WorldWideScience

Sample records for zinc electrode morphology

  1. Zinc electrode - its behaviour in the nickel oxide-zinc accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Certain aspects of zinc electrode reaction and behavior are investigated in view of their application to batteries. The properties of the zinc electrode in a battery system are discussed, emphasizing porous structure. Shape change is emphasized as the most important factor leading to limited battery cycle life. It is shown that two existing models of shape change based on electroosmosis and current distribution are unable to consistently describe observed phenomena. The first stages of electrocrystallization are studied and the surface reactions between the silver substrate and the deposited zinc layer are investigated. The reaction mechanism of zinc and amalgamated zinc in an alkaline electrolyte is addressed, and the batter system is studied to obtain information on cycling behavior and on the shape change phenomenon. The effect on cycle behavior of diferent amalgamation techniques of the zinc electrode and several additives is addressed. Impedance measurements on zinc electrodes are considered, and battery behavior is correlated with changes in the zinc electrode during cycling. 193 references.

  2. Neodymium conversion layers formed on zinc powder for improving electrochemical properties of zinc electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liqun; Zhang Hui; Li Weiping; Liu Huicong

    2008-01-01

    Zinc powder, as active material of secondary alkaline zinc electrode, can greatly limit the performance of zinc electrode due to corrosion and dendritic growth of zinc resulting in great capacity-loss and short cycle life of the electrode. This work is devoted to modification study of zinc powder with neodymium conversion films coated directly onto it using ultrasonic immersion method for properties improvement of zinc electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy and other characterization techniques are applied to prove that neodymium conversion layers are distributing on the surface of modified zinc powder. The electrochemical performance of zinc electrodes made of such modified zinc powder is investigated through potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic polarization and cyclic voltammetry. The neodymium conversion films are found to have a significant effect on inhibition corrosion capability of zinc electrode in a beneficial way. It is also confirmed that the neodymium conversion coatings can obviously suppress dendritic growth of zinc electrode, which is attributed to the amelioration of deposition state of zinc. Moreover, the results of cyclic voltammetry reveal that surface modification of zinc powder enhances the cycle performance of the electrode mainly because the neodymium conversion films decrease the amounts of ZnO or Zn(OH) 2 dissolved in the electrolyte

  3. Zinc electrode shape change II. Process and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einerhand, R.E.F.; Visscher, W.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Barendrecht, E.

    1991-01-01

    The process and mechanism of zinc electrode shape change is investigated with the radiotracer technique. It is shownthat during repeated cycling of the nickel oxide/zinc battery zinc material is transported over the zinc electrode via the battery electrolyte. During charge as well as during

  4. Zinc deposition and dissolution in methanesulfonic acid onto a carbon composite electrode as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.K.; Ponce-de-Leon, C.; Low, C.T.J.; Walsh, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use methanesulfonic acid to avoid dendrite formation during a long (>4 h) zinc electrodeposition. → Electrochemical characterization of Zn(II) deposition and its morphology using methanesulfonic acid solutions. → Use of additives to improve the efficiency of zinc deposition and dissolution as the half cell reaction of a redox flow battery. - Abstract: Electrodeposition and dissolution of zinc in methanesulfonic acid were studied as the negative electrode reactions in a hybrid redox flow battery. Cyclic voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode was used to characterize the electrochemistry and the effect of process conditions on the deposition and dissolution rate of zinc in aqueous methanesulfonic acid. At a sufficiently high current density, the deposition process became a mass transport controlled reaction. The diffusion coefficient of Zn 2+ ions was 7.5 x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 . The performance of the zinc negative electrode in a parallel plate flow cell was also studied as a function of Zn 2+ ion concentration, methanesulfonic acid concentration, current density, electrolyte flow rate, operating temperature and the addition of electrolytic additives, including potassium sodium tartarate, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide, and indium oxide. The current-, voltage- and energy efficiencies of the zinc-half cell reaction and the morphologies of the zinc deposits are also discussed. The energy efficiency improved from 62% in the absence of additives to 73% upon the addition of 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 of indium oxide as a hydrogen suppressant. In aqueous methanesulfonic acid with or without additives, there was no significant dendrite formation after zinc electrodeposition for 4 h at 50 mA cm -2 .

  5. The effect of the electrode material on the electrodeposition of zinc from deep eutectic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, L.; Schennach, R.; Gollas, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanistic insight into zinc electrodeposition from deep eutectic solvents. • Overpotential for hydrogen evolution affects the electrodeposition of zinc. • Electrodeposited zinc forms surface alloys on Cu, Au, and Pt. • In situ PM-IRRAS of a ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent on glassy carbon. - Abstract: The voltammetric behaviour of the ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent choline chloride/ethylene glycol 1:2 was investigated on glassy carbon, stainless steel, Au, Pt, Cu, and Zn electrodes. While cyclic voltammetry on glassy carbon and stainless steel showed a cathodic peak for zinc electrodeposition only in the anodic reverse sweep, a cathodic peak was found also in the cathodic forward sweep on Au, Pt, Cu, and Zn. This behaviour is in agreement with the proposed mechanism of zinc deposition from an intermediate species Z, whose formation depends on the cathodic reduction potential of the solvent. The voltammetric reduction of the electrolyte involves hydrogen evolution and as a result the formation of Z and its reduction to zinc depend on the hydrogen overpotential for each electrode material. On Au, Pt, and Cu also the anodic stripping was different from that on glassy carbon and steel due to the formation of surface zinc alloys with the three former metals. The morphology of the zinc layers on Cu has been characterised by scanning electron microscopy and focussed ion beam. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of crystalline zinc and a Cu_4Zn phase. Spectroelectrochemistry by means of polarization modulation reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) on a glassy carbon electrode in the ZnCl_2 containing deep eutectic solvent showed characteristic potential dependent changes. The variation of band intensities at different applied potentials correlate with the voltammetry and suggest the formation of a compact blocking layer on the electrode surface, which inhibits the electrodeposition of zinc at sufficiently negative

  6. Production of zinc pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  7. An environmental friendly electrode and extended cathodic potential window for anodic stripping voltammetry of zinc detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueraning, Anisah; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Limbut, Warakorn

    2016-01-01

    This work reports on a novel polyeriochrome black T (poly(EBT) modified electrode for use as an environmentally-friendly electrode material that extends the cathodic potential window and improves the sensitivity and repeatability to detect zinc in industrial wastewater. The poly(EBT) film on the GCE surface was fabricated by electropolymerization. The surface morphology and electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and anodic stripping voltammetry. Under optimal conditions, the poly(EBT)/GCE exhibited a high hydrogen overvoltage (extended cathodic potential window). It provided a high sensitivity, a wide linear range (1.0 to 400.0 μg L −1 ), a low detection limit (0.9 μg L −1 ), had excellent repeatability and good recoveries (95% to 105%). This proposed modified electrode was applied to the determination of zinc in wastewater samples, and the results were consistent with those of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analysis.

  8. In situ Zn/ZnO mapping elucidating for "shape change" of zinc electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akiyoshi; Arai, Hajime; Murayama, Haruno; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Yamane, Tomokazu; Hirai, Toshiro; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2018-04-01

    For the use of the zinc anode in secondary batteries, it is necessary to solve the "shape change" deterioration issue in that zinc species agglomerate in the center of the electrode to fade the available capacity. The local chemical compositions of the zinc electrodes during "shape change" were precisely analyzed using the synchrotron X-ray diffraction mapping analysis of practical zinc-nickel cells in a non-destructive manner. The in situ Zn/ZnO mapping shows that metallic Zn deposition chiefly occurs in the periphery of ZnO while ZnO are left in the center of electrode like a hill on charging. On discharging, the ZnO hill grows to the perpendicular direction on the electrode while metallic zinc is oxidized and dissolved. These findings allow us to propose a mechanism for the shape change; thus dissolved zincate species are decomposed on the ZnO hill during discharging to be accumulated in the center of the electrode. It is suggested that suppressing zincate dissolution and non-uniform zinc deposition slow the growth rate of the ZnO hill to enhance the cyclability of zinc-based secondary batteries.

  9. The development of a micropatterned electrode for studies of zinc electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutija, Dave P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-12-01

    A micropatterned electrode was prepared for the study of electrocrystallization. Using microphotolithography, in conjunction with evaporation and pulse electrodeposition of thin films, a set of artificially roughened electrodes with hemispherical surface features five microns in diameter was developed. Voltammetric studies were conducted to determine the best electrode material. Gold, platinum, and various carbon surfaces were evaluated for zinc nucleation density and hydrogen overpotential. Surface homogeneity was examined by both light and scanning electron microscopy. Gold was determined to possess the best combination of material properties: chemical inertness, low melting point, and a high work function allowing underpotential deposition of zinc which reduces the rate of hydrogen evolution. Stripping coulometry was employed to determine zinc limiting currents, and evaluate effective diffusion coefficients in concentrated zinc chloride solutions. Although the method worked well for dilute zinc chloride and copper sulfate solutions, it failed at higher current densities; the emergence of surface roughness obscured actual limiting current plateaus.

  10. Zinc oxide tetrapod: a morphology with multifunctional applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide has emerged as a material of great interest due to its unique optical, electrical and magnetic properties. This review comprehensively covers the various aspects of zinc oxide tetrapods. Tetrapod is a one dimensional zinc oxide nano-microstructure and has been found to have very promising applications in diverse fields. The growth model, properties, synthesis methods and variations in the tetrapod morphology by varying the synthesis conditions have been discussed. The promising applications of zinc oxide tetrapod morphology have been also discussed in detail. (review)

  11. High Discharge Rate Electrodeposited Zinc Electrode for Use in Alkaline Microbattery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Nor Hairin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available High discharge rate zinc electrode is prepared from electrodeposition process. The electrolytic bath consists of zinc chloride as the metal source and ammonium chloride as the supporting electrolyte. The concentration of the supporting electrolyte is varied from zero until 4 M, while the concentration of zinc chloride is fixed at 2 M. The aim is to produce a porous zinc coating with an enhanced and intimate interfacial area per unit volume. These characteristics shall contribute towards reduced ohmic losses, improved active material utilization, and subsequently producing high rate capacity electrochemical cell. Nitrogen physisorption at 77 K is used to measure the BET surface area and pore volume density of the zinc electrodeposits. The electrodeposited zinc electrodes are then fabricated into alkaline zinc-air microbattery measuring 1 cm2 area x ca. 305 µm thick. The use of inorganic MCM-41 membrane separator enables the fabrication of a compact cell design. The quality of the electrodeposited zinc electrodes is gauged directly from the electrochemical performance of zinc-air cell. Zinc electrodeposits prepared from electrolytic bath of 2 M NH4Cl produces the highest discharge capacity.ABSTRAK: Elektrod zink dengan kadar discas tinggi telah dihasilkan dengan proses saduran elektrokimia. Takungan elektrolit terdiri daripada zink klorida sebagai sumber logam dan ammonium klorida sebagai elektrolit sokongan. Kepekatan elektrolit sokongan diubah daripada sifar hingga 4 M, sementara kepekatan zink klorida ditetapkan pada 2 M. Ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan saduran zink yang poros dengan luas permukaan per unit isipadu dan sentuhan antaramuka yang dipertingkatkan. Ciri-ciri ini akan menyumbang terhadap pengurangan kehilangan disebabkan kerintangan, pertambahan dalam gunapakai bahan aktif dan akhirnya menghasilkan sel elektrokimia berprestasi tinggi. Physisorpsi nitrogen pada 77 K telah digunakan untuk mengukur luas permukaan BET dan isipadu liang

  12. A concentrated electrolyte for zinc hexacyanoferrate electrodes in aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, C.; Jeong, S.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a concentrated electrolyte was applied in an aqueous rechargeable zinc-ion battery system with a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) electrode to improve the electrochemical performance by changing the hydration number of the zinc ions. To optimize the active material, ZnHCF was synthesized using aqueous solutions of zinc nitrate with three different concentrations. The synthesized materials exhibited some differences in structure, crystallinity, and particle size, as observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, these well-structured materials were applied in electrochemical tests. A more than two-fold improvement in the charge/discharge capacities was observed when the concentrated electrolyte was used instead of the dilute electrolyte. Additionally, the cycling performance observed in the concentrated electrolyte was superior to that in the dilute electrolyte. This improvement in the electrochemical performance may result from a decrease in the hydration number of the zinc ions in the concentrated electrolyte.

  13. Zinc-air cell with KOH-treated agar layer between electrode and electrolyte containing hydroponics gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otham, R. [International Islamic University, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Yahaya, A. H. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Chemistry, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Arof, A. K. [University of Malaya, Dept. of Physics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2002-07-01

    Zinc-air electrochemical power sources possess the highest density compared to other zinc anode batteries, due their free and unlimited supply from the ambient air. In this experiment zinc-air cells have been fabricated employing hydroponics gel as an alternative alkaline electrolyte gelling agent. Thin KOH-treated agar layer was applied between the electrode-electrolyte interfaces which produced significant enhancement of the cells' capacities, indicating that the application of thin agar layer will improve the electrode-gelled electrolyte interfaces. Promising results have been achieved with porous zinc anode prepared from dried zinc-graphite-gelatinized agar paste; e g. a zinc-air cell employing a porous zinc anode has demonstrated a capacity of 1470 mAh rated at 0.1 A continuous discharge. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Process Optimization of EDM Cutting Process on Tool Steel using Zinc Coated Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanizam H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In WEDM machining process, surface finish quality depends on intensity and duration of spark plasma. Electrode wire diameter has significant effect on the spark intensity and yet the studies on this matter still less. Therefore, the main objectives of this studies are to compare the different diameters of zinc coated and uncoated brass electrode on H13 tool steel surface roughness. The experiments were conducted on Sodick VZ300L WEDM and work piece material of tool steel AISI H13 block. Electrode of zinc coated brass with diameters of 0.1 mm, 0.2 mm, 0.25 mm and uncoated brass 0.2 mm were used. The surface roughness of cutting was measured using the SUR-FTEST SJ-410 Mitutoyo, surface roughness tester. The results suggest that better surface roughness quality can be achieved through smaller electrode wire diameter. The zinc coated improves flushing ability and sparks intensity resulting in better surface finish of H13 tool steel. New alloys and coating materials shall be experimented to optimized the process further.

  15. Zinc Electrodeposition from Chloride Solutions onto Glassy Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Huízar, Luis Humberto; Rios-Reyes, Clara Hilda; Gómez-Villegas, María Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    An electrochemical study of zinc deposition was carried out in baths containing 0.5 M ZnCl2 and 0.4 M H3BO3. From the voltammetric study it was found that, in our experimental conditions, zinc electrodeposition is quasi-reversible and occurs under charge transfer control. The average coefficient diffusion calculated was D = 7.14 × 10-6 cm²s-1 while the standard constant at electrode charge was 8.78 × 10-3 cms-1. The nucleation and growth parameters determined from the potentiostatic study sho...

  16. Growth morphology of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The growth morphology of crystals of zinc tris(thiourea) sulphate (ZTS) is investigated experimentally, and computed using the Hartman–Perdok approach. Attachment energies of the observed habit faces are calculated for determining their relative morphological importance. A computer code is developed for carrying out ...

  17. High-capacity aqueous zinc batteries using sustainable quinone electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Huang, Weiwei; Luo, Zhiqiang; Liu, Luojia; Lu, Yong; Li, Yixin; Li, Lin; Hu, Jinyan; Ma, Hua; Chen, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Quinones, which are ubiquitous in nature, can act as sustainable and green electrode materials but face dissolution in organic electrolytes, resulting in fast fading of capacity and short cycle life. We report that quinone electrodes, especially calix[4]quinone (C4Q) in rechargeable metal zinc batteries coupled with a cation-selective membrane using an aqueous electrolyte, exhibit a high capacity of 335 mA h g−1 with an energy efficiency of 93% at 20 mA g−1 and a long life of 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of 87% at 500 mA g−1. The pouch zinc batteries with a respective depth of discharge of 89% (C4Q) and 49% (zinc anode) can deliver an energy density of 220 Wh kg−1 by mass of both a C4Q cathode and a theoretical Zn anode. We also develop an electrostatic potential computing method to demonstrate that carbonyl groups are active centers of electrochemistry. Moreover, the structural evolution and dissolution behavior of active materials during discharge and charge processes are investigated by operando spectral techniques such as IR, Raman, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopies. Our results show that batteries using quinone cathodes and metal anodes in aqueous electrolyte are reliable approaches for mass energy storage. PMID:29511734

  18. Study of the Morphological, Structural, Optical and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanorods Grown Using a Microwave Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sungjin; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures were grown on a ZnO-buffered fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate using a microwave chemical bath deposition method with different zinc oxide precursor concentrations from 0.01 to 0.5 M. We investigated the effects of the zinc oxide precursor concentration on the morphological, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. From this work, we found that ZnO one-dimensional structures mainly grew along the (002) plane, and the nanorod length, diameter, surface area and photoelectrochemical properties were largely dependent on the precursor concentration. That is, the photoelectrochemical properties were affected by the morphological and structural properties of the ZnO. The morphological, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the ZnO nanostructure were investigated by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy and 3-electrode potentiostat. We obtained the highest photocurrent density of 0.37 mA/cm{sup 2} (at 1.1 V vs. SCE) from the precursor concentration of 0.07 M, which resulted in ZnO nanostructures with proper length and diameter, large surface area and good structural properties.

  19. Preliminary study on zinc-air battery using zinc regeneration electrolysis with propanol oxidation as a counter electrode reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yue-Hua; Cheng, Jie; Ning, Shang-Qi; Yang, Yu-Sheng

    A zinc-air battery using zinc regeneration electrolysis with propanol oxidation as a counter electrode reaction is reported in this paper. It possesses functions of both zincate reduction and electrochemical preparation, showing the potential for increasing the electronic energy utilization. Charge/discharge tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs reveal that when a nickel sheet plated with the high-H 2-overpotential metal, cadmium, was used as the negative substrate electrode, the dendritic formation and hydrogen evolution are suppressed effectively, and granular zinc deposits become larger but relatively dense with the increase of charge time. The performance of batteries is favorable even if the charge time is as long as 5 h at the current density of 20 mA cm -2. Better discharge performance is achieved using a 'cavity-opening' configuration for the discharge cell rather than a 'gas-introducing' configuration. The highest energy efficiency is up to 59.2%. That is, the energy consumed by organic electro-synthesis can be recovered by 59.2%. Cyclic voltammograms show that the sintered nickel electrode exhibits a good electro-catalysis activity for the propanol oxidation. The increase of propanol concentration conduces to an enhancement in the organic electro-synthesis efficiency. The organic electro-synthesis current efficiency of 82% can be obtained.

  20. The Silver Oxide-Zinc Alkaline Primary Cell. Part 2. Effects of Various Types of Negative Electrodes on Cell Characteristics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shepherd, C. M

    1951-01-01

    ... (generally a potassium hydroxide solution). During discharge, the silver peroxide in the positive electrode is reduced to metallic silver and the metallic zinc in the negative electrode is oxidized either to zinc oxide or to a complex zincate ion...

  1. A novel tin-bismuth alloy electrode for anodic stripping voltammetric determination of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, D.; Yin, T.; Qin, W.; Zhang, L.; Zhuang, J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a novel tin-bismuth alloy electrode (SnBiE) for the determination of trace concentrations of zinc ions by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry without deoxygenation. The SnBiE has the advantages of easy fabrication and low cost, and does not require a pre-treatment (in terms of modification) prior to measurements. A study on the potential window of the electrode revealed a high hydrogen overvoltage though a limited anodic range due to the oxidation of tin. The effects of pH value, accumulation potential, and accumulation time were optimized with respect to the determination of trace zinc(II) at pH 5. 0. The response of the SnBiE to zinc(II) ion is linear in the 0.5-25 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 50 nM (after 60 s of accumulation). The SnBiE was applied to the determination of zinc(II) in wines and honeys, and the results were consistent with those of AAS. (author)

  2. Preparation, characterization and electrocatalytic behavior of zinc oxide/zinchexacyanoferrate and ruthenium oxide hexacyanoferrate hybrid film-modified electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, H.-W.; Thangamuthu, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2008-02-15

    Polynuclear mixed-valent hybrid films of zinc oxide/zinchexacyanoferrate and ruthenium oxide hexacyanoferrate (ZnO/ZnHCF-RuOHCF) have been deposited on electrode surfaces from H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution containing Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, RuCl{sub 3} and K{sub 3}[Fe(CN){sub 6}] by potentiodynamic cycling method. Simultaneous cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements demonstrate the steady growth of hybrid film. Surface morphology of hybrid film was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) data confirm existence of zinc oxide and ruthenium oxide hexacyanoferrate (RuOHCF) in the hybrid film. The effect of type of monovalent cations on the redox behavior of hybrid film was investigated. In pure supporting electrolyte, electrochemical responses of Ru{sup II/III} redox transition occurring at negative potential region resemble with that of a surface immobilized redox couple. The electrocatalytic activity of ZnO/ZnHCF-RuOHCF hybrid film was investigated towards oxidation of epinephrine, dopamine and L-cysteine, and reduction of S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2-} and SO{sub 5}{sup 2-} as well as IO{sub 3}{sup -} using cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring disc electrode (RRDE) techniques.

  3. Carbon nanofibers wrapped with zinc oxide nano-flakes as promising electrode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bishweshwar; Park, Mira; Ojha, Gunendra Prasad; Park, Juhyeong; Kuk, Yun-Su; Lee, Eun-Jung; Kim, Hak-Yong; Park, Soo-Jin

    2018-07-15

    A combination of electrospinning technique and hydrothermal process was carried out to fabricate zinc oxide nano-flakes wrapped carbon nanofibers (ZnO/CNFs) composite as an effective electrode material for supercapacitor. The morphology of the as-synthesized composite clearly revealed that the carbon nanofibers were successfully wrapped with ZnO nano-flakes. The electrochemical performance of the as-synthesized nanocomposite electrode was evaluated by the cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (GDC), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and compared with the pristine ZnO nanofibers. It was found that the composite exhibited a higher specific capacitance (260 F/g) as compared to pristine ZnO NFs (118 F/g) at the scan rate of 5 mV/s. Furthermore, the ZnO/CNFs composite also exhibited good capacity retention (73.33%). The obtained results indicated great potential applications of ZnO/CNFs composite in developing energy storage devices with high energy and power densities. The present work might provide a new route for utilizing ZnO based composites for energy storage applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transient current distributions in porous zinc electrodes in KOH electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.B.; Yamazaki, Y.; Cook, G.M.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-02-01

    A zero-resistance ammeter circuit with a 10-channel operational amplifier was used to measure the current distribution during a discharge of 10 to 100 mA with simulated zinc porous electrodes in 7.24 M KOH saturated with ZnO. The reaction distribution was found to be highly nonuniform, with 70 to 78% of the charge transfer reaction completed in a depth of 0.01 cm. The high nonuniformity of the initial reaction profile was believed to be due to low conductivity of the electrolyte in the electrode pores. The current distribution changes during passivation of the electrode were experimentally obtained. A mathematical model based upon a macroscope averaging technique was used to predict the time dependence of charge transfer reaction profiles. With mathematical model, current distributions and overpotentials were predicted as a function of time for the segmented zinc electrode discharged at a current of 10 to 100 mA; for these predictions, assumed values of both precipitation rate constants for porous ZnO and diffusion coefficients for hydroxide and zincate ions were used. A gradual decrease in the specific conductivity of the pore electrolyte to 20% of the initial value during discharge yields predictions of current distributions and overpotentials in good agreement with the experimental data. The extent of reduction in the specific conductivity of the pore electrolyte implies a supersaturation of zincate of four times chemical saturation, which was been observed experimentally.At high discharge current (25 to 100 mA), the passivation behavior of the electrode has been simulated. The results of the experiments and mathematical model show that the effective reaction penetration depth is less than 0.02 cm.

  5. Determination of zinc and cadmium with characterized Electrodes of carbon and polyurethane modified by a bismuth film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jossy Karla Brasil Bernardelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use electrodes modified with bismuth films for the determination of zinc and cadmium. The film was electrodeposited ex situ on a composite carbon electrode with polyurethane and 2% metallic bismuth (2BiE and on a carbon bar electrode (CBE. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Through differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, the electrodes 2BiE and CBE containing bismuth films showed a limit of detection (LOD of 5.56 × 10-5 and 3.07 × 10-5 g.L-1 for cadmium and 1.24 × 10-4 and 1.53 × 10-4 g.L-1 for zinc, respectively. The presence of a bismuth film increased the sensitivity of both electrodes.

  6. Morphology dependent dye-sensitized solar cell properties of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K., E-mail: sanjeevlrs732000@yahoo.co.in [Department of Information and Communication, Cheju Halla College, Jeju City 690 708 (Korea, Republic of); Inamdar, A.I.; Im, Hyunsik [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University, Seoul 100 715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B.G. [Department of Information and Communication, Cheju Halla College, Jeju City 690 708 (Korea, Republic of); Patil, P.S. [Thin Film Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416 004 (India)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized from an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] solution onto FTO coated conducting glass substrates using two different electrochemical routes, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) or SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). > The reproducibility of the catalytic activity of the SDS and PVA surfactants in the modification of the morphologies was observed. > Vertically aligned nest-like and compact structures were observed from the SDS and PVA mediated films, respectively, while the grain size in the ZnO thin films without an organic surfactant was observed to be {approx}150 nm. > The dye sensitized ZnO electrodes displayed excellent properties in the conversion process from light to electricity. The efficiencies of the surfactant mediated nanocrystalline ZnO thin films, viz. ZnO:SDS and ZnO:PVA, sensitized with ruthenium-II (N3) dye were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline zinc oxide thin films were electrosynthesized with an aqueous zinc acetate [Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O] solution on to FTO coated glass substrates. Two different electrochemical baths were used, namely (i) without an organic surfactant and (ii) with an organic surfactant, viz. PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) and SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate). The organic surfactants played an important role in modifying the surface morphology, which influenced the size of the crystallites and dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) properties. The vertically aligned thin and compact hexagonal crystallites were observed with SDS mediated films, while the grain size in the films without an organic surfactant was observed to be {approx}150 nm. The conversion efficiencies of the ZnO:SDS:Dye and ZnO:PVA:Dye thin films were observed to be 0.49% and 0.27%, respectively.

  7. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors with indium-zinc-tin oxide/Ag/indium-zinc-tin oxide multilayer electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-08-01

    Transparent indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were fabricated on glass substrates using a tilted dual-target radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes exhibited a high optical transmittance in a visible region. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the on/off-current ratio of the TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were enhanced in comparison with those of the TFTs with ITO electrodes. The source/drain contact resistance of the IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes was smaller than that of the IZTO TFTs with ITO electrodes, resulting in enhancement of their electrical characteristics.

  8. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube or Zinc Oxide Nanorod Arrays for Optical Diffraction Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong; Kim, Sun Il; Cho, Seong-Ho; Hwang, Sungwoo; Lee, Young Hee; Hur, Jaehyun

    2015-11-01

    We report on new fabrication methods for a transparent, hierarchical, and patterned electrode comprised of either carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorods. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes or zinc oxide nanorod arrays were fabricated by either chemical vapor deposition or hydrothermal growth, in combination with photolithography. A transparent conductive graphene layer or zinc oxide seed layer was employed as the transparent electrode. On the patterned surface defined using photoresist, the vertically grown carbon nanotubes or zinc oxides could produce a concentrated electric field under applied DC voltage. This periodic electric field was used to align liquid crystal molecules in localized areas within the optical cell, effectively modulating the refractive index. Depending on the material and morphology of these patterned electrodes, the diffraction efficiency presented different behavior. From this study, we established the relationship between the hierarchical structure of the different electrodes and their efficiency for modulating the refractive index. We believe that this study will pave a new path for future optoelectronic applications.

  9. Diversity in cochlear morphology and its influence on cochlear implant electrode position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marel, K.S. van der; Briaire, J.J.; Wolterbeek, R..; Snel-Bongers, J.; Verbist, B.M.; Frijns, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    To define a minimal set of descriptive parameters for cochlear morphology and study its influence on the cochlear implant electrode position in relation to surgical insertion distance.Cochlear morphology and electrode position were analyzed using multiplanar reconstructions of the pre- and

  10. Studies on the development of mossy zinc electrodeposits from flowing alkaline electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Vay, L.

    1991-07-01

    The initiation and characteristics of mossy zinc electrodeposits have been investigated. Batteries with zinc electrodes are candidates for electric vehicle applications; however, this electrode is prone to form non-compact deposits that contribute to capacity loss and battery failure. Moss is deposited when the current density is far from the limiting current. This morphology first appears only after the bulk deposit is approximately 1 {mu}m thick. In this investigation, the effects of flow rate (Re=0--4000), current density (0--50 mA/cm{sup 2}), concentration of the electroactive species (0.25 and 0.5 M), and the concentration of supporting electrolyte (3, 6, and 12 M) on the initiation of moss were examined. The rotating concentric cylinder electrode was employed for most of the experiments; and a flow channel was used to study the development of morphology. After the experiment, the deposit was characterized using microscopic, x-ray diffraction, and profilometric techniques. 94 refs., 72 figs.

  11. Effect of morphology and solvent on two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); Haripadmam, P.C.; Gopinath, Pramod; Krishnan, Bindu [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, Kerala (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► ZnO nanospheres and triangular structures synthesis by novel precipitation technique. ► The effect of precursor concentration on the size and shape of nano ZnO. ► Open aperture Z-scan measurements of the ZnO nanoparticle dispersions. ► Nanospheres exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than triangular nanostructures. ► Nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two photon absorption coefficient than its dispersion in 2-propanol. - Abstract: In this paper, we report the effect of morphology and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide. Zinc oxide nanoparticles in two different morphologies like nanospheres and triangular nanostructures are synthesized by novel precipitation technique and their two-photon absorption coefficient is measured using open aperture Z-scan technique. Experimental results show that the zinc oxide nanospheres exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than the zinc oxide triangular nanostructures. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water exhibit higher two-photon absorption coefficient than that of its dispersion in 2-propanol. The zinc oxide nanospheres dispersed in water shows a decrease in two-photon absorption coefficient with an increase in on-axis irradiance. The result confirms the dependence of shape and solvent on the two-photon absorption of nano zinc oxide.

  12. Studies on zinc nodules electrodeposited from acid electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Rolfe [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1984-12-01

    The development of morphology of electrodeposited zinc was investigated by studying the initial stages of deposition. Zinc was deposited galvanostatically from 1.0 M ZnCl2 electrolyte (0.7 < pH < 4.6) on rotating disc electrodes at current densities from 5 to 130 ma/cm2. Pine glassy carbon, Union Carbide pyrolytic graphite, Gould pyrolytic graphite, Exxon graphite loaded polymer, and platinum substrates were used. The number densities of nodules (diameter greater than 1 μm), typically encountered during incipient morphological development, were measured using scanning electron microscopy and image analysis. Nodule densities up to 7 x 104 nodules/mm2 were measured.

  13. Bifunctional electrode performance for zinc-air flow cells with pulse charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, Birgit; Weinberger, Stephan; Reščec, Lucas; Grimmer, Ilena; Gebetsroither, Florian; Bitschnau, Brigitte; Hacker, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Manufacture of bi-catalyzed bifunctional air electrodes via scalable process. •Direct synthesis of NiCo 2 O 4 on carbon nanofibers or nickel powder support. •450 charge and discharge cycles over 1000 h at 50 mA cm −2 demonstrated. •Pulse charging with 150 mA cm −2 is successfully applied on air electrodes. •Charge and discharge ΔV of <0.8 V at 50 mA cm −2 when supplied with O 2. -- Abstract: Bifunctional air electrodes with tuned composition consisting of two precious metal-free oxide catalysts are manufactured for application in rechargeable zinc-air flow batteries and electrochemically tested via long-term pulse charge and discharge cycling experiments at 50 mA cm −2 (mean). NiCo 2 O 4 spinel, synthesized via direct impregnation on carbon nanofibers or nickel powder and characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments, shows high activity toward oxygen evolution reaction with low charge potentials of < 2.0 V vs. Zn/Zn 2+ . La 0.6 Sr 0.4 Co 0.2 Fe 0.8 O 3 perovskite exhibits bifunctional activity and outperforms the NiCo 2 O 4 spinel in long-term stability tenfold. By combining the catalysts in one bi-catalyzed bifunctional air electrode, stable performances of more than 1000 h and 450 cycles are achieved when supplied with oxygen and over 650 h and 300 cycles when supplied with synthetic air. In addition, the pulse charging method, which is beneficial for compact zinc deposition, is successfully tested on air electrodes during long-term operation. The oxygen evolution potentials during pulse, i.e. at tripled charge current density of 150 mA cm −2 , are only 0.06–0.08 V higher compared to constant charging current densities. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that mechanical degradation caused by bubble formation during oxygen evolution results in slowly decreasing discharge potentials.

  14. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Koudelkova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE and a screen printed electrode (SPE, made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L−1 for Zn(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cd(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Pb(II, 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Cu(II, and 3 and 10 µg·L−1 for Ag(I, respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L−1 for Zn(II, 25 µg·L−1 for Cd(II, 3 µg·L−1 for Pb(II and 3 µg·L−1 for Cu(II. Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  15. Determination of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead, Copper and Silver Using a Carbon Paste Electrode and a Screen Printed Electrode Modified with Chromium(III) Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelkova, Zuzana; Syrovy, Tomas; Ambrozova, Pavlina; Moravec, Zdenek; Kubac, Lubomir; Hynek, David; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-08-09

    In this study, the preparation and electrochemical application of a chromium(III) oxide modified carbon paste electrode (Cr-CPE) and a screen printed electrode (SPE), made from the same material and optimized for the simple, cheap and sensitive simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and the detection of silver ions, is described. The limits of detection and quantification were 25 and 80 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Pb(II), 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Cu(II), and 3 and 10 µg·L -1 for Ag(I), respectively. Furthermore, this promising modification was transferred to the screen-printed electrode. The limits of detection for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium, copper and lead on the screen printed electrodes were found to be 350 µg·L -1 for Zn(II), 25 µg·L -1 for Cd(II), 3 µg·L -1 for Pb(II) and 3 µg·L -1 for Cu(II). Practical usability for the simultaneous detection of these heavy metal ions by the Cr-CPE was also demonstrated in the analyses of wastewaters.

  16. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S; Haas, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  17. Continuous fabrication of a MnS/Co nanofibrous air electrode for wide integration of rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Yining; Li, Matthew; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Guang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-10-26

    Exploring highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions is essential for the realization of high-performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Herein, a novel nanofibrous bifunctional electrocatalyst film, consisting of metallic manganese sulfide and cobalt encapsulated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (CMS/NCNF), is prepared through a continuous electrospinning method followed by carbonization treatment. The CMS/NCNF bifunctional catalyst shows both comparable ORR and OER performances to those of commercial precious metal-based catalysts. Furthermore, the free-standing CMS/NCNF fibrous thin film is directly used as the air electrode in a solid-state zinc-air battery, which exhibits superior flexibility while retaining stable battery performance at different bending angles. This study provides a versatile design route for the rational design of free-standing bifunctional catalysts for direct use as the air electrode in rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  18. Influence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) on zinc electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, I.L.; Saidman, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    This work is a study of the electrodeposition of zinc onto SAE 4140 steel electrodes using solutions containing zinc sulfate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The influence of different parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrodeposition time and temperature on the morphology of the electrodeposits was analyzed. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. The variation of open circuit potential over time in chloride solutions was also evaluated. The nucleation-growth process and consequently the morphology of the electrodeposits are modified in the presence of AOT. The surfactant induces the formation of a porous deposit.

  19. Influence of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) on zinc electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, I. L.; Saidman, S. B.

    2012-03-01

    This work is a study of the electrodeposition of zinc onto SAE 4140 steel electrodes using solutions containing zinc sulfate and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT). The influence of different parameters such as electrolyte concentration, electrodeposition time and temperature on the morphology of the electrodeposits was analyzed. The deposits were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction. The variation of open circuit potential over time in chloride solutions was also evaluated. The nucleation-growth process and consequently the morphology of the electrodeposits are modified in the presence of AOT. The surfactant induces the formation of a porous deposit.

  20. Raman spectra of zinc phthalocyanine monolayers absorbed on glassy carbon and gold electrodes by application of a confocal Raman microspectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palys-Staron, B.J.; Palys, B.J.; Puppels, G.J.; Puppels, G.J.; van den Ham, D.M.W.; van den Ham, D.M.W.; Feil, D.; Feil, D.

    1992-01-01

    Raman spectra of zinc phthalocyanine monolayers, adsorbed on gold and on glassy carbon surfaces (electrodes), are presented. These spectra have been recorded with the electrodes inside and outside an electrochemical cell filled with an aqueous electrolyte. A confocal Raman microspectrometer was

  1. Electro-chemical deposition of zinc oxide nanostructures by using two electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Taleatu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most viable ways to grow nanostructures is electro deposition. However, most electrodeposited samples are obtained by three-electrode electrochemical cell. We successfully use a much simpler two-electrode cell to grow different ZnO nanostructures from common chemical reagents. Concentration, pH of the electrolytes and growth parameters like potentials at the electrodes, are tailored to allow fast growth without complexity. Morphology and surface roughness are investigated by Scanning Electron and Air Force Microscopy (SEM and AFM respectively, crystal structure by X-Ray Diffraction measurements (XRD and ZnO stoichiometry by core level photoemission spectroscopy (XPS.

  2. Indium Doped Zinc Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Chemical Spray Technique, Starting from Zinc Acetylacetonate and Indium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Biswal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The physical characteristics of ultrasonically sprayed indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In thin films, with electrical resistivity as low as 3.42 × 10−3 Ω·cm and high optical transmittance, in the visible range, of 50%–70% is presented. Zinc acetylacetonate and indium chloride were used as the organometallic zinc precursor and the doping source, respectively, achieving ZnO:In thin films with growth rate in the order of 100 nm/min. The effects of both indium concentration and the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical characteristics were measured. All the films were polycrystalline, fitting well with hexagonal wurtzite type ZnO. A switching in preferential growth, from (002 to (101 planes for indium doped samples were observed. The surface morphology of the films showed a change from hexagonal slices to triangle shaped grains as the indium concentration increases. Potential applications as transparent conductive electrodes based on the resulting low electrical resistance and high optical transparency of the studied samples are considered.

  3. Morphological and electrochemical studies of spherical boron doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes de Barros, R.C. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.G. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Corat, E.J. [LAS/INPE, Av. dos Astronautas, 1758, Jardim da Granja, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP, 12245-970 (Brazil); Sumodjo, P.T.A. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil); Serrano, S.H.P. [IQ/USP, Av. Lineu Prestes, 748, Bloco 2 Superior, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo/SP, 05508-900 (Brazil)]. E-mail: shps@iq.usp.br

    2006-08-14

    Morphological and electrochemical characteristics of boron doped diamond electrode in new geometric shape are presented. The main purpose of this study is a comparison among voltammetric behavior of planar glassy carbon electrode (GCE), planar boron doped diamond electrode (PDDE) and spherical boron doped diamond electrode (SDDE), obtained from similar experimental parameters. SDDE was obtained by the growth of boron doped film on textured molybdenum tip. This electrode does not present microelectrode characteristics. However, its voltammetric peak current, determined at low scan rates, is largest associated to the smallest {delta}E {sub p} values for ferrocyanide system when compared with PDDE or GCE. In addition, the capacitance is about 200 times smaller than that for GCE. These results show that the analytical performance of boron doped diamond electrodes can be implemented just by the change of sensor geometry, from plane to spherical shape.

  4. Charge transport in dye-sensibilized porous zinc oxide films; Ladungstransport in farbstoffsensibilisierten poroesen Zinkoxidfilmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reemts, J.

    2006-05-18

    During the last decades, zinc oxide has attracted a lot of attention as an important material in various electrical, chemical, and optical applications. In the present work results are discussed gained from investigations of highly porous electrochemically deposited zinc oxide, which is a promising electrode material both in the area of solar energy conversion and sensor technology. The films were prepared by adding detergents during the electrodeposition process. The detergents have a structure-directing influence during the film deposition and, therefore, on the morphology of the films. The obtained electrodes can easily be sensitized for light or different chemicals by a simple adsorption of different molecules. In the present work I discuss the fundamental charge transport properties of electrochemically deposited zinc oxide films. Temperature-dependent measurements of the current-voltage characteristics are carried out and the spectral response of the photoconductivity is investigated. In order to understand the charge transport properties of this highly porous material, it is necessary to get a deeper insight in the electrode morphology. Therefore, different optical and scanning probe microscopy methods are used to characterize the inner structure of the electrodes. The electrical conductivity of the zinc oxide films can be seen as a thermally activated process, which can be explained by electronic transitions from the valence band of the zinc oxide to two shallow impurity levels. The current-voltage characteristic unveils a nonlinear behavior which can be explained by a space-charge-limited current model with traps distributed in energy. Upon excitation with different wavelengths, the conductivity of the zinc oxide increases already under sub-band gap illumination due to widely distributed trap states within the band gap. The transients of the photoconductivity follow a stretched exponential law with time scales in the range of several hours, either if the

  5. Effect of electrolysis condition of zinc powder production on zinc-silver oxide battery operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojtahedi, M.; Goodarzi, M.; Sharifi, B.; Vahdati Khaki, J.

    2011-01-01

    A research conducted to produce zinc powder through electrolysis of alkaline solutions by using various concentrations of KOH and zincate in the bath. Different current densities were applied for each concentration and then, morphological changes of Zn powder batches were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Afterward, an anode electrode was produced from each pack of powder. Thirty-six Zn-AgO battery cells were prepared totally. Discharge parameters of the cells were examined and time-voltage curves were analyzed. Discharge times were investigated for various conditions of Zn deposition and the proper terms were suggested. It has been seen that increase of KOH concentration and decrease of zincate ion in the bath solution will change the zinc morphology and increase the resultant battery discharge time. The longest time of discharge, before reduction of cell voltage to 1.25 V, was 7.91 min. This result was obtained for Zn powder produced in zincate concentration of 0.5 M, KOH concentration of 11 M and current density of 2500 A/m 2 .

  6. Morphology engineering of high performance binary oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Sun, Congting; Xue, Dongfeng

    2015-01-14

    Advances in materials have preceded almost every major technological leap since the beginning of civilization. On the nanoscale and microscale, mastery over the morphology, size, and structure of a material enables control of its properties and enhancement of its usefulness for a given application, such as energy storage. In this review paper, our aim is to present a review of morphology engineering of high performance oxide electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage. We begin with the chemical bonding theory of single crystal growth to direct the growth of morphology-controllable materials. We then focus on the growth of various morphologies of binary oxides and their electrochemical performances for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors. The morphology-performance relationships are elaborated by selecting examples in which there is already reasonable understanding for this relationship. Based on these comprehensive analyses, we proposed colloidal supercapacitor systems beyond morphology control on the basis of system- and ion-level design. We conclude this article with personal perspectives on the directions toward which future research in this field might take.

