offspring. Functional knockout of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus was confirmed by serum IgM and IgG deficiency and lack of IgM(+ and IgG(+ B lymphocytes. We then tested whether ZFN expression would enable efficient targeted sequence replacement in rabbit oocytes. ZFN mRNA was co-injected with a linear DNA vector designed to replace exon 1 of the IgM locus with ∼1.9 kb of novel sequence. Double strand break induced targeted replacement occurred in up to 17% of embryos and in 18% of fetuses analyzed. Two major goals have been achieved. First, inactivation of the endogenous IgM locus, which is an essential step for the production of therapeutic human polyclonal antibodies in the rabbit. Second, establishing efficient targeted gene manipulation and homologous recombination in a refractory animal species. ZFN mediated genetic engineering in the rabbit and other mammals opens new avenues of experimentation in immunology and many other research fields.

  9. Structural basis for ubiquitin recognition by ubiquitin-binding zinc finger of FAAP20.

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    Aya Toma

    Full Text Available Several ubiquitin-binding zinc fingers (UBZs have been reported to preferentially bind K63-linked ubiquitin chains. In particular, the UBZ domain of FAAP20 (FAAP20-UBZ, a member of the Fanconi anemia core complex, seems to recognize K63-linked ubiquitin chains, in order to recruit the complex to DNA interstrand crosslinks and mediate DNA repair. By contrast, it is reported that the attachment of a single ubiquitin to Rev1, a translesion DNA polymerase, increases binding of Rev1 to FAAP20. To clarify the specificity of FAAP20-UBZ, we determined the crystal structure of FAAP20-UBZ in complex with K63-linked diubiquitin at 1.9 Å resolution. In this structure, FAAP20-UBZ interacts only with one of the two ubiquitin moieties. Consistently, binding assays using surface plasmon resonance spectrometry showed that FAAP20-UBZ binds ubiquitin and M1-, K48- and K63-linked diubiquitin chains with similar affinities. Residues in the vicinity of Ala168 within the α-helix and the C-terminal Trp180 interact with the canonical Ile44-centered hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin. Asp164 within the α-helix and the C-terminal loop mediate a hydrogen bond network, which reinforces ubiquitin-binding of FAAP20-UBZ. Mutations of the ubiquitin-interacting residues disrupted binding to ubiquitin in vitro and abolished the accumulation of FAAP20 to DNA damage sites in vivo. Finally, structural comparison among FAAP20-UBZ, WRNIP1-UBZ and RAD18-UBZ revealed distinct modes of ubiquitin binding. UBZ family proteins could be divided into at least three classes, according to their ubiquitin-binding modes.

  10. Targeted mutagenesis using zinc-finger nucleases in perennial fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, Reut; Rivlin, Gil; Golobovitch, Sara; Lapidot, Moshe; Gal-On, Amit; Vainstein, Alexander; Tzfira, Tzvi; Flaishman, Moshe A

    2015-04-01

    Targeting a gene in apple or fig with ZFN, introduced by transient or stable transformation, should allow genome editing with high precision to advance basic science and breeding programs. Genome editing is a powerful tool for precise gene manipulation in any organism; it has recently been shown to be of great value for annual plants. Classical breeding strategies using conventional cross-breeding and induced mutations have played an important role in the development of new cultivars in fruit trees. However, fruit-tree breeding is a lengthy process with many limitations. Efficient and widely applied methods for targeted modification of fruit-tree genomes are not yet available. In this study, transgenic apple and fig lines carrying a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs) under the control of a heat-shock promoter were developed. Editing of a mutated uidA gene, following expression of the ZFN genes by heat shock, was confirmed by GUS staining and PCR product sequencing. Finally, whole plants with a repaired uidA gene due to deletion of a stop codon were regenerated. The ZFN-mediated gene modifications were stable and passed onto regenerants from ZFN-treated tissue cultures. This is the first demonstration of efficient and precise genome editing, using ZFN at a specific genomic locus, in two different perennial fruit trees-apple and fig. We conclude that targeting a gene in apple or fig with a ZFN introduced by transient or stable transformation should allow knockout of a gene of interest. Using this technology for genome editing allows for marker gene-independent and antibiotic selection-free genome engineering with high precision in fruit trees to advance basic science as well as nontransgenic breeding programs.

  11. Knockout of exogenous EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells using zinc-finger nucleases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masahito; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Matsunari, Hitomi; Takayanagi, Shuko; Haruyama, Erika; Nakano, Kazuaki; Fujiwara, Tsukasa; Ikezawa, Yuka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → EGFP gene integrated in porcine somatic cells could be knocked out using the ZFN-KO system. → ZFNs induced targeted mutations in porcine primary cultured cells. → Complete absence of EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in ZFN-treated cells. -- Abstract: Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are expected as a powerful tool for generating gene knockouts in laboratory and domestic animals. Currently, it is unclear whether this technology can be utilized for knocking-out genes in pigs. Here, we investigated whether knockout (KO) events in which ZFNs recognize and cleave a target sequence occur in porcine primary cultured somatic cells that harbor the exogenous enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene. ZFN-encoding mRNA designed to target the EGFP gene was introduced by electroporation into the cell. Using the Surveyor nuclease assay and flow cytometric analysis, we confirmed ZFN-induced cleavage of the target sequence and the disappearance of EGFP fluorescence expression in ZFN-treated cells. In addition, sequence analysis revealed that ZFN-induced mutations such as base substitution, deletion, or insertion were generated in the ZFN cleavage site of EGFP-expression negative cells that were cloned from ZFN-treated cells, thereby showing it was possible to disrupt (i.e., knock out) the function of the EGFP gene in porcine somatic cells. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence that the ZFN-KO system can be applied to pigs. These findings may open a new avenue to the creation of gene KO pigs using ZFN-treated cells and somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  12. Zinc-finger protein 418 overexpression protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.

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    Liming Pan

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigated the effect and mechanism of zinc-finger protein 418 (ZNF418 on cardiac hypertrophy caused by aortic banding (AB, phenylephrine (PE or angiotensin II (Ang II in vivo and in vitro.The expression of ZNF418 in hearts of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy mice, as well as in Ang II- or PE-induced hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes was detected by western blotting. Then, the expression of ZNF418 was up-regulated or down-regulated in AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy mice and Ang II -induced hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes. The hypertrophic responses and fibrosis were evaluated by echocardiography and histological analysis. The mRNA levels of hypertrophy markers and fibrotic markers were detected by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, the phosphorylation and total levels of c-Jun were measured by western blotting.ZNF418 was markedly down-regulated in hearts of cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes. Down-regulated ZNF418 exacerbated the myocyte size and fibrosis, moreover increased the mRNA levels of ANP, BNP, β-MHC, MCIP1.4, collagen 1a, collagen III, MMP-2 and fibronection in hearts of AB-treated ZNF418 knockout mice or Ang II-treated cardiomyocytes with AdshZNF418. Conversely, these hypertrophic responses were reduced in the ZNF418 transgenic (TG mice treated by AB and the AdZNF418-transfected primary cardiomyocytes treated by Ang II. Additionally, the deficiency of ZNF418 enhanced the phosphorylation level of c-jun, and overexpression of ZNF418 suppressed the phosphorylation level of c-jun in vivo and in vitro.ZNF418 maybe attenuate hypertrophic responses by inhibiting the activity of c-jun/AP-1.

  13. Gene repair of an Usher syndrome causing mutation by zinc-finger nuclease mediated homologous recombination.

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    Overlack, Nora; Goldmann, Tobias; Wolfrum, Uwe; Nagel-Wolfrum, Kerstin

    2012-06-26

    Human Usher syndrome (USH) is the most frequent cause of inherited deaf-blindness. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, assigned to three clinical types of which the most severe type is USH1. No effective treatment for the ophthalmic component of USH exists. Gene augmentation is an attractive strategy for hereditary retinal diseases. However, several USH genes, like USH1C, are expressed in various isoforms, hampering gene augmentation. As an alternative treatment strategy, we applied the zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology for targeted gene repair of an USH1C, causing mutation by homologous recombination. We designed ZFNs customized for the p.R31X nonsense mutation in Ush1c. We evaluated ZFNs for DNA cleavage capability and analyzed ZFNs biocompatibilities by XTT assays. We demonstrated ZFNs mediated gene repair on genomic level by digestion assays and DNA sequencing, and on protein level by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses. The specifically designed ZFNs did not show cytotoxic effects in a p.R31X cell line. We demonstrated that ZFN induced cleavage of their target sequence. We showed that simultaneous application of ZFN and rescue DNA induced gene repair of the disease-causing mutation on the genomic level, resulting in recovery of protein expression. In our present study, we analyzed for the first time ZFN-activated gene repair of an USH gene. The data highlight the ability of ZFNs to induce targeted homologous recombination and mediate gene repair in USH. We provide further evidence that the ZFN technology holds great potential to recover disease-causing mutations in inherited retinal disorders.

  14. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Combined with Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Elucidates Differential Substitution Pathways of Au(I) and Au(III) with Zinc Fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbehausen, Camilla; de Paiva, Raphael Enoque Ferraz; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Gomes, Saulo Quintana; Du, Zhifeng; Corbi, Pedro Paulo; Lima, Frederico Alves; Farrell, Nicholas

    2018-01-02

    A combination of two elements' (Au, Zn) X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) allowed the elucidation of differential substitution pathways of Au(I) and Au(III) compounds reacting with biologically relevant zinc fingers (ZnFs). Gold L 3 -edge XAS probed the interaction of gold and the C-terminal Cys 2 HisCys finger of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7, and the Cys 2 His 2 human transcription factor Sp1. The use of model compounds helped assign oxidation states and the identity of the gold-bound ligands. The computational studies accurately reproduced the experimental XAS spectra and allowed the proposition of structural models for the interaction products at early time points. The direct electrophilic attack on the ZnF by the highly thiophilic Au(I) resulted in a linear P-Au-Cys coordination sphere after zinc ejection whereas for the Sp1, loss of PEt 3 results in linear Cys-Au-Cys or Cys-Au-His arrangements. Reactions with Au(III) compounds, on the other hand, showed multiple binding modes. Prompt reaction between [AuCl(dien)] 2+ and [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ with Sp1 showed a partially reduced Au center and a final linear His-Au-His coordination. Differently, in the presence of NCp7, [AuCl(dien)] 2+ readily reduces to Au(I) and changes from square-planar to linear geometry with Cys-Au-His coordination, while [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ initially maintains its Au(III) oxidation state and square-planar geometry and the same first coordination sphere. The latter is the first observation of a "noncovalent" interaction of a Au(III) complex with a zinc finger and confirms early hypotheses that stabilization of Au(III) occurs with N-donor ligands. Modification of the zinc coordination sphere, suggesting full or partial zinc ejection, is observed in all cases, and for [Au(dien)(DMAP)] 3+ this represents a novel mechanism for nucleocapsid inactivation. The combination of XAS and TD-DFT presents the first direct experimental

  15. An estimation of finger-tapping rates and load capacities and the effects of various factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşioğlu, Mahmut; İşeri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the finger-tapping rates and finger load capacities of eight fingers (excluding thumbs) for a healthy adult population and investigate the effects of various factors on tapping rate. Finger-tapping rate, the total number of finger taps per unit of time, can be used as a design parameter of various products and also as a psychomotor test for evaluating patients with neurologic problems. A 1-min tapping task was performed by 148 participants with maximum volitional tempo for each of eight fingers. For each of the tapping tasks, the participant with the corresponding finger tapped the associated key in the standard position on the home row of a conventional keyboard for touch typing. The index and middle fingers were the fastest fingers for both hands, and little fingers the slowest. All dominant-hand fingers, except little finger, had higher tapping rates than the fastest finger of the nondominant hand. Tapping rate decreased with age and smokers tapped faster than nonsmokers. Tapping duration and exercise had also significant effect on tapping rate. Normative data of tapping rates and load capacities of eight fingers were estimated for the adult population. In designs of psychomotor tests that require the use of tapping rate or finger load capacity data, the effects of finger, age, smoking, and tapping duration need to be taken into account. The findings can be used for ergonomic designs requiring finger-tapping capacity and also as a reference in psychomotor tests. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. Role of Bmznf-2, a Bombyx mori CCCH zinc finger gene, in masculinisation and differential splicing of Bmtra-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Gajula; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Mita, Kazuei; Nagaraju, Javaregowda

    2016-08-01

    Deciphering the regulatory factors involved in Bombyx mori sex determination has been a puzzle, challenging researchers for nearly a century now. The pre-mRNA of B. mori doublesex (Bmdsx), a master regulator gene of sexual differentiation, is differentially spliced, producing Bmdsxm and Bmdsxf transcripts in males and females respectively. The putative proteins encoded by these differential transcripts orchestrate antagonistic functions, which lead to sexual differentiation. A recent study in B. mori illustrated the role of a W-derived fem piRNA in conferring femaleness. In females, the fem piRNA was shown to suppress the activity of a Z-linked CCCH type zinc finger (znf) gene, Masculiniser (masc), which indirectly promotes the Bmdsxm type of splicing. In this study, we report a novel autosomal (Chr 25) CCCH type znf motif encoding gene Bmznf-2 as one of the potential factors in the Bmdsx sex specific differential splicing, and we also provide insights into its role in the alternative splicing of Bmtra2 by using ovary derived BmN cells. Over-expression of Bmznf-2 induced Bmdsxm type of splicing (masculinisation) with a correspondingly reduced expression of Bmdsxf type isoform in BmN cells. Further, the site-directed mutational studies targeting the tandem CCCH znf motifs revealed their indispensability in the observed phenotype of masculinisation. Additionally, the dual luciferase assays in BmN cells using 5' UTR region of the Bmznf-2 strongly implied the existence of a translational repression over this gene. From these findings, we propose Bmznf-2 to be one of the potential factors of masculinisation similar to Masc. From the growing number of Bmdsx splicing regulators, we assume that the sex determination cascade of B. mori is quite intricate in nature; hence, it has to be further investigated for its comprehensive understanding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Specificity protein 1-zinc finger protein 179 pathway is involved in the attenuation of oxidative stress following brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ying Chuang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available After sudden traumatic brain injuries, secondary injuries may occur during the following days or weeks, which leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Since ROS exacerbate brain damage, it is important to protect neurons against their activity. Zinc finger protein 179 (Znf179 was shown to act as a neuroprotective factor, but the regulation of gene expression under oxidative stress remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated an increase in Znf179 protein levels in both in vitro model of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced ROS accumulation and animal models of traumatic brain injury. Additionally, we examined the sub-cellular localization of Znf179, and demonstrated that oxidative stress increases Znf179 nuclear shuttling and its interaction with specificity protein 1 (Sp1. Subsequently, the positive autoregulation of Znf179 expression, which is Sp1-dependent, was further demonstrated using luciferase reporter assay and green fluorescent protein (GFP-Znf179-expressing cells and transgenic mice. The upregulation of Sp1 transcriptional activity induced by the treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF led to an increase in Znf179 levels, which further protected cells against H2O2-induced damage. However, Sp1 inhibitor, mithramycin A, was shown to inhibit NGF effects, leading to a decrease in Znf179 expression and lower cellular protection. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study show that Znf179 autoregulation through Sp1-dependent mechanism plays an important role in neuroprotection, and NGF-induced Sp1 signaling may help attenuate more extensive (ROS-induced damage following brain injury.

  18. Two short basic sequences surrounding the zinc finger of nucleocapsid protein NCp10 of Moloney murine leukemia virus are critical for RNA annealing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rocquigny, H; Ficheux, D; Gabus, C; Allain, B; Fournie-Zaluski, M C; Darlix, J L; Roques, B P

    1993-02-25

    The 56 amino acid nucleocapsid protein (NCp10) of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, contains a CysX2CysX4HisX4Cys zinc finger flanked by basic residues. In vitro NCp10 promotes genomic RNA dimerization, a process most probably linked to genomic RNA packaging, and replication primer tRNA(Pro) annealing to the initiation site of reverse transcription. To characterize the amino-acid sequences involved in the various functions of NCp10, we have synthesized by solid phase method the native protein and a series of derived peptides shortened at the N- or C-terminus with or without the zinc finger domain. In the latter case, the two parts of the protein were linked by a Glycine - Glycine spacer. The in vitro studies of these peptides show that nucleic acid annealing activities of NCp10 do not require a zinc finger but are critically dependent on the presence of specific sequences located on each side of the CCHC domain and containing proline and basic residues. Thus, deletion of 11R or 49PRPQT, of the fully active 29 residue peptide 11RQGGERRRSQLDRDGGKKPRGPRGPRPQT53 leads to a complete loss of NCp10 activity. Therefore it is proposed that in NCp10, the zinc finger directs the spatial recognition of the target RNAs by the basic domains surrounding the zinc finger.

  19. A novel human AP endonuclease with conserved zinc-finger-like motifs involved in DNA strand break responses

    OpenAIRE

    Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Kuzuoka, Hiroyuki; Sasao, Shigeru; Hong, Zehui; Lan, Li; Nakajima, Satoshi; Yasui, Akira

    2007-01-01

    DNA damage causes genome instability and cell death, but many of the cellular responses to DNA damage still remain elusive. We here report a human protein, PALF (PNK and APTX-like FHA protein), with an FHA (forkhead-associated) domain and novel zinc-finger-like CYR (cysteine–tyrosine–arginine) motifs that are involved in responses to DNA damage. We found that the CYR motif is widely distributed among DNA repair proteins of higher eukaryotes, and that PALF, as well as a Drosophila protein with...

  20. Human ribosomal protein L37 has motifs predicting serine/threonine phosphorylation and a zinc-finger domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, G F; Staniunas, R J; Puder, M; Steele, G D; Chen, L B

    1994-08-02

    Ribosomal protein L37 mRNA is overexpressed in colon cancer. The nucleotide sequences of human L37 from several tumor and normal, colon and liver cDNA sources were determined to be identical. L37 mRNA was approximately 375 nucleotides long encoding 97 amino acids with M(r) = 11,070, pI = 12.6, multiple potential serine/threonine phosphorylation sites and a zinc-finger domain. The human sequence is compared to other species.

  1. The zinc-finger transcription factor SALL4 is frequently expressed in human cancers: association with clinical outcome in squamous cell carcinoma but not in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ergin; Tennstedt, Pierre; Högner, Anica; Lebok, Patrick; Sauter, Guido; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Izbicki, Jakob R; Wilczak, Waldemar

    2016-04-01

    SALL4 is a transcription factor originally identified as a homeotic gene essential for organ development. Early studies suggested that SALL4 is a useful marker to identify testicular and ovarian germ cell tumors. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of SALL4 immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) with 3966 samples from 94 different tumor types and on a further TMA with 492 esophagus carcinomas. SALL4 immunostaining was by far most prevalent and most intensive in testicular tumors with a positivity rate of 93.1% in seminomas, 80% in mixed germ cell tumors (embryonic carcinomas/yolk sac tumors), and 18.5% in teratomas, respectively. However, SALL4 expression is not specific to germ cell tumors. We observed SALL4 positivity in non-germ cell tumors as carcinomas of the kidney (28.9% of chromophobe, 34.4% of clear cell carcinoma), in intestinal type adenocarcinoma of the stomach (10.9%), in adenocarcinoma (10.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma (7.2%) of the esophagus, and in malignant melanoma (8.1%) and invasive urothelial bladder carcinoma (20%). SALL4 expression was not found in lymphomas, in soft tissue tumors or breast tumors. At analysis of esophagus carcinoma TMA, no significant association was seen between SALL4 expression and overall survival in adenocarcinoma. However, SALL4 expression was strongly associated with worse overall survival in squamous cell carcinoma. SALL4 expression can be found at relevant frequencies in various tumors of different primary sites. SALL4 expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus may constitute a sign of dedifferentiation leading to poor patient prognosis.

  2. Zinc Finger Nuclease: A New Approach to Overcome Beta-Lactam Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Sabzehei, Faezeh; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Mansour; Mohammadi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh; Hejazi, Zahra; Rabiei, Parisa; Manian, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) has been accelerated recently by the indiscriminate application of antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance has challenged the success of medical interventions and therefore is considered a hazardous threat to human health. Objectives: The present study aimed to describe the use of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology to target and disrupt a plasmid-encoded β-lactamase, which prevents horizontal gene transfer-mediated evolution of ARBs. Materials and Methods: An engineered ZFN was designed to target a specific sequence in the ampicillin resistance gene (ampR) of the pTZ57R plasmid. The Escherichia coli bacteria already contained the pZFN kanamycin-resistant (kanaR) plasmid as the case or the pP15A, kanaR empty vector as the control, were transformed with the pTZ57R; the ability of the designed ZFN to disrupt the β-lactamase gene was evaluated with the subsequent disturbed ability of the bacteria to grow on ampicillin (amp) and ampicillin-kanamycin (amp-kana)-containing media. The effect of mild hypothermia on the ZFN gene targeting efficiency was also evaluated. Results: The growth of bacteria in the case group on the amp and amp-kana-containing media was significantly lower compared with the control group at 37°C (P < 0.001). Despite being more efficient in hypothermic conditions at 30°C (P < 0.001), there were no significant associations between the incubation temperature and the ZFN gene targeting efficiency. Conclusions: Our findings revealed that the ZFN technology could be employed to overcome ampicillin resistance by the targeted disruption of the ampicillin resistance gene, which leads to inactivation of β-lactam synthesis. Therefore, ZFN technology could be engaged to decrease the antibiotic resistance issue with the construction of a ZFN archive against different ARGs. To tackle the resistance issue at the environmental level, recombinant phages

  3. Identification and characterization of a salt stress-inducible zinc finger protein from Festuca arundinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ruth C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased biotic and abiotic plant stresses due to climate change together with an expected global human population of over 9 billion by 2050 intensifies the demand for agricultural production on marginal lands. Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses responsible for reduced crop productivity worldwide and the salinization of arable land has dramatically increased over the last few decades. Consequently, as land becomes less amenable for conventional agriculture, plants grown on marginal soils will be exposed to higher levels of soil salinity. Forage grasses are a critical component of feed used in livestock production worldwide, with many of these same species of grasses being utilized for lawns, erosion prevention, and recreation. Consequently, it is important to develop a better understanding of salt tolerance in forage and related grass species. Findings A gene encoding a ZnF protein was identified during the analysis of a salt-stress suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH expression library from the forage grass species Festuca arundinacea. The expression pattern of FaZnF was compared to that of the well characterized gene for delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS, a key enzyme in proline biosynthesis, which was also identified in the salt-stress SSH library. The FaZnF and P5CS genes were both up-regulated in response to salt and drought stresses suggesting a role in dehydration stress. FaZnF was also up-regulated in response to heat and wounding, suggesting that it might have a more general function in multiple abiotic stress responses. Additionally, potential downstream targets of FaZnF (a MAPK [Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase], GST [Glutathione-S-Transferase] and lipoxygenase L2 were found to be up-regulated in calli overexpressing FaZnF when compared to control cell lines. Conclusions This work provides evidence that FaZnF is an AN1/A20 zinc finger protein that is involved in the regulation

  4. Activating human genes with zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors and CRISPR/Cas9 for gene therapy and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersbach, Charles A; Perez-Pinera, Pablo

    2014-08-01

    New technologies have recently been developed to control the expression of human genes in their native genomic context by engineering synthetic transcription factors that can be targeted to any DNA sequence. The ability to precisely regulate any gene as it occurs naturally in the genome provides a means to address a variety of diseases and disorders. This approach also circumvents some of the traditional challenges of gene therapy. In this editorial, we review the technologies that have enabled targeted human gene activation, including the engineering of transcription factors based on zinc finger proteins, transcription activator-like effectors and the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Additionally, we highlight examples in which these methods have been developed for therapeutic applications and discuss challenges and opportunities.

  5. Engineering HIV-resistant human CD4+ T cells with CXCR4-specific zinc-finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig B Wilen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 entry requires the cell surface expression of CD4 and either the CCR5 or CXCR4 coreceptors on host cells. Individuals homozygous for the ccr5Δ32 polymorphism do not express CCR5 and are protected from infection by CCR5-tropic (R5 virus strains. As an approach to inactivating CCR5, we introduced CCR5-specific zinc-finger nucleases into human CD4+ T cells prior to adoptive transfer, but the need to protect cells from virus strains that use CXCR4 (X4 in place of or in addition to CCR5 (R5X4 remains. Here we describe engineering a pair of zinc finger nucleases that, when introduced into human T cells, efficiently disrupt cxcr4 by cleavage and error-prone non-homologous DNA end-joining. The resulting cells proliferated normally and were resistant to infection by X4-tropic HIV-1 strains. CXCR4 could also be inactivated in ccr5Δ32 CD4+ T cells, and we show that such cells were resistant to all strains of HIV-1 tested. Loss of CXCR4 also provided protection from X4 HIV-1 in a humanized mouse model, though this protection was lost over time due to the emergence of R5-tropic viral mutants. These data suggest that CXCR4-specific ZFNs may prove useful in establishing resistance to CXCR4-tropic HIV for autologous transplant in HIV-infected individuals.

  6. Identification of a novel zinc finger protein gene (ZNF298) in the GAP2 of human chromosome 21q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Kazunori; Kudoh, Jun; Okui, Michiyo; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We have isolated a novel zinc finger protein gene, designated ZNF298, as a candidate gene for a particular phenotype of Down syndrome or bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) which maps to human chromosome 21q22.3. ZNF298 gene consists of 25 exons spanning approximately 80 kb in a direction from the telomere to centromere. There are four kinds of transcripts that harbor three types of 3' UTR. These four transcripts (ZNF298a, ZNF298b, ZNF298c, and ZNF298d) contain putative open reading frames encoding 1178, 1198, 555, and 515 amino acids, respectively. ZNF298 gene was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues at very low level. The protein motif analysis revealed that ZNF298 proteins contain a SET [Su(var)3-9, Enhancer-of-zeste, Trithorax] domain, multiple C2H2-type zinc finger (ZnF C 2H2) domains, several nuclear localization signals (NLSs), and PEST sequences. Nuclear localization of ZNF298 protein was confirmed by transfection of expression vector of GFP-tagged protein into two human cell lines. Interestingly, this gene crosses over a clone gap (GAP2) remaining in the band 21q22.3. We obtained the DNA fragments corresponding to GAP2 using ZNF298 cDNA sequence as anchor primers for PCR and determined its genomic DNA sequence

  7. Zinc Finger Takes on a Whole New Meaning: Reducing and Monitoring Zinc Blanks in the Isotope Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, E. B.; Wasylenki, L. E.; Anbar, A. D.

    2010-12-01

    In terms of avoiding contamination, zinc is one of the most difficult elements to study isotopically. The reason for this is that zinc stearate is a very common mold release agent in the production of plastics, including those most often used in isotope geochemistry clean labs. While polyethylene bottles, polypropylene centrifuge tubes, pipette tips, and Kimwipes are all potential sources of contaminant zinc, by far the largest amount of zinc is introduced to the laboratory by gloves. Most items can be effectively rid of zinc by soaking in dilute hydrochloric acid, but gloves cannot be cleaned easily, and use of gloves can quickly lead to contamination on many surfaces throughout the lab. We recently conducted several experiments in which dissolved zinc was partly adsorbed onto synthetic Mn oxyhydroxide particles. The dissolved and adsorbed pools were separated by filtration, purified with ion exchange chemistry, and analyzed for isotope composition by MC-ICP-MS. We used a commercially purchased ICP standard solution both as our standard (delta66/64Zn = 0) and as the source of the zinc in the experiments. Whenever gloves were worn during purification, process blanks contained as much as 150 ng Zn, and both the dissolved and adsorbed pools of zinc came out enriched in heavy isotopes relative to the starting pool, contrary to our expectation of mass balance. When gloves were not worn, blanks were brands of vinyl gloves, including one brand recommended to us for being “low” in zinc, measured +10‰ relative to our standard. We therefore concluded that glove zinc contaminated most of our experimental samples. We were only able to see such clear evidence of contamination because (1) we were doing an experiment in which we expected one light and one heavy pool of zinc compared to our standard, and (2) we happened to use an ICP standard solution for delta = 0 that is strongly enriched in light isotopes relative to both brands of gloves. We caution others who measure

  8. A novel zinc finger protein Zfp277 mediates transcriptional repression of the Ink4a/arf locus through polycomb repressive complex 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negishi, Masamitsu; Saraya, Atsunori; Mochizuki, Shinobu

    2010-01-01

    . METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the function of Zinc finger domain-containing protein 277 (Zfp277), a novel zinc finger protein that interacts with the PcG protein Bmi1. Zfp277 binds to the Ink4a/Arf locus in a Bmi1-independent manner and interacts with polycomb repressor complex (PRC) 1 through...... is essential for the recruitment of PRC1 to the Ink4a/Arf locus. Our findings also highlight dynamic regulation of both Zfp277 and PcG proteins by the oxidative stress pathways....

  9. The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear transport activity of triple C2H2 zinc finger proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) motifs on proteins are frequently recognized as a structure for DNA binding. Accumulated reports indicate that ZF motifs contain nuclear localization signal (NLS) to facilitate the transport of ZF proteins into nucleus. We investigated the critical factors that facilitate the nuclear transport of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. Three conserved basic residues (hot spots) were identified among the ZF sequences of triple C2H2 ZF proteins that reportedly have NLS function. Additional basic residues can be found on the α-helix of the ZFs. Using the ZF domain (ZFD) of Egr-1 as a template, various mutants were constructed and expressed in cells. The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. Mutation at any hot spot of the Egr-1 ZFs reduced the nuclear transport activity. Changes of the basic residues at the α-helical region of the second ZF (ZF2) of the Egr-1 ZFD abolished the NLS activity. However, this activity can be restored by substituting the acidic residues at the homologous positions of ZF1 or ZF3 with basic residues. The restored activity dropped again when the hot spots at ZF1 or the basic residues in the α-helix of ZF3 were mutated. The variations in nuclear transport activity are linked directly to the binding activity of the ZF proteins with importins. This study was extended to other triple C2H2 ZF proteins. SP1 and KLF families, similar to Egr-1, have charged amino acid residues at the second (α2) and the third (α3) positions of the α-helix. Replacing the amino acids at α2 and α3 with acidic residues reduced the NLS activity of the SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The reduced activity can be restored by substituting the α3 with histidine at any SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The results show again the interchangeable role of ZFs and charge residues in the α-helix in regulating the NLS activity of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. PMID:29381770

  10. Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific zinc finger nucleases: usability for targeted HIV gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayengera, Misaki

    2011-07-22

    Infection with HIV, which culminates in the establishment of a latent proviral reservoir, presents formidable challenges for ultimate cure. Building on the hypothesis that ex-vivo or even in-vivo abolition or disruption of HIV-gene/genome-action by target mutagenesis or excision can irreversibly abrogate HIV's innate fitness to replicate and survive, we previously identified the isoschizomeric bacteria restriction enzymes (REases) AcsI and ApoI as potent cleavers of the HIV-pol gene (11 and 9 times in HIV-1 and 2, respectively). However, both enzymes, along with others found to cleave across the entire HIV-1 genome, slice (SX) at palindromic sequences that are prevalent within the human genome and thereby pose the risk of host genome toxicity. A long-term goal in the field of R-M enzymatic therapeutics has thus been to generate synthetic restriction endonucleases with longer recognition sites limited in specificity to HIV. We aimed (i) to assemble and construct zinc finger arrays and nucleases (ZFN) with either proviral-HIV-pol gene or proviral-HIV-1 whole-genome specificity respectively, and (ii) to advance a model for pre-clinically testing lentiviral vectors (LV) that deliver and transduce either ZFN genotype. First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a) 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif) arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol) and (b) two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN). Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN). Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs) that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively) is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of the safety and efficacy of either of these

  11. Can Co(II) or Cd(II) substitute for Zn(II) in zinc fingers?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Cysme) and histidine methylester (Hisme) has been studied as a model for the zinc core. ... obtained from the Sigma Chemical Company (USA). ..... entropy loss from the metal-binding site organization is expected to surpass the entropy.

  12. Gain, loss and divergence in primate zinc-finger genes: a rich resource for evolution of gene regulatory differences between species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Nowick

    Full Text Available The molecular changes underlying major phenotypic differences between humans and other primates are not well understood, but alterations in gene regulation are likely to play a major role. Here we performed a thorough evolutionary analysis of the largest family of primate transcription factors, the Krüppel-type zinc finger (KZNF gene family. We identified and curated gene and pseudogene models for KZNFs in three primate species, chimpanzee, orangutan and rhesus macaque, to allow for a comparison with the curated set of human KZNFs. We show that the recent evolutionary history of primate KZNFs has been complex, including many lineage-specific duplications and deletions. We found 213 species-specific KZNFs, among them 7 human-specific and 23 chimpanzee-specific genes. Two human-specific genes were validated experimentally. Ten genes have been lost in humans and 13 in chimpanzees, either through deletion or pseudogenization. We also identified 30 KZNF orthologs with human-specific and 42 with chimpanzee-specific sequence changes that are predicted to affect DNA binding properties of the proteins. Eleven of these genes show signatures of accelerated evolution, suggesting positive selection between humans and chimpanzees. During primate evolution the most extensive re-shaping of the KZNF repertoire, including most gene additions, pseudogenizations, and structural changes occurred within the subfamily homininae. Using zinc finger (ZNF binding predictions, we suggest potential impact these changes have had on human gene regulatory networks. The large species differences in this family of TFs stands in stark contrast to the overall high conservation of primate genomes and potentially represents a potent driver of primate evolution.

  13. The primary structure of L37--a rat ribosomal protein with a zinc finger-like motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y L; Paz, V; Olvera, J; Wool, I G

    1993-04-30

    The amino acid sequence of the rat 60S ribosomal subunit protein L37 was deduced from the sequence of nucleotides in a recombinant cDNA. Ribosomal protein L37 has 96 amino acids, the NH2-terminal methionine is removed after translation of the mRNA, and has a molecular weight of 10,939. Ribosomal protein L37 has a single zinc finger-like motif of the C2-C2 type. Hybridization of the cDNA to digests of nuclear DNA suggests that there are 13 or 14 copies of the L37 gene. The mRNA for the protein is about 500 nucleotides in length. Rat L37 is related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal protein YL35 and to Caenorhabditis elegans L37. We have identified in the data base a DNA sequence that encodes the chicken homolog of rat L37.

  14. A novel zinc-finger-like gene from Tamarix hispida is involved in salt and osmotic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yan; Wang, Yucheng; Lou, Lingling; Zheng, Tangchun; Qu, Guan-Zheng

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, a zinc-finger-like cDNA (ThZFL) was cloned from the Tamarix hispida. Northern blot analysis showed that the expression of ThZFL can be induced by salt, osmotic stress and ABA treatment. Overexpression of the ThZFL confers salt and osmotic stress tolerance in both yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and tobacco. Furthermore, MDA levels in ThZFL transformed tobacco were significantly decreased compared with control plants under salt and osmotic stress, suggesting ThZFL may confer stress tolerance by decreasing membrane lipid peroxidation. Subcellular localization analysis showed the ThZFL protein is localized in the cell wall. Our results indicated the ThZFL gene is an excellent candidate for genetic engineering to improve salt and osmotic tolerance in agricultural plants.

  15. Improved ethanol production at high temperature by consolidated bioprocessing using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered with artificial zinc finger protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, M Mahfuza; Yu, Xinshui; Kondo, Akihiko; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae MNII/cocδBEC3 was transformed by an artificial zinc finger protein (AZFP) library to improve its thermal tolerance, and the strain MNII-AZFP with superior growth at 42°C was selected. Improved degradation of acid swollen cellulose by 45.9% led to an increase in ethanol production, when compared to the control strain. Moreover, the fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke stalk (JAS) by MNII-AZFP was shortened by 12h at 42°C with a concomitant improvement in ethanol production. Comparative transcriptomics analysis suggested that the AZFP in the mutant exerted beneficial effect by modulating the expression of multiple functional genes. These results provide a feasible strategy for efficient ethanol production from JAS and other cellulosic biomass through CBP based-fermentation at elevated temperatures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing zinc status of apparently healthy indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agte, Vaishali V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Tarwadi, Kirtan V

    2005-10-01

    To identify dietary, environmental and socio-economic factors associated with mild zinc deficiency, three zinc status indices; erythrocyte membrane zinc (RBCMZn), plasma zinc and super oxide dismutase (SOD) were assessed in free living and apparently healthy Indian population. Dietary patterns of 232 men and 223 women (20-65 yr) from rural, industrial and urban regions of Western India were evaluated by food frequency questionnaire. RBCMZn was estimated using atomic absorption spectrometry, hemoglobin and serum ceruloplasmin by spectrophotometer. On a sub sample (48 men and 51 women) plasma zinc and SOD were also assessed. Mean RBCMZn was 0.5 +/- 0.1 micromols/g protein with 46% individuals showing zinc deficiency. Mean plasma zinc was 0.98 +/- 0.12 microg/mL with 25% men and 2.5% women having values below normal range. Mean SOD was 0.97 +/- 0.1 (u/mL cells). A significant positive correlation was observed between intakes of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables and milk products with RBCMZn status (p plasma zinc (p > 0.2). Cereal and legume intakes were negatively correlated with RBCMZn (p plasma zinc (p 0.2). Fruit and other vegetable intake were positively correlated with SOD (p Plasma zinc indicated positive association with zinc, thiamin and riboflavin intakes (p plasma zinc and SOD. Prominent determinants of zinc status were intakes of beta-carotene and zinc along with environmental conditions and family size.

  17. Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific Zinc Finger Nucleases: Usability for targeted HIV gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayengera Misaki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with HIV, which culminates in the establishment of a latent proviral reservoir, presents formidable challenges for ultimate cure. Building on the hypothesis that ex-vivo or even in-vivo abolition or disruption of HIV-gene/genome-action by target mutagenesis or excision can irreversibly abrogate HIV's innate fitness to replicate and survive, we previously identified the isoschizomeric bacteria restriction enzymes (REases AcsI and ApoI as potent cleavers of the HIV-pol gene (11 and 9 times in HIV-1 and 2, respectively. However, both enzymes, along with others found to cleave across the entire HIV-1 genome, slice (SX at palindromic sequences that are prevalent within the human genome and thereby pose the risk of host genome toxicity. A long-term goal in the field of R-M enzymatic therapeutics has thus been to generate synthetic restriction endonucleases with longer recognition sites limited in specificity to HIV. We aimed (i to assemble and construct zinc finger arrays and nucleases (ZFN with either proviral-HIV-pol gene or proviral-HIV-1 whole-genome specificity respectively, and (ii to advance a model for pre-clinically testing lentiviral vectors (LV that deliver and transduce either ZFN genotype. Methods and Results First, we computationally generated the consensus sequences of (a 114 dsDNA-binding zinc finger (Zif arrays (ZFAs or ZifHIV-pol and (b two zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs which, unlike the AcsI and ApoI homeodomains, possess specificity to >18 base-pair sequences uniquely present within the HIV-pol gene (ZifHIV-polFN. Another 15 ZFNs targeting >18 bp sequences within the complete HIV-1 proviral genome were constructed (ZifHIV-1FN. Second, a model for constructing lentiviral vectors (LVs that deliver and transduce a diploid copy of either ZifHIV-polFN or ZifHIV-1FN chimeric genes (termed LV- 2xZifHIV-polFN and LV- 2xZifHIV-1FN, respectively is proposed. Third, two preclinical models for controlled testing of

  18. Promiscuous and specific phospholipid binding by domains in ZAC, a membrane-associated Arabidopsis protein with an ARF GAP zinc finger and a C2 domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R B; Lykke-Andersen, K; Frandsen, G I

    2000-01-01

    domain are separated by a region without homology to other known proteins. Zac promoter/beta-glucuronidase reporter assays revealed highest expression levels in flowering tissue, rosettes and roots. ZAC protein was immuno-detected mainly in association with membranes and fractionated with Golgi...... and plasma membrane marker proteins. ZAC membrane association was confirmed in assays by a fusion between ZAC and the green fluorescence protein and prompted an analysis of the in vitro phospholipid-binding ability of ZAC. Phospholipid dot-blot and liposome-binding assays indicated that fusion proteins...... zinc finger motif, but proteins containing only the zinc finger domain (residues 1-105) did not bind PI-3-P. Recombinant ZAC possessed GTPase-activating activity on Arabidopsis ARF proteins. These data identify a novel PI-3-P-binding protein region and thereby provide evidence...

  19. Structural and functional organization of the HF.10 human zinc finger gene (ZNF35) located on chromosome 3p21-p22

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanfrancone, L; Pengue, G; Pandolfi, P P

    1992-01-01

    We report the structural and functional characterization of the HF.10 zinc finger gene (ZNF35) in normal human cells, as well as a processed pseudogene. The HF.10 gene spans about 13 kb and it is interrupted by three introns. All 11 zinc finger DNA-binding domains are contiguously encoded within...... and partial nucleotide sequencing of the HF.10 pseudogene indicated that it has arisen by retroposition of spliced HF.10 mRNA. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that both the functional locus and the pseudogene map to chromosome 3p21p22, a region that is frequently deleted in small cell lung...... and renal carcinomas. Hybridization of the HF.10 gene and the HF.10 pseudogene DNA probes to metaphases from a small cell lung carcinoma cell line with the 3p deletion revealed that both loci are part of the deleted chromosome region....

  20. Genome-wide analysis of the CCCH zinc finger family identifies tissue specific and stress responsive candidates in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Seema; Kant, Chandra; Verma, Subodh; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2017-01-01

    The CCCH zinc finger is a group of proteins characterised by a typical motif consisting of three cysteine residues and one histidine residue. These proteins have been reported to play important roles in regulation of plant growth, developmental processes and environmental responses. In the present study, genome wide analysis of the CCCH zinc finger gene family was carried out in the available chickpea genome. Various bioinformatics tools were employed to predict 58 CCCH zinc finger genes in chickpea (designated CarC3H1-58), which were analysed for their physio-chemical properties. Phylogenetic analysis classified the proteins into 12 groups in which members of a particular group had similar structural organization. Further, the numbers as well as the types of CCCH motifs present in the CarC3H proteins were compared with those from Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatula. Synteny analysis revealed valuable information regarding the evolution of this gene family. Tandem and segmental duplication events were identified and their Ka/Ks values revealed that the CarC3H gene family in chickpea had undergone purifying selection. Digital, as well as real time qRT-PCR expression analysis was performed which helped in identification of several CarC3H members that expressed preferentially in specific chickpea tissues as well as during abiotic stresses (desiccation, cold, salinity). Moreover, molecular characterization of an important member CarC3H45 was carried out. This study provides comprehensive genomic information about the important CCCH zinc finger gene family in chickpea. The identified tissue specific and abiotic stress specific CCCH genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in development and stress.