  7. Transformation of Leaf-like Zinc Dendrite in Oxidation and Reduction Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Akiyoshi; Murayama, Haruno; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Yamane, Tomokazu; Arai, Hajime; Hirai, Toshiro; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu; Yamaki, Jun-ichi; Ogumi, Zempachi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Leaf-like zinc dendrites change to leaf-like residual oxides at high oxidation current density (10 mA cm −2 ) whereas it completely dissolves at low oxidation current density (1 mA cm −2 ). • Leaf-like residual oxide products is transformed to zinc deposits with particulate morphology, resulting in good rechargeability. • The residual zinc oxide provides sufficient zincate on its reduction, preventing the diffusion-limited condition that causes leaf-like dendrite formation. - Abstract: Zinc is a promising negative electrode material for aqueous battery systems whereas it shows insufficient rechargeability for use in secondary batteries. It has been reported that leaf-like dendrite deposits are often the origin of cell-failure, however, their nature and behavior on discharge (oxidation) - charge (reduction) cycling have been only poorly understood. Here we investigate the transformation of the leaf-like zinc dendrites using ex-situ scanning electron microscopy, X-ray computational tomography and in-situ X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the leaf-like zinc dendrites obtained under diffusion-limited conditions are nearly completely dissolved at a low oxidation current density of 1 mA cm −2 and cause re-evolution of the zinc dendrites. Oxidation at a high current density of 10 mA cm −2 leads to the formation of leaf-like zinc oxide residual products that result in particulate zinc deposits in the following reduction process, enabling good rechargeability. The reaction behavior of this oxide residue is detailed and discussed for the development of long-life zinc electrodes

  8. Morphology and Structure of ZnO Nanoparticles Produced by Electrochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara STYPUŁA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents studies of the morphology and structure of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by the electrochemical method. Colloidal solutions of the nanoparticles are obtained by an anodic dissolution of metallic zinc in alcohol solutions of lithium chloride containing a small amount of water (5 % vol.. The parameters chosen for the synthesis are based on Zn polarization curves(obtained using the the potentiokinetic (Linear Sweep Voltammetry – LSV and the chronoamperometric method. The synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles is carried out in 0.05m LiCl + 5 % H2O alcohol (methanol or propanol solutions during galvanostatic polarization of Zn at 3 mA/cm2 current density. The process is performed in a two-electrode system, where both electrodes (the working anode and cathode are made of zinc. Optical properties, morphology and structure of the colloidal solutions and powders (obtained after evaporating the solvent were studied using the following spectroscopic and microscopic techniques: UltraViolet and Visible Spectroscopy (UV-VIS, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.4417

  9. Ultrahigh PEMFC performance of a thin-film, dual-electrode assembly with tailored electrode morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chi-Young; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Yi, Sung-Chul

    2014-02-01

    A dual-electrode membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells with enhanced polarization under zero relative humidity (RH) is fabricated by introducing a phase-separated morphology in an agglomerated catalyst layer of Pt/C (platinum on carbon black) and Nafion. In the catalyst layer, a sufficient level of phase separation is achieved by dispersing the Pt catalyst and the Nafion dispersion in a mixed-solvent system (propane-1,2,3-triol/1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone).The high polymer chain mobility results in improved water uptake and regular pore-size distribution with small pore diameters. The electrochemical performance of the dual-film electrode assembly with different levels of phase separation is compared to conventional electrode assemblies. As a result, good performance at 0 % RH is obtained because self-humidification is dramatically improved by attaching this dense and phase-separated catalytic overlayer onto the conventional catalyst layer. A MEA prepared using the thin-film, dual-layered electrode exhibits 39-fold increased RH stability and 28-fold improved start-up recovery time during the on-off operation relative to the conventional device. We demonstrate the successful operation of the dual-layered electrode comprised of discriminatively phase-separated agglomerates with an ultrahigh zero RH fuel-cell performance reaching over 95 % performance of a fully humidified MEA. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang, E-mail: shixianglu@bit.edu.cn; Xu, Wenguo, E-mail: wenguoxu60@bit.edu.cn; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and

  11. Controllable wettability and morphology of electrodeposited surfaces on zinc substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Binyan; Lu, Shixiang; Xu, Wenguo; Cheng, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and annealing. Such superhydrophobic surfaces offer possibilities for chemical, biological, electronic and microfluidic applications. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic surface was fabricated via electrodeposition of ZnO and annealing. • The ZnO hierarchical micro/nanostructures contribute to the surface superhydrophobicity. • Surface wettability and morphology can be controlled by varying process conditions. • The anti-icing properties and reversible wetting behaviors of the ZnO coatings were studied. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces combining hierarchical micro/nanostructures were fabricated on zinc substrates by etching in hydrochloric acid solution, electrodeposition of ZnO coatings and subsequent thermal annealing. The optimal coatings were electrodeposited at −1.25 V for 900 s on the etched zinc substrates and then annealed at 200 °C for 60 min, which could achieve a maximum water contact angle of 170 ± 2° and an ultra-low sliding angle of approximately 0°. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, we found that the morphology and wettability of prepared samples were controllable by the fabrication process. Interestingly, even without any additional modification, the samples prepared under different electrodeposition conditions (including Zn(CH_3COO)_2 concentration from 5 mM to 40 mM and deposition time from 300 s to 1500 s) exhibited superhydrophobic character. The influences of the Zn(CH_3COO)_2 concentration, deposition time, annealing temperature and annealing time on the wetting behaviors were also discussed in detail. Such superhydrophobic surfaces possess long-term stability, and good corrosion resistance as well as self-cleaning ability. In addition, the anti-icing properties of the ZnO films were investigated. These surfaces could be rapidly and reversibly switched

  12. Flexible indium zinc oxide/Ag/indium zinc oxide multilayer electrode grown on polyethersulfone substrate by cost-efficient roll-to-roll sputtering for flexible organic photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the preparation and characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO)-Ag-IZO multilayer electrodes grown on flexible polyethersulfone (PES) substrates using a roll-to-roll sputtering system for use in flexible organic photovoltaics. By the continuous roll-to-roll sputtering of the bottom IZO, Ag, and top IZO layers at room temperature, they were able to fabricate a high quality IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode with a sheet resistance of 6.15 ε/square, optical transmittance of 87.4%, and figure of merit value of 42.03x10 -3 Ω -1 on the PES substrate. In addition, the IZO-Ag-IZO multilayer electrode exhibited superior flexibility to the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode due to the existence of a ductile Ag layer between the IZO layers and stable amorphous structure of the IZO film. Furthermore, the flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown IZO-Ag-IZO electrode showed higher power efficiency (3.51%) than the OSCs fabricated on the roll-to-roll sputter grown single ITO electrode (2.67%).

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on nanostructured zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conradt, Jonas; Maier-Flaig, Florian; Sartor, Janos; Fallert, Johannes [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Szmytkowski, Jedrzej; Kalt, Heinz [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Reinhard, Manuel; Colsmann, Alexander [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lemmer, Uli [Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Lichttechnisches Institut, Karlsruhe (Germany); Balaban, Teodor Silviu [Center for Functional Nanostructures (CFN), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid solar cells represent a promising (cost-efficient) alternative to pure inorganic solar cells. We present dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) which are based on a zinc oxide (ZnO) electrode covered with a ruthenium dye. Our work focuses on the morphology of the ZnO electrode and its impact on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. Nanocrystalline ZnO powder layers and arrays of nanorods are incorporated into the DSSCs. The ZnO nanorods are grown by vapor transport deposition. The morphology and doping concentration of the rods can be controlled by the choice of substrate material, growth condition and catalytic metal layers. The nanorod arrays are expected to fasten the electron transport towards the anode and thereby improve the solar cell efficiency. In addition, novel self-assembling (porphyrin) dyes are tested as sensitizer within a DSSC.

  14. Nanoparticle synthesis of zinc peroxide: structural and morphological characterization for bactericidal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonia, Roberto; Martinez, Vanessa C.; Solis, Jose L.; Gomez, Monica M.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc peroxide (ZnO 2 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The chemicals used for the synthesis were zinc acetate di-hydrate (Zn(CH 3 COO) 2. 2H 2 O) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at 30 % in an aqueous solution with sonication. The structure of the ZnO 2 nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction. While the morphology and the cluster size were determined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. For a preliminary evaluation of the bactericidal properties of the ZnO 2 , the material was exposed to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli y Bacillus subtili, and the nanoparticles presented good bactericidal properties. (author)

  15. Self-assembled 3D zinc borate florets via surfactant assisted synthesis under moderate pressures: Process temperature dependent morphology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Dhiraj S.; Deshpande, Tushar; Bari, Mahendra L.; Patil, Ujwal D.; Narkhede, Jitendra S.

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, we prepared zinc borates using aqueous phase synthesis under moderate pressures (MP) (ethanol as a co-solvent in the presence of a quaternary ammonium surfactant-Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). 3D morphologies of self-assembled zinc borate (Zn(H2O)B2O4 · 0.12 H2O, Zn3B6O12 · 3.5H2O, ZnB2O4) resembling flower-like structures were obtained by varying temperature under moderate pressure conditions. Synthesized zinc borates’ florets were morphologically characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. The x-ray diffractions of borate species reveal rhombohydra, monoclinic and cubic phases of zinc borate crystals as a function of process temperature. Additionally, thermal analysis confirms excellent dehydration/degradation behavior for the zinc borate crystals synthesized at moderate pressures and elevated temperatures and could be utilized as potential flame retardant fillers in the polymer matrices.

  16. Effect of Tin Electrode (Sn, Electrode Distance and Thin Layer Size of Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc to Resistance Changes With Ozone Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Mogi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of tin electrode distances and the thickness of a thin layer of ZnPc (Zinc phtyalocyanine toward changes in resistance with ozone exposure. Tin deposition on the glass surface was conducted using spraying method. The reaction between ozone and ZnPc produces electrical properties that can be read through the resistance value of the multimeter. Based on this study, it was investigated that the smaller a distance between the electrode and the thicker deposition of ZnPc lead to the less resistance. This showed that a thin layer of the conductivity increases along with the longer exposure to ozone gas. The movement of electrons with the hole was free.

  17. A super ink jet printed zinc-silver 3D microbattery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C. C.; Murata, K.; Steingart, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Wright, P. K.

    2009-09-01

    A novel super ink jet printing (SIJP) system was used to fabricate 3D zinc-silver microbatteries directly on a substrate. The SIJP provides a simple and flexible method to deposit interesting 2D and 3D structures of varying morphologies without the waste and large energy inputs typical of standard microfabrication technologies. The system was used to print pairs of silver electrodes with arrays of pillars on glass substrates, and in the presence of an electrolyte, the battery self-assembled during the first charge. Using an aqueous electrolyte solution of KOH with dissolved ZnO, the SIJP printed structures showed similar electrochemical behavior to batteries composed of silver foil electrodes. For a sparse array of pillars (~2.5% footprint area of each electrode pad occupied by pillars), a capacity increase of 60% was achieved in comparison with a cell with planar electrodes.

  18. Critical rate of electrolyte circulation for preventing zinc dendrite formation in a zinc-bromine redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeon Sun; Park, Jong Ho; Ra, Ho Won; Jin, Chang-Soo; Yang, Jung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    In a zinc-bromine redox flow battery, a nonaqueous and dense polybromide phase formed because of bromide oxidation in the positive electrolyte during charging. This formation led to complicated two-phase flow on the electrode surface. The polybromide and aqueous phases led to different kinetics of the Br/Br- redox reaction; poor mixing of the two phases caused uneven redox kinetics on the electrode surface. As the Br/Br- redox reaction was coupled with the zinc deposition reaction, the uneven redox reaction on the positive electrode was accompanied by nonuniform zinc deposition and zinc dendrite formation, which degraded battery stability. A single-flow cell was operated at varying electrolyte circulation rates and current densities. Zinc dendrite formation was observed after cell disassembly following charge-discharge testing. In addition, the flow behavior in the positive compartment was observed by using a transparent version of the cell. At low rate of electrolyte circulation, the polybromide phase clearly separated from the aqueous phase and accumulated at the bottom of the flow frame. In the corresponding area on the negative electrode, a large amount of zinc dendrites was observed after charge-discharge testing. Therefore, a minimum circulation rate should be considered to avoid poor mixing of the positive electrolyte.

  19. Realization of ultrathin silver layers in highly conductive and transparent zinc tin oxide/silver/zinc tin oxide multilayer electrodes deposited at room temperature for transparent organic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Thomas; Schmidt, Hans; Fluegge, Harald; Nikolayzik, Fabian; Baumann, Ihno; Schmale, Stephan; Johannes, Hans-Hermann; Rabe, Torsten [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Schleinitzstr. 22, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Hamwi, Sami, E-mail: sami.hamwi@ihf.tu-bs.de [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Schleinitzstr. 22, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Riedl, Thomas [Institute of Electronic Devices, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter Str. 21, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Kowalsky, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Schleinitzstr. 22, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    We report on transparent and highly conductive multilayer electrodes prepared at room temperature by RF sputtering of zinc tin oxide (ZTO) and thermal evaporation of ultrathin silver (Ag) as top contact for transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLED). Specifically, we study the morphological, electrical and optical properties of the multilayer structure in particular of the thin Ag film. The tendency of Ag to form agglomerates over time on top of ZTO is shown by atomic force microscopy. From the optical constants derived from ellipsometric measurements we evidenced a bulk like behavior of an Ag film with a thickness of 8 nm embedded in ZTO leading to a low sheet resistance of 9 {Omega}/sq. Furthermore we verify the optical constants by simulation of an optimized ZTO/Ag/ZTO structure. As an application we present a highly efficient TOLED providing a device transmittance of > 82% in the visible part of the spectrum. The TOLED shows no damage caused by sputtering on a lighting area of 80 mm{sup 2} and exhibits efficiencies of 43 cd/A and 36 lm/W.

  20. Effect of aluminum addition on the optical, morphology and electrical behavior of spin coated zinc oxide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Srivastava

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-doped ZnO thin films of high optical transmittance (∼ 84-100% and low resistivity (∼ 2.3x10-2 Ωcm have been prepared on glass substrate by the spin coating and subsequent annealing at 500°C for 1h in air or vacuum. Effect of aluminum doping and annealing environment on morphology, optical transmittance and electrical resistivity of ZnO thin films has been studied with possible application as a transparent electrode in photovoltaic. The changes occurring due to aluminum addition include reduction in grain size, root mean square roughness, peak-valley separation, and sheet resistance with improvement in the optical transmittance to 84-100% in the visible range. The origin of low electrical resistivity lies in increase in i electron concentration following aluminum doping (being trivalent, formation of oxygen vacancies due to vacuum annealing, filling of cation site with additional zinc at solution stage itself and ii carrier mobility.

  1. MnO2/MCMB electrocatalyst for all solid-state alkaline zinc-air cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.Q.; Zhang, X.G.

    2004-01-01

    Nanostructured MnO 2 /mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) composite has been prepared successfully for use in zinc-air cell as electrocatalyst for oxygen reaction. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the MnO 2 nanorods were formed and covered on the surface of MCMB in bird's nest morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern indicated that the MnO 2 has the hollandite structure with a composition approximating KMn 8 O 16 . By the cathodic polarization curve tests, the nanostructured material demonstrated excellent electrocatalytic activity as a kind of oxygen electrode electrocatalyst compared with electrolytic MnO 2 . An all solid-state zinc-air cell has been fabricated with this material as electrocatalyst for oxygen electrode and potassium salt of cross-linked poly(acrylic acid) as an alkaline polymer gel electrolyte. The cell has good discharge characteristics at room temperature

  2. The use of a rotating cylinder electrode to recover zinc from rinse water generated by the electroplating industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlalcuatzi, Sairi; Nava, José L

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns the application of a laboratory scale rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) to recover zinc from rinse water generated by the electrolytic zinc process (initially 1,300, 4,400, 50, 20 mg L(-1) of Zn(II), Fe(III), Ag(I) and Cr(VI), respectively, at pH 2), although it is also applicable to other electroplating industries. Experimental results demonstrated the convenience of the removal of ferric ions, as (Fe(OH)(3(s))) by a pH adjustment to 4, before zinc electro recovery on the RCE. The generation of smooth zinc deposits on the RCE was obtained at Reynolds numbers within the range of 15,000 ≤ Re ≤ 124,000 and limiting current densities (J(L)) in the interval of -4.8 to -13 mA cm(-2). The zinc recovery reached a conversion of 67% in 90 min of electrolysis for Re = 124,000 and J = -13 mA cm(-2), 21% current efficiency, and energy consumption of 9.5 kWh m(-3). The treated solution can be recycled back through the same rinsing process.

  3. Galvanostatic polarization of zinc microanodes in KOH electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.B.; Cook, G.M.; Yao, N.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report includes a critical review of the current literature on the anodic passivation of zinc electrodes, a description of supplementary experimental studies to extend the data to a low-current-density region and to provide a basis for evaluating conflicting results of published work, and a new interpretation of the anodic passivation mechanism. This work provides a starting point for understanding passivation phenomena in battery electrodes. The utilization of a zinc electrode in alkaline batteries depends on the ability of the electrode to remain active during the anodic dissolution process. This dissolution period is often terminated by the onset of passivation. Experiments were conducted on the effects of current density on passivation time of a small zinc anode (6.6 x 10/sup -3/ cm/sup 2/) in KOH at concentrations of 0.784, 2.92, 4.98 and 7.24M KOH as well as 7.24M KOH saturated with zinc oxide. It was concluded that there are two mechanisms for anodic passivation, one occurring at current densities below about 150 mA/cm/sup 2/ and another at higher current densities. Accordingly, in the overall mechanism, the total time to passivation includes the times to achieve the maximum zincate concentration as well as to form porous type I ZnO and compact type II ZnO. In Ni/Zn batteries under development for vehicle propulsion, the electrolyte is usually 30% KOH (7M) saturated with zinc oxide; and the zinc electrode is formed in-situ by electrodeposition of zinc onto the grid. For a current density of 20 mA/cm/sup 2/ in a Ni/Zn battery cycled at a 2-h rate and a zinc electrode with a porosity of 0.6 at the fully charged state, a current density of 338 mA/cm/sup 2/ was calculated to be that above which the passivation limits the utilization of the zinc electrode. 7 figures, 4 tables.

  4. Biomedical Applications of Antibacterial Nanofiber Mats Made of Electrospinning with Wire Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jun Pan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Twisted stainless steel wires are used as wire electrodes for electrospinning the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/zinc citrate nanofiber mats. The morphology and diameter of the nanofibers in PVA/zinc citrate nanofiber mats are evaluated. We measured the antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Escherichia coli (E. coli of the nanofiber mats. We also examined the cell adhesion affinity of mammalian tissue culture cells on these nanofiber mats. Our results indicate that an increase in zinc citrate increases the viscosity and electrical conductivity of PVA solution. In addition, increasing zinc citrate results in a smaller diameter of nanofibers that reaches below 100 nm. According to the antibacterial test results, increasing zinc citrate enlarges the inhibition zone of S. aureus but only has a bacteriostatic effect against E. coli. Finally, cell adhesion test results indicate that all nanofiber mats have satisfactory cell attachment regardless of the content of zinc citrate.

  5. Synthesis, structure and photoelectrochemical performance of micro/nano-textured ZnO/eosin Y electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Eiji; Fujihara, Shinobu; Kimura, Toshio

    2004-01-01

    Micro/nano-textured ZnO thick films were synthesized through deposition and pyrolysis of layered hydroxide zinc acetate (LHZA), Zn 5 (OH) 8 (CH 3 COO) 2 ·2H 2 O. LHZA films having a unique, rose-like morphology were initially deposited on conducting glass sheets in a chemical bath composed of methanol and zinc acetate dihydrate at 60 deg. C under neutral conditions. Pyrolysis of the LHZA films resulted in formation of ZnO without destroying the original morphology. Pyrolysis temperatures were found to greatly influence grain sizes and specific surface areas of the ZnO films. Photoelectrochemical performance of the films as ZnO/eosin Y electrodes was investigated in dye-sensitized solar cells using an I - /I 3 - redox electrolyte solution. The cell using the ZnO film pyrolyzed at 150 deg. C exhibited overall light to electricity conversion efficiencies of 2.0 and 3.3% under an AM-1.5 illumination at 100 and 10 mW cm -2 , respectively. While microscale pores in the electrodes facilitated mass transfer of fluid electrolytes in the depth direction, nanoscale pores contributed to an increase in the amount of adsorbed dye. The maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the electrode reached 84.9% at a wavelength of 530 nm

  6. Production of ultrafine zinc powder from wastes containing zinc by electrowinning in alkaline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Youcai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of ultrafine zinc powder from industrial wastes by electrowinning in alkaline solution was studied. Stainless steel and magnesium electrodes were used as anode and cathode, respectively. Morphology, size distribution and composition of the Zn particles were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Laser Particle Size Analyzer, and Inductive Coupled Plasma Emission Spectrometer. The required composition of the electrolyte for ultrafine particles was found to be 25-35 g/L Zn, 200-220 g/L NaOH and 20-40 mg/L Pb. The optimal conditions were a current density of 1000-1200 A/m² and an electrolyte temperature of 30-40 °C. The results indicated that the lead additive exerted a beneficial effect on the refining of the particles, by increasing the cathodic polarization. Through this study, ultrafine zinc powder with a size distribution of around 10 μm could be produced, and considerably high current efficiencies (97-99 % were obtained.

  7. Influence of lead ions on the macromorphology of electrodeposited zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Tetsuaki [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The morphology of zinc as it is electrodeposited from acid solutions demonstrates a remarkable imprint of electrolyte flow conditions. The development of macromorphology of zinc deposits has been investigated under galvanostatic conditions on a rotating plantinum disk electrode by use of photomacrography, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and Auger microprobe analysis. Logarithmic spiral markings, which reflect the hydrodynamic flow on a rotating disk, appear in a certain region of current density well below the limiting current density. Morphological observations revealed the major influence of trace lead ions on the amplifications of surface roughness through coalescence and preferred growth of initial protrusions. Results obtained from ultra-pure electrolyte suggest preferred crystal growth towards well-mixed orientation in the concentration field caused by slight differences in crystallization overpotential. A qualitative model involving a coupling mechanism between the evolving surface roughness and instability phenomena in the boundary layer is advanced to explain the formation of spiral patterns.

  8. Transparent conductive zinc oxide basics and applications in thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Andreas; Rech, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) belongs to the class of transparent conducting oxides which can be used as transparent electrodes in electronic devices or heated windows. In this book the material properties of, the deposition technologies for, and applications of zinc oxide in thin film solar cells are described in a comprehensive manner. Structural, morphological, optical and electronic properties of ZnO are treated in this review. The editors and authors of this book are specialists in deposition, analysis and fabrication of thin-film solar cells and especially of ZnO. This book is intended as an overview and a data collection for students, engineers and scientist.

  9. Contribution of tin in electrochemical properties of zinc antimonate nanostructures: An electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, M.; Balakumar, S.

    2018-04-01

    Tin (Sn) doped ZnSb2O6 nanostructures was synthesized by chemical precipitation method and was used as an electrode material for supercapacitors to explore its electrochemical stability and potentiality as energy storage materials. Their characteristic structural, morphological and compositional features were investigated through XRD, FESEM and XPS analysis. Results showed that the nanostructures have well ordered crystalline features with spherical particle morphology. As the size and morphology are the vital parameters in exhibiting better electrochemical properties, the prepared nanostructures exhibited a significant specific capacitance of 222 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g respectively. While charging and discharging for 1000 cycles, the capacitance retention was enhanced to 105.0% which depicts the stability and activeness of electrochemical sites present in the Sn doped ZnSb2O6 nanostructures even after cycling. Hence, the inclusion of Sn into ZnSb2O6 has contributed in improving the electrochemical properties thereby it represents itself as a potential electrode material for supercapacitors.

  10. Synthesis, structure and photoelectrochemical performance of micro/nano-textured ZnO/eosin Y electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Eiji; Fujihara, Shinobu; Kimura, Toshio

    2004-06-15

    Micro/nano-textured ZnO thick films were synthesized through deposition and pyrolysis of layered hydroxide zinc acetate (LHZA), Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. LHZA films having a unique, rose-like morphology were initially deposited on conducting glass sheets in a chemical bath composed of methanol and zinc acetate dihydrate at 60 deg. C under neutral conditions. Pyrolysis of the LHZA films resulted in formation of ZnO without destroying the original morphology. Pyrolysis temperatures were found to greatly influence grain sizes and specific surface areas of the ZnO films. Photoelectrochemical performance of the films as ZnO/eosin Y electrodes was investigated in dye-sensitized solar cells using an I{sup -}/I{sub 3}{sup -} redox electrolyte solution. The cell using the ZnO film pyrolyzed at 150 deg. C exhibited overall light to electricity conversion efficiencies of 2.0 and 3.3% under an AM-1.5 illumination at 100 and 10 mW cm{sup -2}, respectively. While microscale pores in the electrodes facilitated mass transfer of fluid electrolytes in the depth direction, nanoscale pores contributed to an increase in the amount of adsorbed dye. The maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the electrode reached 84.9% at a wavelength of 530 nm.

  11. Highly flexible indium zinc oxide electrode grown on PET substrate by cost efficient roll-to-roll sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong-Seok; Kim, Han-Ki; Jeong, Soon-Wook; Cho, Woon-Jo

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of flexible indium zinc oxide (IZO) electrode grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a specially designed roll-to-roll (RTR) sputtering system for use in flexible optoelectronics. It was found that both electrical and optical properties of the flexible IZO electrode were critically dependent on the DC power and Ar/O 2 flow ratio during the roll-to-roll sputtering process. At optimized conditions (constant working pressure of 3 mTorr, Ar/O 2 flow ratio of Ar at only 30 sccm, DC power 800 W and rolling speed at 0.1 cm/s) the flexible IZO electrode exhibits a sheet resistance of 17.25 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance of 89.45% at 550 nm wavelength. Due to the low PET substrate temperature, which is effectively maintained by cooling drum system, all IZO electrodes showed an amorphous structure regardless of the DC power and Ar/O 2 flow ratio. Furthermore, the IZO electrodes grown at optimized condition exhibited superior flexibility than the conventional amorphous ITO electrodes due to its stable amorphous structure. This indicates that the RTR sputter grown IZO electrode is a promising flexible electrode that can substitute for the conventional ITO electrode, due to its low resistance, high transparency, superior flexibility and fast preparation by the RTR process.

  12. Development of Annealing-Free, Solution-Processable Inverted Organic Solar Cells with N-Doped Graphene Electrodes using Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seungon; Lee, Junghyun; Seo, Jihyung; Kim, Ungsoo; Choi, Yunseong; Park, Hyesung

    2018-02-14

    An annealing-free process is considered as a technological advancement for the development of flexible (or wearable) organic electronic devices, which can prevent the distortion of substrates and damage to the active components of the device and simplify the overall fabrication process to increase the industrial applications. Owing to its outstanding electrical, optical, and mechanical properties, graphene is seen as a promising material that could act as a transparent conductive electrode for flexible optoelectronic devices. Owing to their high transparency and electron mobility, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) are attractive and promising for their application as charge transporting materials for low-temperature processes in organic solar cells (OSCs), particularly because most charge transporting materials require annealing treatments at elevated temperatures. In this study, graphene/annealing-free ZnO-NP hybrid materials were developed for inverted OSC by successfully integrating ZnO-NP on the hydrophobic surface of graphene, thus aiming to enhance the applicability of graphene as a transparent electrode in flexible OSC systems. Chemical, optical, electrical, and morphological analyses of ZnO-NPs showed that the annealing-free process generates similar results to those provided by the conventional annealing process. The approach was effectively applied to graphene-based inverted OSCs with notable power conversion efficiencies of 8.16% and 7.41% on the solid and flexible substrates, respectively, which promises the great feasibility of graphene for emerging optoelectronic device applications.

  13. Solvothermal synthesis of Zinc sulfide decorated Graphene (ZnS/G) nanocomposites for novel Supercapacitor electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, Rajendran; Saranya, Murugan; Kollu, Pratap; Raghupathy, Bala P.C.; Jeong, Soon Kwan; Grace, Andrews Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnS/G nanocomposites were prepared by a simple solvothermal process. • Electrochemical measurements were carried out in 6 M KOH electrolyte. • Cyclic voltammetry showed the excellent capacitive behavior of the composites. • A specific capacitance of 197.1 F/g was observed for ZnS/G-60 nanocomposites. - Abstract: Zinc sulfide decorated graphene nanocomposites are synthesized by a facile solvothermal approach and the prepared composites are analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), High Resolution Transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV), Photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL) and Raman spectrum. Results show the effective reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to graphene and decoration of ZnS nanoparticles on graphene sheets. Towards supercapacitor applications, the electrochemical measurements of different electrodes are performed in 6 M KOH electrolyte. A series of composites with different loadings of graphene is synthesized and tested for its electrochemical properties. The specific capacitance of the electrodes are evaluated from cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies and a maximum specific capacitance of 197.1 F/g is achieved in ZnS/G-60 electrode (60 indicates the weight ratio of GO) at scan rate of 5 mV s"−"1. A capacitance retention of about 94.1% is observed even after 1000 cycles for ZnS/G-60 electrode, suggesting the long time cyclic stability of the composite electrode. Galvanostatic charge–discharge curves show the highly reversible process of ZnS/G-60 electrode. Electrochemical Impedance Spectrum (EIS) shows a high conductivity of composite electrode suggesting that the composites are good candidates for energy storage.

  14. Potentiometric Zinc Ion Sensor Based on Honeycomb-Like NiO Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study honeycomb-like NiO nanostructures were grown on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal growth method. The NiO nanostructures were characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. The characterized NiO nanostructures were uniform, dense and polycrystalline in the crystal phase. In addition to this, the NiO nanostructures were used in the development of a zinc ion sensor electrode by functionalization with the highly selective zinc ion ionophore 12-crown-4. The developed zinc ion sensor electrode has shown a good linear potentiometric response for a wide range of zinc ion concentrations, ranging from 0.001 mM to 100 mM, with sensitivity of 36 mV/decade. The detection limit of the present zinc ion sensor was found to be 0.0005 mM and it also displays a fast response time of less than 10 s. The proposed zinc ion sensor electrode has also shown good reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and selectivity. The zinc ion sensor based on the functionalized NiO nanostructures was also used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations and it has demonstrated an acceptable stoichiometric relationship for the determination of zinc ion in unknown samples. The NiO nanostructures-based zinc ion sensor has potential for analysing zinc ion in various industrial, clinical and other real samples.

  15. Nanostructured cobalt sulfide-on-fiber with tunable morphology as electrodes for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alhebshi, Nuha; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2014-01-01

    Porous cobalt sulfide (Co9S8) nanostructures with tunable morphology, but identical crystal phase and composition, have been directly nucleated over carbon fiber and evaluated as electrodes for asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. As the morphology is changed from two-dimensional (2D) nanoflakes to 3D octahedra, dramatic changes in supercapacitor performance are observed. In three-electrode configuration, the binder-free Co9S82D nanoflake electrodes show a high specific capacitance of 1056 F g-1at 5 mV s-1vs. 88 F g-1for the 3D electrodes. As sulfides are known to have low operating potential, for the first time, asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors are constructed from Co9S8nanostructures and activated carbon (AC), providing an operation potential from 0 to 1.6 V. At a constant current density of 1 A g-1, the 2D Co9S8, nanoflake//AC asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor exhibits a gravimetric cell capacitance of 82.9 F g-1, which is much higher than that of an AC//AC symmetric capacitor (44.8 F g-1). Moreover, the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor shows an excellent energy density of 31.4 W h kg-1at a power density of 200 W Kg-1and an excellent cycling stability with a capacitance retention of ∼90% after 5000 cycles. This journal is

  16. Zinc oxide modified with benzylphosphonic acids as transparent electrodes in regular and inverted organic solar cell structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Ilja; Reiter, Sina; Kniepert, Juliane; Piersimoni, Fortunato; Brenner, Thomas; Neher, Dieter, E-mail: neher@uni-potsdam.de [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Pätzel, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jana; Hecht, Stefan [Department of Chemistry and IRIS Adlershof, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Brook-Taylor-Str. 2, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-03-16

    An approach is presented to modify the work function of solution-processed sol-gel derived zinc oxide (ZnO) over an exceptionally wide range of more than 2.3 eV. This approach relies on the formation of dense and homogeneous self-assembled monolayers based on phosphonic acids with different dipole moments. This allows us to apply ZnO as charge selective bottom electrodes in either regular or inverted solar cell structures, using poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester as the active layer. These devices compete with or even surpass the performance of the reference on indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate. Our findings highlight the potential of properly modified ZnO as electron or hole extracting electrodes in hybrid optoelectronic devices.

  17. Laser synthesized super-hydrophobic conducting carbon with broccoli-type morphology as a counter-electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Rohan; Agarkar, Shruti; Debgupta, Joyashish; Shinde, Deodatta; Lefez, Benoit; Banerjee, Abhik; Jog, Jyoti; More, Mahendra; Hannoyer, Beatrice; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-10-01

    A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode.A laser photochemical process is introduced to realize superhydrophobic conducting carbon coatings with broccoli-type hierarchical morphology for use as a metal-free counter electrode in a dye sensitized solar cell. The process involves pulsed excimer laser irradiation of a thin layer of liquid haloaromatic organic solvent o-dichlorobenzene (DCB). The coating reflects a carbon nanoparticle-self assembled and process-controlled morphology that yields solar to electric power conversion efficiency of 5.1% as opposed to 6.2% obtained with the conventional Pt-based electrode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and equipment details, solar cell fabrication protocol, electrolyte spreading time measurement details, XPS spectra, electronic study, film adhesion test detailed analysis and field emission results. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32082g

  18. The effect of zinc bath temperature on the morphology, texture and corrosion behaviour of industrially produced hot-dip galvanized coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bakhtiari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to identify the influence of zinc bath temperature on the morphology, texture and corrosion behavior of hot-dip galvanized coatings. Hot-dip galvanized samples were prepared at temperature in the range of 450-480 °C in steps of 10 °C, which is the conventional galvanizing temperature range in the galvanizing industries. The morphology of coatings was examined with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The composition of the coating layers was determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS analysis. The texture of the coatings was evaluated using X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behavior was performed using salt spray cabinet test and Tafel extrapolation test. From the experimental results, it was found that increasing the zinc bath temperature affects the morphology of the galvanized coatings provoking the appearance of cracks in the coating structure. These cracks prevent formation of a compact structure. In addition, it was concluded that (00.2 basal plane texture component was weakened by increasing the zinc bath temperature and, conversely, appearance of (10.1 prism component, (20.1 high angle pyramidal component and low angle component prevailed. Besides, coatings with strong (00.2 texture component and weaker (20.1 components have better corrosion resistance than the coatings with weak (00.2 and strong (20.1 texture components. Furthermore, corrosion resistance of the galvanized coatings was decreased by increasing the zinc bath temperature.

  19. Voltammetric sensor for tartrazine determination in soft drinks using poly (p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid/zinc oxide nanoparticles in carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Karim-Nezhad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs and p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (p-ABSA were used to fabricate a modified electrode, as a highly sensitive and selective voltammetric sensor, for the determination of tartrazine. A fast and easy method for the fabrication of poly p-ABSA (Pp-ABSA/ZnO NPs-carbon paste electrode (Pp-ABSA/ZnO NPs-CPE by cyclic voltammetry was used. By combining the benefits of Pp-ABSA, ZnO NPs, and CPE, the resulted modified electrode exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic activity in terms of tartrazine oxidation by giving much higher peak currents than those obtained for the unmodified CPE and also other constructed electrodes. The effects of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric response of tartrazine were investigated. At the optimum conditions, the sensor has a linear response in the concentration range of 0349–5.44 μM, a good detection sensitivity (2.2034 μA/μM, and a detection limit of 80 nM of tartrazine. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of tartrazine in soft drinks with satisfactory results.

  20. Production of zinc oxide nanowires power with precisely defined morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mičová, Júlia; Remeš, Zdeněk; Chan, Yu-Ying

    2017-12-01

    The interest about zinc oxide is increasing thanks to its unique chemical and physical properties. Our attention has focused on preparation powder of 1D nanostructures of ZnO nanowires with precisely defined morphology include characterization size (length and diameter) and shape controlled in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We have compared results of SEM with dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. We have found out that SEM method gives more accurate results. We have proposed transformation process from ZnO nanowires on substrates to ZnO nanowires powder by ultrasound peeling to colloid followed by lyophilization. This method of the mass production of the ZnO nanowires powder has some advantages: simplicity, cost effective, large-scale and environment friendly.

  1. Zinc-nickel alloy electrodeposits for water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheela, G.; Pushpavanam, Malathy; Pushpavanam, S. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India)

    2002-06-01

    Electrodeposited zinc-nickel alloys of various compositions were prepared. A suitable electrolyte and conditions to produce alloys of various compositions were identified. Alloys produced on electroformed nickel foils were etched in caustic to leach out zinc and to produce the Raney type, porous electro catalytic surface for hydrogen evolution. The electrodes were examined by polarisation measurements, to evaluate their Tafel parameters, cyclic voltammetry, to test the change in surface properties on repeated cycling, scanning electron microscopy to identify their microstructure and X-ray diffraction. The catalytic activity as well as the life of the electrode produced from 50% zinc alloy was found to be better than others. (Author)

  2. Optical absorption of CdSe quantum dots on electrodes with different morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witoon Yindeesuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the optical absorption of CdSe quantum dots (QDs adsorbed on inverse opal TiO2 (IO-TiO2 and nanoparticulate TiO2 (NP-TiO2 electrodes using photoacoustic (PA measurements. The CdSe QDs were grown directly on IO-TiO2 and NP-TiO2 electrodes by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method with different numbers of cycles. The average diameter of the QDs was estimated by applying an effective mass approximation to the PA spectra. The increasing size of the QDs with increasing number of cycles was confirmed by a redshift in the optical absorption spectrum. The average diameter of the CdSe QDs on the IO-TiO2 electrodes was similar to that on the NP-TiO2 ones, indicating that growth is independent of morphology. However, there were more CdSe QDs on the NP-TiO2 electrodes than on the IO-TiO2 ones, indicating that there were different amounts of active sites on each type of electrode. In addition, the Urbach parameter of the exponential optical absorption tail was also estimated from the PA spectrum. The Urbach parameter of CdSe QDs on IO-TiO2 electrodes was higher than that on NP-TiO2 ones, indicating that CdSe QDs on IO-TiO2 electrodes are more disordered states than those on NP-TiO2 electrodes. The Urbach parameter decreases in both cases with the increase of SILAR cycles, and it tended to move toward a constant value.

  3. Morphology Effect of Vertical Graphene on the High Performance of Supercapacitor Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zou, Qionghui; Hsu, Hua Shao; Raina, Supil; Xu, Yuxi; Kang, Joyce B; Chen, Jun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Kang, Weng P

    2016-03-23

    Graphene and its composites are widely investigated as supercapacitor electrodes due to their large specific surface area. However, the severe aggregation and disordered alignment of graphene sheets hamper the maximum utilization of its surface area. Here we report an optimized structure for supercapacitor electrode, i.e., the vertical graphene sheets, which have a vertical structure and open architecture for ion transport pathway. The effect of morphology and orientation of vertical graphene on the performance of supercapacitor is examined using a combination of model calculation and experimental study. Both results consistently demonstrate that the vertical graphene electrode has a much superior performance than that of lateral graphene electrode. Typically, the areal capacitances of a vertical graphene electrode reach 8.4 mF/cm(2) at scan rate of 100 mV/s; this is about 38% higher than that of a lateral graphene electrode and about 6 times higher than that of graphite paper. To further improve its performance, a MnO2 nanoflake layer is coated on the surface of graphene to provide a high pseudocapacitive contribution to the overall areal capacitance which increases to 500 mF/cm(2) at scan rate of 5 mV/s. The reasons for these significant improvements are studied in detail and are attributed to the fast ion diffusion and enhanced charge storage capacity. The microscopic manipulation of graphene electrode configuration could greatly improve its specific capacitance, and furthermore, boost the energy density of supercapacitor. Our results demonstrate that the vertical graphene electrode is more efficient and practical for the high performance energy storage device with high power and energy densities.

  4. Zinc hexacyanoferrate film as an effective protecting layer in two-step and one-step electropolymerization of pyrrole on zinc substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pournaghi-Azar, M.H. [Electroanalytical Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: pournaghiazar@tabrizu.ac.ir; Nahalparvari, H. [Electroanalytical Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    The two-step and one-step electrosynthesis processes of polypyrrole (PPy) films on the zinc substrate are described. The two-step process includes (i) the zinc surface pretreatment with hexacyanoferrate ion in the aqueous medium in order to form a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) film non-blocking passive layer on the surface and with the view to prevent its reactivity and (ii) electropolymerization of pyrrole on the ZnHCF vertical bar Zn-modified electrode in aqueous pyrrole solution. In this context, both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic procedures were adapted, and the effect of some experimental conditions such as supporting electrolyte, pH and temperature of the solution at the zinc surface pretreatment step as well as pyrrole concentration and electrochemical techniques at the polymerization step was investigated. By optimizing the experimental conditions in both steps, we have obtained a homogeneous and strongly adherent PPy films on the zinc substrate. The one-step process is based on the use of an aqueous medium containing Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 4-} and pyrrole. The ferrocyanide ion passivates the substrate by formation of ZnHCF film during the electropolymerization process of pyrrole and therefore makes it possible to obtain strongly adherent PPy films, with controlled thickness, either by cyclic voltammetry or by electrolysis at constant current or constant potential without any previously treatment of the zinc electrode surface. The polypyrrole films deposited on the zinc electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) measurement.

  5. Zinc hexacyanoferrate film as an effective protecting layer in two-step and one-step electropolymerization of pyrrole on zinc substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pournaghi-Azar, M.H.; Nahalparvari, H.

    2005-01-01

    The two-step and one-step electrosynthesis processes of polypyrrole (PPy) films on the zinc substrate are described. The two-step process includes (i) the zinc surface pretreatment with hexacyanoferrate ion in the aqueous medium in order to form a zinc hexacyanoferrate (ZnHCF) film non-blocking passive layer on the surface and with the view to prevent its reactivity and (ii) electropolymerization of pyrrole on the ZnHCF vertical bar Zn-modified electrode in aqueous pyrrole solution. In this context, both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic procedures were adapted, and the effect of some experimental conditions such as supporting electrolyte, pH and temperature of the solution at the zinc surface pretreatment step as well as pyrrole concentration and electrochemical techniques at the polymerization step was investigated. By optimizing the experimental conditions in both steps, we have obtained a homogeneous and strongly adherent PPy films on the zinc substrate. The one-step process is based on the use of an aqueous medium containing Fe(CN) 6 4- and pyrrole. The ferrocyanide ion passivates the substrate by formation of ZnHCF film during the electropolymerization process of pyrrole and therefore makes it possible to obtain strongly adherent PPy films, with controlled thickness, either by cyclic voltammetry or by electrolysis at constant current or constant potential without any previously treatment of the zinc electrode surface. The polypyrrole films deposited on the zinc electrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) measurement

  6. Estimation of the exchange current density and comparative analysis of morphology of electrochemically produced lead and zinc deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Nebojša D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of lead and zinc electrodeposition from the very dilute electrolytes were compared by the analysis of polarization characteristics and by the scanning electron microscopic (SEM analysis of the morphology of the deposits obtained in the galvanostatic regime of electrolysis. The exchange current densities for lead and zinc were estimated by comparison of experimentally obtained polarization curves with the simulated ones obtained for the different the exchange current density to the limiting diffusion current density ratios. Using this way for the estimation of the exchange current density, it is shown that the exchange current density for Pb was more than 1300 times higher than the one for Zn. In this way, it is confirmed that the Pb electrodeposition processes are considerably faster than the Zn electrodeposition processes. The difference in the rate of electrochemical processes was confirmed by a comparison of morphologies of lead and zinc deposits obtained at current densities which corresponded to 0.25 and 0.50 values of the limiting diffusion current densities. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172046

  7. Structural morphology of zinc oxide structures with antibacterial application of calamine lotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ann, Ling Chuo; Mahmud, Shahrom; Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Sirelkhatim, Amna [Nano-optoelectronic Research (NOR) Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamad, Dasmawati [School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150 Kelantan (Malaysia); Hasan, Habsah; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul [School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150 Kelantan (Malaysia); Seeni, Azman [Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam 13200 Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we report the structural morphology of a zinc oxide (ZnO) sample and antibacterial application of the ZnO structures in calamine lotion. Antibacterial activities of the calamine lotion towards Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The structural morphology of ZnO sample was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The morphologies of the ZnO structure consisted of many rod and spherical structures. The particle sizes of the sample ranged from 40 nm to 150 nm. A calamine lotion was prepared through mixing the ZnO structures with other constituents in suitable proportion. The energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of large amount of ZnO structures whiles the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed a good crystalline property of ZnO in the calamine lotion mixture. The morphological structures of ZnO were found to remain unchanged in the calamine lotion mixture through FESEM imaging. In the antibacterial test, prepared calamine lotion exhibited a remarkable bacterial inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa after 24 h of treatment. The bactericidal capability of calamine lotion was largely due to the presence of ZnO structures which induce high toxicity and killing effect on the bacteria.

  8. Structural morphology of zinc oxide structures with antibacterial application of calamine lotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ann, Ling Chuo; Mahmud, Shahrom; Bakhori, Siti Khadijah Mohd; Sirelkhatim, Amna; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Hasan, Habsah; Rahman, Rosliza Abdul; Seeni, Azman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we report the structural morphology of a zinc oxide (ZnO) sample and antibacterial application of the ZnO structures in calamine lotion. Antibacterial activities of the calamine lotion towards Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The structural morphology of ZnO sample was studied using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The morphologies of the ZnO structure consisted of many rod and spherical structures. The particle sizes of the sample ranged from 40 nm to 150 nm. A calamine lotion was prepared through mixing the ZnO structures with other constituents in suitable proportion. The energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) revealed the presence of large amount of ZnO structures whiles the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed a good crystalline property of ZnO in the calamine lotion mixture. The morphological structures of ZnO were found to remain unchanged in the calamine lotion mixture through FESEM imaging. In the antibacterial test, prepared calamine lotion exhibited a remarkable bacterial inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa after 24 h of treatment. The bactericidal capability of calamine lotion was largely due to the presence of ZnO structures which induce high toxicity and killing effect on the bacteria

  9. Influence of thickness and coatings morphology in the antimicrobial performance of zinc oxide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, P. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Sampaio, P. [CBMA, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4700 Braga (Portugal); Azevedo, S. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Vaz, C. [CBMA, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4700 Braga (Portugal); Espinós, J.P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-University of Sevilla, Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Teixeira, V., E-mail: vasco@fisica.uminho.pt [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Carneiro, J.O., E-mail: carneiro@fisica.uminho.pt [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    In this research work, the production of undoped and silver (Ag) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films for food-packaging applications were developed. The main goal was to determine the influence of coatings morphology and thickness on the antimicrobial performance of the produced samples. The ZnO based thin films were deposited on PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by means of DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The thin films were characterized by optical spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial performance of the undoped and Ag-doped ZnO thin films was also evaluated. The results attained have shown that all the deposited zinc oxide and Ag-doped ZnO coatings present columnar morphology with V-shaped columns. The increase of ZnO coatings thickness until 200 nm increases the active surface area of the columns. The thinner samples (50 and 100 nm) present a less pronounced antibacterial activity than the thickest ones (200–600 nm). Regarding Ag-doped ZnO thin films, it was verified that increasing the silver content decreases the growth rate of Escherichia coli and decreases the amount of bacteria cells present at the end of the experiment.

  10. Voltammetric sensor for tartrazine determination in soft drinks using poly (p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid)/zinc oxide nanoparticles in carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim-Nezhad, Ghasem; Khorablou, Zeynab; Zamani, Maryam; Seyed Dorraji, Parisa; Alamgholiloo, Mahdieh

    2017-04-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (p-ABSA) were used to fabricate a modified electrode, as a highly sensitive and selective voltammetric sensor, for the determination of tartrazine. A fast and easy method for the fabrication of poly p-ABSA (Pp-ABSA)/ZnO NPs-carbon paste electrode (Pp-ABSA/ZnO NPs-CPE) by cyclic voltammetry was used. By combining the benefits of Pp-ABSA, ZnO NPs, and CPE, the resulted modified electrode exhibited outstanding electrocatalytic activity in terms of tartrazine oxidation by giving much higher peak currents than those obtained for the unmodified CPE and also other constructed electrodes. The effects of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric response of tartrazine were investigated. At the optimum conditions, the sensor has a linear response in the concentration range of 0349-5.44 μM, a good detection sensitivity (2.2034 μA/μM), and a detection limit of 80 nM of tartrazine. The proposed electrode was used for the determination of tartrazine in soft drinks with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. ZnO nanodisk based UV detectors with printed electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenezi, Mohammad R; Alshammari, Abdullah S; Alzanki, Talal H; Jarowski, Peter; Henley, Simon John; Silva, S Ravi P

    2014-04-08

    The fabrication of highly functional materials for practical devices requires a deep understanding of the association between morphological and structural properties and applications. A controlled hydrothermal method to produce single crystal ZnO hexagonal nanodisks, nanorings, and nanoroses using a mixed solution of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) without the need of catalysts, substrates, or templates at low temperature (75 °C) is introduced. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) ultraviolet (UV) detectors were fabricated based on individual and multiple single-crystal zinc oxide (ZnO) hexagonal nanodisks. High quality single crystal individual nanodisk devices were fabricated with inkjet-printed silver electrodes. The detectors fabricated show record photoresponsivity (3300 A/W) and external quantum efficiency (1.2 × 10(4)), which we attribute to the absence of grain boundaries in the single crystal ZnO nanodisk and the polarity of its exposed surface.

  12. Enhanced Output Power of PZT Nanogenerator by Controlling Surface Morphology of Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Lee, Won-Hee; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-11-01

    Piezoelectric power generation using Pb(Zr,Ti)O3(PZT) nanowires grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3(nb:STO) substrate has been demonstrated. The epitaxial PZT nanowires prepared by a hydrothermal method, with a diameter and length of approximately 300 nm and 7 μm, respecively, were vertically aligned on the substrate. An embossed Au top electrode was applied to maximize the effective power generation area for non-uniform PZT nanowires. The PZT nanogenerator produced output power density of 0.56 μW/cm2 with a voltage of 0.9 V and current of 75 nA. This research suggests that the morphology control of top electrode can be useful to improve the efficiency of piezoelectric power generation.

  13. Corrosion behaviour of zinc and aluminum magnesium alloys by scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and electrochemical noise (EN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, R.D.; Roberge, P.R.; Lafront, A.-M.; Oteyaka, M.O.; Ghali, E.

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion characteristics of five permanent mould magnesium alloys were studied. Two contained aluminum (AZ91D and AZ91E) and three contained zinc as the primary alloying element (ZA104 (Zn 10%, Al 4%), ZAC and ZACS). ZAC contained a small amount of calcium and ZACS contained small amounts of calcium and strontium. Two techniques were used in this study, namely 1) scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and 2) electrochemical noise (EN). The test solution for each case was 5% NaCl saturated with Mg(OH)2 at room temperature. According to the EN measurements, the corrosion rate of AZ91D was the lowest followed by AZ91E, ZACS, ZAC and ZA104. The EN measurements showed that both the frequency and magnitude of current transients were much higher for the zinc based alloys than for the aluminum based alloys. The SRET measurements illustrated that localized corrosion occurred more frequently on the ZA104 sample than on the AZ91D sample. It seemed that increasing the level of zinc and lowering the level of aluminum relative to the levels in AZ91D does not improve corrosion resistance. (author)

  14. Electrospun composite nanofibers of poly vinyl pyrrolidone and zinc oxide nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode for electrochemical detection of curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afzali, Moslem, E-mail: moslem_afzali@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Research Society, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafavi, Ali; Shamspur, Tayebeh [Chemistry Department, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    A simple and novel ferrocene-nanofiber carbon paste electrode was developed to determine curcumin in a phosphate buffer solution at pH = 8. ZnO nanoparticles were produced via a sonochemical process and composite nanofibers of PVP/ZnO were prepared by electrospinning. The characterization was performed by SEM, XRD and IR. The results suggest that the electrospun composite nanofibers having a large surface area promote electron transfer for the oxidation of curcumin and hence the FCNFCPE exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and performs well in regard to the oxidation of curcumin. The proposed method was successfully applied for measurement of curcumin in urine and turmeric as real samples. - Highlights: • A novel ferrocene-nanofiber carbon paste electrode is presented to determine an anticancer material curcumin. • Composite nanofibers of PVP and zinc oxide nanoparticles with average diameter of 64 nm, were produced by electrospinning. • High surface area of nanofibers resulted in high effective surface of the electrode increases sensitivity of the method. • This modified electrode is successfully employed for determining curcumin in real samples and LOD was 0.024 μM.

  15. Internal Morphologies of Cycled Li-Metal Electrodes Investigated by Nano-Scale Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisco, Sarah; Liu, Danny X; Kumar, Arjun; Whitacre, Jay F; Love, Corey T; Swider-Lyons, Karen E; Litster, Shawn

    2017-06-07

    While some commercially available primary batteries have lithium metal anodes, there has yet to be a commercially viable secondary battery with this type of electrode. Research prototypes of these cells typically exhibit a limited cycle life before dendrites form and cause internal cell shorting, an occurrence that is more pronounced during high-rate cycling. To better understand the effects of high-rate cycling that can lead to cell failure, we use ex situ nanoscale-resolution X-ray computed tomography (nano-CT) with the aid of Zernike phase contrast to image the internal morphologies of lithium metal electrodes on copper wire current collectors that have been cycled at low and high current densities. The Li that is deposited on a Cu wire and then stripped and deposited at low current density appears uniform in morphology. Those cycled at high current density undergo short voltage transients to >3 V during Li-stripping from the electrode, during which electrolyte oxidation and Cu dissolution from the current collector may occur. The effect of temperature is also explored with separate cycling experiments performed at 5 and 33 °C. The resulting morphologies are nonuniform films filled with voids that are semispherical in shape with diameters ranging from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers, where the void size distributions are temperature-dependent. Low-temperature cycling elicits a high proportion of submicrometer voids, while the higher-temperature sample morphology is dominated by voids larger than 2 μm. In evaluating these morphologies, we consider the importance of nonidealities during extreme charging, such as electrolyte decomposition. We conclude that nano-CT is an effective tool for resolving features and aggressive cycling-induced anomalies in Li films in the range of 100 nm to 100 μm.

  16. Storage-battery electrodes. [preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-12-29

    Two incompatible thermoplastic resins are mixed with a powdered electrochemical active substance. The substance may be, for example, an oxide of cadmium, iron, lead, or zinc or nickel hydroxide. After the mixture is shaped into elements which are inserted into conducting sheaths for an electrode, the one resin is washed out to form a porous electrode. (RWR)

  17. Zinc electrowinning analysis in a modified Hull cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColm, Thomas Dean

    The Hull cell is an analytical cell designed with trapezoidal geometry to incorporate a range of current densities into a single experiment. It was conceived to examine electroplating processes rather than mass production processes. A modified analytical cell was designed, developed and applied to the diagnosis of zinc electrowinning. Emphasis was placed on obtaining the quantitative variation of current efficiency with current density and the associated microscopic variation in deposit morphology. Current density distributions came by placing an insulating baffle in between parallel electrodes. The baffle position and length were easily adjusted, allowing the generation of 12 different distributions for a single applied potential. Ten electrically isolated 1 cm2 segments comprised the cathode. Measurement of the potential drop across I ohm resistors in each of the ten isolated parallel branches permitted direct quantitative determination of current densities. The small segments permitted simple SEM and X-ray analysis of deposits. The cell was designed to allow the continual cycling of electrolyte. In conjunction with experimental analysis, a technique for the determination of current efficiency was tested and developed. The technique involved the comparison of charge passed for the electrodeposition and subsequent electrodissolution of a given mass of zinc and removed the necessity to determine the mass directly. In no prior studies on zinc electrowinning had current efficiencies been determined this way. The cell and technique were developed and verified by the correct diagnosis of industrial zinc electrowinning. Successful determination of the effects of key variables including temperature, acid to zinc ratio and impurity effects on current efficiency and deposit morphology was demonstrated. In parallel with experimental work, cell electrochemistry was modeled. Primary and secondary input parameters were those pertinent to zinc electrowinning. The resultant

  18. Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase and sensing glucose using a screen-printed carbon electrode modified with graphite nanosheets and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppiah, Chelladurai; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Veeramani, Vediyappan; Periakaruppan, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized on electrochemically fabricated graphite nanosheets (GNs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) that were deposited on a screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). The GNs/ZnO composite was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The GOx immobilized on the modified electrode shows a well-defined redox couple at a formal potential of −0.4 V. The enhanced direct electrochemistry of GOx (compared to electrodes without ZnO or without GNs) indicates a fast electron transfer at this kind of electrode, with a heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (Ks) of 3.75 s −1 . The fast electron transfer is attributed to the high conductivity and large edge plane defects of GNs and good conductivity of ZnO-NPs. The modified electrode displays a linear response to glucose in concentrations from 0.3 to 4.5 mM, and the sensitivity is 30.07 μA mM −1 cm −2 . The sensor exhibits a high selectivity, good repeatability and reproducibility, and long term stability. (author)

  19. The Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Levels on Essential Oil Yield and some Morphological Traits of Hypericum perforatums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Zadeh Esfahlan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of nitrogen and zinc fertilizer on the morphological traits and essential oil yield of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum a greenhouse experiment in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. Treatments consisted of three levels of zinc sulphate with a concentration of zinc fertilizer (zero, 3 and 6 parts per thousand and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (zero, 50, 100, 150 kg/ha. One half of the fertilizers were applied 20 days after planting of plants and the rest 40 days after transplanting. Traits evaluated were plant height, inflorescence number, leaf area, plant fresh and dry weights and plant essential oil content. The results showed that the traits under study were affected by rate of fertilizer applications. Highest plant height, number of inflorescences, leaf area and essential oil yield were obtained by using 150 kg/ha of nitrogen and applying zinc with 0.006 concentration. Highest fresh and dry weights of above ground parts were also produced by using 150 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizer along with zinc fertilizer 0.003.

  20. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  1. Process development of ITO source/drain electrode for the top-gate indium-gallium-zinc oxide transparent thin-film transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Woo-Seok; Yoon, Young-sun; Shin, Jae-Heon; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Chu, Hye Yong

    2009-01-01

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) has been widely used as electrodes for LCDs and OLEDs. The applications are expanding to the transparent thin-film transistors (TTFT S ) for the versatile circuits or transparent displays. This paper is related with optimization of ITO source and drain electrode for TTFTs on glass substrates. For example, un-etched ITO remnants, which frequently found in the wet etching process, often originate from unsuitable ITO formation processes. In order to improve them, an ion beam deposition method is introduced, which uses for forming a seed layer before the main ITO deposition. We confirm that ITO films with seed layers are effective to obtain clean and smooth glass surfaces without un-etched ITO remnants, resulting in a good long-run electrical stability of the top-gate indium-gallium-zinc oxide-TTFT.

  2. Voltammetric sensor for electrochemical determination of the floral origin of honey based on a zinc oxide nanoparticle modified carbon paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tiwari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology based on cyclic voltammetry using a chemically modified electrode has been developed for the discrimination of the floral origin of honey. This method involves an electronic tongue with an electrochemical sensor made from a carbon paste (CPs electrode where zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles are used as an electroactive binder material. The bare CPs electrode is evaluated for comparison. The electrochemical response of the modified electrode in 50 samples of five different floral types of honey has been analysed by the cyclic voltammetric technique. The voltammograms of each floral variety of honey reflect the redox properties of the ZnO nanoparticles present inside the carbon paste matrix and are strongly influenced by the nectar source of honey. Thus, each type of honey provides a characteristic signal which is evaluated by using principal component analysis (PCA and an artificial neural network (ANN. The result of a PCA score plot of the transient responses obtained from the modified carbon paste electrode clearly shows discrimination among the different floral types of honey. The ANN model for floral classification of honey shows more than 90 % accuracy. These results indicate that the ZnO nanoparticles modified carbon paste (ZnO Nps modified CPs electrode can be a useful electrode for discrimination of honey samples from different floral origins.

  3. A computation study on the interplay between surface morphology and electrochemical performance of patterned thin film electrodes for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Sourav; Frantziskonis, George N.; Aifantis, Katerina E.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experiments illustrate that the morphology of the electrode surface impacts the voltage - capacity curves and long term cycling performance of Li-ion batteries. The present study systematically explores the role of the electrode surface morphology and uncertainties in the reactions that occur during electrochemical cycling, by performing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulations using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). This allows encoding of the inherent stochasticity at discrete microscale reaction events over the deterministic mean field reaction dynamics that occur in Li-ion cells. The electrodes are taken to be dense thin films whose surfaces are patterned with conical, trapezoidal, dome-shaped, or pillar-shaped structures. It is shown that the inherent perturbations in the reactions together with the characteristics of the electrode surface configuration can significantly improve battery performance, mainly because patterned surfaces, as opposed to flat surfaces, result in a smaller voltage drop. The most efficient pattern was the trapezoidal, which is consistent with experimental evidence on Si patterned electrodes.

  4. Wustite-based photoelectrodes with lithium, hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, manganese, zinc and nickel additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Emily Ann; Toroker, Maytal Caspary

    2017-08-15

    A photoelectrode, photovoltaic device and photoelectrochemical cell and methods of making are disclosed. The photoelectrode includes an electrode at least partially formed of FeO combined with at least one of lithium, hydrogen, sodium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, and nickel. The electrode may be doped with at least one of lithium, hydrogen, and sodium. The electrode may be alloyed with at least one of magnesium, manganese, zinc, and nickel.

  5. Screen-printed carbon electrode modified on its surface with amorphous carbon nitride thin film: Electrochemical and morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghamouss, F. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France); Tessier, P.-Y. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Djouadi, A. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Besland, M.-P. [Universite de Nantes, UMR CNRS 6502, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel - IMN Faculte des Sciences and des Techniques de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Boujtita, M. [Universite de Nantes, UMR 6006-CNRS, FR-2465-CNRS, Laboratoire d' Analyse isotopique et Electrochimique de Metabolismes (LAIEM) (France)]. E-mail: mohammed.boujtita@univ-nantes.fr

    2007-04-20

    The surface of a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified by using amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN {sub x}) thin film deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements were used to characterise respectively the morphology and the chemical structure of the a-CN {sub x} modified electrodes. The incorporation of nitrogen in the amorphous carbon network was demonstrated by X ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The a-CN {sub x} layers were deposited on both carbon screen-printed electrode (SPCE) and silicon (Si) substrates. A comparative study showed that the nature of substrate, i.e. SPCE and Si, has a significant effect on both the surface morphology of deposited a-CN {sub x} film and their electrochemical properties. The improvement of the electrochemical reactivity of SPCE after a-CN {sub x} film deposition was highlighted both by comparing the shapes of voltammograms and calculating the apparent heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant.

  6. Controllable synthesis of Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) doped zinc phosphate nano-/micro-structured materials: phase, morphology and luminescence properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Dan; Lu, Wei; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Xinlei; Liu, Chunxia; Wang, Zhenling

    2014-01-01

    Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) doped zinc phosphate tetrahydrate (ZPT:Ln3+) and ammonium zinc phosphate (AZP:Ln3+) nano-/micro-structured materials were synthesized in aqueous solution without the addition of any structure-directing agent. The phase structures, morphologies and luminescence properties of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and lifetime. These investigations indicate that different phosphate sources MnH(3-n)PO4 (M = NH4+ or Na+, n = 1, 2, 3) can lead to the altering of morphology from nanosheet to microflower, but have no significant effect on the phase structure of the samples. The microlump, nanosheet, and microflower (constructed by the primary microlumps or nanosheets) of orthorhombic ZPT:Ln3+ could be selectively prepared by adjusting the pH value from 3.5 to 7.0. A mixture of orthorhombic ZPT:Ln3+ and monoclinic AZP:Ln3+ with a microflower morphology was obtained when the pH value was adjusted to 8.0. Monoclinic AZP:Ln3+ microplate, microcube and nanoparticle morphologies were obtained at pH values of 8.5, 9.0 and 11.0 respectively. The phase transformation and growth mechanism of the diverse morphologies were proposed, and ZPT:Ln3+ (Ln3+ = Eu or Tb) samples exhibit red or green emission under the excitation of UV light.Ln3+ (Ln = Tb, Eu) doped zinc phosphate tetrahydrate (ZPT:Ln3+) and ammonium zinc phosphate (AZP:Ln3+) nano-/micro-structured materials were synthesized in aqueous solution without the addition of any structure-directing agent. The phase structures, morphologies and luminescence properties of the as-synthesized samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and lifetime. These

  7. Zinc-zincate electrochemical behaviour in NaOH medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessine, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction mechanism of zinc/NaOH-zincate system was investigated with the rotating disk electrode technique, using both the surfaces of mercury film and zinc in 1M NaOH concentration and 25 0 C temperature. It was found that, at the mercury surface, the zincate ion deposition reaction occurs by two steps with one electron each, with comparable rates, with b sup(-) sub(K1) = (132+ -20)mV/decade and b sup(-) sub(K2) = (74 + - 9)mV/decade cathodic Tafel slopes. At the zinc surface the mechanism of the anodic and cathodic reactions is the same and is by two steps with one electron each. The rate-determining step is the first reaction in the cathodic direction. The exchange current density was found to be between 1.00 and 6.00mA/cm 2 , with b sup(-) sub(K) = (95+ -3)mV/decade cathodic and b sup(-) sub(a) = (61+ -5)mV/decade anodic Tafel slopes. The mechanism of passivation of zinc occurs as a result of the two reactions, the adsorption of the dissolved species of zinc II and the precipitation of the zincate ions over the electrode active sites. It has been verified that of all the chemical species studied namely the zincate, chloride, benzoate, silicate ions and the benzotriazole that affect the zinc anodic reaction the silicate ion is the one that change the reaction rate. However, for all the species studied we have the same anodic reaction mechanism (active dissolution). The deposition reaction mechanism of the zincate ion on zinc electrode is the same with NaOH plus benzoate or chloride. The diffusion coefficient found for the diffusion of the zincate ion in 1M NaOH with the mercury film RDE is D sup(-) = (4,90+ -0,20) x 10 -6 cm 2 s -1 . (Author) [pt

  8. Analysis of Lead and Zinc by Mercury-Free Potentiometric Stripping Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    1997-01-01

    A method is presented for trace-element analysis of lead and zinc by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) where both the glassy-carbon working electrode and the electrolyte are free of mercury. Analysis of zinc requires an activation procedure of the glassy-carbon electrode. The activation...... is performed by pre-concentrating zinc on glassy carbon at -1400 mV(SCE) in a mercury-free electrolyte containing 0.1 M HCl and 2 ppm Zn2+, followed by stripping at approx. -1050 mV. A linear relationship between stripping peak areas, recorded in the derivative mode, and concentration was found...

  9. Magneli phase Ti4O7 electrode for oxygen reduction reaction and its implication for zinc-air rechargeable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoxia; Zhu, Aaron Li; Qu Wei; Wang Haijiang; Hui, Rob; Zhang Lei; Zhang Jiujun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Magneli phase Ti 4 O 7 was successfully synthesized using a TiO 2 reduction method, and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrode coated with this Ti 4 O 7 material showed activities for both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). For the ORR, several parameters, including overall electron transfer number, kinetic constants, electron transfer coefficient, and percentage H 2 O 2 production, were obtained using the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) technique and the Koutecky-Levich theory. The overall electron transfer number was found to be between 2.3 and 2.9 in 1, 4, and 6 M KOH electrolytes, suggesting that the ORR process on the Ti 4 O 7 electrode was a mixed process of 2- and 4-electron transfer pathways. Electrochemical durability tests, carried out in highly concentrated KOH electrolyte, confirmed that this Ti 4 O 7 is a stable electrode material, suggesting that it should be a feasible candidate for the air-cathodes of zinc-air batteries. To understand the stability of this material, Raman and XPS spectra were also collected for the Ti 4 O 7 samples before and after the stability tests. The results and analysis revealed that a thin layer of TiO 2 formed on the Ti 4 O 7 surface, which may have prevented further oxidation into the bulk of the Ti 4 O 7 electrode.

  10. The effect of hydrogen on the morphology of n-type silicon electrodes under electrochemical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldar, A.; Roser, S.J.; Caruana, D.

    2001-01-01

    the changes in the shape of the total reflection feature. We assume that the change in the morphology of the surface is due to the diffusion of hydrogen in the silicon electrode. This assumption allow us to model the changes in the reflected intensity at two different angles and find the diffusion exponent...

  11. Improved corrosion behavior of nanocrystalline zinc produced by pulse-current electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, Kh.M.S.; Koch, C.C.; Fedkiw, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Pulse electrodeposition was used to produce nanocrystalline (nc) zinc from zinc chloride electrolyte with polyacrylamide and thiourea as additives. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to study the grain size and surface morphology of the deposits and X-ray diffraction was used to examine their preferred orientation. Corrosion behavior of the electrodeposited nc zinc in comparison with electrogalvanized (EG) steel in de-aerated 0.5 N NaOH solution was studied using potentiodynamic polarization and impedance measurements. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize the surface morphology of the EG steel before corrosion testing. Surface morphologies of nc zinc deposits and EG steel were also studied after potentiondynamic polarization by SEM. Nanocrystalline zinc (56 nm) with random orientation was produced. The estimated corrosion rate of nc zinc was found to be about 60% lower than that of EG steel, 90 and 229 μA/cm 2 , respectively. The surface morphology of corroded nc zinc was characterized by discrete etch pits, however, uniform corrosion was obtained after potentiodynamic polarization of EG steel. The passive film formed on the nc zinc surface seems to be a dominating factor for the corrosion behavior observed

  12. Electrochemical, morphological and microstructural characterization of carbon film resistor electrodes for application in electrochemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia-Caridade, Carla; Soares, David M.; Liess, Hans-Dieter; Brett, Christopher M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical and microstructural properties of carbon film electrodes made from carbon film electrical resistors of 1.5, 15, 140 Ω and 2.0 kΩ nominal resistance have been investigated before and after electrochemical pre-treatment at +0.9 V vs SCE, in order to assess the potential use of these carbon film electrodes as electrochemical sensors and as substrates for sensors and biosensors. The results obtained are compared with those at electrodes made from previously investigated 2 Ω carbon film resistors. Cyclic voltammetry was performed in acetate buffer and phosphate buffer saline electrolytes and the kinetic parameters of the model redox system Fe(CN) 6 3-/4- obtained. The 1.5 Ω resistor electrodes show the best properties for sensor development with wide potential windows, similar electrochemical behaviour to those of 2 Ω and close-to-reversible kinetic parameters after electrochemical pre-treatment. The 15 and 140 Ω resistor electrodes show wide potential windows although with slower kinetics, whereas the 2.0 kΩ resistor electrodes show poor cyclic voltammetric profiles even after pre-treatment. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy related these findings to the interfacial properties of the electrodes. Microstructural and morphological studies were carried out using contact mode Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Confocal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. AFM showed more homogeneity of the films with lower nominal resistances, related to better electrochemical characteristics. X-ray diffraction and Confocal Raman spectroscopy indicate the existence of a graphitic structure in the carbon films

  13. Wrinkle-free graphene electrodes in zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors for large area applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hee; Park, Byeong-Ju; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Wrinkle-free graphene was used to form the source-drain electrodes in thin film transistors based on a zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor. A 10 nm thick titanium adhesion layer was applied prior to transferring a conductive graphene film on top of it by chemical detachment. The formation of an interlayer oxide between titanium and graphene allows the achievement of uniform surface roughness over the entire substrate area. The resulting devices were thermally treated in ambient air, and a substantial decrease in field effect mobility is observed with increasing annealing temperature. The increase in electrical resistivity of the graphene film at higher annealing temperatures may have some influence, however the growth of the oxide interlayer at the ZTO/Ti boundary is suggested to be most influential, thereby inducing relatively high contact resistance.

  14. Zinc oxide films impurified with Ti and prepared by the Sol-gel method; Peliculas de oxido de zinc impurificadas con Ti y preparadas por el metodo Sol-gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirado G, S. [ESFM-IPN, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Cazares R, J.M.; Maldonado, A. [CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Titanium-doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared on silicon substrate using the Sol-Gel technique. The structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such thin films were studied as a function of titanium concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and the thin films thickness. Zinc acetate dihydrate and titanium (VI)-oxy acetylacetonate were used as precursor materials, using 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine as via. The X-ray diffraction spectra show polycrystalline films in all the cases. It can see for all the thin films a preferential growth along the (002) planes where the titanium concentration and also the thin films thickness play an important rule. No structural changes are observed at all. The surface morphology studied shows as the grain size decreases when thin thickness is increases. For titanium concentration of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % values the grains size increase also. The thin films thickness for titanium concentration of 1.5 % was 500 nm (4v), 400 nm (3v), 180 nm (2v) and 130 nm (1v), values obtained from cross-section micrographs. Highly resistive samples are obtained for substrate soda-lime even showing high transmittance. Better physical properties are required for gas sensors or semitransparent electrodes and other possible applications. (Author)

  15. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L.

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn 2+ electrode ( e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased.

  16. Surface morphological structures and electrochemical activity properties of iridium–niobium binary alloy electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Toru, E-mail: matsumoto.t@jemai.or.jp [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Sata, Naoaki [Green Innovation Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation, 34 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kiyoshi [Advanced Ceramic Group, Advanced Materials Processing Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko [High Temperature Materials Unit Functional Structure Materials Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • An Ir–23Nb alloy has the best oxidation capability among other Nb concentrations. • The reason is the Ir–23Nb has a large surface area which results from Ir + Ir{sub 3}Nb. • An Ir–23Nb glucose sensor detects glucose much better than an Ir glucose sensor. -- Abstract: The electrochemical activities of Ir–Nb binary alloys were investigated as functions of the alloy compositions, crystal structures, and surface morphologies for a hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid redox reaction. High activities for the redox reaction of hydrogen peroxide were observed when pure Ir and an alloy with a composition of 77 at% Ir–23 at% Nb (Ir–23Nb) were used. Tests on eight electrodes—Ir, Ir–13Nb, Ir–17Nb, Ir–23Nb, Ir–30Nb, Ir–43Nb, Ir–62Nb, and Nb—showed that at a constant potential difference of 0.7 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the Ir–23Nb electrode had the best hydrogen peroxide oxidation capability: 9.2 μA/mm{sup 2} for 2 mM hydrogen peroxide. Apart from Nb, Ir–23Nb gave the best performance in terms of preferential hydrogen peroxide oxidation against ascorbic acid. Subsequently, the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrodes were used for the fabrication of amperometric glucose sensors. We first coated the two electrodes with a γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane membrane and then with a glucose oxidase membrane. Tests on the Ir and Ir–23Nb electrode glucose sensors showed that the latter had better glucose detection capability than the former: 0.226 μA/(mm{sup 2} mM) for the Ir–23Nb sensor with 1.67 mM glucose. We investigated the relationship between the electrode responses to both hydrogen peroxide and ascorbic acid and the electrode surface structures.

  17. Textural and morphological studies on zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc-iron alloy electrodeposits have industrial significance, since they provide better corrosion resistance and with improved mechanical properties when compared to pure zinc coatings. This is due to the unique phase structure of the alloy formed. But this deposition belongs to anomalous deposition, where the ...

  18. Zinc composite anode for batteries with solid electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedjar, F.; Melki, T.; Zerroual, L. (Setif Univ. (Algeria). Unite de Recherche Electrochimie)

    1992-05-01

    A new negative composite anode for batteries with a solid electrolyte is studied. Using a complex of zinc ammonium chloride mixed with zinc metal powder, the advantage of the Zn/Zn[sup 2+] electrode (e = -760 mV) is kept while the energy density and the shelf-life of the battery are increased. (orig.).

  19. Manufacturing process and electrode properties of palladium-electroded ionic polymer–metal composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Longfei; Chen, Hualing; Zhu, Zicai; Li, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper primarily focuses on the manufacturing process of palladium-electroded ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC). First, according to the special properties of Pd, many experiments were done to determine several specific procedures, including the addition of a reducing agent and the time consumed. Subsequently, the effects of the core manufacturing steps on the electrode morphology were revealed by scanning electron microscopy studies of 22 IPMC samples treated with different combinations of manufacturing steps. Finally, the effects of electrode characteristics on the electromechanical properties, including the sheet resistivity, the elastic modulus and the electro-active performance, of IPMCs were evaluated experimentally and analyzed according to the electrode morphology. (paper)

  20. Electron transfer number control of the oxygen reduction reaction on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides for the air electrodes of zinc-air batteries and organic degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Li, Po-Chieh; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    The mean electron transfer number (n) of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is controlled by nitrogen doping for the air electrodes of Zn-air batteries and electrochemical organic degradation. Melamine and pyrrole are employed as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-doped rGO (N-rGO) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS). The n value of the ORR is determined by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) voltammetry and is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. The N-doped structures are examined by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The morphology and the defect degree of N-rGOs are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. N-rGOs with high and low n values are employed as the air electrode catalysts of zinc-air batteries and in-situ hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) generation, respectively. The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery is obtained at 2 mA cm"−"2 meanwhile the current efficiency of H_2O_2 generation in 1-h electrolysis at 0 V (vs. RHE) reaches 43%. The electrocatalytic degradation of orange G (OG), analyzed by UV-VIS absorption spectra, reveals a high decoloration degree from the relative absorbance of 0.38 for the azo π-conjugation structure of OG. - Highlights: • The mean electron transfer number (n) is controlled by nitrogen doping. • Melamine and pyrrole are used as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-rGO. • The n value is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. • The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery. • The current efficiency of H_2O_2 generation 1-h electrolysis reaches 43%.

  1. Intensification of zinc dissolution process in sulphuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many high purity salts are produced by dissolving pure metal in non-oxidizing mineral acids. If hydrogen overpotential on the given metal is high, then the rate of overall process is defined by reaction of hydrogen ion reduction. This study investigated the possibility of accelerated dissolving of metal zinc in sulphuric acid by introducing copper cathode on which evolving hydrogen is much easier than on zinc. It was found out that the acceleration of zinc dissolving is possible and, at constant surface of copper cathode depends on the quality of electrical contact between copper electrode and zinc.

  2. Incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles into chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds: Effect on morphology, mechanical properties and cytocompatibility of 3D porous scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saleem; Zainol, Ismail; Idrus, Ruszymah Hj

    2017-11-01

    The zinc oxide nanoparticles (particles size chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds and investigated the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on microstructure, mechanical properties, biodegradation and cytocompatibility of 3D porous scaffolds. The 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% zinc oxide nanoparticles chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were fabricated via freeze-drying technique. The zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation effects consisting in chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds were investigated by mechanical and swelling tests, and effect on the morphology of scaffolds examined microscopically. The biodegradation and cytocompatibility tests were used to investigate the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation on the ability of scaffolds to use for tissue engineering application. The mean pore size and swelling ratio of scaffolds were decreased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles however, the porosity, tensile modulus and biodegradation rate were increased upon incorporation of zinc oxide nanoparticles. In vitro culture of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes showed that the zinc oxide nanoparticles facilitated cell adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds. It was found that the zinc oxide nanoparticles incorporation enhanced porosity, tensile modulus and cytocompatibility of chitosan-collagen 3D porous scaffolds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrodéposition sous champ magnétique de zinc et de fer.Propriétés magnétiques des arborescences de fer

    OpenAIRE

    Heresanu , Vasile

    2003-01-01

    President du jury: A. Alemany ; Raporteurs : J-P. Chopart, J.M.D. Coey ; Examinateurs : J-L. Porteseil, R. Ballou, P. Molho; This work is concerned with the effects of magnetic fields on arborescence of zinc and iron obtained by electrochemical deposition in thin cell and with the magnetic properties of iron arborescences. For zinc under normal magnetic field, the macroscopic morphology changes are explained by the mechanical action, on the growing aggregate, of fluid convection induced by th...

  4. Zinc oxide films impurified with Ti and prepared by the Sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado G, S.; Cazares R, J.M.; Maldonado, A.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium-doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared on silicon substrate using the Sol-Gel technique. The structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such thin films were studied as a function of titanium concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and the thin films thickness. Zinc acetate dihydrate and titanium (VI)-oxy acetylacetonate were used as precursor materials, using 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine as via. The X-ray diffraction spectra show polycrystalline films in all the cases. It can see for all the thin films a preferential growth along the (002) planes where the titanium concentration and also the thin films thickness play an important rule. No structural changes are observed at all. The surface morphology studied shows as the grain size decreases when thin thickness is increases. For titanium concentration of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % values the grains size increase also. The thin films thickness for titanium concentration of 1.5 % was 500 nm (4v), 400 nm (3v), 180 nm (2v) and 130 nm (1v), values obtained from cross-section micrographs. Highly resistive samples are obtained for substrate soda-lime even showing high transmittance. Better physical properties are required for gas sensors or semitransparent electrodes and other possible applications. (Author)

  5. Relating the 3D electrode morphology to Li-ion battery performance; a case for LiFePO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Singh, Deepak P.; Wang, Hongqian; Wagemaker, Marnix; Barnett, Scott

    2016-08-01

    One of the main goals in lithium ion battery electrode design is to increase the power density. This requires insight in the relation between the complex heterogeneous microstructure existing of active material, conductive additive and electrolyte providing the required electronic and Li-ion transport. FIB-SEM is used to determine the three phase 3D morphology, and Li-ion concentration profiles obtained with Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) are compared for two cases, conventional LiFePO4 electrodes and better performing carbonate templated LiFePO4 electrodes. This provides detailed understanding of the impact of key parameters such as the tortuosity for electron and Li-ion transport though the electrodes. The created hierarchical pore network of the templated electrodes, containing micron sized pores, appears to be effective only at high rate charge where electrolyte depletion is hindering fast discharge. Surprisingly the carbonate templating method results in a better electronic conductive CB network, enhancing the activity of LiFePO4 near the electrolyte-electrode interface as directly observed with NDP, which in a large part is responsible for the improved rate performance both during charge and discharge. The results demonstrate that standard electrodes have a far from optimal charge transport network and that significantly improved electrode performance should be possible by engineering the microstructure.

  6. The Effect of Scala Tympani Morphology on Basilar Membrane Contact With a Straight Electrode Array: A Human Temporal Bone Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Juul; Risi, Frank; Campbell, Luke; Chambers, Scott; O'Leary, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Scala tympani morphology influences the insertion dynamics and intra-scalar position of straight electrode arrays. Hearing preservation is the goal of cochlear implantation with current thin straight electrode arrays. These hug the lateral wall, facilitating full, atraumatic insertions. However, most studies still report some postoperative hearing loss. This study explores the influence of scala tympani morphology on array position relative to the basilar membrane and its possible contribution to postoperative hearing loss. Twenty-six fresh-frozen human temporal bones implanted with a straight electrode array were three-dimensionally reconstructed from micro-photographic histological sections. Insertion depth and the proximity between the array and basilar membrane were recorded. Lateral wall shape was quantified as a curvature ratio. Insertion depths ranged from 233 to 470 degrees. The mean first point of contact between the array and basilar membrane was 185 degrees; arrays tended to remain in contact with the membrane after first contacting it. Eighty-nine and 93% of arrays that reached the upper basal (>240-360 degrees) and second (>360-720 degrees) turns respectively contacted the basilar membrane in these regions. Scalar wall curvature ratio decreased significantly (the wall became steeper) from the basal to second turns. This shift correlated with a reduced distance between the array and basilar membrane. Scala tympani morphology influences the insertion dynamics and intra-scalar position of a straight electrode array. In addition to gross trauma of cochlear structures, contact between the array and basilar membrane and how this impacts membrane function should be considered in hearing preservation cases.

  7. AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode for amorphous silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuring, Martin; Vehse, Martin; Maydell, Karsten von; Agert, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Metal-based transparent electrodes can be fabricated at low temperatures, which is crucial for various substrate materials and solar cells. In this work, an oxide-metal-oxide (OMO) transparent electrode based on aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) and silver is compared to AZO layers, fabricated at different temperatures and indium tin oxides. With the OMO structure, a sheet resistance of 7.1/square and a transparency above 80% for almost the entire visible spectrum were achieved. The possible application of such electrodes on a textured solar cell was demonstrated on the example of a rough ZnO substrate. An OMO structure is benchmarked in a n-i-p amorphous silicon solar cell against an AZO front contact fabricated at 200 °C. In the experiment, the OMO electrode shows a superior performance with an efficiency gain of 30%. - Highlights: • Multilayer transparent electrode based on aluminum zinc oxide (AZO) and Ag • Comparison of AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrode to AZO and indium tin oxide • Performance of AZO-Ag-AZO transparent electrodes on textured surfaces • Comparison of amorphous silicon solar cells with different transparent electrodes

  8. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Progress in the development of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicles is reported. Information is presented on nickel electrode preparation and testing; zinc electrode preparation with additives and test results; separator development and the evaluation of polymer-blend separator films; sealed Ni-Zn cells; and the optimization of electric vehicle-type Ni-Zn cells. (LCL)

  9. The use of a hierarchically platinum-free electrode composed of tin oxide decorated polypyrrole on nanoporous copper in catalysis of methanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asghari, Elnaz, E-mail: elnazasghari@yahoo.com; Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Habib; Vahed, Akram; Rezaei-Moghadam, Babak; Charmi, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Tin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized through a galvanostatic pathway on polypyrrole, PPy, coated nanoporous copper. The morphology and surface analysis of the assemblies were evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, FESEM, and energy dispersive X-ray, EDX, analysis, respectively. The electrocatalytic behavior of electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests in methanol solution. FESEM results showed that uniformly distributed nanoparticles with diameters of about 20–30 nm have been dispersed on PPy matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests in methanol solution showed a significant enhancement in the catalytic action of PPy after decoration of tin oxide nanoparticles. Porous Cu/PPy/SnO{sub x} electrodes showed enhanced anodic peak current density for methanol oxidation compared to smooth Cu/PPy/SnO{sub x} and porous Cu/PPy. The effects of synthesis current density and time on the electrocatalytic behavior of the electrodes were evaluated. The significant enhancement of electrocatalytic behavior of the Cu/PPy electrode after decoration of SnO{sub x} overlayer was attributed to the effect of tin oxide on the adsorption of intermediates of methanol oxidation as well as oxidation of bi-products such as CO; huge tendency of tin oxides for dehydrogenation of the alcohols and the increase in microscopic surface area of the electrodes were introduced as other affecting factors. - Highlights: • Nanoporous copper–zinc substrates were formed by chemical leaching of zinc. • Polypyrrole thin film was electrodeposited on nanoporous copper. • Thin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized electrochemically on polypyrrole layer. • The catalytic performance of the electrodes was evaluated for methanol oxidation.