  1. The PR/SET Domain Zinc Finger Protein Prdm4 Regulates Gene Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells but Plays a Nonessential Role in the Developing Mouse Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Debora; Morgan, Marc A. J.; Nelson, Andrew C.; Costello, Ita; McGouran, Joanna F.; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2013-01-01

    Prdm4 is a highly conserved member of the Prdm family of PR/SET domain zinc finger proteins. Many well-studied Prdm family members play critical roles in development and display striking loss-of-function phenotypes. Prdm4 functional contributions have yet to be characterized. Here, we describe its widespread expression in the early embryo and adult tissues. We demonstrate that DNA binding is exclusively mediated by the Prdm4 zinc finger domain, and we characterize its tripartite consensus sequence via SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) and ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing) experiments. In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), Prdm4 regulates key pluripotency and differentiation pathways. Two independent strategies, namely, targeted deletion of the zinc finger domain and generation of a EUCOMM LacZ reporter allele, resulted in functional null alleles. However, homozygous mutant embryos develop normally and adults are healthy and fertile. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that Prdm4 functions redundantly with other transcriptional partners to cooperatively regulate gene expression in the embryo and adult animal. PMID:23918801

  2. Occupancy of a C2-C2 type 'zinc-finger' protein domain by copper. Direct observation by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, T W; Allen, M H; Li, C M; Yip, T T

    1992-09-07

    The metal ion specificity of most 'zinc-finger' metal binding domains is unknown. The human estrogen receptor protein contains two different C2-C2 type 'zinc-finger' sequences within its DNA-binding domain (ERDBD). Copper inhibits the function of this protein by mechanisms which remain unclear. We have used electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to evaluate directly the 71-residue ERDBD (K180-M250) in the absence and presence of Cu(II) ions. The ERDBD showed a high affinity for Cu and was completely occupied with 4 Cu bound; each Cu ion was evidently bound to only two ligand residues (net loss of only 2 Da per bound Cu). The Cu binding stoichiometry was confirmed by atomic absorption. These results (i) provide the first direct physical evidence for the ability of the estrogen receptor DNA-binding domain to bind Cu and (ii) document a twofold difference in the Zn- and Cu-binding capacity. Differences in the ERDBD domain structure with bound Zn and Cu are predicted. Given the relative intracellular contents of Zn and Cu, our findings demonstrate the need to investigate further the Cu occupancy of this and other zinc-finger domains both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. A novel human AP endonuclease with conserved zinc-finger-like motifs involved in DNA strand break responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Shin-ichiro; Kuzuoka, Hiroyuki; Sasao, Shigeru; Hong, Zehui; Lan, Li; Nakajima, Satoshi; Yasui, Akira

    2007-01-01

    DNA damage causes genome instability and cell death, but many of the cellular responses to DNA damage still remain elusive. We here report a human protein, PALF (PNK and APTX-like FHA protein), with an FHA (forkhead-associated) domain and novel zinc-finger-like CYR (cysteine–tyrosine–arginine) motifs that are involved in responses to DNA damage. We found that the CYR motif is widely distributed among DNA repair proteins of higher eukaryotes, and that PALF, as well as a Drosophila protein with tandem CYR motifs, has endo- and exonuclease activities against abasic site and other types of base damage. PALF accumulates rapidly at single-strand breaks in a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent manner in human cells. Indeed, PALF interacts directly with PARP1 and is required for its activation and for cellular resistance to methyl-methane sulfonate. PALF also interacts directly with KU86, LIGASEIV and phosphorylated XRCC4 proteins and possesses endo/exonuclease activity at protruding DNA ends. Various treatments that produce double-strand breaks induce formation of PALF foci, which fully coincide with γH2AX foci. Thus, PALF and the CYR motif may play important roles in DNA repair of higher eukaryotes. PMID:17396150

  4. The Transcriptional Repressive Activity of KRAB Zinc Finger Proteins Does Not Correlate with Their Ability to Recruit TRIM28.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin E Murphy

    Full Text Available KRAB domain Zinc finger proteins are one of the most abundant families of transcriptional regulators in higher vertebrates. The prevailing view is that KRAB domain proteins function as potent transcriptional repressors by recruiting TRIM28 and promoting heterochromatin spreading. However, the extent to which all KRAB domain proteins are TRIM28-dependent transcriptional repressors is currently unclear. Our studies on mouse ZFP568 revealed that TRIM28 recruitment by KRAB domain proteins is not sufficient to warrant transcriptional repressive activity. By using luciferase reporter assays and yeast two-hybrid experiments, we tested the ability of ZFP568 and other mouse KRAB domain proteins to repress transcription and bind TRIM28. We found that some mouse KRAB domain proteins are poor transcriptional repressors despite their ability to recruit TRIM28, while others showed strong KRAB-dependent transcriptional repression, but no TRIM28 binding. Together, our results show that the transcriptional repressive activity of KRAB-ZNF proteins does not correlate with their ability to recruit TRIM28, and provide evidence that KRAB domains can regulate transcription in a TRIM28-independent fashion. Our findings challenge the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms used by KRAB domain proteins to control gene expression and highlight that a high percentage of KRAB domain proteins in the mouse genome differ from the consensus KRAB sequence at amino acid residues that are critical for TRIM28 binding and/or repressive activity.

  5. The Zinc-Finger Thylakoid-Membrane Protein FIP Is Involved With Abiotic Stress Response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina L. Lopes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many plant genes have their expression modulated by stress conditions. Here, we used Arabidopsis FtsH5 protease, which expression is regulated by light stress, as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen to search for new proteins involved in the stress response. As a result, we found FIP (FtsH5 Interacting Protein, which possesses an amino proximal cleavable transit peptide, a hydrophobic membrane-anchoring region, and a carboxyl proximal C4-type zinc-finger domain. In vivo experiments using FIP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP showed a plastid localization. This finding was corroborated by chloroplast import assays that showed FIP inserted in the thylakoid membrane. FIP expression was down-regulated in plants exposed to high light intensity, oxidative, salt, and osmotic stresses, whereas mutant plants expressing low levels of FIP were more tolerant to these abiotic stresses. Our data shows a new thylakoid-membrane protein involved with abiotic stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  6. Generation of knockout rats with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID using zinc-finger nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoji Mashimo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the rat is extensively used as a laboratory model, the inability to utilize germ line-competent rat embryonic stem (ES cells has been a major drawback for studies that aim to elucidate gene functions. Recently, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs were successfully used to create genome-specific double-stranded breaks and thereby induce targeted gene mutations in a wide variety of organisms including plants, drosophila, zebrafish, etc. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report here on ZFN-induced gene targeting of the rat interleukin 2 receptor gamma (Il2rg locus, where orthologous human and mouse mutations cause X-linked severe combined immune deficiency (X-SCID. Co-injection of mRNAs encoding custom-designed ZFNs into the pronucleus of fertilized oocytes yielded genetically modified offspring at rates greater than 20%, which possessed a wide variety of deletion/insertion mutations. ZFN-modified founders faithfully transmitted their genetic changes to the next generation along with the severe combined immune deficiency phenotype. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The efficient and rapid generation of gene knockout rats shows that using ZFN technology is a new strategy for creating gene-targeted rat models of human diseases. In addition, the X-SCID rats that were established in this study will be valuable in vivo tools for evaluating drug treatment or gene therapy as well as model systems for examining the treatment of xenotransplanted malignancies.

  7. Sequence-specific DNA binding activity of the cross-brace zinc finger motif of the piggyBac transposase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morellet, Nelly; Li, Xianghong; Wieninger, Silke A; Taylor, Jennifer L; Bischerour, Julien; Moriau, Séverine; Lescop, Ewen; Bardiaux, Benjamin; Mathy, Nathalie; Assrir, Nadine; Bétermier, Mireille; Nilges, Michael; Hickman, Alison B; Dyda, Fred; Craig, Nancy L; Guittet, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The piggyBac transposase (PB) is distinguished by its activity and utility in genome engineering, especially in humans where it has highly promising therapeutic potential. Little is known, however, about the structure–function relationships of the different domains of PB. Here, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that its C-terminal Cysteine-Rich Domain (CRD) is essential for DNA breakage, joining and transposition and that it binds to specific DNA sequences in the left and right transposon ends, and to an additional unexpectedly internal site at the left end. Using NMR, we show that the CRD adopts the specific fold of the cross-brace zinc finger protein family. We determine the interaction interfaces between the CRD and its target, the 5′-TGCGT-3′/3′-ACGCA-5′ motifs found in the left, left internal and right transposon ends, and use NMR results to propose docking models for the complex, which are consistent with our site-directed mutagenesis data. Our results provide support for a model of the PB/DNA interactions in the context of the transpososome, which will be useful for the rational design of PB mutants with increased activity. PMID:29385532

  8. Zinc finger nuclease: a new approach for excising HIV-1 proviral DNA from infected human T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiying; Wang, Pengfei; Ding, Donglin; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Gongmin; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zeng, Hanxian; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2014-09-01

    A major reason that Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cannot be completely cured is the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) provirus integrated into the human genome. Though existing therapies can inhibit replication of HIV-1, they cannot eradicate it. A molecular therapy gains popularity due to its specifically targeting to HIV-1 infected cells and effectively removing the HIV-1, regardless of viral genes being active or dormant. Now, we propose a new method which can excellently delete the HIV provirus from the infected human T cell genome. First, we designed zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) that target a sequence within the long terminal repeat (LTR) U3 region that is highly conserved in whole clade. Then, we screened out one pair of ZFN and named it as ZFN-U3. We discovered that ZFN-U3 can exactly target and eliminate the full-length HIV-1 proviral DNA after the infected human cell lines treated with it, and the frequency of its excision was about 30 % without cytotoxicity. These results prove that ZFN-U3 can efficiently excise integrated HIV-1 from the human genome in infected cells. This method to delete full length HIV-1 in human genome can therefore provide a novel approach to cure HIV-infected individuals in the future.

  9. Specific Labeling of Zinc Finger Proteins using Non-canonical Amino Acids and Copper-free Click Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sung Hoon; Ferracane, Dean; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) play a key role in transcriptional regulation and serve as invaluable tools for gene modification and genetic engineering. Development of efficient strategies for labeling metalloproteins such as ZFPs is essential for understanding and controlling biological processes. In this work, we engineered ZFPs containing cysteine-histidine (Cys2-His2) motifs by metabolic incorporation of the unnatural amino acid azidohomoalanine (AHA), followed by specific protein labeling via click chemistry. We show that cyclooctyne promoted [3 + 2] dipolar cycloaddition with azides, known as copper-free click chemistry, provides rapid and specific labeling of ZFPs at high yields as determined by mass spectrometry analysis. We observe that the DNA-binding activity of ZFPs labeled by conventional copper-mediated click chemistry was completely abolished, whereas ZFPs labeled by copper-free click chemistry retain their sequence-specific DNA-binding activity under native conditions, as determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays, protein microarrays and kinetic binding assays based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Our work provides a general framework to label metalloproteins such as ZFPs by metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids followed by copper-free click chemistry. PMID:22871171

  10. Specific recognition of linear polyubiquitin by A20 zinc finger 7 is involved in NF-κB regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Fuminori; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Goto, Eiji; Noguchi, Takuya; Mio, Kazuhiro; Kamei, Kiyoko; Ma, Averil; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Nureki, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex) activates the canonical NF-κB pathway through linear polyubiquitination of NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator, also known as IKKγ) and RIP1. However, the regulatory mechanism of LUBAC-mediated NF-κB activation remains elusive. Here, we show that A20 suppresses LUBAC-mediated NF-κB activation by binding linear polyubiquitin via the C-terminal seventh zinc finger (ZF7), whereas CYLD suppresses it through deubiquitinase (DUB) activity. We determined the crystal structures of A20 ZF7 in complex with linear diubiquitin at 1.70–1.98 Å resolutions. The crystal structures revealed that A20 ZF7 simultaneously recognizes the Met1-linked proximal and distal ubiquitins, and that genetic mutations associated with B cell lymphomas map to the ubiquitin-binding sites. Our functional analysis indicated that the binding of A20 ZF7 to linear polyubiquitin contributes to the recruitment of A20 into a TNF receptor (TNFR) signalling complex containing LUBAC and IκB kinase (IKK), which results in NF-κB suppression. These findings provide new insight into the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. PMID:23032187

  11. Regulation of hippocampus-dependent memory by the zinc finger protein Zbtb20 in mature CA1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Anjing; Zhang, Huan; Xie, Zhifang; Ma, Xianhua; Ji, Wenli; He, David Z Z; Yuan, Wenjun; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Weiping J

    2012-10-01

    The mammalian hippocampus harbours neural circuitry that is crucial for associative learning and memory. The mechanisms that underlie the development and regulation of this complex circuitry are not fully understood. Our previous study established an essential role for the zinc finger protein Zbtb20 in the specification of CA1 field identity in the developing hippocampus. Here, we show that conditionally deleting Zbtb20 specifically in mature CA1 pyramidal neurons impaired hippocampus-dependent memory formation, without affecting hippocampal architecture or the survival, identity and basal excitatory synaptic activity of CA1 pyramidal neurons. We demonstrate that mature CA1-specific Zbtb20 knockout mice exhibited reductions in long-term potentiation (LTP) and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents. Furthermore, we show that activity-induced phosphorylation of ERK and CREB is impaired in the hippocampal CA1 of Zbtb20 mutant mice. Collectively, these results indicate that Zbtb20 in mature CA1 plays an important role in LTP and memory by regulating NMDAR activity, and activation of ERK and CREB.

  12. Selection for a Zinc-Finger Protein Contributes to Seed Oil Increase during Soybean Domestication1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Tian; Lu, Xiang; Song, Qing-Xin; Chen, Hao-Wei; Wei, Wei; Tao, Jian-Jun; Ma, Biao; Bi, Ying-Dong; Li, Wei; Lai, Yong-Cai; Shui, Guang-Hou; Chen, Shou-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Seed oil is a momentous agronomical trait of soybean (Glycine max) targeted by domestication in breeding. Although multiple oil-related genes have been uncovered, knowledge of the regulatory mechanism of seed oil biosynthesis is currently limited. We demonstrate that the seed-preferred gene GmZF351, encoding a tandem CCCH zinc finger protein, is selected during domestication. Further analysis shows that GmZF351 facilitates oil accumulation by directly activating WRINKLED1, BIOTIN CARBOXYL CARRIER PROTEIN2, 3-KETOACYL-ACYL CARRIER PROTEIN SYNTHASE III, DIACYLGLYCEROL O-ACYLTRANSFERASE1, and OLEOSIN2 in transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds. Overexpression of GmZF351 in transgenic soybean also activates lipid biosynthesis genes, thereby accelerating seed oil accumulation. The ZF351 haplotype from the cultivated soybean group and the wild soybean (Glycine soja) subgroup III correlates well with high gene expression level, seed oil contents and promoter activity, suggesting that selection of GmZF351 expression leads to increased seed oil content in cultivated soybean. Our study provides novel insights into the regulatory mechanism for seed oil accumulation, and the manipulation of GmZF351 may have great potential in the improvement of oil production in soybean and other related crops. PMID:28184009

  13. PML-associated repressor of transcription (PAROT), a novel KRAB-zinc finger repressor, is regulated through association with PML nuclear bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, Sandra; Wiemann, Stefan; Will, Hans; Hofmann, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are implicated in transcriptional regulation. Here we identify a novel transcriptional repressor, PML-associated repressor of transcription (PAROT), which is regulated in its repressor activity through recruitment to PML-NBs. PAROT is a Krueppel-associated box ( KRAB) zinc-finger (ZNF) protein, which comprises an amino terminal KRAB-A and KRAB-B box, a linker domain and 8 tandemly repeated C 2 H 2 -ZNF motifs at its carboxy terminus. Consistent with its domain structure, when tethered to DNA, PAROT represses transcription, and this is partially released by the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A. PAROT colocalizes with members of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family and with transcriptional intermediary factor-1β/KRAB-associated protein 1 (TIF-1β/KAP1), a transcriptional corepressor for the KRAB-ZNF family. Interestingly, PML isoform IV, in contrast to PML-III, efficiently recruits PAROT and TIF-1β from heterochromatin to PML-NBs. PML-NB recruitment of PAROT partially releases its transcriptional repressor activity, indicating that PAROT can be regulated through subnuclear compartmentalization. Taken together, our data identify a novel transcriptional repressor and provide evidence for its regulation through association with PML-NBs

  14. Global and stage specific patterns of Krüppel-associated-box zinc finger protein gene expression in murine early embryonic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Corsinotti

    Full Text Available Highly coordinated transcription networks orchestrate the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cell and the earliest steps of mammalian development. KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins represent the largest group of transcription factors encoded by the genomes of higher vertebrates including mice and humans. Together with their putatively universal cofactor KAP1, they have been implicated in events as diverse as the silencing of endogenous retroelements, the maintenance of imprinting and the pluripotent self-renewal of embryonic stem cells, although the genomic targets and specific functions of individual members of this gene family remain largely undefined. Here, we first generated a list of Ensembl-annotated KRAB-containing genes encoding the mouse and human genomes. We then defined the transcription levels of these genes in murine early embryonic cells. We found that the majority of KRAB-ZFP genes are expressed in mouse pluripotent stem cells and other early progenitors. However, we also identified distinctively cell- or stage-specific patterns of expression, some of which are pluripotency-restricted. Finally, we determined that individual KRAB-ZFP genes exhibit highly distinctive modes of expression, even when grouped in genomic clusters, and that these cannot be correlated with the presence of prototypic repressive or activating chromatin marks. These results pave the way to delineating the role of specific KRAB-ZFPs in early embryogenesis.

  15. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  16. Expression of Arabidopsis FCS-Like Zinc finger genes is differentially regulated by sugars, cellular energy level, and abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed eJamsheer K

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular energy status is an important regulator of plant growth, development, and stress mitigation. Environmental stresses ultimately lead to energy deficit in the cell which activates the SNF1-RELATED KINASE 1 (SnRK1 signaling cascade which eventually triggering a massive reprogramming of transcription to enable the plant to survive under low-energy conditions. The role of Arabidopsis thaliana FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ gene family in energy and stress signaling is recently come to highlight after their interaction with kinase subunits of SnRK1 were identified. In a detailed expression analysis in different sugars, energy starvation, and replenishment series, we identified that the expression of most of the FLZ genes is differentially modulated by cellular energy level. It was found that FLZ gene family contains genes which are both positively and negatively regulated by energy deficit as well as energy-rich conditions. Genetic and pharmacological studies identified the role of HEXOKINASE 1- dependent and energy signaling pathways in the sugar-induced expression of FLZ genes. Further, these genes were also found to be highly responsive to different stresses as well as abscisic acid. In over-expression of kinase subunit of SnRK1, FLZ genes were found to be differentially regulated in accordance with their response towards energy fluctuation suggesting that these genes may work downstream to the established SnRK1 signaling under low-energy stress. Taken together, the present study provides a conceptual framework for further studies related to SnRK1-FLZ interaction in relation to sugar and energy signaling and stress response.

  17. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A Novel Prokaryotic Green Fluorescent Protein Expression System for Testing Gene Editing Tools Activity Like Zinc Finger Nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzehei, Faezeh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Dastjerdeh, Mansoureh Shahbazi; Khanahmad, Hossein; Salehi, Rasoul; Naderi, Shamsi; Taghizadeh, Razieh; Rabiei, Parisa; Hejazi, Zahra; Shariati, Laleh

    2017-01-01

    Gene editing technology has created a revolution in the field of genome editing. The three of the most famous tools in gene editing technology are zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and CRISPR-associated systems. As their predictable nature, it is necessary to assess their efficiency. There are some methods for this purpose, but most of them are time labor and complicated. Here, we introduce a new prokaryotic reporter system, which makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of gene editing tools faster, cheaper, and simpler than previous methods. At first, the target sites of a custom ZFN, which is designed against a segment of ampicillin resistance gene, were cloned on both sides of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene to construct pPRO-GFP. Then pPRO-GFP was transformed into Escherichia coli TOP10F' that contains pZFN (contains expression cassette of a ZFN against ampicillin resistant gene), or p15A-KanaR as a negative control. The transformed bacteria were cultured on three separate media that contained ampicillin, kanamycin, and ampicillin + kanamycin; then the resulted colonies were assessed by flow cytometry. The results of flow cytometry showed a significant difference between the case (bacteria contain pZFN) and control (bacteria contain p15A, KanaR) in MFI (Mean Fluorescence Intensity) ( P < 0.0001). According to ZFN efficiency, it can bind and cut the target sites, the bilateral cutting can affect the intensity of GFP fluorescence. Our flow cytometry results showed that this ZFN could reduce the intensity of GFP color and colony count of bacteria in media containing amp + kana versus control sample.

  19. Generation of SNCA Cell Models Using Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) Technology for Efficient High-Throughput Drug Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansithong, Warunee; Paul, Sharan; Scoles, Daniel R; Pulst, Stefan M; Huynh, Duong P

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. The hallmark of PD is the appearance of neuronal protein aggregations known as Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, of which α-synuclein forms a major component. Familial PD is rare and is associated with missense mutations of the SNCA gene or increases in gene copy number resulting in SNCA overexpression. This suggests that lowering SNCA expression could be therapeutic for PD. Supporting this hypothesis, SNCA reduction was neuroprotective in cell line and rodent PD models. We developed novel cell lines expressing SNCA fused to the reporter genes luciferase (luc) or GFP with the objective to enable high-throughput compound screening (HTS) for small molecules that can lower SNCA expression. Because SNCA expression is likely regulated by far-upstream elements (including the NACP-REP1 located at 8852 bp upstream of the transcription site), we employed zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) genome editing to insert reporter genes in-frame downstream of the SNCA gene in order to retain native SNCA expression control. This ensured full retention of known and unknown up- and downstream genetic elements controlling SNCA expression. Treatment of cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) resulted in significantly increased SNCA-luc and SNCA-GFP expression supporting the use of our cell lines for identifying small molecules altering complex modes of expression control. Cells expressing SNCA-luc treated with a luciferase inhibitor or SNCA siRNA resulted in Z'-scores ≥ 0.75, suggesting the suitability of these cell lines for use in HTS. This study presents a novel use of genome editing for the creation of cell lines expressing α-synuclein fusion constructs entirely under native expression control. These cell lines are well suited for HTS for compounds that lower SNCA expression directly or by acting at long-range sites to the SNCA

  20. MicroRNA-141 inhibits migration of gastric cancer by targeting zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ying; Wang, Lingfei; Wu, Honghai; Zhang, Yiyin; Wang, Kan; Wu, Dingting

    2015-09-01

    Human microRNA (miR)-141 is a member of the miR‑200 family, which has been reported to be downregulated in gastric cancer, and involved in the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. However, little is currently known regarding its role in the migration of gastric cancer. The present study investigated the function of miR‑141 in gastric cancer cell migration, and evaluated the contribution of zinc finger E‑box‑binding homeobox 1 and 2 (ZEB1/2) in miR‑141 mediated migration of gastric cancer cells. The expression levels of miR‑141 and its potential ZEB1/2 targets were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. The migration of SGC‑7901 and HGC‑27 gastric cancer cells, which had been transfected with an miRNA precursor, was examined by cell migration and wound healing assays. A luciferase activity assay was used to validate whether ZEB1/2 was a direct target of miR‑141. The results demonstrated that overexpression of miR‑141 markedly inhibited the migration of gastric cancer cells in vitro. Forced overexpression of miR‑141 significantly reduced the luciferase activity of the 3'‑untranslated region of ZEB2 in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of ZEB2 were reduced in cells overexpressing miR‑141, whereas the protein expression levels of E‑cadherin were increased. In gastric tumor samples the expression levels of ZEB2 were inversely correlated with the expression of miR‑141. These results suggest that miR‑141 may be involved in the inhibition of gastric cancer cell migration, and that ZEB2 is a target gene of miR-141.

  1. Targeted mutagenesis in the silkworm Bombyx mori using zinc finger nuclease mRNA injection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Takasu, Yoko; Kobayashi, I.; Beumer, K.; Uchino, K.; Sezutsu, H.; Sajwan, S.; Carroll, D.; Tamura, T.; Žurovec, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 10 (2010), s. 759-765 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500070601; GA ČR GAP305/10/2406; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : gene targeting * nonhomologous and joining * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2010

  2. Zinc finger protein ZBTB20 expression is increased in hepatocellular carcinoma and associated with poor prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Hong-yang; Tan, Ye-xiong; Ren, Yi-bin; Dong, Li-wei; Xie, Zhi-fang; Tang, Liang; Cao, Dan; Zhang, Wei-ping; Hu, He-ping

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that ZBTB20, a new BTB/POZ-domain gene, could negatively regulate α feto-protein and other liver-specific genes, concerning such as bio-transformation, glucose metabolism and the regulation of the somatotropic hormonal axis. The aim of this study is to determine the potential clinical implications of ZBTB20 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses were used to detect expression levels of ZBTB20 in 50 paired HCC tumorous and nontumorous tissues and in 20 normal liver tissues. Moreover, expression of ZBTB20 was assessed by immunohistochemistry of paired tumor and peritumoral liver tissue from 102 patients who had undergone hepatectomy for histologically proven HCC. And its relationship with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis was investigated. Both messenger RNA and protein expression levels of ZBTB20 were elevated significantly in HCC tissues compared with the paired non-tumor tissues and normal liver tissues. Overexpressed ZBTB20 protein in HCC was significantly associated with vein invasion (P = 0.016). Importantly, the recurrence or metastasis rates of HCCs with higher ZBTB20 expression were markedly greater than those of HCCs with lower expression (P = 0.003, P = 0.00015, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that ZBTB20 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for HCC. The disease-free survival period and over-all survival period in patients with overexpressed ZBTB20 in HCC was significantly reduced. The expression of ZBTB20 is increased in HCC and associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC, implicating ZBTB20 as a candidate prognostic marker in HCC

  3. In Vivo Zinc Finger Nuclease-mediated Targeted Integration of a Glucose-6-phosphatase Transgene Promotes Survival in Mice With Glycogen Storage Disease Type IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Dustin J; Brooks, Elizabeth Drake; Perez-Pinera, Pablo; Amarasekara, Hiruni; Mefferd, Adam; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Gersbach, Charles A; Koeberl, Dwight D

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD Ia) is caused by glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) deficiency in association with severe, life-threatening hypoglycemia that necessitates lifelong dietary therapy. Here we show that use of a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) targeted to the ROSA26 safe harbor locus and a ROSA26-targeting vector containing a G6PC donor transgene, both delivered with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, markedly improved survival of G6Pase knockout (G6Pase-KO) mice compared with mice receiving the donor vector alone (P Ia, as compared with normal littermates, at 8 months following vector administration (P Ia. PMID:26865405

  4. Zinc finger arrays binding human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 genomic DNA: precursors of gene-therapeutics for in-situ reversal of associated cervical neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayengera Misaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV types 16 and 18 are the high-risk, sexually transmitted infectious causes of most cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN or cancers. While efficacious vaccines to reduce the sexual acquisition of these high-risk HPVs have recently been introduced, no virus-targeted therapies exist for those already exposed and infected. Considering the oncogenic role of the transforming (E6 and E7 genes of high-risk HPVs in the slow pathogenesis of cervical cancer, we hypothesize that timely disruption or abolition of HPV genome expression within pre-cancerous lesions identified at screening may reverse neoplasia. We aimed to derive model zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs for mutagenesis of the genomes of two high-risk HPV (types 16 & 18. Methods and results Using ZiFiT software and the complete genomes of HPV types16 and 18, we computationally generated the consensus amino acid sequences of the DNA-binding domains (F1, F2, & F3 of (i 296 & 327 contextually unpaired (or single three zinc-finger arrays (sZFAs and (ii 9 & 13 contextually paired (left and right three- zinc-finger arrays (pZFAs that bind genomic DNA of HPV-types 16 and 18 respectively, inclusive of the E7 gene (s/pZFAHpV/E7. In the absence of contextually paired three-zinc-finger arrays (pZFAs that bind DNA corresponding to the genomic context of the E6 gene of either HPV type, we derived the DNA binding domains of another set of 9 & 14 contextually unpaired E6 gene-binding ZFAs (sZFAE6 to aid the future quest for paired ZFAs to target E6 gene sequences in both HPV types studied (pZFAE6. This paper presents models for (i synthesis of hybrid ZFNs that cleave within the genomic DNA of either HPV type, by linking the gene sequences of the DNA-cleavage domain of the FokI endonuclease FN to the gene sequences of a member of the paired-HPV-binding ZFAs (pZFAHpV/E7 + FN, and (ii delivery of the same into precancerous lesions using HPV-derived viral plasmids or

  5. The LSD1-Type Zinc Finger Motifs of Pisum sativa LSD1 Are a Novel Nuclear Localization Signal and Interact with Importin Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    He, Shanping; Huang, Kuowei; Zhang, Xu; Yu, Xiangchun; Huang, Ping; An, Chengcai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic studies of the Arabidopsis mutant lsd1 highlight the important role of LSD1 in the negative regulation of plant programmed cell death (PCD). Arabidopsis thaliana LSD1 (AtLSD1) contains three LSD1-type zinc finger motifs, which are involved in the protein-protein interaction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further understand the function of LSD1, we have analyzed cellular localization and functional localization domains of Pisum sativa LSD1 (PsLSD1), which is a homolog ...

  6. Zinc finger proteins and other transcription regulators as response proteins in benzo[a]pyrene exposed cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhihua; Jin Jinghua; Yang Jun; Yu Yingnian

    2004-01-01

    Proteomic analysis, which combines two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), is an important approach to screen proteins responsive to specific stimuli. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a prototype of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs), is a potent procarcinogen generated from the combustion of fossil fuel and cigarette smoke. To further probe the molecular mechanism of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, and to find potential molecular markers involved in cellular responses to B[a]P exposure, we performed proteomic analysis of whole cellular proteins in human amnion epithelial cells after B[a]P-treatment. Image visualization and statistical analysis indicated that more than 40 proteins showed significant changes following B[a]P-treatment (P<0.05). Among them, 20 proteins existed only in the control groups, while six were only present in B[a]P-treated cells. In addition, the expression of 10 proteins increased whereas 11 decreased after B[a]P-treatment. These proteins were subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. Using peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) to search the nrNCBI database, we identified 22 proteins. Most of these proteins have unknown functions and have not been previously connected to a response to B[a]P exposure. To further annotate the characteristics of these proteins, GOblet analysis was carried out and results indicated that they were involved in multiple biological processes including regulation of transcription, cell proliferation, cell aging and other processes. However, expression changes were noted in a number of transcription regulators, including eight zinc finger proteins as well as SNF2L1 (SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 1), which is closely linked to the chromatin remodeling process. These data may provide new clues to further understand the implication of

  7. Intrinsic functional defects of type 2 innate lymphoid cells impair innate allergic inflammation in promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF)-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Philip A; Constantinides, Michael G; McDonald, Benjamin D; Urban, Joseph F; Sperling, Anne I; Bendelac, Albert

    2016-02-01

    The transcription factor promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is transiently expressed during development of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) but is not present at the mature stage. We hypothesized that PLZF-deficient ILC2s have functional defects in the innate allergic response and represent a tool for studying innate immunity in a mouse with a functional adaptive immune response. We determined the consequences of PLZF deficiency on ILC2 function in response to innate and adaptive immune stimuli by using PLZF(-/-) mice and mixed wild-type:PLZF(-/-) bone marrow chimeras. PLZF(-/-) mice, wild-type littermates, or mixed bone marrow chimeras were treated with the protease allergen papain or the cytokines IL-25 and IL-33 or infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis to induce innate type 2 allergic responses. Mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin-alum, followed by intranasal challenge with ovalbumin alone, to induce adaptive TH2 responses. Lungs were analyzed for immune cell subsets, and alveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for ILC2-derived cytokines. In addition, ILC2s were stimulated ex vivo for their capacity to release type 2 cytokines. PLZF-deficient lung ILC2s exhibit a cell-intrinsic defect in the secretion of IL-5 and IL-13 in response to innate stimuli, resulting in defective recruitment of eosinophils and goblet cell hyperplasia. In contrast, the adaptive allergic inflammatory response to ovalbumin and alum was unimpaired. PLZF expression at the innate lymphoid cell precursor stage has a long-range effect on the functional properties of mature ILC2s and highlights the importance of these cells for innate allergic responses in otherwise immunocompetent mice. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc finger AN1-type containing 4 is a novel marker for predicting metastasis and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara-Shimomura, Miyako; Sasahira, Tomonori; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Chie; Kuniyasu, Hiroki; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2018-05-01

    Head and neck cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and has a high potential for locoregional invasion and nodal metastasis. Therefore, discovery of a useful molecular biomarker capable of predicting tumour progression and metastasis of OSCC is crucial. We have previously reported zinc finger AN1-type containing 4 (ZFAND4) as one of the most upregulated genes in recurrent OSCC using a cDNA microarray analysis. Although ZFAND4 has been shown to promote cell proliferation of gastric cancer, its expression and clinicopathological roles in OSCC remain unclear. In this study, we examined ZFAND4 expression by immunohistochemistry in 214 cases of OSCC. High cytoplasmic expression of ZFAND4 was observed in 45 out of 214 (21%) patients with OSCC. Expression levels of ZFAND4 were strongly associated with metastasis to the lymph nodes (p=0.0429) and distant organs (p=0.0068). Cases with high expression of ZFAND4 had a significantly unfavourable prognosis compared with patients with low expression of ZFAND4 (p<0.0001). Furthermore, ZFAND4 overexpression was an independent poor prognostic factor for OSCC as determined by multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model (p<0.0001). These results suggest that ZFAND4 is a useful marker for predicting metastasis and poor prognosis in patients with OSCC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. 20-hydroxyecdysone enhances the expression of the chitinase 5 via Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger 4 during metamorphosis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Zheng, S

    2017-04-01

    Insect chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes required for the degradation of chitin. They are essential for insect moulting and metamorphosis. In this study, the regulation mechanism of a chitinase gene, Bombyx mori chitinase 5 (BmCHT5), was studied. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that BmCHT5 was up-regulated during the larval-larval and larval-pupa transitions and notably induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Analysis of the BmCHT5 promoter revealed the presence of one Bombyx mori Broad-Complex Zinc-Finger Isoform 4 (BR-C Z4), two BR-C Z2 and two ecdysone-induced protein 74A (E74A) cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that are related to 20E. qRT-PCR showed that the expression of both BmBR-C Z4 and BmBR-C Z2 during metamorphosis, and when induced by 20E, was anastomotic with the variations in BmCHT5 mRNA level. In contrast, BmE74A did not follow this trend. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay did not retrieve a binding partner for the two BR-C Z2 CREs in the BmN cell line nuclear extract, whereas BR-C Z4 CRE specifically bound to BmBR-C Z4. Besides, luciferase activity analysis confirmed that BmBR-C Z4 could enhance the activity of the BmCHT5 promoter with BR-C Z4 CRE and could not enhance the promoter activity by mutating BR-C Z4 CRE. Taken together, these data suggest that the transcription factor BmBR-C Z4 enhances the expression of BmCHT5 during metamorphosis. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasu, Miwako; Sakai, Kazuhiro; Kogi, Kazutaka; Ito, Akiyoshi; Feskens, Edith J M; Tomita, Shigeru; Temmyo, Yoshiomi; Ueno, Mitsuo; Miyagi, Shigeji

    2011-05-26

    Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women) was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  11. An A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein modulates gibberellins and abscisic acid contents and increases sensitivity to abiotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Lan, Hongxia; Shao, Qiaolin; Wang, Ruqin; Chen, Hui; Tang, Haijuan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The plant hormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) play important roles in plant development and stress responses. Here we report a novel A20/AN1-type zinc finger protein ZFP185 involved in GA and ABA signaling in the regulation of growth and stress response. ZFP185 was constitutively expressed in various rice tissues. Overexpression of ZFP185 in rice results in a semi-dwarfism phenotype, reduced cell size, and the decrease of endogenous GA3 content. By contrast, higher GA3 content was observed in RNAi plants. The application of exogenous GA3 can fully rescue the semi-dwarfism phenotype of ZFP185 overexpressing plants, suggesting the negative role of ZFP185 in GA biosynthesis. Besides GA, overexpression of ZFP185 decreased ABA content and expression of several ABA biosynthesis-related genes. Moreover, it was found that ZFP185, unlike previously known A20/AN1-type zinc finger genes, increases sensitivity to drought, cold, and salt stresses, implying the negative role of ZFP185 in stress tolerance. ZFP185 was localized in the cytoplasm and lacked transcriptional activation potential. Our study suggests that ZFP185 regulates plant growth and stress responses by affecting GA and ABA biosynthesis in rice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Regulation of trichome development in tobacco by JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaodong; Gu, Yuxi; Dai, Tingwei; Wu, Yang; Wu, Peng; Xu, Ying; Chen, Fang

    2018-06-05

    Trichomes are epidermal outgrowths of plant tissues that can secrete or store large quantities of secondary metabolites, which contribute to plant defense responses against stress. The use of bioengineering methods for regulating the development of trichomes and metabolism is a widely researched topic. In the present study, we demonstrate that JcZFP8, a C2H2 zinc finger protein gene from Jatropha curcas L., can regulate trichome development in transgenic tobacco. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we performed transcriptome profiling of overexpression JcZFP8 transgenic plants and wild-type tobacco. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes, we determined that genes of the plant hormone signal transduction pathway was significantly enriched, suggesting that these pathways were modulated in the transgenic plants. In addition, the transcript levels of the known trichome-related genes in Arabidopsis were not significantly changed, whereas CycB2 and MYB genes were differentially expressed in the transgenic plants. Despite tobacco and Arabidopsis have different types of trichomes, all the pathways were associated with C2H2 zinc finger protein genes. Our findings help us to understand the regulation of multicellular trichome formation and suggest a new metabolic engineering method for the improvement of plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla regulated by Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2: An in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Fang; Gao, Lifen; Lu, Yating; Ma, Hongxin; Wang, Hongxing; Liang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yan; Ma, Chunhong

    2016-01-01

    In the process of tooth root development, stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) can differentiate into odontoblasts and form root dentin, however, molecules regulating SCAPs differentiation have not been elucidated. Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. It is reported to modulate the development of nerve cells, liver cells, B cells, red blood cells, and so on. However, the role of ZHX2 in tooth root development remains unclear. In this study, we explored the potential role of ZHX2 in the process of SCAPs differentiation. The results showed that overexpression of ZHX2 upregulated the expression of osteo/odontogenic related genes and ALP activity, inhibited the proliferation of SCAPs. Consistently, ZHX2 knockdown reduced SCAPs mineralization and promoted SCAPs proliferation. These results indicated that ZHX2 plays a critical role in the proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. • we found another new biological function of ZHX2 for the first time. • ZHX2 inhibit SCAPs proliferation. • ZHX2 promote the osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs.

  14. Zinc-fingers and homeoboxes 1 (ZHX1) binds DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B to enhance DNMT3B-mediated transcriptional repression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Hak; Park, Jinah; Choi, Moon-Chang; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Park, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Yeonjoo; Lee, Ju-Hee; Oh, Do-Youn; Im, Seock-Ah; Bang, Yung-Jue; Kim, Tae-You

    2007-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) 3B is a de novo DNMT that represses transcription independent of DNMT activity. In order to gain a better insight into DNMT3B-mediated transcriptional repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid analysis using DNMT3B as a bait. Of the various binding candidates, ZHX1, a member of zinc-finger and homeobox protein, was found to interact with DNMT3B in vivo and in vitro. N-terminal PWWP domain of DNMT3B was required for its interaction with homeobox motifs of ZHX1. ZHX1 contains nuclear localization signal at C-terminal homeobox motif, and both ZHX1 and DNMT3B were co-localized in nucleus. Furthermore, we found that ZHX1 enhanced the transcriptional repression mediated by DNMT3B when DNMT3B is directly targeted to DNA. These results showed for First the direct linkage between DNMT and zinc-fingers homeoboxes protein, leading to enhanced gene silencing by DNMT3B

  15. Cloning and characterization of a novel human zinc finger gene, hKid3, from a C2H2-ZNF enriched human embryonic cDNA library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Li; Sun Chong; Qiu Hongling; Liu Hui; Shao Huanjie; Wang Jun; Li Wenxin

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the zinc finger genes involved in human embryonic development, we constructed a C 2 H 2 -ZNF enriched human embryonic cDNA library, from which a novel human gene named hKid3 was identified. The hKid3 cDNA encodes a 554 amino acid protein with an amino-terminal KRAB domain and 11 carboxyl-terminal C 2 H 2 zinc finger motifs. Northern blot analysis indicates that two hKid3 transcripts of 6 and 8.5 kb express in human fetal brain and kidney. The 6 kb transcript can also be detected in human adult brain, heart, and skeletal muscle while the 8.5 kb transcript appears to be embryo-specific. GFP-fused hKid3 protein is localized to nuclei and the ZF domain is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization. To explore the DNA-binding specificity of hKid3, an oligonucleotide library was selected by GST fusion protein of hKid3 ZF domain, and the consensus core sequence 5'-CCAC-3' was evaluated by competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Moreover, The KRAB domain of hKid3 exhibits transcription repressor activity when tested in GAL4 fusion protein assay. These results indicate that hKid3 may function as a transcription repressor with regulated expression pattern during human development of brain and kidney

  16. Proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla regulated by Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2: An in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Fang [Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infection & Immunology, Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); VIP Center, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Gao, Lifen [Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infection & Immunology, Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lu, Yating [VIP Center, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Ma, Hongxin; Wang, Hongxing; Liang, Xiaohong [Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infection & Immunology, Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangyan1965@sdu.edu.cn [VIP Center, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Ma, Chunhong, E-mail: machunhong@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of Ministry of Education, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Infection & Immunology, Shandong University School of Medicine, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China)

    2016-01-15

    In the process of tooth root development, stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) can differentiate into odontoblasts and form root dentin, however, molecules regulating SCAPs differentiation have not been elucidated. Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. It is reported to modulate the development of nerve cells, liver cells, B cells, red blood cells, and so on. However, the role of ZHX2 in tooth root development remains unclear. In this study, we explored the potential role of ZHX2 in the process of SCAPs differentiation. The results showed that overexpression of ZHX2 upregulated the expression of osteo/odontogenic related genes and ALP activity, inhibited the proliferation of SCAPs. Consistently, ZHX2 knockdown reduced SCAPs mineralization and promoted SCAPs proliferation. These results indicated that ZHX2 plays a critical role in the proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. • we found another new biological function of ZHX2 for the first time. • ZHX2 inhibit SCAPs proliferation. • ZHX2 promote the osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs.