  10. Electroplated zinc-cobalt alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.E.O.S.; Farr, J.P.G.

    2005-01-01

    Recent work on the deposition and use of ectrodeposited zinc-cobalt alloys is surveyed. Alloys containing lower of Nuclear quantities of cobalt are potentially more useful. The structures of the deposits is related to their chemical and mechanical properties. The inclusion of oxide and its role in the deposition mechanism may be significant. Chemical and engineering properties relate to the metallurgical structure of the alloys, which derives from the mechanism of deposition. The inclusion of oxides and hydroxides in the electroplate may provide evidence for this mechanism. Electrochemical impedance measurements have been made at significant deposition potentials, in alkaline electrolytes. These reveal a complex electrode behaviour which depends not only on the electrode potential but on the Co content of the electrolyte. For the relevant range of cathodic potential zinc-cobalt alloy electrodeposition occurs through a stratified interface. The formation of an absorbed layer ZnOH/sup +/ is the initial step, this inhibits the deposition of cobalt at low cathodic potentials, so explaining its 'anomalous deposition'. A porous layer of zinc forms on the adsorbed ZnOH/sup +/ at underpotential. As the potential becomes more cathodic, cobalt co- deposits from its electrolytic complex forming a metallic solid solution of Co in Zn. In electrolytes containing a high concentration of cobalt a mixed entity (ZnCo)/sub +/ is assumed to adsorb at the cathode from which a CoZn intermetallic deposits. (author)

  11. Morphological Influence of Solution-Processed Zinc Oxide Films on Electrical Characteristics of Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonju Lee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on the morphological influence of solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO semiconductor films on the electrical characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs. Different film morphologies were produced by controlling the spin-coating condition of a precursor solution, and the ZnO films were analyzed using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and Hall measurement. It is shown that ZnO TFTs have a superior performance in terms of the threshold voltage and field-effect mobility, when ZnO crystallites are more densely packed in the film. This is attributed to lower electrical resistivity and higher Hall mobility in a densely packed ZnO film. In the results of consecutive TFT operations, a positive shift in the threshold voltage occurred irrespective of the film morphology, but the morphological influence on the variation in the field-effect mobility was evident. The field-effect mobility in TFTs having a densely packed ZnO film increased continuously during consecutive TFT operations, which is in contrast to the mobility decrease observed in the less packed case. An analysis of the field-effect conductivities ascribes these results to the difference in energetic traps, which originate from structural defects in the ZnO films. Consequently, the morphological influence of solution-processed ZnO films on the TFT performance can be understood through the packing property of ZnO crystallites.

  12. Multiscale transparent electrode architecture for efficient light management and carrier collection in solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccard, Mathieu; Battaglia, Corsin; Hänni, Simon; Söderström, Karin; Escarré, Jordi; Nicolay, Sylvain; Meillaud, Fanny; Despeisse, Matthieu; Ballif, Christophe

    2012-03-14

    The challenge for all photovoltaic technologies is to maximize light absorption, to convert photons with minimal losses into electric charges, and to efficiently extract them to the electrical circuit. For thin-film solar cells, all these tasks rely heavily on the transparent front electrode. Here we present a multiscale electrode architecture that allows us to achieve efficiencies as high as 14.1% with a thin-film silicon tandem solar cell employing only 3 μm of silicon. Our approach combines the versatility of nanoimprint lithography, the unusually high carrier mobility of hydrogenated indium oxide (over 100 cm(2)/V/s), and the unequaled light-scattering properties of self-textured zinc oxide. A multiscale texture provides light trapping over a broad wavelength range while ensuring an optimum morphology for the growth of high-quality silicon layers. A conductive bilayer stack guarantees carrier extraction while minimizing parasitic absorption losses. The tunability accessible through such multiscale electrode architecture offers unprecedented possibilities to address the trade-off between cell optical and electrical performance. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  13. Nucleation and growth in alkaline zinc electrodeposition An Experimental and Theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Divyaraj

    The current work seeks to investigate the nucleation and growth of zinc electrodeposition in alkaline electrolyte, which is of commercial interest to alkaline zinc batteries for energy storage. The morphology of zinc growth places a severe limitation on the typical cycle life of such batteries. The formation of mossy zinc leads to a progressive deterioration of battery performance while zinc dendrites are responsible for sudden catastrophic battery failure. The problems are identified as the nucleation-controlled formation of mossy zinc and the transport-limited formation of dendritic zinc. Consequently, this thesis work seeks to investigate and accurately simulate the conditions under which such morphologies are formed. The nucleation and early-stage growth of Zn electrodeposits is studied on carbon-coated TEM grids. At low overpotentials, the morphology develops by aggregation at two distinct length scales: ~5 nm diameter monocrystalline nanoclusters form ~50nm diameter polycrystalline aggregates, and second, the aggregates form a branched network. Epitaxial (0002) growth above a critical overpotential leads to the formation of hexagonal single-crystals. A kinetic model is provided using the rate equations of vapor solidification to simulate the evolution of the different morphologies. On solving these equations, we show that aggregation is attributed to cluster impingement and cluster diffusion while single-crystal formation is attributed to direct attachment. The formation of dendritic zinc is investigated using in-operando transmission X-ray microscopy which is a unique technique for imaging metal electrodeposits. The nucleation density of zinc nuclei is lowered using polyaniline films to cover the active nucleation sites. The effect of overpotential is investigated and the morphology shows beautiful in-operando formation of symmetric zinc crystals. A linear perturbation model was developed to predict the growth and formation of these crystals to first

  14. Tracing of Zinc Nanocrystals in the Anterior Pituitary of Zinc-Deficient Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, Anjana; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, Ranveer Singh

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique. The control and pair-fed groups retained their normal morphological features. However, male Wistar rats fed on zinc-deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks displayed a wide range of symptoms such as significant (P zinc nanocrystals in the nuclei. The present findings suggest that the dietary zinc deficiency causes decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals localization and their distribution in the pituitary thereby contributing to the dysfunction of the pituitary of the male Wistar rats. The severity of zinc deficiency symptoms progressed after the second week of the experiment. Decreased intensity of zinc nanocrystals attenuates the pituitary function which would exert its affect on other endocrine organs impairing their functions indicating that the metabolic regulation of pituitary is mediated to a certain extent by zinc and/or hypothalamus-hypophysial system which also reflects its essentiality during the period of growth.

  15. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  16. Effect of different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios on the structure, morphology, and enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performance of Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Rongrong; Wang, Qingyao; Gao, Shanmin; Wang, Zeyan; Huang, Baibiao; Dai, Ying; Lu, Jun

    2015-07-01

    Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides with different phase compositions and morphologies were successfully synthesized using Zn powder as the reductant and Zn source by a chemical-reduction precipitation method with subsequent thermal treatment. The fabricated Ti3+ self-doped TiO2(A)/TiO2(R), TiO2(A)/TiO2(R)/ZnTiO3, and TiO2(A)/ZnO heterojunctions were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The effects of various Ti/Zn molar ratios and preparation processes on the structural, morphological, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the resultant samples were investigated systematically. Results reveal that Ti3+ self-doping enhances the photoabsorption capability of titanium-zinc hybrid oxides in the visible-light region. Moreover, different processes and Ti/Zn molar ratios play great influences on the structure, morphology, optical, photocurrent and photocatalytic properties of the final products. Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides exhibit excellent photocurrent and photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 and ZnTiO3 under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 400 nm). The most active Ti3+ self-doped titanium-zinc hybrid oxides photoanode presents significantly improved water splitting performance. The synergistic effect between the Ti3+ self-doped and heterojunctions is responsible for the enhanced performance of these materials.

  17. Design and fabrication of a micro zinc/air battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, L; Luo, J K; Huber, J E; Lu, T J

    2006-01-01

    Micro-batteries are one of the key components that restrict the application of autonomous Microsystems. However little efforts were made to solve the problem. We have proposed a new planar zinc/air micro-battery, suitable for autonomous microsystem applications. The micro-battery has a layered structure of zinc electrode/alkaline electrolyte/air cathode. A 3D zinc electrode with a high density of posts was designed to obtain a high porosity, hence to offer a best performance. A model of the micro-battery is developed and the device performances were simulated and discussed. A four-mask process was developed to fabricate the prototype micro-batteries. The preliminary testing results showed the micro-batteries is able to deliver a maximum power up to 5 mW, and with an average power of 100 μW at a steady period for up to 2hrs. Fabrication process is still under optimization for further improvement

  18. On-line estimation of the dissolved zinc concentration during ZnS precipitation in a CSTR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, T.I.M.; Keesman, K.J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In this paper a method is presented to estimate the reaction term of zinc sulphide precipitation and the zinc concentration in a CSTR, using the read-out signal of a sulphide selective electrode. The reaction between zinc and sulphide is described by a non-linear model and therefore

  19. Tapioca binder for porous zinc anodes electrode in zinc–air batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Najmi Masri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tapioca was used as a binder for porous Zn anodes in an electrochemical zinc-air (Zn-air battery system. The tapioca binder concentrations varied to find the optimum composition. The effect of the discharge rate at 100 mA on the constant current, current–potential and current density–power density of the Zn-air battery was measured and analyzed. At concentrations of 60–80 mg cm−3, the tapioca binder exhibited the optimum discharge capability, with a specific capacity of approximately 500 mA h g−1 and a power density of 17 mW cm−2. A morphological analysis proved that at this concentration, the binder is able to provide excellent binding between the Zn powders. Moreover, the structure of Zn as the active material was not affected by the addition of tapioca as the binder, as shown by the X-ray diffraction analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of Zn into ZnO represents the full utilization of the active material, which is a good indication that tapioca can be used as the binder.

  20. Particle size analysis on density, surface morphology and specific capacitance of carbon electrode from rubber wood sawdust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, E.; Kurniasih, B.; Sari, F. P.; Zulkifli, Taslim, R.; Sugianto, Purnama, A.; Apriwandi, Susanti, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The particle size analysis for supercapacitor carbon electrodes from rubber wood sawdust (SGKK) has been done successfully. The electrode particle size was reviewed against the properties such as density, degree of crystallinity, surface morphology and specific capacitance. The variations in particle size were made by different treatment on the grinding and sieving process. The sample particle size was distinguished as 53-100 µm for 20 h (SA), 38-53 µm for 20 h (SB) and < 38 µm with variations of grinding time for 40 h (SC) and 80 h (SD) respectively. All of the samples were activated by 0.4 M KOH solution. Carbon electrodes were carbonized at temperature of 600oC in N2 gas environment and then followed by CO2 gas activation at a temperature of 900oC for 2 h. The densities for each variation in the particle size were 1.034 g cm-3, 0.849 g cm-3, 0.892 g cm-3 and 0.982 g cm-3 respectively. The morphological study identified the distance between the particles more closely at 38-53 µm (SB) particle size. The electrochemical properties of supercapacitor cells have been investigated using electrochemical methods such as impedance spectroscopy and charge-discharge at constant current using Solatron 1280 tools. Electrochemical properties testing results have shown SB samples with a particle size of 38-53 µm produce supercapacitor cells with optimum capacitive performance.

  1. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furko, M.; Jiang, Y.; Wilkins, T.A.; Balázsi, C.

    2016-01-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70 °C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO_3)_2 and NH_4H_2PO_4 components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag"+ and Zn"2"+ ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn"2"+ is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. - Highlights: • Ag and Zn doped calcium phosphate (CaP) layers were electrochemically deposited. • Layer degradation was studied by EIS and potentiodynamic measurements. • The bioceramic coatings became passive after a period of immersion time. • Ag and Zn modified layer shows higher degradation rate compared to pure CaP coating.

  2. Electron transfer number control of the oxygen reduction reaction on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides for the air electrodes of zinc-air batteries and organic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sheng-Hui; Li, Po-Chieh; Hu, Chi-Chang, E-mail: cchu@che.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-11-01

    The mean electron transfer number (n) of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is controlled by nitrogen doping for the air electrodes of Zn-air batteries and electrochemical organic degradation. Melamine and pyrrole are employed as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-doped rGO (N-rGO) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MAHS). The n value of the ORR is determined by the rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) voltammetry and is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. The N-doped structures are examined by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis. The morphology and the defect degree of N-rGOs are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. N-rGOs with high and low n values are employed as the air electrode catalysts of zinc-air batteries and in-situ hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) generation, respectively. The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery is obtained at 2 mA cm{sup −2} meanwhile the current efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation in 1-h electrolysis at 0 V (vs. RHE) reaches 43%. The electrocatalytic degradation of orange G (OG), analyzed by UV-VIS absorption spectra, reveals a high decoloration degree from the relative absorbance of 0.38 for the azo π-conjugation structure of OG. - Highlights: • The mean electron transfer number (n) is controlled by nitrogen doping. • Melamine and pyrrole are used as the nitrogen sources for fabricating N-rGO. • The n value is successfully controlled from 2.34 to 3.93 by preparation variables. • The highest discharge cell voltage of 1.235 V for a Zn-air battery. • The current efficiency of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generation 1-h electrolysis reaches 43%.

  3. Nano ZnO-activated carbon composite electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvakumar, M. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Krishna Bhat, D., E-mail: denthajekb@gmail.co [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar 575 025 (India); Manish Aggarwal, A.; Prahladh Iyer, S.; Sravani, G. [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar 575 025 (India)

    2010-05-01

    A symmetrical (p/p) supercapacitor has been fabricated by making use of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO)-activated carbon (AC) composite electrodes for the first time. The composites have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite electrodes and the supercapacitor have been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance spectroscopy in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as electrolyte. The ZnO-AC nanocomposite electrode showed a specific capacitance of 160 F/g for 1:1 composition. The specific capacitance of the electrodes decreased with increase in zinc oxide content. Galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements have been done at various current densities, namely 2, 4, 6 and 7 mA/cm{sup 2}. It has been found that the cells have excellent electrochemical reversibility and capacitive characteristics in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. It has also been observed that the specific capacitance is constant up to 500 cycles at all current densities.

  4. Nano ZnO-activated carbon composite electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, M.; Krishna Bhat, D.; Manish Aggarwal, A.; Prahladh Iyer, S.; Sravani, G.

    2010-05-01

    A symmetrical (p/p) supercapacitor has been fabricated by making use of nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO)-activated carbon (AC) composite electrodes for the first time. The composites have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Electrochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposite electrodes and the supercapacitor have been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and AC impedance spectroscopy in 0.1 M Na 2SO 4 as electrolyte. The ZnO-AC nanocomposite electrode showed a specific capacitance of 160 F/g for 1:1 composition. The specific capacitance of the electrodes decreased with increase in zinc oxide content. Galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements have been done at various current densities, namely 2, 4, 6 and 7 mA/cm 2. It has been found that the cells have excellent electrochemical reversibility and capacitive characteristics in 0.1 M Na 2SO 4 electrolyte. It has also been observed that the specific capacitance is constant up to 500 cycles at all current densities.

  5. Silver-zinc electrodeposition from a thiourea solution with added EDTA or HEDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, G.M. de; Carlos, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the study of silver-zinc electrodeposition from a thiourea solution with added (ethylenedinitrilo)tetraacetic acid (EDTA), disodium salt and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA), trisodium salt. Voltammetric results indicated that silver-zinc alloy can be obtained applying overpotential higher than 0.495 V, in Tu solution containing 1.0 x 10 -1 mol L -1 Zn(NO 3 ) 2 + 2.5 x 10 -2 mol L -1 AgNO 3 . This was due to silver(I) ion complexation with thiourea, which shifted the silver deposition potential to more negative value and due to silver-zinc alloy deposition, which occurred at potentials more positive than the potential to zinc deposition alone. EDTA or HEDTA did not significantly affect the silver and zinc deposition potentials, but decreased the current density for silver-zinc deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of the silver-zinc deposits showed that the morphology and composition changed as a function of the conditions of deposition, viz, deposition potential (E d ), deposition charge density (q d ) and solution composition (silver, EDTA and HEDTA concentrations). EDS analysis of the deposits showed sulphur (S) incorporated into the silver-zinc deposit, while SEM images showed that this sulphur content seemed to improve the silver-zinc morphology, as did the presence of EDTA and HEDTA in the solution, which enhanced the sulphur incorporation into the silver-zinc deposit. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the silver-zinc deposit showed that it was amorphous, irrespective of its composition and morphology

  6. Zinc oxide based dye sensitized solar cell using eosin – Y as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A zinc oxide based Dye sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) has been fabricated, using Eosin-Y as the dye adsorbed on a nanocrystalline zinc oxide - fluorine doped tin oxide electrode, for the sensitization of the large band gap semiconductor. The absorption spectrum of Eosin-Y showed high absorption of visible light between ...

  7. Synthesis from zinc oxalate, growth mechanism and optical properties of ZnO nano/micro structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, C. Justin; Varma, K.B.R. [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Joshi, R.K. [Special Center for Nano Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2011-11-15

    We report the synthesis of various morphological micro to nano structured zinc oxide crystals via simple precipitation technique. The growth mechanisms of the zinc oxide nanostructures such as snowflake, rose, platelets, porous pyramid and rectangular shapes were studied in detail under various growth conditions. The precursor powders were prepared using several zinc counter ions such as chloride, nitrate and sulphate along with oxalic acid as a precipitating agent. The precursors were decomposed by heating in air resulting in the formation of different shapes of zinc oxide crystals. Variations in ZnO nanostructural shapes were possibly due to the counter ion effect. Sulphate counter ion led to unusual rose-shape morphology. Strong ultrasonic treatment on ZnO rose shows that it was formed by irregular arrangement of micro to nano size hexagonal zinc oxide platelets. The X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the wurzite structure of all zinc oxide samples synthesized using different zinc counter ions. Functional groups of the zinc oxalate precursor and zinc oxide were identified using micro Raman studies. The blue light emission spectra of the various morphologies were recorded using luminescence spectrometer. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Hybrid zinc oxide/graphene electrodes for depleted heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Aashuri, Hossein; Simchi, Abdolreza; Fan, Zhiyong

    2015-10-07

    Recently, hybrid nanocomposites consisting of graphene/nanomaterial heterostructures have emerged as promising candidates for the fabrication of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we have employed a facile and in situ solution-based process to prepare zinc oxide/graphene quantum dots (ZnO/G QDs) in a hybrid structure. The prepared hybrid dots are composed of a ZnO core, with an average size of 5 nm, warped with graphene nanosheets. Spectroscopic studies show that the graphene shell quenches the photoluminescence intensity of the ZnO nanocrystals by about 72%, primarily due to charge transfer reactions and static quenching. A red shift in the absorption peak is also observed. Raman spectroscopy determines G-band splitting of the graphene shell into two separated sub-bands (G(+), G(-)) caused by the strain induced symmetry breaking. It is shown that the hybrid ZnO/G QDs can be used as a counter-electrode for heterojunction colloidal quantum-dot solar cells for efficient charge-carrier collection, as evidenced by the external quantum efficiency measurement. Under the solar simulated spectrum (AM 1.5G), we report enhanced power conversion efficiency (35%) with higher short current circuit (80%) for lead sulfide-based solar cells as compared to devices prepared by pristine ZnO nanocrystals.

  9. Dendritic Zinc Growth in Acid Electrolyte: Effect of the pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoa, Leandro N.; Pary, Paola; Seré, Pablo R.; Conconi, M. Susana; Egli, Walter A.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, dendritic growth at the edges of electrogalvanized steel strip has been studied using a specially designed rotating washer electrode which simulates the fluid dynamic conditions and the current density distribution at the steel strip edge found in a production line. The effect of electrolyte pH and current density on dendritic growth in an acidic zinc plating bath (ZnSO4 and H2SO4) was addressed. The temperature was kept constant at 60 °C. Solution pH was adjusted to 1, 2 or 3 using different amounts of H2SO4. In addition, the influence of temperature on the pH of the solution was determined. The current density was set at 40 or 60 A/dm2, similar to that used in the industry. Deposits were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that pH strongly affects dendrites shape, length and texture. Furthermore, the morphology of dendrites at the washer edge and of deposits on the flat portion of the washer changed considerably as solution pH was increased from 1 to 3. It was found that the morphology of dendrites at the washer edge stems from the morphology of the deposit on its flat portion, which in turn determines their shape.

  10. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  11. The Effects of Micro Elements of Iron and Zinc on Morphological Characteristics of Mycorrhized Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Khaghani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of micro-nutrients in human diet may cause health problems. To increase the amount of these elements in the edible parts of the plants would eliminate the incidence of these health problems. Thus, the effects of iron and zinc on seed yield and morphological characteristics of mycorrhized barley (cv. Bahman root was studied in Karaj, Iran, during growing season of 2013-14. It was carried out in afactorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments consisted two levels of mycorrhiza, non-inoculation (M0 and inoculation with 10 kg/ha of Glomus intraradices (M1, and three levels of iron from Fe-EDDHA (Sequestrene138 as control (F0, 2.5 kg/ha (F1 and 5kg/ha (F2 and three levels of zinc as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 as control (Z0, 25 kg/ha (Z1 and 50 kg/ha (Z2. The results showed that application of mycorrhiza increased parameters like total root length (TRL, root length density (RLD, specific root length (SLR, root colonization percentage and grain yield by 900.6 cm, 0.52 cm/cm3, 1738.1 cm/g, 5.41% and 1ton/ha respectively. Mean comparisons also revealed that using iron, mycorrhiza and without Zn application increased levels of root dry weight (RDW by 2.81 g.

  12. Electrochemical and morphological investigation of silver and zinc modified calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings on metallic implant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furko, M., E-mail: monika.furko@bayzoltan.hu [Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research, H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári u. 130 (Hungary); Jiang, Y.; Wilkins, T.A. [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Balázsi, C. [Bay Zoltán Nonprofit Ltd. for Applied Research, H-1116 Budapest, Fehérvári u. 130 (Hungary)

    2016-05-01

    In our research nanostructured silver and zinc doped calcium-phosphate (CaP) bioceramic coatings were prepared on commonly used orthopaedic implant materials (Ti6Al4V). The deposition process was carried out by the pulse current technique at 70 °C from electrolyte containing the appropriate amount of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} components. During the electrochemical deposition Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} ions were introduced into the solution. The electrochemical behaviour and corrosion rate of the bioceramic coatings were investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in conventional Ringer's solution in a three electrode open cell. The coating came into contact with the electrolyte and corrosion occurred during immersion. In order to achieve antimicrobial properties, it is important to maintain a continuous release of silver ions into physiological media, while the bioactive CaP layer enhances the biocompatibility properties of the layer by fostering the bone cell growth. The role of Zn{sup 2+} is to shorten wound healing time. Morphology and composition of coatings were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Differential thermal analyses (DTA) were performed to determine the thermal stability of the pure and modified CaP bioceramic coatings while the structure and phases of the layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. - Highlights: • Ag and Zn doped calcium phosphate (CaP) layers were electrochemically deposited. • Layer degradation was studied by EIS and potentiodynamic measurements. • The bioceramic coatings became passive after a period of immersion time. • Ag and Zn modified layer shows higher degradation rate compared to pure CaP coating.

  13. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luptáková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on zinc oxide manufacturing process. The present work deals with the character and morphology of the input material for the production of ZnO by the indirect pyrometallurgical process. Undesirable phases in the feedstock can be identified through profound recognition of the source material and the nature of its microstructure. If these compounds diffuse into the lining during thermal processes, they become the cause of stress in metallurgical ceramics. The emergence of these chemical reactions may subsequently affect the entire metallurgical zinc smelting process. The results obtained by analysis are used to minimize waste - zinc slag and to eliminate the conditions which enable the formation of the undesired product, thereby increasing the productivity of the ZnO production.

  14. Electrodeposition of zinc-doped silane films for corrosion protection of mild steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Liankui; Hu Jiming; Zhang Jianqing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Metallic zinc is doped into organosilane films by one-step electrodeposition. ► The composite films exhibit the improved corrosion resistance of mild steels. ► Zinc-doping provides additional cathodic protection to the mild steels. - Abstract: Organosilane/zinc composite films are prepared by one-step electrodeposition onto cold-rolled steels for corrosion protection. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, bulk solution immersion and wet heat tests all show that the composite films have improved corrosion performance. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement suggests the successful encapsulation of metallic zinc. The embedding of metallic zinc results in negative shift in open-circuit potential of the film-covered electrodes. Such cathodic protection effect given by the metallic zinc provides the improved corrosion resistance of the composite films.

  15. Avoiding short circuits from zinc metal dendrites in anode by backside-plating configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Shougo; Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Takechi, Kensuke; Cui, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Portable power sources and grid-scale storage both require batteries combining high energy density and low cost. Zinc metal battery systems are attractive due to the low cost of zinc and its high charge-storage capacity. However, under repeated plating and stripping, zinc metal anodes undergo a well-known problem, zinc dendrite formation, causing internal shorting. Here we show a backside-plating configuration that enables long-term cycling of zinc metal batteries without shorting. We demonstrate 800 stable cycles of nickel–zinc batteries with good power rate (20 mA cm−2, 20 C rate for our anodes). Such a backside-plating method can be applied to not only zinc metal systems but also other metal-based electrodes suffering from internal short circuits. PMID:27263471

  16. Improved electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. C.; Zhao, T. S.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.; Zhang, R. H.

    2018-04-01

    Conventional zinc bromide electrolytes offer low ionic conductivity and often trigger severe zinc dendrite growth in zinc-bromine flow batteries. Here we report an improved electrolyte modified with methanesulfonic acid, which not only improves the electrolyte conductivity but also ameliorates zinc dendrite. Experimental results also reveal that the kinetics and reversibility of Zn2+/Zn and Br2/Br- are improved in this modified electrolyte. Moreover, the battery's internal resistance is significantly reduced from 4.9 to 2.0 Ω cm2 after adding 1 M methanesulfonic acid, thus leading to an improved energy efficiency from 64% to 75% at a current density of 40 mA cm-2. More impressively, the battery is capable of delivering an energy efficiency of about 78% at a current density of as high as 80 mA cm-2 when the electrode is replaced by a thermally treated one. Additionally, zinc dendrite growth is found to be effectively suppressed in methanesulfonic acid supported media, which, as a result, enables the battery to be operated for 50 cycles without degradation, whereas the one without methanesulfonic acid suffers from significant decay after only 40 cycles, primarily due to severe zinc dendrite growth. These superior results indicate methanesulfonic acid is a promising supporting electrolyte for zinc-bromine flow batteries.

  17. Changes in root morphology and dry matter production in Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen accessions in response to excessive zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BERNARDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn participates of numerous metabolic processes in plants. However, it can become toxic to plants in excessive concentrations in the soil. Pfaffia glomerata is a Brazilian medicinal species that has stood out because of its numerous chemical and functional properties, mainly by the triterpene saponins and ecdysteroids accumulated in its roots. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc excess on many root morphological parameters of Pfaffia glomerata. A 4 x 3 factorial design was employed in a completely randomized scheme with 3 replicates. The treatments consisted of four concentrations of Zn (2, 100, 200, and 300 µM and three accessions of P. glomerata (BRA, GD, and JB grown in a hydroponic system for 7 and 14 days. Differences in root morphology and dry mass production were observed among the three accessions in response to excessive Zn. Some growth parameters of GD accession increased with the addition of Zn, ranging from 36 to 79 µM. However, the GD and JB accessions presented reduction in dry mass production, root area, length, and volume with increasing Zn levels. The BRA accession, which had the lowest growth among accessions, presented chlorotic leaves. The shoot/root dry mass ratio and root diameter increased linearly for BRA and GD accessions at 7 days. Based on the evaluated parameters, we observed the following order of Zn excess tolerance in P. glomerata accessions: GD> JB> BRA.

  18. On-line estimation of the dissolved zinc concentration during ZnS precipitation in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, T.I.M.; Keesman, K.J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented to estimate the reaction term of zinc sulphide precipitation and the zinc concentration in a CSTR, using the read-out signal of a sulphide selective electrode. The reaction between zinc and sulphide is described by a non-linear model and therefore classical

  19. Transparent indium zinc oxide thin films used in photovoltaic cells based on polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besleaga, Cristina; Ion, L.; Ghenescu, Veta; Socol, G.; Radu, A.; Arghir, Iulia; Florica, Camelia; Antohe, S.

    2012-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were obtained using pulsed laser deposition. The samples were prepared by ablation of targets with In concentrations, In/(In + Zn), of 80 at.%, at low substrate temperatures under reactive atmosphere. IZO films were used as transparent electrodes in polymer-based – poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 1:1 blend – photovoltaic cells. The action spectra measurements revealed that IZO-based photovoltaic structures have performances comparable with those using indium–tin–oxide as transparent electrode. - Highlights: ► Indium zinc oxide films were grown by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. ► The films had large free carrier density and reasonably high mobility. ► These films fit for transparent electrodes in polymer-based photovoltaic cells.

  20. Effect of dietary organic zinc sources on growth performance, incidence of diarrhoea, serum and tissue zinc concentrations, and intestinal morphology in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Y. Yan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary organic zinc (Zn sources on growth performance, the incidence of diarrhoea, serum and tissue Zn concentration, and intestinal morphology in growing rabbits. A total of 120 New Zealand White rabbits aged 35 d and with an initial body weight of 755±15 g, were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups for a 49 d feeding trial. Dietary treatments were designed with different Zn supplements as follows: (1 Control group: 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnSO4; (2 ZnLA group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn lactate; (3 ZnMet group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn methionine; (4 ZnGly group: 80 mg/kg Zn as Zn glycine. The results showed that, when compared with rabbits fed ZnSO4, supplementation with ZnLA improved (P4. Supplementing with ZnLA increased duodenum villi height (681.63 vs. 587.14 μm, P4, except that feeding ZnMet led to higher (P4. The results indicated that supplementation with 80 mg/kg Zn as ZnLA could improve growth performance, increase liver Zn concentration and enhance duodenum morphology, while reducing the incidence of diarrhoea in growing rabbits.

  1. Zinc-oxide-based nanostructured materials for heterostructure solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkov, A. A.; Maximov, A. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Somov, P. A.; Terukov, E. I.

    2015-01-01

    Results obtained in the deposition of nanostructured zinc-oxide layers by hydrothermal synthesis as the basic method are presented. The possibility of controlling the structure and morphology of the layers is demonstrated. The important role of the procedure employed to form the nucleating layer is noted. The faceted hexagonal nanoprisms obtained are promising for the fabrication of solar cells based on oxide heterostructures, and aluminum-doped zinc-oxide layers with petal morphology, for the deposition of an antireflection layer. The results are compatible and promising for application in flexible electronics

  2. Growth of zinc cobaltate nanoparticles and nanorods on reduced graphene oxide porous networks toward high-performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yaling; Zhao, Changhui; Fu, Wenbin; Zhang, Zemin; Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhou, Jinyuan; Pan, Xiaojun, E-mail: xjpan@lzu.edu.cn; Xie, Erqing

    2016-05-25

    A type of composite network constructed from zinc cobaltate (ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles and nanorods on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets has been prepared by a facile hydrothermal method. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that the rGO nanosheets are covered by ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles evenly due to the abundant surface functional groups on surface of original GO, and supported by some cross-linked ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods in the entire structures. With a rational combination, the composite networks present a meso-/macroporous architecture with a larger specific surface area than those of pristine ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods. As expected, the prepared ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO electrode exhibits improved electrochemical performances, which shows a high specific capacitance (626 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}), excellent rate capability (81% retention of the initial capacitance at 30 A g{sup −1}), and long-term cycling stability (99.7% retention after 3000 cycles at 10 A g{sup −1}). Such remarkable electrochemical performances of ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO electrode can be due to the effective pathways for both electronic and ionic transport in these porous networks. - Highlights: • Porous ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}/rGO composite networks can be prepared by a hydrothermal method. • These networks are mainly constructed from ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanorods and rGO nanosheets. • The rGO nanosheets are uniformly covered by ZnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • The composite networks can promote capacitive performances as electrode materials.

  3. Antibacterial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Escherichia coli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the antibacterial mechanisms, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to observe morphological changes of E. coli K88 treated with 0.8 μg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles. The results reveal that zinc oxide nanoparticles could damage cell membranes, lead to leakage of ...

  4. Facile preparation of Ag-Cu bifunctional electrocatalysts for zinc-air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yachao; Chen, Fuyi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag-Cu dendrites are observed for the first time to exhibit high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. • Ag-Cu dendrites are directly synthesized through galvanic displacement on the current collector layer made of Ni foams. • A bifunctional air cathode is fabricated using Ag-Cu dendrites as a carbon-free, binder-free catalyst layer. • Both the primary and rechargeable zinc–air batteries fabricated by Ag-Cu catalysts exhibit excellent performance. - ABSTRACT: An inexpensive, facile galvanic displacement reaction for the direct growth of silver–copper (Ag-Cu) catalysts on nickel foams is developed for the first time. The resulting Ag-Cu catalysts exhibit dendritic morphologies. Ag and Cu atoms are in their metallic state while the presence of CuO and Cu 2 O are limited on the surface of catalyst. The catalysts demonstrate high catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution, as evaluated by both linear scanning voltammetry and rotating disk electrode polarization measurements. The ORR catalysed by Ag-Cu catalyst in alkaline solution proceeds through a four-electron pathway. An air cathode is fabricated using Ag-Cu catalyst as a carbon-free, binder-free catalyst layer. Using this Ag-Cu catalyst based air cathode, both the primary and rechargeable zinc-air batteries show excellent battery performance. The specific capacity of the primary zinc-air battery is 572 mAh g −1 . Especially, the rechargeable zinc-air battery shows high round-trip efficiency, appealing stability at a long charge-discharge cycle period

  5. Effect of platinum-nanodendrite modification on the glucose-sensing properties of a zinc-oxide-nanorod electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul Razak, Khairunisak, E-mail: khairunisak@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); NanoBiotechnology Research & Innovation (NanoBRI), INFORMM, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Neoh, Soo Huan; Ridhuan, N.S.; Mohamad Nor, Noorhashimah [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-09-01

    Highlights: • Effect of PtNDs on ZnONRs/ITO glucose sensor was studied. • Well-defined PtNDs synthesis using 20 mM K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} produced good dispersion between nanodendrites with uniform particle size. • Nafion coating significantly improved the catalytic oxidation of glucose sensor. • Nafion/GO{sub x}/PtNDs/ZnONRs/ITO demonstrated better properties compared with Nafion/GO{sub x}/PtNDs/ITO and Nafion/GO{sub x}/ZnONRs/ITO electrodes. - Abstract: The properties of ZnO nanorods (ZnONRs) decorated with platinum nanodendrites (PtNDs) were studied. Various sizes of PtNDs were synthesized and spin coated onto ZnONRs, which were grown on indium–titanium–oxide (ITO) substrates through a low-temperature hydrothermal method. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were conducted to analyze the morphology and structural properties of the electrodes. The effects of PtND size, glucose concentration, and Nafion amount on glucose-sensing properties were investigated. The glucose-sensing properties of electrodes with immobilized glucose oxidase (GO{sub x}) were measured using cyclic voltammetry. The bio-electrochemical properties of Nafion/GO{sub x}/42 nm PtNDs/ZnONRs/ITO glucose sensor was observed with linear range within 1–18 mM, with a sensitivity value of 5.85 μA/mM and a limit of detection of 1.56 mM. The results of this study indicate that PtNDs/ZnONRs/ITO has potential in glucose sensor applications.

  6. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using rice as soft biotemplate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramimoghadam, Donya; Bin Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2013-01-01

    Rice as a renewable, abundant bio-resource with unique characteristics can be used as a bio-template to synthesize various functional nanomaterials. Therefore, the effect of uncooked rice flour as bio-template on physico-chemical properties, especially the morphology of zinc oxide nanostructures was investigated in this study. The ZnO particles were synthesized through hydrothermal-biotemplate method using zinc acetate-sodium hydroxide and uncooked rice flour at various ratios as precursors at 120°C for 18 hours. The results indicate that rice as a bio-template can be used to modify the shape and size of zinc oxide particles. Different morphologies, namely flake-, flower-, rose-, star- and rod-like structures were obtained with particle size at micro- and nanometer range. Pore size and texture of the resulting zinc oxide particles were found to be template-dependent and the resulting specific surface area enhanced compared to the zinc oxide synthesized without rice under the same conditions. However, optical property particularly the band gap energy is generally quite similar. Pure zinc oxide crystals were successfully synthesized using rice flour as biotemplate at various ratios of zinc salt to rice. The size- and shape-controlled capability of rice to assemble the ZnO particles can be employed for further useful practical applications.

  7. Zinc oxide hollow micro spheres and nano rods: Synthesis and applications in gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Saba; Janjua, Muhammad Ramzan Saeed Ashraf; Ahmad, Tauqeer; Mehmood, Tahir; Li, Songnan; Jing, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nano rods and micro hollow spheres are successfully fabricated by adopting a simple solvo-thermal approach without employing any surfactant/template by keeping heating time as variable. The prepared products are characterized by using different instruments such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In order to investigate the morphological dependence on the reaction time, analogous experiments with various reaction times are carried out. Depending upon heating time, different morphological forms have been identified such as hollow microsphere (4 μm to 5 μm) and nano rods with an average diameter of approximately 100 nm. The fabricated materials are also tested for ethanol gas sensor applications and zinc oxide hollow microsphere proven to be an efficient gas sensing materials. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement was performed to understand better performance of zinc oxide micro hollow spheres as effective ethanol gas sensing material. - Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract is represented by zinc oxide sphere (prepared by simple solvothermal approach), its XRD pattern(characterization) and finally its application in gas sensing. - Highlights: • Zinc oxide spheres were prepared by using solvothermal method. • Detailed description of the morphology of microspheres assembled by nano rods. • Formation mechanism of zinc oxide spheres assembled by nano rods. • Zinc oxide spheres and nano rods displayed very good gas sensing ability

  8. Improved zinc oxide film for gas sensor applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a versatile material for different commercial applications such as transparent electrodes, piezoelectric devices, varistors, SAW devices etc because of its high piezoelectric coupling, greater stability of its hexagonal phase and its pyroelectric property. In fact, ZnO is a potential material for gas sensor ...

  9. Ambient redox synthesis of vanadium-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles and their enhanced zinc storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaruqi, Muhammad Hilmy; Islam, Saiful; Mathew, Vinod; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Tung, Duong Pham; Jo, Jeonggeun; Kim, Seokhun; Baboo, Joseph Paul; Xiu, Zhiliang; Kim, Jaekook, E-mail: jaekook@chonnam.ac.kr

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • The V-doped MnO{sub 2} was prepared by a simple ambient redox reaction. • The V-doped MnO{sub 2} was tested as a cathode in aqueous zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs). • The doped cathode showed better zinc-storage properties than the bare cathode. • The present study facilitates the development of safe and reliable aqueous ZIBs. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate the first use of a V-doped MnO{sub 2} nanoparticle electrode for zinc-ion battery (ZIB) applications. The V-doped MnO{sub 2} was prepared via a simple redox reaction and the X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of pure MnO{sub 2}, accompanied by an anisotropic expansion of MnO{sub 2} lattice, suggesting the incorporation of V-ions into the MnO{sub 2} framework. V doping of MnO{sub 2} not only increased the specific surface area but also improved the electronic conductivity. When Zn-storage properties were tested, the V-doped MnO{sub 2} electrode registered a higher discharge capacity of 266 mAh g{sup −1} compared to 213 mAh g{sup −1} for the pure MnO{sub 2} electrode. On prolonged cycling, the doped electrode retained 31% higher capacity than that of the bare MnO{sub 2} electrode and thereby demonstrated superior cycling performance. This study may pave the way towards understanding the enhancement of the energy storage properties via doping in electrodes of aqueous ZIB applications and also furthers the efforts for the practical realization of a potential eco-friendly battery system.

  10. Solution processed zinc oxide nanopyramid/silver nanowire transparent network films with highly tunable light scattering properties

    KAUST Repository

    Mehra, Saahil

    2013-01-01

    Metal nanowire transparent networks are promising replacements to indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrodes for optoelectronic devices. While the transparency and sheet resistance are key metrics for transparent electrode performance, independent control of the film light scattering properties is important to developing multifunctional electrodes for improved photovoltaic absorption. Here we show that controlled incorporation of ZnO nanopyramids into a metal nanowire network film affords independent, highly tunable control of the scattering properties (haze) with minimal effects on the transparency and sheet resistance. Varying the zinc oxide/silver nanostructure ratios prior to spray deposition results in sheet resistances, transmission (600 nm), and haze (600 nm) of 6-30 Ω □-1, 68-86%, and 34-66%, respectively. Incorporation of zinc oxide nanopyramid scattering agents into the conducting nanowire mesh has a negligible effect on mesh connectivity, providing a straightforward method of controlling electrode scattering properties. The decoupling of the film scattering power and electrical characteristics makes these films promising candidates for highly scattering transparent electrodes in optoelectronic devices and can be generalized to other metal nanowire films as well as carbon nanotube transparent electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  11. Layered zinc hydroxide–ibuprofen nanohybrids: synthesis and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), ibuprofen (IBU) anion, was intercalated into the layered zinc ... surface morphology, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer to study the chemical interactions and ..... J. Food Sci.

  12. Surface-Activated Amorphous Alloy Fuel Electrodes for Methanol Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Asahi, Kawashima; Koji, Hashimoto; The Research Institute for Iron, Steel and Other Metals; The Research Institute for Iron, Steel and Other Metals

    1983-01-01

    Amorphous alloy electrodes for electrochemical oxidation of methanol and its derivatives were obtained by the surface activation treatment consisting of electrodeposition of zinc on as-quenched amorphous alloy substrates, heating at 200-300℃ for 30 min, and subsequently leaching of zinc in an alkaline solution. The surface activation treatment provided a new method for the preparation of a large surface area on the amorphous alloys. The best result for oxidation of methanol, sodium formate an...

  13. Understanding the effect of morphology on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanotube array electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adán, C.; Marugán, J.; Sánchez, E.; Pablos, C.; Grieken, R. van

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive report on the correlation between the morphology and the photocatalytic (PC) and photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) activity of TiO 2 nanotubes (NTs) electrodes is presented. New insights are provided to support the effect of the anodization conditions on the photon-to-current efficiency of the electrodes based on the dimensional characteristics of the TiO 2 -NTs. Electrodes with promising properties based on the characterization data were scaled-up to test their activity on the PC and PEC oxidation of methanol. Results indicate that the length of the nanotubes significantly influences the photodegradation efficiency. The enhancement achieved in both PC and PEC processes with longer nanotubes can be explained by the higher surface area in contact with the electrolyte and the increase in the light absorption as the TiO 2 layer becomes thicker. However, as the length of the nanotubes increases, a reduction in the enhancement achieved by the application of a potential bias is observed. Kinetic constants of both reactions (PC and PEC) tend to get closer and the charge separation effect diminishes. In relative terms, the effect of the electric potential is more pronounced for electrodes with the shorter NTs. The reason is that once the TiO 2 layer is thick enough to absorb the available radiation, a further increase in the NTs length increases the resistance of the electrons to reach the back contact and the diffusional restrictions to the mass transport of the reactants/products along the tubes. Consequently, the existence of a compromise between reactivity and transport properties lead to the existence of an optimal NTs length.

  14. ELECTROCHEMICAL OXIDATION OF ETHANOL USING Ni-Co-PVC COMPOSITE ELECTRODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto Riyanto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics and electrochemical behavior of nickel metal foil (Ni, nickel-polyvinyl chloride (Ni-PVC and nickel-cobalt-polyvinyl chloride (Ni-Co-PVC electrodes in alkaline solution has been investigated. The morphological characteristics of the electrode surface were studied using SEM and EDS, while the electrochemical behavior of the electrodes was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV. It was found that composite electrodes (Ni-PVC and Ni-Co-PVC have a porous, irregular and rough surface. In situ studies using electrochemical technique using those three electrodes exhibited electrochemical activity for redox system, as well as selectivity in the electrooxidation of ethanol to acetic acid. The studies also found that an electrokinetics and electrocatalytic activity behaviors of the electrodes prepared were Ni metal foil

  15. Electrodeposition behavior of nickel and nickel-zinc alloys from the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride low temperature molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Shiping; Sun, I.-W.

    2008-01-01

    The electrodeposition of nickel and nickel-zinc alloys was investigated at polycrystalline tungsten electrode in the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt. Although nickel(II) chloride dissolved easily into the pure chloride-rich 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic melt, metallic nickel could not be obtained by electrochemical reduction of this solution. The addition of zinc chloride to this solution shifted the reduction of nickel(II) to more positive potential making the electrodeposition of nickel possible. The electrodeposition of nickel, however, requires an overpotential driven nucleation process. Dense and compact nickel deposits with good adherence could be prepared by controlling the deposition potential. X-ray powder diffraction measurements indicated the presence of crystalline nickel deposits. Non-anomalous electrodeposition of nickel-zinc alloys was achieved through the underpotential deposition of zinc on the deposited nickel at a potential more negative than that of the deposition of nickel. X-ray powder diffraction and energy-dispersive spectrometry measurements of the electrodeposits indicated that the composition and the phase types of the nickel-zinc alloys are dependent on the deposition potential. For the Ni-Zn alloy deposits prepared by underpotential deposition of Zn on Ni, the Zn content in the Ni-Zn was always less than 50 atom%

  16. Self-assembled bilayers based on organothiol and organotrimethoxysilane on zinc platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Francois; Delhalle, Joseph; Mekhalif, Zineb

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the formation of a bilayer system developed on electrodeposited zinc. In a first step, a monolayer of 11-mercapto-1-undecanol is grafted on zinc, optimization of the conditions of elaboration have been performed. In a second step, organotrimethoxysilane have been grafted on the zinc modified with the hydroxyl terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to finalize the bilayer system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), polarization modulation-infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) and contact angle measurements are used to characterize each step of modification. An electrochemical evaluation of the different created systems is carried out by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). The impact of the modification of zinc using SAM and self-assembled bilayer (SAB) on the electrochemical activity of the surface is highlighted.

  17. An Aqueous Metal-ion Capacitor with Oxidised Carbon Nanotubes and Metallic Zinc Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuheng Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous metal ion capacitor comprising of a zinc anode, an oxidized carbon nanotubes (oCNTs cathode and a zinc sulfate electrolyte is reported. Since the shuttling cation is Zn2+, this typical metal ion capacitor is named as zinc-ion capacitor (ZIC. The ZIC integrates the divalent zinc stripping/plating chemistry with the surface-enabled pseudocapacitive cation adsorption/desorption on oCNTs. The surface chemistry and crystallographic structure of oCNTs were extensively characterized by combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The function of the surface oxygen groups in surface cation storage was elucidated by a series of electrochemical measurement and the surface-enabled ZIC showed better performance than the ZIC with an un-oxidized CNT cathode. The reaction mechanism at the oCNT cathode involves the additional reversible Faradaic process, while the CNTs merely show electric double layer capacitive behavior involving a non-Faradaic process. The aqueous hybrid ZIC comprising the oCNT cathode exhibited a specific capacitance of 20 mF cm-2 (corresponding to 53 F g-1 in the range of 0-1.8 V at 10 mV s-1 and a stable cycling performance up to 5000 cycles.

  18. An Aqueous Metal-Ion Capacitor with Oxidized Carbon Nanotubes and Metallic Zinc Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Yuheng; Amal, Rose; Wang, Da-Wei, E-mail: da-wei.wang@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales (UNSW), Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2016-10-03

    An aqueous metal ion capacitor comprising of a zinc anode, oxidized carbon nanotubes (oCNTs) cathode, and a zinc sulfate electrolyte is reported. Since the shuttling cation is Zn{sup 2+}, this typical metal ion capacitor is named as zinc-ion capacitor (ZIC). The ZIC integrates the divalent zinc stripping/plating chemistry with the surface-enabled pseudocapacitive cation adsorption/desorption on oCNTs. The surface chemistry and crystallographic structure of oCNTs were extensively characterized by combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The function of the surface oxygen groups in surface cation storage was elucidated by a series of electrochemical measurement and the surface-enabled ZIC showed better performance than the ZIC with an un-oxidized CNT cathode. The reaction mechanism at the oCNT cathode involves the additional reversible Faradaic process, while the CNTs merely show electric double layer capacitive behavior involving a non-Faradaic process. The aqueous hybrid ZIC comprising the oCNT cathode exhibited a specific capacitance of 20 mF cm{sup −2} (corresponding to 53 F g{sup −1}) in the range of 0–1.8 V at 10 mV s{sup −1} and a stable cycling performance up to 5000 cycles.

  19. Dual functional reduced graphene oxide as photoanode and counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells and its exceptional efficiency enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumeri, F. A.; Lim, H. N.; Zainal, Z.; Huang, N. M.; Pandikumar, A.; Lim, S. P.

    2015-10-01

    The dual functionalities of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as photoanode and counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is explored. A titanium dioxide (TiO2) film is deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) glass using an in-house aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition method. Graphene oxide (GO) is then introduced onto the TiO2-ITO substrate, and the GO layer is successively thermally treated to rGO. The TiO2-rGO film is used as a compact layer for the photoanode of the DSSC. A layer of zinc oxide-silver (ZnO-Ag) is introduced on top of the compact layer as an active material. Its highly porous flower-shaped morphology is advantageous for the adsorption of dye. The in-situ electrochemical polymerization method used for the fabrication of polypyrrole incorporated with rGO and p-toluenesulfonate (pTS) (Ppy-rGO-pTS) on an ITO glass is used as a counter electrode for the DSSC. The DSSC assembled with the Ppy-rGO-1.0pTS counter electrode exhibites an enhanced conversion efficiency of 1.99% under solar illumination, which is better than that using conventional Pt as a counter electrode (0.08%). This is attributed to the increased contact area between the Ppy-rGO-pTS counter electrode and electrolyte, which subsequently improves the conductivity and high electrocatalytic activities of the Ppy-rGO-pTS counter electrode.

  20. Sulfur based electrode materials for secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yong

    Developing next generation secondary batteries has attracted much attention in recent years due to the increasing demand of high energy and high power density energy storage for portable electronics, electric vehicles and renewable sources of energy. This dissertation investigates sulfur based advanced electrode materials in Lithium/Sodium batteries. The electrochemical performances of the electrode materials have been enhanced due to their unique nano structures as well as the formation of novel composites. First, a nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets/sulfur (NGNSs/S) composite was synthesized via a facile chemical reaction deposition. In this composite, NGNSs were employed as a conductive host to entrap S/polysulfides in the cathode part. The NGNSs/S composite delivered an initial discharge capacity of 856.7 mAh g-1 and a reversible capacity of 319.3 mAh g-1 at 0.1C with good recoverable rate capability. Second, NGNS/S nanocomposites, synthesized using chemical reaction-deposition method and low temperature heat treatment, were further studied as active cathode materials for room temperature Na-S batteries. Both high loading composite with 86% gamma-S8 and low loading composite with 25% gamma-S8 have been electrochemically evaluated and compared with both NGNS and S control electrodes. It was found that low loading NGNS/S composite exhibited better electrochemical performance with specific capacity of 110 and 48 mAh g-1 at 0.1C at the 1st and 300th cycle, respectively. The Coulombic efficiency of 100% was obtained at the 300th cycle. Third, high purity rock-salt (RS), zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) MnS nanocrystals with different morphologies were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method. RS-, ZB- and WZ-MnS electrodes showed the capacities of 232.5 mAh g-1, 287.9 mAh g-1 and 79.8 mAh g-1 at the 600th cycle, respectively. ZB-MnS displayed the best performance in terms of specific capacity and cyclability. Interestingly, MnS electrodes

  1. Electrodeposition of compact zinc from the hydrophobic Brønsted acidic ionic liquid-based electrolytes and the study of zinc stability along with the acidity manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Han; Yeh, Hsin-Wen; Lo, Nai-Chang; Chiu, Chen-Wei; Sun, I-Wen; Chen, Po-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Compact Zn with no crack is deposited from protic ionic liquid-based electrolytes. • The ionic liquid is composed of the protonated betaine ion. • This ionic liquid is hydrophobic and zinc oxide is soluble in it. • The effects of co-solvents, propylene carbonate and water, are studied. • The Zn stripping/deposition efficiency can be manipulated via acidity adjustment. - Abstract: Compact crystalline zinc was electrodeposited on stainless-steel electrode (SS) via potentiostatic/galvanostatic electrolysis from the hydrophobic Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, protonated betaine bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)imide (IL [Hbet][TFSI]), −based electrolytes containing ZnCl 2 or ZnO under argon or ambient air atmosphere. Approximate 10 wt% of propylene carbonate and water, respectively, were used as the co-solvents for [Hbet][TFSI] to form the IL-based electrolytes. The efficiency of zinc deposition/stripping, which is significantly affected by the Brønsted acidity of the IL-based electrolytes, was studied at glassy carbon electrode (GC) to evaluate the stability of the zinc electrodeposits along with the electrolyte acidity. The stability is very poor for the zinc electrodeposits obtained from ZnCl 2 solution. However, it increases with increasing the quantity of ZnO or urea in the electrolytes; the former neutralize the dissociable protons in [Hbet] cations to form water, and the latter may form H-bonding with [Hbet] or be protonated to form the weakly acidic cations [HUrea]. Both suppress the reaction between the Zn electrodeposits and protons. The stability of the Zn electrodeposits, therefore, can be improved via the manipulation of the IL acidity.

  2. New insight into the mechanism of cathodic electrodeposition of zinc oxide thin films onto vitreous carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Ait Ahmed , N.; Eyraud , M.; Hammache , H.; Vacandio , F.; Sam , S.; Gabouze , N.; Knauth , P.; Pelzer , K.; Djenizian , T.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this study, the mechanism of zinc oxide (ZnO) electrodeposition from aqueous zinc nitrate solution at 70°C was investigated on vitreous carbon and bulk zinc electrodes using cyclic voltammetry experiments. Mechanisms are presented for the ZnO formation: the first widely accepted route corresponds to ZnO precipitation from Zn 2+ and OH-produced by NO3-reduction; the second route, which is discussed in this article, is due to Zn 2+ reduction into metallic Zn followed ...

  3. Electrochemical sensors for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium and lead using a Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified screen-printed carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiyo, Sudkate; Mehmeti, Eda; Žagar, Kristina; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon; Kalcher, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    A simple, low cost, and highly sensitive electrochemical sensor, based on a Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified screen-printed carbon electrode (N/IL/G/SPCE) was developed to determine zinc (Zn(II)), cadmium (Cd(II)), and lead (Pb(II)) simultaneously. This disposable electrode shows excellent conductivity and fast electron transfer kinetics. By in situ plating with a bismuth film (BiF), the developed electrode exhibited well-defined and separate peaks for Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). Analytical characteristics of the BiF/N/IL/G/SPCE were explored with calibration curves which were found to be linear for Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) concentrations over the range from 0.1 to 100.0 ng L"−"1. With an accumulation period of 120 s detection limits of 0.09 ng mL"−"1, 0.06 ng L"−"1 and 0.08 ng L"−"1 were obtained for Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively using the BiF/N/IL/G/SPCE sensor, calculated as 3σ value of the blank. In addition, the developed electrode displayed a good repeatability and reproducibility. The interference from other common ions associated with Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) detection could be effectively avoided. Finally, the proposed analytical procedure was applied to detect the trace metal ions in drinking water samples with satisfactory results which demonstrates the suitability of the BiF/N/IL/G/SPCE to detect heavy metals in water samples and the results agreed well with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. - Highlights: • Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified electrode was fabricated. • Simultaneous determination of Zn, Cd and Pb in real samples was studied. • Zn, Cd and Pb could be sensitively measured as low as 90, 60 and 80 pg mL"−"1.

  4. Modified electrode voltammetric sensors for trace metals in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Christopher M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Nafion-modified mercury thin film electrodes have been investigated for the analysis of trace metals in environmental samples of waters and effluent by batch injection analysis with square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The method, involving injection over the detector electrode of untreated samples of volume of the order of 50 microlitres has fast response, blocking and fouling of the electrode is minimum as shown by studies with surface-active components. Comparison is made between glassy carbon substrate electrodes and carbon fibre microelectrode array substrates, the latter leading to a small sensitivity enhancement. Application to analysis of river water and industrial effluent for labile zinc, cadmium, lead and copper ions is demonstrated in collected samples and after acid digestion.

  5. Nano zinc phosphate coatings for enhanced corrosion resistance of mild steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamilselvi, M.; Kamaraj, P.; Arthanareeswari, M.; Devikala, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano zinc phosphate coating on mild steel was developed. • Nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel showed enhanced corrosion resistance. • The nano ZnO increases the number of nucleating sites for phosphating. • Faster attainment of steady state during nano zinc phosphating. - Abstract: Nano crystalline zinc phosphate coatings were developed on mild steel surface using nano zinc oxide particles. The chemical composition and morphology of the coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The particles size of the nano zinc phosphate coating developed was also characterized by TEM analysis. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance studies were carried out in 3.5% NaCl solution. Significant variations in the coating weight, morphology and corrosion resistance were observed as nano ZnO concentrations were varied from 0.25 to 2 g/L in the phosphating baths. The results showed that nano ZnO particles in the phosphating solution yielded phosphate coatings of higher coating weight, greater surface coverage and enhanced corrosion resistance than the normal zinc phosphate coatings (developed using normal ZnO particles in the phosphating baths). Better corrosion resistance was observed for coatings derived from phosphating bath containing 1.5 g/L nano ZnO. The activation effect brought about by the nano ZnO reduces the amount of accelerator (NaNO 2 ) required for phosphating

  6. Highly sensitive uric acid biosensor based on individual zinc oxide micro/nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanguang; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Lin, Pei; Fang, Xiaofei; Lei, Yang; Ma, Siwei; Zhang, Yue

    2013-01-01

    We describe the use of individual zinc oxide (ZnO) micro/nanowires in an electrochemical biosensor for uric acid. The wires were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition and possess uniform morphology and high crystallinity as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence studies. The enzyme uricase was then immobilized on the surface of the ZnO micro/nanowires by physical adsorption, and this was proven by Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The resulting uric acid biosensor undergoes fast electron transfer between the active site of the enzyme and the surface of the electrode. It displays high sensitivity (89.74 μA cm −2 mM −1 ) and a wide linear analytical range (between 0.1 mM and 0.59 mM concentrations of uric acid). This study also demonstrates the potential of the use of individual ZnO micro/nanowires for the construction of highly sensitive nano-sized biosensors. (author)

  7. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Joginder, E-mail: joginderchauhan82@gmail.com; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P. [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (MP), India-474011 (India)

    2015-08-28

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential −1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In{sup 3+} and Sb{sup 3+} ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  8. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Nicola; Valitova, Irina; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Ranzieri, Paolo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard; Cicoira, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs.

  9. Fractal morphological analysis of Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) layers deposited onto Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vengadesh, P.; Muniandy, S.V.; Majid, W.H. Abd.

    2009-01-01

    Uniform Bacteriorhodopsin layers for the purpose of fabricating Bacteriorhodopsin-based biosensors were prepared by allowing drying of the layers under a constant electric field. To properly observe and understand the 'electric field effect' on the protein Bacteriorhodopsin, the electric and non-electric field influenced Bacteriorhodopsin layers prepared using a manual syringe-deposition method applied onto Indium Tin Oxide electrodes were structurally investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. The results yield obvious morphological differences between the electric and non-electric field assisted Bacteriorhodopsin layers and brings to attention the occurrence of the so-called 'coffee-ring' effect in the latter case. We applied stochastic fractal method based on the generalized Cauchy process to describe the morphological features surrounding the void. Fractal dimension is used to characterize the local regularity of the Bacteriorhodopsin clusters and the correlation exponent is used to describe the long-range correlation between the clusters. It is found that the Bacteriorhodopsin protein tends to exhibit with strong spatial correlation in the presence of external electric field compared to in absence of the electric field. Long-range correlation in the morphological feature may be associated to the enhancement of aggregation process of Bacteriorhodopsin protein in the presence of electric field, thereby inhibiting the formation of the so-called 'coffee-ring' effect. As such, the observations discussed in this work suggest some amount of control of surface uniformity when forming layers.

  10. Zinc Addition Effects on General Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels in PWR Primary Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Peipeng; Zhang Lefu; Liu Ruiqin; Jiang Suqing; Zhu Fawen

    2010-01-01

    Zinc addition effects on general corrosion of austenitic stainless steel 316 and 304 were investigated in simulated PWR primary coolant without zinc or with 50 ppb zinc addition at 315 degree C for 500 h. The results show that with the addition of zinc, the corrosion rate of austenitic stainless steel is effectively reduced, the surface oxide film is thinner, the morphology and chemical composition of surface oxide scales are evidently different from those without zinc. There are needle-like corrosion products on the surface of stainless steel 304. (authors)

  11. Morphological evolution of the poly(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, oxidation of the silver electrode, and their influences on the performance of inverted polymer solar cells with a sol-gel derived zinc oxide electron selective layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Meng-Yueh; Chang, Chin-Hsiang; Chang, Chih-Hua; Tsai, Kao-Hua; Huang, Jing-Shun; Chou, Chen-Yu; Wang, Ing-Jye; Wang, Po-Sheng; Lee, Chun-Yu; Chao, Cha-Hsin; Yeh, Chin-Liang; Wu, Chih-I; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2010-01-01

    The inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) based on a sol-gel derived zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as an electron selective layer is investigated. The device performance is improved after the fabricated device is placed in air for a few days. The improvement is attributed to the self-organization of the poly(3-hexylthiophene)/[6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester layer and oxidation of the silver electrode with time, resulting in a significant enhancement in the short circuit current, fill factor and open circuit voltage. The investigation shows that the inverted PSC based on ZnO thin film exhibits a high efficiency of 3.8% on the 6th day after fabrication without the use of poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) and encapsulation.

  12. Screen printed silver top electrode for efficient inverted organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Junwoo [Department of Printed Electronics, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Duraisamy, Navaneethan [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Taik-Min [Department of Printed Electronics, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inyoung, E-mail: ikim@kimm.re.kr [Department of Printed Electronics, Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials (KIMM), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung-Hyun, E-mail: amm@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Screen printing of silver pattern. • X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face centered cubic structure of silver. • Uniform surface morphology of silver pattern with sheet resistance of 0.06 Ω/sq. • The power conversion efficiency of fabricated solar cell is found to be 2.58%. - Abstract: The present work is mainly focused on replacement of the vacuum process for top electrode fabrication in organic solar cells. Silver top electrode deposited through solution based screen printing on pre-deposited polymeric thin film. The solution based printing technology provides uniform top electrode without damaging the underlying organic layers. The surface crystallinity and surface morphology of silver top electrode are examined through X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The purity of silver is examined through X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The top electrode exhibits face centered cubic structure with homogeneous morphology. The sheet resistance of top electrode is found to be 0.06 Ω/sq and an average pattern thickness of ∼15 μm. The power conversion efficiency is 2.58%. Our work demonstrates that the solution based screen printing is a significant role in the replacement of vacuum process for the fabrication of top electrode in organic solar cells.

  13. Screen printed silver top electrode for efficient inverted organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junwoo; Duraisamy, Navaneethan; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Inyoung; Choi, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Screen printing of silver pattern. • X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the face centered cubic structure of silver. • Uniform surface morphology of silver pattern with sheet resistance of 0.06 Ω/sq. • The power conversion efficiency of fabricated solar cell is found to be 2.58%. - Abstract: The present work is mainly focused on replacement of the vacuum process for top electrode fabrication in organic solar cells. Silver top electrode deposited through solution based screen printing on pre-deposited polymeric thin film. The solution based printing technology provides uniform top electrode without damaging the underlying organic layers. The surface crystallinity and surface morphology of silver top electrode are examined through X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The purity of silver is examined through X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. The top electrode exhibits face centered cubic structure with homogeneous morphology. The sheet resistance of top electrode is found to be 0.06 Ω/sq and an average pattern thickness of ∼15 μm. The power conversion efficiency is 2.58%. Our work demonstrates that the solution based screen printing is a significant role in the replacement of vacuum process for the fabrication of top electrode in organic solar cells

  14. A Zinc Oxide Nanorod Ammonia Microsensor Integrated with a Readout Circuit on-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chyan-Chyi Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A zinc oxide nanorod ammonia microsensor integrated with a readout circuit on-a-chip fabricated using the commercial 0.35 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process was investigated. The structure of the ammonia sensor is composed of a sensitive film and polysilicon electrodes. The ammonia sensor requires a post-process to etch the sacrificial layer, and to coat the sensitive film on the polysilicon electrodes. The sensitive film that is prepared by a hydrothermal method is made of zinc oxide. The sensor resistance changes when the sensitive film adsorbs or desorbs ammonia gas. The readout circuit is used to convert the sensor resistance into the voltage output. Experiments show that the ammonia sensor has a sensitivity of about 1.5 mV/ppm at room temperature.

  15. Sulfonated Polyaniline Coated Mercury Film Electrodes for Voltammetric Analysis of Metals in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical polymerization of 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid with and without aniline has been carried by cyclic potencial sweep in sulfuric acid solution at the glassy carbon electrode. The polymer and copolymer formed have been characterized voltammetrically. The sulfonated polyaniline coated mercury thin-film electrodes have been evaluated for use with anodic stripping voltammetry. The electrodes were tested and compared with a conventional thin-film mercury electrode. Calibration plots showed linearity up to 10-7 mol L-1. Detection limits for zinc, lead and cadmium test species are very similar at around 12 nmol L-1. Applications to analysis of waters samples are demonstrated.

  16. Titanyl phthalocyanine ambipolar thin film transistors making use of carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppedè, Nicola; Tarabella, Giuseppe; Ranzieri, Paolo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Valitova, Irina; Cicoira, Fabio; Mahvash, Farzaneh; Santato, Clara; Martel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The capability of efficiently injecting charge carriers into organic films and finely tuning their morphology and structure is crucial to improve the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). In this work, we investigate OTFTs employing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the source-drain electrodes and, as the organic semiconductor, thin films of titanyl phthalocyanine (TiOPc) grown by supersonic molecular beam deposition (SuMBD). While CNT electrodes have shown an unprecedented ability to improve charge injection in OTFTs, SuMBD is an effective technique to tune film morphology and structure. Varying the substrate temperature during deposition, we were able to grow both amorphous (low substrate temperature) and polycrystalline (high substrate temperature) films of TiOPc. Regardless of the film morphology and structure, CNT electrodes led to superior charge injection and transport performance with respect to benchmark Au electrodes. Vacuum annealing of polycrystalline TiOPc films with CNT electrodes yielded ambipolar OTFTs. (paper)

  17. Hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam anodes, methods of producing the same, and methods for their use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingart, Daniel A.; Chamoun, Mylad; Hertzberg, Benjamin; Davies, Greg; Hsieh, Andrew G.

    2018-02-13

    Disclosed are hyper-dendritic nanoporous zinc foam electrodes, viz., anodes, methods of producing the same, and methods for their use in electrochemical cells, especially in rechargeable electrical batteries.

  18. Silver-zinc: status of technology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpinski, A.P.; Makovetski, B.; Russell, S.J.; Serenyi, J.R.; Williams, D.C. [Yardney Technical Products, Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Michel Yardney and Professor Henri Andre developed the first practical silver-zinc battery more than 55 years ago. Since then, primary and rechargeable silver-zinc batteries have attracted a variety of applications due to their high specific energy/energy density, proven reliability and safety, and the highest power output per unit weight and volume of all commercially available batteries. Although significant improvements have been achieved on traditional systems such as lead-acid and nickel/cadmium, and in spite of the advent of new electrochemistries such as lithium-ion and nickel/metal hydride, many users still rely on silver-zinc to satisfy their most demanding and critical requirements. Over the past few years, several of the internal components have been subject to many studies which resulted in significant improvements in the battery wet life and cycle life. Specifically, these include new separator materials which offer an alternative to the cellulosic membranes, improvements to the zinc electrode that include additives that help reduce shape-change and dendritic growth, and to a lesser extent, process changes to the silver electrode and additives to the electrolyte. In comparison, the commonly used secondary systems are lead-acid, nickel/cadmium, nickel/metal hydride, and lithium-ion. Each has attributes which make them desirable for certain applications. Where low cost, high voltage, and high rate capability is required, the lead-acid battery is an obvious choice whenever size and weight are not critical. For applications requiring longer wet life, moderate rate capability, and high cycle life, nickel/cadmium or nickel/metal hydride can be used in spite of their poor charge retention and higher costs. Relatively newer systems are also available such as lithium-ion or lithium polymer technology which are preferred for their high voltage and excellent cycle life. Among the disadvantages of these systems are higher costs, limited configurations (usually

  19. Models for mass transfer effects in semi-fuel cells and for a silver-zinc battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Murali Sankar

    Semi-Fuel Cells (SFCs) and Silver-Zinc batteries have been recognized as batteries for high power applications. For channel flow between two parallel plates, featured in SFCs, obstacles may take the form of ordered asymmetrical porous nets. The net controls the spacing between the two electrode plates. The effect of the inert insulating net and its geometry on the heat and mass transfer characteristics in such a system is presented. The governing equations for momentum, continuity, and energy are solved in a three-dimensional domain using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software for fully developed flow with constant temperature boundary conditions. The local Nusselt number is calculated from the resulting temperature distribution. This net also affects the limiting current distribution in an SFC operating at limiting current because it disrupts the parabolic laminar flow velocity distribution. Hence, the current density distribution is obtained from the Nusselt number distribution through a heat and mass transfer analogy. The location, spacing, and number of the longitudinal and transverse ribs of the net are shown to affect the local and average current density distributions and Nusselt numbers on each of the two electrode plates. The results show that transverse ribs have a greater effect and that the enhancements of the average current density of 250% can be obtained for a spacing of 0.94 x 10-3 m with greater than 16 transverse ribs. A silver-zinc battery shows similar mass transfer limitations while discharged at moderate to high discharge rates. A one-dimensional mathematical model consisting of a negative (zinc) electrode, separator, and positive (silver) electrode, has been developed to study the performance and thermal behavior of the silver-zinc cell during discharge. The physical phenomena described here are reaction kinetics, mass transfer and heat generation. The analysis includes finite matrix conductivities (thermal and electrical

  20. Interactive Physics and Characteristics of Photons and Photoelectrons in Hyperbranched Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torix, Garrett

    As is commonly known, the world is full of technological wonders, where a multitude of electronic devices and instruments continuously help push the boundaries of scientific knowledge and discovery. These new devices and instruments of science must be utilized at peak efficiency in order to benefit humanity with the most advanced scientific knowledge. In order to attain this level of efficiency, the materials which make up these electronics, or possibly more important, the fundamental characteristics of these materials, must be fully understood. The following research attempted to uncover the properties and characteristics of a selected family of materials. Herein, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials were investigated and subjected to various, systematical tests, with the aim of discovering new and useful properties. The various nanostructures were grown on a quartz substrate, between a pair of gold electrodes, and subjected to an electrical bias which produced a measurable photocurrent under sufficient lighting conditions. This design formed a novel photodetector device, which, when combined with a simple solar cell and a methodical set of experimental trials, allowed several unique phenomena to be studied. Under various conditions, the device photocurrent as a function of applied voltage, as well as transmitted light, were measured and compared between devices of different ZnO morphologies. Zinc oxide is an absorber of ultraviolet (UV) light. UV absorbing materials and devices have uses in solar cells, long range communications, and astronomical observational equipment, hence, a better understanding of zinc oxide nanostructures and their properties can lead to more efficient utilization of UV light, improved solar cell technology, and a better understanding of the basic science in photon-to-electricity conversion.

  1. Preparation and study of the properties of indium phosphide thin films impregnated with cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Indium phosphide thin films were deposited by vacuum evaporation of indium and phosphorous, using the three-temperature method. The effects of the introduction of cadmium and zinc, group II impurities, on the properties of these films were studied. The introduction of cadmium was achieved by coevaporation of this element during the film deposition. The introduction of zinc was done by diffusion of this element in intrinsic films. Analyses of these films were carried out by the study of the composition, morphology, structure, optical properties and electrical properties. The introduction of cadmium led to the reduction of grain size and increase in the bandgap and in certain cases, even change in morphology. Phases of CdP2 and β-CdP2 were detected and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. The introduction of zinc did not change the morphology, crystalline structure and bandgap. However, a new energy level corresponding to the zinc acceptor level was found and the resistivity increased by some orders of magnitude. (Author) [pt

  2. Zinc in human prostate gland. Normal, hyperplastic and cancerous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichick, V.Ye.; Sviridova, T.V.; Zaichick, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Zinc concentration in a prostate gland is much higher than that in other human tissues. Data about zinc changes for different prostate diseases are limited and greatly contradictory. Zinc content was determined for biopsy and resected materials of transrectal puncture tissues from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. There were 109 patients (50 BPH and 59 cancer) available for the present study. Control group consisted of 37 intact glands of men died an unexpected death (accident, murder, acute cardiac insufficiency, etc.). All materials studied were divided into two parts. One of them was morphologically examined, while another one was subjected to zinc analysis by INAA. Zinc contents (M ± SE) of normal, benign hyperplastic and cancerous prostate glands were found to be 1018 ± 124, 1142 ± 77, and 146 ± 10 μg/g dry tissue, respectively. It was shown that zinc assessments in the materials of transrectal puncture biopsy of indurated prostate sites can be used as an additional test for differential diagnostics of BPH and cancer. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the test are 98 ± 2%. (author)

  3. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, B.L.; Auld, D.S.; Coleman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a zinc cluster akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is ∼3.5 angstrom. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is ∼13 angstrom, and in this instance, a zinc twist is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native zinc fingers, structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangfei; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Shengmin

    2014-06-01

    Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by the co-precipitation method were used to coat stainless steel plates by electrophoretic deposition in n-butanol with triethanolamine as a dispersant. The effect of zinc concentration in the synthesis on the morphology and microstructure of coatings was investigated. It is found that the deposition current densities significantly increase with the increasing zinc concentration. The zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is inferred that hydroxyapatite and triethanolamine predominate in the chemical composition of coatings. With the increasing Zn/Ca ratios, the contents of triethanolamine decrease in the final products. The triethanolamine can be burnt out by heat treatment. The tests of adhesive strength have confirmed good adhesion between the coatings and substrates. The formation of new apatite layer on the coatings has been observed after 7days of immersion in a simulated body fluid. In summary, the results show that dense, uniform zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings are obtained by electrophoretic deposition when the Zn/Ca ratio reaches 5%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Research, development, and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Progress in work at Exide in three main development areas, i.e., battery design and development, nickel cathode study, and electrochemical studies is reported. Battery design and development concentrated on the optimization of design parameters, including electrode spacing, charging methods, electrolyte concentration, the design and fabrication of prototype cells and modules, and testing to verify these parameters. Initial experiments indicated that an interelectrode spacing of 2.5 mm was optimum when normal (D.C.) charging is used. It was during these experiments that a high rate charging technique was developed to deposit a dense active zinc which did not shed during vibration. A 4 cell - 300 Ah experimental module was built and sent to NBTL for testing. Initial testing on this module and a 300 Ah cell are reported. Experiments on electrolyte concentration indicate that higher concentrations of KOH (8M, 9M or 10M) are beneficial to capacity maintenance. Available nickel cathodes were evaluated for possible use in the VIBROCEL. These included pocket, sintered plaque impregnated, nickel plated steel wool impregnated, plastic bonded and CMG (multifoil) electrodes. These electrodes have Coulombic densities ranging from 70 Ah/Kg for pocket plates to 190 Ah/Kg for CMG electrodes. Detailed test data are presented for each type including rate capability, effect of zincate on performance, and capacity maintenance with cycling. Work on zinc deposition emphasized the special charging technique. This is a deposition using special waveforms of charging current, to deposit dense crystalline zinc on the anode substrate.

  6. Amperometric Biosensor for Monitoring Respiration Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Presence of Cobalt and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Mikšaj

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For efficient control of heavy metal concentrations electrochemical methods, such as polarography and related techniques, are applied. Their advantages are simplicity, short analysis time and small quantities of samples needed. The presence of some heavy metals, such as zinc and cobalt, accelerates the growth of yeast. For the measurements of concentration changes, amperometric biosensor containing yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. The influence of zinc and cobalt on respiratory activity of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was estimated by measuring oxygen in the solution that was earlier enriched with cobalt or zinc. Measurements were performed using modified Clark’s oxygen electrode and the investigated concentrations of cobalt and zinc were up to 100 mg/L.

  7. Nickel hydrogen and silver zinc battery cell modeling at the Aerospace Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, A.H.

    1996-02-01

    A nickel hydrogen battery cell model has been fully developed and implemented at The Aerospace Corporation. Applications of this model to industry needs for the design of better cells, power system design and charge control thermal management, and long-term performance trends will be described. Present efforts will be described that are introducing the silver and zinc electrode reactions into this model architecture, so that the model will be able to predict performance for not only silver zinc cells, but also nickel zinc, silver hydrogen, and silver cadmium cells. The silver zinc cell modeling effort is specifically designed to address the concerns that arise most often in launch vehicle applications: transient response, power-on voltage regulation, hot or cold operation, electrolyte spewing, gas venting, self-discharge, separator oxidation, and oxalate crystal growth. The specific model features that are being employed to address these issues will be described.

  8. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan [Piscataway, NJ; Forrest, Stephen R [Ann Arbor, MI

    2011-06-07

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  9. The peculiarity of the formation of zinc films on a glass substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaev, V. V., E-mail: tvaza@mail.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Petrodvorets, Universitetskii pr. 26 (Russian Federation); Saint Petersburg Mining University, Russia, 199106, St. Petersburg, V.O., 21-st line, 2 (Russian Federation); Polishchuk, V. A., E-mail: vpvova2010@yandex.ru [St. Petersburg University of Information Technologies, Mechanics, and Optics, 197101, Russia, St. Petersburg, Kronverksky Pr., 49 (Russian Federation); Borisov, E. N., E-mail: enbor@bk.ru [Saint Petersburg State University, 198504, Russia, Saint-Petersburg, Petrodvorets, Universitetskii pr. 26 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    Thin Nanocrystalline films of the zinc have been fabricated by thermal spraying on the glass substrate. Morphologies and structure of the films had been investigated by the methods X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It is found that the surface of the films has a different types of the nanocrystals zinc. Were detected intergrowths of two or more the nanocrystals, hexagonal shape. Using the theory of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of a new phase, had been evaluated the geometrical and thermodynamic parameters nanocrystals zinc.

  10. Facile 3D Metal Electrode Fabrication for Energy Applications via Inkjet Printing and Shape Memory Polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R C; Wu, J; Li, D C; Hau, N Y; Chang, Y H; Feng, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple 3D metal electrode fabrication technique via inkjet printing onto a thermally contracting shape memory polymer (SMP) substrate. Inkjet printing allows for the direct patterning of structures from metal nanoparticle bearing liquid inks. After deposition, these inks require thermal curing steps to render a stable conductive film. By printing onto a SMP substrate, the metal nanoparticle ink can be cured and substrate shrunk simultaneously to create 3D metal microstructures, forming a large surface area topology well suited for energy applications. Polystyrene SMP shrinkage was characterized in a laboratory oven from 150-240°C, resulting in a size reduction of 1.97-2.58. Silver nanoparticle ink was patterned into electrodes, shrunk, and the topology characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Zinc-Silver Oxide microbatteries were fabricated to demonstrate the 3D electrodes compared to planar references. Characterization was performed using 10M potassium hydroxide electrolyte solution doped with zinc oxide (57g/L). After a 300s oxidation at 3Vdc, the 3D electrode battery demonstrated a 125% increased capacity over the reference cell. Reference cells degraded with longer oxidations, but the 3D electrodes were fully oxidized for 4 hours, and exhibited a capacity of 5.5mA-hr/cm 2 with stable metal performance

  11. The Relevance of the Colon to Zinc Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Lavaniya Gopalsamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, zinc deficiency is widespread, despite decades of research highlighting its negative effects on health, and in particular upon child health in low-income countries. Apart from inadequate dietary intake of bioavailable zinc, other significant contributors to zinc deficiency include the excessive intestinal loss of endogenously secreted zinc and impairment in small intestinal absorptive function. Such changes are likely to occur in children suffering from environmental (or tropical enteropathy (EE—an almost universal condition among inhabitants of developing countries characterized by morphologic and functional changes in the small intestine. Changes to the proximal gut in environmental enteropathy will likely influence the nature and amount of zinc delivered into the large intestine. Consequently, we reviewed the current literature to determine if colonic absorption of endogenous or exogenous (dietary zinc could contribute to overall zinc nutriture. Whilst we found evidence that significant zinc absorption occurs in the rodent colon, and is favoured when microbially-fermentable carbohydrates (specifically resistant starch are consumed, it is unclear whether this process occur in humans and/or to what degree. Constraints in study design in the few available studies may well have masked a possible colonic contribution to zinc nutrition. Furthermore these few available human studies have failed to include the actual target population that would benefit, namely infants affected by EE where zinc delivery to the colon may be increased and who are also at risk of zinc deficiency. In conducting this review we have not been able to confirm a colonic contribution to zinc absorption in humans. However, given the observations in rodents and that feeding resistant starch to children is feasible, definitive studies utilising the dual stable isotope method in children with EE should be undertaken.

  12. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide films as transparent conductive electrode for organic light-emitting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, X.; Wong, F.L.; Fung, M.K.; Lee, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    Highly transparent conductive, aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) films were deposited on glass substrates by midfrequency magnetron sputtering of metallic aluminum-doped zinc target. ZnO:Al films with surface work functions between 3.7 and 4.4 eV were obtained by varying the sputtering conditions. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated on these ZnO:Al films. A current efficiency of higher than 3.7 cd/A, was achieved. For comparison, 3.9 cd/A was achieved by the reference OLEDs fabricated on commercial indium-tin-oxide substrates

  13. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Wei; Ma, Jun; Wang, Jianglin; Zhang, Shengmin

    2012-01-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  14. Tuning the Morphology of Li2O2 by Noble and 3d metals: A Planar Model Electrode Study for Li-O2 Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao; Liu, Wei; Wu, Nian; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Linfeng; Zeng, Rui; Wang, Yingming; Lu, Juntao; Fu, Lei; Xiao, Li; Zhuang, Lin

    2017-06-14

    In this work, a planar model electrode method has been used to investigate the structure-activity relationship of multiple noble and 3d metal catalysts for the cathode reaction of Li-O 2 battery. The result shows that the battery performance (discharge/charge overpotential) strongly depends not only on the type of catalysts but also on the morphology of the discharge product (Li 2 O 2 ). Specifically, according to electrochemical characterization and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation, noble metals (Pd, Pt, Ru, Ir, and Au) show excellent battery performance (smaller discharge/charge overpotential), with wormlike Li 2 O 2 particles with size less than 200 nm on their surfaces. On the other hand, 3d metals (Fe, Co, Ni, and Mn) offered poor battery performance (larger discharge/charge overpotential), with much larger Li 2 O 2 particles (1 μm to a few microns) on their surfaces after discharging. Further research shows that a "volcano plot" is found by correlating the discharging/charging plateau voltage with the adsorption energy of LiO 2 on different metals. The metals with better battery performance and worm-like-shaped Li 2 O 2 are closer to the top of the "volcano", indicating adsorption energy of LiO 2 is one of the key characters for the catalyst to reach a good performance for the oxygen electrode of Li-O 2 battery, and it has a strong influence on the morphology of the discharge product on the electrode surface.

  15. Development and characterization of oxalate coatings for the corrosion protection of metallic zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.; Ferreira Junior, J.M.; Baker, M.A.; Rossi, J.; Costa, I.

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to develop and characterize surface treatments for corrosion protection of zinc. Oxalic acid (OA) was used and the concentration range selected was from 10"-"1 M to 1 M. The chemical composition of the layers formed was evaluated by XPS, and the morphology and thickness, by FIB and EDS, respectively. The corrosion resistance was monitored by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed that a zinc oxalate layer had been formed in both concentrations but of different thickness and crystal sizes but similar morphology. The EIS results showed that the layer formed in the lower concentration solution provided corrosion protection for long periods whereas the one obtained at higher concentration did not protect the surface. The results led to conclude that one of the treatments tested is highly indicated for corrosion protection of zinc. (author)

  16. Fabrication and wear protection performance of superhydrophobic surface on zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Yong, E-mail: wanyong@qtech.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, 11 Fushun Road, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wang Zhongqian; Xu Zhen; Liu Changsong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Qingdao Technological University, 11 Fushun Road, Qingdao 266033 (China); Zhang Junyan [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2011-06-15

    A simple two-step process has been developed to render zinc surface superhydrophobic, resulting in low friction coefficient and long wear resistance performance. The ZnO film with uniform and packed nanorod structure was firstly created by immersing the zinc substrates into 4% N,N-dimethylformamide solution. The as-fabricated surface was then coated a layer of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) by gas phase deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle (WCA) measurement have been performed to characterize the morphological feature, chemical composition and superhydrophobicity of the surface. The resulting surfaces have a WCA as high as 156 deg. and provide effective friction-reducing and wear protection for zinc substrate.

  17. Fabrication and wear protection performance of superhydrophobic surface on zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yong; Wang Zhongqian; Xu Zhen; Liu Changsong; Zhang Junyan

    2011-01-01

    A simple two-step process has been developed to render zinc surface superhydrophobic, resulting in low friction coefficient and long wear resistance performance. The ZnO film with uniform and packed nanorod structure was firstly created by immersing the zinc substrates into 4% N,N-dimethylformamide solution. The as-fabricated surface was then coated a layer of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) by gas phase deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and water contact angle (WCA) measurement have been performed to characterize the morphological feature, chemical composition and superhydrophobicity of the surface. The resulting surfaces have a WCA as high as 156 deg. and provide effective friction-reducing and wear protection for zinc substrate.

  18. Electrochemical and morphological characterization of gold nanoparticles deposited on boron-doped diamond electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limat, Meriadec; El Roustom, Bahaa [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Jotterand, Henri [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Physics of the Complex Matter, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Foti, Gyoergy [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: gyorgy.foti@epfl.ch; Comninellis, Christos [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-03-30

    A novel two-step method was employed to synthesize gold nanoparticles dispersed on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. It consisted of sputter deposition at ambient temperature of maximum 15 equivalent monolayers of gold, followed by a heat treatment in air at 600 deg. C. Gold nanoparticles with an average diameter between 7 and 30 nm could be prepared by this method on polycrystalline BDD film electrode. The obtained Au/BDD composite electrode appeared stable under conditions of electrochemical characterization performed using ferri-/ferrocyanide and benzoquinone/hydroquinone redox couples in acidic medium. The electrochemical behavior of Au/BDD was compared to that of bulk Au and BDD electrodes. Finally, the Au/BDD composite electrode was regarded as an array of Au microelectrodes dispersed on BDD substrate.