  17. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  18. A bio-inspired zinc finger analogue anchored in 2D hexagonal meso-porous silica for room temperature CO_2 activation via a hydrogeno-carbonate route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doghri, Hanene; Baranova, Elena A.; Albela, Belen; Bonneviot, Laurent; Mongia Said-Zina

    2017-01-01

    Bio-inspired diethylenetriamine-zinc(II) complexes were anchored into the nano-pores of hexagonal meso-porous MCM41-like silicas targeting a carbamate free and low temperature CO_2 recycling process. A step-by-step approach was adopted to perform an in situ synthesis in order to mimic the zinc finger of carbonic anhydrases, the fastest family of enzymes. In the presence of a surface-masking pattern of TMA"+ ions, some silanol groups were capped using grafted trimethylsilyl functions, TMSgr, (gr for grafted). After removing the masking ions, a tridentate diethylenetriamine ligand was anchored using diethylenetriamine propyl-trimethoxysilane. The so-called DETA_a_n ligands (an for anchored) were partially mono-protonated using either cyclohexane or isopropanol as a solvent. Nonetheless, up to two thirds of them were metallated by Zn(II) ions, leading to the targeted anchored zinc finger mimic [Zn(DETAan)L]+(L = Cl or OH). CO_2 is then adsorbed at room temperature and in humid ambient air by the formation of an intermediate hydrogeno-carbonate-zinc complex. Specific IR signatures at 1330 and 1400 cm"-"1 together with characteristic C 1s and Zn 2p3/2 XPS binding energies at 286.4 and 1024.6 eV advocate for a rather symmetrical bidentate [η"2-CO_3] structural unit in the anchored complex [Zn(DETA_a_n)(η"2-HCO_3"*)]"+, where the Zn(II) ion is most likely penta-coordinated. The internal pH value varied by less than 0.5 depending on the metal reacting with the DETA_a_n ligand and its ability to generate HCO_3"-, due to the buffering effect of surface silanol and amino groups according to the level of protonation of the DETA moieties measured from the N 1s XPS spectra. In contrast to nitrate ions, chloride ions were found to inhibit the formation of hydrogeno-carbonate. (authors)

  19. Use of zinc-finger nucleases to knock out the WAS gene in K562 cells: a human cellular model for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel G. Toscano

    2013-03-01

    Mutations in the WAS gene cause Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS, which is characterized by eczema, immunodeficiency and microthrombocytopenia. Although the role of WASP in lymphocytes and myeloid cells is well characterized, its role on megakaryocyte (MK development is poorly understood. In order to develop a human cellular model that mimics the megakaryocytic-derived defects observed in WAS patients we used K562 cells, a well-known model for study of megakaryocytic development. We knocked out the WAS gene in K562 cells using a zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN pair targeting the WAS intron 1 and a homologous donor DNA that disrupted WASP expression. Knockout of WASP on K562 cells (K562WASKO cells resulted in several megakaryocytic-related defects such as morphological alterations, lower expression of CD41ɑ, lower increments in F-actin polymerization upon stimulation, reduced CD43 expression and increased phosphatidylserine exposure. All these defects have been previously described either in WAS-knockout mice or in WAS patients, validating K562WASKO as a cell model for WAS. However, K562WASPKO cells showed also increased basal F-actin and adhesion, increased expression of CD61 and reduced expression of TGFβ and Factor VIII, defects that have never been described before for WAS-deficient cells. Interestingly, these phenotypic alterations correlate with different roles for WASP in megakaryocytic differentiation. All phenotypic alterations observed in K562WASKO cells were alleviated upon expression of WAS following lentiviral transduction, confirming the role of WASP in these phenotypes. In summary, in this work we have validated a human cellular model, K562WASPKO, that mimics the megakaryocytic-related defects found in WAS-knockout mice and have found evidences for a role of WASP as regulator of megakaryocytic differentiation. We propose the use of K562WASPKO cells as a tool to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the megakaryocytic-related defects observed in WAS

  20. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 gene encodes a protein that contains potential zinc finger domains for nucleic acid binding and a putative nucleotide binding sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.S.; Prakash, L. (Univ. of Rochester School of Medicine, NY (USA)); Weber, S. (Kodak Research Park, Rochester, NY (USA))

    1988-07-25

    The RAD18 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for postreplication repair of UV damaged DNA. The authors have isolated the RAD18 gene, determined its nucleotide sequence and examined if deletion mutations of this gene show different or more pronounced phenotypic effects than the previously described point mutations. The RAD18 gene open reading frame encodes a protein of 487 amino acids, with a calculated molecular weight of 55,512. The RAD18 protein contains three potential zinc finger domains for nucleic acid binding, and a putative nucleotide binding sequence that is present in many proteins that bind and hydrolyze ATP. The DNA binding and nucleotide binding activities could enable the RAD18 protein to bind damaged sites in the template DNA with high affinity. Alternatively, or in addition, RAD18 protein may be a transcriptional regulator. The RAD18 deletion mutation resembles the previously described point mutations in its effects on viability, DNA repair, UV mutagenesis, and sporulation.

  1. A Family of Zinc Finger Proteins Is Required forChromosome-specific Pairing and Synapsis during Meiosis in C.elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Carolyn M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2006-06-07

    Homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis are prerequisitefor accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. Here, we show that afamily of four related C2H2 zinc-finger proteins plays a central role inthese events in C. elegans. These proteins are encoded within a tandemgene cluster. In addition to the X-specific HIM-8 protein, threeadditional paralogs collectively mediate the behavior of the fiveautosomes. Each chromosome relies on a specific member of the family topair and synapse with its homolog. These "ZIM" proteins concentrate atspecial regions called meiotic pairing centers on the correspondingchromosomes. These sites are dispersed along the nuclear envelope duringearly meiotic prophase, suggesting a role analogous to thetelomere-mediated meiotic bouquet in other organisms. To gain insightinto the evolution of these components, wecharacterized homologs in C.briggsae and C. remanei, which revealed changes in copy number of thisgene family within the nematode lineage.

  2. Proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla regulated by Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Fang; Gao, Lifen; Lu, Yating; Ma, Hongxin; Wang, Hongxing; Liang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yan; Ma, Chunhong

    2016-01-15

    In the process of tooth root development, stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) can differentiate into odontoblasts and form root dentin, however, molecules regulating SCAPs differentiation have not been elucidated. Zinc fingers and homeoboxes 2 (ZHX2) is a novel transcriptional inhibitor. It is reported to modulate the development of nerve cells, liver cells, B cells, red blood cells, and so on. However, the role of ZHX2 in tooth root development remains unclear. In this study, we explored the potential role of ZHX2 in the process of SCAPs differentiation. The results showed that overexpression of ZHX2 upregulated the expression of osteo/odontogenic related genes and ALP activity, inhibited the proliferation of SCAPs. Consistently, ZHX2 knockdown reduced SCAPs mineralization and promoted SCAPs proliferation. These results indicated that ZHX2 plays a critical role in the proliferation and osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) and Sox9a regulate synuclein-γ2 (sncgb) expression in the developing notochord of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Liao, Yung-Feng; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-12-13

    Zebrafish synuclein-γ2 (sncgb) has been reported to be expressed specifically in the notochord. However, the mechanism by which the sncgb gene promoter is regulated has not been described. In this paper, we demonstrate that Zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) and sox9a are involved in the regulation of sncgb gene expression. Furthermore, we observed that over-expression of both ZNF219L and Sox9a resulted in increased sncgb expression. In addition, ZNF219L is physically associated with Sox9a, and simultaneous morpholino knockdown of znf219L and sox9a caused a synergistic decrease of sncgb expression in the notochord. Taken together, our results reveal that coordination of ZNF219L with Sox9a is involved in the regulation of notochord-specific expression of sncgb. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High-efficiency genome editing via 2A-coupled co-expression of fluorescent proteins and zinc finger nucleases or CRISPR/Cas9 nickase pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duda, Katarzyna; Lonowski, Lindsey A; Kofoed-Nielsen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Targeted endonucleases including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)/Cas9 are increasingly being used for genome editing in higher species. We therefore devised a broadly applicable and versatile method for increasing editing...... higher genome editing rates. For ZFNs, this approach, combined with delivery of donors as single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides and nucleases as messenger ribonucleic acid, enabled high knockin efficiencies in demanding applications, including biallelic codon conversion frequencies reaching 30......-70% at high transfection efficiencies and ∼2% at low transfection efficiencies, simultaneous homozygous knockin mutation of two genes with ∼1.5% efficiency as well as generation of cell pools with almost complete codon conversion via three consecutive targeting and FACS events. Observed off-target effects...

  5. Molecular Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Stably Expressing Human PET Reporter Genes After Zinc Finger Nuclease-Mediated Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Esther; Holvoet, Bryan; Ordovas, Laura; Breuls, Natacha; Helsen, Nicky; Schönberger, Matthias; Raitano, Susanna; Struys, Tom; Vanbilloen, Bert; Casteels, Cindy; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Van Laere, Koen; Lambrichts, Ivo; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Deroose, Christophe M

    2017-10-01

    Molecular imaging is indispensable for determining the fate and persistence of engrafted stem cells. Standard strategies for transgene induction involve the use of viral vectors prone to silencing and insertional mutagenesis or the use of nonhuman genes. Methods: We used zinc finger nucleases to induce stable expression of human imaging reporter genes into the safe-harbor locus adeno-associated virus integration site 1 in human embryonic stem cells. Plasmids were generated carrying reporter genes for fluorescence, bioluminescence imaging, and human PET reporter genes. Results: In vitro assays confirmed their functionality, and embryonic stem cells retained differentiation capacity. Teratoma formation assays were performed, and tumors were imaged over time with PET and bioluminescence imaging. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the application of genome editing for targeted integration of human imaging reporter genes in human embryonic stem cells for long-term molecular imaging. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  6. GhZFP1, a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein from cotton, enhances salt stress tolerance and fungal disease resistance in transgenic tobacco by interacting with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Hui; Yu, Yue-Ping; Wang, Dong; Wu, Chang-Ai; Yang, Guo-Dong; Huang, Jin-Guang; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2009-01-01

    * Zinc finger proteins are a superfamily involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. However, CCCH-type zinc finger proteins involved in plant stress tolerance are poorly understood. * A cDNA clone designated Gossypium hirsutum zinc finger protein 1 (GhZFP1), which encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, was isolated from a salt-induced cotton (G. hirsutum) cDNA library using differential hybridization screening and further studied in transgenic tobacco Nicotiana tabacum cv. NC89. Using yeast two-hybrid screening (Y2H), proteins GZIRD21A (GhZFP1 interacting and responsive to dehydration protein 21A) and GZIPR5 (GhZFP1 interacting and pathogenesis-related protein 5), which interacted with GhZFP1, were isolated. * GhZFP1 contains two typical zinc finger motifs (Cx8Cx5Cx3H and Cx5Cx4Cx3H), a putative nuclear export sequence (NES) and a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS). Transient expression analysis using a GhZFP1::GFP fusion gene in onion epidermal cells indicated a nuclear localization for GhZFP1. RNA blot analysis showed that the GhZFP1 transcript was induced by salt (NaCl), drought and salicylic acid (SA). The regions in GhZFP1 that interact with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5 were identified using truncation mutations. * Overexpression of GhZFP1 in transgenic tobacco enhanced tolerance to salt stress and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore, it appears that GhZFP1 might be involved as an important regulator in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  7. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Results Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Conclusions Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  8. Isolation of three B-box zinc finger proteins that interact with STF1 and COP1 defines a HY5/COP1 interaction network involved in light control of development in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Su Young; Kim, Seong Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Jeon, Su Jeong; Sim, Soon Ae; Ryu, Gyeong Ryul; Yoo, Cheol Min; Cheong, Yong Hwa; Hong, Jong Chan

    2016-01-01

    LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and STF1 (Soybean TGACG-motif binding Factor 1) are two related bZIP transcription factors that play a positive role in photomorphogenesis and hormonal signaling. In this study, we compared full length STF1 and truncated STF1 overexpression lines and found that the C-terminal 133 amino acids (194–306) possess all the HY5-like function in Arabidopsis. The STF1-DC1 mutant (1–306), with a 20 amino acid deletion at the carboxy terminus, failed to complement the hy5 mutant phenotype, which suggests an intact C-terminus is required for STF1 function. To understand the role of the C-terminal domain in photomorphogenesis we used a yeast two-hybrid screen to isolate proteins that bind to the STF1 C-terminus. We isolated three soybean cDNAs encoding the zinc-finger proteins GmSTO, GmSTH, and GmSTH2, which interact with STF1. These proteins belong to a family of B-box zinc finger proteins that include Arabidopsis SALT TOLERANCE (STO) and STO HOMOLOG (STH) and STH2, which play a role in light-dependent development and gene expression. The C-terminal 63 amino acids of STF1, containing a leucine zipper and the two N-terminal B-boxes, contains the domain involved in interactions between STF1 and GmSTO. In addition, we identified an interaction between soybean COP1 (GmCOP1) and GmSTO and GmSTH, as well as STF1, which strongly suggests the presence of a similar regulatory circuit for light signaling in soybean as in Arabidopsis. This study shows that photomorphogenic control requires complex molecular interactions among several different classes of transcription factors such as bZIP, B-box factors, and COP1, a ubiquitin ligase. - Highlights: • STF1 interact with GmSTO, GmSTH and GmSTH2. • The bZIP transcription factor STF1 requires an intact C-terminal domain for STF1 function. • STF1 and GmSTO are nuclear proteins.

  9. Structures of three members of Pfam PF02663 (FmdE) implicated in microbial methanogenesis reveal a conserved α+β core domain and an auxiliary C-terminal treble-clef zinc finger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, Herbert L.; Das, Debanu; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Carlton, Dennis; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Lam, Winnie W.; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Miller, Mitchell D.; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; Bedem, Henry van den; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The first structures from the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663) reveal that some members of this family form tightly intertwined dimers consisting of two domains (N-terminal α+β core and C-terminal zinc-finger domains), whereas others contain only the core domain. The presence of the zinc-finger domain suggests that some members of this family may perform functions associated with transcriptional regulation, protein–protein interaction, RNA binding or metal-ion sensing. Examination of the genomic context for members of the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663), such as the protein encoded by the fmdE gene from the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, indicates that 13 of them are co-transcribed with genes encoding subunits of molybdenum formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.99.5), an enzyme that is involved in microbial methane production. Here, the first crystal structures from PF02663 are described, representing two bacterial and one archaeal species: B8FYU2-DESHY from the anaerobic dehalogenating bacterium Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2, Q2LQ23-SYNAS from the syntrophic bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus SB and Q9HJ63-THEAC from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Two of these proteins, Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS, contain two domains: an N-terminal thioredoxin-like α+β core domain (NTD) consisting of a five-stranded, mixed β-sheet flanked by several α-helices and a C-terminal zinc-finger domain (CTD). B8FYU2-DESHY, on the other hand, is composed solely of the NTD. The CTD of Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS is best characterized as a treble-clef zinc finger. Two significant structural differences between Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS involve their metal binding. First, zinc is bound to the putative active site on the NTD of Q9HJ63-THEAC, but is absent from the NTD of Q2LQ23-SYNAS. Second, whereas the structure of the CTD of Q2LQ23-SYNAS shows four Cys side chains within coordination distance of the Zn atom, the structure

  10. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  11. Arabidopsis KHZ1 and KHZ2, two novel non-tandem CCCH zinc-finger and K-homolog domain proteins, have redundant roles in the regulation of flowering and senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zongyun; Jia, Jianheng; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Shi, Huiying; Han, Yuzhen

    2017-12-01

    The two novel CCCH zinc-finger and K-homolog (KH) proteins, KHZ1 and KHZ2, play important roles in regulating flowering and senescence redundantly in Arabidopsis. The CCCH zinc-finger proteins and K-homolog (KH) proteins play important roles in plant development and stress responses. However, the biological functions of many CCCH zinc-finger proteins and KH proteins remain uncharacterized. In Arabidopsis, KHZ1 and KHZ2 are characterized as two novel CCCH zinc-finger and KH domain proteins which belong to subfamily VII in CCCH family. We obtained khz1, khz2 mutants and khz1 khz2 double mutants, as well as overexpression (OE) lines of KHZ1 and KHZ2. Compared with the wild type (WT), the khz2 mutants displayed no defects in growth and development, and the khz1 mutants were slightly late flowering, whereas the khz1 khz2 double mutants showed a pronounced late flowering phenotype. In contrast, artificially overexpressing KHZ1 and KHZ2 led to the early flowering. Consistent with the late flowering phenotype, the expression of flowering repressor gene FLC was up-regulated, while the expression of flowering integrator and floral meristem identity (FMI) genes were down-regulated significantly in khz1 khz2. In addition, we also observed that the OE plants of KHZ1 and KHZ2 showed early leaf senescence significantly, whereas the khz1 khz2 double mutants showed delayed senescence of leaf and the whole plant. Both KHZ1 and KHZ2 were ubiquitously expressed throughout the tissues of Arabidopsis. KHZ1 and KHZ2 were localized to the nucleus, and possessed both transactivation activities and RNA-binding abilities. Taken together, we conclude that KHZ1 and KHZ2 have redundant roles in the regulation of flowering and senescence in Arabidopsis.

  12. A novel zinc finger protein 219-like (ZNF219L) is involved in the regulation of collagen type 2 alpha 1a (col2a1a) gene expression in zebrafish notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Huang-Wei; Yang, Chung-Hsiang; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Hung, Chin-Chun; Liao, Wei-Hao; Hwang, Pung-Pung; Han, Yu-San; Huang, Chang-Jen

    2013-01-01

    The notochord is required for body plan patterning in vertebrates, and defects in notochord development during embryogenesis can lead to diseases affecting the adult. It is therefore important to elucidate the gene regulatory mechanism underlying notochord formation. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish zinc finger 219-like (ZNF219L) based on mammalian ZNF219, which contains nine C2H2-type zinc finger domains. Through whole-mount in situ hybridization, we found that znf219L mRNA is mainly expressed in the zebrafish midbrain-hindbrain boundary, hindbrain, and notochord during development. The znf219L morpholino knockdown caused partial abnormal notochord phenotype and reduced expression of endogenous col2a1a in the notochord specifically. In addition, ZNF219L could recognize binding sites with GGGGG motifs and trigger augmented activity of the col2a1a promoter in a luciferase assay. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments revealed that ZNF219L recognizes the GGGGG motifs in the promoter region of the zebrafish col2a1a gene through its sixth and ninth zinc finger domains. Taken together, our results reveal that ZNF219L is involved in regulating the expression of col2a1a in zebrafish notochord specifically.

  13. Speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein gene deletion in ovarian cancer: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of a tissue microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Yang, Zhu; Zeng, Manman; Liu, Y I; Yang, Xiaotao; Li, Yanan; Li, X U; Yu, Qiubo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of speckle-type POZ (pox virus and zinc finger protein) protein (SPOP) gene located on chromosome 17q21 in ovarian cancer (OC). The present study evaluated a tissue microarray, which contained 90 samples of ovarian cancer and 10 samples of normal ovarian tissue, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH is a method where a SPOP-specific DNA red fluorescence probe was used for the experimental group and a centromere-specific DNA green fluorescence probe for chromosome 17 was used for the control group. The present study demonstrated that a deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in 52.27% (46/88) of the ovarian cancer tissues, but was not identified in normal ovarian tissues. Simultaneously, monosomy 17 was frequently identified in the ovarian cancer tissues, but not in the normal ovarian tissues. Furthermore, the present data revealed that the ovarian cancer histological subtype and grade were significantly associated with a deletion of the SPOP gene, which was assessed by the appearance of monosomy 17 in the ovarian cancer samples; the deletion of the SPOP gene was observed in a large proportion of serous epithelial ovarian cancer (41/61; 67.21%), particularly in grade 3 (31/37; 83.78%). In conclusion, deletion of the SPOP gene on chromosome 17 in ovarian cancer samples, which results from monosomy 17, indicates that the SPOP gene may serve as a tumor suppressor gene in ovarian cancer.

  14. OsDOG, a gibberellin-induced A20/AN1 zinc-finger protein, negatively regulates gibberellin-mediated cell elongation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaju; Xu, Yunyuan; Xiao, Jun; Ma, Qibin; Li, Dan; Xue, Zhen; Chong, Kang

    2011-07-01

    The A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) play pivotal roles in animal immune responses and plant stress responses. From previous gibberellin (GA) microarray data and A20/AN1 ZFP family member association, we chose Oryza sativa dwarf rice with overexpression of gibberellin-induced gene (OsDOG) to examine its function in the GA pathway. OsDOG was induced by gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and repressed by the GA-synthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol. Different transgenic lines with constitutive expression of OsDOG showed dwarf phenotypes due to deficiency of cell elongation. Additional GA(1) and real-time PCR quantitative assay analyses confirmed that the decrease of GA(1) in the overexpression lines resulted from reduced expression of GA3ox2 and enhanced expression of GA2ox1 and GA2ox3. Adding exogenous GA rescued the constitutive expression phenotypes of the transgenic lines. OsDOG has a novel function in regulating GA homeostasis and in negative maintenance of plant cell elongation in rice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The KRAB Zinc Finger Protein Roma/Zfp157 Is a Critical Regulator of Cell-Cycle Progression and Genomic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L.F. Ho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of DNA replication and cell division is essential for tissue growth and maintenance of genomic integrity and is particularly important in tissues that undergo continuous regeneration such as mammary glands. We have previously shown that disruption of the KRAB-domain zinc finger protein Roma/Zfp157 results in hyperproliferation of mammary epithelial cells (MECs during pregnancy. Here, we delineate the mechanism by which Roma engenders this phenotype. Ablation of Roma in MECs leads to unscheduled proliferation, replication stress, DNA damage, and genomic instability. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs depleted for Roma exhibit downregulation of p21Cip1 and geminin and have accelerated replication fork velocities, which is accompanied by a high rate of mitotic errors and polyploidy. In contrast, overexpression of Roma in MECs halts cell-cycle progression, whereas siRNA-mediated p21Cip1 knockdown ameliorates, in part, this phenotype. Thus, Roma is an essential regulator of the cell cycle and is required to maintain genomic stability.

  16. A Mini Zinc-Finger Protein (MIF from Gerbera hybrida Activates the GASA Protein Family Gene, GEG, to Inhibit Ray Petal Elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixiang Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Petal appearance is an important horticultural trail that is generally used to evaluate the ornamental value of plants. However, knowledge of the molecular regulation of petal growth is mostly derived from analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana, and relatively little is known about this process in ornamental plants. Previously, GEG (Gerbera hybrida homolog of the gibberellin [GA]–stimulated transcript 1 [GAST1] from tomato, a gene from the GA stimulated Arabidopsis (GASA family, was reported to be an inhibitor of ray petal growth in the ornamental species, G. hybrida. To explore the molecular regulatory mechanism of GEG in petal growth inhibition, a mini zinc-finger protein (MIF was identified using yeast one-hybrid (Y1H screen. The direct binding of GhMIF to the GEG promoter was verified by using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay and a dual-luciferase assay. A yeast two-hybrid (Y2H revealed that GhMIF acts as a transcriptional activator. Transient transformation assay indicated that GhMIF is involved in inhibiting ray petal elongation by activating the expression of GEG. Spatiotemporal expression analyses and hormone treatment assay showed that the expression of GhMIF and GEG is coordinated during petal development. Taken together, these results suggest that GhMIF acts as a direct transcriptional activator of GEG, a gene from the GASA protein family to regulate the petal elongation.

  17. Activation of Fetal γ-globin Gene Expression via Direct Protein Delivery of Synthetic Zinc-finger DNA-Binding Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir A Hossain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactivation of γ-globin expression has been shown to ameliorate disease phenotypes associated with mutations in the adult β-globin gene, including sickle cell disease. Specific mutations in the promoter of the γ-globin genes are known to prevent repression of the genes in the adult and thus lead to hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin. One such hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin is associated with a sequence located 567 bp upstream of the Gγ-globin gene which assembles a GATA-containing repressor complex. We generated two synthetic zinc-finger DNA-binding domains (ZF-DBDs targeting this sequence. The -567Gγ ZF-DBDs associated with high affinity and specificity with the target site in the γ-globin gene promoter. We delivered the -567Gγ ZF-DBDs directly to primary erythroid cells. Exposure of these cells to the recombinant -567Gγ ZF-DBDs led to increased expression of the γ-globin gene. Direct protein delivery of ZF-DBDs that compete with transcription regulatory proteins will have broad implications for modulating gene expression in analytical or therapeutic settings.

  18. Cloning and analysis of the mouse Fanconi anemia group A cDNA and an overlapping penta zinc finger cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J C; Alon, N; Norga, K; Kruyt, F A; Youssoufian, H; Buchwald, M

    2000-08-01

    Despite the cloning of four disease-associated genes for Fanconi anemia (FA), the molecular pathogenesis of FA remains largely unknown. To study FA complementation group A using the mouse as a model system, we cloned and characterized the mouse homolog of the human FANCA cDNA. The mouse cDNA (Fanca) encodes a 161-kDa protein that shares 65% amino acid sequence identity with human FANCA. Fanca is located at the distal region of mouse chromosome 8 and has a ubiquitous pattern of expression in embryonic and adult tissues. Expression of the mouse cDNA in human FA-A cells restores the cellular drug sensitivity to normal levels. Thus, the expression pattern, protein structure, chromosomal location, and function of FANCA are conserved in the mouse. We also isolated a novel zinc finger protein, Zfp276, which has five C(2)H(2) domains. Interestingly, Zfp276 is situated in the Fanca locus, and the 3'UTR of its cDNA overlaps with the last four exons of Fanca in a tail-to-tail manner. Zfp276 is expressed in the same tissues as Fanca, but does not complement the mitomycin C (MMC)-sensitive phenotype of FA-A cells. The overlapping genomic organization between Zfp276 and Fanca may have relevance to the disease phenotype of FA. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Tamarix hispida zinc finger protein ThZFP1 participates in salt and osmotic stress tolerance by increasing proline content and SOD and POD activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Dandan; Wang, Chao; Ji, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-06-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are a large family that play important roles in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, RNA binding, morphogenesis, transcriptional regulation, abiotic or biotic stress response. However, the functions of ZFPs involved in abiotic stress are largely not known. In the present study, we cloned and functionally characterized a ZFP gene, ThZFP1, from Tamarix hispida. The expression of ThZFP1 is highly induced by NaCl, mannitol or ABA treatment. To study the function of ThZFP1 involved in abiotic stress response, transgenic T. hispida plants with overexpression or knockdown of ThZFP1 were generated using a transient transformation system. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of ThZFP1 suggested that ThZFP1 can induce the expression of a series of genes, including delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), leading to accumulation of proline and enhanced activities of SOD and POD. These physiological changes enhanced proline content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability when exposed to salt or osmotic stress. All the results obtained from T. hispida plants were further confirmed by analyses of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ThZFP1. These data together suggested that ThZFP1 positively regulates proline accumulation and activities of SOD and POD under salt and osmotic stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of ‘safe harbor’ loci in indica rice genome by harnessing the property of zinc-finger nucleases to induce DNA damage and repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eCantos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs have proved to be successful tools for targeted genome manipulation in several organisms. Their main property is the induction of double-strand breaks (DSBs at specific sites, which are further repaired through homologous recombination (HR or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ. However, for the appropriate integration of genes at specific chromosomal locations, proper sites for gene integration need to be identified. These regions, hereby named safe harbor loci, must be localized in non-coding regions and possess high gene expression. In the present study, three different ZFN constructs (pZFN1, pZFN2, pZFN3, harboring β-glucuronidase (GUS as a reporter gene, were used to identify safe harbor loci regions on rice chromosomes. The constructs were delivered into IR64 rice by using an improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol, based on the use of immature embryos. Gene expression was measured by histochemical GUS activity and the flanking regions were determined through thermal-asymmetric interlaced polymerase chain reaction (TAIL PCR. Following sequencing, 28 regions were identified as putative sites for safe integration, but only one was localized in a non-coding region and it also possessed high GUS expression. These findings have significant applicability to create crops with new and valuable traits, since the site can be subsequently used to stably introduce one or more genes in a targeted manner.

  1. Expression Profiling and Functional Implications of a Set of Zinc Finger Proteins, ZNF423, ZNF470, ZNF521, and ZNF780B, in Primary Osteoarthritic Articular Chondrocytes

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    Maria Mesuraca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Articular chondrocytes are responsible for the maintenance of healthy articulations; indeed, dysregulation of their functions, including the production of matrix proteins and matrix-remodeling proteases, may result in fraying of the tissue and development of osteoarthritis (OA. To explore transcriptional mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of chondrocyte homeostasis and may be implicated in OA development, we compared the gene expression profile of a set of zinc finger proteins potentially linked to the control of chondrocyte differentiation and/or functions (ZNF423, ZNF470, ZNF521, and ZNF780B in chondrocytes from patients affected by OA and from subjects not affected by OA. This analysis highlighted a significantly lower expression of the transcript encoding ZNF423 in chondrocytes from OA, particularly in elderly patients. Interestingly, this decrease was mirrored by the similarly reduced expression of PPARγ, a known target of ZNF423 with anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective properties. The ZNF521 mRNA instead was abundant in all primary chondrocytes studied; the RNAi-mediated silencing of this gene significantly altered the COL2A/COL1 expression ratio, associated with the maintenance of the differentiated phenotype, in chondrocytes cultivated in alginate beads. These results suggest a role for ZNF423 and ZNF521 in the regulation of chondrocyte homeostasis and warrant further investigations to elucidate their mechanism of action.

  2. Cloning and comparative analysis of zinc-finger protein gene on Y-chromosome (ZFY between Thai Bangkaew dog and other Thai canids

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    Ukadej Boonyaprakob

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Thai Bangkaew dog is a Spitz-type dog that originated in Thailand. Legend has it that the dog is descended from hybrids between a native female dog and a male wild canid. To examine the mysterious story about the ancestry of the Thai Bangkaew dog's paternal lineage, sequence variation was examined for the last intron of the Y-chromosome-specific zinc-finger gene, ZFY, and its X homolog for male Thai Bangkaew dogs and other male Thai canids, including the Thai ridgeback and mixed breed dogs, Asiatic jackals (Canis aureus and a dhole (Cuon alpinus. A 1075-bp ZFY segment from DNA samples of Thai Bangkaew dogs was found to be 100% identical to the domestic dog ZFY and (if gaps are allowed showed 81% and 92% identity to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. However, if gaps were treated as missing data, the 1045-bp ZFY sequence for the Thai Bangkaew dogs was 100% identical to domestic dog ZFY and 99.5% to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. In addition, the 959-bp Thai Bangkaew ZFX fragments were identical and showed 100% identity to domestic dog ZFX. These genetic data suggest that the Thai Bangkaew dogs still present today share a common male ancestor with modern dogs, rather than being the descendants of dhole or jackal/dog hybrids.

  3. Genome-wide identification and characterization of stress-associated protein (SAP gene family encoding A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins in Medicago truncatula

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    Zhou Yong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress associated proteins (SAPs play important roles in developmental processes, responses to various stresses and hormone stimulation in plants. However, little is known about the SAP gene family in Medicago truncatula. In this study, a total of 17 MtSAP genes encoding A20/AN1 zinc-finger proteins were characterized. Out of these 17 genes, 15 were distributed over all 8 chromosomes at different densities, and two segmental duplication events were detected. The phylogenetic analysis of these proteins and their orthologs from Arabidopsis and rice suggested that they could be classified into five out of the seven groups of SAP family genes, with genes in the same group showing similar structures and conserved domains. The cis-elements of the MtSAP promoters were studied, and many cis-elements related to stress and plant hormone responses were identified. We also investigated the stress-responsive expression patterns of the MtSAP genes under various stresses, including drought, exposure to NaCl and cold. The qRT-PCR results showed that numerous MtSAP genes exhibited transcriptional responses to multiple abiotic stresses. These results lay the foundation for further functional characterization of SAP genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the SAP gene family in M. truncatula.

  4. Zinc finger nuclease-mediated precision genome editing of an endogenous gene in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) using a DNA repair template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yidong; Patron, Nicola; Kay, Pippa; Wong, Debbie; Buchanan, Margaret; Cao, Ying-Ying; Sawbridge, Tim; Davies, John P; Mason, John; Webb, Steven R; Spangenberg, German; Ainley, William M; Walsh, Terence A; Hayden, Matthew J

    2018-05-07

    Sequence-specific nucleases have been used to engineer targeted genome modifications in various plants. While targeted gene knockouts resulting in loss of function have been reported with relatively high rates of success, targeted gene editing using an exogenously supplied DNA repair template and site-specific transgene integration has been more challenging. Here, we report the first application of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN)-mediated, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-directed editing of a native gene in allohexaploid bread wheat to introduce, via a supplied DNA repair template, a specific single amino acid change into the coding sequence of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) to confer resistance to imidazolinone herbicides. We recovered edited wheat plants having the targeted amino acid modification in one or more AHAS homoalleles via direct selection for resistance to imazamox, an AHAS-inhibiting imidazolinone herbicide. Using a cotransformation strategy based on chemical selection for an exogenous marker, we achieved a 1.2% recovery rate of edited plants having the desired amino acid change and a 2.9% recovery of plants with targeted mutations at the AHAS locus resulting in a loss-of-function gene knockout. The latter results demonstrate a broadly applicable approach to introduce targeted modifications into native genes for nonselectable traits. All ZFN-mediated changes were faithfully transmitted to the next generation. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Nonintrusive Finger-Vein Recognition System Using NIR Image Sensor and Accuracy Analyses According to Various Factors

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    Tuyen Danh Pham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a technology that enables an individual person to be identified based on human physiological and behavioral characteristics. Among biometrics technologies, face recognition has been widely used because of its advantages in terms of convenience and non-contact operation. However, its performance is affected by factors such as variation in the illumination, facial expression, and head pose. Therefore, fingerprint and iris recognitions are preferred alternatives. However, the performance of the former can be adversely affected by the skin condition, including scarring and dryness. In addition, the latter has the disadvantages of high cost, large system size, and inconvenience to the user, who has to align their eyes with the iris camera. In an attempt to overcome these problems, finger-vein recognition has been vigorously researched, but an analysis of its accuracies according to various factors has not received much attention. Therefore, we propose a nonintrusive finger-vein recognition system using a near infrared (NIR image sensor and analyze its accuracies considering various factors. The experimental results obtained with three databases showed that our system can be operated in real applications with high accuracy; and the dissimilarity of the finger-veins of different people is larger than that of the finger types and hands.

  6. Nonintrusive Finger-Vein Recognition System Using NIR Image Sensor and Accuracy Analyses According to Various Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Young Ho; Nguyen, Dat Tien; Kwon, Seung Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-07-13

    Biometrics is a technology that enables an individual person to be identified based on human physiological and behavioral characteristics. Among biometrics technologies, face recognition has been widely used because of its advantages in terms of convenience and non-contact operation. However, its performance is affected by factors such as variation in the illumination, facial expression, and head pose. Therefore, fingerprint and iris recognitions are preferred alternatives. However, the performance of the former can be adversely affected by the skin condition, including scarring and dryness. In addition, the latter has the disadvantages of high cost, large system size, and inconvenience to the user, who has to align their eyes with the iris camera. In an attempt to overcome these problems, finger-vein recognition has been vigorously researched, but an analysis of its accuracies according to various factors has not received much attention. Therefore, we propose a nonintrusive finger-vein recognition system using a near infrared (NIR) image sensor and analyze its accuracies considering various factors. The experimental results obtained with three databases showed that our system can be operated in real applications with high accuracy; and the dissimilarity of the finger-veins of different people is larger than that of the finger types and hands.

  7. Identity of zinc finger nucleases with specificity to herpes simplex virus type II genomic DNA: novel HSV-2 vaccine/therapy precursors

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    Wayengera Misaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex type II (HSV-2 is a member of the family herpesviridae. Human infection with this double stranded linear DNA virus causes genital ulcerative disease and existing treatment options only serve to resolve the symptomatology (ulcers associated with active HSV-2 infection but do not eliminate latent virus. As a result, infection with HSV-2 follows a life-long relapsing (active versus latent course. On the basis of a primitive bacterium anti-phage DNA defense, the restriction modification (R-M system, we previously identified the Escherichia coli restriction enzyme (REase EcoRII as a novel peptide to excise or irreversibly disrupt latent HSV-2 DNA from infected cells. However, sequences of the site specificity palindrome of EcoRII 5'-CCWGG-3' (W = A or T are equally present within the human genome and are a potential source of host-genome toxicity. This feature has limited previous HSV-2 EcoRII based therapeutic models to microbicides only, and highlights the need to engineer artificial REases (zinc finger nucleases-ZFNs with specificity to HSV-2 genomic-DNA only. Herein, the therapeutic-potential of zinc finger arrays (ZFAs and ZFNs is identified and modeled, with unique specificity to the HSV-2 genome. Methods and results Using the whole genome of HSV-2 strain HG52 (Dolan A et al.,, and with the ZFN-consortium's CoDA-ZiFiT software pre-set at default, more than 28,000 ZFAs with specificity to HSV-2 DNA were identified. Using computational assembly (through in-silico linkage to the Flavobacterium okeanokoites endonuclease Fok I of the type IIS class, 684 ZFNs with specificity to the HSV-2 genome, were constructed. Graphic-analysis of the HSV-2 genome-cleavage pattern using the afore-identified ZFNs revealed that the highest cleavage-incidence occurred within the 30,950 base-pairs (~between the genomic context coordinates 0.80 and 1.00 at the 3' end of the HSV-2 genome. At approximately 3,095 bp before and after the

  8. Effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro using a novel zinc-finger nuclease-targeted gene knockout approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Wei; Yang, Xiang-Min; Tang, Juan; Wang, Shi-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Jiang, Jian-Li

    2015-03-01

    HAb18G/CD147 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and predominantly functions as an inducer of matrix metalloproteinase secretion for tumor invasion and metastasis. This study was designed to investigate the effects of HAb18G/CD147 knockout on hepatocellular carcinoma cells using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFNs)-targeted gene knockout approach. The HCC cell line SMMC-7721 was used for ZFNs-targeted cleavage of the HAb18G/CD147 gene. RT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect HAb18G/CD147 expression. HAb18G phenotypic changes following HAb18G/CD147 knockout in SMMC-K7721 cells were assessed using tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration and colony formation and flow cytometric assays. These data demonstrated that tumor cell adhesion, invasion, migration, and colony formation capabilities of SMMC-K7721 were significantly reduced compared to parental cells or SMMC-7721 with re-expression of HAb18G/CD147 protein transfected with HAb18G/CD147 cDNA. Moreover, knockout of HAb18G/CD147 expression also induced SMMC-K7721 cells to undergo apoptosis compared to SMMC-7721 and SMMC-R7721 (P CD147 reduced p53 levels in SMMC-R7721 cells, possibly through inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-MDM2 signaling pathway. The findings provide a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying HAb18G/CD147-induced progression of HCC cells.

  9. Genomic Knockout of Endogenous Canine P-Glycoprotein in Wild-Type, Human P-Glycoprotein and Human BCRP Transfected MDCKII Cell Lines by Zinc Finger Nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, Dominik; Delzer, Jürgen; Laplanche, Loic; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Sydor, Jens; Fricker, Gert

    2015-06-01

    To investigate whether it is possible to specifically suppress the expression and function of endogenous canine P-glycoprotein (cPgp) in Madin-Darby canine kidney type II cells (MDCKII) transfected with hPGP and breast cancer resistance protein (hBCRP) by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) producing sequence specific DNA double strand breaks. Wild-type, hPGP-transfected, and hBCRP-transfected MDCKII cells were transfected with ZFN targeting for cPgp. Net efflux ratios (NER) of Pgp and Bcrp substrates were determined by dividing efflux ratios (basal-to-apical / apical-to-basal) in over-expressing cell monolayers by those in wild-type ones. From ZFN-transfected cells, cell populations (ko-cells) showing knockout of cPgp were selected based on genotyping by PCR. qRT-PCR analysis showed the significant knock-downs of cPgp and interestingly also cMrp2 expressions. Specific knock-downs of protein expression for cPgp were shown by western blotting and quantitative targeted absolute proteomics. Endogenous canine Bcrp proteins were not detected. For PGP-transfected cells, NERs of 5 Pgp substrates in ko-cells were significantly greater than those in parental cells not transfected with ZFN. Similar result was obtained for BCRP-transfected cells with a dual Pgp and Bcrp substrate. Specific efflux mediated by hPGP or hBCRP can be determined with MDCKII cells where cPgp has been knocked out by ZFN.

  10. ATL9, a RING zinc finger protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity implicated in chitin- and NADPH oxidase-mediated defense responses.

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    Marta Berrocal-Lobo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs are signals detected by plants that activate basal defenses. One of these PAMPs is chitin, a carbohydrate present in the cell walls of fungi and in insect exoskeletons. Previous work has shown that chitin treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana induced defense-related genes in the absence of a pathogen and that the response was independent of the salicylic acid (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and ethylene (ET signaling pathways. One of these genes is ATL9 ( = ATL2G, which encodes a RING zinc-finger like protein. In the current work we demonstrate that ATL9 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The expression pattern of ATL9 is positively correlated with basal defense responses against Golovinomyces cichoracearum, a biotrophic fungal pathogen. The basal levels of expression and the induction of ATL9 by chitin, in wild type plants, depends on the activity of NADPH oxidases suggesting that chitin-mediated defense response is NADPH oxidase dependent. Although ATL9 expression is not induced by treatment with known defense hormones (SA, JA or ET, full expression in response to chitin is compromised slightly in mutants where ET- or SA-dependent signaling is suppressed. Microarray analysis of the atl9 mutant revealed candidate genes that appear to act downstream of ATL9 in chitin-mediated defenses. These results hint at the complexity of chitin-mediated signaling and the potential interplay between elicitor-mediated signaling, signaling via known defense pathways and the oxidative burst.

  11. Comparative functional analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins in response to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of TaRZs was markedly regulated by salt, dehydration, or cold stress. The TaRZ1 and TaRZ3 proteins were localized to the nucleus, whereas the TaRZ2 protein was localized to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. Germination of all three TaRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded compared with that of wild-type seeds under salt stress conditions, whereas germination of TaRZ2- or TaRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded under dehydration stress conditions. Seedling growth of TaRZ1-expressing transgenic plants was severely inhibited under cold or salt stress conditions, and seedling growth of TaRZ2-expressing plants was inhibited under salt stress conditions. By contrast, expression of TaRZ3 did not affect seedling growth of transgenic plants under any of the stress conditions. In addition, expression of TaRZ2 conferred freeze tolerance in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that different TaRZ family members play various roles in seed germination, seedling growth, and freeze tolerance in plants under abiotic stress.

  12. Efficient methods for targeted mutagenesis in zebrafish using zinc-finger nucleases: data from targeting of nine genes using CompoZr or CoDA ZFNs.

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    Raman Sood

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been shown that targeted mutagenesis using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs can be used to generate knockout zebrafish lines for analysis of their function and/or developing disease models. A number of different methods have been developed for the design and assembly of gene-specific ZFNs and TALENs, making them easily available to most zebrafish researchers. Regardless of the choice of targeting nuclease, the process of generating mutant fish is similar. It is a time-consuming and multi-step process that can benefit significantly from development of efficient high throughput methods. In this study, we used ZFNs assembled through either the CompoZr (Sigma-Aldrich or the CoDA (context-dependent assembly platforms to generate mutant zebrafish for nine genes. We report our improved high throughput methods for 1 evaluation of ZFNs activity by somatic lesion analysis using colony PCR, eliminating the need for plasmid DNA extractions from a large number of clones, and 2 a sensitive founder screening strategy using fluorescent PCR with PIG-tailed primers that eliminates the stutter bands and accurately identifies even single nucleotide insertions and deletions. Using these protocols, we have generated multiple mutant alleles for seven genes, five of which were targeted with CompoZr ZFNs and two with CoDA ZFNs. Our data also revealed that at least five-fold higher mRNA dose was required to achieve mutagenesis with CoDA ZFNs than with CompoZr ZFNs, and their somatic lesion frequency was lower (<5% when compared to CopmoZr ZFNs (9-98%. This work provides high throughput protocols for efficient generation of zebrafish mutants using ZFNs and TALENs.