  19. Electrochemical and morphological characterization of gold nanoparticles deposited on boron-doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limat, Meriadec; El Roustom, Bahaa; Jotterand, Henri; Foti, Gyoergy; Comninellis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    A novel two-step method was employed to synthesize gold nanoparticles dispersed on boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. It consisted of sputter deposition at ambient temperature of maximum 15 equivalent monolayers of gold, followed by a heat treatment in air at 600 deg. C. Gold nanoparticles with an average diameter between 7 and 30 nm could be prepared by this method on polycrystalline BDD film electrode. The obtained Au/BDD composite electrode appeared stable under conditions of electrochemical characterization performed using ferri-/ferrocyanide and benzoquinone/hydroquinone redox couples in acidic medium. The electrochemical behavior of Au/BDD was compared to that of bulk Au and BDD electrodes. Finally, the Au/BDD composite electrode was regarded as an array of Au microelectrodes dispersed on BDD substrate

  20. The endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, improves the potential for zinc phytoremediation by its host, Sedum alfredii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Chen

    Full Text Available The endophytic bacterium, Sphingomonas SaMR12, isolated from Sedum alfredii Hance, appears to increase plant biomass and zinc-extraction from contaminated soil; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. Here, the ability of SaMR12 to promote zinc extraction and its effects on root morphology and exudation were examined in hydroponics. Zinc treatment increased shoot biomass by 30 to 45%, and by a further 10 to 19% when combined with SaMR12 inoculation. Zinc treatment also increased zinc accumulation modestly and this too was enhanced with SaMR12. Both biomass and zinc levels increased in a dose-dependent manner with significant effects seen at 50 µM zinc and apparent saturation at 500 µM. Zinc and the endophyte also increased levels of auxin but not at 50 µM and zinc increased levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide but mainly at 500 µM. As for root morphology, SaMR12 increased root branching, the number of root tips, and surface area. Zinc and SaMR12 also increased the exudation of oxalic acid. For most assays the effects of the endophyte and zinc were additive, with the notable exception of SaMR12 strongly reducing the production of reactive oxygen species at 500 µM zinc. Taken together, these results suggest that the promotion of growth and zinc uptake by exposure to zinc and to SaMR12 are independent of reactive oxygen and do not involve increases in auxin.

  1. Electrodeposition of porous zinc oxide electrodes in the presence of sodium laurylsulfate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michaelis, E.; Wöhrle, D.; Rathouský, Jiří; Wark, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 497, 1-2 (2006), s. 163-169 ISSN 0040-6090 Grant - others:Volkswagen Foundation(DE) I/77723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : zinc oxide * electrochemistry * structural properties * templating Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.666, year: 2006

  2. Organic Photovoltaic Structures as Photo-active Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, Matthew P.; Clark, Noel; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; MacFarlane, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrated the novel use of a bulk heterojunction (BHJ), as present in modern organic solar cells, as a light-assisted electrocatalyst for water electrolysis reactions. Two separate organic photo-voltaic electrode structures were designed for targeting both the reduction, (ITO-PET/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM)* and oxidation, (ITO-PET/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM)* reactions of water, denoted as OPE-R and OPE-O respectively. The OPE-R electrode supported both the proton reduction reaction (PRR) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) achieving photocurrents of -0.04 mAcm −2 (ORR) and -0.03 mAcm −2 (PRR) and a photovoltage of 0.50 V (ORR) and onset photovoltage at -0.59 V (PRR). By comparison, the OPE-O electrode achieved photocurrents of 0.15 mAcm −2 and photovoltages of 0.35 V for the water oxidation reaction (WOR). Both BHJ designs confirmed evidence of photo-enhanced Bulk Heterojunction Electrode (BHE) activity. The stability and sources of electrode degradation were also studied, with the OPE-O electrode proving to be more stable than the OPE-R electrode, most likely due to the PEDOT:PSS layer and PSS migration in the presence of water. *Indium Tin Oxide (ITO), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), Polystyrenesulfonate acid (PSS), Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), Phenyl-C 61 -Butyric acid Methyl ester (PCBM), Zinc Oxide (ZnO)

  3. Zinc electrodeposition from flowing alkaline zincate solutions: Role of hydrogen evolution reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundálek, Jan; Šnajdr, Ivo; Libánský, Ondřej; Vrána, Jiří; Pocedič, Jaromír; Mazúr, Petr; Kosek, Juraj

    2017-12-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction is known as a parasitic reaction during the zinc electrodeposition from alkaline zincate solutions and is thus responsible for current efficiency losses during the electrolysis. Besides that, the rising hydrogen bubbles may cause an extra convection within a diffusion layer, which leads to an enhanced mass transport of zincate ions to an electrode surface. In this work, the mentioned phenomena were studied experimentally in a flow through electrolyzer and the obtained data were subsequently evaluated by mathematical models. The results prove the indisputable influence of the rising hydrogen bubbles on the additional mixing of the diffusion layer, which partially compensates the drop of the current efficiency of the zinc deposition at higher current flows. Moreover, the results show that the current density ratio (i.e., the ratio of an overall current density to a zinc limiting current density) is not suitable for the description of the zinc deposition, because the hydrogen evolution current density is always involved in the overall current density.

  4. Electrodeposition of gallium and zinc onto aluminium. Influence of the electrodeposited metals on the activation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamini, D.O.; Saidman, S.B.; Bessone, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    The electrodeposition of gallium and/or zinc on aluminium, aluminium-zinc alloy and vitreous carbon electrodes in chloride solutions is analysed. The electrodissolution of the formed interfaces is also described and discussed. For this purpose, potentiodynamic and potentiostatic techniques and open circuit potential measurements were employed and surface characterisation was performed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The presence of zinc, electrodeposited from the solution or as an alloying component, facilitates gallium enrichment at the interface and improves the wetting on the aluminium oxide. These conditions ensure the formation of a surface Ga-Al amalgam. As a result, the dissolution process occurs at potentials which are more active than those observed for aluminium or aluminium-zinc alloy in halide solutions

  5. Electrodeposition of gallium and zinc onto aluminium. Influence of the electrodeposited metals on the activation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamini, D.O. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Saidman, S.B. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)], E-mail: ssaidman@criba.edu.ar; Bessone, J.B. [Instituto de Ingenieria Electroquimica y Corrosion (INIEC), Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2007-07-31

    The electrodeposition of gallium and/or zinc on aluminium, aluminium-zinc alloy and vitreous carbon electrodes in chloride solutions is analysed. The electrodissolution of the formed interfaces is also described and discussed. For this purpose, potentiodynamic and potentiostatic techniques and open circuit potential measurements were employed and surface characterisation was performed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The presence of zinc, electrodeposited from the solution or as an alloying component, facilitates gallium enrichment at the interface and improves the wetting on the aluminium oxide. These conditions ensure the formation of a surface Ga-Al amalgam. As a result, the dissolution process occurs at potentials which are more active than those observed for aluminium or aluminium-zinc alloy in halide solutions.

  6. Structural and Biological Assessment of Zinc Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Popa , Cristina ,; Deniaud , Aurélien; Michaud-Soret , Isabelle; Guégan , Régis; Motelica-Heino , Mikael; Predoi , Daniela

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The aim of the current research work was to study the physicochemical and biological properties of synthesized zinc doped hydroxyapatite (ZnHAp) nanoparticles with Zn concentrations í µí±¥ Zn = 0 (HAp), í µí±¥ Zn = 0.07 (7ZnHAp), and í µí±¥ Zn = 0.1 (10ZnHAp) for potential use in biological applications. The morphology, size, compositions, and incorporation of zinc into hydroxyapatite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron micro...

  7. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Zn/gelled 6 M KOH/O 2 zinc-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, A. A.

    The gel electrolyte for the zinc-air cell was prepared by mixing hydroponics gel with a 6 M potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The self-discharge of cells was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage. The effect of a discharge rate of 50 mA constant current on cell voltage and plateau hour, as well as the voltage-current and current density-power density were measured and analysed. The electrode degradation after discharge cycling was characterized by structural and surface methods. The oxidation of the electrode surface further blocked the utilization of the Zn anode and was identified as a cause for the failure of the cell.

  9. Indicator electrodes from d-elements for application in different types of potentiometric analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kunasheva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the use of metal electrodes from titanium, tungsten, molybdenum as indicator electrodes at potentiometric method of analysis. The condition of measuring operation in dependence on pH, ionic strength of solutions is described in the article. Electrode potential of testing electrodes are measured in the interval of concentration of salts from 0,1∙10-1 mole/l till 0,1∙10-6 mole/l. The results of testing of electrical-analytical description of metal electrodes made of d-elements, in particular, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum in solutions of cations of some metals and anions were mentioned. As ions of metal cations Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+ and anions Cl-, I-, F- were chosen.It is identified that titanic electrode has different response to ions of copper (II, zinc and cadmium. However, dependence of electrode potential on concentration of ions of metal is rectilinear, that is vequired of indicator electrodes in the direct potential metrics.  

  10. Recent progress in hollow sphere-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-08-01

    Hollow spheres have drawn much attention in the area of energy storage and conversion, especially in high-performance supercapacitors owing to their well-defined morphologies, uniform size, low density and large surface area. And quite some significant breakthroughs have been made in advanced supercapacitor electrode materials with hollow sphere structures. In this review, we summarize and discuss the synthesis and application of hollow spheres with controllable structure and morphology as electrode materials for supercapacitors. First, we briefly introduce the fabrication strategies of hollow spheres for electrode materials. Then, we discuss in detail the recent advances in various hollow sphere-based electrode materials for supercapacitors, including single-shelled, yolk-shelled, urchin-like, double-shelled, multi-shelled, and mesoporous hollow structure-based symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor devices. We conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow sphere-based electrode materials.

  11. Recent progress in hollow sphere-based electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Min; Wu, Limin

    2016-08-26

    Hollow spheres have drawn much attention in the area of energy storage and conversion, especially in high-performance supercapacitors owing to their well-defined morphologies, uniform size, low density and large surface area. And quite some significant breakthroughs have been made in advanced supercapacitor electrode materials with hollow sphere structures. In this review, we summarize and discuss the synthesis and application of hollow spheres with controllable structure and morphology as electrode materials for supercapacitors. First, we briefly introduce the fabrication strategies of hollow spheres for electrode materials. Then, we discuss in detail the recent advances in various hollow sphere-based electrode materials for supercapacitors, including single-shelled, yolk-shelled, urchin-like, double-shelled, multi-shelled, and mesoporous hollow structure-based symmetric and asymmetric supercapacitor devices. We conclude this review with some perspectives on the future research and development of the hollow sphere-based electrode materials.

  12. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance. (author)

  13. Charge-discharge characteristics of nickel/zinc battery with polymer hydrogel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakura, Chiaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Nohara, Shinji; Furukawa, Naoji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    A new nickel/zinc (Ni/Zn) battery was assembled by using polymer hydrogel electrolyte prepared from cross-linked potassium poly(acrylate) and KOH aqueous solution, and its charge-discharge characteristics were investigated. The experimental Ni/Zn cell with the polymer hydrogel electrolyte exhibited well-defined charge-discharge curves and remarkably improved charge-discharge cycle performance, compared to that with a KOH aqueous solution. Moreover, it was found that dendritic growth hardly occurred on the zinc electrode surface during charge-discharge cycles in the polymer hydrogel electrolyte. These results indicate that the polymer hydrogel electrolyte can successfully be used in Ni/Zn batteries as an electrolyte with excellent performance.

  14. Highly microporous carbons derived from a complex of glutamic acid and zinc chloride for use in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Ling; Lu, An-Hui; He, Bin; Li, Wen-Cui

    2016-09-01

    The selection of carbon precursor is an important factor when designing carbon materials. In this study, a complex derived from L-glutamic acid and zinc chloride was used to prepare highly microporous carbons via facile pyrolysis. L-glutamic acid, a new carbon precursor with nitrogen functionality, coordinated with zinc chloride resulted in a homogeneous distribution of Zn2+ on the molecular level. During pyrolysis, the evaporation of the in situ formed zinc species creates an abundance of micropores together with the inert gases. The obtained carbons exhibit high specific surface area (SBET: 1203 m2 g-1) and a rich nitrogen content (4.52 wt%). In excess of 89% of the pore volume consists of micropores with pore size ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 nm. These carbons have been shown to be suitable for use as supercapacitor electrodes, and have been tested in 6 M KOH where a capacitance of 217 F g-1 was achieved at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. A long cycling life of 30 000 cycles was achieved at a current density of 1 A g-1, with only a 9% loss in capacity. The leakage current through a two-electrode device was measured as 2.3 μA per mg of electrode and the self-discharge characteristics were minimal.

  15. Performance evaluation of carbon black based electrodes for underwater ECG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Bersain A; Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Bales, Justin R; Chon, Ki H

    2014-01-01

    Underwater electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring currently uses Ag/AgCl electrodes and requires sealing of the electrodes to avoid water intrusion, but this procedure is time consuming and often results in severe irritations or even tearing of the skin. To alleviate these problems, our research team developed hydrophobic electrodes comprised of a mixture of carbon black powder (CB) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) that provide all morphological waveforms without distortion of an ECG signal for dry and water-immersed conditions. Performance comparison of CB/PDMS electrodes to adhesive Ag/AgCl hydrogel electrodes was carried out in three different scenarios which included recordings from a dry surface, water immersion, and post-water immersion conditions. CB/PDMS electrodes were able to acquire ECG signals highly correlated with those from adhesive Ag/AgCl electrodes during all conditions. Statistical reduction in ECG amplitude (pelectrodes when compared to Ag/AgCl electrodes sealed with their waterproof adhesive tape. Besides this reduction readability of the recordings was not obscured and all morphological waveforms of the ECG signal were discernible. The advantages of our CB/PDMS electrodes are that they are reusable, can be fabricated economically, and most importantly, high-fidelity underwater ECG signals can be acquired without relying on the heavy use of waterproof sealing.

  16. A novel self-assembly with zinc porphyrin coordination polymer for enhanced photocurrent conversion in supramolecular solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jing; Liu, Jia-Cheng; Deng, Wen-Ting; Li, Ren-Zhi; Jin, Neng-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An innovative type of self-assembly based on acetohydrazide zinc porphyrin coordination polymer has been prepared in supramolecular solar cells. - Highlights: • A novel assembly with acetohydrazide porphyrin coordination polymer. • The assembly based on porphyrin is prepared as parallel sample. • Coordination polymer-based assembly shows enhanced photoelectronic behavior. • A series of different organic acid ligands as anchoring groups are prepared. - Abstract: In this work, a novel acetohydrazide zinc porphyrin-based coordination polymer (CP)-isonicotinic acid self-assembly by metal-ligand axial coordination to modify the nano-structured TiO 2 electrode surface has been investigated in photoelectrochemical device. Compared to the assembly based on corresponding zinc porphyrin combined with isonicotinic acid by metal-ligand axial coordination, CP-isonicotinic acid assembly exhibits a significantly enhanced photoelectronic behavior. In addition, a series of different organic acid ligands were prepared to probe the impact of their structures on the photoelectronic performances of their corresponding assemblies-sensitized cells. This study affords a novel type of self-assembly to functionalize the nanostructured TiO 2 electrode surface in supramolecular solar cells

  17. Zinc oxide microcapsules obtained via a bio-inspired approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowsky, Peter; Hirscher, Michael; Hoffmann, Rudolf C; Bill, Joachim; Aldinger, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Hollow zinc oxide microcapsules have been synthesized by a sacrificial template route involving the chemical bath deposition of nanostructured zinc oxide thin films on sulfonate-modified polystyrene microspheres and subsequent removal of the polymer core by dissolution in a solvent or by thermolysis. Scanning electron micrographs show that uniform coating of the templates is achieved when ZnO is deposited from a solution containing zinc acetate, the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, and a base in methanol, and that the ZnO shells remain intact after removal of the cores. A focused ion beam is used to cut slices from the spheres and demonstrate their inner morphology and hollowness. X-ray diffraction yields evidence that the shells consist of nanocrystalline ZnO with the zincite structure

  18. New insights on laser-induced graphene electrodes for flexible supercapacitors: tunable morphology and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Andrea; Perrucci, Francesco; Caprioli, Matteo; Serrapede, Mara; Fontana, Marco; Bianco, Stefano; Ferrero, Sergio; Tresso, Elena

    2017-04-28

    In certain polymers the graphenization of carbon atoms can be obtained by laser writing owing to the easy absorption of long-wavelength radiation, which generates photo-thermal effects. On a polyimide surface this process allows the formation of a nanostructured and porous carbon network known as laser-induced graphene (LIG). Herein we report on the effect of the process parameters on the morphology and physical properties of LIG nanostructures. We show that the scan speed and the frequency of the incident radiation affect the gas evolution, inducing different structure rearrangements, an interesting nitrogen self-doping phenomenon and consequently different conduction properties. The materials were characterized by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, XPS elemental analysis, electron microscopy and electrical/electrochemical measurements. In particular the samples were tested as interdigitated electrodes into electrochemical supercapacitors and the optimized LIG arrangement was tested in parallel and series supercapacitor configurations to allow power exploitation.

  19. The role of microorganisms in the mobility of radionuclides in soil. I. Examination of resistance to strontium, cesium, cobalt and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyi, J.; Koska, P.; Berzsenyi, G.; Gazso, L.G.; Appanna, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    132 microorganisms were isolated from cultivated soils sampled near a nuclear power plant. Quantitative and qualitative analysis was made concerning the macro-morphology, micro-morphology and Gram staining. Resistance of microorganisms to strontium, cesium, cobalt and zinc was determined using agar plates containing metals. Cobalt and zinc proved to be toxic at a concentration of 100 mg/l, but strontium and cesium did not inhibit the growth even at the concentration up to 200 mg/l. Results of analyses of mechanisms of zinc resistance by photometry and spectral analysis also presented. (author)

  20. Morphology-Tuned Synthesis of Nickel Cobalt Selenides as Highly Efficient Pt-Free Counter Electrode Catalysts for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xing; Li, Hongmei; Shao, Li; Jiang, Xiancai; Hou, Linxi

    2016-11-02

    In this work, morphology-tuned ternary nickel cobalt selenides based on different Ni/Co molar ratios have been synthesized via a simple precursor conversion method and used as counter electrode (CE) materials for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The experimental facts and mechanism analysis clarified the possible growth process of product. It can be found that the electrochemical performance and structures of ternary nickel cobalt selenides can be optimized by tuning the Ni/Co molar ratio. Benefiting from the unique morphology and tunable composition, among the as-prepared metal selenides, the electrochemical measurements showed that the ternary nickel cobalt selenides exhibited a more superior electrocatalytic activity in comparison with binary Ni and Co selenides. In particular, the three-dimensional dandelion-like Ni 0.33 Co 0.67 Se microspheres delivered much higher power conversion efficiency (9.01%) than that of Pt catalyst (8.30%) under AM 1.5G irradiation.

  1. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 μg g -1 dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition, and

  2. Zinc concentrations in marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland in relation to phylogenetic grouping, habitat and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stengel, Dagmar B.; Macken, Ailbhe; Morrison, Liam; Morley, Nicholas

    2004-05-01

    Zinc concentrations in 19 species of marine macroalgae and a lichen from western Ireland (Spiddal, Co. Galway) were analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Algae were collected from a single site but occupied different shore levels and belonged to distinct phylogenetic groupings and to different (previously recognised) morphological groups. Concentrations ranged from 15-115 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight. The greatest variation in concentration occurred amongst the red algal species, containing both maximum and minimum concentrations. Zn concentrations in brown and green algae were generally lower than those in red algae. When grouped according to thallus morphology, thin, branched sheets (which consisted mainly of red algae) contained the highest Zn concentrations. In filamentous algae, Zn levels were higher than in thick-leathery or coarsely branched algae. However, all green algal species examined had similar Zn concentrations, despite their different morphologies. In brown algae, the highest Zn levels were detected in mid-shore fucoids (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus), while thicker, subtidal and low-shore brown algae (Laminaria digitata, Halydris siliquosa) exhibited lower Zn concentrations. The lowest Zn concentrations were detected in high-intertidal species (Fucus spiralis, Pelvetia canaliculata), the only marine lichen examined (Ramalina siliquosa) and a red crustose alga (Corallina officinalis). In all morphological groups, red algal representatives contained relatively higher levels of Zn, the exception being Corallina officinalis. Zn levels in 4 species from a second, estuarine site in Galway Bay exhibited the same relative differences amongst species, but were all consistently higher than in algae from Spiddal. It is concluded that Zn accumulation in macroalgae is closely related to ecological growth strategies, following a functional-form model. However, the phylogenetic origin of species which determines carbohydrate and phenol composition

  3. Activated graphene nanoplatelets as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Jiawei [Center for Advanced Photovoltaics, Department of Electrical Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58102 (United States); Zhou, Zhengping; Qiao, Qiquan, E-mail: qiquan.qiao@sdstate.edu [Center for Advanced Photovoltaics, Department of Electrical Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007 (United States); Sumathy, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58102 (United States); Yang, Huojun [Department of Construction Management and Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58102 (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Activated graphene nanoplatelets (aGNPs) prepared by a hydrothermal method using KOH as activating agent were used as counter electrode for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). After the KOH activation, the scanning electron microscopy image shows that aGNPs demonstrate a more curled, rough, and porous morphology which could contain both micro- and mesopores. The KOH activation changed the stacked layers of GNPs to a more crumpled and curved morphology. The microstructure of large pores significantly increased the electrode surface area and roughness, leading to the high electrocatalytic activity for triiodide reduction at the counter electrode. The DSSCs fabricated using aGNP as counter electrodes were tested under standard AM 1.5 illumination with an intensity of 91.5 mW/cm{sup 2}. The device achieved an overall power conversion efficiency of 7.7%, which is comparable to the conventional platinum counter electrode (8%). Therefore, the low cost and high performance aGNP based counter electrode is a promising alternative to conventional Pt counter electrode in DSSCs.

  4. A study on morphology control and optical properties of ZnO nanorods synthesized by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.K.; Huang, C.C.; Lee, Y.C.; Yang, C.S.; Yu, H.C.; Lee, J.W.; Hu, S.Y.; Chen, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present morphology control investigations on zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods synthesized by microwave heating of a mixture of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) precursors in deionized water (DI water). To study the morphology and structural variations of the obtained ZnO nanorods in different molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy were measured. XRD and SEM images are utilized to examine the crystalline quality as well as the morphological properties of the ZnO nanorods. It is found that morphology control can be achieved by simply adjusting the reactant concentrations and the molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA. Raman scattering and PL spectroscopy measurements were demonstrated to study the size- and shape-dependent optical response of the ZnO nanorods. The Raman scattering result shows that the intensity of LO mode at around 576 cm -1 decreases with the increase in the molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA, indicating the reduction of defect concentrations in the synthesized ZnO nanorods. Room temperature PL spectrum of the synthesized ZnO nanorods reveals an ultraviolet (UV) emission peak and a broad visible emission. An enhancement of UV emission appears in the PL spectra as the molar ratio of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to HMTA increases, indicating that the defect concentration of the synthesized ZnO nanorods can be reduced by increasing the molar ratio. - Highlights: → Morphology of ZnO nanorods can be controlled via microwave-heating synthesis. → Molar ratio of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 .6H 2 O to C 6 H 12 N 4 affects the aspect ratio of ZnO nanorod. → ZnO nanorod showing higher aspect ratio can exhibit better optical properties.

  5. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine; Braiek, Mohamed; Namour, Philippe; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  6. Layered double hydroxide materials coated carbon electrode: New challenge to future electrochemical power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djebbi, Mohamed Amine, E-mail: mohamed.djebbi@etu.univ-lyon1.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Braiek, Mohamed [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Namour, Philippe [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Irstea, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux Lamellaires et Nano-Matériaux Hybrides, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, Université de Carthage, 7021 Bizerte (Tunisia); Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole [Institut des Sciences Analytiques UMR CNRS 5280, Université Claude Bernard-Lyon 1, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were chemically synthesized and deposited over carbon electrode materials. • Catalytic performance of both LDHs was investigated for Fe(II) reduction reaction. • Satisfactory results have been achieved with the MgAl LDH material. • MgAl and ZnAl LDH modified carbon felt were applied in MFC as an efficient anode catalyst. • The LDH-modified anode significantly increased power performance of MFC. - Abstract: Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have been widely used in the past years due to their unique physicochemical properties and promising applications in electroanalytical chemistry. The present paper is going to focus exclusively on magnesium-aluminum and zinc-aluminum layered double hydroxides (MgAl & ZnAl LDHs) in order to investigate the property and structure of active cation sites located within the layer structure. The MgAl and ZnAl LDH nanosheets were prepared by the constant pH co-precipitation method and uniformly supported on carbon-based electrode materials to fabricate an LDH electrode. Characterization by powder x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed the LDH form and well-crystallized materials. Wetting surface properties (hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity) of both prepared LDHs were recorded by contact angle measurement show hydrophilic character and basic property. The electrochemical performance of these hybrid materials was investigated by mainly cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronoamperometry techniques to identify the oxidation/reduction processes at the electrode/electrolyte interface and the effect of the divalent metal cations in total reactivity. The hierarchy of the modified electrode proves that the electronic conductivity of the bulk material is considerably dependent on the divalent cation and affects the limiting parameter of the overall redox process. However

  7. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet for antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutiya, Priyank L; Mahajan, Mayur S; Abdul Rasheed, M; Pandey, Manoj; Zaheer Hasan, S; Misra, Nirendra

    2018-06-01

    Seaweed cellulose was isolated from green seaweed Ulva fasciata using a common bleaching agent. Sheet containing porous mesh was prepared from the extracted seaweed crystalline cellulose along with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod clusters grown over the sheet by single step hydrothermal method. Seaweed cellulose and zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, and SEM-EDX. Morphology showed that the diameter of zinc oxide nanorods were around 70nm. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited on seaweed cellulose sheet gave remarkable antibacterial activity towards gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus ceresus, Streptococcus thermophilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginous) microbes. Such deposited sheet has potential applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, food packaging, water treatment and biotechnological industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of zinc oxide fiber in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerchman, D.; Alves, A.K.; Berutti, F.A.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, zinc oxide fibers were obtained by electrospinning using polyvinylbutyral and zinc nitrate as precursors. After the synthesis, the material was heat treated at different temperatures to evaluate the effect of microstructure on its photocatalytic activity. The fibers obtained after heat treatment were characterized for morphology, phases, crystallinity and photocatalytic activity. The photocatalysis reaction was accompanied by the degradation of methyl orange in the presence of zinc oxide under UV illumination. It was observed that the crystallinity of zincite is a fundamental factor for the control of the photocatalytic activity of this material. (author)

  9. Proof-of-Concept of a Zinc-Silver Battery for the Extraction of Energy from a Concentration Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Marino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of heat into current can be obtained by a process with two stages. In the first one, the heat is used for distilling a solution and obtaining two flows with different concentrations. In the second stage, the two flows are sent to an electrochemical cell that produces current by consuming the concentration difference. In this paper, we propose such an electrochemical cell, working with water solutions of zinc chloride. The cell contains two electrodes, made respectively of zinc and silver covered by silver chloride. The operation of the cell is analogous to that of the capacitive mixing and of the “mixing entropy battery”: the electrodes are charged while dipped in the concentrated solution and discharged when dipped in the diluted solution. The cyclic operation allows us to extract a surplus of energy, at the expense of the free energy of the concentration difference. We evaluate the feasibility of such a cell for practical applications and find that a power up to 2 W per m2 of the surface of the electrodes can be achieved.

  10. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  11. One-step controllable fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with special composite structure on zinc substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Tao; Xu, Wenguo; Lu, Shixiang

    2011-09-01

    Stable superhydrophobic platinum surfaces have been effectively fabricated on the zinc substrates through one-step replacement deposition process without further modification or any other post-treatment procedures. The fabrication process was controllable, which could be testified by various morphologies and hydrophobic properties of different prepared samples. By conducting SEM and water CA analysis, the effects of reaction conditions on the surface morphology and hydrophobicity of the resulting surfaces were carefully studied. The results show that the optimum condition of superhydrophobic surface fabrication depends largely on the positioning of zinc plate and the concentrations of reactants. When the zinc plate was placed vertically and the concentration of PtCl(4) solution was 5 mmol/L, the zinc substrate would be covered by a novel and interesting composite structure. The structure was composed by microscale hexagonal cavities, densely packed nanoparticles layer and top micro- and nanoscale flower-like structures, which exhibit great surface roughness and porosity contributing to the superhydrophobicity. The maximal CA value of about 171° was obtained under the same reaction condition. The XRD, XPS and EDX results indicate that crystallite pure platinum nanoparticles were aggregated on the zinc substrates in accordance with a free deposition way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of pH variation on the growth of zinc oxide nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Ansari, S.G.; Kim, Young Soon; Song, Minwu; Shin, Hyung-Shik

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a systematic study on the morphological variation of ZnO nanostructure by varying the pH of precursor solution via solution method. Zinc acetate dihydrate and sodium hydroxide were used as a precursor, which was refluxed at 90 deg. C for an hour. The pH of the precursor solution (zinc acetate di hydrate) was increased from 6 to 12 by the controlled addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Morphology of ZnO nanorods markedly varies from sheet-like (at pH 6) to rod-like structure of zinc oxide (pH 10-12). Diffraction patterns match well with standard ZnO at all pH values. Crystallinity and nanostructures were confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, which indicates structure grew along [0 0 0 1] direction with an ideal lattice fringes distance 0.52 nm. FTIR spectroscopic measurement showed a standard peak of zinc oxide at 464 cm -1 . Amount of H + and OH - ions are found key to the structure control of studied material, as discussed in the growth mechanism.

  13. Sol-gel zinc oxide humidity sensors integrated with a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Zhi; Dai, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chyan-Chyi

    2014-10-28

    The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH.

  14. Fabrication and RF characterization of zinc oxide based Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Raju; Bansal, Deepak; Agrawal, Vimal Kumar; Rangra, Kamaljit; Boolchandani, Dharmendar

    2018-06-01

    This work reports fabrication and characterization of Film Bulk Acoustic Resonator (FBAR) to improve the performance characteristics for RF filter and sensing application. Zinc oxide as a piezoelectric (PZE) material was deposited on an aluminum bottom electrode using an RF magnetron sputtering, at room temperature, and gold as top electrode for the resonator. Tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) setup was used for bulk silicon etching to make back side cavity to confine the acoustic signals. The transmission characteristics show that the FBARs have a central frequency at 1.77 GHz with a return loss of -10.7 dB.

  15. Importance of zinc for foetal and post-natal development in swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palludan, B.; Wegger, I.

    1976-01-01

    Maternal zinc deficiency during the third trimester led to redeced zinc concentration in foetal plasma, liver, pancreas and bone. Zinc deposition in foetuses was an exponential function of time, the relative rate being 5.8 and 3.0% daily in normal and deficient foetuses respectively. Distribution of orally administered 65 Zn between maternal and foetal organs was studied. The percentage of absorbed 65 Zn transferred to the foeto-placental unit tended to be highest in zinc-deficient gilts. The greater the liver zinc pool the more 65 Zn accumulated in liver and the less in most other organs in both gilts and foetuses. The gestation period was prolonged and parturition impaired in gilts depleted of zinc late in pregnancy. Persistent loss of umbilical blood was seen and viability of the offspring was poor. However, clinical symptoms and morphological malformations were few. Abnormal ossification occurred as a result of the zinc deficiency. The nature of the changes depended on the period of gestation during which the gilts were depleted of zinc. Absorption of 65 Zn in newborn pigs was unaffected by the zinc status, and the same pattern of distribution among organs as in foetuses was seen. Litter size and weight were not influenced by maternal zinc depletion, and growth of surviving piglets was normal. Zinc stores were low in the newborn, but even when zinc depletion of the mother was continued during lactation, clinical symptoms of zinc deficiency in the piglets were not seen until shortly before weaning. (author)

  16. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on zinc substrate by 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Huang, Chengya; Zhang, Long; Lou, Wanqiu

    2014-09-01

    In this study we report a new and efficient method of fabricating superhydrophobic surface on zinc plate modified with 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts (CF3BD), which shows a water contact angle of 160° for a 4 μl water droplet and a low sliding angle of about 1°. The morphology and chemical composition of as-prepared superhydrophobic zinc surfaces are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and FT-IR spectrum. The results show that the organic layers formed on zinc plate surface are provided with the special hierarchical porous microstructure and the low surface energy, which lead to the superhydrophobicity surface on the modified zinc.

  17. Zinc in Gut-Brain Interaction in Autism and Neurological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Guillermo; Stark, Peter; Socha, Michael; Sauer, Ann Katrin; Hagmeyer, Simone; Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2015-01-01

    A growing amount of research indicates that abnormalities in the gastrointestinal (GI) system during development might be a common factor in multiple neurological disorders and might be responsible for some of the shared comorbidities seen among these diseases. For example, many patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have symptoms associated with GI disorders. Maternal zinc status may be an important factor given the multifaceted effect of zinc on gut development and morphology in the offspring. Zinc status influences and is influenced by multiple factors and an interdependence of prenatal and early life stress, immune system abnormalities, impaired GI functions, and zinc deficiency can be hypothesized. In line with this, systemic inflammatory events and prenatal stress have been reported to increase the risk for ASD. Thus, here, we will review the current literature on the role of zinc in gut formation, a possible link between gut and brain development in ASD and other neurological disorders with shared comorbidities, and tie in possible effects on the immune system. Based on these data, we present a novel model outlining how alterations in the maternal zinc status might pathologically impact the offspring leading to impairments in brain functions later in life. PMID:25878905

  18. Zn/gelled 6M KOH/O{sub 2} zinc-air battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, A.A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2006-09-13

    The gel electrolyte for the zinc-air cell was prepared by mixing hydroponics gel with a 6M potassium hydroxide aqueous solution. The self-discharge of cells was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage. The effect of a discharge rate of 50mA constant current on cell voltage and plateau hour, as well as the voltage-current and current density-power density were measured and analysed. The electrode degradation after discharge cycling was characterized by structural and surface methods. The oxidation of the electrode surface further blocked the utilization of the Zn anode and was identified as a cause for the failure of the cell. (author)

  19. Structural and Biological Assessment of Zinc Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Liana Popa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current research work was to study the physicochemical and biological properties of synthesized zinc doped hydroxyapatite (ZnHAp nanoparticles with Zn concentrations xZn=0 (HAp, xZn=0.07 (7ZnHAp, and xZn=0.1 (10ZnHAp for potential use in biological applications. The morphology, size, compositions, and incorporation of zinc into hydroxyapatite were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman scattering, and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. In addition, the cytotoxicity of ZnHAp nanoparticles was tested on both E. coli bacteria and human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. The results showed that ZnHAp nanoparticles (HAp, 7ZnHAp, and 10ZnHAp have slightly elongated morphologies with average diameters between 25 nm and 18 nm. On the other hand, a uniform and homogeneous distribution of the constituent elements (calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and oxygen in the ZnHAp powder was noticed. Besides, FTIR and Raman analyses confirmed the proper hydroxyapatite structure of the synthesized ZnHAp nanoparticles with the signature of phosphate, carbonate, and hydroxyl groups. Moreover, it can be concluded that Zn doping at the tested concentrations is not inducing a specific prokaryote or eukaryote toxicity in HAp compounds.

  20. A versatile silver oxide-zinc battery for synchronous orbit and planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H. J.; Soltis, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    A new kind of silver-zinc cell has been developed and tested under NASA support which can withstand severe heat sterilization requirements and does not display the traditional life limiting aspect of zinc electrodes - i.e., shape change. These cells could be used on a planetary lander mission which requires wet-stand periods of over a year, a modest number of cycles (400 to 500) and may require dry heat sterilization. The weight advantage of these cells over the traditional nickel-cadmium batteries makes them also an attractive alternative for synchronous orbit service where 400 to 500 cycles would be required over a five-year period.

  1. Electrical Properties of Zinc-Kaolin Composites below its Percolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    In this paper, we present some electrical properties of the zinc-kaolin cermet resistors ..... The temperature coefficient of resistance of a material is generally defined as .... Characterisation and morphological Studies of palladium modified carbon ... conduction and microstructural properties of semiconducting Co-doped TiO2.

  2. Influence of synthesis procedure on the formation and properties of zinc oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Music, S.; Popovic, S.; Maljkovic, M.; Dragcevic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Formation and properties of zinc oxide were investigated in dependence on the synthesis procedure. Zinc oxide did not crystallize upon hydrothermal treatment of Zn(NO 3 ) 2 aqueous solutions containing urea, up to 160 deg. C. Hydrozincite was formed instead. Changes in the X-ray diffraction patterns and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were interpreted in terms of stacking disorder in hydrozincite crystals. Zinc oxide powder was obtained by thermal treatment in air of precipitated hydrozincite. The conditions for instantaneous synthesis of very fine zinc oxide particles were found. This procedure is based on addition of TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) solution to an ethanolic solution of zinc acetate dihydrate, up to pH∼14. On the other hand, addition of an equivalent volume of water to the ethanolic solution of zinc acetate dihydrate, prior to the addition of TMAH solution up to pH∼14, yielded ZnO flakes without any specific shape. All zinc oxide particles produced upon heating at 600 deg. C in air showed similar morphology and tendency to aggregation due to the sintering effect. The features of the FT-IR spectra of zinc oxide particles were related to their shapes

  3. Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Activity Against Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Khwaja Salahuddin; ur Rahman, Aziz; Tajuddin; Husen, Azamal

    2018-05-01

    Zinc oxide is an essential ingredient of many enzymes, sun screens, and ointments for pain and itch relief. Its microcrystals are very efficient light absorbers in the UVA and UVB region of spectra due to wide bandgap. Impact of zinc oxide on biological functions depends on its morphology, particle size, exposure time, concentration, pH, and biocompatibility. They are more effective against microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas vulgaris, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. Mechanism of action has been ascribed to the activation of zinc oxide nanoparticles by light, which penetrate the bacterial cell wall via diffusion. It has been confirmed from SEM and TEM images of the bacterial cells that zinc oxide nanoparticles disintegrate the cell membrane and accumulate in the cytoplasm where they interact with biomolecules causing cell apoptosis leading to cell death.

  4. Piezoelectric Zinc Oxide Based MEMS Acoustic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Arora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An acoustic sensors exhibiting good sensitivity was fabricated using MEMS technology having piezoelectric zinc oxide as a dielectric between two plates of capacitor. Thin film zinc oxide has structural, piezoelectric and optical properties for surface acoustic wave (SAW and bulk acoustic wave (BAW devices. Oxygen effficient films are transparent and insulating having wide applications for sensors and transducers. A rf sputtered piezoelectric ZnO layer transforms the mechanical deflection of a thin etched silicon diaphragm into a piezoelectric charge. For 25-micron thin diaphragm Si was etched in tetramethylammonium hydroxide solution using bulk micromachining. This was followed by deposition of sandwiched structure composed of bottom aluminum electrode, sputtered 3 micron ZnO film and top aluminum electrode. A glass having 1 mm diameter hole was bonded on backside of device to compensate sound pressure in side the cavity. The measured value of central capacitance and dissipation factor of the fabricated MEMS acoustic sensor was found to be 82.4pF and 0.115 respectively, where as the value of ~176 pF was obtained for the rim capacitance with a dissipation factor of 0.138. The response of the acoustic sensors was reproducible for the devices prepared under similar processing conditions under different batches. The acoustic sensor was found to be working from 30Hz to 8KHz with a sensitivity of 139µV/Pa under varying acoustic pressure.

  5. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  6. Nanofabrication strategies for advanced electrode materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kunfeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of advanced electrode materials for high-performance energy storage devices becomes more and more important for growing demand of portable electronics and electrical vehicles. To speed up this process, rapid screening of exceptional materials among various morphologies, structures and sizes of materials is urgently needed. Benefitting from the advance of nanotechnology, tremendous efforts have been devoted to the development of various nanofabrication strategies for advanced electrode materials. This review focuses on the analysis of novel nanofabrication strategies and progress in the field of fast screening advanced electrode materials. The basic design principles for chemical reaction, crystallization, electrochemical reaction to control the composition and nanostructure of final electrodes are reviewed. Novel fast nanofabrication strategies, such as burning, electrochemical exfoliation, and their basic principles are also summarized. More importantly, colloid system served as one up-front design can skip over the materials synthesis, accelerating the screening rate of highperformance electrode. This work encourages us to create innovative design ideas for rapid screening high-active electrode materials for applications in energy-related fields and beyond.

  7. Doped polymer electrodes for high performance ferroelectric capacitors on plastic substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, M. A.

    2012-10-03

    Flexible ferroelectric capacitors with doped polymer electrodes have been fabricated on plastic substrates with performance as good as metal electrodes. The effect of doping on the morphology of polymer electrodes and its impact on device performance have been studied. Improved fatigue characteristics using doped and undoped poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes versus metal electrodes are observed. It is shown that the polymer electrodes follow classical ferroelectric and dielectric responses, including series resistance effects. The improved device characteristics obtained using highly conducting doped PEDOT:PSS suggest that it may be used both as an electrode and as global interconnect for all-polymer transparent circuits on flexible substrates.

  8. Production of zinc oxide nanowires power with precisely defined morphology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mičová, J.; Remeš, Zdeněk; Chang, Yu-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 7 (2017), s. 66-69 ISSN 1335-3632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC16-10429J Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) KONNECT-007 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : zinc oxide nanowires * hydrothermal growth method * scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.483, year: 2016

  9. Direct in situ measurement of dissolved zinc in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles using anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanjia; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2014-11-01

    The wide use of metal-based nanomaterials such as zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) has generated concerns regarding their environmental and health risks. For ZnO NPs, their toxicity in aquatic systems often depends on the release of dissolved zinc species, and the rate of dissolution is influenced by water chemistry, including the presence of zinc-chelating ligands. A challenge, however, remains in quantifying the dissolution of ZnO NPs, particularly for time scales that are short enough to determine rates. This paper reports the application of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) with a hanging mercury drop electrode to directly measure the concentration of dissolved zinc in ZnO NP suspensions, without separation of the ZnO NPs from the aqueous phase. The effects of the deposition time and the electrochemical potential scan rate on the ASV measurement were consistent with expectations for dissolved phase measurements. The dissolved zinc concentration measured by ASV ([Zn]ASV) was compared with that measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after ultracentrifugation ([Zn]ICP-MS), for four types of ZnO NPs with different coatings and primary particle diameters. For small ZnO NPs (4-5 nm), [Zn]ASV was 20% higher than [Zn]ICP-MS, suggesting that these small NPs contributed to the voltammetric measurement. For larger ZnO NPs (approximately 20 nm), [Zn]ASV was (79 ± 19)% of [Zn]ICP-MS, despite the high concentrations of ZnO NPs in suspension. Using ASV, the dissolution of ZnO NPs was studied, with or without Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA). Although SRFA diminished the ASV stripping current, dissolution of 20 nm ZnO NPs was significantly promoted at high fulvic acid to ZnO NP ratios. The ASV method described in this paper provides a useful tool for studying the dissolution kinetics of ZnO NPs in complex environmental matrices.

  10. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by a precipitation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by a precipitation method in aqueous media from zinc nitrate hexahydrate and sodium hydroxide. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a crystalline structure with hexagonal structure of the wurtzite. The morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanoparticles presented a spherical ...

  11. Composition control of tin-zinc electrodeposits through means of experimental strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubent, S.; De Petris-Wery, M.; Saurat, M.; Ayedi, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Tin-zinc coatings offer excellent corrosion protection and do not suffer the drawback of the voluminous white corrosion product of pure zinc or high zinc alloy coatings. The aim of this study was to determine the suitable electroplating conditions (i.e. electrolyte composition and cathode current density) to produce 70Sn-30Zn electrodeposits. Thus, a fractional factorial design (FFD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of experimental parameters (Zn II concentration, Sn IV concentration, pH and current density) on the Zn content of the electrodeposit. On the other hand, the electrodeposits were characterised by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Correlation between operating conditions, composition and morphology was attempted

  12. Low Impedance Carbon Adhesive Electrodes with Long Shelf Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Reyes, Bersaín A; Burnham, Ken; Pennace, John; Chon, Ki H

    2015-10-01

    A novel electrocardiogram (ECG) electrode film is developed by mixing carbon black powder and a quaternary salt with a visco-elastic polymeric adhesive. Unlike traditional wet gel-based electrodes, carbon/salt/adhesive (CSA) electrodes should theoretically have an infinite shelf life as they do not dehydrate even after a prolonged period of storage. The CSA electrodes are electrically activated for use through the process of electrophoresis. Specifically, the activation procedure involves sending a high voltage and current through the electrode, which results in significant reduction of impedance so that high fidelity ECG signals can be obtained. Using the activation procedure, the ideal concentration of carbon black powder in the mixture with the adhesive was examined. It was determined that the optimum concentration of carbon black which minimized post-activation impedance was 10%. Once the optimal carbon black powder concentration was determined, extensive signal analysis was performed to compare the performance of the CSA electrodes to the standard silver-silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes. As a part of data analysis, electrode-skin contact impedance of the CSA was measured and compared to the standard Ag/AgCl electrodes; we found consistently lower impedance for CSA electrodes. For quantitative data analysis, we simultaneously collected ECG data with CSA and Ag/AgCl electrodes from 17 healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV) indices and ECG morphological waveforms were calculated to compare CSA and Ag/AgCl electrodes. Non-significant differences for most of the HRV indices between CSA and Ag/AgCl electrodes were found. Of the morphological waveform metrics consisting of R-wave peak amplitude, ST-segment elevation and QT interval, only the first index was found to be significantly different between the two media. The response of CSA electrodes to motion artifacts was also tested, and we found in general no difference in the quality of the ECG signal

  13. Sol-Gel Zinc Oxide Humidity Sensors Integrated with a Ring Oscillator Circuit On-a-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Zhi Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study develops an integrated humidity microsensor fabricated using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process. The integrated humidity sensor consists of a humidity sensor and a ring oscillator circuit on-a-chip. The humidity sensor is composed of a sensitive film and branch interdigitated electrodes. The sensitive film is zinc oxide prepared by sol-gel method. After completion of the CMOS process, the sensor requires a post-process to remove the sacrificial oxide layer and to coat the zinc oxide film on the interdigitated electrodes. The capacitance of the sensor changes when the sensitive film adsorbs water vapor. The circuit is used to convert the capacitance of the humidity sensor into the oscillation frequency output. Experimental results show that the output frequency of the sensor changes from 84.3 to 73.4 MHz at 30 °C as the humidity increases 40 to 90%RH.

  14. Influence of extracellular zinc on M1 microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Youichirou; Aratake, Takaaki; Shimizu, Shogo; Shimizu, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kumiko; Tsuda, Masayuki; Yawata, Toshio; Ueba, Tetuya; Saito, Motoaki

    2017-02-27

    Extracellular zinc, which is released from hippocampal neurons in response to brain ischaemia, triggers morphological changes in microglia. Under ischaemic conditions, microglia exhibit two opposite activation states (M1 and M2 activation), which may be further regulated by the microenvironment. We examined the role of extracellular zinc on M1 activation of microglia. Pre-treatment of microglia with 30-60 μM ZnCl 2 resulted in dose-dependent increases in interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) secretion when M1 activation was induced by lipopolysaccharide administration. In contrast, the cell-permeable zinc chelator TPEN, the radical scavenger Trolox, and the P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 suppressed the effects of zinc pre-treatment on microglia. Furthermore, endogenous zinc release was induced by cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion, resulting in increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and the microglial M1 surface marker CD16/32, without hippocampal neuronal cell loss, in addition to impairments in object recognition memory. However, these effects were suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. These findings suggest that extracellular zinc may prime microglia to enhance production of pro-inflammatory cytokines via P2X7 receptor activation followed by reactive oxygen species generation in response to stimuli that trigger M1 activation, and that these inflammatory processes may result in deficits in object recognition memory.

  15. Rambutan peels promoted biomimetic synthesis of bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvakkumar, R.; Suresh, J.; Saravanakumar, B.; Joseph Nathanael, A.; Hong, Sun Ig; Rajendran, V.

    2015-02-01

    A naturally occurring rambutan peel waste was employed to synthesis bioinspired zinc oxide nanochains. Rambutan peels has the ability of ligating zinc ions as a natural ligation agent resulting in zinc oxide nanochains formation due to its extended polyphenolic system over incubation period. Successful formation of zinc oxide nanochains was confirmed employing transmission electron microscopy studies. About 60% and ∼40% cell viability was lost and 50% and 10% morphological change was observed in 7 and 4 days incubated ZnO treated cells compared with control. Moreover, 50% and 55% of cell death was observed at 24 and 48 h incubation with 7 days treated ZnO cells and hence alters and disturbs the growth of cancer cells and could be used for liver cancer cell treatment.

  16. Improvement in Electrode Performance of Novel SWCNT Loaded Three-Dimensional Porous RVC Composite Electrodes by Electrochemical Deposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoigli, Mohammed; Meriey, Al Yahya; Alharbi, Khalid N.

    2018-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) composite electrodes were prepared by depositing different amounts of acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (a-SWCNTs) on porous reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) through the electrochemical deposition method. The SWCNT was functionalized by the reflux method in nitric acid and was proven by Raman and visible spectra. The optimum time for sonication to disperse the functionalized SWCNT (a-SWCNT) in dimethyl formamide (DMF) well was determined by UV spectra. The average pore size of RVC electrodes was calculated from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Moreover, the surface morphology of composite electrodes was also examined by SEM study. All 3D electrodes were evaluated for their electrochemical properties by cyclic voltammetry. The result showed that the value of specific capacitance of the electrode increases with the increase in the amount of a-SWCNT in geometric volume. However, the value of specific capacitance per gram decreases with the increase in scan rate as well as the amount of a-SWCNT. The stability of the electrodes was also tested. This revealed that all the electrodes were stable; however, lower a-SWCNT-loaded electrodes had excellent cyclic stability. These results suggest that the a-SWCNT-coated RVC electrodes have promise as an effective technology for desalination. PMID:29301258

  17. Influence of Electrodes Characteristics on The Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hadi Radi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A single chamber microbial fuel cell is designed incorporating microorganism as catalyst with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Kelbssila bacteria as an electrolyte at pH =7 and an operating temperature of 30 C0 in batch mode. The electrodes are made of three different types of materials, namely; aluminum, copper and zinc. Each material is configurated at three different shape (circle, rectangle and square in three different cross sectional areas of (3.14,7.065and 12.56cm2. The distance between anode and cathode is fixed at different values of 0.5,1,2,4 and 6cm. Results indicate that electrodes of circular shape show the best performance among other shapes investigated in this study, however the area of the anode is found to affect the cell performance more than its shape. Using zinc as an anode material and copper as a cathode in circular shape with cross sectional area of 12.56 cm2 and a 2 cm distance between them output the best performance in comparison to other combinations investigated in this study.

  18. Double-layer indium doped zinc oxide for silicon thin-film solar cell prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Bao-Chen; Zhang Xiao-Dan; Wei Chang-Chun; Sun Jian; Ni Jian; Zhao Ying

    2011-01-01

    Indium doped zinc oxide (ZnO:In) thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on corning eagle 2000 glass substrate. 1 and 2 at.% indium doped single-layer ZnO:In thin films with different amounts of acetic acid added in the initial solution were fabricated. The 1 at.% indium doped single-layers have triangle grains. The 2 at.% indium doped single-layer with 0.18 acetic acid adding has the resistivity of 6.82×10 −3 Ω·cm and particle grains. The double-layers structure is designed to fabricate the ZnO:In thin film with low resistivity (2.58×10 −3 Ω·cm) and good surface morphology. It is found that the surface morphology of the double-layer ZnO:In film strongly depends on the substrate-layer, and the second-layer plays a large part in the resistivity of the double-layer ZnO:In thin film. Both total and direct transmittances of the double-layer ZnO:In film are above 80% in the visible light region. Single junction a-Si:H solar cell based on the double-layer ZnO:In as front electrode is also investigated. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  19. Conductivity study of nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Yu-Ting; Lan, Wen-How; Huang, Kai-Feng; Lin, Jia-Ching; Chang, Kuo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the spray pyrolysis method was used to prepare unintentionally doped and nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide films by using zinc acetate, calcium nitrate precursor, and ammonium acetate precursor. Morphological and structural analyses were conducted using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that film grain size decreased as the nitrogen doping was increased. Both calcium oxide and zinc oxide structures were identified in the unintentionally doped calcium zinc oxide. When nitrogen doping was introduced, the film mainly exhibited a zinc oxide structure with preferred (002) and (101) orientations. The concentration and mobility were investigated using a Hall measurement system. P-type films with a mobility and concentration of 10.6 cm"2 V"−"1 s"−"1 and 2.8×10"1"7 cm"−"3, respectively, were obtained. Moreover, according to a temperature-dependent conductivity analysis, an acceptor state with activation energy 0.266 eV dominated the p-type conduction for the unintentionally doped calcium zinc oxide. By contrast, a grain boundary with a barrier height of 0.274–0.292 eV dominated the hole conduction for the nitrogen-doped calcium zinc oxide films.

  20. The behavior of thiourea and flotation reagents in zinc electrowinning circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, D. J.; Dutrizac, J. E.; Brannen, J. M.; Hardy, D. J.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of thiourea and flotation reagents on the electrowinning of zinc from industrial electrolytes was studied, and all the compounds were found to reduce the zinc deposition current efficiency and to change the properties of the zinc deposits. The effectiveness of activated carbon, two-stage cementation, and hot acid leaching on the destruction/removal of the organic compounds also was addressed. Activated carbon pretreatment of thiourea-containing electrolytes restored the current efficiency for 1-hour zinc deposits to values comparable to those obtained for thiourea-free electrolytes. The activated carbon pretreatment, however, altered the deposit morphology and orientation, but produced a cyclic voltammogram similar to that of the thiourea-free solution. Two-stage cementation did not counteract the harmful effects of thiourea. Hot acid leaching destroyed the thiourea but generated large concentrations of ferrous ion that reduced the current efficiency. The ferrous concentrations, however, were readily controlled by KMnO4 or MnO2 oxidation. None of the treatment options (activated carbon, two-stage cementation, or hot acid leaching) was effective in controlling the flotation reagents, and their moderately harmful effect on zinc electrowinning persisted. Even low concentrations of these reagents polarized zinc deposition, and this resulted in a “glue-type” zinc deposit.

  1. Screen-printed carbon-containing electrode modified with formazan for determining copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stozhko, N.Yu.; Aleshina, L.V.; Brajnina, Kh.Z.; Lipunova, G.N.; Maslakova, T.I.

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of some hetarylated formazans introduced into the bulk of carbon-containing inks of screen-printed electrodes was studied. The compositions of complexes formed at the electrode surface were found, and their stability constants were estimated. It was shown that the modification of carbon-containing screen-printed electrode with 1-(o-chlorophenyl-3-phenyl-5-(6-methyl-4-oxo-pyrimidinyl-2)formazan improves its sensitivity, lowers detection limits for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II), and ensures high precision of the results of voltammetric analysis [ru

  2. Passivation of Cu-Zn alloy on low carbon steel electrodeposited from a pyrophosphate medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Abdulcabbar; Yakup Hacıibrahimoğlu, M.; Bedir, Metin

    2018-01-01

    The motivation of this study is to understand whether zinc-based alloy also has a passivation behaviour similar to zinc itself. Cu-Zn alloys were electrodeposited potentiostatically from a pyrophosphate medium on a carbon steel electrode and their corrosion behaviours were studied. Pt and carbon steel electrodes were used in order to examine the corrosion/passivation behaviour of bare Cu, bare Zn and Cu-Zn alloy coatings. The passivation behaviour of all brass-modified electrodes having Zn content between 10% and 100% was investigated. The growth potential affects the morphology and structure of crystals. The brass coatings are more porous than their pure components. The crystalline structure of Cu-Zn alloys can be obtained by changing the deposition potential. The zinc content in brass increases when the deposition voltage applied decreases. However, the growth potential and the ratio of zinc in brass do not affect the passivation behaviour of the resulting alloys. The coatings obtained by applying different growth potentials were immersed in tap water for 24 h to compare their corrosion behaviours with carbon steel having pitting formation.

  3. Electrochemical studies on nanometal oxide-activated carbon composite electrodes for aqueous supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mui Yen; Khiew, Poi Sim; Isa, Dino; Chiu, Wee Siong

    2014-11-01

    In present study, the electrochemical performance of eco-friendly and cost-effective titanium oxide (TiO2)-based and zinc oxide-based nanocomposite electrodes were studied in neutral aqueous Na2SO3 electrolyte, respectively. The electrochemical properties of these composite electrodes were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge (CD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The experimental results reveal that these two nanocomposite electrodes achieve the highest specific capacitance at fairly low oxide loading onto activated carbon (AC) electrodes, respectively. Considerable enhancement of the electrochemical properties of TiO2/AC and ZnO/AC nanocomposite electrodes is achieved via synergistic effects contributed from the nanostructured metal oxides and the high surface area mesoporous AC. Cations and anions from metal oxides and aqueous electrolyte such as Ti4+, Zn2+, Na+ and SO32- can occupy some pores within the high-surface-area AC electrodes, forming the electric double layer at the electrode-electrolyte interface. Additionally, both TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles can provide favourable surface adsorption sites for SO32- anions which subsequently facilitate the faradaic processes for pseudocapacitive effect. These two systems provide the low cost material electrodes and the low environmental impact electrolyte which offer the increased charge storage without compromising charge storage kinetics.

  4. Zinc oxide inverse opal electrodes modified by glucose oxidase for electrochemical and photoelectrochemical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lei; Song, Jian; Xu, Ru; Liu, Dali; Dong, Biao; Xu, Lin; Song, Hongwei

    2014-09-15

    The ZnO inverse opal photonic crystals (IOPCs) were synthesized by the sol-gel method using the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as a template. For glucose detection, glucose oxidase (GOD) was further immobilized on the inwall and surface of the IOPCs. The biosensing properties toward glucose of the Nafion/GOD/ZnO IOPCs modified FTO electrodes were carefully studied and the results indicated that the sensitivity of ZnO IOPCs modified electrode was 18 times than reference electrode due to the large surface area and uniform porous structure of ZnO IOPCs. Moreover, photoelectrochemical detection for glucose using the electrode was realized and the sensitivity approached to 52.4 µA mM(-1) cm(-2), which was about four times to electrochemical detection (14.1 µA mM(-1) cm(-2)). It indicated that photoelectrochemical detection can highly improve the sensor performance than conventional electrochemical method. It also exhibited an excellent anti-interference property and a good stability at the same time. This work provides a promising approach for realizing excellent photoelectrochemical biosensor of similar semiconductor photoelectric material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigation of novel zinc molybdate-graphene nanocomposite for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. Joji; Vickraman, P.; Justin, A. Simon

    2018-06-01

    Novel zinc molybdate-graphene nanocomposite is prepared for the first time in a fast, facile and eco-friendly microwave synthesis route as an electrode material for electrochemical supercapacitors. The as-prepared sample is investigated by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, Raman, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope techniques. The studies have confirmed the formation of ZnMoO4 and its composite with graphene. The synthesized materials are subjected to electrochemical characterization studies in 2M KOH electrolyte solution which prove that ZnMoO4-graphene as an effective electrode material for supercapacitor applications. ZnMoO4 in its composite behavior has exhibited a specific capacitance of 272.93 F g- 1 at 0.5 A g- 1 with good cyclic stability for 1000 cycles.

  6. Characterization of Platinum Electrodes and In-situ Cell Confluency Measurement Based on Current Changes of Cell-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Fhong SOON

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the development of a biosensor to examine the growth confluency of human derived keratinocytes (HaCaT cell lines in-situ. The biosensor consists of a sputter- coated glass substrate with platinum patterns. Cells were grown on the conductive substrates and the confluency of the cells were monitored in-situ based on the conductivity changes of the substrates. Characterization of the cell proliferation and confluency were interrogated using electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS techniques and current change of cells using a pico-ammeter. The investigation was followed by the electrical characterization of the platinum electrode (PE using a two probe I-V measurement system. The surface morphology of platinum electrodes were studied using an atomic force microscopy (AFM and the HaCaT cell morphology was studied using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM. The microscopy results showed that the cells coupled and proliferated on the platinum electrodes. For monitoring the conductivity and impedance changes of the cell-electrode in-situ, the cover of a Petri dish was inserted with pogo pins to be in contact with the platinum electrodes. The impedance was sampled using the ECIS technique at a twenty-four hour interval. In our findings, the cell proliferation rate can be measured by observing the changes in capacitance or impedance measured at low ac frequencies ranged from 10 - 1 kHz. In good agreement, the current measured at micro-ampere range by the biosensor decreased as the cell coverage area increased over the time. Thus, the percent of cell confluence was shown inversely proportional to the current changes.

  7. Precipitation of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Bicontinuous Microemulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana E. Romo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles were obtained directly, avoiding the calcination step, by precipitation at 70°C in bicontinuous microemulsions stabilized with a mixture of surfactants sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl sulfosuccinate/sodium dodecyl sulfate (2/1, wt./wt. containing 0.7 M zinc nitrate aqueous solution. Two concentrations of aqueous solution of precipitating agent sodium hydroxide were used under different dosing times on microemulsion. Characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy allowed us to identify particles with an acicular rod-like morphology and a hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure as small as 8.5 and 30 nm in average diameter and length, respectively. Productivities much higher than those typical in the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles via reverse microemulsions were obtained. Particle size was the same at the two studied sodium hydroxide concentrations, while it increases as dosing time of the precipitant agent increases. It is believed that the surfactant film on the microemulsion channels restricts the particle diameter growth.

  8. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Rod-like zinc oxide constructed by nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia Zhigang [Chemisty Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yue Linhai [Chemisty Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)], E-mail: zjchem_yue@126.com; Zheng Yifan [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Xu Zhude [Chemisty Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2008-01-15

    One-dimensional (1D) rod-like structure of znic oxide constructed by nanoparticles was synthesized by the thermal treatment of zinc oxalate sub-micron rods, which were obtained via alcohol thermal process. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. SEM and TEM show that the morphology of zinc oxalate dihydrate precursor is rod-like, about 400 nm in average diameter and 3 {mu}m in average length. The zinc oxide obtained by annealing zinc oxalate exhibits 1D rod-like structure constructed by ZnO nanoparticles in original direction of the precursor. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of as-prepared ZnO shows UV emission around 398 nm and a diverse visible emission peaks indicating that there are deep level defects in ZnO nanoparticles.

  10. Rod-like zinc oxide constructed by nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Zhigang; Yue Linhai; Zheng Yifan; Xu Zhude

    2008-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) rod-like structure of znic oxide constructed by nanoparticles was synthesized by the thermal treatment of zinc oxalate sub-micron rods, which were obtained via alcohol thermal process. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. SEM and TEM show that the morphology of zinc oxalate dihydrate precursor is rod-like, about 400 nm in average diameter and 3 μm in average length. The zinc oxide obtained by annealing zinc oxalate exhibits 1D rod-like structure constructed by ZnO nanoparticles in original direction of the precursor. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of as-prepared ZnO shows UV emission around 398 nm and a diverse visible emission peaks indicating that there are deep level defects in ZnO nanoparticles

  11. Fruit peel extract mediated green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, O. J.; Soto-Robles, C. A.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, C. M.; Vilchis-Nestor, A. R.; Castro-Beltrán, A.; Olivas, A.; Luque, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a study of the effects on the photocatalytic capabilities of zinc oxide nanoparticles when prepared via green synthesis using different fruit peel extracts as reducing agents. Zinc nitrate was used as a source of the zinc ions, while Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Citrus sinensis (orange), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) and Citrus aurantifolia (lemon) contributed their peels for extracts. The Synthesized Samples were studied and characterized through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). All samples presented a band at 618 cm-1, indicating the presence of the Znsbnd O bond. The different samples all presented the same hexagonal crystal growth in their structure, the Wurtzite phase. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles showed that, depending on the extract used, the samples vary in size and shape distribution due to the chemical composition of the extracts. The photocatalytic properties of the zinc oxide samples were tested through UV light aided degradation of methylene blue. Most samples exhibited degradation rates at 180 min of around 97%, a major improvement when compared to chemically synthesized commercially available zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  12. Effect of Post Treatment For Cu-Cr Source/Drain Electrodes on a-IGZO TFTs

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shiben; Fang, Zhiqiang; Ning, Honglong; Tao, Ruiqiang; Liu, Xianzhe; Zeng, Yong; Yao, Rihui; Huang, Fuxiang; Li, Zhengcao; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Lan, Linfeng; Peng, Junbiao

    2016-01-01

    We report a high-performance amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with new copper-chromium (Cu-Cr) alloy source/drain electrodes. The TFT shows a high mobility of 39.4 cm 2 ?V ? 1 ?s ? 1 a turn-on voltage of ?0.8 V and a low subthreshold swing of 0.47 V/decade. Cu diffusion is suppressed because pre-annealing can protect a-IGZO from damage during the electrode sputtering and reduce the copper diffusion paths by making film denser. Due to the interaction of C...

  13. Modification of Patterned Nanoporous Gold Thin Film Electrodes via Electro-annealing and Electrochemical Etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeeva, Tatiana

    Nanostructured materials have had a major impact on various fields, including medicine, catalysis, and energy storage, for the major part due to unique phenomena that arise at nanoscale. For this reason, there is a sustained need for new nanostructured materials, techniques to pattern them, and methods to precisely control their nanostructure. To that end, the primary focus of this dissertation is to demonstrate novel techniques to fabricate and tailor the morphology of a class of nanoporous metals, obtained by a process known as dealloying. In this process, while the less noble constituent of an alloy is chemically dissolved, surface-diffusion of the more noble constituent leads to self-assembly of a bicontinuous ligament network with characteristic porosity of ˜70% and ligament diameter of 10s of nanometers. As a model material produced by dealloying, this work employ nanoporous gold (np-Au), which has attracted significant attention of desirable features, such as high effective surface area, electrical conductivity, well-defined thiol-based surface modification strategies, microfabrication-compatibility, and biocompatibility. The most commonly method used to modify the morphology of np-Au is thermal treatment, where the enhanced diffusivity of the surface atoms leads to ligament (and consequently pore) coarsening. This method, however, is not conducive to modifying the morphology of thin films at specific locations on the film, which is necessary for creating devices that may need to contain different morphologies on a single device. In addition, coarsening attained by thermal treatment also leads to an undesirable reduction in effective surface area. In response to these challenges, this work demonstrates two different techniques that enables in situ modification of np-Au thin film electrodes obtained by sputter-deposition of a precursors silver-rich gold-silver alloy. The first method, referred to as electro-annealing, is achieved by injecting electrical

  14. Preparation and characterization of a zinc oxide nanopowder supported onto inorganic clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Mohamed; Afify, Ahmed Sabry; Tulliani, Jean-Marc; Ataalla, Mohamed; Staneva, Anna; Dimitriev, Yanko; Mohammed, Amr

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles are obtained by a wet chemical method using zinc sulphate as a raw material. Doping sepiolite, micro-fibrous inorganic clay, with ZnO after precipitation under basic conditions and subsequent thermal treatment is investigated as both materials are abundant. They are used for the development of humidity and gas sensors of great environmental importance. The particle size distribution, the morphology and the composition of the powder samples are characterized by X-Ray diffraction accompanied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques. The data obtained confirm the formation of zinc oxide nanoparticles of a size of 10 nm on the modified sepiolite grains. Keywords: ZnO, sepiolite, nanoparticles, doping.

  15. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama, E-mail: rkant@chemistry.du.ac.in

    2013-10-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  16. Quantitative roughness characterization and 3D reconstruction of electrode surface using cyclic voltammetry and SEM image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, Shweta; Kant, Rama

    2013-01-01

    Area measurements from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and image from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are used to characterize electrode statistical morphology, 3D surface reconstruction and its electroactivity. SEM images of single phased materials correspond to two-dimensional (2D) projections of 3D structures, leading to an incomplete characterization. Lack of third dimension information in SEM image is circumvented using equivalence between denoised SEM image and CV area measurements. This CV-SEM method can be used to estimate power spectral density (PSD), width, gradient, finite fractal nature of roughness and local morphology of the electrode. We show that the surface morphological statistical property like distribution function of gradient can be related to local electro-activity. Electrode surface gradient micrographs generated here can provide map of electro-activity sites. Finally, the densely and uniformly packed small gradient over the Pt-surface is the determining criterion for high intrinsic electrode activity.

  17. Nanostructure selenium compounds as pseudocapacitive electrodes for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guofu; Hua, Fengting; Sun, Kanjun; Fenga, Enke; Peng, Hui; Zhang, Zhiguo; Lei, Ziqiang

    2018-01-01

    The electrochemical performance of an energy conversion and storage device like the supercapacitor mainly depends on the microstructure and morphology of the electrodes. In this paper, to improve the capacitance performance of the supercapacitor, the all-pseudocapacitive electrodes of lamella-like Bi 18 SeO 29 /BiSe as the negative electrode and flower-like Co 0.85 Se nanosheets as the positive electrode are synthesized by using a facile low-temperature one-step hydrothermal method. The microstructures and morphology of the electrode materials are carefully characterized, and the capacitance performances are also tested. The Bi 18 SeO 29 /BiSe and Co 0.85 Se have high specific capacitance (471.3 F g -1 and 255 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 ), high conductivity, outstanding cycling stability, as well as good rate capability. The assembled asymmetric supercapacitor completely based on the pseudocapacitive electrodes exhibits outstanding cycling stability (about 93% capacitance retention after 5000 cycles). Moreover, the devices exhibit high energy density of 24.2 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 871.2 W kg -1 in the voltage window of 0-1.6 V with 2 M KOH solution.

  18. Highly transparent vanadium oxide-graded indium zinc oxide electrodes for flexible organic solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun-Hye; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-01-01

    We investigated characteristics of amorphous V_2O_5-graded InZnO (IZO) films to use as a flexible anode for flexible organic solar cells (FOSCs). Graded sputtering of the V_2O_5 layer on the IZO layer produced V_2O_5-graded IZO anodes (VGIZO) with a sheet resistance of 42.14 Ω/square, a resistivity of 6.32 × 10"−"4 Ω cm, and an optical transmittance of 82.15%, as well as good mechanical flexibility. In addition, the VGIZO electrode showed a greater work function of 5.2 eV than that (4.9 eV) of an IZO anode, which is beneficial for hole extraction from an organic active layer. Due to the higher work function of the VGIZO electrodes, FOSCs fabricated on the flexible VGIZO anode exhibited a higher power conversion efficiency 2.753% than that of FOSCs on the IZO anode. This indicates that the V_2O_5 graded sputtering is a promising technique to increase the work function of the IZO anode without change in sheet resistance and transmittance. - Highlights: • Transparent and flexible V_2O_5 graded IZO (VGIZO) electrodes. • High work function of VGIZO electrodes • The VGIZO film is a promising flexible anode for flexible organic solar cells.

  19. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  20. On the interplay of morphology and electronic conductivity of rotationally spun carbon fiber mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Martin; Go, Dennis; Lott, Philipp; Müller, Sandra; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Kuehne, Alexander J. C.; Roling, Bernhard

    2017-09-01

    Carbon-based materials are used as electrode materials in a wide range of electrochemical applications, e.g., in batteries, supercapacitors, and fuel cells. For these applications, the electronic conductivity of the materials plays an important role. Currently, porous carbon materials with complex morphologies and hierarchical pore structures are in the focus of research. The complex morphologies influence the electronic transport and may lead to an anisotropic electronic conductivity. In this paper, we unravel the influence of the morphology of rotationally spun carbon fiber mats on their electronic conductivity. By combining experiments with finite-element simulations, we compare and evaluate different electrode setups for conductivity measurements. While the "bar-type method" with two parallel electrodes on the same face of the sample yields information about the intrinsic conductivity of the carbon fibers, the "parallel-plate method" with two electrodes on opposite faces gives information about the electronic transport orthogonal to the faces. Results obtained for the van-der-Pauw method suggest that this method is not well suited for understanding morphology-transport relations in these materials.

  1. Preparation and characterization of PbO2–ZrO2 nanocomposite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yingwu; Zhao Chunmei; Zhu Jin

    2012-01-01

    PbO 2 –ZrO 2 nanocomposite electrodes were prepared by the anodic codeposition in the lead nitrate plating bath containing ZrO 2 nanoparticles. The influences of the ZrO 2 nanoparticles concentration, current density, temperature and stirring rate of the plating bath on the composition of the nanocomposite electrodes were investigated. The surface morphology and the structure of the nanocomposite electrodes were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The experimental results show that the addition of ZrO 2 nanoparticles in the electrodeposition process of lead dioxide significantly increases the lifetime of nanocomposite electrodes. The PbO 2 –ZrO 2 nanocomposite electrodes have a service life of 141 h which is almost four times longer than that of the pure PbO 2 electrodes. The morphology of PbO 2 –ZrO 2 nanocomposite electrodes is more compact and finer than that of PbO 2 electrodes. The relative surface area of the composite electrodes is approximately 2 times that of the pure PbO 2 electrodes. The structure test shows that the addition of ZrO 2 nanoparticles into the plating bath decreases the grain size of the PbO 2 –ZrO 2 nanocomposite electrodes. The anodic polarization curves show that the oxygen evolution overpotential of PbO 2 –ZrO 2 nanocomposite electrodes is higher than PbO 2 electrodes. The pollutant anodic oxidation experiment show that the PbO 2 –ZrO 2 nanocomposite electrode exhibited the better performance for the degradation of 4-chlorophenol than PbO 2 electrode, the removal ratio of COD reached 96.2%.

  2. Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Vay, Laura [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

  3. Structure and morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Effects of temperature and energy fluence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillén, G. García; Palma, M.I. Mendivil [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León – Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600 (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66455 (Mexico); and others

    2015-07-15

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a zinc metal target at different water temperatures (room temperature, 50, 70 and 90 °C). Ablation was carried out using 532 nm output from a pulsed (10 ns, 10 Hz) Nd:YAG laser at three different laser fluence. Analysis of the morphology, crystalline phase, elemental composition, optical and luminescent properties were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed that a change in temperature resulted in ZnO and Zn(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles with different sizes and morphologies. XPS results confirmed the compositions and chemical states of these nanoparticles. These zinc nanomaterials showed emission in the ultraviolet (UV) and blue regions. The results of this work demonstrated that by varying the liquid medium temperature, the structure, composition, morphology and optical properties of the nanomaterials could be modified during pulsed laser ablation in liquid. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zinc nanomaterial colloids were synthesized by PLAL. • Effects of laser fluence and the distilled water temperature were analyzed. • The final structure varied with the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • The morphology was dependent on the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • Zinc nanocolloids showed emission in the UV and blue region.

  4. Structure and morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in liquid: Effects of temperature and energy fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén, G. García; Palma, M.I. Mendivil; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles were prepared by pulsed laser ablation of a zinc metal target at different water temperatures (room temperature, 50, 70 and 90 °C). Ablation was carried out using 532 nm output from a pulsed (10 ns, 10 Hz) Nd:YAG laser at three different laser fluence. Analysis of the morphology, crystalline phase, elemental composition, optical and luminescent properties were done using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), UV–visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. TEM analysis showed that a change in temperature resulted in ZnO and Zn(OH) 2 nanoparticles with different sizes and morphologies. XPS results confirmed the compositions and chemical states of these nanoparticles. These zinc nanomaterials showed emission in the ultraviolet (UV) and blue regions. The results of this work demonstrated that by varying the liquid medium temperature, the structure, composition, morphology and optical properties of the nanomaterials could be modified during pulsed laser ablation in liquid. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Zinc nanomaterial colloids were synthesized by PLAL. • Effects of laser fluence and the distilled water temperature were analyzed. • The final structure varied with the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • The morphology was dependent on the distilled water temperature and laser fluence. • Zinc nanocolloids showed emission in the UV and blue region

  5. Single-Layer Pentacene Field-Effect Transistors Using Electrodes Modified With Self-assembled Monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asadi, Kamal; Wu, Yu; Gholamrezaie, Fatemeh; Rudolf, Petra; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2009-01-01

    Pentacene field-effect transistor performance can be improved by modifying metal electrodes with self-assembled monolayers. The dominant role in performance is played by pentacene morphology rather than the work function of the modified electrodes. With optimized processing conditions,

  6. Electrochemical properties of polypyrrole/polyfuran polymer composite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Seong Keuck

    1998-01-01

    Poly pyrrole polymer(ppy) has an excellent electrical conductivity and can be easily polymerized on anode to give various morphology according to doped anion on electroactive sites. To improve the properties of brittleness, ageing and hydrophobicity, poly furan polymer(pfu) having a high initiation potential was anodically implanted in this porous ppy film matrix to get the Pt/ppy/pfu(x)type of polymer campsite electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance methods were used to these electrode, where PF 6 - , BF 4 - , and ClO 4 - ions were employed as dopants. The composition of the pfu(x) at the electrode was changed from 0 to 1.10, but the range was useful only at 0.1 to 0.2 as the redox electrode. The polymer composite electrode doped with PF 6 - was better in charge transfer resistance by a factor of 40 times and in double layer capacitance by a factor of 20 times than others. The charge transfer in the polymer film of the electrode was influenced on frequency change and equivalent circuit of this electrode had Warburg impedance including mass transfer

  7. Urea impedimetric biosensing using electrospun nanofibers modified with zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorini, Fernanda L.; Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Mercante, Luiza A.; Andre, Rafaela S.; Mattoso, Luiz H. C.; Correa, Daniel. S.

    2018-06-01

    Reliable analytical techniques to evaluate dairy products, including milk, are of outmost importance to ensure food safety against contaminants. Among possible substances employed as adulterants in milk, urea raises deep concern due to its harmful effects to consumer's health. In the present study, a biosensing platform was developed to be applied in the electrochemical detection of urea. The sensing platform was fabricated using polymeric electrospun nanofibers of polyamide 6 (PA6) and polypyrrole (PPy) deposited onto fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes, which were then modified with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO). This material showed excellent properties for the immobilization of urease enzyme, conferring the FTO/PA6/PPy/ZnO/urease electrode high sensitivity for urea detection within the concentration range between 0.1 and 250 mg dL-1 with a limit of detection of 0.011 mg dL-1. The results achieved evidence the potential of electrospun nanofibers-based electrodes for applications in biosensors aiming at dairy products analysis.

  8. Chemical Annealing of Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin Films: Effects on Film Morphology and Organic Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Cong

    2012-07-10

    We present a chemical annealing process for organic thin films. In this process, a thin film of a molecular material, such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), is exposed to a vapor of nitrogen-based ligand (e.g., pyrazine, pz, and triazine, tz), forming a film composed of the metal-ligand complex. Fast and quantitative formation of the complex leads to marked changes in the morphology and optical properties of the film. X-ray diffraction studies show that the chemical annealing process converts amorphous ZnTPP films to crystalline ZnTPP•ligand films, whose porphryin planes lie nearly parallel to the substrate (average deviation is 8° for the ZnTPP•pz film). Organic solar cells were prepared with ZnTPP donor and C 60 acceptor layers. Devices were prepared with and without chemical annealing of the ZnTPP layer with a pyrazine ligand. The devices with chemically annealed ZnTPP donor layer show an increase in short-circuit current (J SC) and fill factor (FF) relative to analogous unannealed devices, presumably because of enhanced exciton diffusion length and improved charge conductivity. The open circuit voltages (V OC) of the chemically annealed devices are lower than their unannealed counterpart because of enhanced polaron pair recombination at the donor/acceptor heterojunction. A net improvement of 5-20% in efficiency has been achieved, after chemical annealing of ZnTPP films with pyrazine. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  9. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    The feasibility of the nickel zinc battery for electric vehicle propulsion is discussed. The program is divided into seven distinct but highly interactive tasks collectively aimed at the development and commercialization of nickel zinc technology. These basic technical tasks are separator development, electrode development, product design and analysis, cell/module battery testing, process development, pilot manufacturing, and thermal manufacturing, and thermal management. Significant progress has been made in the understanding of separator failure mechanisms, and a generic category of materials has been specified for the 300+ deep discharge applications. Shape change has been reduced significantly. Progress in the area of thermal management was significant, with the development of a model that accurately represents heat generation and rejection rates during battery operation.

  10. The Impact of Hydrocalumites Additives on the Electrochemical Performance of Zinc-Nickel Secondary Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Xing; Yang, Zhanhong; Xiao, Xiang; Yang, Huan; Xie, Xiaoe; Huang, Jianhang

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocalumites additives are synthesized and proposed as an anodic additive for Zinc/Nickel alkaline secondary batteries. The as-prepared additives are characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). And the results illustrate that hydrocalumites additives are successfully prepared and have the typical structure of layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The effects of hydrocalumites additives on electrochemical performances of ZnO have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), tafel polarization tests, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge and discharge. Compared to the electrode with pure ZnO, the electrodes containing hydrocalumites additives show better reversibility, reveal better anti-corrosion property and exhibit more stable cycle performance. Especially when the electrode added with 12% (wt.) hydrocalumites, it exhibits the best cycle performance than the other electrodes. And its discharge capacity is about 450 mAh g −1 all the time, and hardly declines over all the 400 cycles. Based on these observations, the prepared hydrocalumites may be a promising and efficient additive for the ZnO electrode.

  11. Effect of mass density on surface morphology of electrodeposited manganese oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Avtar; Kumar, Davinder; Thakur, Anup; Kaur, Raminder

    2018-05-01

    This work focus on high surface area morphology of manganese oxide films which are currently required for electrochemical capacitor electrode to enhance their performance. Electrodeposition of manganese oxide films was carried out using Chronoamperometry for different deposition time ranging from 30 to 120 sec. Cronoamperomertic I-T integrated data have been used to analyze active mass of all electrodeposited films. Morphological study of the deposited films with different mass was carried out through scanning electron microscopy. Film deposited for 30 sec time show highest porous morphology than others. Manganese oxide films with high porosity are suitable for electrochemical capacitor electrode.

  12. In-vitro efficacy of different morphology zinc oxide nanopowders on Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Bakhori, Siti Khadijah; Mahmud, Shahrom; Ling, Chuo Ann; Sirelkhatim, Amna Hassan; Hasan, Habsah; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Masudi, Sam'an Malik; Seeni, Azman; Abd Rahman, Rosliza

    2017-09-01

    ZnO with two different morphologies were used to study the inhibition of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus mutans which are closely associated with tooth cavity. Rod-like shaped ZnO-A and plate-like shaped ZnO-B were produced using a zinc boiling furnace. The nanopowders were characterized using energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to confirm the properties of the ZnO polycrystalline wurtzite structures. XRD results show that the calculated crystallite sizes of ZnO-A and ZnO-B were 36.6 and 39.4nm, respectively, whereas DLS revealed particle size distributions of 21.82nm (ZnO-A) and 52.21nm (ZnO-B). PL spectra showed ion vacancy defects related to green and red luminescence for both ZnO particles. These defects evolved during the generation of reactive oxygen species which contributed to the antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was investigated using microdilution technique towards S. sobrinus and S. mutans at different nanopowder concentrations. Results showed that ZnO-A exhibited higher inhibition on both bacteria compared with ZnO-B. Moreover, S. mutans was more sensitive compared with S. sobrinus because of its higher inhibition rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Improvement in zinc nutrition due to zinc transporter-targeting strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Taiho

    2016-07-01

    Adequate intake of zinc from the daily diet is indispensable to maintain health. However, the dietary zinc content often fails to fulfill the recommended daily intake, leading to zinc deficiency and also increases the risk of developing chronic diseases, particularly in elderly individuals. Therefore, increased attention is required to overcome zinc deficiency and it is important to improve zinc nutrition in daily life. In the small intestine, the zinc transporter, ZIP4, functions as a component that is essential for zinc absorption. In this manuscript, we present a brief overview regarding zinc deficiency. Moreover, we review a novel strategy, called "ZIP4-targeting", which has the potential to enable efficient zinc absorption from the diet. ZIP4-targeting strategy is possibly a major step in preventing zinc deficiency and improving human health.

  14. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  15. Influence of e-Beam Irradiation on the Performance of Energy Storage and Conversion Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeok, Sung Hyeon; Jo, Won Jun; Lee, Duwon; Lee, Myung An [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Joong Hyeok; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Electron beam irradiation was known as an effective method to improve the stability and performance of electrodes by varying the chemical and physical properties. It has been reported that surface morphology, oxidation state, optical properties, and electrochemical properties can be modified by e-beam irradiation. In this work, influence of electron beam irradiation on the performance of electrode was studied for the applications in energy storage and conversion, such as secondary battery, supercapacitor, and fuel cell. Changes in physical and chemical properties of electrodes before and after e-beam irradiation were investigated. The crystallinity of the synthesized materials was investigated by X-ray diffraction, and the oxidation states were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was utilized to examine surface morphology. Crystallinity, surface morphology, and oxidation state were significantly changed by electron beam irradiation, and were found to be strongly dependent on irradiation time.

  16. Role of nanoparticles in phase separation and final morphology of superhydrophobic polypropylene/zinc oxide nanocomposite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejazi, Iman [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajalizadeh, Bardia [Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyfi, Javad, E-mail: Jseyfi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch, P.O. Box 36155-163, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Gity Mir Mohamad [Department of Polymer Engineering and Color Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Seyed-Hassan [School of Chemical Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 11155-4563, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khonakdar, Hossein Ali [Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-28

    In this work, phase separation process was revisited to study the effect of nanoparticles in acceleration of phase separation and formation of hierarchical structures. Superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared using polypropylene (PP) and the corresponding nanocomposites containing zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles through a typical solution casting method. The wettability and morphological behavior of the surfaces were investigated via water contact angle (WCA) measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. It was found that upon introduction of ZnO nanoparticles into the pure PP, the obtained surfaces have become superhydrophobic with WCAs above 150° and sliding angles below 10°. Calcination of ZnO nanoparticles was exploited to explicate the unexpected significant loss in superhydrophobicity of the sample loaded with high ZnO content. Crystallization behavior of the samples were also investigated via differential scanning calorimetry and correlated to superhydrophobicity of the surfaces. X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies were also utilized to further characterize the samples. An attempt was also made to present a more clear mechanism for formation of hierarchical structures which are responsible for superhydrophobicity. Likewise, the so far proposed mechanisms for formation of micro/nano roughness on the superhydrophobic surfaces were reviewed as well.

  17. Structural, morphological, optical and antibacterial activity of rod ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... (2016) 87: 57 c Indian Academy of Sciences ... of rod-shaped zinc oxide and manganese-doped ... PACS Nos 78.20.Ci; 78.67.Bf; 32.30.Rj; 78; 87.85.J−. 1. Introduction ... over, various morphologies of ZnO such as nanowires.

  18. A sensitive DNA biosensor fabricated from gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and zinc oxide nanowires on a glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jie; Li Shuping; Zhang Yuzhong

    2010-01-01

    We outline here the fabrication of a sensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor for the detection of sequence-specific target DNA. Zinc oxide nanowires (ZnONWs) were first immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with carboxyl groups were then dropped onto the surface of the ZnONWs. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were subsequently introduced to the surface of the MWNTs/ZnONWs by electrochemical deposition. A single-stranded DNA probe with a thiol group at the end (HS-ssDNA) was covalently immobilized on the surface of the AuNPs by forming an Au-S bond. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) were used to investigate the film assembly process. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to monitor DNA hybridization by measuring the electrochemical signals of [Ru(NH 3 ) 6 ] 3+ bounding to double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). The incorporation of ZnONWs and MWCNTs in this sensor design significantly enhances the sensitivity and the selectivity. This DNA biosensor can detect the target DNA quantitatively in the range of 1.0 x 10 -13 to 1.0 x 10 -7 M, with a detection limit of 3.5 x 10 -14 M (S/N = 3). In addition, the DNA biosensor exhibits excellent selectivity, even for single-mismatched DNA detection.