  13. Two C3H Type Zinc Finger Protein Genes, CpCZF1 and CpCZF2, from Chimonanthus praecox Affect Stamen Development in Arabidopsis

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    Huamin Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox is a popular garden plant because of its flowering time, sweet fragrance, and ornamental value. However, research into the molecular mechanism that regulates flower development in wintersweet is still limited. In this study, we sought to investigate the molecular characteristics, expression patterns, and potential functions of two C3H-type zinc finger (CZF protein genes, CpCZF1 and CpCZF2, which were isolated from the wintersweet flowers based on the flower developmental transcriptome database. CpCZF1 and CpCZF2 were more highly expressed in flower organs than in vegetative tissues, and during the flower development, their expression profiles were associated with flower primordial differentiation, especially that of petal and stamen primordial differentiation. Overexpression of either CpCZF1 or CpCZF2 caused alterations on stamens in transgenic Arabidopsis. The expression levels of the stamen identity-related genes, such as AGAMOUS (AG, PISTILLATA (PI, SEPALLATA1 (SEP1, SEPALLATA2 (SEP2, SEPALLATA3 (SEP3, APETALA1 (AP1, APETALA2 (AP2, and boundary gene RABBIT EAR (RBE were significantly up-regulated in CpCZF1 overexpression lines. Additionally, the transcripts of AG, PI, APETALA3 SEP1-3, AP1, and RBE were markedly increased in CpCZF2 overexpressed plant inflorescences. Moreover, CpCZF1 and CpCZF2 could interact with each other by using yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Our results suggest that CpCZF1 and CpCZF2 may be involved in the regulation of stamen development and cause the formation of abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  14. TaCHP: a wheat zinc finger protein gene down-regulated by abscisic acid and salinity stress plays a positive role in stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Lv, Jian; Zhao, Xin; Ai, Xinghui; Zhu, Xinlei; Wang, Mengcheng; Zhao, Shuangyi; Xia, Guangmin

    2010-09-01

    The plant response to abiotic stresses involves both abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways. Here we describe TaCHP, a CHP-rich (for cysteine, histidine, and proline rich) zinc finger protein family gene extracted from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), is differentially expressed during abiotic stress between the salinity-sensitive cultivar Jinan 177 and its tolerant somatic hybrid introgression cultivar Shanrong No.3. TaCHP expressed in the roots of seedlings at the three-leaf stage, and the transcript localized within the cells of the root tip cortex and meristem. TaCHP transcript abundance was higher in Shanrong No.3 than in Jinan 177, but was reduced by the imposition of salinity or drought stress, as well as by the exogenous supply of ABA. When JN17, a salinity hypersensitive wheat cultivar, was engineered to overexpress TaCHP, its performance in the face of salinity stress was improved, and the ectopic expression of TaCHP in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) also improved the ability of salt tolerance. The expression level of a number of stress reporter genes (AtCBF3, AtDREB2A, AtABI2, and AtABI1) was raised in the transgenic lines in the presence of salinity stress, while that of AtMYB15, AtABA2, and AtAAO3 was reduced in its absence. The presence in the upstream region of the TaCHP open reading frame of the cis-elements ABRE, MYBRS, and MYCRS suggests that it is a component of the ABA-dependent and -independent signaling pathways involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. We suggest that TaCHP enhances stress tolerance via the promotion of CBF3 and DREB2A expression.

  15. Zinc Status Biomarkers and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Case Control Study

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    Erika P. S. Freitas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS involves pathophysiological alterations that might compromise zinc status. The aim of this study was to evaluate zinc status biomarkers and their associations with cardiometabolic factors in patients with MS. Our case control study included 88 patients with MS and 37 controls. We performed clinical and anthropometric assessments and obtained lipid, glycemic, and inflammatory profiles. We also evaluated zinc intake, plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, and 24-h urinary zinc excretion. The average zinc intake was significantly lower in the MS group (p < 0.001. Regression models indicated no significant differences in plasma zinc concentration (all p > 0.05 between the two groups. We found significantly higher erythrocyte zinc concentration in the MS group (p < 0.001 independent from co-variable adjustments. Twenty-four hour urinary zinc excretion was significantly higher in the MS group (p = 0.008, and adjustments for age and sex explained 21% of the difference (R2 = 0.21, p < 0.001. There were significant associations between zincuria and fasting blood glucose concentration (r = 0.479, waist circumference (r = 0.253, triglyceride concentration (r = 0.360, glycated hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.250, homeostatic model assessment—insulin resistance (r = 0.223, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration (r = 0.427 (all p < 0.05 in the MS group. Patients with MS had alterations in zinc metabolism mainly characterized by an increase in erythrocyte zinc and higher zincuria.

  16. Ankyrin repeat and zinc-finger domain-containing 1 mutations are associated with infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Haaften-Visser, Désirée Y.; Harakalova, Magdalena; Mocholi, Enric; Van Montfrans, Joris M.; Elkadri, Abdul; Rieter, Ester; Fiedler, Karoline; Van Hasselt, Peter M.; Triffaux, Emily M.M.; Van Haelst, Mieke M.; Nijman, Isaac J.; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Muise, Aleixo M.; Cuppen, Edwin; Houwen, Roderick H.J.; Coffer, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IO IBD) is an invalidating illness with an onset before 2 years of age and has a complex pathophysiology in which genetic factors are important. Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in an IO IBD patient and subsequent sequencing of the candidate

  17. The Fruitless gene in Nasonia displays complex sex-specific splicing and contains new zinc finger domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.; van de Zande, Louis; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Uyenoyama, Marcy

    The transcription factor Fruitless exerts a broad range of functions during Drosophila development, the most apparent of which is the determination of sexual behavior in males. Although fruitless sequences are found in other insect orders, little is known about fruitless structure and function

  18. Domain analysis of the Nematostella vectensis SNAIL ortholog reveals unique nucleolar localization that depends on the zinc-finger domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dattoli, A.A.; Hink, M.A.; DuBuc, T.Q.; Teunisse, B.J.; Goedhart, J.; Röttinger, E.; Postma, M.

    2015-01-01

    SNAIL transcriptional factors are key regulators during development and disease. They arose early during evolution, and in cnidarians such as Nematostella vectensis, NvSNAILA/B are detected in invaginating tissues during gastrulation. The function of SNAIL proteins is well established in bilaterians

  19. A Novel Strategy for Controlling the Metastatic Phenotype: Targeting the SNAG Repression Domain in the SNAIL Zinc-Finger Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Kingdom; anti– pan -cadherin and anti–"-SMA antibodies were from The Journal of Clinical Investigation http://www.jci.org Volume 117 Number 2...23. Lie-Venema, H., et al. 2003. Ets-1 and Ets-2 tran- scription factors are essential for normal coronary and myocardial development in chicken ...transcription. J. Biol. Chem. 273:18881–18890. 38. Weisman-Shomer, P., Cohen, E., and Fry , M. 2002. Distinct domains in the CArG-box binding fac- tor

  20. Zinc-induced Self-association of Complement C3b and Factor H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Ruodan; Tetchner, Stuart; Rodriguez, Elizabeth; Pao, Po-Jung; Gor, Jayesh; Lengyel, Imre; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits that are a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration contain both C3b and millimolar levels of zinc. C3 is the central protein of complement, whereas C3u is formed by the spontaneous hydrolysis of the thioester bridge in C3. During activation, C3 is cleaved to form active C3b, then C3b is inactivated by Factor I and Factor H to form the C3c and C3d fragments. The interaction of zinc with C3 was quantified using analytical ultracentrifugation and x-ray scattering. C3, C3u, and C3b associated strongly in >100 μm zinc, whereas C3c and C3d showed weak association. With zinc, C3 forms soluble oligomers, whereas C3u and C3b precipitate. We conclude that the C3, C3u, and C3b association with zinc depended on the relative positions of C3d and C3c in each protein. Computational predictions showed that putative weak zinc binding sites with different capacities exist in all five proteins, in agreement with experiments. Factor H forms large oligomers in >10 μm zinc. In contrast to C3b or Factor H alone, the solubility of the central C3b-Factor H complex was much reduced at 60 μm zinc and even more so at >100 μm zinc. The removal of the C3b-Factor H complex by zinc explains the reduced C3u/C3b inactivation rates by zinc. Zinc-induced precipitation may contribute to the initial development of sub-retinal pigment epithelial deposits in the retina as well as reducing the progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration in higher risk patients. PMID:23661701

  1. Anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoclastogenic effects of zinc finger protein A20 overexpression in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J-Y; Bae, W-J; Yi, J-K; Kim, G-T; Kim, E-C

    2016-08-01

    Although overexpression of the nuclear factor κB inhibitory and ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, its function in periodontal disease remains unknown. The aims of the present study were to evaluate A20 expression in patients with periodontitis and to study the effects of A20 overexpression, using a recombinant adenovirus encoding A20 (Ad-A20), on the inflammatory response and on osteoclastic differentiation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and nicotine-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The concentration of prostaglandin E2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and western blot analyses were used to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Osteoclastic differentiation was assessed in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages using conditioned medium from LPS- and nicotine-treated hPDLCs. A20 was upregulated in the gingival tissues and neutrophils from patients with periodontitis and in LPS- and nicotine-exposed hPDLCs. Pretreatment with A20 overexpression by Ad-A20 markedly attenuated LPS- and nicotine-induced production of prostaglandin E2 , as well as expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, A20 overexpression inhibited the number and size of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts, and downregulated osteoclast-specific gene expression. LPS- and nicotine-induced p38 phosphorylation and nuclear factor κB activation were blocked by Ad-A20. Ad-A20 inhibited the effects of nicotine and LPS on the activation of pan-protein kinase C, Akt, GSK-3β and protein kinase Cα. This study is the first to demonstrate that A20 overexpression has anti-inflammatory effects and blocks osteoclastic differentiation in a nicotine- and LPS-stimulated hPDLC model. Thus, A20 overexpression may be a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory bone loss diseases, such as periodontal disease. © 2015 John Wiley

  2. Critical role of zinc finger protein 521 in the control of growth, clonogenicity and tumorigenic potential of medulloblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Raffaella; Filocamo, Gessica; Iaccino, Enrico; Scicchitano, Stefania; Lupia, Michela; Chiarella, Emanuela; Mega, Tiziana; Bernaudo, Francesca; Pelaggi, Daniela; Mesuraca, Maria; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Semenkow, Samantha; Bar, Eli E; Kool, Marcel; Pfister, Stefan; Bond, Heather M; Eberhart, Charles G; Steinkühler, Christian; Morrone, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    The stem cell-associated transcription co-factor ZNF521 has been implicated in the control of hematopoietic, osteo-adipogenic and neural progenitor cells. ZNF521 is highly expressed in cerebellum and in particular in the neonatal external granule layer that contains candidate medulloblastoma cells-of-origin, and in the majority of human medulloblastomas. Here we have explored its involvement in the control of human and murine medulloblastoma cells. The effect of ZNF521 on growth and tumorigenic potential of human medulloblastoma cell lines as well as primary Ptc1-/+ mouse medulloblastoma cells was investigated in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays, by modulating its expression using lentiviral vectors carrying the ZNF521 cDNA, or shRNAs that silence its expression. Enforced overexpression of ZNF521 in DAOY medulloblastoma cells significantly increased their proliferation, growth as spheroids and ability to generate clones in single-cell cultures and semisolid media, and enhanced their migratory ability in wound-healing assays. Importantly, ZNF521-expressing cells displayed a greatly enhanced tumorigenic potential in nude mice. All these activities required the ZNF521 N-terminal motif that recruits the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase complex, which might therefore represent an appealing therapeutic target. Conversely, silencing of ZNF521 in human UW228 medulloblastoma cells that display high baseline expression decreased their proliferation, clonogenicity, sphere formation and wound-healing ability. Similarly, Zfp521 silencing in mouse Ptc1-/+ medulloblastoma cells drastically reduced their growth and tumorigenic potential. Our data strongly support the notion that ZNF521, through the recruitment of the NuRD complex, contributes to the clonogenic growth, migration and tumorigenicity of medulloblastoma cells.

  3. Identification of the zinc finger 216 (ZNF216) in human carcinoma cells: a potential regulator of EGFR activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincione, Gabriella; Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela; Tarantelli, Chiara; Savino, Luca; Ponti, Donatella; Marchisio, Marco; Lanuti, Paola; Sancilio, Silvia; Calogero, Antonella; Di Pietro, Roberta; Muraro, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) proteins, is aberrantly expressed or deregulated in tumors and plays pivotal roles in cancer onset and metastatic progression. ZNF216 gene has been identified as one of Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) induced by RTKs. Overexpression of ZNF216 protein sensitizes 293 cell line to TNF-α induced apoptosis. However, ZNF216 overexpression has been reported in medulloblastomas and metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Thus, the role of this protein is still not clearly understood. In this study, the inverse correlation between EGFR and ZNF216 expression was confirmed in various human cancer cell lines differently expressing EGFR. EGF treatment of NIH3T3 cells overexpressing both EGFR and ZNF216 (NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216), induced a long lasting activation of EGFR in the cytosolic fraction and an accumulation of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) more in the nuclear than in the cytosolic fraction compared to NIH3T3-EGFR cells. Moreover, EGF was able to stimulate an increased expression of ZNF216 in the cytosolic compartment and its nuclear translocation in a time-dependent manner in NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216. A similar trend was observed in A431 cells endogenously expressing the EGFR and transfected with Znf216. The increased levels of pEGFR and ZNF216 in the nuclear fraction of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells were paralleled by increased levels of phospho-MAPK and phospho-Akt. Surprisingly, EGF treatment of NIH3T3-EGFR/ZNF216 cells induced a significant increase of apoptosis thus indicating that ZNF216 could sensitize cells to EGF-induced apoptosis and suggesting that it may be involved in the regulation and effects of EGFR signaling. PMID:27732953

  4. Zinc finger nuclease mediated knockout of ADP-dependent glucokinase in cancer cell lines: effects on cell survival and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Richter

    Full Text Available Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN are powerful tools for editing genes in cells. Here we use ZFNs to interrogate the biological function of ADPGK, which encodes an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK, in human tumour cell lines. The hypothesis we tested is that ADPGK utilises ADP to phosphorylate glucose under conditions where ATP becomes limiting, such as hypoxia. We characterised two ZFN knockout clones in each of two lines (H460 and HCT116. All four clones had frameshift mutations in all alleles at the target site in exon 1 of ADPGK, and were ADPGK-null by immunoblotting. ADPGK knockout had little or no effect on cell proliferation, but compromised the ability of H460 cells to survive siRNA silencing of hexokinase-2 under oxic conditions, with clonogenic survival falling from 21±3% for the parental line to 6.4±0.8% (p = 0.002 and 4.3±0.8% (p = 0.001 for the two knockouts. A similar increased sensitivity to clonogenic cell killing was observed under anoxia. No such changes were found when ADPGK was knocked out in HCT116 cells, for which the parental line was less sensitive than H460 to anoxia and to hexokinase-2 silencing. While knockout of ADPGK in HCT116 cells caused few changes in global gene expression, knockout of ADPGK in H460 cells caused notable up-regulation of mRNAs encoding cell adhesion proteins. Surprisingly, we could discern no consistent effect on glycolysis as measured by glucose consumption or lactate formation under anoxia, or extracellular acidification rate (Seahorse XF analyser under oxic conditions in a variety of media. However, oxygen consumption rates were generally lower in the ADPGK knockouts, in some cases markedly so. Collectively, the results demonstrate that ADPGK can contribute to tumour cell survival under conditions of high glycolytic dependence, but the phenotype resulting from knockout of ADPGK is cell line dependent and appears to be unrelated to priming of glycolysis in these lines.

  5. MiRNA-205 modulates cellular invasion and migration via regulating zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita Shunichi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is often diagnosed at later stages until they are incurable. MicroRNA (miR is a small, non-coding RNA that negatively regulates gene expression mainly via translational repression. Accumulating evidence indicates that deregulation of miR is associated with human malignancies including ESCC. The aim of this study was to identify miR that could be specifically expressed and exert distinct biological actions in ESCC. Methods Total RNA was extracted from ESCC cell lines, OE21 and TE10, and a non-malignant human esophageal squamous cell line, Het-1A, and subjected to microarray analysis. Expression levels of miR that showed significant differences between the 2 ESCC and Het-1A cells based on the comprehensive analysis were analyzed by the quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR method. Then, functional analyses, including cellular proliferation, apoptosis and Matrigel invasion and the wound healing assay, for the specific miR were conducted. Using ESCC tumor samples and paired surrounding non-cancerous tissue obtained endoscopically, the association with histopathological differentiation was examined with quantitative RT-PCR. Results Based on the miR microarray analysis, there were 14 miRs that showed significant differences (more than 2-fold in expression between the 2 ESCC cells and non-malignant Het-1A. Among the significantly altered miRs, miR-205 expression levels were exclusively higher in 5 ESCC cell lines examined than any other types of malignant cell lines and Het-1A. Thus, miR-205 could be a specific miR in ESCC. Modulation of miR-205 expression by transfection with its precursor or anti-miR-205 inhibitor did not affect ESCC cell proliferation and apoptosis, but miR-205 was found to be involved in cell invasion and migration. Western blot revealed that knockdown of miR-205 expression in ESCC cells substantially enhanced expression of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2

  6. Zinc finger nuclease mediated knockout of ADP-dependent glucokinase in cancer cell lines: effects on cell survival and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Susan; Morrison, Shona; Connor, Tim; Su, Jiechuang; Print, Cristin G; Ronimus, Ron S; McGee, Sean L; Wilson, William R

    2013-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) are powerful tools for editing genes in cells. Here we use ZFNs to interrogate the biological function of ADPGK, which encodes an ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK), in human tumour cell lines. The hypothesis we tested is that ADPGK utilises ADP to phosphorylate glucose under conditions where ATP becomes limiting, such as hypoxia. We characterised two ZFN knockout clones in each of two lines (H460 and HCT116). All four clones had frameshift mutations in all alleles at the target site in exon 1 of ADPGK, and were ADPGK-null by immunoblotting. ADPGK knockout had little or no effect on cell proliferation, but compromised the ability of H460 cells to survive siRNA silencing of hexokinase-2 under oxic conditions, with clonogenic survival falling from 21±3% for the parental line to 6.4±0.8% (p = 0.002) and 4.3±0.8% (p = 0.001) for the two knockouts. A similar increased sensitivity to clonogenic cell killing was observed under anoxia. No such changes were found when ADPGK was knocked out in HCT116 cells, for which the parental line was less sensitive than H460 to anoxia and to hexokinase-2 silencing. While knockout of ADPGK in HCT116 cells caused few changes in global gene expression, knockout of ADPGK in H460 cells caused notable up-regulation of mRNAs encoding cell adhesion proteins. Surprisingly, we could discern no consistent effect on glycolysis as measured by glucose consumption or lactate formation under anoxia, or extracellular acidification rate (Seahorse XF analyser) under oxic conditions in a variety of media. However, oxygen consumption rates were generally lower in the ADPGK knockouts, in some cases markedly so. Collectively, the results demonstrate that ADPGK can contribute to tumour cell survival under conditions of high glycolytic dependence, but the phenotype resulting from knockout of ADPGK is cell line dependent and appears to be unrelated to priming of glycolysis in these lines.

  7. The correlation of prenatal zinc concentration and deficiency with anthropometric factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Hanachi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine the status of serum zinc in pregnant women in different gestational ages and correlation with socio-demographic and anthropometric factors in Iranian women referring to prenatal care public health clinics.We analyzed the zinc concentrations in plasma samples obtained at different gestational ages from 961 women and recorded BMI at the first trimester in pregnant women who were screened for a trial designed to evaluate the zinc concentration. Subjects were from different socio economical backgrounds and attended public health clinics for their prenatal care. All analyses were performed by SPSS (version 16. P values < 0.05 were considered significant.The results showed that after plasma zinc concentrations were adjusted with Parity, weight (early pregnancy, BMI (at early pregnancy, age and educational statues. Plasma zinc deficiency declined as gestational age progressed, however it was not significant. There was no significant correlation between zinc concentration, anthropometric, method of contraception and socio factors. However, there were significant relation between parity (p = 0.007 and weight at early pregnancy (p= 0.039 with serum zinc levels.We conclude that plasma zinc concentrations decreased during the late first trimester to the early third trimester and with parity. These findings may indicate that the deficient levels of zinc in the latter third of pregnancy suggest a tendency for insufficient maternal nutrition. However larger studies are required to support this finding.

  8. DPL-1 DP, LIN-35 Rb and EFL-1 E2F act with the MCD-1 zinc-finger protein to promote programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddien, Peter W; Andersen, Erik C; Huang, Michael C; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-04-01

    The genes egl-1, ced-9, ced-4, and ced-3 play major roles in programmed cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify genes that have more subtle activities, we sought mutations that confer strong cell-death defects in a genetically sensitized mutant background. Specifically, we screened for mutations that enhance the cell-death defects caused by a partial loss-of-function allele of the ced-3 caspase gene. We identified mutations in two genes not previously known to affect cell death, dpl-1 and mcd-1 (modifier of cell death). dpl-1 encodes the C. elegans homolog of DP, the human E2F-heterodimerization partner. By testing genes known to interact with dpl-1, we identified roles in cell death for four additional genes: efl-1 E2F, lin-35 Rb, lin-37 Mip40, and lin-52 dLin52. mcd-1 encodes a novel protein that contains one zinc finger and that is synthetically required with lin-35 Rb for animal viability. dpl-1 and mcd-1 act with efl-1 E2F and lin-35 Rb to promote programmed cell death and do so by regulating the killing process rather than by affecting the decision between survival and death. We propose that the DPL-1 DP, MCD-1 zinc finger, EFL-1 E2F, LIN-35 Rb, LIN-37 Mip40, and LIN-52 dLin52 proteins act together in transcriptional regulation to promote programmed cell death.

  9. Correction Factors Applied to Finger Dosimetry: A Theoretical Assessment of Appropriate Values for Use in Handling Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherbini, Sami; Ilas, Dan; Eckerman, Keith F.; DeCicco, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations limit the dose to the skin to 500 mSv per year. This is also the dose limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The operational quantity recommended by ICRP for quantifying dose to the skin is the personal dose equivalent, Hp(0.07) and is identical to NRC's shallow dose equivalent, Hs, also measured at a skin depth of 7 mg cm 2. However, whereas ICRP recommends averaging the dose to the skin over an area of 1 cm2 regardless of the size of the exposed area of skin, USNRC requires the shallow dose equivalent to be averaged over 10 cm2. To monitor dose to the skin of the hands of workers handling radioactive materials and particularly in radiopharmaceutical manufacturing facilities, which is the focus of this work, workers are frequently required to wear finger ring dosimeters. The dosimeters monitor the dose at the location of the sensitive element, but this is not the dose required to show compliance (i.e., the dose averaged over the highest exposed contiguous 10 cm2 of skin). Therefore, it may be necessary to apply a correction factor that enables estimation of the required skin dose from the dosimeter reading. This work explored the effects of finger ring placement and of the geometry of the radioactive materials being handled by the worker on the relationship between the dosimeter reading and the desired average dose. A mathematical model of the hand was developed for this purpose that is capable of positioning the fingers in any desired grasping configuration, thereby realistically modeling manipulation of any object. The model was then used with the radiation transport code MCNP to calculate the dose distribution on the skin of the hand when handling a variety of radioactive vials and syringes, as well as the dose to the dosimeter element. Correction factors were calculated using the results of these calculations and examined for any patterns that may be

  10. Transcription factor CgMTF-1 regulates CgZnT1 and CgMT expression in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under zinc stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Jie; Zhang, Linlin [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Li, Li, E-mail: lili@qdio.ac.cn [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); Li, Chunyan; Wang, Ting [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Guofan, E-mail: gfzhang@qdio.ac.cn [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CgMTF-1 and CgZnT1 were first identified in oysters. • CgMTF-1 localized in cell nucleus under unstressed conditions. • CgMTF-1 proteins could bind with the typical MRE motif. • CgMTF-1 activated CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoters and regulated their expressions under zinc exposure. - Abstract: Oysters accumulate zinc at high tissue concentrations, and the metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor (MTF) functions as the cellular zinc sensor that coordinates the expression of genes involved in zinc efflux and storage, as well as those that protect against metal toxicity. In this study, we cloned MTF-1 in oysters and examined its regulation mechanism for its classic target genes, including MTs and ZnT1 under zinc exposure conditions. We cloned CgMTF-1 and determined the subcellular locations of its protein product in HEK293 cells. CgMTF-1 has a 2826 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted polypeptide with 707 amino acid residues, showing six well-conserved zinc finger domains that are required for metal binding. In HEK293 cell lines, CgMTF-1 primarily localizes in the cell nucleus under unstressed conditions and nuclear translocation was not critical for the activation of this gene. We searched for CgMTF-1-regulated genes in oysters using RNA interference. Decreased expression levels of CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 were observed after CgMTF-1 interference (>70% inhibition) under zinc exposure, indicating the critical role of CgMTF-1 in the regulation of these genes. We searched for a direct regulation mechanism involving CgMTF-1 for CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 in vitro. EMSA experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 can bind with the MREs found in the CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoter regions. Additionally, luciferase reporter gene experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 could activate the CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 promoters. Overall, our results suggest that CgMTF-1 directly coordinates the regulation of CgMTs and CgZnT1 expression and plays

  11. Transcription factor CgMTF-1 regulates CgZnT1 and CgMT expression in Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) under zinc stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jie; Zhang, Linlin; Li, Li; Li, Chunyan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CgMTF-1 and CgZnT1 were first identified in oysters. • CgMTF-1 localized in cell nucleus under unstressed conditions. • CgMTF-1 proteins could bind with the typical MRE motif. • CgMTF-1 activated CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoters and regulated their expressions under zinc exposure. - Abstract: Oysters accumulate zinc at high tissue concentrations, and the metal response element (MRE)-binding transcription factor (MTF) functions as the cellular zinc sensor that coordinates the expression of genes involved in zinc efflux and storage, as well as those that protect against metal toxicity. In this study, we cloned MTF-1 in oysters and examined its regulation mechanism for its classic target genes, including MTs and ZnT1 under zinc exposure conditions. We cloned CgMTF-1 and determined the subcellular locations of its protein product in HEK293 cells. CgMTF-1 has a 2826 bp open reading frame that encodes a predicted polypeptide with 707 amino acid residues, showing six well-conserved zinc finger domains that are required for metal binding. In HEK293 cell lines, CgMTF-1 primarily localizes in the cell nucleus under unstressed conditions and nuclear translocation was not critical for the activation of this gene. We searched for CgMTF-1-regulated genes in oysters using RNA interference. Decreased expression levels of CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 were observed after CgMTF-1 interference (>70% inhibition) under zinc exposure, indicating the critical role of CgMTF-1 in the regulation of these genes. We searched for a direct regulation mechanism involving CgMTF-1 for CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 in vitro. EMSA experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 can bind with the MREs found in the CgZnT1, CgMT1 and CgMT4 promoter regions. Additionally, luciferase reporter gene experiments indicated that CgMTF-1 could activate the CgMT1, CgMT4, and CgZnT1 promoters. Overall, our results suggest that CgMTF-1 directly coordinates the regulation of CgMTs and CgZnT1 expression and plays

  12. Trigger Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  13. Friction factor of CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    zinc alloys using ring compression test at different temperatures from 303 K to 773 K. It is found that CP aluminium exhibits stick- ing whereas Al–Zn alloys do not exhibit sticking at elevated temperatures. Hot working of Al–Zn alloy is easier.

  14. Nuclear receptors from the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi lack a zinc-finger DNA-binding domain: lineage-specific loss or ancestral condition in the emergence of the nuclear receptor superfamily?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reitzel Adam M

    2011-02-01

    sponges have a similarly restricted NR complement supporting the hypothesis that the original NR was HNF4-like and that these lineages are the first two branches from the animal tree. The absence of a zinc-finger DNA-binding domain in the two ctenophore species suggests two hypotheses: this domain may have been secondarily lost within the ctenophore lineage or, if ctenophores are the first branch off the animal tree, the original NR may have lacked the canonical DBD. Phylogenomic analyses and categorization of NRs from all four early diverging animal phyla compared with the complement from bilaterians suggest the rate of NR diversification prior to the cnidarian-bilaterian split was relatively modest, with independent radiations of several NR subfamilies within the cnidarian lineage.

  15. Zinc Serum Level Can Be a Risk Factor In Babol Stroke Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijan AhmadiAhangar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. The role of zinc as a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of stroke was considered. Results: This cross-sectional study on 100 stroke patients in Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital and 100 control group from cohort master plan "Ageing and health projects Amirkola was conducted. Zinc levels Serum simultaneously with other blood tests in the early hours of hospitalization. Zinc serum level was defined 70 to 120 micrograms per deciliter. Findings: The difference in mean of zinc level in patients and control group was not significant (102.6±47.7 in control group vs 100.9±35.8 in patient, p=0.7. Difference in zinc Serum level had statically significant with IHD (under70 0 cases (0, 70 to120 8 cases (24, 120 and upper24 cases (75, p=0.003 and with type of stroke (under70 (3(3.3 hemorrhagic vs 0(0 ischemic, 70 to 120(19(21 vs6 (60, 120 and upper68 (75.6 vs4 (40, p=0.025 and also with patient and control group (under70 (3(3 in patient's vs 20(20 control group, 70 to 120(25(25 vs54 (54, 120 and upper72 (72 vs26 (26, p<0001. In patients group 72(73.5 of cases had zinc serum level above 120. HLP difference was significant in patient and control group (50(50 in control group vs 35(35 in patients, p=0.04. Regression logistic show that IHD (p<0001, OR=30, CI=6-152, HLP (p<0001, OR=4, CI=9.09-1.85, zinc serum level (p<0001, OR=15.5, CI=4-59.8 had significant role. Conclusions: Zinc serum levels, Ischemic Heart Disease, Hyperlipidemia were most risk factor that play role in Babol stroke patients.

  16. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk

  17. The effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, N Marta; Doménech, Eduardo; Barroso, Flora; Castells, Silvia; Cortabarria, Carmen; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2003-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation on linear growth, body composition, and growth factors in premature infants. Thirty-six preterm infants (gestational age: 32.0 +/- 2.1 weeks, birth weight: 1704 +/- 364 g) participated in a longitudinal double-blind, randomized clinical trial. They were randomly allocated either to the supplemental (S) group fed with a standard term formula supplemented with zinc (final content 10 mg/L) and a small quantity of copper (final content 0.6 mg/L), or to the placebo group fed with the same formula without supplementation (final content of zinc: 5 mg/L and copper: 0.4 mg/L), from 36 weeks postconceptional age until 6 months corrected postnatal age. At each evaluation, anthropometric variables and bioelectrical impedance were measured, a 3-day dietary record was collected, and a blood sample was taken. We analyzed serum levels of total alkaline phosphatase, skeletal alkaline phosphatase (sALP), insulin growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, IGF binding protein-1, zinc and copper, and the concentrations of zinc in erythrocytes. The S group had significantly higher zinc levels in serum and erythrocytes and lower serum copper levels with respect to the placebo group. We found that the S group had a greater linear growth (from baseline to 3 months corrected age: Delta score deviation standard length: 1.32 +/-.8 vs.38 +/-.8). The increase in total body water and in serum levels of sALP was also significantly higher in the S group (total body water: 3 months; corrected age: 3.8 +/-.5 vs 3.5 +/-.4 kg, 6 months; corrected age: 4.5 +/-.5 vs 4.2 +/-.4 kg; sALP: 3 months; corrected age: 140.2 +/- 28.7 vs 118.7 +/- 18.8 micro g/L). Zinc supplementation has a positive effect on linear growth in premature infants.

  18. Factors affecting the hot-dip zinc coatings structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sere, P.R.; Cuclcasi, J.D.; Elsner, C.I.; Sarli, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Coating solidification during hot-dip galvanizing is a very complex process due to Al-Fe, Al-Fe-Zn and Fe-Zn intermetallic compounds development . Fe-Zn intermetallics are brittle and detrimental for the coating ductility, while the diffusion towards the surface of a segregated insoluble alloying such as antimonium causes the sheet darkness. Steel of different roughness were hot-dip galvanized under different operation conditions using a laboratory scale simulator. The effect of steel roughness and process parameters upon coating characteristics were analysed. Experimental results showed that the steel roughness affects the coating thickness, zinc grain size and texture as well as the out-bursts development, while the process parameters affects the Fe 2 Al 5 morphology and antimonium segregation. (Author) 11 refs

  19. Factor Structure of Indices of the Second Derivative of the Finger Photoplethysmogram with Metabolic Components and Other Cardiovascular Risk Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kawada

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe second derivative of the finger photoplethysmogram (SDPTG is an indicator of arterial stiffness. The present study was conducted to clarify the factor structure of indices of the SDPTG in combination with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, to elucidate the significance of the SDPTG among various cardiovascular risk factors.MethodsThe SDPTG was determined in the second forefinger of the left hand in 1,055 male workers (mean age, 44.2±6.4 years. Among 4 waves of SDPTG components, the ratios of the height of the "a" wave to that of the "b" and "d" waves were expressed as b/a and d/a, and used as SDPTG indices for the analysis.ResultsPrincipal axis factoring analysis was conducted using age, SDPTG indices, components of MetS, and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP and uric acid. Three factors were extracted, and the SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age as the third factor. Metabolic components and the SDPTG indices were independently categorized. These three factors explained 44.4% of the total variation. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed age, d/a, serum uric acid, serum CRP, and regular exercise as independent determinants of the risk of MetS. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals were 1.08 (1.04 to 1.11, 0.10 (0.01 to 0.73, 1.24 (1.06 to 1.44, 3.59 (2.37 to 5.42, and 0.48 (0.28 to 0.82, respectively.ConclusionThe SDPTG indices were categorized in combination with age, and they differed in characteristics from components of MetS or inflammatory markers. In addition, this cross-sectional study also revealed decrease of the d/a as a risk factor for the development of MetS.

  20. Expression of RIZ1 protein (Retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger protein 1) in prostate cancer epithelial cells changes with cancer grade progression and is modulated in vitro by DHT and E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Valentina; Staibano, Stefania; Abbondanza, Ciro; Pasquali, Daniela; De Rosa, Caterina; Mascolo, Massimo; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Visconti, Daniela; De Bellis, Annamaria; Moncharmont, Bruno; De Rosa, Gaetano; Puca, Giovanni Alfredo; Bellastella, Antonio; Sinisi, Antonio Agostino

    2009-12-01

    The nuclear protein methyl-transferase Retinoblastoma-interacting zinc-finger protein 1 (RIZ1) is considered to be a downstream effector of estrogen action in target tissues. Silencing of RIZ1 expression is common in many tumors. We analyzed RIZ1 expression in normal and malignant prostate tissue and evaluated whether estradiol (E2) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) treatment modulated RIZ1 in cultured prostate epithelial cells (PEC). Moreover, we studied the possible involvement of RIZ1 in estrogen action on the EPN prostate cell line, constitutively expressing both estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and beta. RIZ1 protein, found in the nucleus of normal PECs by immunohistochemistry, was progressively lost in cancer tissues as the Gleason score increased and was only detected in the cytoplasmic compartment. RIZ1 transcript levels, as assayed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in primary PEC cultures, were significantly reduced in cancer cells (P DHT treatment significantly increased RIZ1 transcript and protein levels (P DHT or E2 treatment in vitro. Furthermore, the E2 effects on ER-expressing prostate cells involve RIZ1, which confirms a possible role for ER-mediated pathways in a non-classic E(2)-target tissue.

  1. Expression of a finger millet transcription factor, EcNAC1, in tobacco confers abiotic stress-tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkategowda Ramegowda

    Full Text Available NAC (NAM, ATAF1-2, and CUC2 proteins constitute one of the largest families of plant-specific transcription factors and have been shown to be involved in diverse plant processes including plant growth, development, and stress-tolerance. In this study, a stress-responsive NAC gene, EcNAC1, was isolated from the subtracted stress cDNA library generated from a drought adapted crop, finger millet, and characterized for its role in stress-tolerance. The expression analysis showed that EcNAC1 was highly induced during water-deficit and salt stress. EcNAC1 shares high amino acid similarity with rice genes that have been phylogenetically classified into stress-related NAC genes. Our results demonstrated that tobacco transgenic plants expressing EcNAC1 exhibit tolerance to various abiotic stresses like simulated osmotic stress, by polyethylene glycol (PEG and mannitol, and salinity stress. The transgenic plants also showed enhanced tolerance to methyl-viologen (MV induced oxidative stress. Reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and ROS-induced damage were noticed in pot grown transgenic lines under water-deficit and natural high light conditions. Root growth under stress and recovery growth after stress alleviation was more in transgenic plants. Many stress-responsive genes were found to be up-regulated in transgenic lines expressing EcNAC1. Our results suggest that EcNAC1 overexpression confers tolerance against abiotic stress in susceptible species, tobacco.

  2. Robotic hand and fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  3. [Limiting factors of waste land revegetation in indigenous zinc smelting areas of western Guizhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Jie; Xiao, Tang-Fu; Ao, Zi-Qiang; Xing, Jun; Ma, Huan-Cheng; Hu, Ting-Xing

    2007-03-01

    With indigenous zinc smelting waste residue, contaminated soil and background soil as test substrates, a pot experiment was conducted to study the growth characteristics of Lolium perenne and Trifolium pretense on these substrates. The results showed that the major limiting factors of waste land revegetation in indigenous zinc smelting areas of western Guizhou were the salt-alkali stress and the lower contents of organic matter, total N, available N and total K. The heavy metals in waste residue had a high concentration, but their available forms only occupied a small proportion, with low toxicity to plant but having potential harmful risk. Contaminated soil had lower concentrations of heavy metals than waste residue, but its contained heavy metals were more in available form. The constraints of revegetation on contaminated soil were the toxicity of heavy metals and the low contents of available P and K. Mixing contaminated soil with zinc smelting waste residue could be one of the effective approaches for the substrate amendment in indigenous zinc smelting areas.

  4. Is zinc deficiency a risk factor for atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, John H; Kwun, In-Sook

    2004-02-01

    The development of atherosclerosis is influenced by genetic, lifestyle and nutritional risk factors. Zn and metallothionein deficiency can enhance oxidative-stress-related signalling processes in endothelial cells, and since changes in available plasma Zn may affect the Zn status of the endothelium, Zn deficiency could be a risk factor for IHD. Although the association of Zn with many proteins is essential for their function, three key signalling processes are highlighted as being principal targets for the effect of Zn deficiency: the activation of NF-kappaB, the activation of caspase enzymes and the signalling of NO. The need to develop a reliable indicator of Zn status is critical to any epidemiological approach for studying the relationship between Zn status and disease incidence. Studies using appropriate animal models and investigating how the plasma Zn pool influences endothelial intracellular labile Zn would be helpful in appreciating the importance of Zn deficiency in atherogenesis.

  5. Contamination by human fingers. The Midas touch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwozdz, R.; Grass, F.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic activity is one of the causes of contamination in the human environment: contamination of air, water, top soils, plants and food products has complex effects on human health problems. Wear and abrasion of various surfaces are constant processes in daily life, and commonly include interaction between human fingers and surfaces of every conceivable material. New methods for investigation of trace transfer processes by human fingers are described. Results of transfer for commonly used metals such as gold, silver, zinc, cadmium, tin, cobalt, nickel, chromium and iron are presented. Relationship between transfer of metals by touch and the general problem of purity in analytical activities is briefly discussed. (author)

  6. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003249.htm Fingers that change color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fingers or toes may change color when they are exposed to cold temperatures or ...

  7. The construction of the zinc finger nucleases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michel Morange

    in yeast mitochondria, and to provide evidence that, in contrast to nuclear introns, some ... the yeast genome, and to use them to obtain large fragments of the yeast .... and flanking exons in wild-type and box3 mutants of cytochrome b reveals ...

  8. Differing Dynamics of Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Coordination: Two-finger and Four-Finger Tapping Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kodama

    Full Text Available Finger-tapping experiments were conducted to examine whether the dynamics of intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems can be described equally by the Haken-Kelso-Bunz model, which describes inter-limb coordination dynamics. This article reports the results of finger-tapping experiments conducted in both systems. Two within-subject factors were investigated: the phase mode and the number of fingers. In the intrapersonal experiment (Experiment 1, the participants were asked to tap, paced by a gradually hastening auditory metronome, looking at their fingers moving, using the index finger in the two finger condition, or the index and middle finger in the four-finger condition. In the interpersonal experiment (Experiment 2, pairs of participants performed the task while each participant used the outside hand, tapping with the index finger in the two finger condition, or the index and middle finger in the four-finger condition. Some results did not agree with the HKB model predictions. First, from Experiment 1, no significant difference was observed in the movement stability between the in-phase and anti-phase modes in the two finger condition. Second, from Experiment 2, no significant difference was found in the movement stability between the in-phase and anti-phase mode in the four-finger condition. From these findings, different coordination dynamics were inferred between intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems against prediction from the previous studies. Results were discussed according to differences between intrapersonal and interpersonal coordination systems in the availability of perceptual information and the complexity in the interaction between limbs derived from a nested structure.

  9. The membrane tethered transcription factor EcbZIP17 from finger millet promotes plant growth and enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Chopperla; Singh, Sonam; Raghavendrarao, Sangala; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Mohanty, Sasmita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Solanke, Amolkumar U

    2018-02-01

    The occurrence of various stresses, as the outcome of global climate change, results in the yield losses of crop plants. Prospecting of genes in stress tolerant plant species may help to protect and improve their agronomic performance. Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is a valuable source of superior genes and alleles for stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane tethered bZIP transcription factor from finger millet, EcbZIP17. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing this gene showed better vegetative growth and seed yield compared with wild type (WT) plants under optimal growth conditions and confirmed upregulation of brassinosteroid signalling genes. Under various abiotic stresses, such as 250 mM NaCl, 10% PEG6000, 400 mM mannitol, water withdrawal, and heat stress, the transgenic plants showed higher germination rate, biomass, primary and secondary root formation, and recovery rate, compared with WT plants. The transgenic plants exposed to an ER stress inducer resulted in greater leaf diameter and plant height as well as higher expression of the ER stress-responsive genes BiP, PDIL, and CRT1. Overall, our results indicated that EcbZIP17 improves plant growth at optimal conditions through brassinosteroid signalling and provide tolerance to various environmental stresses via ER signalling pathways.

  10. Studies on some influential factors of the zinc-activated carbon composite adsorbent on adsorptivity for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyai, Yoshitaka; Kitamura, Takao; Takagi, Norio; Katoh, Shunsaku; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi

    1978-01-01

    Factors, which influence the uranium adsorption of powdery composite adsorbent of basic zinc carbonate and activated carbon were studied. In the range studied, zinc content of the adsorbent was the most influential factor on the uranium adsorption, and the second influential factor was sea water volume and the third factor was adsorption period. Interactive effects were observed between zinc content and sea water volume, and between zinc content and adsorption period, and it was deduced that there existed the optimum value of sea water volume and adsorption period respectively for the zinc content of the adsorbent. Maximum uranium adsorption of adsorbent with 40% zinc content was observed at sea water volume of 15 liters and adsorption period of 25 hrs. As for temperature in the range of 15 - 35 0 C, the lower the temperature, the larger amount of adsorbed uranium was. The powdery adsorbent was made into granule, and its strength and its uranium adsorptivity were studied in relation to the granulating conditions. By use of PVA with degree of polymerization above 1,700 as binder, the granular adsorbent with the same strength as commercial granular activated carbon was obtained. PVA amount and its degree of polymerization gave only small effect on uranium adsorption of the adsorbent. Effect of granule size on the uranium adsorption rate in the range of 1 - 4 mm was that the uranium adsorption rate changed proportionally to surface area of assumed sphere. As a test for practical use, five times repetitions of adsorption and desorption were carried out on the same granular adsorbent. During the repetition the amount of adsorbed uranium rather increased, and desorption ratio of adsorbed uranium was constant at 91 - 93%. The weight loss of the adsorbent in a cycle of adsorption and desorption was about 3%. (author)

  11. Over-expression of a NAC 67 transcription factor from finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) confers tolerance against salinity and drought stress in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hifzur; Ramanathan, Valarmathi; Nallathambi, Jagedeeshselvam; Duraialagaraja, Sudhakar; Muthurajan, Raveendran

    2016-05-11

    NAC proteins (NAM (No apical meristem), ATAF (Arabidopsis transcription activation factor) and CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)) are plant-specific transcription factors reported to be involved in regulating growth, development and stress responses. Salinity responsive transcriptome profiling in a set of contrasting finger millet genotypes through RNA-sequencing resulted in the identification of a NAC homolog (EcNAC 67) exhibiting differential salinity responsive expression pattern. Full length cDNA of EcNAC67 was isolated, characterized and validated for its role in abiotic stress tolerance through agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation in a rice cultivar ASD16. Bioinformatics analysis of putative NAC transcription factor (TF) isolated from a salinity tolerant finger millet showed its genetic relatedness to NAC67 family TFs in related cereals. Putative transgenic lines of rice over-expressing EcNAC67 were generated through Agrobacterium mediated transformation and presence/integration of transgene was confirmed through PCR and southern hybridization analysis. Transgenic rice plants harboring EcNAC67 showed enhanced tolerance against drought and salinity under greenhouse conditions. Transgenic rice plants were found to possess higher root and shoot biomass during stress and showed better revival ability upon relief from salinity stress. Upon drought stress, transgenic lines were found to maintain higher relative water content and lesser reduction in grain yield when compared to non-transgenic ASD16 plants. Drought induced spikelet sterility was found to be much lower in the transgenic lines than the non-transgenic ASD16. Results revealed the significant role of EcNAC67 in modulating responses against dehydration stress in rice. No detectable abnormalities in the phenotypic traits were observed in the transgenic plants under normal growth conditions. Results indicate that EcNAC67 can be used as a novel source for engineering tolerance against drought and salinity

  12. Genetic Variations as Modifying Factors to Dietary Zinc Requirements—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlin J. Day

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to reduced cost and accessibility, the use of genetic testing has appealed to health professionals for personalising nutrition advice. However, translation of the evidence linking polymorphisms, dietary requirements, and pathology risk proves to be challenging for nutrition and dietetic practitioners. Zinc status and polymorphisms of genes coding for zinc-transporters have been associated with chronic diseases. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature to assess whether recommendations for zinc intake could be made according to genotype. Eighteen studies investigating 31 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in relation to zinc intake and/or status were identified. Five studies examined type 2 diabetes; zinc intake was found to interact independently with two polymorphisms in the zinc-transporter gene SLC30A8 to affect glucose metabolism indicators. While the outcomes were statistically significant, the small size of the effect and lack of replication raises issues regarding translation into nutrition and dietetic practice. Two studies assessed the relationship of polymorphisms and cognitive performance; seven studies assessed the association between a range of outcomes linked to chronic conditions in aging population; two papers described the analysis of the genetic contribution in determining zinc concentration in human milk; and two papers assessed zinc concentration in plasma without linking to clinical outcomes. The data extracted confirmed a connection between genetics and zinc requirements, although the direction and magnitude of the dietary modification for carriers of specific genotypes could not be defined. This study highlights the need to summarise nutrigenetics studies to enable health professionals to translate scientific evidence into dietary recommendations.

  13. Gold finger formation studied by high-resolution mass spectrometry and in silico methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laskay, Ü.A.; Garino, C.; Tsybin, Y.O.; Salassa, L.; Casini, A.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics studies were employed for characterizing the formation of two gold finger (GF) domains from the reaction of zinc fingers (ZF) with gold complexes. The influence of both the gold oxidation state and the ZF coordination sphere

  14. Zinc promotes the death of hypoxic astrocytes by upregulating hypoxia-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression via poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Chen; Liu, Wen-Lan; Liu, Ke-Jian

    2013-07-01

    Pathological release of excess zinc ions has been implicated in ischemic brain cell death. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In stroke, ischemia-induced zinc release and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) accumulation concurrently occur in the ischemic tissue. The present study tests the hypothesis that the presence of high intracellular zinc concentration is a major cause of modifications to PARP-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia, which significantly contributes to cell death during ischemia. Primary cortical astrocytes and C8-D1A cells were exposed to different concentrations of zinc chloride. Cell death rate and protein expression of HIF-1 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 were examined after 3-h hypoxic treatment. Although 3-h hypoxia or 100 μM of zinc alone did not induce noticeable cytotoxicity, their combination led to a dramatic increase in astrocytic cell death in a zinc-concentration-dependent manner. Exposure of astrocytes to hypoxia for 3 h remarkably increased the levels of intracellular zinc and HIF-1α protein, which was further augmented by added exogenous zinc. Notably, HIF-1α knockdown blocked zinc-induced astrocyte death. Moreover, knockdown of PARP-1, another important protein in the response of hypoxia, attenuated the overexpression of HIF-1α and reduced the cell death rate. Our studies show that zinc promotes hypoxic cell death through overexpression of the hypoxia response factor HIF-1α via the cell fate determine factor PARP-1 modification, which provides a novel mechanism for zinc-mediated ischemic brain injury. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Reducing anti-nutritional factor and enhancing yield with advancing time of planting and zinc application in grasspea in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Ashutosh; Fikre, Asnake; El-Moneim, Ali M Abd; Nakkoul, Hani; Singh, Murari

    2018-01-01

    Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important pulse crop for food, feed and sustainable crop production systems in Ethiopia. Despite its advantages in nutrition and adaptability to harsh climate and low fertile soil, it contains a neurotoxin, β-N-oxalyl-α,β-diamiono propionic acid (β-ODAP), which paralyses the lower limbs and is affected by genotypic and agronomic factors. To determine the effect of zinc application and planting date on yield and β-ODAP content of two genotypes, experiments were conducted in two regions of Ethiopia. The main effects of variety, sowing date and zinc and their interactions were significant (P zinc. For the improved grasspea variety, an application of 20 kg ha -1 zinc showed a reduction of β-ODAP from 0.15% to 0.088% at Debre Zeit and 0.14% to 0.08% at Sheno and increased its yield from 841 kg ha -1 to 2260 kg ha -1 at Debre Zeit and from 715 to 1835 kg ha -1 at Sheno. Early sowing showed a reduction in ODAP content in relation to the late sowing. An application of Zn beyond even 20 kg ha -1 with an early sowing is recommended for the improved variety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Multiple Fingers - One Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezkan, Alexandra; Manuel, Steven G; Colgate, J Edward; Klatzky, Roberta L; Peshkin, Michael A; Drewing, Knut

    2016-01-01

    The Gestalt theory of perception offered principles by which distributed visual sensations are combined into a structured experience ("Gestalt"). We demonstrate conditions whereby haptic sensations at two fingertips are integrated in the perception of a single object. When virtual bumps were presented simultaneously to the right hand's thumb and index finger during lateral arm movements, participants reported perceiving a single bump. A discrimination task measured the bump's perceived location and perceptual reliability (assessed by differential thresholds) for four finger configurations, which varied in their adherence to the Gestalt principles of proximity (small versus large finger separation) and synchrony (virtual spring to link movements of the two fingers versus no spring). According to models of integration, reliability should increase with the degree to which multi-finger cues integrate into a unified percept. Differential thresholds were smaller in the virtual-spring condition (synchrony) than when fingers were unlinked. Additionally, in the condition with reduced synchrony, greater proximity led to lower differential thresholds. Thus, with greater adherence to Gestalt principles, thresholds approached values predicted for optimal integration. We conclude that the Gestalt principles of synchrony and proximity apply to haptic perception of surface properties and that these principles can interact to promote multi-finger integration.

  17. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Du, Libo [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenlan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Yang [Center for Molecular Science, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hudson, Laurie G. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Liu, Ke Jian, E-mail: kliu@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  18. Arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xi; Zhou, Xixi; Du, Libo; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Yang; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of DNA repair is a recognized mechanism for arsenic enhancement of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage and carcinogenesis. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), a zinc finger DNA repair protein, has been identified as a sensitive molecular target for arsenic. The zinc finger domains of PARP-1 protein function as a critical structure in DNA recognition and binding. Since cellular poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity has been positively correlated with zinc status in cells, we hypothesize that arsenite binding-induced zinc loss from PARP-1 is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 activity, leading to inhibition of DNA repair. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of arsenite exposure with zinc deficiency, created by using the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, on 8-OHdG formation, PARP-1 activity and zinc binding to PARP-1 in HaCat cells. Our results show that arsenite exposure and zinc deficiency had similar effects on PARP-1 protein, whereas supplemental zinc reversed these effects. To investigate the molecular mechanism of zinc loss induced by arsenite, ICP-AES, near UV spectroscopy, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were utilized to examine arsenite binding and occupation of a peptide representing the first zinc finger of PARP-1. We found that arsenite binding as well as zinc loss altered the conformation of zinc finger structure which functionally leads to PARP-1 inhibition. These findings suggest that arsenite binding to PARP-1 protein created similar adverse biological effects as zinc deficiency, which establishes the molecular mechanism for zinc supplementation as a potentially effective treatment to reverse the detrimental outcomes of arsenic exposure. - Highlights: • Arsenite binding is equivalent to zinc deficiency in reducing PARP-1 function. • Zinc reverses arsenic inhibition of PARP-1 activity and enhancement of DNA damage. • Arsenite binding and zinc loss alter the conformation of zinc finger

  19. Effects of mine drainage on the River Hayle, Cornwall. Factors affecting concentrations of copper, zinc, and iron in water, sediments and dominant invertebrate fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B.E.

    1977-02-15

    Concentrations of copper, zinc and iron were measured in waters, sediments and invertebrates collected from the River Hayle. In river water at least 70% of copper and iron was associated with the ''particulate'' fraction whereas 80% of zinc was in the ''soluble'' form. Although total concentrations of zinc in water exceeded those of copper approximately ten fold, copper predominated over zinc in the sediments by a factor of approximately three. Iron was the most abundant metal recorded in both water and sediments. Seasonal differences in ''total'' metal content of waters suggested that concentrations of copper, zinc and iron increased during periods of high flow and decreased during lower flows. Copper concentrations in the sediment, unlike zinc and iron, showed markedly higher values during the summer sampling period when flows were minimal. In the ''free-living'' Trichoptera larvae, concentrations of copper and zinc in the tissue appeared to follow copper and zinc levels in the water. Similar relationships in Odonata and Plecoptera larvae were not obtained. Factors affecting animal/metal relationships are discussed with particular reference to adaptation shown by organisms exposed to high concentrations of heavy metals in their environment.

  20. Phylogenetic analysis of F-bZIP transcription factors indicates conservation of the zinc deficiency response across land plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Pedro Humberto Araújo R F; Lilay, Grmay Hailu; Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors control important developmental and physiological processes in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three gene F-bZIP subfamily has been associated with zinc deficiency and salt stress response. Benefiting from the present abundance of plant genomic...... data, we performed an evolutionary and structural characterization of plant F-bZIPs. We observed divergence during seed plant evolution, into two groups and inferred different selective pressures for each. Group 1 contains AtbZIP19 and AtbZIP23 and appears more conserved, whereas Group 2, containing...... of AtZIP4. A survey of AtZIP4 orthologs promoters across different plant taxa revealed an enrichment of the Zinc Deficiency Response Element (ZDRE) to which both AtbZIP19/23 bind. Overall, our results indicate that while the AtbZIP24 function in the regulation of the salt stress response may...

  1. WRKY transcription factor superfamily: Structure, origin and functions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    terminal ends contain the WRKYGQR amino acid sequence and a zinc-finger motif. WRKY transcription factors can regulate the expression of target genes that contain the W-box elements (C/T)TGAC(C/T) in the promoter regions by specifically ...

  2. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  3. VISIONS FOR FOOTWEAR TIP SHAPE ACCORDING TO THE CONFIGURATION FINGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MALCOCI Marina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Compatibility between the consumer and the interior leg permanent footwear raises a number of issues. And any new form of footwear is time for a new silhouette last. Fashion is a factor in determining the shape of the last significant role. The most important influence on fashion in footwear that has at one time is found in peak shape. During registered a variety of forms leading to the last, for example, pointed, oval, round, square, asymmetrical, curved, trapezoidal, etc. Each has added a tip top recommended. The paper analyzes the morphofunctional characteristic, namely, finger configuration. The configuration of the fingers is determined from the positions of all the fingers of one another, as are six variants. Analysis of the shape and configuration of the arm fingers allow us to make the following recommendations to consumers: people showing finger configuration as in variant V and VI are advised not to wear pointy shoes because of the limited movement of the foot, which favors the diversion finger I exterior and deformed finger V; persons who fall within I-IV variant can procure pointy shoes; a round-tipped shoes, square, curved or asymmetric may be purchased by any consumer regardless of the configuration of the fingers; shoes with cut edge must be present only in garderopa people in variant I and II; consumers whose configuration is like finger-VI and III variants are awkwardly shaped fingers can buy shoes closed in the previous summer, but of different perforations or overlapping strips.

  4. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic experiment. Four finger eating experts and three novices sat down for a hot meal and ate with their hands. Drawing on the technique of playing with the familiar and the strange, our aim was not to explain our responses, but to articulate them. As we seek...... words to do so, we are compelled to stretch the verb "to taste." Tasting, or so our ethnographic experiment suggests, need not be understood as an activity confined to the tongue. Instead, if given a chance, it may viscously spread out to the fingers and come to include appreciative reactions otherwise...

  5. A Finger Exoskeleton Robot for Finger Movement Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Heng Hsu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a finger exoskeleton robot has been designed and presented. The prototype device was designed to be worn on the dorsal side of the hand to assist in the movement and rehabilitation of the fingers. The finger exoskeleton is 3D-printed to be low-cost and has a transmission mechanism consisting of rigid serial links which is actuated by a stepper motor. The actuation of the robotic finger is by a sliding motion and mimics the movement of the human finger. To make it possible for the patient to use the rehabilitation device anywhere and anytime, an Arduino™ control board and a speech recognition board were used to allow voice control. As the robotic finger follows the patients voice commands the actual motion is analyzed by Tracker image analysis software. The finger exoskeleton is designed to flex and extend the fingers, and has a rotation range of motion (ROM of 44.2°.

  6. Mixing methods, tasting fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Anna; Mol, Annemarie; Satalkar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on an ethnographic experiment. Four finger eating experts and three novices sat down for a hot meal and ate with their hands. Drawing on the technique of playing with the familiar and the strange, our aim was not to explain our responses, but to articulate them. As we seek wo...

  7. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Trigger Finger Email to a friend * required fields ...

  8. Determination of the characteristics of a Schottky barrier formed by latent finger mark corrosion of brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J W

    2009-01-01

    The ideality factor (η) and barrier height (φ B ) for a metal-copper(I) oxide rectifying contact formed by the latent finger mark corrosion of α phase brass have been determined from forward bias I/V characteristics in the range 0.4 V ≤ V ≤ 0.55 V. Rectifying contacts formed from the finger mark deposits of different people gave η = 1.5-1.6 ± 0.1 and φ B = 0.49-0.52 ± 0.04 V. A Mott-Schottky plot of capacitance-voltage measurements in reverse bias gave the built in potential ψ bi = 0.4 ± 0.1 V, the gradient of the plot confirming the conductivity of the finger mark corrosion as p type. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra of the corrosion showed that Cu(I), Cu(II) and Zn(II) can co-exist on the surface, the Cu(I) : Cu(II) and Zn : Cu ratios determining whether a rectifying contact is formed. Initial findings suggest that when the concentration of Cu(I) dominates the Cu(I) : Cu(II) ratio (approximately 6 : 1), or when Cu(II) is absent, a rectifying contact can be formed subject to the Zn : Cu ratio being approximately 1 : 3. As the surface concentration of zinc increases, the rectifying contact is degraded until the concentration of zinc approaches that of copper when no evidence of a Schottky barrier is observed and the contact appears ohmic.

  9. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pešlová, F.; Kliber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 43-46 ISSN 0543-5846 Grant - others:KEGA(SK) KEGA 007 TnUAD-4/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * production of zinc oxide * microstructure * chemical composition * zinc slag Subject RIV: JG - Metal lurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  10. OsLOL1, a C2C2-type zinc finger protein, interacts with OsbZIP58 to promote seed germination through the modulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiahe; Zhu, Chuanfeng; Pang, Jinhuan; Zhang, Xiangrong; Yang, Chunlin; Xia, Guixian; Tian, Yingchuan; He, Chaozu

    2014-12-01

    Seed germination is a key developmental process in the plant life cycle that is influenced by various environmental cues and phytohormones through gene expression and a series of metabolism pathways. In the present study, we investigated a C2C2-type finger protein, OsLOL1, which promotes gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and affects seed germination in Oryza sativa (rice). We used OsLOL1 antisense and sense transgenic lines to explore OsLOL1 functions. Seed germination timing in antisense plants was restored to wild type when exogenous GA3 was applied. The reduced expression of the GA biosynthesis gene OsKO2 and the accumulation of ent-kaurene were observed during germination in antisense plants. Based on yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation analyses, OsLOL1 interacted with the basic leucine zipper protein OsbZIP58. The results from electrophoretic mobility shift and dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that OsbZIP58 binds the G-box cis-element of the OsKO2 promoter and activates LUC reporter gene expression, and that interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 activates OsKO2 gene expression. In addition, OsLOL1 decreased SOD1 gene expression and accelerated programmed cell death (PCD) in the aleurone layer of rice grains. These findings demonstrate that the interaction between OsLOL1 and OsbZIP58 influences GA biosynthesis through the activation of OsKO2 via OsbZIP58, thereby stimulating aleurone PCD and seed germination. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Molecular and functional characterization of pigeon (Columba livia) tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingying; Kang, Xilong; Xiong, Dan; Zhu, Shanshan; Zheng, Huijuan; Xu, Ying; Guo, Yaxin; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) plays a key antiviral role by promoting type I interferon production. We cloned the pigeon TRAF3 gene (PiTRAF3) according to its predicted mRNA sequence to investigate its function. The 1704-bp full-length open reading frame encodes a 567-amino acid protein. One Ring finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, one Coiled coil, and one MATH domain were inferred. RT-PCR showed that PiTRAF3 was expressed in all tissues, with relatively weak expression in the heart and liver. In HEK293T cells, over-expression of wild-type, △Ring, △Zinc finger, and △Coiled coil PiTRAF3, but not a △MATH form, significantly increased IFN-β promoter activity. Zinc finger and Coiled coil domains were essential for NF-κB activation. In chicken HD11 cells, PiTRAF3 increased IFN-β promoter activity and four domains were all contributing. R848 stimulation of pigeon peripheral blood mononuclear cells and splenocytes significantly increased expression of PiTRAF3 and the inflammatory cytokine genes CCL5, IL-8, and IL-10. These data demonstrate TRAF3's innate immune function and improve understanding of its involvement in poultry antiviral defense. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  13. Evaluations of Effective Factors on Efficiency Zinc Oxides Nanoparticles in Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Ehrampoush

    2014-09-01

    Results: The results indicated that the adsorption process is affected by different parameters such as initial pollutant concentrations, adsorbent dose, pH, and contact time and Cadmiumremoval efficiency increases with increasing adsorbent dose and reaction time and decreases with increasing initial concentration of Cadmium. Therefore, it is observed that by raising the initial Cadmium concentration, the adsorption rate increases. The maximum efficiency of adsorptionin pH=7amounted to 89.6%. Conclusion: It is concluded that Zinc Oxide nanoparticles have proper efficiency in removal of Cadmium from aqueous solutions and can be used in the treatment of wastewater that contains ion Cadmium. However, its efficiency is deeply dependent on ion strength and the interaction of other metals in wastewater.

  14. Duration and severity of symptoms and levels of plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor, and adhesion molecules in patients with common cold treated with zinc acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ananda S; Beck, Frances W J; Bao, Bin; Snell, Diane; Fitzgerald, James T

    2008-03-15

    Zinc lozenges have been used for treatment of the common cold; however, the results remain controversial. Fifty ambulatory volunteers were recruited within 24 h of developing symptoms of the common cold for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of zinc. Participants took 1 lozenge containing 13.3 mg of zinc (as zinc acetate) or placebo every 2-3 h while awake. The subjective scores for common cold symptoms were recorded daily. Plasma zinc, soluble interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1ra), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, soluble vascular endothelial cell adhesion molecule, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1 were assayed on days 1 and 5. Compared with the placebo group, the zinc group had a shorter mean overall duration of cold (4.0 vs. 7.1 days; P cold symptoms. We related the improvement in cold symptoms to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of zinc.

  15. Robust finger vein ROI localization based on flexible segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2013-10-24

    Finger veins have been proved to be an effective biometric for personal identification in the recent years. However, finger vein images are easily affected by influences such as image translation, orientation, scale, scattering, finger structure, complicated background, uneven illumination, and collection posture. All these factors may contribute to inaccurate region of interest (ROI) definition, and so degrade the performance of finger vein identification system. To improve this problem, in this paper, we propose a finger vein ROI localization method that has high effectiveness and robustness against the above factors. The proposed method consists of a set of steps to localize ROIs accurately, namely segmentation, orientation correction, and ROI detection. Accurate finger region segmentation and correct calculated orientation can support each other to produce higher accuracy in localizing ROIs. Extensive experiments have been performed on the finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, to verify the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method shows the segmentation accuracy of 100%. Furthermore, the average processing time of the proposed method is 22 ms for an acquired image, which satisfies the criterion of a real-time finger vein identification system.

  16. Robust Finger Vein ROI Localization Based on Flexible Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sun Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Finger veins have been proved to be an effective biometric for personal identification in the recent years. However, finger vein images are easily affected by influences such as image translation, orientation, scale, scattering, finger structure, complicated background, uneven illumination, and collection posture. All these factors may contribute to inaccurate region of interest (ROI definition, and so degrade the performance of finger vein identification system. To improve this problem, in this paper, we propose a finger vein ROI localization method that has high effectiveness and robustness against the above factors. The proposed method consists of a set of steps to localize ROIs accurately, namely segmentation, orientation correction, and ROI detection. Accurate finger region segmentation and correct calculated orientation can support each other to produce higher accuracy in localizing ROIs. Extensive experiments have been performed on the finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, to verify the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method shows the segmentation accuracy of 100%. Furthermore, the average processing time of the proposed method is 22 ms for an acquired image, which satisfies the criterion of a real-time finger vein identification system.

  17. Robust Finger Vein ROI Localization Based on Flexible Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yu; Xie, Shan Juan; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2013-01-01

    Finger veins have been proved to be an effective biometric for personal identification in the recent years. However, finger vein images are easily affected by influences such as image translation, orientation, scale, scattering, finger structure, complicated background, uneven illumination, and collection posture. All these factors may contribute to inaccurate region of interest (ROI) definition, and so degrade the performance of finger vein identification system. To improve this problem, in this paper, we propose a finger vein ROI localization method that has high effectiveness and robustness against the above factors. The proposed method consists of a set of steps to localize ROIs accurately, namely segmentation, orientation correction, and ROI detection. Accurate finger region segmentation and correct calculated orientation can support each other to produce higher accuracy in localizing ROIs. Extensive experiments have been performed on the finger vein image database, MMCBNU_6000, to verify the robustness of the proposed method. The proposed method shows the segmentation accuracy of 100%. Furthermore, the average processing time of the proposed method is 22 ms for an acquired image, which satisfies the criterion of a real-time finger vein identification system. PMID:24284769

  18. Distinct neural control of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the hand during single finger pressing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dupan, Sigrid S.G.; Stegeman, Dick F.; Maas, Huub

    2018-01-01

    Single finger force tasks lead to unintended activation of the non-instructed fingers, commonly referred to as enslaving. Both neural and mechanical factors have been associated with this absence of finger individuality. This study investigates the amplitude modulation of both intrinsic and

  19. Transcription factor ZBED6 mediates IGF2 gene expression by regulating promoter activity and DNA methylation in myoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc finger, BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6) is an important transcription factor in placental mammals, affecting development, cell proliferation and growth. In this study, we found that the expression of the ZBED6 and IGF2 were up regulated during C2C12 differentiation. The IGF2 expression levels wer...

  20. Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Kalpana; Eipeson, Sushma W; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2010-07-14

    Malted grains are extensively used in weaning and geriatric foods. Malting generally improves the nutrient content and digestibility of foods. The present investigation examined the influence of malting of finger millet, wheat, and barley on the bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium, copper, and manganese. Malting increased the bioaccessibility of iron by >3-fold from the two varieties of finger millet and by >2-fold from wheat, whereas such a beneficial influence was not seen in barley. The bioaccessibility of zinc from wheat and barley increased to an extent of 234 and 100%, respectively, as a result of malting. However, malting reduced the bioaccessibility of zinc from finger millet. Malting marginally increased the bioaccessibility of calcium from white finger millet and wheat. Whereas malting did not exert any influence on bioaccessibility of copper from finger millet and wheat, it significantly decreased (75%) the same from barley. Malting did increase the bioaccessibility of manganese from brown finger millet (17%) and wheat (42%). Thus, malting could be an appropriate food-based strategy to derive iron and other minerals maximally from food grains.

  1. Prevalence of prenatal zinc deficiency and its association with socio-demographic, dietary and health care related factors in Rural Sidama, Southern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Samson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies witnessed that prenatal zinc deficiency (ZD predisposes to diverse pregnancy complications. However, scientific evidences on the determinants of prenatal ZD are scanty and inconclusive. The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of prenatal ZD in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based, cross-sectional study was conducted in Sidama zone in January and February 2011. Randomly selected 700 pregnant women were included in the study. Data on potential determinants of ZD were gathered using a structured questionnaire. Serum zinc concentration was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Statistical analysis was done using logistic regression and linear regression. Results The mean serum zinc concentration was 52.4 (+/-9.9 μg/dl (95% CI: 51.6-53.1 μg/dl. About 53.0% (95% CI: 49.3-56.7% of the subjects were zinc deficient. The majority of the explained variability of serum zinc was due to dietary factors like household food insecurity level, dietary diversity and consumption of animal source foods. The risk of ZD was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.02-2.67 times higher among women from maize staple diet category compared to Enset staple diet category. Compared to pregnant women aged 15-24 years, those aged 25-34 and 35-49 years had 1.57 (95% CI: 1.04-2.34 and 2.18 (95% CI: 1.25-3.63 times higher risk of ZD, respectively. Women devoid of self income had 1.74 (95% CI: 1.11-2.74 time increased risk than their counterparts. Maternal education was positively associated to zinc status. Grand multiparas were 1.74 (95% CI: 1.09-3.23 times more likely to be zinc deficient than nulliparas. Frequency of coffee intake was negatively association to serum zinc level. Positive association was noted between serum zinc and hemoglobin concentrations. Altitude, history of iron supplementation, maternal workload, physical access to health service, antenatal care and nutrition education were

  2. Zinc Deficiency in Humans and its Amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Yashbir Singh Shivay

    2015-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency in humans has recently received considerable attention. Global mortality in children under 5 years of age in 2004 due to Zn deficiency was estimated at 4,53,207 as against 6,66,771 for vitamin A deficiency; 20,854 for iron deficiency and 3,619 for iodine deficiency. In humans 2800-3000 proteins contain Zn prosthetic group and Zn is an integral component of zinc finger prints that regulate DNA transcription. Zinc is a Type-2 nutrient, which means that its concentration in ...

  3. Robotic Finger Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Platt, Robert J., Jr. (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic hand includes a finger with first, second, and third phalanges. A first joint rotatably connects the first phalange to a base structure. A second joint rotatably connects the first phalange to the second phalange. A third joint rotatably connects the third phalange to the second phalange. The second joint and the third joint are kinematically linked such that the position of the third phalange with respect to the second phalange is determined by the position of the second phalange with respect to the first phalange.

  4. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J

    2011-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  5. Factors influencing the cytotoxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles: particle size and surface charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, M; Kim, M K; Cho, H J; Lee, J A; Yu, J; Chung, H E; Choi, S J, E-mail: sjchoi@swu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women' s University, 126 Gongneung 2-dong, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-774 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-06

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle is one of the most important materials in diverse applications, since it has UV light absorption, antimicrobial, catalytic, semi-conducting, and magnetic properties. However, there is little information about the toxicological effects of ZnO nanoparticles with respect to physicochemical properties. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the relationships between cytotoxicity and physicochemical properties of ZnO nanoparticle such as particle size and surface charge in human lung cells. Two different sizes of ZnO nanoparticles (20 and 70 nm) were prepared with positive (+) or negative (-) charge, and then, cytotoxicity of different ZnO nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring cell proliferation in short-term and long-term, membrane integrity, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results demonstrated that smaller particles exhibited high cytotoxic effects compared to larger particles in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and ROS generation. In addition, positively charged ZnO showed greater ROS production than ZnO with negative charge. These findings suggest that the cytoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles are strongly affected by their particle size and surface charge, highlighting the role of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles to understand and predict their potential adverse effects on human.

  6. Intensity Variation Normalization for Finger Vein Recognition Using Guided Filter Based Singe Scale Retinex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shan Juan; Lu, Yu; Yoon, Sook; Yang, Jucheng; Park, Dong Sun

    2015-07-14

    Finger vein recognition has been considered one of the most promising biometrics for personal authentication. However, the capacities and percentages of finger tissues (e.g., bone, muscle, ligament, water, fat, etc.) vary person by person. This usually causes poor quality of finger vein images, therefore degrading the performance of finger vein recognition systems (FVRSs). In this paper, the intrinsic factors of finger tissue causing poor quality of finger vein images are analyzed, and an intensity variation (IV) normalization method using guided filter based single scale retinex (GFSSR) is proposed for finger vein image enhancement. The experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in enhancing the image quality and finger vein recognition accuracy.

  7. Intensity Variation Normalization for Finger Vein Recognition Using Guided Filter Based Singe Scale Retinex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Juan Xie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Finger vein recognition has been considered one of the most promising biometrics for personal authentication. However, the capacities and percentages of finger tissues (e.g., bone, muscle, ligament, water, fat, etc. vary person by person. This usually causes poor quality of finger vein images, therefore degrading the performance of finger vein recognition systems (FVRSs. In this paper, the intrinsic factors of finger tissue causing poor quality of finger vein images are analyzed, and an intensity variation (IV normalization method using guided filter based single scale retinex (GFSSR is proposed for finger vein image enhancement. The experimental results on two public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in enhancing the image quality and finger vein recognition accuracy.

  8. Hidradenocarcinoma of the finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazerali, Rahim S; Tan, Cynthia; Fung, Maxwell A; Chen, Steven L; Wong, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare adnexal neoplasm representing the malignant counterpart of hidradenoma derived from eccrine sweat glands. Misdiagnosis of this disease is common due to the wide variety of histological patterns and rarity of this malignancy. We report an 87-year-old man presenting with a rare case of biopsy-proven hidradenocarcinoma of the finger. There is no standard care of treatment of hidradenocarcinoma, especially of those tumors in rare locations such as the fingers, given its rarity, variable tumor behavior and histology. Although limited treatment strategies exist, detailed data including TNM, location, histologic type and grade, and patient age should be gathered for optimal treatment strategy. The literature supports a 3-fold approach to these malignancies involving margin-free resection, sentinel lymph node biopsy to evaluate possible metastasis, and long-term follow-up given high risk of recurrence. Our treatment strategy involved a 4-fold, multidisciplinary approach involving reconstruction to optimize tumor-free remission and hand function.

  9. Differences in finger localisation performance of patients with finger agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Helen A; Kessels, Roy P C; de Haan, Edward H F; Kappelle, L Jaap; Leijten, Frans S; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2008-09-17

    Several neuropsychological studies have suggested parallel processing of somatosensory input when localising a tactile stimulus on one's own by pointing towards it (body schema) and when localising this touched location by pointing to it on a map of a hand (body image). Usually these reports describe patients with impaired detection, but intact sensorimotor localisation. This study examined three patients with a lesion of the angular gyrus with intact somatosensory processing, but with selectively disturbed finger identification (finger agnosia). These patients performed normally when pointing towards the touched finger on their own hand but failed to indicate this finger on a drawing of a hand or to name it. Similar defects in the perception of other body parts were not observed. The findings provide converging evidence for the dissociation between body image and body schema and, more importantly, reveal for the first time that this distinction is also present in higher-order cognitive processes selectively for the fingers.

  10. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  11. Zinc monotherapy increases serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and decreases depressive symptoms in overweight or obese subjects: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solati, Zahra; Jazayeri, Shima; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Mahmoodianfard, Salma; Gohari, Mahmood Reza

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown a positive effect of zinc as an adjunctive therapy on reducing depressive symptoms. However, to our knowledge, no study has examined the effect of zinc monotherapy on mood. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of zinc monotherapy on depressive symptoms and serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in overweight or obese subjects. Fifty overweight or obese subjects were randomly assigned into two groups and received either 30 mg zinc or placebo daily for 12 weeks. At baseline and post-intervention, depression severity was assessed using Beck depression inventory II (BDI II), and serum BDNF and zinc levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The trial was completed with 46 subjects. After a 12-week supplementation, serum zinc and BDNF levels increased significantly in the zinc-supplemented group compared with the placebo group. BDI scores declined in both the groups at the end of the study, but reduction in the zinc-supplemented group was significantly higher than the placebo group. More analysis revealed that following supplementation, BDI scores decreased in subgroup of subjects with depressive symptoms (BDI ≥ 10) (n = 30), but did not change in the subgroup of non-depressed subjects (BDI BDNF levels and depression severity in all participants. Interestingly, a significant positive correlation was found between serum BDNF and zinc levels at baseline. Zinc monotherapy improves mood in overweight or obese subjects most likely through increasing BDNF levels.

  12. Primary syphilis of the fingers

    OpenAIRE

    Starzycki, Z

    1983-01-01

    Six patients were seen with primary syphilitic chancres on their fingers between 1965 and 1980. Of these, two had bipolar chancres on their fingers and genitals resulting from sexual foreplay. Because syphilis is rarely suspected in such cases diagnostic errors are common.

  13. Identification and characterization of finger millet OPAQUE2 transcription factor gene under different nitrogen inputs for understanding their role during accumulation of prolamin seed storage protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Vikram Singh; Kumar, Lallan; Gupta, Supriya; Jaiswal, J P; Pandey, Dinesh; Kumar, Anil

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we report the isolation and characterization of the mRNA encoding OPAQUE2 (O2) like TF of finger millet (FM) ( Eleusine coracana) ( EcO2 ). Full-length EcO2 mRNA was isolated using conserved primers designed by aligning O2 mRNAs of different cereals followed by 3' and 5' RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The assembled full-length EcO2 mRNA was found to contain an ORF of 1248-nt coding the 416 amino acids O2 protein. Domain analysis revealed the presence of the BLZ and bZIP-C domains which is a characteristic feature of O2 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of EcO2 protein with other bZIP proteins identified using finger millet transcriptome data and O2 proteins of other cereals showed that EcO2 shared high sequence similarity with barley BLZ1 protein. Transcripts of EcO2 were detected in root, stem, leaves, and seed development stages. Furthermore, to investigate nitrogen responsiveness and the role of EcO2 in regulating seed storage protein gene expression, the expression profiles of EcO2 along with an α-prolamin gene were studied during the seed development stages of two FM genotypes (GE-3885 and GE-1437) differing in grain protein content (13.8 and 6.2%, respectively) grown under increasing nitrogen inputs. Compared to GE-1437, the EcO2 was relatively highly expressed during the S2 stage of seed development which further increased as nitrogen input was increased. The Ecα - prolamin gene was strongly induced in the high protein genotype (GE-3885) at all nitrogen inputs. These results indicate the presence of nitrogen responsiveness regulatory elements which might play an important role in accumulating protein in FM genotypes through modulating EcO2 expression by sensing plant nitrogen status.

  14. Emotional Communication in Finger Braille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Matsuda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe analyses of the features of emotions (neutral, joy, sadness, and anger expressed by Finger Braille interpreters and subsequently examine the effectiveness of emotional expression and emotional communication between people unskilled in Finger Braille. The goal is to develop a Finger Braille system to teach emotional expression and a system to recognize emotion. The results indicate the following features of emotional expression by interpreters. The durations of the code of joy were significantly shorter than the durations of the other emotions, the durations of the code of sadness were significantly longer, and the finger loads of anger were significantly larger. The features of emotional expression by unskilled subjects were very similar to those of the interpreters, and the coincidence ratio of emotional communication was 75.1%. Therefore, it was confirmed that people unskilled in Finger Braille can express and communicate emotions using this communication medium.

  15. Surgery for trigger finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Haroldo Junior; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Lenza, Mário; Gomes Dos Santos, Joao Baptista; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2018-02-20

    Trigger finger is a common clinical disorder, characterised by pain and catching as the patient flexes and extends digits because of disproportion between the diameter of flexor tendons and the A1 pulley. The treatment approach may include non-surgical or surgical treatments. Currently there is no consensus about the best surgical treatment approach (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different methods of surgical treatment for trigger finger (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches) in adults at any stage of the disease. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to August 2017. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed adults with trigger finger and compared any type of surgical treatment with each other or with any other non-surgical intervention. The major outcomes were the resolution of trigger finger, pain, hand function, participant-reported treatment success or satisfaction, recurrence of triggering, adverse events and neurovascular injury. Two review authors independently selected the trial reports, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Measures of treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes calculated risk ratios (RRs), and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When possible, the data were pooled into meta-analysis using the random-effects model. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. Fourteen trials were included, totalling 1260 participants, with 1361 trigger fingers. The age of participants included in the studies ranged from 16 to 88 years; and the majority of participants were women (approximately 70%). The average duration of symptoms ranged from three to 15 months, and the follow-up after the procedure ranged from eight weeks to 23 months.The studies reported nine types of comparisons: open surgery versus steroid injections (two

  16. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Dymáček, Petr; Pešlová, F.; Jurkovič, Z.; Barborák, O.; Stodola, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-410 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * metallography * microstructure of zinc * zinc oxide * production of zinc oxide Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  17. CUTANEOUS MYXOID CYST ON THE SCLEROTIC FINGER IN A PATIENT WITH DIFFUSE SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeko Nakamura-Wakatsuki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Skin tumors occurring on the scleroderma fingers are rarely seen. Swollen fingers are hallmarks of systemic sclerosis, and mucin deposition in the lesional skin is a constant feature in systemic sclerosis. Here we describe a case of cutaneous myxoid cyst on the flexor aspect of the sclerotic fingers in a patient with severe diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Cutaneous myxoid cyst is a relatively common benign tumor; however, cases of cutaneous myxoid cysts developing on the scleroderma fingers have not been reported to date. Mucin deposition in the sclerotic skin may be a predisposing factor in the induction of myxoid cyst on the scleroderma finger in our patient.

  18. Covering the Dorsal Finger Defect with Reverse Cross Finger Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Gurbuz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of finger extensor zone defects with or without tendon gaps still remains a challenge for surgeons. Although surgical treatments may differ, and range from the use of local, regional, to free flaps, the outcomes for all cases are not satisfactory. In this case report, we present a case of a 3rd finger extensor side crush injury including a defect of Dd (Digit Dorsal 1, Dd2 and Dd3 defects of extensor zones with tendon gap. Tendon gap was reconstructed using m. palmaris longus tendon graft and the defect was covered with reversed cross-finger flap (random pattern with good cosmetic and excellent functional results.

  19. Finger Forces in Clarinet Playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Hofmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Clarinettists close and open multiple tone holes to alter the pitch of the tones. Their fingering technique must be fast, precise, and coordinated with the tongue articulation. In this empirical study, finger force profiles and tongue techniques of clarinet students (N = 17 and professional clarinettists (N = 6 were investigated under controlled performance conditions. First, in an expressive-performance task, eight selected excerpts from the first Weber Concerto were performed. These excerpts were chosen to fit in a 2 x 2 x 2 design (register: low--high; tempo: slow--fast, dynamics: soft--loud. There was an additional condition controlled by the experimenter, which determined the expression levels (low--high of the performers. Second, a technical-exercise task, an isochronous 23-tone melody was designed that required different effectors to produce the sequence (finger-only, tongue-only, combined tongue-finger actions. The melody was performed in three tempo conditions (slow, medium, fast in a synchronization-continuation paradigm. Participants played on a sensor-equipped Viennese clarinet, which tracked finger forces and reed oscillations simultaneously. From the data, average finger force (Fmean and peak force (Fmax were calculated. The overall finger forces were low (Fmean = 1.17 N, Fmax = 3.05 N compared to those on other musical instruments (e.g. guitar. Participants applied the largest finger forces during the high expression level performance conditions (Fmean = 1.21 N.For the technical exercise task, timing and articulation information were extracted from the reed signal. Here, the timing precision of the fingers deteriorated the timing precision of the tongue for combined tongue-finger actions, especially for faster tempi. Although individual finger force profiles were overlapping, the group of professional players applied less finger force overall (Fmean = 0.54 N. Such sensor instruments provide useful insights into player

  20. Viscous fingering with permeability heterogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.; Homsy, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Viscous fingering in miscible displacements in the presence of permeability heterogeneities is studied using two-dimensional simulations. The heterogeneities are modeled as stationary random functions of space with finite correlation scale. Both the variance and scale of the heterogeneities are varied over modest ranges. It is found that the fingered zone grows linearly in time in a fashion analogous to that found in homogeneous media by Tan and Homsy [Phys. Fluids 31, 1330 (1988)], indicating a close coupling between viscous fingering on the one hand and flow through preferentially more permeable paths on the other. The growth rate of the mixing zone increases monotonically with the variance of the heterogeneity, as expected, but shows a maximum as the correlation scale is varied. The latter is explained as a ''resonance'' between the natural scale of fingers in homogeneous media and the correlation scale

  1. Polytopic dystelephalangy of the fingers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Y.

    1989-01-01

    An 11-year old girl with dystelephalangy (Kirner deformity) of the right middle, ring, and little, and the left index through little fingers is reported. To the author's best knowledge, such polytopic affection with dystelephalangy has not yet been reported. The parents, one of the siblings and maternal grandfather showed dystelephalangy of the little finger. So, the patient was considered to be a homozygous state of dystelephalangy gene. (orig.)

  2. Timing and extent of finger force enslaving during a dynamic force task cannot be explained by EMG activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mirakhorlo

    Full Text Available Finger enslaving is defined as the inability of the fingers to move or to produce force independently. Such finger enslaving has predominantly been investigated for isometric force tasks. The aim of this study was to assess whether the extent of force enslaving is dependent on relative finger movements. Ten right-handed subjects (22-30 years flexed the index finger while counteracting constant resistance forces (4, 6 and 8 N orthogonal to the fingertip. The other, non-instructed fingers were held in extension. EMG activities of the mm. flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS and extensor digitorum (ED in the regions corresponding to the index, middle and ring fingers were measured. Forces exerted by the non-instructed fingers increased substantially (by 0.2 to 1.4 N with flexion of the index finger, increasing the enslaving effect with respect to the static, pre-movement phase. Such changes in force were found 260-370 ms after the initiation of index flexion. The estimated MCP joint angle of the index finger at which forces exerted by the non-instructed fingers started to increase varied between 4° and 6°. In contrast to the finger forces, no significant changes in EMG activity of the FDS regions corresponding to the non-instructed fingers upon index finger flexion were found. This mismatch between forces and EMG of the non-instructed fingers, as well as the delay in force development are in agreement with connective tissue linkages being slack when the positions of the fingers are similar, but pulled taut when one finger moves relative to the others. Although neural factors cannot be excluded, our results suggest that mechanical connections between muscle-tendon structures were (at least partly responsible for the observed increase in force enslaving during index finger flexion.

  3. Integration of tactile input across fingers in a patient with finger agnosia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anema, H.A.; Overvliet, K.E.; Smeets, J.B.J.; Brenner, E.; Dijkerman, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Finger agnosia has been described as an inability to explicitly individuate between the fingers, which is possibly due to fused neural representations of these fingers. Hence, are patients with finger agnosia unable to keep tactile information perceived over several fingers separate? Here, we tested

  4. Decreased Serum Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF in Individuals with Bipolar Disorder Normalizes after Zinc and Anti-oxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Russo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess serum HGF concentration in individuals with bipolar disorder and investigate the efficacy of zinc therapy on these levels. Subjects and Methods Serum from 35 individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 19 age and gender similar controls were tested for HGF concentration using ELISAs, and copper and zinc plasma levels using inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Results HGF serum levels of individuals with bipolar disorder were significantly lower than age and gender similar controls ( P = 0.0021. HGF serum concentration was significantly lower in Bipolar patients pre-therapy ( P = 0.0009 and HGF levels normalized post-therapy. Zinc levels in these same individuals also normalized ( P = 0.0046 and patient's perceived severity of Bipolar symptoms significantly decreased after therapy ( P = 0.0003. We also found a significant direct correlation between Zinc and HGF serum concentration in the bipolar patients ( P = 0.04. Discussion These results suggest an association between low HGF levels and bipolar disorder and also demonstrate that zinc therapy may be associated with the normalization of HGF levels and decrease in severity of disease.

  5. Fusarium verticillioides from finger millet in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Esele, J P; Logrieco, Antonio; Ritieni, Alberto; Leslie, John F

    2012-01-01

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana) is a subsistence crop grown in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian Sub-continent. Fusarium species occurring on this crop have not been reported. Approximately 13% of the Fusarium isolates recovered from finger millet growing at three different locations in eastern Uganda belong to Fusarium verticillioides, and could produce up to 18,600 µg/g of total fumonisins when cultured under laboratory conditions. These strains are all genetically unique, based on AFLP analyses, and form fertile perithecia when crossed with the standard mating type tester strains for this species. All but one of the strains is female-fertile and mating-type segregates 13:20 Mat-1:Mat-2. Three new sequences of the gene encoding translation elongation factor 1-α were found within the population. These results indicate a potential health risk for infants who consume finger millet gruel as a weaning food, and are consistent with the hypothesis that F. verticillioides originated in Africa and not in the Americas, despite its widespread association with maize grown almost anywhere worldwide.

  6. Analysis and optimization of acoustic wave micro-resonators integrating piezoelectric zinc oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, O.; Zahr, A. H.; Orlianges, J.-C.; Crunteanu, A.; Chatras, M.; Blondy, P.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports on the design, simulation, fabrication, and test results of ZnO-based contour-mode micro-resonators integrating piezoelectric zinc oxide (ZnO) layers. The inter-digitated (IDT) type micro-resonators are fabricated on ZnO films and suspended top of 2 μm thick silicon membranes using silicon-on insulator technology. We analyze several possibilities of increasing the quality factor (Q) and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (kt2) of the devices by varying the numbers and lengths of the IDT electrodes and using different thicknesses of the ZnO layer. We designed and fabricated IDTs of different finger numbers (n = 25, 40, 50, and 80) and lengths (L = 100/130/170/200 μm) for three different thicknesses of ZnO films (200, 600, and 800 nm). The measured Q factor confirms that reducing the length and the number of IDT fingers enables us to reach better electrical performances at resonant frequencies around 700 MHz. The extracted results for an optimized micro-resonator device having an IDT length of 100 μm and 40 finger electrodes show a Q of 1180 and a kt2 of 7.4%. We demonstrate also that the reduction of the ZnO thickness from 800 nm to 200 nm increases the quality factor from 430 to 1600, respectively, around 700 MHz. Experimental data are in very good agreement with theoretical simulations of the fabricated devices

  7. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Zahi Gammoh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB, a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  8. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  9. Comparative evaluation of zinc oxide eugenol versus gelatin sponge soaked in plasma rich in growth factor in the treatment of dry socket: An initial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U. S.; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Verma, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report a comparison between the zinc oxide eugenol dressing and plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) with gelatin sponge in the treatment of dry socket. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 45 patients of dry socket in the span of one year. The patients were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of treatments: Group A (PRGF with gelatin sponge), group B (zinc oxide eugenol group), and group C (irrigation with sterile saline only). The clinical progress was noted at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 7th, and 15th day after the treatment. Results: Patient's healing was better in group A than in group B but symptomatic pain relief was faster in group B. Group C fared worst in both aspects. Conclusion: We conclude that PRGF with gelatin sponge might be a treatment of choice in the management of dry socket. PMID:23853450

  10. Comparative evaluation of zinc oxide eugenol versus gelatin sponge soaked in plasma rich in growth factor in the treatment of dry socket: An initial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to report a comparison between the zinc oxide eugenol dressing and plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF with gelatin sponge in the treatment of dry socket. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 45 patients of dry socket in the span of one year. The patients were randomly divided into three groups on the basis of treatments: Group A (PRGF with gelatin sponge, group B (zinc oxide eugenol group, and group C (irrigation with sterile saline only. The clinical progress was noted at 1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 7 th , and 15 th day after the treatment. Results: Patient′s healing was better in group A than in group B but symptomatic pain relief was faster in group B. Group C fared worst in both aspects. Conclusion: We conclude that PRGF with gelatin sponge might be a treatment of choice in the management of dry socket.

  11. Distinct neural control of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the hand during single finger pressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupan, Sigrid S G; Stegeman, Dick F; Maas, Huub

    2018-06-01

    Single finger force tasks lead to unintended activation of the non-instructed fingers, commonly referred to as enslaving. Both neural and mechanical factors have been associated with this absence of finger individuality. This study investigates the amplitude modulation of both intrinsic and extrinsic finger muscles during single finger isometric force tasks. Twelve participants performed single finger flexion presses at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction, while simultaneously the electromyographic activity of several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with all four fingers was recorded using 8 electrode pairs in the hand and two 30-electrode grids on the lower arm. The forces exerted by each of the fingers, in both flexion and extension direction, were recorded with individual force sensors. This study shows distinct activation patterns in intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles. Intrinsic muscles exhibited individuation, where the agonistic and antagonistic muscles associated with the instructed fingers showed the highest activation. This activation in both agonistic and antagonistic muscles appears to facilitate finger stabilisation during the isometric force task. Extrinsic muscles show an activation independent from instructed finger in both agonistic and antagonistic muscles, which appears to be associated with stabilisation of the wrist, with an additional finger-dependent modulation only present in the agonistic extrinsic muscles. These results indicate distinct muscle patterns in intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles during single finger isometric force pressing. We conclude that the finger specific activation of intrinsic muscles is not sufficient to fully counteract enslaving caused by the broad activation of the extrinsic muscles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new

  13. Factors that Affect the Content of Cadmium, Nickel, Copper and Zinc in Tissues of the Knee Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roczniak, Wojciech; Brodziak-Dopierała, Barbara; Cipora, Elżbieta; Jakóbik-Kolon, Agata; Kluczka, Joanna; Babuśka-Roczniak, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Osteoarthritis causes the degradation of the articular cartilage and periarticular bones. Trace elements influence the growth, development and condition of the bone tissue. Changes to the mineral composition of the bone tissue can cause degenerative changes and fractures. The aim of the research was to determine the content of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the tibia, the femur and the meniscus in men and women who underwent a knee replacement surgery. Samples were collected from 50 patients, including 36 women and 14 men. The determination of trace elements content were performed by ICP-AES method, using Varian 710-ES. Average concentration in the tissues of the knee joint teeth amounted for cadmium 0.015, nickel 0.60, copper 0.89 and zinc 80.81 mg/kg wet weight. There were statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, copper and zinc in different parts of the knee joint. There were no statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in women and men in the examined parts of the knee joint. Among the elements tested, copper and nickel showed a high content in the connective tissue (the meniscus) compared to the bone tissue (the tibia and the femur).

  14. Mesofluidic controlled robotic or prosthetic finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Randall F; Jansen, John F; Love, Lonnie J

    2013-11-19

    A mesofluidic powered robotic and/or prosthetic finger joint includes a first finger section having at least one mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a first actuator, a second mesofluidic actuator in fluid communication with a second actuator and a second prosthetic finger section pivotally connected to the first finger section by a joint pivot, wherein the first actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger to provide a first mechanical advantage relative to the joint point and wherein the second actuator pivotally cooperates with the second finger section to provide a second mechanical advantage relative to the joint point.

  15. Cyclic AMP Pathway Activation and Extracellular Zinc Induce Rapid Intracellular Zinc Mobilization in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, Lasse; Winther, Anne-Marie L.; Wilson, Duncan; Fuglsang, Anja T.

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient, required for a range of zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors. In mammalian cells, zinc serves as a second messenger molecule. However, a role for zinc in signaling has not yet been established in the fungal kingdom. Here, we used the intracellular zinc reporter, zinbo-5, which allowed visualization of zinc in the endoplasmic reticulum and other components of the internal membrane system in Candida albicans. We provide evidence for a link between cyclic AMP/PKA- and zinc-signaling in this major human fungal pathogen. Glucose stimulation, which triggers a cyclic AMP spike in this fungus resulted in rapid intracellular zinc mobilization and this “zinc flux” could be stimulated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and blocked via inhibition of adenylate cyclase or PKA. A similar mobilization of intracellular zinc was generated by stimulation of cells with extracellular zinc and this effect could be reversed with the chelator EDTA. However, zinc-induced zinc flux was found to be cyclic AMP independent. In summary, we show that activation of the cyclic AMP/PKA pathway triggers intracellular zinc mobilization in a fungus. To our knowledge, this is the first described link between cyclic AMP signaling and zinc homeostasis in a human fungal pathogen. PMID:29619016

  16. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  17. EMG finger movement classification based on ANFIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caesarendra, W.; Tjahjowidodo, T.; Nico, Y.; Wahyudati, S.; Nurhasanah, L.

    2018-04-01

    An increase number of people suffering from stroke has impact to the rapid development of finger hand exoskeleton to enable an automatic physical therapy. Prior to the development of finger exoskeleton, a research topic yet important i.e. machine learning of finger gestures classification is conducted. This paper presents a study on EMG signal classification of 5 finger gestures as a preliminary study toward the finger exoskeleton design and development in Indonesia. The EMG signals of 5 finger gestures were acquired using Myo EMG sensor. The EMG signal features were extracted and reduced using PCA. The ANFIS based learning is used to classify reduced features of 5 finger gestures. The result shows that the classification of finger gestures is less than the classification of 7 hand gestures.

  18. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  19. A conserved PHD finger protein and endogenous RNAi modulate insulin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansisidor, Andres R; Cecere, Germano; Hoersch, Sebastian; Jensen, Morten B; Kawli, Trupti; Kennedy, Lisa M; Chavez, Violeta; Tan, Man-Wah; Lieb, Jason D; Grishok, Alla

    2011-09-01

    Insulin signaling has a profound effect on longevity and the oxidative stress resistance of animals. Inhibition of insulin signaling results in the activation of DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/Nrf transcription factors and increased animal fitness. By studying the biological functions of the endogenous RNA interference factor RDE-4 and conserved PHD zinc finger protein ZFP-1 (AF10), which regulate overlapping sets of genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified an important role for these factors in the negative modulation of transcription of the insulin/PI3 signaling-dependent kinase PDK-1. Consistently, increased expression of pdk-1 in zfp-1 and rde-4 mutants contributed to their reduced lifespan and sensitivity to oxidative stress and pathogens due to the reduction in the expression of DAF-16 and SKN-1 targets. We found that the function of ZFP-1 in modulating pdk-1 transcription was important for the extended lifespan of the age-1(hx546) reduction-of-function PI3 kinase mutant, since the lifespan of the age-1; zfp-1 double mutant strain was significantly shorter compared to age-1(hx546). We further demonstrate that overexpression of ZFP-1 caused an increased resistance to oxidative stress in a DAF-16-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that epigenetic regulation of key upstream signaling components in signal transduction pathways through chromatin and RNAi may have a large impact on the outcome of signaling and expression of numerous downstream genes.

  20. [When doors slam, fingers jam!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, I; Toubal, K; Carnet, C; Rekhroukh, H; Zelmat, B; Debuisson, C; Cahuzac, J-P

    2007-08-01

    Epidemiological analysis in a universitary paediatric emergency unit of children admitted after accidental injuries resulting from fingers crushed in a door. Prospective, descriptive cohort study from September 6th, 2004 to July 1st, 2005 included all children admitted for finger injuries crushed in a non-automatic door. included accidents due to automatic doors, toy's or refrigerator doors, families who refused to participate to the study or families who had left the waiting area before medical examination. Collected data were patient and family characteristics, accident characteristics and its management. Three hundred and forty children affected by 427 digital lesions were included. The mean age was 5.5+/-3.8 years (range 4 months - 15.5 years). Male/female ratio was equal to 1.2: 1. Fifty-eight percent of patients belonged to families composed of 3 or more siblings. Ninety-three per cent of families came to hospital within the first 2 hours after the accident (mean delay 99+/-162 min, median range 54 minutes). Location of the accident was: domestic (62%, at home (64%)), at school (17%). Locations within the home were: the bedroom (33%), bathroom and toilets (21%). An adult was present in 75% of cases and responsible for the trauma in 25% of accidents, another child in 44%. The finger or fingers were trapped on the hinge side in 57% of patients. No specific safeguard devices were used by 94% of families. Among victims, 20% had several crushed digits; left and right hand were injured with an equal frequency. The commonest involved digits were: the middle finger (29%), the ring finger (23%). The nail plate was damaged in 60% of digital lesions, associated with a wound (50%), a distal phalanx fracture (P3) (12%). Six children had a partial or complete amputation of P3, 2 children a lesion of the extensor tendon, 1 child had a rupture of the external lateral ligament. Three percent of children required an admission to the paediatric orthopaedic surgery unit. Post

  1. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  2. Impact of Finger Type in Fingerprint Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon; Bours, Patrick; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph

    Nowadays fingerprint verification system is the most widespread and accepted biometric technology that explores various features of the human fingers for this purpose. In general, every normal person has 10 fingers with different size. Although it is claimed that recognition performance with little fingers can be less accurate compared to other finger types, to our best knowledge, this has not been investigated yet. This paper presents our study on the topic of influence of the finger type into fingerprint recognition performance. For analysis we employ two fingerprint verification software packages (one public and one commercial). We conduct test on GUC100 multi sensor fingerprint database which contains fingerprint images of all 10 fingers from 100 subjects. Our analysis indeed confirms that performance with small fingers is less accurate than performance with the others fingers of the hand. It also appears that best performance is being obtained with thumb or index fingers. For example, performance deterioration from the best finger (i.e. index or thumb) to the worst fingers (i.e. small ones) can be in the range of 184%-1352%.

  3. Optimization for Guitar Fingering on Single Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masaru; Hayashida, Takumi

    This paper presents an optimization method for guitar fingering. The fingering is to determine a unique combination of string, fret and finger corresponding to the note. The method aims to generate the best fingering pattern for guitar robots rather than beginners. Furthermore, it can be applied to any musical score on single notes. A fingering action can be decomposed into three motions, that is, a motion of press string, release string and move fretting hand. The cost for moving the hand is estimated on the basis of Manhattan distance which is the sum of distances along fret and string directions. The objective is to minimize the total fingering costs, subject to fret, string and finger constraints. As a sequence of notes on the score forms a line on time series, the optimization for guitar fingering can be resolved into a multistage decision problem. Dynamic programming is exceedingly effective to solve such a problem. A level concept is introduced into rendering states so as to make multiple DP solutions lead a unique one among the DP backward processes. For example, if two fingerings have the same value of cost at different states on a stage, then the low position would be taken precedence over the high position, and the index finger would be over the middle finger.

  4. Integration of tactile input across fingers in a patient with finger agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Helen A; Overvliet, Krista E; Smeets, Jeroen B J; Brenner, Eli; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2011-01-01

    Finger agnosia has been described as an inability to explicitly individuate between the fingers, which is possibly due to fused neural representations of these fingers. Hence, are patients with finger agnosia unable to keep tactile information perceived over several fingers separate? Here, we tested a finger agnosic patient (GO) on two tasks that measured the ability to keep tactile information simultaneously perceived by individual fingers separate. In experiment 1 GO performed a haptic search task, in which a target (the absence of a protruded line) needed to be identified among distracters (protruded lines). The lines were presented simultaneously to the fingertips of both hands. Similarly to the controls, her reaction time decreased when her fingers were aligned as compared to when her fingers were stretched and in an unaligned position. This suggests that she can keep tactile input from different fingers separate. In experiment two, GO was required to judge the position of a target tactile stimulus to the index finger, relatively to a reference tactile stimulus to the middle finger, both in fingers uncrossed and crossed position. GO was able to indicate the relative position of the target stimulus as well as healthy controls, which indicates that she was able to keep tactile information perceived by two neighbouring fingers separate. Interestingly, GO performed better as compared to the healthy controls in the finger crossed condition. Together, these results suggest the GO is able to implicitly distinguish between tactile information perceived by multiple fingers. We therefore conclude that finger agnosia is not caused by minor disruptions of low-level somatosensory processing. These findings further underpin the idea of a selective impaired higher order body representation restricted to the fingers as underlying cause of finger agnosia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Viscous Fingering in Deformable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian Hui; MacMinn, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Viscous fingering is a classical hydrodynamic instability that occurs when an invading fluid is injected into a porous medium or a Hele-Shaw cell that contains a more viscous defending fluid. Recent work has shown that viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is supressed when the flow cell is deformable. However, the mechanism of suppression relies on a net volumetric expansion of the flow area. Here, we study flow in a novel Hele-Shaw cell consisting of a rigid bottom plate and a flexible top plate that deforms in a way that is volume-conserving. In other words, fluid injection into the flow cell leads to a local expansion of the flow area (outward displacement of the flexible surface) that must be coupled to non-local contraction (inward displacement of the flexible surface). We explore the impact of this volumetric confinement on steady viscous flow and on viscous fingering. We would like to thank EPSRC for the funding for this work.

  6. On the relationship between finger width, velocity, and fluxes in thermohaline convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, K. R.; Singh, O. P.; Srinivasan, J.

    2009-02-01

    Double-diffusive finger convection occurs in many natural processes. The theories for double-diffusive phenomena that exist at present consider systems with linear stratification in temperature and salinity. The double-diffusive systems with step change in salinity and temperature are, however, not amenable to simple stability analysis. Hence factors that control the width of the finger, velocity, and fluxes in systems that have step change in temperature and salinity have not been understood so far. In this paper we provide new physical insight regarding factors that influence finger convection in two-layer double-diffusive system through two-dimensional numerical simulations. Simulations have been carried out for density stability ratios (Rρ) from 1.5 to 10. For each density stability ratio, the thermal Rayleigh number (RaT) has been systematically varied from 7×103 to 7×108. Results from these simulations show how finger width, velocity, and flux ratios in finger convection are interrelated and the influence of governing parameters such as density stability ratio and the thermal Rayleigh number. The width of the incipient fingers at the time of onset of instability has been shown to vary as RaT-1/3. Velocity in the finger varies as RaT1/3/Rρ. Results from simulation agree with the scale analysis presented in the paper. Our results demonstrate that wide fingers have lower velocities and flux ratios compared to those in narrow fingers. This result contradicts present notions about the relation between finger width and flux ratio. A counterflow heat-exchanger analogy is used in understanding the dependence of flux ratio on finger width and velocity.

  7. Construction of a multicontrol sterility system for a maize male-sterile line and hybrid seed production based on the ZmMs7 gene encoding a PHD-finger transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danfeng; Wu, Suowei; An, Xueli; Xie, Ke; Dong, Zhenying; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Liwen; Fang, Wen; Liu, Shensi; Liu, Shuangshuang; Zhu, Taotao; Li, Jinping; Rao, Liqun; Zhao, Jiuran; Wan, Xiangyuan

    2018-02-01

    Although hundreds of genetic male sterility (GMS) mutants have been identified in maize, few are commercially used due to a lack of effective methods to produce large quantities of pure male-sterile seeds. Here, we develop a multicontrol sterility (MCS) system based on the maize male sterility 7 (ms7) mutant and its wild-type Zea mays Male sterility 7 (ZmMs7) gene via a transgenic strategy, leading to the utilization of GMS in hybrid seed production. ZmMs7 is isolated by a map-based cloning approach and encodes a PHD-finger transcription factor orthologous to rice PTC1 and Arabidopsis MS1. The MCS transgenic maintainer lines are developed based on the ms7-6007 mutant transformed with MCS constructs containing the (i) ZmMs7 gene to restore fertility, (ii) α-amylase gene ZmAA and/or (iii) DNA adenine methylase gene Dam to devitalize transgenic pollen, (iv) red fluorescence protein gene DsRed2 or mCherry to mark transgenic seeds and (v) herbicide-resistant gene Bar for transgenic seed selection. Self-pollination of the MCS transgenic maintainer line produces transgenic red fluorescent seeds and nontransgenic normal colour seeds at a 1:1 ratio. Among them, all the fluorescent seeds are male fertile, but the seeds with a normal colour are male sterile. Cross-pollination of the transgenic plants to male-sterile plants propagates male-sterile seeds with high purity. Moreover, the transgene transmission rate through pollen of transgenic plants harbouring two pollen-disrupted genes is lower than that containing one pollen-disrupted gene. The MCS system has great potential to enhance the efficiency of maize male-sterile line propagation and commercial hybrid seed production. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Utrophin up-regulation by an artificial transcription factor in transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Mattei

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter "A". Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics.

  9. Dendrochemical patterns of calcium, zinc, and potassium related to internal factors detected by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin T.; Balouet, Jean Christophe; Shortle, Walter C.; Chalot, Michel; Beaujard, François; Grudd, Håkan; Vroblesky, Don A.; Burkem, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) provides highly sensitive and precise spatial resolution of cation content in individual annual growth rings in trees. The sensitivity and precision have prompted successful applications to forensic dendrochemistry and the timing of environmental releases of contaminants. These applications have highlighted the need to distinguish dendrochemical effects of internal processes from environmental contamination. Calcium, potassium, and zinc are three marker cations that illustrate the influence of these processes. We found changes in cation chemistry in tree rings potentially due to biomineralization, development of cracks or checks, heartwood/sapwood differentiation, intra-annual processes, and compartmentalization of infection. Distinguishing internal from external processes that affect dendrochemistry will enhance the value of EDXRF for both physiological and forensic investigations.

  10. Current status of ultrasonography of the finger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seun Ah; Kim, Baek Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Na [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung Hee [Incheon Baek Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The recent development of advanced high-resolution transducers has enabled the fast, easy, and dynamic ultrasonographic evaluation of small, superficial structures such as the finger. In order to best exploit these advances, it is important to understand the normal anatomy and the basic pathologies of the finger, as exemplified by the following conditions involving the dorsal, volar, and lateral sections of the finger: sagittal band injuries, mallet finger, and Boutonnière deformity (dorsal aspect); flexor tendon tears, trigger finger, and volar plate injuries (volar aspect); gamekeeper’s thumb (Stener lesions) and other collateral ligament tears (lateral aspect); and other lesions. This review provides a basis for understanding the ultrasonography of the finger and will therefore be useful for radiologists.

  11. Current status of ultrasonography of the finger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seun Ah Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of advanced high-resolution transducers has enabled the fast, easy, and dynamic ultrasonographic evaluation of small, superficial structures such as the finger. In order to best exploit these advances, it is important to understand the normal anatomy and the basic pathologies of the finger, as exemplified by the following conditions involving the dorsal, volar, and lateral sections of the finger: sagittal band injuries, mallet finger, and Boutonnière deformity (dorsal aspect; flexor tendon tears, trigger finger, and volar plate injuries (volar aspect; gamekeeper’s thumb (Stener lesions and other collateral ligament tears (lateral aspect; and other lesions. This review provides a basis for understanding the ultrasonography of the finger and will therefore be useful for radiologists.

  12. In the finger it lingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Mohamad

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 80-year-old woman presented with a history of a thorn prick injury over the distal phalange of her left finger obtained while gardening two months ago. She claimed to have a non-healing cut with a nodular lesion, which progressively increased in size, extending upwards towards the region of her left arm. There was no fever or palpable lymph nodes in the axillary region. She had been prescribed antibiotics from the local hospital but her condition did not improve.

  13. Instrumented Glove Measures Positions Of Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Glove instrumented with flat membrane potentiometers to obtain crude measurements of relative positions of fingers. Resistance of each potentiometer varies with position of associated finger; translator circuit connected to each potentiometer converts analog reading to 1 of 10 digital levels. Digitized outputs from all fingers fed to indicating, recording, and/or data-processing equipment. Gloves and circuits intended for use in biomedical research, training in critical manual tasks, and other specialized applications.

  14. Generating and analyzing synthetic finger vein images

    OpenAIRE

    Hillerström, Fieke; Kumar, Ajay; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The finger-vein biometric offers higher degree of security, personal privacy and strong anti-spoofing capabilities than most other biometric modalities employed today. Emerging privacy concerns with the database acquisition and lack of availability of large scale finger-vein database have posed challenges in exploring this technology for large scale applications. This paper details the first such attempt to synthesize finger-vein images and presents analysis of synthesized images fo...

  15. Application of autoradiography in finger print analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Kopejtko, J.; Simek, J.

    1983-01-01

    In order to broaden the possibilities of developing latent finger prints a tracer technique has been developed using sup(110m)Ag and autoradiographic imaging. This method has been tested on glass, paper and certain plastics. On paper it is possible to visualize finger prints even after previous development using Ninhydrin. It is shown that usable finger prints may be obtained also from materials from which they cannot be obtained using classical methods, e.g., polyethylene and simulated leather. (author)

  16. Zinc(II) and the single-stranded DNA binding protein of bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauss, P.; Krassa, K.B.; McPheeters, D.S.; Nelson, M.A.; Gold, L.

    1987-01-01

    The DNA binding domain of the gene 32 protein of the bacteriophage T4 contains a single zinc-finger sequence. The gene 32 protein is an extensively studied member of a class of proteins that bind relatively nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA. The authors have sequenced and characterized mutations in gene 32 whose defective proteins are activated by increasing the Zn(II) concentration in the growth medium. The results identify a role for the gene 32 protein in activation of T4 late transcription. Several eukaryotic proteins with zinc fingers participate in activation of transcription, and the gene 32 protein of T4 should provide a simple, well-characterized system in which genetics can be utilized to study the role of a zinc finger in nucleic acid binding and gene expression

  17. Interdependence of free zinc changes and protein complex assembly - insights into zinc signal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyła, Anna; Adamczyk, Justyna; Krężel, Artur

    2018-01-24

    Cellular zinc (Zn(ii)) is bound with proteins that are part of the proteomes of all domains of life. It is mostly utilized as a catalytic or structural protein cofactor, which results in a vast number of binding architectures. The Zn(ii) ion is also important for the formation of transient protein complexes with a Zn(ii)-dependent quaternary structure that is formed upon cellular zinc signals. The mechanisms by which proteins associate with and dissociate from Zn(ii) and the connection with cellular Zn(ii) changes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we aimed to examine how zinc protein domains with various Zn(ii)-binding architectures are formed under free Zn(ii) concentration changes and how formation of the Zn(ii)-dependent assemblies is related to the protein concentration and reactivity. To accomplish these goals we chose four zinc domains with different Zn(ii)-to-protein binding stoichiometries: classical zinc finger (ZnP), LIM domain (Zn 2 P), zinc hook (ZnP 2 ) and zinc clasp (ZnP 1 P 2 ) folds. Our research demonstrated a lack of changes in the saturation level of intraprotein zinc binding sites, despite various peptide concentrations, while homo- and heterodimers indicated a concentration-dependent tendency. In other words, at a certain free Zn(ii) concentration, the fraction of a formed dimeric complex increases or decreases with subunit concentration changes. Secondly, even small or local changes in free Zn(ii) may significantly affect protein saturation depending on its architecture, function and subcellular concentration. In our paper, we indicate the importance of interdependence of free Zn(ii) availability and protein subunit concentrations for cellular zinc signal regulation.

  18. Alterations in protein kinase C activity and processing during zinc-deficiency-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Susan S; Clegg, Michael S; Momma, Tony Y; Niles, Brad J; Duffy, Jodie Y; Daston, George P; Keen, Carl L

    2004-10-01

    Protein kinases C (PKCs) are a family of serine/threonine kinases that are critical for signal transduction pathways involved in growth, differentiation and cell death. All PKC isoforms have four conserved domains, C1-C4. The C1 domain contains cysteine-rich finger-like motifs, which bind two zinc atoms. The zinc-finger motifs modulate diacylglycerol binding; thus, intracellular zinc concentrations could influence the activity and localization of PKC family members. 3T3 cells were cultured in zinc-deficient or zinc-supplemented medium for up to 32 h. Cells cultured in zinc-deficient medium had decreased zinc content, lowered cytosolic classical PKC activity, increased caspase-3 processing and activity, and reduced cell number. Zinc-deficient cytosols had decreased activity and expression levels of PKC-alpha, whereas PKC-alpha phosphorylation was not altered. Inhibition of PKC-alpha with Gö6976 had no effect on cell number in the zinc-deficient group. Proteolysis of the novel PKC family member, PKC-delta, to its 40-kDa catalytic fragment occurred in cells cultured in the zinc-deficient medium. Occurrence of the PKC-delta fragment in mitochondria was co-incident with caspase-3 activation. Addition of the PKC-delta inhibitor, rottlerin, or zinc to deficient medium reduced or eliminated proteolysis of PKC-delta, activated caspase-3 and restored cell number. Inhibition of caspase-3 processing by Z-DQMD-FMK (Z-Asp-Gln-Met-Asp-fluoromethylketone) did not restore cell number in the zinc-deficient group, but resulted in processing of full-length PKC-delta to a 56-kDa fragment. These results support the concept that intracellular zinc concentrations influence PKC activity and processing, and that zinc-deficiency-induced apoptosis occurs in part through PKC-dependent pathways.

  19. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  20. Osseointegrated silicone finger prosthesis using dental implants: a renovated technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnakota, Dileep Nag; Sankar, V Vijay; Chirumamilla, Naveen; Reddy, V Vamsikrishna

    2014-11-01

    In clinical practice, we come across patients with traumatically amputated or congenitally missing partial or complete fingers that can be restored using microsurgical replantation or transplantation procedures. However, in some cases this might not be possible due to systemic or local factors and the lost or missing part has to be replaced prosthetically to offer psychological and functional wellbeing. These prostheses can be constructed with various materials like acrylics or silicone retained with the help of auxiliary aids. However, these prostheses cause some hindrance in performing functions like writing, typing, etc. The aim of the present trial was to ameliorate the existing design of implant supported finger prosthesis. Distal phalange of middle finger replaced with implant supported silicone finger prosthesis is modified by utilizing a metal framework to support silicone material to improve rigidity while working. We could achieve a good function, esthetics and tactile sensibility with this modified design. Whenever, feasible this design can improve the performance and patients feel a deep sense of satisfaction and improved self-esteem with this modified prosthesis.

  1. Generating and analyzing synthetic finger vein images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillerström, Fieke; Kumar, Ajay; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: The finger-vein biometric offers higher degree of security, personal privacy and strong anti-spoofing capabilities than most other biometric modalities employed today. Emerging privacy concerns with the database acquisition and lack of availability of large scale finger-vein database have

  2. Surgical Treatment of Trigger Finger: Open Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, open A1 pulley release results were evaluated in patients with a trigger finger diagnosis. 45 patients (29 females, 16 males, mean age 50.7 ± 11.9; range (24-79, 45 trigger fingers were released via open surgical technique. On the 25 of 45 cases were involved in the right hand and 16 of them were at the thumb, 2 at index, 6 at the middle and 1 at ring finger. Similarly, at the left hand, 15 of 20 cases were at the thumb, 1 at the index finger, 2 at middle finger and 2 at ring finger. Average follow-up time was 10.2 ± 2.7 (range, 6-15 months. Comorbidities in patients were; diabetes mellitus at 6 cases (13.3%, hypertension at 11 cases (24.4%, hyperthyroidism at 2 cases (4.4%, dyslipidemia at 2 cases (4.4% and lastly 2 cases had carpal tunnel syndrome operation. The mean time between the onset of symptoms to surgery was 6.9 ± 4.8 (range, 2-24 months. Patient satisfaction was very good in 34 cases (75.4% and good in 11 (24.6% patients. The distance between the pulpa of the operated finger and the palm was normal in every case postoperatively. We have not encountered any postoperative complications. We can recommend that; A1 pulley release via open incision is an effective and reliable method in trigger finger surgery.

  3. Number to finger mapping is topological.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, M.A.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that humans associate fingers with numbers because finger counting strategies interact with numerical judgements. At the same time, there is evidence that there is a relation between number magnitude and space as small to large numbers seem to be represented from left to right. In

  4. Nature or Nurture in finger counting: a review on the determinants of the direction of number-finger mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola ePrevitali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous use of finger counting has been for long recognised as critical to the acquisition of number skills. Recently, the great interest on space-number associations shifted attention to the practice of finger counting itself, and specifically, to its spatial components. Besides general cross-cultural differences in mapping numbers onto fingers, contrasting results have been reported with regard to the directional features of this mapping. The key issue we address is to what extent directionality is culturally-mediated, i.e., linked to the conventional reading-writing system direction, and/or biologically determined, i.e. linked to hand dominance. Although the preferred starting hand for counting seems to depend on the surveyed population, even within the same population high inter-individual variability minimises the role of cultural factors. Even if so far largely overlooked, handedness represents a sound candidate for shaping finger counting direction. Here we discuss adults and developmental evidence in support of this view and we reconsider the plausibility of multiple and coexistent number-space mapping in physical and representational space.

  5. Generic Automated Multi-function Finger Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpardaz, M.; Tarkian, M.; Sirkett, D.; Ölvander, J.; Feng, X.; Elf, J.; Sjögren, R.

    2016-11-01

    Multi-function fingers that are able to handle multiple workpieces are crucial in improvement of a robot workcell. Design automation of multi-function fingers is highly demanded by robot industries to overcome the current iterative, time consuming and complex manual design process. However, the existing approaches for the multi-function finger design automation are unable to entirely meet the robot industries’ need. This paper proposes a generic approach for design automation of multi-function fingers. The proposed approach completely automates the design process and requires no expert skill. In addition, this approach executes the design process much faster than the current manual process. To validate the approach, multi-function fingers are successfully designed for two case studies. Further, the results are discussed and benchmarked with existing approaches.

  6. Electrokinetic Control of Viscous Fingering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2017-10-01

    We present a theory of the interfacial stability of two immiscible electrolytes under the coupled action of pressure gradients and electric fields in a Hele-Shaw cell or porous medium. Mathematically, our theory describes a phenomenon of "vector Laplacian growth," in which the interface moves in response to the gradient of a vector-valued potential function through a generalized mobility tensor. Physically, we extend the classical Saffman-Taylor problem to electrolytes by incorporating electrokinetic (EK) phenomena. A surprising prediction is that viscous fingering can be controlled by varying the injection ratio of electric current to flow rate. Beyond a critical injection ratio, stability depends only upon the relative direction of flow and current, regardless of the viscosity ratio. Possible applications include porous materials processing, electrically enhanced oil recovery, and EK remediation of contaminated soils.

  7. Production of zinc pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  8. 21 CFR 582.5994 - Zinc stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5994 Zinc stearate. (a) Product. Zinc stearate prepared from stearic acid free from chick-edema factor. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  9. Advanced analysis of finger-tapping performance: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cağatay; Kızıltan, Erhan; Gelir, Ethem; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-06-01

    The finger-tapping test is a commonly employed quantitative assessment tool used to measure motor performance in the upper extremities. This task is a complex motion that is affected by external stimuli, mood and health status. The complexity of this task is difficult to explain with a single average intertap-interval value (time difference between successive tappings) which only provides general information and neglects the temporal effects of the aforementioned factors. This study evaluated the time course of average intertap-interval values and the patterns of variation in both the right and left hands of right-handed subjects using a computer-based finger-tapping system. Cross sectional study. Thirty eight male individuals aged between 20 and 28 years (Mean±SD = 22.24±1.65) participated in the study. Participants were asked to perform single-finger-tapping test for 10 seconds of test period. Only the results of right-handed (RH) 35 participants were considered in this study. The test records the time of tapping and saves data as the time difference between successive tappings for further analysis. The average number of tappings and the temporal fluctuation patterns of the intertap-intervals were calculated and compared. The variations in the intertap-interval were evaluated with the best curve fit method. An average tapping speed or tapping rate can reliably be defined for a single-finger tapping test by analysing the graphically presented data of the number of tappings within the test period. However, a different presentation of the same data, namely the intertap-interval values, shows temporal variation as the number of tapping increases. Curve fitting applications indicate that the variation has a biphasic nature. The measures obtained in this study reflect the complex nature of the finger-tapping task and are suggested to provide reliable information regarding hand performance. Moreover, the equation reflects both the variations in and the general

  10. Influence of usual zinc intake and zinc in a meal on 65Zn retention and turnover in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.; Johnson, P.E.; Swan, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    The influences of zinc in a meal and usual zinc intake on zinc retention and turnover were investigated in 7-wk-old male rats fed diets containing 12-151 mg Zn/kg for 3 wk before and after consuming a 65 Zn-labeled meal containing ZnCl 2 . Retention corrected to zero time and turnover rate were determined by whole-body counting. Percent zinc retention was inversely proportional to the natural logarithm of the meal zinc, between 0.09 and 26 mumol. In comparison to lower doses, higher doses resulted in lower percent retention but greater amounts of zinc retained. Although the latter relationship was slightly curvilinear, there was no indication of a limited capacity for zinc retention with high doses. However, doses above 4 mumol resulted in higher turnover rates in rats accustomed to lower zinc intakes. Percent retention and the reciprocal of the turnover rate were proportional to the reciprocal of the dietary zinc concentration. The greatest differences in retention and turnover occurred between 12 and 26 mg Zn/kg diet. The zinc dose in a meal and the usual dietary zinc separately influenced percent zinc retention. These factors also interacted, such that greater dose effects were observed at lower zinc intakes and greater dietary zinc effects were observed at lower doses

  11. Systematic analysis and comparison of the PHD-Finger gene family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and its role in fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Abdullah, Muhammad; Li, Dahui; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2018-04-20

    PHD-finger proteins, which belongs to the type of zinc finger family, and that play an important role in the regulation of both transcription and the chromatin state in eukaryotes. Currently, PHD-finger proteins have been well studied in animals, while few studies have been carried out on their function in plants. In the present study, 129 non-redundant PHD-finger genes were identified from 5 Rosaceae species (pear, apple, strawberry, mei, and peach); among them, 31 genes were identified in pear. Subsequently, we carried out a bioinformatics analysis of the PHD-finger genes. Thirty-one PbPHD genes were divided into 7 subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis, which are consistent with the intron-exon and conserved motif analyses. In addition, we identified five segmental duplication events, implying that the segmental duplications might be a crucial role in the expansion of the PHD-finger gene family in pear. The microsynteny analysis of five Rosaceae species showed that there were independent duplication events in addition to the genome-wide duplication of the pear genome. Subsequently, ten expressed PHD-finger genes of pear fruit were identified using qRT-PCR, and one of these genes, PbPHD10, was identified as an important candidate gene for the regulation of lignin synthesis. Our research provides useful information for the further analysis of the function of PHD-finger gene family in pear.

  12. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  14. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  15. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the central zinc-binding domain of the human Mcm10 DNA-replication factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Nam Young; Bae, Won Jin; Chang, Jeong Ho; Kim, Young Chang; Cho, Yunje

    2008-01-01

    Mcm10 is a highly conserved nuclear protein that plays a key role in the initiation and elongation processes of DNA replication by providing a physical link between the Mcm2–7 complex and DNA polymerases. In this study, the central domain of human Mcm10 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of PEG 3350. The initiation of eukaryotic DNA replication requires the tightly controlled assembly of a set of replication factors. Mcm10 is a highly conserved nuclear protein that plays a key role in the initiation and elongation processes of DNA replication by providing a physical link between the Mcm2–7 complex and DNA polymerases. The central domain, which contains the CCCH zinc-binding motif, is most conserved within Mcm10 and binds to DNA and several proteins, including proliferative cell nuclear antigen. In this study, the central domain of human Mcm10 was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of PEG 3350. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.6 Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystals formed belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 99.5, c = 133.0 Å. According to Matthews coefficient calculations, the crystals were predicted to contain six MCM10 central domain molecules in the asymmetric unit

  17. First stages of zinc runoff in humid tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meraz, E.; Veleva, L.; Acosta, M.

    2007-01-01

    Frequently used metals in building application are Zinc and hot dip galvanized steel. The zinc has a relatively good atmospheric resistance, due to its oxidation in air and formation of protective layer. However, some of the zinc corrosion products can be dissolved by pluvial precipitations and water condensed on the metal surface. This process is called metal runoff. In order to estimate el zinc runoff in humid tropical climate, since its firs stages, samples of pure zinc and hot dip galvanized steel have been exposed during 2 years in outdoor atmosphere (rural and urban). The data reveal high annual values of zinc runoff (8,20-12,40±0.30 g/m''2 ano), being this process 80% of total mass loss of corroded zinc. The runoff and corrosion processes are more accelerated for zinc, than that of galvanized steel. The principal factors that control the runoff process are discussed. (Author) 48 refs

  18. Radiosynoviorthesis in osteoarthritis of finger joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, G.

    2006-01-01

    This is an overview about osteoarthritis of the finger joints. The scientific publications according to the therapy of this disease by means of radiosynoviorthesis are presented, comparing the results in rheumatoid arthritis. Additionally own experience and results are reported. (orig.)

  19. Two-finger (TF) SPUDT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Guenter; Biryukov, Sergey V; Schmidt, Hagen; Steiner, Bernd; Wall, Bert

    2011-03-01

    SPUDT cells including two fingers are only known thus far for so-called NSPUDT directions. In that case, usual solid-finger cells are used. The purpose of the present paper is to find SPUDT cell types consisting of two fingers only for pure mode directions. Two-finger (TF) cells for pure mode directions on substrates like 128°YX LiNbO(3) and YZ LiNbO(3) were found by means of an optimization procedure. The forward direction of a TF-cell SPUDT on 128°YX LiNbO(3) was determined experimentally. The properties of the new cells are compared with those of conventional SPUDT cells. The reflectivity of TF cells on 128°YX LiNbO(3) turns out to be two to three times larger than that of distributed acoustic reflection transducer (DART) and Hanma-Hunsinger cells at the same metal layer thickness.

  20. Finger prosthesis: a boon to handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ridhima; Kumar, Lakshya; Rao, Jitendra; Singh, Kamleshwar

    2013-08-29

    This is a clinical case report of a 52-year-old male patient with four partially missing fingers of the left hand. The article describes the clinical and laboratory procedure of making prosthesis with modern silicone material. A wax pattern was fabricated using the right hand of the patient. A special type of wax was formulated to make the pattern so that it can be easily moulded and carved. Intrinsic and extrinsic staining was also performed to match the adjacent skin colour. The patient was given the finger prosthesis and was asked to use a half glove (sports) to mask the junction between the prosthesis and the normal tissue. It also provides additional retention to the artificial fingers. The patient felt his social acceptance improved after wearing the finger prosthesis.

  1. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  2. Stainless steel quadralatch finger test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichelbohrer, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    The design of the quadralatch on the universal samplers was changed in response to flammable gas operating constraints. Additional redesign of the fingers was included to facilitate manufacturability. The new design was tested to assure satisfactory performance. It was shown that the fingers can hold a sampler in place with an upward force of at least 2200 N (500 pounds) and that the mechanical remote latch unit can release the quadralatch under this condition of maximum upward force

  3. Finger Search in the Implicit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl; Truelsen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We address the problem of creating a dictionary with the finger search property in the strict implicit model, where no information is stored between operations, except the array of elements. We show that for any implicit dictionary supporting finger searches in q(t) = Ω(logt) time, the time to move...... the finger to another element is Ω(q− 1(logn)), where t is the rank distance between the query element and the finger. We present an optimal implicit static structure matching this lower bound. We furthermore present a near optimal implicit dynamic structure supporting search, change-finger, insert......, and delete in times $\\mathcal{O}(q(t))$, $\\mathcal{O}(q^{-1}(\\log n)\\log n)$, $\\mathcal{O}(\\log n)$, and $\\mathcal{O}(\\log n)$, respectively, for any q(t) = Ω(logt). Finally we show that the search operation must take Ω(logn) time for the special case where the finger is always changed to the element...

  4. Finger replantation: surgical technique and indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbary, S; Dap, F; Dautel, G

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we discuss the surgical technique of finger replantation in detail, distinguishing particularities of technique in cases of thumb amputation, children fingertip replantation, ring finger avulsion, and very distal replantations. We emphasize the principles of bone shortening, the spare part concept, the special importance of nerve sutures and the use of vein graft in case of avulsion or crushing. However, even if finger replantation is now a routine procedure, a clear distinction should be made between revascularization and functional success. The indications for finger replantation are then detailed in the second part of this paper. The absolute indications for replantation are thumb, multiple fingers, transmetacarpal or hand, and any upper extremity amputation in a child whatever the level. Fingertip amputations distal to the insertion of the Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) are also a good indication. Other cases are more controversial because of the poor functional outcome, especially for the index finger, which is often functionally excluded. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Highly transparent front electrodes with metal fingers for p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs, traditionally used in thin-film silicon (TF-Si solar cells as front-electrode materials, are interlinked, such that an increase in TCO transparency is generally achieved at the cost of reduced lateral conductance. Combining a highly transparent TCO front electrode of moderate conductance with metal fingers to support charge collection is a well-established technique in wafer-based technologies or for TF-Si solar cells in the substrate (n-i-p configuration. Here, we extend this concept to TF-Si solar cells in the superstrate (p-i-n configuration. The metal fingers are used in conjunction with a millimeter-scale textured foil, attached to the glass superstrate, which provides an antireflective and retroreflective effect; the latter effect mitigates the shadowing losses induced by the metal fingers. As a result, a substantial increase in power conversion efficiency, from 8.7% to 9.1%, is achieved for 1-μm-thick microcrystalline silicon solar cells deposited on a highly transparent thermally treated aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer combined with silver fingers, compared to cells deposited on a state-of-the-art zinc oxide layer.

  6. New Finger Biometric Method Using Near Infrared Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui Chul; Jung, Hyunwoo; Kim, Daeyeoul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new finger biometric method. Infrared finger images are first captured, and then feature extraction is performed using a modified Gaussian high-pass filter through binarization, local binary pattern (LBP), and local derivative pattern (LDP) methods. Infrared finger images include the multimodal features of finger veins and finger geometries. Instead of extracting each feature using different methods, the modified Gaussian high-pass filter is fully convolved. Therefore, the extracted binary patterns of finger images include the multimodal features of veins and finger geometries. Experimental results show that the proposed method has an error rate of 0.13%. PMID:22163741

  7. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  8. Finger multibiometric cryptosystems: fusion strategy and template security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jialiang; Li, Qiong; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.; Niu, Xiamu

    2014-03-01

    We address two critical issues in the design of a finger multibiometric system, i.e., fusion strategy and template security. First, three fusion strategies (feature-level, score-level, and decision-level fusions) with the corresponding template protection technique are proposed as the finger multibiometric cryptosystems to protect multiple finger biometric templates of fingerprint, finger vein, finger knuckle print, and finger shape modalities. Second, we theoretically analyze different fusion strategies for finger multibiometric cryptosystems with respect to their impact on security and recognition accuracy. Finally, the performance of finger multibiometric cryptosystems at different fusion levels is investigated on a merged finger multimodal biometric database. The comparative results suggest that the proposed finger multibiometric cryptosystem at feature-level fusion outperforms other approaches in terms of verification performance and template security.

  9. The plausibility of maternal nutritional status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the potential influence of zinc status as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, Wladimir W; Chambers, Christina D

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

  10. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  11. The AT-Hook motif as a versatile minor groove anchor for promoting DNA binding of transcription factor fragments? ?Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Peptide synthesis, full experimental procedures and analytical data of the peptides and products obtained. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01415h Click here for additional data file.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodr?guez, J?ssica; Mosquera, Jes?s; Couceiro, Jose R.; V?zquez, M. Eugenio; Mascare?as, Jos? L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of chimeric DNA binding peptides comprising a DNA binding fragment of natural transcription factors (the basic region of a bZIP protein or a monomeric zinc finger module) and an AT-Hook peptide motif. The resulting peptide conjugates display high DNA affinity and excellent sequence selectivity. Furthermore, the AT-Hook motif also favors the cell internalization of the conjugates.

  12. Zinc-mediated binding of a low-molecular-weight stabilizer of the host anti-viral factor apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, Mohamed O; Sonoda, Sachiko; Ejima, Tomohiko; Tanaka, Ayumi; Koga, Ryoko; Okamoto, Yoshinari; Fujita, Mikako; Otsuka, Masami

    2016-09-15

    Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G, A3G), is a human anti-virus restriction protein which works deaminase-dependently and -independently. A3G is known to be ubiquitinated by HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein, leading to proteasomal degradation. A3G contains two zinc ions at the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain. Four lysine residues, K(297), K(301), K(303), and K(334), are known to be required for Vif-mediated A3G ubiquitination and degradation. Previously, we reported compound SN-1, a zinc chelator that increases steady-state expression level of A3G in the presence of Vif. In this study, we prepared Biotin-SN-1, a biotinylated derivative of SN-1, to study the SN-1-A3G interaction. A pull-down assay revealed that Biotin-SN-1 bound A3G. A zinc-abstraction experiment indicated that SN-1 binds to the zinc site of A3G. We carried out a SN-1-A3G docking study using molecular operating environment. The calculations revealed that SN-1 binds to the C-terminal domain through Zn(2+), H(216), P(247), C(288), and Y(315). Notably, SN-1-binding covers the H(257), E(259), C(288), and C(291) residues that participate in zinc-mediated deamination, and the ubiquitination regions of A3G. The binding of SN-1 presumably perturbs the secondary structure between C(288) and Y(315), leading to less efficient ubiquitination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rehabilitation of single finger amputation with customized silicone prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Niharika; Chand, Pooran; Jurel, Sunit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Finger amputations are common in accidents at home, work, and play. Apart from trauma, congenital disease and deformity also leads to finger amputation. This results in loss of function, loss of sensation as well as loss of body image. Finger prosthesis offers psychological support and social acceptance in such cases. This clinical report describes a method to fabricate ring retained silicone finger prosthesis in a patient with partial finger loss.

  14. Finger tapping ability in healthy elderly and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.

  15. Zinc ion coordination as a modulating factor of the ZnuA histidine-rich loop flexibility: A molecular modeling and fluorescence spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, Silvia [Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Stella, Lorenzo [Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Neuromed, IRCCS, Pozzilli 86077 (Italy); Petrarca, Patrizia [Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Battistoni, Andrea [Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium, National Institute Biostructure and Biosystem (INBB), Viale delle Medaglie D' Oro 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Desideri, Alessandro [Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata and CIBB, Center of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium, National Institute Biostructure and Biosystem (INBB), Viale delle Medaglie D' Oro 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Falconi, Mattia, E-mail: falconi@uniroma2.it [Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata and CIBB, Center of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Rome (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium, National Institute Biostructure and Biosystem (INBB), Viale delle Medaglie D' Oro 305, 00136 Rome (Italy)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence data indicate that the His-loop of ZnuA interacts with Zn{sup +2} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ZnuA structural model proposed validates these spectroscopic findings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is proposed that a zinc loaded His-loop may facilitate the ZnuA-ZnuB recognition. -- Abstract: ZnuA is the soluble component of the high-affinity ZnuABC zinc transporter belonging to the ATP-binding cassette-type periplasmic Zn-binding proteins. The zinc transporter ZnuABC is composed by three proteins: ZnuB, the membrane permease, ZnuC, the ATPase component and ZnuA, the soluble periplasmic metal-binding protein which captures Zn and delivers it to ZnuB. The ZnuA protein contains a charged flexible loop, rich in histidines and acidic residues, showing significant species-specific differences. Various studies have established that this loop contributes to the formation of a secondary zinc binding site, which has been proposed to be important in the acquisition of periplasmic Zn for its delivery to ZnuB or for regulation of zinc uptake. Due to its high mobility the structure of the histidine-rich loop has never been solved by X-ray diffraction studies. In this paper, through a combined use of molecular modeling, mutagenesis and fluorescence spectroscopy, we confirm the presence of two zinc binding sites characterized by different affinities for the metal ion and show that the flexibility of the loop is modulated by the binding of the zinc ions to the protein. The data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy have then be used to validate a 3D model including the unsolved histidine-rich loop.

  16. Differential sensitivities of cellular XPA and PARP-1 to arsenite inhibition and zinc rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xixi; Cooper, Karen L; Huestis, Juliana; Hudson, Laurie G; Liu, Ke Jian

    2017-09-15

    Arsenite directly binds to the zinc finger domains of the DNA repair protein poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, and inhibits PARP-1 activity in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. PARP inhibition by arsenite enhances ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA damage in keratinocytes, and the increase in DNA damage is reduced by zinc supplementation. However, little is known about the effects of arsenite and zinc on the zinc finger nucleotide excision repair (NER) protein xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). In this study, we investigated the difference in response to arsenite exposure between XPA and PARP-1, and the differential effectiveness of zinc supplementation in restoring protein DNA binding and DNA damage repair. Arsenite targeted both XPA and PARP-1 in human keratinocytes, resulting in zinc loss from each protein and a pronounced decrease in XPA and PARP-1 binding to chromatin as demonstrated by Chip-on-Western assays. Zinc effectively restored DNA binding of PARP-1 and XPA to chromatin when zinc concentrations were equal to those of arsenite. In contrast, zinc was more effective in rescuing arsenite-augmented direct UVR-induced DNA damage than oxidative DNA damage. Taken together, our findings indicate that arsenite interferes with PARP-1 and XPA binding to chromatin, and that zinc supplementation fully restores DNA binding activity to both proteins in the cellular context. Interestingly, rescue of arsenite-inhibited DNA damage repair by supplemental zinc was more sensitive for DNA damage repaired by the XPA-associated NER pathway than for the PARP-1-dependent BER pathway. This study expands our understanding of arsenite's role in DNA repair inhibition and co-carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Occult lung malignancy presenting with finger pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Embley Matthew A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lung cancer is currently one of the most common malignancies in the world. Early detection is an important prognostic factor. Unfortunately, initial symptoms may be vague and a substantial proportion of cases present with the effects of metastases. Case presentation We discuss a case of occult lung malignancy in a 61-year-old man. The only symptom at presentation was pain in the right ring finger due to metastasis from the lung primary. Conclusion This case highlights the need for vigilance when a patient presents with unusual or unexplained symptoms, especially if they have known risk factors for cancer.

  18. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Johnson, Simon A.; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick–slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function. PMID:23256185

  19. Finger pad friction and its role in grip and touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J; Johnson, Simon A; Lefèvre, Philippe; Lévesque, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; André, Thibaut; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-06

    Many aspects of both grip function and tactile perception depend on complex frictional interactions occurring in the contact zone of the finger pad, which is the subject of the current review. While it is well established that friction plays a crucial role in grip function, its exact contribution for discriminatory touch involving the sliding of a finger pad is more elusive. For texture discrimination, it is clear that vibrotaction plays an important role in the discriminatory mechanisms. Among other factors, friction impacts the nature of the vibrations generated by the relative movement of the fingertip skin against a probed object. Friction also has a major influence on the perceived tactile pleasantness of a surface. The contact mechanics of a finger pad is governed by the fingerprint ridges and the sweat that is exuded from pores located on these ridges. Counterintuitively, the coefficient of friction can increase by an order of magnitude in a period of tens of seconds when in contact with an impermeably smooth surface, such as glass. In contrast, the value will decrease for a porous surface, such as paper. The increase in friction is attributed to an occlusion mechanism and can be described by first-order kinetics. Surprisingly, the sensitivity of the coefficient of friction to the normal load and sliding velocity is comparatively of second order, yet these dependencies provide the main basis of theoretical models which, to-date, largely ignore the time evolution of the frictional dynamics. One well-known effect on taction is the possibility of inducing stick-slip if the friction decreases with increasing sliding velocity. Moreover, the initial slip of a finger pad occurs by the propagation of an annulus of failure from the perimeter of the contact zone and this phenomenon could be important in tactile perception and grip function.

  20. An overview of zinc addition for BWR dose rate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, W.J. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the BWRs employing feedwater zinc addition to reduce primary system dose rates. It identifies which BWRs are using zinc addition and reviews the mechanical injection and passive addition hardware currently being employed. The impact that zinc has on plant chemistry, including the factor of two to four reduction in reactor water Co-60 concentrations, is discussed. Dose rate results, showing the benefits of implementing zinc on either fresh piping surfaces or on pipes with existing films are reviewed. The advantages of using zinc that is isotopically enhanced by the depletion of the Zn-64 precursor to Zn-65 are identified.

  1. Design and preliminary evaluation of the FINGER rehabilitation robot: controlling challenge and quantifying finger individuation during musical computer game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Hossein; Rowe, Justin B; Gardner, David; Chan, Vicki; Gray, Kyle; Bower, Curtis; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Wolbrecht, Eric T

    2014-02-04

    This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of FINGER (Finger Individuating Grasp Exercise Robot), a device for assisting in finger rehabilitation after neurologic injury. We developed FINGER to assist stroke patients in moving their fingers individually in a naturalistic curling motion while playing a game similar to Guitar Hero. The goal was to make FINGER capable of assisting with motions where precise timing is important. FINGER consists of a pair of stacked single degree-of-freedom 8-bar mechanisms, one for the index and one for the middle finger. Each 8-bar mechanism was designed to control the angle and position of the proximal phalanx and the position of the middle phalanx. Target positions for the mechanism optimization were determined from trajectory data collected from 7 healthy subjects using color-based motion capture. The resulting robotic device was built to accommodate multiple finger sizes and finger-to-finger widths. For initial evaluation, we asked individuals with a stroke (n = 16) and without impairment (n = 4) to play a game similar to Guitar Hero while connected to FINGER. Precision design, low friction bearings, and separate high speed linear actuators allowed FINGER to individually actuate the fingers with a high bandwidth of control (-3 dB at approximately 8 Hz). During the tests, we were able to modulate the subject's success rate at the game by automatically adjusting the controller gains of FINGER. We also used FINGER to measure subjects' effort and finger individuation while playing the game. Test results demonstrate the ability of FINGER to motivate subjects with an engaging game environment that challenges individuated control of the fingers, automatically control assistance levels, and quantify finger individuation after stroke.

  2. Admittance Control of a Multi-Finger Arm Based on Manipulability of Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Huang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the previous studies, admittance control and impedance control for a finger-arm robot using the manipulability of the finger were studied and methods of realizing the controls have been proposed. In this study, two 3-DOF fingers are attached to the end-effector of a 6-DOF arm to configure a multi-finger arm robot. Based on the previous methods, the authors have proposed an admittance control for a multi-finger arm robot using the manipulability of the fingers in this study. Algorithms of the averaging method and the mini-max method were introduced to establish a manipulability criterion of the two fingers in order to generate a cooperative movement of the arm. Comparison of the admittance controls combined with the top search method and local optimization method for the multi-finger arm robot was made and features of the control methods were also discussed. The stiffness control and damping control were experimentally evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  3. Quantifying Parkinson's disease finger-tapping severity by extracting and synthesizing finger motion properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuko; Kandori, Akihiko; Shima, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tsuji, Toshio; Noda, Masafumi; Higashikawa, Fumiko; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel index of Parkinson's disease (PD) finger-tapping severity, called "PDFTsi," for quantifying the severity of symptoms related to the finger tapping of PD patients with high accuracy. To validate the efficacy of PDFTsi, the finger-tapping movements of normal controls and PD patients were measured by using magnetic sensors, and 21 characteristics were extracted from the finger-tapping waveforms. To distinguish motor deterioration due to PD from that due to aging, the aging effect on finger tapping was removed from these characteristics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the age-normalized characteristics, and principal components that represented the motion properties of finger tapping were calculated. Multiple linear regression (MLR) with stepwise variable selection was applied to the principal components, and PDFTsi was calculated. The calculated PDFTsi indicates that PDFTsi has a high estimation ability, namely a mean square error of 0.45. The estimation ability of PDFTsi is higher than that of the alternative method, MLR with stepwise regression selection without PCA, namely a mean square error of 1.30. This result suggests that PDFTsi can quantify PD finger-tapping severity accurately. Furthermore, the result of interpreting a model for calculating PDFTsi indicated that motion wideness and rhythm disorder are important for estimating PD finger-tapping severity.

  4. Robotic finger perturbation training improves finger postural steadiness and hand dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Yasuhide; Ikeda, Atsutoshi; Shinohara, Minoru

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the effect of robotic finger perturbation training on steadiness in finger posture and hand dexterity in healthy young adults. A mobile robotic finger training system was designed to have the functions of high-speed mechanical response, two degrees of freedom, and adjustable loading amplitude and direction. Healthy young adults were assigned to one of the three groups: random perturbation training (RPT), constant force training (CFT), and control. Subjects in RPT and CFT performed steady posture training with their index finger using the robot in different modes: random force in RPT and constant force in CFT. After the 2-week intervention period, fluctuations of the index finger posture decreased only in RPT during steady position-matching tasks with an inertial load. Purdue pegboard test score improved also in RPT only. The relative change in finger postural fluctuations was negatively correlated with the relative change in the number of completed pegs in the pegboard test in RPT. The results indicate that finger posture training with random mechanical perturbations of varying amplitudes and directions of force is effective in improving finger postural steadiness and hand dexterity in healthy young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic variation in metallothionein and metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in relation to urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott V.; Barrick, Brian; Christopher, Emily P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Makar, Karen W.; Song, Xiaoling; Lampe, Johanna W.; Vilchis, Hugo; Ulery, April; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metallothionein (MT) proteins play critical roles in the physiological handling of both essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic (Cd) metals. MT expression is regulated by metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1). Hence, genetic variation in the MT gene family and MTF1 might influence excretion of these metals. Methods: 321 women were recruited in Seattle, WA and Las Cruces, NM and provided demographic information, urine samples for measurement of metal concentrations by mass spectrometry and creatinine, and blood or saliva for extraction of DNA. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MTF1 gene region and the region of chromosome 16 encoding the MT gene family were selected for genotyping in addition to an ancestry informative marker panel. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of SNPs with urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn, adjusted for age, urinary creatinine, smoking history, study site, and ancestry. Results: Minor alleles of rs28366003 and rs10636 near the MT2A gene were associated with lower urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn. Minor alleles of rs8044719 and rs1599823, near MT1A and MT1B, were associated with lower urinary Cd and Zn, respectively. Minor alleles of rs4653329 in MTF1 were associated with lower urinary Cd. Conclusions: These results suggest that genetic variation in the MT gene region and MTF1 influences urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn excretion. - Highlights: • Genetic variation in metallothionein (MT) genes was assessed in two diverse populations. • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MT genes were associated with mean urinary Cd, Cu and Zn. • Genetic variation may influence biomarkers of exposure, and associations of exposure with health.

  6. Genetic variation in metallothionein and metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in relation to urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Barrick, Brian [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Box 30003 MSC 3Q, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Christopher, Emily P. [Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin, 2601 Agriculture Dr., Madison, WI 53718 (United States); Makar, Karen W.; Song, Xiaoling [Public Health Science Biomarker Laboratory, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Vilchis, Hugo [Border Epidemiology and Environmental Health Center, New Mexico State University, Box 30001 MSC 3BEC, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Ulery, April [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Box 30003 MSC 3Q, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Background: Metallothionein (MT) proteins play critical roles in the physiological handling of both essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic (Cd) metals. MT expression is regulated by metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1). Hence, genetic variation in the MT gene family and MTF1 might influence excretion of these metals. Methods: 321 women were recruited in Seattle, WA and Las Cruces, NM and provided demographic information, urine samples for measurement of metal concentrations by mass spectrometry and creatinine, and blood or saliva for extraction of DNA. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MTF1 gene region and the region of chromosome 16 encoding the MT gene family were selected for genotyping in addition to an ancestry informative marker panel. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of SNPs with urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn, adjusted for age, urinary creatinine, smoking history, study site, and ancestry. Results: Minor alleles of rs28366003 and rs10636 near the MT2A gene were associated with lower urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn. Minor alleles of rs8044719 and rs1599823, near MT1A and MT1B, were associated with lower urinary Cd and Zn, respectively. Minor alleles of rs4653329 in MTF1 were associated with lower urinary Cd. Conclusions: These results suggest that genetic variation in the MT gene region and MTF1 influences urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn excretion. - Highlights: • Genetic variation in metallothionein (MT) genes was assessed in two diverse populations. • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MT genes were associated with mean urinary Cd, Cu and Zn. • Genetic variation may influence biomarkers of exposure, and associations of exposure with health.

  7. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  8. Viscoelastic fingering with a pulsed pressure signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corvera Poire, E; Rio, J A del

    2004-01-01

    We derive a generalized Darcy's law in the frequency domain for a linear viscoelastic fluid flowing in a Hele-Shaw cell. This leads to an analytic expression for the dynamic permeability that has maxima which are several orders of magnitude larger than the static permeability. We then follow an argument of de Gennes (1987 Europhys. Lett. 2 195) to obtain the smallest possible finger width when viscoelasticity is important. Using this and a conservation law, we obtain the lowest bound for the width of a single finger displacing a viscoelastic fluid. When the driving force consists of a constant pressure gradient plus an oscillatory signal, our results indicate that the finger width varies in time following the frequency of the incident signal. Also, the amplitude of the finger width in time depends on the value of the dynamic permeability at the imposed frequency. When the finger is driven with a frequency that maximizes the permeability, variations in the amplitude are also maximized. This gives results that are very different for Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids. For the former ones the amplitude of the oscillation decays with frequency. For the latter ones on the other hand, the amplitude has maxima at the same frequencies that maximize the dynamic permeability

  9. Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling

    KAUST Repository

    Gardiner, Bennett P. J.

    2015-02-23

    © 2015 American Physical Society. The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularization on the interface is not provided by surface tension but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to kinetic undercooling, which acts to penalize high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularized solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with kinetic undercooling suggest that for a given value of the kinetic undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the kinetic undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1/2, suggesting that this "selection" of 1/2 by kinetic undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analog with surface tension. We treat the numerical problem of computing these Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling, which turns out to be more subtle than the analog with surface tension, since kinetic undercooling permits finger shapes which are corner-free but not analytic. We provide numerical evidence for the selection mechanism by setting up a problem with both kinetic undercooling and surface tension and numerically taking the limit that the surface tension vanishes.

  10. Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling

    KAUST Repository

    Gardiner, Bennett P. J.; McCue, Scott W.; Dallaston, Michael C.; Moroney, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Physical Society. The mathematical model of a steadily propagating Saffman-Taylor finger in a Hele-Shaw channel has applications to two-dimensional interacting streamer discharges which are aligned in a periodic array. In the streamer context, the relevant regularization on the interface is not provided by surface tension but instead has been postulated to involve a mechanism equivalent to kinetic undercooling, which acts to penalize high velocities and prevent blow-up of the unregularized solution. Previous asymptotic results for the Hele-Shaw finger problem with kinetic undercooling suggest that for a given value of the kinetic undercooling parameter, there is a discrete set of possible finger shapes, each analytic at the nose and occupying a different fraction of the channel width. In the limit in which the kinetic undercooling parameter vanishes, the fraction for each family approaches 1/2, suggesting that this "selection" of 1/2 by kinetic undercooling is qualitatively similar to the well-known analog with surface tension. We treat the numerical problem of computing these Saffman-Taylor fingers with kinetic undercooling, which turns out to be more subtle than the analog with surface tension, since kinetic undercooling permits finger shapes which are corner-free but not analytic. We provide numerical evidence for the selection mechanism by setting up a problem with both kinetic undercooling and surface tension and numerically taking the limit that the surface tension vanishes.

  11. Perceiving fingers in single-digit arithmetic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria eBerteletti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate in children the neural underpinnings of finger representation and finger movement involved in single-digit arithmetic problems. Evidence suggests that finger representation and finger-based strategies play an important role in learning and understanding arithmetic. Because different operations rely on different networks, we compared activation for subtraction and multiplication problems in independently localized finger somatosensory and motor areas and tested whether activation was related to skill. Brain activations from children between 8 and 13 years of age revealed that only subtraction problems significantly activated finger motor areas, suggesting reliance on finger-based strategies. In addition, larger subtraction problems yielded greater somatosensory activation than smaller problems, suggesting a greater reliance on finger representation for larger numerical values. Interestingly, better performance in subtraction problems was associated with lower activation in the finger somatosensory area. Our results support the importance of fine-grained finger representation in arithmetical skill and are the first neurological evidence for a functional role of the somatosensory finger area in proficient arithmetical problem solving, in particular for those problems requiring quantity manipulation. From an educational perspective, these results encourage investigating whether different finger-based strategies facilitate arithmetical understanding and encourage educational practices aiming at integrating finger representation and finger-based strategies as a tool for instilling stronger numerical sense.

  12. Perceiving fingers in single-digit arithmetic problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteletti, Ilaria; Booth, James R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate in children the neural underpinnings of finger representation and finger movement involved in single-digit arithmetic problems. Evidence suggests that finger representation and finger-based strategies play an important role in learning and understanding arithmetic. Because different operations rely on different networks, we compared activation for subtraction and multiplication problems in independently localized finger somatosensory and motor areas and tested whether activation was related to skill. Brain activations from children between 8 and 13 years of age revealed that only subtraction problems significantly activated finger motor areas, suggesting reliance on finger-based strategies. In addition, larger subtraction problems yielded greater somatosensory activation than smaller problems, suggesting a greater reliance on finger representation for larger numerical values. Interestingly, better performance in subtraction problems was associated with lower activation in the finger somatosensory area. Our results support the importance of fine-grained finger representation in arithmetical skill and are the first neurological evidence for a functional role of the somatosensory finger area in proficient arithmetical problem solving, in particular for those problems requiring quantity manipulation. From an educational perspective, these results encourage investigating whether different finger-based strategies facilitate arithmetical understanding and encourage educational practices aiming at integrating finger representation and finger-based strategies as a tool for instilling stronger numerical sense.

  13. Iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum and millets from five locations in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaza, Molly; Shumoy, Habtu; Muchuweti, Maud; Vandamme, Peter; Raes, Katleen

    2018-01-01

    The present study is an evaluation of iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet from five different locations in Zimbabwe. Iron and zinc contents ranged between 3.22 and 49.7 and 1.25-4.39mg/100gdm, respectively. Fermentation caused a reduction of between 20 and 88% of phytic acid (PA) while a general increase in soluble phenolic compounds (PC) and a decrease of the bound (PC) was observed. Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc ranged between 2.77 and 26.1% and 0.45-12.8%, respectively. The contribution of the fermented cereals towards iron and zinc absolute requirements ranged between 25 and 411% and 0.5-23% with higher contribution of iron coming from cereals that were contaminated with extrinsic iron. Populations subsisting on cereals could be more at risk of zinc rather than iron deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for water disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelita Asuncion S. Dimapilis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The world faces a growing challenge for adequate clean water due to threats coming from increasing demand and decreasing supply. Although there are existing technologies for water disinfection, their limitations, particularly the formation of disinfection-by-products, have led to researches on alternative methods. Zinc oxide, an essential chemical in the rubber and pharmaceutical industries, has attracted interest as antimicrobial agent. In nanoscale, zinc oxide has shown antimicrobial properties which make its potential great for various applications. This review discusses the synthesis of zinc oxide with focus on precipitation method, its antimicrobial property and the factors affecting it, disinfection mechanisms, and the potential application to water disinfection.

  15. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceasar, Stanislaus Antony; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Millets are the primary food source for millions of people in tropical regions of the world supplying mineral nutrition and protein. In this chapter, we describe an optimized protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of finger millet variety GPU 45. Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 harboring plasmid pCAMBIA1301 which contains hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) as selectable marker gene and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as reporter gene has been used. This protocol utilizes the shoot apex explants for the somatic embryogenesis and regeneration of finger millet after the transformation by Agrobacterium. Desiccation of explants during cocultivation helps for the better recovery of transgenic plants. This protocol is very useful for the efficient production of transgenic plants in finger millet through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  16. Fluctuation of biological rhythm in finger tapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, H.; Miyazima, S.; Mitake, S.

    2000-06-01

    By analyzing biological rhythms obtained from finger tapping, we have investigated the differences of two biological rhythms between healthy and handicapped persons caused by Parkinson, brain infraction, car accident and so on. In this study, we have observed the motion of handedness of all subjects and obtained a slope a which characterizes a power-law relation between frequency and amplitude of finger-tapping rhythm. From our results, we have estimated that the slope a=0.06 is a rough criterion in order to distinguish healthy and handicapped persons.

  17. Admittance Control of a Multi-Finger Arm Based on Manipulability of Fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Hori

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the previous studies, admittance control and impedance control for a finger‐arm robot using the manipulability of the finger were studied and methods of realizing the controls have been proposed. In this study, two 3‐DOF fingers are attached to the end‐effector of a 6‐DOF arm to configure a multi‐finger arm robot. Based on the previous methods, the authors have proposed an admittance control for a multi‐finger arm robot using the manipulability of the fingers in this study. Algorithms of the averaging method and the mini‐max method were introduced to establish a manipulability criterion of the two fingers in order to generate a cooperative movement of the arm. Comparison of the admittance controls combined with the top search method and local optimization method for the multi‐finger arm robot was made and features of the control methods were also discussed. The stiffness control and damping control were experimentally evaluated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  18. [Treatment of trigger finger with located needle knife].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Feng; Yang, Jiang; Xi, Sheng-Hua

    2016-07-25

    To investigate the clinical effects of located needle knife in the treatment of trigger finger. The clinical data of 133 patients(145 fingers) with trigger finger underwent treatment with located needle knife from September 2010 to March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 37 males(40 fingers) and 96 females (105 fingers), aged from 18 to 71 years old with a mean of 51.8 years. Course of disease was from 1 to 19 months with an average of 8.2 months. Affected fingers included 82 thumbs, 12 index fingers, 11 middle fingers, 36 ring fingers, and 4 little fingers. According to the standard of Quinnell grade, 42 fingers were grade III, 92 fingers were grade IV, and 11 fingers were grade V. Firstly the double pipe gab was put into the distal edge of hypertrophic tendon sheath, then small knife needle was used to release the sheath proximally along the tendon line direction. The informations of wound healing and nerve injury, postoperative finger function, finger pain at 6 months were observed. The operation time was from 8 to 25 min with an average of 9.8 min. All the patients were followed up from 6 to 26 months with an average of 12.5 months. No complications such as the wound inflammation and seepage, vascular or nerve injuries were found. According to the standard of Quinnell grade, 123 fingers got excellent results, 15 good, 7 poor. It's a good choice to treat trigger finger with located needle knife in advantage of minimal invasion, simple safe operation, and it should be promoted in clinic.

  19. ANALYSIS WITH MSC ADAMS OF A 5-FINGER AND 3-PHALANX /FINGER UNDER-ACTUATEDMECHANICAL HAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe POPESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analysis with MSC ADAMS of a 5-fingered and 3-phalanx/finger underactuatedmechanical hand, designed by the author to work on industrial robots. Moreover, in order to increasegrasping safety in the automated handling process, the author has fitted each finger with a locking sequence inthe final phase of grasping. Thus, the mechanism of mechanical hand is considered to be a mechanical systemand is treated like a set of rigid bodies connected by mechanical linkages and elastic elements. To model andsimulate this mechanism with MSC ADAMS programme, the author covered the following stages: constructionof the model, testing-simulation, validation, finishing, parameterization, and optimization

  20. Haematopoietic malignancies caused by dysregulation of a chromatin-binding PHD finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang G; Song, Jikui; Wang, Zhanxin; Dormann, Holger L; Casadio, Fabio; Li, Haitao; Luo, Jun-Li; Patel, Dinshaw J; Allis, C David

    2009-06-11

    Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation (H3K4me) has been proposed as a critical component in regulating gene expression, epigenetic states, and cellular identities1. The biological meaning of H3K4me is interpreted by conserved modules including plant homeodomain (PHD) fingers that recognize varied H3K4me states. The dysregulation of PHD fingers has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancers and immune or neurological disorders. Here we report that fusing an H3K4-trimethylation (H3K4me3)-binding PHD finger, such as the carboxy-terminal PHD finger of PHF23 or JARID1A (also known as KDM5A or RBBP2), to a common fusion partner nucleoporin-98 (NUP98) as identified in human leukaemias, generated potent oncoproteins that arrested haematopoietic differentiation and induced acute myeloid leukaemia in murine models. In these processes, a PHD finger that specifically recognizes H3K4me3/2 marks was essential for leukaemogenesis. Mutations in PHD fingers that abrogated H3K4me3 binding also abolished leukaemic transformation. NUP98-PHD fusion prevented the differentiation-associated removal of H3K4me3 at many loci encoding lineage-specific transcription factors (Hox(s), Gata3, Meis1, Eya1 and Pbx1), and enforced their active gene transcription in murine haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Mechanistically, NUP98-PHD fusions act as 'chromatin boundary factors', dominating over polycomb-mediated gene silencing to 'lock' developmentally critical loci into an active chromatin state (H3K4me3 with induced histone acetylation), a state that defined leukaemia stem cells. Collectively, our studies represent, to our knowledge, the first report that deregulation of the PHD finger, an 'effector' of specific histone modification, perturbs the epigenetic dynamics on developmentally critical loci, catastrophizes cellular fate decision-making, and even causes oncogenesis during mammalian development.

  1. Zinc and zinc transporters in macrophages and their roles in efferocytosis in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Hamon

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that nutritional zinc restriction exacerbates airway inflammation accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 activation and an accumulation of apoptotic epithelial cells in the bronchioles of the mice. Normally, apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared by macrophage efferocytosis, limiting any secondary necrosis and inflammation. We therefore hypothesized that zinc deficiency is not only pro-apoptotic but also impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Impaired efferocytic clearance of apoptotic epithelial cells by alveolar macrophages occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cigarette-smoking and other lung inflammatory diseases. We now show that zinc is a factor in impaired macrophage efferocytosis in COPD. Concentrations of zinc were significantly reduced in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD who were current smokers, compared to healthy controls, smokers or COPD patients not actively smoking. Lavage zinc was positively correlated with AM efferocytosis and there was decreased efferocytosis in macrophages depleted of Zn in vitro by treatment with the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN. Organ and cell Zn homeostasis are mediated by two families of membrane ZIP and ZnT proteins. Macrophages of mice null for ZIP1 had significantly lower intracellular zinc and efferocytosis capability, suggesting ZIP1 may play an important role. We investigated further using the human THP-1 derived macrophage cell line, with and without zinc chelation by TPEN to mimic zinc deficiency. There was no change in ZIP1 mRNA levels by TPEN but a significant 3-fold increase in expression of another influx transporter ZIP2, consistent with a role for ZIP2 in maintaining macrophage Zn levels. Both ZIP1 and ZIP2 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in normal human lung alveolar macrophages. We propose that zinc homeostasis in macrophages involves the coordinated action of ZIP1 and ZIP2

  2. Multiple hybrid de novo genome assembly of finger millet, an orphan allotetraploid crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Masaomi; Aluri, Sirisha; Balachadran, Mathi Thumilan; Sivarajan, Sajeevan Radha; Patrignani, Andrea; Grüter, Simon; Poveda, Lucy; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Baeten, John; Francoijs, Kees-Jan; Nataraja, Karaba N; Reddy, Yellodu A Nanja; Phadnis, Shamprasad; Ravikumar, Ramapura L; Schlapbach, Ralph; Sreeman, Sheshshayee M; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2017-09-05

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn) is an important crop for food security because of its tolerance to drought, which is expected to be exacerbated by global climate changes. Nevertheless, it is often classified as an orphan/underutilized crop because of the paucity of scientific attention. Among several small millets, finger millet is considered as an excellent source of essential nutrient elements, such as iron and zinc; hence, it has potential as an alternate coarse cereal. However, high-quality genome sequence data of finger millet are currently not available. One of the major problems encountered in the genome assembly of this species was its polyploidy, which hampers genome assembly compared with a diploid genome. To overcome this problem, we sequenced its genome using diverse technologies with sufficient coverage and assembled it via a novel multiple hybrid assembly workflow that combines next-generation with single-molecule sequencing, followed by whole-genome optical mapping using the Bionano Irys® system. The total number of scaffolds was 1,897 with an N50 length >2.6 Mb and detection of 96% of the universal single-copy orthologs. The majority of the homeologs were assembled separately. This indicates that the proposed workflow is applicable to the assembly of other allotetraploid genomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  3. Evaluation of the nutritional characteristics of a finger millet based complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbithi-Mwikya, Stephen; Van Camp, John; Mamiro, Peter R S; Ooghe, Wilfried; Kolsteren, Patrick; Huyghebaert, Andre

    2002-05-08

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanuts (Arachis hypogoea), and mango (Mangifera indica) were processed separately and then combined, on the basis of their amino acid scores and energy content, into a complementary food for children of weaning age. The finger millet and kidney beans were processed by germination, autoclaving, and lactic acid fermentation. A mixture containing, on a dry matter basis, 65.2, 19.1, 8.0, and 7.7% of the processed finger millet, kidney beans, peanuts, and mango, respectively, gave a composite protein with an in vitro protein digestibility of 90.2% and an amino acid chemical score of 0.84. This mixture had an energy density of 16.3 kJ.g(-1) of dry matter and a decreased antinutrient content and showed a measurable improvement in the in vitro extractability for calcium, iron, and zinc. A 33% (w/v) pap made from a mix of the processed ingredients had an energy density of 5.4 kJ.g(-1) of pap, which is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of well-nourished children of 6-24 months of age at three servings a day and at the FAO average breast-feeding frequency.

  4. Analysis of Blood Concentrations of Zinc, Germanium, and Lead and Relevant Environmental Factors in a Population Sample from Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements, including zinc (Zn and germanium (Ge, are essential for health; deficiency or excess levels of trace elements results is harmful. As a result of industrial and agricultural production, Pb widely exists in people’s living environment. It is absorbed mainly through the respiratory and digestive tracts, producing systemic harm. Reference values for a normal, healthy population are necessary for health assessment, prevention and treatment of related diseases, and evaluation of occupational exposures. Reference ranges for the Chinese population have not been established. From March 2009 to February 2010; we collected data and blood samples (n = 1302 from residents aged 6–60 years living in Shandong Province, China. We measured blood concentrations of Zn, Ge, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine reference ranges. Results were stratified by factors likely to affect the concentrations of these trace elements: sex, use of cosmetics or hair dye, age, alcohol intake, smoking habits, and consumption of fried food. The overall geometric mean (GM concentrations (95% confidence interval were 3.14 (3.08–3.20 mg/L for Zn, 19.9 (19.3–20.6 μg/L for Ge, and 24.1 (23.2–25.1 μg/L for Pb. Blood Zn concentrations were higher in women than in men (p < 0.001, while the opposite was found for Pb (p < 0.001 and sex did not influence Ge (p = 0.095. Alcohol use was associated with higher blood concentrations of Zn (p = 0.002, Ge (p = 0.002, and Pb (p = 0.001. The GM concentration of Zn was highest in 20–30-year-olds (p < 0.001, while Pb concentrations were highest in 12–16-year-olds (p < 0.001. Use of hair dye was associated with lower blood concentrations of Ge (p < 0.05. GM blood concentrations of Pb differed significantly between those who consumed fried foods 1–2 times/month (18.7 μg/L, 1–2 times/week (20.9 μg/L, and every day (28.5 μg/L; p < 0.001. Blood Pb concentrations were higher in subjects

  5. The Incidence of Finger Ridge Counts among the Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    higher among the males than females, with sex difference significant ,they were compared with ... Finger prints were taken by a USB finger print reader (Biometric Scanner).According .... "Digital dermatoglyphics of three caste groups of Mysore.

  6. Designing Fingers in Simulation based on Imprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolniakowski, Adam; Krüger, Norbert; Werner, Andrzej

    process of doing so. This method takes root in the idea of using the imprint to produce the finger geometry. We furthermore provide a verification of our newly introduced imprinting method and a comparison to the previously introduced parametrized geometry method. This verification is done through a set...

  7. Designing Fingers in Simulation based on Imprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuf Schwartz, Lukas Christoffer Malte; Wolniakowski, Adam; Werner, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    process of doing so. This method takes root in the idea of using the imprint to produce the finger geometry. We furthermore provide a verification of our newly introduced imprinting method and a comparison to the previously introduced parametrized geometry method. This verification is done through a set...

  8. Finger Search in Grammar-Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Christiansen, Anders Roy; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    random access, that is, given a position in the original uncompressed string report the character at that position. In this paper we study the random access problem with the finger search property, that is, the time for a random access query should depend on the distance between a specified index f...

  9. Compact Tactile Sensors for Robot Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Toby B.; Lussy, David; Gaudiano, Frank; Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.; Rodriguez, Dagoberto; Bielski, Paul; Butzer, Melisa

    2004-01-01

    Compact transducer arrays that measure spatial distributions of force or pressure have been demonstrated as prototypes of tactile sensors to be mounted on fingers and palms of dexterous robot hands. The pressure- or force-distribution feedback provided by these sensors is essential for the further development and implementation of robot-control capabilities for humanlike grasping and manipulation.

  10. Clubbed fingers: the claws we lost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, A.A.M.; Vermeij-Keers, C.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van; Gooren, L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Clubbed digits resemble the human embryonic fingers and toes, which took like the digits of a claw. Clubbed digits, thus, may represent the return of the embryonic claw and may even represent the claws man has lost during evolution, if ontogenesis realty recapitulates phylogenesis. We put forward

  11. Task specificity of finger dexterity tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, M.A.M.; Krul, A.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Finger dexterity tests are generally used to assess performance decrease due to gloves, cold and pathology. It is generally assumed that the O’Connor and Purdue Pegboard test yield similar results. In this experiment we compared these two tests for dry conditions without gloves, and for dry and wet

  12. Task specificity of finger dexterity tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, M.A.M.; Krul, A.J.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Finger dexterity tests are generally used to assess performance decrease due to gloves, cold and pathology. It is generally assumed that the O'Connor and Purdue Pegboard test yield similar results. In this experiment we compared these two tests for dry conditions without gloves, and for dry and wet

  13. Bioavailability of Zinc in Wistar Rats Fed with Rice Fortified with Zinc Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Santos, Laura Luiza Menezes; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina da Cruz; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina da Cruz; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro Sant’Ana, Helena Maria

    2014-01-01

    The study of zinc bioavailability in foods is important because this mineral intake does not meet the recommended doses for some population groups. Also, the presence of dietary factors that reduce zinc absorption contributes to its deficiency. Rice fortified with micronutrients (Ultra Rice®) is a viable alternative for fortification since this cereal is already inserted into the population habit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) in rice fortified with zinc oxide. During 42 days, rats were divided into four groups and fed with diets containing two different sources of Zn (test diet: UR® fortified with zinc oxide, or control diet: zinc carbonate (ZnCO3)), supplying 50% or 100%, respectively, of the recommendations of this mineral for animals. Weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency ratio, weight, thickness and length of femur; retention of zinc, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the femur and the concentrations of Zn in femur, plasma and erythrocytes were evaluated. Control diet showed higher weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, retention of Zn and Zn concentration in the femur (p 0.05) for dietary intake, length and thickness of the femur, erythrocyte and plasmatic Zn between groups. Although rice fortified with zinc oxide showed a lower bioavailability compared to ZnCO3, this food can be a viable alternative to be used as a vehicle for fortification. PMID:24932657

  14. Zinc electrode - its behaviour in the nickel oxide-zinc accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Certain aspects of zinc electrode reaction and behavior are investigated in view of their application to batteries. The properties of the zinc electrode in a battery system are discussed, emphasizing porous structure. Shape change is emphasized as the most important factor leading to limited battery cycle life. It is shown that two existing models of shape change based on electroosmosis and current distribution are unable to consistently describe observed phenomena. The first stages of electrocrystallization are studied and the surface reactions between the silver substrate and the deposited zinc layer are investigated. The reaction mechanism of zinc and amalgamated zinc in an alkaline electrolyte is addressed, and the batter system is studied to obtain information on cycling behavior and on the shape change phenomenon. The effect on cycle behavior of diferent amalgamation techniques of the zinc electrode and several additives is addressed. Impedance measurements on zinc electrodes are considered, and battery behavior is correlated with changes in the zinc electrode during cycling. 193 references.

  15. Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, Robert John; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals o...

  16. Dorsal finger texture recognition: Investigating fixed-length SURF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Daniel; Kückelhahn, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We seek to create fixed-length features from dorsal finger skin images extracted by the SURF interest point detector to combine it in the privacy enhancing helper data scheme. The source of the biometric samples is the GUC45 database which features finger vein, fingerprint and dorsal finger skin...

  17. Association Between Finger Clubbing and Chronic Lung Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finger clubbed patients had higher risk of hypoxemia (46.7%), pulmonary hypertension (46.7%) and advanced disease in WHO stage III/ IV (91.7%) compared to non-finger clubbed patients. Finger clubbed patients had lower CD4 cells count and percentage (median 369cells, 13%) compared to non-clubbed patients ...

  18. Left hand finger force in violin playing: tempo, loudness, and finger differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Obata, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    A three-dimensional force transducer was installed in the neck of a violin under the A string at the D5 position in order to study the force with which the violinist clamps the string against the fingerboard under normal playing conditions. Violinists performed repetitive sequences of open A- and fingered D-tones using the ring finger at tempi of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 notes/s at mezzo-forte. At selected tempi, the effects of dynamic level and the use of different fingers were investigated as well. The force profiles were clearly dependent on tempo and dynamic level. At slow tempi, the force profiles were characterized by an initial pulse followed by a level force to the end of the finger contact period. At tempi higher than 2 Hz, only pulsed profiles were observed. The peak force exceeded 4.5 N at 1 and 2 Hz and decreased to 1.7 N at 16 Hz. All force and impulse values were lower at softer dynamic levels, and when using the ring or little finger compared to the index finger.

  19. Influence of heat processing on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron from cereals and pulses consumed in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, Sreeramaiah; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2007-01-01

    Influence of heat processing on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron from food grains consumed in India was evaluated. Cereals - rice (Oryza sativa), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays), and pulses - chickpea (Cicer arietinum) - whole and decorticated, green gram (Phaseolus aureus) - whole and decorticated, decorticated black gram (Phaseolus mungo), decorticated red gram (Cajanus cajan), cowpea (Vigna catjang), and French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) were examined for zinc and iron bioaccessibility by employing an in vitro dialysability procedure. Both pressure-cooking and microwave heating were tested for their influence on mineral bioaccessibility. Zinc bioaccessibility from food grains was considerably reduced upon pressure-cooking, especially in pulses. Among cereals, pressure-cooking decreased zinc bioaccessibility by 63% and 57% in finger millet and rice, respectively. All the pressure-cooked cereals showed similar percent zinc bioaccessibility with the exception of finger millet. Bioaccessibility of zinc from pulses was generally lower as a result of pressure-cooking or microwave heating. The decrease in bioaccessibility of zinc caused by microwave heating ranged from 11.4% in chickpea (whole) to 63% in cowpea. Decrease in zinc bioaccessibility was 48% in pressure-cooked whole chickpea, 45% and 55% in pressure-cooked or microwave-heated whole green gram, 32% and 22% in pressure-cooked or microwave-heated decorticated green gram, and 45% in microwave-heated black gram. Iron bioaccessibility, on the other hand, was significantly enhanced generally from all the food grains studied upon heat treatment. Thus, heat treatment of grains produced contrasting effect on zinc and iron bioaccessibility.

  20. Factors affecting the simultaneous determination of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in human head hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    Conditions of analysis of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc content in human hair using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) have been established. Sample digestion using using the mixture HCI; H 2 O 2 ;HNO 3 in the ratio 2:1:40 by volume gave the best wet-ashing procedure. The peak currents and peak potentials of zinc, cadmium and lead, copper were maximum at pH 6-7 and 1-3 respectively, when excess H 2 O 2 was eliminated with subsequent addition of hydroxyamine hydrochloride. Matrix concentration effects were minimized by digesting weights not exceeding 50 mg per sample. The effect of selenium (IV) was negligible and was ignored. The detection limit of 0.0036 ng/cm 3 for Cd + 2 was obtained while the values for zinc, lead and copper were 0.0230, 0.0287 and 0.0269 ng/cm 3 respectively at the 95% confidence limit. The observed DPASV condition of analysis of these metals are useful for routine determination of the metals in human hair and should complement the conventional flame absorption spectrophotometry method. (author)

  1. Effects Of Different Age Groups And Education Towards Consumption Of Traditional Finger Foods In Banda Aceh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Nilda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (Pengaruh Usia dan Pendidikan terhadap Pola Konsumsi Kue Tradisional di Banda Aceh  ABSTRACT. Traditional finger foods are closely related to the culture and habits of the population where the foods are produced and carry a symbolic value. The perception of local citizens towards the consumption of traditional foods will affect the existence and integrity of these foods. Primary research was done by interviewing 263 consumers of traditional finger food in Banda Aceh, Indonesia, between April and May 2011. Demography factors are believed to have strong influence in the consumption pattern of traditional finger food in Banda Aceh. The interviews were performed by using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consists of dichotomous, multiple-choice questions and scale questions. The sampling technique which was used is a nonprobability with convenience approach in order to select consumers of traditional food. The data analysis was processed by descriptive and bivariate analysis using Chi-square distribution. The results showed that demographic factors, such as age and education, have a correlation with consumer behavior and consumption habits of traditional finger foods. As a side dish, the consumption of these foods is usually related to special occasions and leisure time. Although most of the consumers are satisfied with the traditional finger foods they consume, some improvements are still needed to enhance the quality and appearance of the products based on the respondents demand. These demands, such as improvement in taste and packaging are potential factors in supporting the increase of consumption of traditional finger food in Banda Aceh.

  2. Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis Following a Minor Dog Bite to the Finger: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedy, Nicolas J; Coghill, Sarah; Chandrashekar, Nanda Kumar S; Bindra, Randy R

    2016-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a gram-negative bacillus present in the oral cavities of 22% to 74% of healthy dogs. Capnocytophaga canimorsus has unique virulence factors that enable it to evade the human immune system and cause life-threatening sepsis following a dog bite. We report a previously well 68-year-old woman who presented with septic shock and multiorgan failure following a seemingly minor dog bite to the finger. The patient required intensive care treatment, intravenous antibiotic therapy, and multiple surgical procedures including amputation of the affected finger. The septicemia and coagulopathy that ensued resulted in gangrene and amputation of additional fingers and toes. The purpose of this report is to raise awareness of this organism among hand surgeons when faced with a patient presenting in septic shock and minimal signs at the site of a dog bite. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of prosody in finger braille using electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Manabi; Nishida, Masafumi; Horiuchi, Yasuo; Ichikawa, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Finger braille is one of the communication methods for the deaf blind. The interpreter types braille codes on the fingers of deaf blind. Finger braille seems to be the most suitable medium for real-time communication by its speed and accuracy of transmitting characters. We hypothesize that the prosody information exists in the time structure and strength of finger braille typing. Prosody is the paralinguistic information that has functions to transmit the sentence structure, prominence, emotions and other form of information in real time communication. In this study, we measured the surface electromyography (sEMG) of finger movement to analyze the typing strength of finger braille. We found that the typing strength increases at the beginning of a phrase and a prominent phrase. The result shows the possibility that the prosody in the typing strength of finger braille can be applied to create an interpreter system for the deafblind.

  4. A Diabetic Elderly Man with Finger Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Noraini; Badrin, Salziyan; Wan Abdullah, Wan Noor Hasbee

    2018-03-01

    Fixed cutaneous sporotrichosis is a differential diagnosis that can be considered in diabetic patients who present with a poorly healing ulcer. Although its prevalence is low, it can occur in patients with immunocompromised status. Here we report a case of a 70-year-old man with diabetes mellitus who presented with a 1-month history of an unhealed ulcer over the tip of his left middle finger. He experienced a cat bite over his left middle finger 1 month prior to the appearance of the lesion. A skin biopsy revealed the presence of Sporothrix schenckii . Oral itraconazole 200 mg twice daily was started empirically and the patient showed marked improvement in the skin lesion after 2 months of therapy.

  5. Finger vein recognition with personalized feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Meng, Xianjing

    2013-08-22

    Finger veins are a promising biometric pattern for personalized identification in terms of their advantages over existing biometrics. Based on the spatial pyramid representation and the combination of more effective information such as gray, texture and shape, this paper proposes a simple but powerful feature, called Pyramid Histograms of Gray, Texture and Orientation Gradients (PHGTOG). For a finger vein image, PHGTOG can reflect the global spatial layout and local details of gray, texture and shape. To further improve the recognition performance and reduce the computational complexity, we select a personalized subset of features from PHGTOG for each subject by using the sparse weight vector, which is trained by using LASSO and called PFS-PHGTOG. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the promise of the PHGTOG and PFS-PHGTOG, experimental results on our databases show that PHGTOG outperforms the other existing features. Moreover, PFS-PHGTOG can further boost the performance in comparison with PHGTOG.

  6. Finger Vein Recognition with Personalized Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjing Meng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Finger veins are a promising biometric pattern for personalized identification in terms of their advantages over existing biometrics. Based on the spatial pyramid representation and the combination of more effective information such as gray, texture and shape, this paper proposes a simple but powerful feature, called Pyramid Histograms of Gray, Texture and Orientation Gradients (PHGTOG. For a finger vein image, PHGTOG can reflect the global spatial layout and local details of gray, texture and shape. To further improve the recognition performance and reduce the computational complexity, we select a personalized subset of features from PHGTOG for each subject by using the sparse weight vector, which is trained by using LASSO and called PFS-PHGTOG. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the promise of the PHGTOG and PFS-PHGTOG, experimental results on our databases show that PHGTOG outperforms the other existing features. Moreover, PFS-PHGTOG can further boost the performance in comparison with PHGTOG.

  7. On the incompatibility of Richards’ equation and finger-like infiltration in unsaturated homogeneous porous media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fürst, T.; Vodák, R.; Šír, Miloslav; Bíl, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2009), W03408 ISSN 0043-1397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/1016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Richards’ equation * finger-like infiltration * cellular automata Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2009

  8. Resolution and recurrence rates of idiopathic trigger finger after corticosteroid injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Marianne F.; Neuhaus, Valentin; Becker, Stéphanie J. E.; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Mudgal, Chaitanya; Ring, David

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses factors associated with apparent resolution and recurrence of triggering using data from providers with various treatment strategies. A retrospective review identified 878 adult patients with 1,210 Quinnell grade 2 or 3 trigger fingers that had one or more corticosteroid

  9. Finger Search in the Implicit Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Nielsen, Jesper Asbjørn Sindahl; Truelsen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    , and delete in times $\\mathcal{O}(q(t))$, $\\mathcal{O}(q^{-1}(\\log n)\\log n)$, $\\mathcal{O}(\\log n)$, and $\\mathcal{O}(\\log n)$, respectively, for any q(t) = Ω(logt). Finally we show that the search operation must take Ω(logn) time for the special case where the finger is always changed to the element...

  10. Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar I. Jóhannesson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A popular model of the function of selective visual attention involves search where a single target is to be found among distractors. For many scenarios, a more realistic model involves search for multiple targets of various types, since natural tasks typically do not involve a single target. Here we present results from a novel multiple-target foraging paradigm. We compare finger foraging where observers cancel a set of predesignated targets by tapping them, to gaze foraging where observers cancel items by fixating them for 100 ms. During finger foraging, for most observers, there was a large difference between foraging based on a single feature, where observers switch easily between target types, and foraging based on a conjunction of features where observers tended to stick to one target type. The pattern was notably different during gaze foraging where these condition differences were smaller. Two conclusions follow: (a The fact that a sizeable number of observers (in particular during gaze foraging had little trouble switching between different target types raises challenges for many prominent theoretical accounts of visual attention and working memory. (b While caveats must be noted for the comparison of gaze and finger foraging, the results suggest that selection mechanisms for gaze and pointing have different operational constraints.

  11. Fingering instabilities in bacterial community phototaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vps, Ritwika; Man Wah Chau, Rosanna; Casey Huang, Kerwyn; Gopinathan, Ajay

    Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 is a phototactic cyanobacterium that moves directionally in response to a light source. During phototaxis, these bacterial communities show emergent spatial organisation resulting in the formation of finger-like projections at the propagating front. In this study, we propose an analytical model that elucidates the underlying physical mechanisms which give rise to these spatial patterns. We describe the migrating front during phototaxis as a one-dimensional curve by considering the effects of phototactic bias, diffusion and surface tension. By considering the propagating front as composed of perturbations to a flat solution and using linear stability analysis, we predict a critical bias above which the finger-like projections appear as instabilities. We also predict the wavelengths of the fastest growing mode and the critical mode above which the instabilities disappear. We validate our predictions through comparisons to experimental data obtained by analysing images of phototaxis in Synechocystis communities. Our model also predicts the observed loss of instabilities in taxd1 mutants (cells with inactive TaxD1, an important photoreceptor in finger formation), by considering diffusion in mutually perpendicular directions and a lower, negative bias.

  12. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  13. Palm to finger ulnar sensory nerve conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Davidowich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  14. EFEKTIFITAS PELAKSANAAN FINGER PRINT DI IAIN RADEN FATAH PALEMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahir Badruddin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, discipline becomes an important thing that becomes the focus of attention in almost all organizations. Some studies even linking discipline with performance that if the level of discipline members of the organization better then the performance will increase. IAIN Raden Fatah Palembang as one of the organizations also see discipline as an important factor that must be considered by all employees and lecturers mainly based on Government Regulation No. 30 1980 which was amended by Government Regulation No. 53 in 2010. Meanwhile, for the Ministry of Religion itself translated back through the Minister of Religion No. 28 in 2013 and again by Decree especially Rector IAIN Raden Fatah regulating the working hours of employees and lecturers. To obtain a report of presence accountable, it is used in the finger print machine IAIN Raden Fatah Palembang. To see the effectiveness of the implementation of these activities, we conducted observations, interviews and documentation as a means of collecting data. And, the resulting data will be analyzed qualitatively and elaborated descriptively. After the stages of research, showed that the application of the rules the government has been running well and supported by adequate facilities. However, not maximal processing, synchronization data and application of punishment and reward led to a lack of effective use of finger prints on the existing units in IAIN Raden Fatah Palembang.

  15. Rising Intracellular Zinc by Membrane Depolarization and Glucose in Insulin-Secreting Clonal HIT-T15 Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira G. Slepchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn2+ appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30–60 mM was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  16. Rising intracellular zinc by membrane depolarization and glucose in insulin-secreting clonal HIT-T15 beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepchenko, Kira G; Li, Yang V

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn(2+)) appears to be intimately involved in insulin metabolism since insulin secretion is correlated with zinc secretion in response to glucose stimulation, but little is known about the regulation of zinc homeostasis in pancreatic beta-cells. This study set out to identify the intracellular zinc transient by imaging free cytosolic zinc in HIT-T15 beta-cells with fluorescent zinc indicators. We observed that membrane depolarization by KCl (30-60 mM) was able to induce a rapid increase in cytosolic concentration of zinc. Multiple zinc transients of similar magnitude were elicited during repeated stimulations. The amplitude of zinc responses was not affected by the removal of extracellular calcium or zinc. However, the half-time of the rising slope was significantly slower after removing extracellular zinc with zinc chelator CaEDTA, suggesting that extracellular zinc affect the initial rising phase of zinc response. Glucose (10 mM) induced substantial and progressive increases in intracellular zinc concentration in a similar way as KCl, with variation in the onset and the duration of zinc mobilization. It is known that the depolarization of beta-cell membrane is coupled with the secretion of insulin. Rising intracellular zinc concentration may act as a critical signaling factor in insulin metabolism of pancreatic beta-cells.

  17. C3HC4-type RING finger protein NbZFP1 is involved in growth and fruit development in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Wu

    Full Text Available C3HC4-type RING finger proteins constitute a large family in the plant kingdom and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, a C3HC4-type zinc finger gene was isolated from Nicotiana benthamiana. Sequence analysis indicated that the gene encodes a 24-kDa protein with 191 amino acids containing one typical C3HC4-type zinc finger domain; this gene was named NbZFP1. Transient expression of pGDG-NbZFP1 demonstrated that NbZFP1 was localized to the chloroplast, especially in the chloroplasts of cells surrounding leaf stomata. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS analysis indicated that silencing of NbZFP1 hampered fruit development, although the height of the plants was normal. An overexpression construct was then designed and transferred into Nicotiana benthamiana, and PCR and Southern blot showed that the NbZFP1 gene was successfully integrated into the Nicotiana benthamiana genome. The transgenic lines showed typical compactness, with a short internode length and sturdy stems. This is the first report describing the function of a C3HC4-type RING finger protein in tobacco.

  18. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  19. Zinc and platelet membrane microviscosity in Alzheimer's disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    zinc in AD patients, a recent study has contradicted this ... Atthough AD is seen as a disease of the brain, there is mounting evidence that ... membrane damage in the in vitro system.tI Zinc also .... who showed that 15 AD patients receiving dietary ... Onset 01 AlzheImer's dIsease: Influence of genes and environmental factors ...

  20. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; EL-NAHLA, A.M.; ASHOUR, I.; SALEH, SH.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  1. Association of Mood Disorders with Serum Zinc Concentrations in Adolescent Female Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Kobra; Amani, Reza; Nazari, Zahra; Ahmadi, Kambiz; Moazzen, Sara; Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali

    2017-08-01

    Among various factors influencing mood disorders, the impact of micronutrient deficiencies has attracted a great attention. Zinc deficiency is considered to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of mood disorders in different stages of life. The main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between serum zinc levels and mood disorders in high school female students. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 100 representative high school female students. The participants completed 24-h food recall questionnaires to assess the daily zinc intakes. Serum zinc status was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and zinc deficiency was defined accordingly. Mood disorders were estimated by calculating the sum of two test scores including Beck's depression inventory (BDI) and hospital anxiety depression scale (HADS) tests. General linear model (GLM) and Pearson's regression test were applied to show the correlation of serum zinc levels and mood disorder scores and the correlation between zinc serum levels and BDI scores, respectively. Dietary zinc intake was higher in subjects with normal zinc concentrations than that of zinc-deficient group (p = 0.001). Serum zinc levels were inversely correlated with BDI and HADS scores (p zinc levels led to 0.3 and 0.01 decrease in depression and anxiety scores, respectively (p zinc levels were inversely correlated with mood disorders including depression and anxiety in adolescent female students. Increasing serum levels of zinc in female students could improve their mood disorders.

  2. Speed invariance of independent control of finger movements in pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Shinichi; Soechting, John F

    2012-10-01

    Independent control of finger movements characterizes skilled motor behaviors such as tool use and musical performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of movement frequency (tempo) on individuated finger movements in piano playing. Joint motion at the digits was recorded while 5 expert pianists were playing 30 excerpts from musical pieces with different fingering and key locations either at a predetermined normal tempo or as fast as possible. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm determined three distinct patterns of finger movement coordination for a keypress with each of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers at each of the two tempi. The finger kinematics of each coordination pattern was overall similar across the tempi. Tone sequences assigned into each cluster were also similar for both tempi. A linear regression analysis determined no apparent difference in the amount of movement covariation between the striking and nonstriking fingers at both metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-interphalangeal joints across the two tempi, which indicated no effect of tempo on independent finger movements in piano playing. In addition, the standard deviation of interkeystroke interval across strokes did not differ between the two tempi, indicating maintenance of rhythmic accuracy of keystrokes. Strong temporal constraints on finger movements during piano playing may underlie the maintained independent control of fingers over a wider range of tempi, a feature being likely to be specific to skilled pianists.

  3. The role of fingers in number processing in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Anne; Thevenot, Catherine; Castel, Caroline; Fayol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between finger counting and numerical processing in 4-7-year-old children. Children were assessed on a variety of numerical tasks and we examined the correlations between their rates of success and their frequency of finger use in a counting task. We showed that children's performance on finger pattern comparison and identification tasks did not correlate with the frequency of finger use. However, this last variable correlated with the percentages of correct responses in an enumeration task (i.e., Give-N task), even when the age of children was entered as a covariate in the analysis. Despite this correlation, we showed that some children who never used their fingers in the counting task were able to perform optimally in the enumeration task. Overall, our results support the conclusion that finger counting is useful but not necessary to develop accurate symbolic numerical skills. Moreover, our results suggest that the use of fingers in a counting task is related to the ability of children in a dynamic enumeration task but not to static tasks involving recognition or comparison of finger patterns. Therefore, it could be that the link between fingers and numbers remain circumscribed to counting tasks and do not extent to static finger montring situations.

  4. The role of fingers in number processing in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eLafay

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between finger counting and numerical processing in 4- to 7-year-old children. Children were assessed on a variety of numerical tasks and we examined the correlations between their rates of success and their frequency of finger use in a counting task. We showed that children’s performance on finger pattern comparison and identification tasks did not correlate with the frequency of finger use. However, this last variable correlated with the percentages of correct responses in an enumeration task (i.e., Give-N task, even when the age of children was entered as a covariate in the analysis. Despite this correlation, we showed that some children who never used their fingers in the counting task were able to perform optimally in the enumeration task. Overall, our results support the conclusion that finger counting is useful but not necessary to develop accurate symbolic numerical skills. Moreover, our results suggest that the use of fingers in a counting task is related to the ability of children in a dynamic enumeration task but not to static tasks involving recognition or comparison of finger patterns. Therefore, it could be that the link between fingers and numbers remain circumscribed to counting tasks and do not extent to static finger montring situations.

  5. Zinc in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects Symptoms of zinc deficiency include: Frequent infections Hypogonadism in males Loss of hair Poor appetite Problems with the ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  6. Acute dietary zinc deficiency before conception compromises oocyte epigenetic programming and disrupts embryonic development

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, X; Diaz, FJ

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings show that zinc is an important factor necessary for regulating the meiotic cell cycle and ovulation. However, the role of zinc in promoting oocyte quality and developmental potential is not known. Using an in vivo model of acute dietary zinc deficiency, we show that feeding a zinc deficient diet (ZDD) for 3–5 days before ovulation (preconception) dramatically disrupts oocyte chromatin methylation and preimplantation development. There was a dramatic decrease in histone H3K4 tr...

  7. HUBUNGAN ANTARA ZINC SERUM DENGAN STATUS GIZI LANSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrah Emawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ZINC SERUM AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF ELDERLY PEOPLE.Background: The findings of study that 30% in Bogor and 27% in Jakarta of elderly people were undernourished. Malnutrition may occur due to infection and low food intake. Among elderly people, one of the factors that causes low food intake is affected by impairment of taste sensory and teeth function. The impairment of taste sensory is influenced by zinc status in the body.Objective: To collect food consumption pattem data of zinc rich foods, zinc concentration in serum and to analyze association of zinc concentration and nutritional status.Methods: Research design was cross sectional, and conducted in two sub districts in Bogor city. The respondents were women in 60-75 years of age, no suffering from illnesses and chronically disease. The total respondent was 90 people, and divided into three groups of 30 peoples. Data gathered included respondent identity, physical examination, anthropometry, blood biochemical and zinc dietary consumption.Results: Zinc dietary consumption adequacy of underweight group was only 30% of recommended dietary allowance, while for normal and overweight groups were 40% of dietary allowance. Zinc serum concentration of underweight group (82 ug/dl was not significantly different with normal group (85 ug/dl, however differed significantly (p<0.05 with overweight group (95 ug/dl. Underweight group suffered 40% zinc deficiency, 27% for normal and only 7% for overweight group.Conclusions: Zinc deficiency was more prevalent in underweight group than that of normal and overweight group. [Panel Gizi Makan 2002,25: 26-33.Keywords: zinc serum concentration, zinc dietary consumption, underweight

  8. Torque Control of Underactuated Tendon-driven Robotic Fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Wampler, Charles W. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A robotic system includes a robot having a total number of degrees of freedom (DOF) equal to at least n, an underactuated tendon-driven finger driven by n tendons and n DOF, the finger having at least two joints, being characterized by an asymmetrical joint radius in one embodiment. A controller is in communication with the robot, and controls actuation of the tendon-driven finger using force control. Operating the finger with force control on the tendons, rather than position control, eliminates the unconstrained slack-space that would have otherwise existed. The controller may utilize the asymmetrical joint radii to independently command joint torques. A method of controlling the finger includes commanding either independent or parameterized joint torques to the controller to actuate the fingers via force control on the tendons.

  9. Finger agnosia and cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S; Trotter, Jeffrey S; Hertza, Jeremy; Bell, Christopher D; Dean, Raymond S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of finger agnosia in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to determine if level of finger agnosia was related to cognitive impairment. Finger agnosia is a sensitive measure of cerebral impairment and is associated with neurofunctional areas implicated in AD. Using a standardized and norm-referenced approach, results indicated that patients with AD evidenced significantly decreased performance on tests of bilateral finger agnosia compared with healthy age-matched controls. Finger agnosia was predictive of cognitive dysfunction on four of seven domains, including: Crystallized Language, Fluid Processing, Associative Learning, and Processing Speed. Results suggest that measures of finger agnosia, a short and simple test, may be useful in the early detection of AD.

  10. Identification of a novel A20-binding inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B activation termed ABIN-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huffel, S; Delaei, F; Heyninck, K; De Valck, D; Beyaert, R

    2001-08-10

    The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays a central role in the regulation of genes implicated in immune responses, inflammatory processes, and apoptotic cell death. The zinc finger protein A20 is a cellular inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation by various stimuli and plays a critical role in terminating NF-kappaB responses. The underlying mechanism for NF-kappaB inhibition by A20 is still unknown. A20 has been shown to interact with several proteins including tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factors 2 and 6, as well as the inhibitory protein of kappaB kinase (IKK) gamma protein. Here we report the cloning and characterization of ABIN-2, a previously unknown protein that binds to the COOH-terminal zinc finger domain of A20. NF-kappaB activation induced by TNF and interleukin-1 is inhibited by overexpression of ABIN-2. The latter also inhibits NF-kappaB activation induced by overexpression of receptor-interacting protein or TNF receptor-associated factor 2. In contrast, NF-kappaB activation by overexpression of IKKbeta or direct activators of the IKK complex, such as Tax, cannot be inhibited by ABIN-2. These results indicate that ABIN-2 interferes with NF-kappaB activation upstream of the IKK complex and that it might contribute to the NF-kappaB-inhibitory function of A20.

  11. Finger Injuries in Football and Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Kate E; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full-contact nature of these sports. Some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Others require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must weigh the benefits of early return to play for the current season and future playing career against the risks of reinjury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Erosion waves: Transverse instabilities and fingering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloggi, F.; Lanuza, J.; Andreotti, B.; Clément, E.

    2006-09-01

    Two laboratory scale experiments of dry and underwater avalanches of non-cohesive granular materials are investigated. We trigger solitary waves and study the conditions under which the front is transversally stable. We show the existence of a linear instability followed by a coarsening dynamics and finally the onset of a fingering pattern. Due to the different operating conditions, both experiments strongly differ by the spatial and time scales involved. Nevertheless, the quantitative agreement between the stability diagram, the wavelengths selected and the avalanche morphology suggest a common scenario for an erosion/deposition process.

  13. Genome and Transcriptome sequence of Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) provides insights into drought tolerance and nutraceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittalmani, Shailaja; Mahesh, H B; Shirke, Meghana Deepak; Biradar, Hanamareddy; Uday, Govindareddy; Aruna, Y R; Lohithaswa, H C; Mohanrao, A

    2017-06-15

    Finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.) is an important staple food crop widely grown in Africa and South Asia. Among the millets, finger millet has high amount of calcium, methionine, tryptophan, fiber, and sulphur containing amino acids. In addition, it has C4 photosynthetic carbon assimilation mechanism, which helps to utilize water and nitrogen efficiently under hot and arid conditions without severely affecting yield. Therefore, development and utilization of genomic resources for genetic improvement of this crop is immensely useful. Experimental results from whole genome sequencing and assembling process of ML-365 finger millet cultivar yielded 1196 Mb covering approximately 82% of total estimated genome size. Genome analysis showed the presence of 85,243 genes and one half of the genome is repetitive in nature. The finger millet genome was found to have higher colinearity with foxtail millet and rice as compared to other Poaceae species. Mining of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) yielded abundance of SSRs within the finger millet genome. Functional annotation and mining of transcription factors revealed finger millet genome harbors large number of drought tolerance related genes. Transcriptome analysis of low moisture stress and non-stress samples revealed the identification of several drought-induced candidate genes, which could be used in drought tolerance breeding. This genome sequencing effort will strengthen plant breeders for allele discovery, genetic mapping, and identification of candidate genes for agronomically important traits. Availability of genomic resources of finger millet will enhance the novel breeding possibilities to address potential challenges of finger millet improvement.

  14. Vertical Finger Displacement Is Reduced in Index Finger Tapping During Repeated Bout Rate Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2017-10-01

    The present study analyzed (a) whether a recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement in finger tapping (i.e., a cumulating increase in freely chosen finger tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation in the form of externally unloaded voluntary tapping) could be replicated and (b) the hypotheses that the faster tapping was accompanied by changed vertical displacement of the fingertip and changed peak force during tapping. Right-handed, healthy, and recreationally active individuals (n = 24) performed two 3-min index finger tapping bouts at freely chosen tapping frequency, separated by 10-min rest. The recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement was replicated. The faster tapping (8.8 ± 18.7 taps/min, corresponding to 6.0 ± 11.0%, p = .033) was accompanied by reduced vertical displacement (1.6 ± 2.9 mm, corresponding to 6.3 ± 14.9%, p = .012) of the fingertip. Concurrently, peak force was unchanged. The present study points at separate control mechanisms governing kinematics and kinetics during finger tapping.

  15. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  16. Extrinsic versus intrinsic hand muscle dominance in finger flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sukaini, A; Singh, H P; Dias, J J

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns of dominance of extrinsic or intrinsic muscles in finger flexion during initiation of finger curl and mid-finger flexion. We recorded 82 hands of healthy individuals (18-74 years) while flexing their fingers and tracked the finger joint angles of the little finger using video motion tracking. A total of 57 hands (69.5%) were classified as extrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 25 (30.5%) were classified as intrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at the metacarpophalangeal joint. The distribution of age, sex, dominance, handedness and body mass index was similar in the two groups. This knowledge may allow clinicians to develop more efficient rehabilitation regimes, since intrinsic dominant individuals would not initiate extrinsic muscle contraction till later in finger flexion, and might therefore be allowed limited early active motion. For extrinsic dominant individuals, by contrast, initial contraction of extrinsic muscles would place increased stress on the tendon repair site if early motion were permitted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Tetanus following replantation of an amputated finger: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kenji; Murakami, Chikako; Fujioka, Masaki

    2012-10-08

    Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani and induces severe neurological manifestations. We treated a patient who developed tetanus during hospitalization for replantation of an amputated finger. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case report of such an entity. A 49-year-old Japanese man had an amputation of his right middle finger at the distal interphalangeal joint region in an accident at work. His middle finger was successfully replanted, but his fingertip was partially necrotized because of crushing and so additional reconstruction with a reverse digital arterial flap was performed 15 days after the injury. Tetanus developed 21 days after replantation of the middle finger, but symptoms remitted via rapid diagnosis and treatment. In replantation after finger trauma with exposure of nerve and blood vessel bundles, concern over injuring nerves and blood vessels may prevent irrigation and debridement from being performed sufficiently; these treatments may have been insufficiently performed in this patient. It is likely that the replanted middle finger partially adhered, and Clostridium tetani colonized the partially necrotized region. Even when there is only limited soil contamination, administration of tetanus toxoid and anti-tetanus immunoglobulin is necessary when the fingers are injured outdoors and the finger nerves and blood vessels are exposed. The drugs should be administered just after replantation if the finger has been amputated. However, if clinicians pay attention to the possibility of tetanus development, treatment can be rapidly initiated.

  18. Tetanus following replantation of an amputated finger: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashida Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani and induces severe neurological manifestations. We treated a patient who developed tetanus during hospitalization for replantation of an amputated finger. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published case report of such an entity. Case presentation A 49-year-old Japanese man had an amputation of his right middle finger at the distal interphalangeal joint region in an accident at work. His middle finger was successfully replanted, but his fingertip was partially necrotized because of crushing and so additional reconstruction with a reverse digital arterial flap was performed 15 days after the injury. Tetanus developed 21 days after replantation of the middle finger, but symptoms remitted via rapid diagnosis and treatment. Conclusions In replantation after finger trauma with exposure of nerve and blood vessel bundles, concern over injuring nerves and blood vessels may prevent irrigation and debridement from being performed sufficiently; these treatments may have been insufficiently performed in this patient. It is likely that the replanted middle finger partially adhered, and Clostridium tetani colonized the partially necrotized region. Even when there is only limited soil contamination, administration of tetanus toxoid and anti-tetanus immunoglobulin is necessary when the fingers are injured outdoors and the finger nerves and blood vessels are exposed. The drugs should be administered just after replantation if the finger has been amputated. However, if clinicians pay attention to the possibility of tetanus development, treatment can be rapidly initiated.

  19. Model of how plants sense zinc deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, Ana G.L.; Persson, Daniel Olof; Husted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    to develop plant-based solutions addressing nutrient-use-efficiency and adaptation to nutrient-limited or -toxic soils. Recently two transcription factors of the bZIP family (basic-region leucine zipper) have been identified in Arabidopsis and shown to be pivotal in the adaptation response to zinc deficiency...

  20. EPR spectroscopic investigation of psoriatic finger nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Minakawa, Satoko; Sawamura, Daisuke

    2013-11-01

    Nail lesions are common features of psoriasis and found in almost half of the patients. However, there is no feasible spectroscopic method evaluating changes and severity of nail psoriasis. EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) might be feasible for evaluating nail conditions in the patients of psoriasis. Finger nails of five cases with nail psoriasis, (three females and two males) were examined. Nail samples were subjected to the EPR assay. The small piece of the finger nail (1.5 × 5 mm(2)) was incubated in ~50 μM 5-DSA (5-doxylstearic acid) aqueous solutions for about 60 min at 37°C. After rinsing and wiping off the excess 5-DSA solution, the nail samples were measured by EPR. EPR spectra were analyzed using the intensity ratio (Fast/Slow) of the two motions at the peaks of the lower magnetic field. We observed two distinguishable sites on the basis of the EPR results. In addition, the modern EPR calculation was performed to analyze the spectra obtained. The nail psoriasis-related region is 2~3 times higher than that of the control. The present EPR results show that there are two distinguishable sites in the nail. In the case of nail psoriasis, the fragile components are 2~3 times more than those of the control. Thus, the EPR method is thought to be a novel and reliable method of evaluating the nail psoriasis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Oxidation-Mediated Fingering in Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Hight, David C.; O'Regan, John D.; Dickey, Michael D.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2017-10-01

    We identify and characterize a new class of fingering instabilities in liquid metals; these instabilities are unexpected due to the large interfacial tension of metals. Electrochemical oxidation lowers the effective interfacial tension of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy to values approaching zero, thereby inducing drastic shape changes, including the formation of fractals. The measured fractal dimension (D =1.3 ±0.05 ) places the instability in a different universality class than other fingering instabilities. By characterizing changes in morphology and dynamics as a function of droplet volume and applied electric potential, we identify the three main forces involved in this process: interfacial tension, gravity, and oxidative stress. Importantly, we find that electrochemical oxidation can generate compressive interfacial forces that oppose the tensile forces at a liquid interface. The surface oxide layer ultimately provides a physical and electrochemical barrier that halts the instabilities at larger positive potentials. Controlling the competition between interfacial tension and oxidative (compressive) stresses at the interface is important for the development of reconfigurable electronic, electromagnetic, and optical devices that take advantage of the metallic properties of liquid metals.

  2. Teleoperation of Robonaut Using Finger Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champoux, Rachel G.; Luo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of new finger tracking systems, the idea of a more expressive and intuitive user interface is being explored and implemented. One practical application for this new kind of interface is that of teleoperating a robot. For humanoid robots, a finger tracking interface is required due to the level of complexity in a human-like hand, where a joystick isn't accurate. Moreover, for some tasks, using one's own hands allows the user to communicate their intentions more effectively than other input. The purpose of this project was to develop a natural user interface for someone to teleoperate a robot that is elsewhere. Specifically, this was designed to control Robonaut on the international space station to do tasks too dangerous and/or too trivial for human astronauts. This interface was developed by integrating and modifying 3Gear's software, which includes a library of gestures and the ability to track hands. The end result is an interface in which the user can manipulate objects in real time in the user interface. then, the information is relayed to a simulator, the stand in for Robonaut, at a slight delay.

  3. Potential ecological risk assessment and predicting zinc accumulation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Agnieszka; Wieczorek, Jerzy; Mazurek, Ryszard; Urbański, Krzysztof; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate zinc content in the studied soils; evaluate the efficiency of geostatistics in presenting spatial variability of zinc in the soils; assess bioavailable forms of zinc in the soils and to assess soil-zinc binding ability; and to estimate the potential ecological risk of zinc in soils. The study was conducted in southern Poland, in the Malopolska Province. This area is characterized by a great diversity of geological structures and types of land use and intensity of industrial development. The zinc content was affected by soil factors, and the type of land use (arable lands, grasslands, forests, wastelands). A total of 320 soil samples were characterized in terms of physicochemical properties (texture, pH, organic C content, total and available Zn content). Based on the obtained data, assessment of the ecological risk of zinc was conducted using two methods: potential ecological risk index and hazard quotient. Total Zn content in the soils ranged from 8.27 to 7221 mg kg -1 d.m. Based on the surface semivariograms, the highest variability of zinc in the soils was observed from northwest to southeast. The point sources of Zn contamination were located in the northwestern part of the area, near the mining-metallurgical activity involving processing of zinc and lead ores. These findings were confirmed by the arrangement of semivariogram surfaces and bivariate Moran's correlation coefficients. The content of bioavailable forms of zinc was between 0.05 and 46.19 mg kg -1 d.m. (0.01 mol dm -3 CaCl 2 ), and between 0.03 and 71.54 mg kg -1 d.m. (1 mol dm -3 NH 4 NO 3 ). Forest soils had the highest zinc solubility, followed by arable land, grassland and wasteland. PCA showed that organic C was the key factor to control bioavailability of zinc in the soils. The extreme, very high and medium zinc accumulation was found in 69% of studied soils. There is no ecological risk of zinc to living organisms in the study area, and in 90

  4. Reduction of arsenite-enhanced ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage by supplemental zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Karen L.; King, Brenee S.; Sandoval, Monica M.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G., E-mail: lhudson@salud.unm.edu

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic is a recognized human carcinogen and there is evidence that arsenic augments the carcinogenicity of DNA damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR) thereby acting as a co-carcinogen. Inhibition of DNA repair is one proposed mechanism to account for the co-carcinogenic actions of arsenic. We and others find that arsenite interferes with the function of certain zinc finger DNA repair proteins. Furthermore, we reported that zinc reverses the effects of arsenite in cultured cells and a DNA repair target protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. In order to determine whether zinc ameliorates the effects of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and in an in vivo model, normal human epidermal keratinocytes and SKH-1 hairless mice were exposed to arsenite, zinc or both before solar-simulated (ss) UVR exposure. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, DNA damage and mutation frequencies at the Hprt locus were measured