  19. Involvement of flocculin in negative potential-applied ITO electrode adhesion of yeast cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Sumihiro; Tsubouchi, Taishi; Usui, Keiko; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Tame, Akihiro; Nogi, Yuichi; Ohta, Yukari; Hatada, Yuji; Kato, Chiaki; Miwa, Tetsuya; Toyofuku, Takashi; Nagahama, Takehiko; Konishi, Masaaki; Nagano, Yuriko; Abe, Fumiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel methods for attachment and cultivation of specifically positioned single yeast cells on a microelectrode surface with the application of a weak electrical potential. Saccharomyces cerevisiae diploid strains attached to an indium tin oxide/glass (ITO) electrode to which a negative potential between −0.2 and −0.4 V vs. Ag/AgCl was applied, while they did not adhere to a gallium-doped zinc oxide/glass electrode surface. The yeast cells attached to the negative potential-applied ITO electrodes showed normal cell proliferation. We found that the flocculin FLO10 gene-disrupted diploid BY4743 mutant strain (flo10Δ /flo10Δ) almost completely lost the ability to adhere to the negative potential-applied ITO electrode. Our results indicate that the mechanisms of diploid BY4743 S. cerevisiae adhesion involve interaction between the negative potential-applied ITO electrode and the Flo10 protein on the cell wall surface. A combination of micropatterning techniques of living single yeast cell on the ITO electrode and omics technologies holds potential of novel, highly parallelized, microchip-based single-cell analysis that will contribute to new screening concepts and applications. PMID:26187908

  20. Electron Beam Mediated Simple Synthetic Route to Preparing Layered Zinc Hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Hyo Sun; Jung, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a novel and eco-friendly synthetic route for the preparation of a two-dimensional layered zinc hydroxide with intercalated nitrate anions. The layered zinc hydroxide nitrate, called 'zinc basic salt', was, in general, successfully synthesized, using an electron beam irradiation technique. The 2-propanol solutions containing hydrated zinc nitrate were directly irradiated with an electron-beam at room temperature, under atmospheric conditions, without stabilizers or base molecules. Under electron beam irradiation, the reactive OH· radicals were generated by radiolysis of water molecules in precursor metal salts. After further radiolytic processes, the hydroxyl anions might be formed by the reaction of solvated electrons and the OH· radical. Finally, the Zn 5 (OH) 8 (NO 3 ) 2 ·2H 2 O was precipitated by the reaction of zinc cation and hydroxyl anions. Structure and morphology of obtained compounds were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The chemical components of the products were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and elemental analysis (EA). The thermal behavior of products was studied by thermogravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA)

  1. Enhanced charging kinetics of porous electrodes: surface conduction as a short-circuit mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Gibou, Frederic; Squires, Todd M

    2014-08-29

    We use direct numerical simulations of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations to study the charging kinetics of porous electrodes and to evaluate the predictive capabilities of effective circuit models, both linear and nonlinear. The classic transmission line theory of de Levie holds for general electrode morphologies, but only at low applied potentials. Charging dynamics are slowed appreciably at high potentials, yet not as significantly as predicted by the nonlinear transmission line model of Biesheuvel and Bazant. We identify surface conduction as a mechanism which can effectively "short circuit" the high-resistance electrolyte in the bulk of the pores, thus accelerating the charging dynamics and boosting power densities. Notably, the boost in power density holds only for electrode morphologies with continuous conducting surfaces in the charging direction.

  2. Phosphate-bonded composite electrodes for hydrogen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potvin, E.; Menard, H.; Lalancette, J.M. (Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Chimie); Brossard, L. (Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada))

    1990-03-01

    A new process of cementing metallic powders to produce high surface area cathodes for alkaline water electrolysis is described. The binding compound is a tridimensional polymer of aluminium phosphate (AlPO{sub 4}). Phosphate-bonded composite electrodes give a low-polarization performance for hydrogen evolution in 1 M KOH aqueous solution in the case of 95wt% Pt and 98wt%Ni. When electrode materials are prepared with nickel powder, the electrocatalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction, the chemical stability and the electrical conductivity depend on the Ni content and morphology of the electrode. The best performance and chemical stability with Ni as the starting material are obtained for spiky filamentary particles produced by the decomposition of nickel carbonyl. (author).

  3. Conducting polymers based counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerender, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Saxena, Vibha, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gusain, Abhay, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Jha, P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Koiry, S. P., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Chauhan, A. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Aswal, D. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com; Gupta, S. K., E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com, E-mail: veeru1009@gmail.com [Technical Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Conducting polymer films were synthesized and employed as an alternative to expensive platinum counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films were spin-coated and polypyrrole films were electrochemically deposited via cyclic voltammetry method on ITO substrates. The morphology of the films were imaged by SEM and AFM. These films show good catalytic activity towards triiodide reduction as compared to Pt/FTO electrodes. Finally the photovoltaic performance of DSSC fabricated using N3 dye were compared with PT/FTO, PEDOT/ITO, and e-PPy counter electrodes.

  4. Electrochemical Oxidation of Glycerol Using Gold Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Rozali Othman; Amirah Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry, potential linear V and chronocuolometry methods were carried out to gain electrochemical behavior of glycerol at a gold electrode. Potassium hydroxide and sulfuric acid were chosen to be the electrolyte for the electro-oxidation of this organic compound. Besides gold plate electrode, gold composite electrode (Au-PVC) was also used as the working electrode. The Au-PVC composite electrode was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to determine its morphological aspects before and after used in electrochemical oxidation of glycerol. In alkaline solution, the adsorption of hydroxide species onto the surface of both gold plate and composite Au-PVC electrodes occurs at potential around 500 mV vs SCE. However, at gold plate electrode, there was a small, broad peak before the drastic escalation of current densities which indicates the charge transfer of the chemisorbed OH - anion. In acidic media, the gold oxide was formed after potential 1.0 V. From the cyclic voltammogram glycerol undergo oxidation twice in potassium hydroxide at gold plate and Au-PVC composite electrodes, while in sulfuric acid, oxidation reaction happened once for glycerol on the gold plate electrode. Overall, electrochemical oxidation of glycerol was more effective in alkaline media. Tafel graph which plotted from potential linear V method shows that Au-PVC composite electrode is better than gold plate electrode for the electro-oxidation of glycerol in alkaline solution. Electrochemical oxidation of glycerol products as analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) produced several carboxylic acids and phenolic compounds. (author)

  5. Gold leaf counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kazuhiro; Toyoda, Takeshi

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a gold leaf 100 nm thin film is used as the counter electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells. The traditional method of hammering gold foil to obtain a thin gold leaf, which requires only small amounts of gold, was employed. The gold leaf was then attached to the substrate using an adhesive to produce the gold electrode. The proposed approach for fabricating counter electrodes is demonstrated to be facile and cost-effective, as opposed to existing techniques. Compared with electrodes prepared with gold foil and sputtered gold, the gold leaf counter electrode demonstrates higher catalytic activity with a cobalt-complex electrolyte and higher cell efficiency. The origin of the improved performance was investigated by surface morphology examination (scanning electron microscopy), various electrochemical analyses (cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), and crystalline analysis (X-ray diffractometry).

  6. Electrochemical characterization of screen-printed and conventional carbon paste electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo; Hernandez-Santos, David; Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro Jose [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Martin-Pernia, Alberto [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica de Computadores y Sistemas, Universidad de Oviedo, 33204 Gijon, Asturias (Spain); Costa-Garcia, Agustin [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)], E-mail: costa@fq.uniovi.es

    2008-04-01

    This work compares the electroactivity of a conventional carbon paste electrode and non-pretreated commercially available screen-printed carbon electrodes (from Alderon Biosciences, University of Florence and DropSens) towards some benchmark redox couples like hexaammineruthenium (III), ferricyanide, p-aminophenol and hydroquinone. While cyclic voltammograms of Ru{sup 3+} did not show significative electron transfer reactivity differences between the electrodes tested, the other redox systems exhibited higher reversible behaviours on DropSens electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy and roughness analysis with a profilometer were applied to detect the surface morphology of the working electrodes. The roughness evaluated of the screen-printed carbon working electrodes increased in this order Alderon < University of Florence < DropSens. Finally, the most electrochemically active and rough unpretreated electrode (DropSens commercial screen-printed electrode) was used to study the electrochemical-chemical reaction mechanism of indigo carmine oxidation in 0.1 M sulphuric acid. This study showed that the adsorption of the oxidation product of indigo carmine is stabilized when it is adsorbed on the surface of the electrode.

  7. Electrochemical characterization of screen-printed and conventional carbon paste electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo; Hernandez-Santos, David; Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro Jose; Martin-Pernia, Alberto; Costa-Garcia, Agustin

    2008-01-01

    This work compares the electroactivity of a conventional carbon paste electrode and non-pretreated commercially available screen-printed carbon electrodes (from Alderon Biosciences, University of Florence and DropSens) towards some benchmark redox couples like hexaammineruthenium (III), ferricyanide, p-aminophenol and hydroquinone. While cyclic voltammograms of Ru 3+ did not show significative electron transfer reactivity differences between the electrodes tested, the other redox systems exhibited higher reversible behaviours on DropSens electrodes. Scanning electron microscopy and roughness analysis with a profilometer were applied to detect the surface morphology of the working electrodes. The roughness evaluated of the screen-printed carbon working electrodes increased in this order Alderon < University of Florence < DropSens. Finally, the most electrochemically active and rough unpretreated electrode (DropSens commercial screen-printed electrode) was used to study the electrochemical-chemical reaction mechanism of indigo carmine oxidation in 0.1 M sulphuric acid. This study showed that the adsorption of the oxidation product of indigo carmine is stabilized when it is adsorbed on the surface of the electrode

  8. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping, E-mail: dpc31@cam.ac.uk [Electrical Engineering Division, Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank [Thin Film Centre, University of the West of Scotland, Paisley PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Smithwick, Quinn [Disney Research, 521 Circle Seven Drive, Glendale, Los Angeles, California 91201 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO{sub x} thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm{sup 2}, exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively.

  9. High optical and switching performance electrochromic devices based on a zinc oxide nanowire with poly(methyl methacrylate) gel electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Young Tea; Chu, Daping; Neeves, Matthew; Placido, Frank; Smithwick, Quinn

    2014-01-01

    High performance electrochromic devices have been fabricated and demonstrated utilizing a solid polymer electrolyte and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire (NW) array counter electrode. The poly(methyl methacrylate) based polymer electrolyte was spin coated upon hydrothermally grown ZnO NW array counter electrodes, while electron beam evaporated NiO x thin films formed the working electrodes. Excellent optical contrast and switching speeds were observed in the fabricated devices with active areas of 2 cm 2 , exhibiting an optical contrast of 73.11% at the wavelength of 470 nm, combined with a fast switching time of 0.2 s and 0.4 s for bleaching and coloration, respectively

  10. Mechanical properties of bioplastics cassava starch film with Zinc Oxide nanofiller as reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harunsyah; Yunus, M.; Fauzan, Reza

    2017-06-01

    This study focuses on investigating the influence of zinc oxide nanofiller on the mechanical properties of bioplastic cassava starch films. Bioplastic cassava starch film-based zinc oxide reinforced composite biopolymeric films were prepared by casting technique. The content of zinc oxide in the bioplastic films was varied from 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% (w/w) by weight of starch. Surface morphologies of the composites bioplastic films were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM).The result showed that the Tensile strength (TS) was improved significantly with the additional of zinc oxide but the elongation at break (EB %) of the composites was decreased. The maximum tensile strength obtained was 22.30 kgf / mm on the additional of zinc oxide by 0.6% and plastilizer by 25%. Based on data of FTIR, the produced film plastic did not change the group function and it can be concluded that theinteraction in film plastic produced was only a physical interaction. Biodegradable plastic film based on cassava starch-zinc oxide and plasticizer glycerol showed that interesting mechanical properties being transparent, clear, homogeneous, flexible, and easily handled.

  11. Investigation on synergism of composite additives for zinc corrosion inhibition in alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hebing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang Qiming; Liang Man; Lv Dongsheng; Xu Mengqing; Li Hong [Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Weishan, E-mail: liwsh@scnu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} An kind of environmentally benign organic composite additives is used firstly. {yields} The corrosion of zinc is inhibited used the organic compound as additive. {yields} The rate performance of the battery used the organic compound as additive is improved. {yields} The synergism of composite additives for zinc corrosion inhibition is investigated. - Abstract: The synergism of imidazole (IMZ) and poly(ethylene glycol) 600 (PEG) for zinc corrosion inhibition in 3 mol L{sup -1} KOH solution was investigated using a combination of electrochemical and gravimetric methods, and the surface morphology of the zinc was observed by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that there is a synergistic effect between IMZ and PEG for the zinc corrosion inhibition. The difference in molecular structure, ring for IMZ and chain for PEG, and in binding atoms with zinc, nitrogen in IMZ and oxygen in PEG, contributes to this synergistic effect. IMZ inhibits zinc corrosion by mainly depressing the anodic reaction, whereas PEG by depressing the cathodic reaction. The storage performance of the zinc-manganese dioxide batteries using IMZ and/or PEG as inhibitors was determined by discharge test, with a comparison of the battery using mercury as the inhibitor. The battery containing 0.05% IMZ + 0.05% PEG exhibits better performance than the mercury-containing battery, especially when discharged at high rate.

  12. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  13. Antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Rayssa Souza; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes, E-mail: rayssasouza.net@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: With the emergence of resistant microbial organisms to multiple antibiotics, different shapes of silver nanoparticles are among the most promising antimicrobial agents that have been developed from nanotechnology. Besides the silver nanoparticles oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide (ZnO) is gaining prominence due to its bactericidal properties. [1-3]. Thus, this study aims to develop biomaterials from zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with silver with antimicrobial properties. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal processing by alkaline hydrolysis zinc acetate. Colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles were synthesized by the Turkevich method using sodium citrate to reduce silver nitrate at high pH and at 90 °C in the presence of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Both nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD and Raman spectra showed crystalline ZnO colloidal nanoparticles were obtained in the hexagonal phase. XRD measure showed cubic silver diffraction peaks cubic phase confirmed the presence of the silver nanoparticles decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles. SEM images showed ZnO nanoparticles presented a nanorod shapes with length around 80 nm decorated with spherical silver nanoparticles about 20 nm in diameter The results showed that crystalline zinc oxide colloidal nanoparticles with rod-like morphology and uniform decorated with silver spherical nanoparticles size were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. Results of antibacterial tests indicate that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results demonstrated that the ZnO/Ag nanoparticles have potential use as biomaterials in medical/odontological applications. (author)

  14. Microstructure and pseudocapacitive properties of electrodes constructed of oriented NiO-TiO2 nanotube arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Zhu, Kai; Yan, Yanfa; Perkins, Craig L; Frank, Arthur J

    2010-10-13

    We report on the synthesis and electrochemical properties of oriented NiO-TiO(2) nanotube (NT) arrays as electrodes for supercapacitors. The morphology of the films prepared by electrochemically anodizing Ni-Ti alloy foils was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopies, X-ray diffraction, and photoelectron spectroscopies. The morphology, crystal structure, and composition of the NT films were found to depend on the preparation conditions (anodization voltage and postgrowth annealing temperature). Annealing the as-grown NT arrays to a temperature of 600 °C transformed them from an amorphous phase to a mixture of crystalline rock salt NiO and rutile TiO(2). Changes in the morphology and crystal structure strongly influenced the electrochemical properties of the NT electrodes. Electrodes composed of NT films annealed at 600 °C displayed pseudocapacitor (redox-capacitor) behavior, including rapid charge/discharge kinetics and stable long-term cycling performance. At similar film thicknesses and surface areas, the NT-based electrodes showed a higher rate capability than the randomly packed nanoparticle-based electrodes. Even at the highest scan rate (500 mV/s), the capacitance of the NT electrodes was not much smaller (within 12%) than the capacitance measured at the slowest scan rate (5 mV/s). The faster charge/discharge kinetics of NT electrodes at high scan rates is attributed to the more ordered NT film architecture, which is expected to facilitate electron and ion transport during the charge-discharge reactions.

  15. Different methods to alter surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leber, M., E-mail: moritz.leber@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shandhi, M.M.H. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hogan, A. [Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Solzbacher, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Bhandari, R.; Negi, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Blackrock Microsystems, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Surface engineering of high aspect ratio silicon structures. - Highlights: • Multiple roughening techniques for high aspect ratio devices were investigated. • Modification of surface morphology of high aspect ratio silicon devices (1:15). • Decrease of 76% in impedance proves significant increase in surface area. - Abstract: In various applications such as neural prostheses or solar cells, there is a need to alter the surface morphology of high aspect ratio structures so that the real surface area is greater than geometrical area. The change in surface morphology enhances the devices functionality. One of the applications of altering the surface morphology is of neural implants such as the Utah electrode array (UEA) that communicate with single neurons by charge injection induced stimulation or by recording electrical neural signals. For high selectivity between single cells of the nervous system, the electrode surface area is required to be as small as possible, while the impedance is required to be as low as possible for good signal to noise ratios (SNR) during neural recording. For stimulation, high charge injection and charge transfer capacities of the electrodes are required, which increase with the electrode surface. Traditionally, researchers have worked with either increasing the roughness of the existing metallization (platinum grey, black) or other materials such as Iridium Oxide and PEDOT. All of these previously investigated methods lead to more complicated metal deposition processes that are difficult to control and often have a critical impact on the mechanical properties of the metal films. Therefore, a modification of the surface underneath the electrode's coating will increase its surface area while maintaining the standard and well controlled metal deposition process. In this work, the surfaces of the silicon micro-needles were engineered by creating a defined microstructure on the electrodes surface using several

  16. Ambient redox synthesis of vanadium-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles and their enhanced zinc storage properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaruqi, Muhammad Hilmy; Islam, Saiful; Mathew, Vinod; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Tung, Duong Pham; Jo, Jeonggeun; Kim, Seokhun; Baboo, Joseph Paul; Xiu, Zhiliang; Kim, Jaekook

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the first use of a V-doped MnO2 nanoparticle electrode for zinc-ion battery (ZIB) applications. The V-doped MnO2 was prepared via a simple redox reaction and the X-ray diffraction studies confirmed the formation of pure MnO2, accompanied by an anisotropic expansion of MnO2 lattice, suggesting the incorporation of V-ions into the MnO2 framework. V doping of MnO2 not only increased the specific surface area but also improved the electronic conductivity. When Zn-storage properties were tested, the V-doped MnO2 electrode registered a higher discharge capacity of 266 mAh g-1 compared to 213 mAh g-1 for the pure MnO2 electrode. On prolonged cycling, the doped electrode retained 31% higher capacity than that of the bare MnO2 electrode and thereby demonstrated superior cycling performance. This study may pave the way towards understanding the enhancement of the energy storage properties via doping in electrodes of aqueous ZIB applications and also furthers the efforts for the practical realization of a potential eco-friendly battery system.

  17. Formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li3N system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Takuya; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2004-01-01

    We investigated a possibility of electrochemical formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li 3 N system at 673 K. Zinc nitride films were obtained by means of potentiostatic electrolysis of zinc electrodes in the melt. From XRD analysis, it was confirmed that obtained films consisted of Zn 3 N 2 and LiZnN and that the composition of each film was effected by the applied potential value. In the potential range from 0.75 to 1.6 V (versus Li + /Li), the ratio of Zn 3 N 2 increased as the applied potential was more positive. Based on the result, we achieved the formation of Zn 3 N 2 film (3-5 μm) in anti-scandium oxide structure (a = 0.977 nm) by means of potentiostatic electrolysis at 1.6 V for 3 h

  18. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and a non-absorbed marker, /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with /sup 65/Zn and /sup 51/Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption.

  19. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi 65 ZnCl 2 and a non-absorbed marker, 51 CrCl 3 , dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with 65 Zn and 51 Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption

  20. Strong blue emission from zinc hydroxide carbonate nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Jing; Chen, Xuemin; Ling, Tao; Du, Xiwen

    2016-01-01

    Zinc hydroxide carbonate (ZHC) is a typical layered salt composed of zinc hydroxide layers separated with carbonate ions and water molecules. Studies of morphology control and the constitution of functional ZHC material with intercalated ions has been widely developed. Also, ZnO can be easily obtained by anneal treatment of ZHC, and the porous structure as synthesized had great potential in gas sensors, photocatalysts and dye-sensitized solar cells. However, the optical of ZHC have rarely been investigated. In our research, a strong blue emission of ZHC is reported. The effect of growth time, annealing treatment and modification of surfactants on blue emission have been systematically studied. Combined with information of interior effect of OH groups, crystal structure and electronegativity of surfactants, a possible emission mechanism of ZHC has been proposed.

  1. Different zinc sensitivity of Brassica organs is accompanied by distinct responses in protein nitration level and pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Lehotai, Nóra; Molnár, Árpád; Ördög, Attila; Bordé, Ádám; Laskay, Gábor; Erdei, László

    2016-03-01

    Zinc is an essential microelement, but its excess exerts toxic effects in plants. Heavy metal stress can alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) leading to oxidative and nitrosative damages; although the participation of these processes in Zn toxicity and tolerance is not yet known. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the zinc tolerance of Brassica organs and the putative correspondence of it with protein nitration as a relevant marker for nitrosative stress. Both examined Brassica species (B. juncea and B. napus) proved to be moderate Zn accumulators; however B. napus accumulated more from this metal in its organs. The zinc-induced damages (growth diminution, altered morphology, necrosis, chlorosis, and the decrease of photosynthetic activity) were slighter in the shoot system of B. napus than in B. juncea. The relative zinc tolerance of B. napus shoot was accompanied by moderate changes of the nitration pattern. In contrast, the root system of B. napus suffered more severe damages (growth reduction, altered morphology, viability loss) and slighter increase in nitration level compared to B. juncea. Based on these, the organs of Brassica species reacted differentially to excess zinc, since in the shoot system modification of the nitration pattern occurred (with newly appeared nitrated protein bands), while in the roots, a general increment in the nitroproteome could be observed (the intensification of the same protein bands being present in the control samples). It can be assumed that the significant alteration of nitration pattern is coupled with enhanced zinc sensitivity of the Brassica shoot system and the general intensification of protein nitration in the roots is attached to relative zinc endurance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and development of anisotropic inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites by surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xiao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang, Shiming [Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yilong, E-mail: yilongwang@tongji.edu.cn [Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shi, Donglu, E-mail: shid@ucmail.uc.edu [Research Center for Translational Medicine, East Hospital, the Institute for Biomedical Engineering & Nano Science, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); The Materials Science and Engineering Program, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites were prepared by combining miniemulsion polymerization and sol–gel reaction. The morphologies of the anisotropic composites were found to be greatly influenced by surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle seeds. Two different types of the oleic acid modified ZnO nanoparticles (OA-ZnO) were prepared by post-treatment of commercial ZnO powder and homemade OA-ZnO nanoparticles. The morphologies and properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It was found that both post-treated OA-ZnO and in-situ prepared OA-ZnO nanoparticles resulted in the yolk–shell and Janus structure nanocomposites, but with varied size and morphology. These nanocomposites showed stable and strong fluorescence by introducing quantum dots as the co-seeds. The fluorescent anisotropic nanocomposites were decorated separately with surface carboxyl and hydroxyl groups. These composites with unique anisotropic properties will have high potential in biomedical applications, particularly in bio-detection. - Graphical abstract: Design and development of anisotropic inorganic/polystyrene nanocomposites by surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Non-magnetic anisotropic yolk/shell or Janus nanocomposites are prepared and characterized. • Different surface modification of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles results in varied morphology and size of the final product. • Fluorescent anisotropic nanocomposites embodying quantum dots are an ideal candidate for bio-detection applications.

  3. Adipokine zinc-α2-glycoprotein regulated by growth hormone and linked to insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaz, Miroslav; Ukropcova, Barbara; Kurdiova, Timea; Gajdosechova, Lucia; Vlcek, Miroslav; Janakova, Zuzana; Fedeles, Jozef; Pura, Mikulas; Gasperikova, Daniela; Smith, Steven R; Tkacova, Ruzena; Klimes, Iwar; Payer, Juraj; Wolfrum, Christian; Ukropec, Jozef

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic obesity is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and lipid-mobilizing activity of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Adipose tissue (AT) of growth hormone (GH) -deficient patients is characterized by extreme adipocyte hypertrophy due to defects in AT lipid metabolism. It was hypothesized that zinc-α2-glycoprotein is regulated by GH and mediates some of its beneficial effects in AT. AT from patients with GH deficiency and individuals with obesity-related GH deficit was obtained before and after 5-year and 24-month GH supplementation therapy. GH action was tested in primary human adipocytes. Relationships of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein with adipocyte size and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in nondiabetic patients with noncancerous cachexia and hypertrophic obesity. AT in GH-deficient adults displayed a substantial reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein. GH therapy normalized AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein. Obesity-related relative GH deficit was associated with almost 80% reduction of zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in AT. GH increased zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA in both AT of obese men and primary human adipocytes. Interdependence of GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in regulating AT morphology and metabolic phenotype was evident from their relationship with adipocyte size and AT-specific and whole-body insulin sensitivity. The results demonstrate that GH is involved in regulation of AT zinc-α2-glycoprotein; however, the molecular mechanism linking GH and zinc-α2-glycoprotein in AT is yet unknown. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  4. Association of Increased Grain Iron and Zinc Concentrations with Agro-morphological Traits of Biofortified Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tatiana Moreno-Moyano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofortification of rice (Oryza sativa L. with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe and zinc (Zn deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (OsNAS genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC2F2 transgenic progeny carrying OsNAS1 or OsNAS2 overexpression constructs under indica/japonica and japonica/japonica genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC2F2 transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of 8 mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC2F2 transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 µg Fe g-1 and 40 µg Zn g-1 in BC2F2 indica/japonica progeny, and 36 µg Fe g-1 and 56 µg Zn g1 in BC2F2 japonica/japonica progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the indica/japonica and japonica/japonica progeny, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high

  5. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on Carbon Nano composite Counter electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Zhang, H.; Lin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nano composite electrodes were prepared by adding carbon nano tubes (CNTs) into carbon black as counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The morphology and structure of carbon nano composite electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of CNTs on the electrochemical performance of carbon nano composite electrodes is investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Carbon nano composite electrodes with CNTs exhibit a highly interconnected network structure with high electrical conductivity and good catalytic activity. The influence of different CNTs content in carbon nano composite electrodes on the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current, and filling factor of DSSCs is also investigated. DSSCs with 10% CNTs content exhibit the best photovoltaic performance in our experiments.

  7. The effect of Al and Cr additions on pack cementation zinc coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaliampalias, D.; Papazoglou, M.; Tsipas, S.; Pavlidou, E.; Skolianos, S.; Stergioudis, G.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc is widely used as a protective coating material due to its corrosion resistant properties. The structure and oxidation resistance of Al and Cr mixed zinc coatings, deposited by pack cementation process, is thoroughly examined in this work. The morphology and chemical composition of the as-deposited and oxidized samples was accomplished by electron microscopy while the phase identification was performed by XRD diffraction analysis. The experimental results showed that the addition of aluminum or chromium in the pack mixture forms only Al and Cr rich phases on the surface of the specimens without affecting significantly the phase composition of the rest zinc coatings. In the case of Zn-Al coatings, the overlying layer contains high concentrations of Al together with lower amounts of zinc and iron and in Zn-Cr coatings this layer contains Cr, Fe and Zn atoms and has much smaller thickness. The presence of these additional layers promotes significantly the oxidation resistance of the zinc pack coatings and they preserve most of their initial thickness and chemical content when exposed to an aggressive environment while their oxidation mass gain was measured at low levels during the oxidation tests.

  8. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  9. Bipolar zinc/oxygen battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schlatter, C [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A bipolar electrically rechargeable Zn/O{sub 2} battery has been developed. Reticulated copper foam served as substrate for the zinc deposit on the anodic side, and La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}-catalyzed bifunctional oxygen electrodes were used on the cathodic side of the cells. The 100 cm{sup 2} unit cell had an open circuit voltage of 1,4 V(O{sub 2}) in moderately alkaline electrolyte. The open circuit voltage and the peak power measured for a stack containing seven cells were ca. 10V and 90W, respectively. The current-potential behaviour was determined as a function of the number of bipolar cells, and the maximum discharge capacity was determined at different discharge rates. (author) 4 figs., 1 ref.

  10. Efficiency of Nb-Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Electrode for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuntahirunrat, Jirapat; Sung, Youl-Moon; Pooyodying, Pattarapon

    2017-09-01

    The technological of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) had been improved for several years. Due to its simplicity and low cost materials with belonging to the part of thin films solar cells. DSSCs have numerous advantages and benefits among the other types of solar cells. Many of the DSSC devices had use organic chemical that produce by specific method to use as thin film electrodes. The organic chemical that widely use to establish thin film electrodes are Zinc Oxide (ZnO), Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) and many other chemical substances. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles had been used in DSSCs applications as thin film electrodes. Nanoparticles are a part of nanomaterials that are defined as a single particles 1-100 nm in diameter. From a few year ZnO widely used in DSSC applications because of its optical, electrical and many others properties. In particular, the unique properties and utility of ZnO structure. However the efficiency of ZnO nanoparticles based solar cells can be improved by doped various foreign impurity to change the structures and properties. Niobium (Nb) had been use as a dopant of metal oxide thin films. Using specification method to doped the ZnO nanoparticles thin film can improved the efficiencies of DSSCs. The efficiencies of Nb-doped ZnO can be compared by doping 0 at wt% to 5 at wt% in ZnO nanoparticles thin films that prepared by the spin coating method. The thin film electrodes doped with 3 at wt% represent a maximum efficiencies with the lowest resistivity of 8.95×10-4 Ω·cm.

  11. Electrode erosion properties of gas spark switches for fast linear transformer drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoang; Pei, Zhehao; Zhang, Yuzhao; Liu, Xuandong; Li, Yongdong; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2017-12-01

    Fast linear transformer drivers (FLTDs) are a popular and potential route for high-power devices employing multiple "bricks" in series and parallel, but they put extremely stringent demands on gas switches. Electrode erosion of FLTD gas switches is a restrictive and unavoidable factor that degrades performance and limits stability. In this paper, we systematically investigated the electrode erosion characteristics of a three-electrode field distortion gas switch under the typical working conditions of FLTD switches, and the discharge current was 7-46 kA with 46-300 ns rise time. A high speed frame camera and a spectrograph were used to capture the expansion process and the spectral emission of the spark channel was used to estimate the current density and the spark temperature, and then the energy fluxes and the external forces on the electrode surface were calculated. A tens of kilo-ampere nanosecond pulse could generate a 1011 W/m2 energy flux injection and 1.3-3.5 MPa external pressure on the electrode surface, resulting in a millimeter-sized erosion crater with the maximum peak height Rz reaching 100 μm magnitude. According to the morphological images by a laser scanning confocal microscope, the erosion crater of a FLTD switch contained three kinds of local morphologies, namely a center boiling region, an overflow region and a sputtering region. In addition, the crater size, the surface roughness, and the mass loss were highly dependent on the current amplitude and the transferred charge. We also observed Morphology Type I and Type II, respectively, with different pulse parameters, which had an obvious influence on surface roughness and mass loss. Finally, the quantitative relationship between the electrode mass loss and the pulse parameter was clarified. The transferred charge and the current amplitude were proved to be the main factors determining the electrode mass loss of a FLTD switch, and a least squares fitting expression for mass loss was also obtained.

  12. Effect of Post Treatment For Cu-Cr Source/Drain Electrodes on a-IGZO TFTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiben; Fang, Zhiqiang; Ning, Honglong; Tao, Ruiqiang; Liu, Xianzhe; Zeng, Yong; Yao, Rihui; Huang, Fuxiang; Li, Zhengcao; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Lan, Linfeng; Peng, Junbiao

    2016-07-27

    We report a high-performance amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) with new copper-chromium (Cu-Cr) alloy source/drain electrodes. The TFT shows a high mobility of 39.4 cm 2 ·V - 1 ·s - 1 a turn-on voltage of -0.8 V and a low subthreshold swing of 0.47 V/decade. Cu diffusion is suppressed because pre-annealing can protect a-IGZO from damage during the electrode sputtering and reduce the copper diffusion paths by making film denser. Due to the interaction of Cr with a-IGZO, the carrier concentration of a-IGZO, which is responsible for high mobility, rises.

  13. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  14. Direct reform of graphite oxide electrodes by using ambient plasma for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Jun; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2017-10-01

    Ambient plasma is applied to graphite oxide electrodes directly to improve electrochemical properties for supercapacitor applications. Surface morphology of the electrodes after the plasma treatment changes dramatically and amount of oxygen reduced significantly, demonstrating a reduction effect on the graphite oxide electrode by the ambient plasma. Equivalent series resistance of the electrode also reduced from 108 Ω to 84 Ω after the plasma treatment. Corresponding specific capacitance, therefore, increases from 0.45 F cm-2 to 0.85 F cm-2, proving that the ambient plasma treatment is very efficient, clean, economic, and environment-friendly method to reform the graphite oxide electrodes directly for the supercapacitor applications.

  15. Antibacterial effects, biocompatibility and electrochemical behavior of zinc incorporated niobium oxide coating on 316L SS for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep PremKumar, K.; Duraipandy, N.; Manikantan Syamala, Kiran; Rajendran, N.

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, Nb2O5 (NZ0) composite coatings with various concentrations of zinc (NZ2, NZ4 & NZ6) are produced on 316L SS by sol-gel method with the aim of improving its antibacterial activity, bone formability and corrosion resistance properties. This work studied the surface characterization of NZ0, NZ2, NZ4 & NZ6 coated 316L SS by ATR-FTIR, XRD, HR-SEM with EDAX. The synthesized coatings were different in the morphological aspects, NZ0 shows mesoporous morphology whereas irregular cluster like morphology was observed for the zinc incorporated coatings. The chemical composition of the NZ0 and NZ4 composite coatings were studied by XPS and the results revealed that the zinc exist as ZnO and Nb as Nb2O5 in the coatings. The increase in the concentration of zinc in Nb2O5 increases the hydrophilic nature identified by water contact angle studies. The potentiodynamic polarization studies in simulated body fluid reveals the increase in polarization resistance with decrease in current density (icorr) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic studies with increase in charge transfer resistance (Rct) and double layer capacitance (Qdl) were observed for NZ4 coated 316L SS. The inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria were identified for NZ4 coated 316L SS by bacterial viability studies. The NZ4 coated 316L SS showed better Osseo-integration by spreading the MG 63 osteoblast cells. The study results imply that zinc incorporated Nb2O5 (NZ4) composite coating exhibits antibacterial activity and also enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the 316L SS.

  16. Potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium in electrolytes of in galvanic baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyuga, E.A.; Kalugin, A.A.; Gur'ev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    The method of potentiometric titration of zinc and cadmium by complexone 3 in electrolytes of galvanic baths using sulphide - silver electrode for determining the finite point of titration is suggested. Copper (2) ions are proposed as indicator ions. The potentiometric determination should be performed at pH=10. The method is verified on model electrolyte solutions and on the electrolyte solutions of operating baths.The technique can be used for automatic control. The time for analysis is 10 minutes

  17. Chemical Annealing of Zinc Tetraphenylporphyrin Films: Effects on Film Morphology and Organic Photovoltaic Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew T.; Steiner, Andrew; Tassone, Christopher J.; Toney, Michael F.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a chemical annealing process for organic thin films. In this process, a thin film of a molecular material, such as zinc tetraphenylporphyrin (ZnTPP), is exposed to a vapor of nitrogen-based ligand (e.g., pyrazine, pz, and triazine, tz

  18. Electrode Materials, Thermal Annealing Sequences, and Lateral/Vertical Phase Separation of Polymer Solar Cells from Multiscale Molecular Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Cheng-Kuang

    2014-12-10

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The nanomorphologies of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layer of polymer solar cells are extremely sensitive to the electrode materials and thermal annealing conditions. In this work, the correlations of electrode materials, thermal annealing sequences, and resultant BHJ nanomorphological details of P3HT:PCBM BHJ polymer solar cell are studied by a series of large-scale, coarse-grained (CG) molecular simulations of system comprised of PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al layers. Simulations are performed for various configurations of electrode materials as well as processing temperature. The complex CG molecular data are characterized using a novel extension of our graph-based framework to quantify morphology and establish a link between morphology and processing conditions. Our analysis indicates that vertical phase segregation of P3HT:PCBM blend strongly depends on the electrode material and thermal annealing schedule. A thin P3HT-rich film is formed on the top, regardless of bottom electrode material, when the BHJ layer is exposed to the free surface during thermal annealing. In addition, preferential segregation of P3HT chains and PCBM molecules toward PEDOT:PSS and Al electrodes, respectively, is observed. Detailed morphology analysis indicated that, surprisingly, vertical phase segregation does not affect the connectivity of donor/acceptor domains with respective electrodes. However, the formation of P3HT/PCBM depletion zones next to the P3HT/PCBM-rich zones can be a potential bottleneck for electron/hole transport due to increase in transport pathway length. Analysis in terms of fraction of intra- and interchain charge transports revealed that processing schedule affects the average vertical orientation of polymer chains, which may be crucial for enhanced charge transport, nongeminate recombination, and charge collection. The present study establishes a more detailed link between processing and morphology by combining multiscale molecular

  19. Effects of morphological control on the characteristics of vertical-type OTFTs using Alq3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Do; Park, Jong Wook; Kang, In Nam; Oh, Se Young

    2008-09-01

    We have fabricated vertical-type organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) using tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq(3)) as an n-type active material. Vertical-type OTFT using Alq(3) has a layered structure of Al(source electrode)/Alq(3)(active layer)/Al(gate electrode)/Alq(3)(active layer)/ITO glass(drain electrode). Alq(3) thin films containing various surface morphologies could be obtained by the control of evaporation rate and substrate temperature. The effects of the morphological control of Alq(3) thin layer on the grain size and the flatness of film surface were investigated. The characteristics of vertical-type OTFT significantly influenced the growth condition of Alq(3) layer.

  20. Amygdala Kindling Alters Estrus Cycle and Ovarian Morphology in the Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Juan; Zhang, Lingwu; Wang, Feng; Liu, Dan; Li, P. Andy; Sun, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of amygdala kindling on estrus cycle and ovarian morphology. Thirty-five female rats at the age of 8 weeks were randomly designated to electrode kindled, sham-kindled, and normal controls. Kindled rats were implanted with kindling electrodes in the left basolateral amygdala and kindled by brief suprathreshold stimulations with a bipolar electrode. Estrous cycles were daily monitored through vaginal smears. Electrographic and behavioral sei...

  1. Hierarchical Mesoporous Zinc-Nickel-Cobalt Ternary Oxide Nanowire Arrays on Nickel Foam as High-Performance Electrodes for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun; Cai, Junjie; Zhang, Qiaobao; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Ying; Shen, Pei Kang; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-12-09

    Nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous Zn-Ni-Co ternary oxide (ZNCO) nanowire arrays are synthesized by a simple two-step approach including a hydrothermal method and subsequent calcination process and directly utilized for supercapacitive investigation for the first time. The nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire arrays possess an ultrahigh specific capacitance value of 2481.8 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and excellent rate capability of about 91.9% capacitance retention at 5 A g(-1). More importantly, an asymmetric supercapacitor with a high energy density (35.6 Wh kg(-1)) and remarkable cycle stability performance (94% capacitance retention over 3000 cycles) is assembled successfully by employing the ZNCO electrode as positive electrode and activated carbon as negative electrode. The remarkable electrochemical behaviors demonstrate that the nickel foam supported hierarchical mesoporous ZNCO nanowire array electrodes are highly desirable for application as advanced supercapacitor electrodes.

  2. Formulation of Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanopowder into Hybrid Beads for Dye Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shokry Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sol-gel prepared zinc oxide nanopowder was immobilized onto alginate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer blend to fabricate novel biocomposite beads. Various physicochemical characterization techniques have been utilized to identify the crystalline, morphological, and chemical structures of both the fabricated zinc oxide hybrid beads and their corresponding zinc oxide nanopowder. The thermal stability investigations demonstrate that ZnO nanopowder stability dramatically decreased with its immobilization into the polymeric alginate and PVA matrix. The formulated beads had very strong mechanical strength and they are difficult to be broken up to 1500 rpm. Moreover, these hybrid beads are chemically stable at the acidic media (pH < 7 especially within the pH range of 2–7. Finally, the applicability of the formulated ZnO hybrid beads for C.I. basic blue 41 (BB41 decolorization from aqueous solution was examined.

  3. Could vitamin C and zinc chloride protect the germ cells against sodium arsenite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoé, L S; Reis, I B; Gomes, Mlm; Dolder, H; Pirovani, Jc Monteiro

    2017-10-01

    Arsenic (As) is commonly associated with natural and human processes such as volcanic emissions, mining and herbicides production, being an important pollutant. Several studies have associated As intake with male fertility reduction, thus the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether vitamin C and/or zinc would counteract As side effects within the testicles. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into six experimental groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg/day), vitamin C (100 mg/kg/day), zinc chloride (ZnCl 2 ; 20 mg/kg/day), sodium arsenite + vitamin C and sodium arsenite + ZnCl 2 . Testicles and epididymis were harvested and either frozen or routinely processed to be embedded in glycol methacrylate resin. As reduced the seminiferous epithelium and tubules diameter due to germ cell loss. In addition, both the round spermatids population and the daily sperm production were reduced. However, ZnCl 2 and vitamin C showed to be effective against such side effects, mainly regarding to sperm morphology. Long-term As intake increased the proportions of abnormal sperm, whereas the concomitant intake of As with zinc or vitamin C enhanced the proportions of normal sperm, showing that such compounds could be used to protect this cell type against morphological defects.

  4. Fabrication and Corrosion Resistance of Superhydrophobic Hydroxide Zinc Carbonate Film on Aluminum Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic hydroxide zinc carbonate (HZC films were fabricated on aluminum substrate through a convenient in situ deposition process. Firstly, HZC films with different morphologies were deposited on aluminum substrates through immersing the aluminum substrates perpendicularly into aqueous solution containing zinc nitrate hexahydrate and urea. Secondly, the films were then modified with fluoroalkylsilane (FAS: CH3(CF26(CH23Si(OCH33 molecules by immersing in absolute ethanol solution containing FAS. The morphologies, hydrophobicity, chemical compositions, and bonding states of the films were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, water contact angle measurement (CA, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, respectively. It was shown by surface morphological observation that HZC films displayed different microstructures such as microporous structure, rose petal-like structure, block-shaped structure, and pinecone-like structure by altering the deposition condition. A highest water contact angle of 156.2° was obtained after FAS modification. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the superhydrophobic surface on aluminum substrate was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The EIS measurements’ results revealed that the superhydrophobic surface considerably improved the corrosion resistance of aluminum.

  5. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR

  6. Textile Electrodes for EEG Recording — A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Löfhede

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of our research is to develop a monitoring system for neonatal intensive care units. Long-term EEG monitoring in newborns require that the electrodes don’t harm the sensitive skin of the baby, an especially relevant feature for premature babies. Our approach to EEG monitoring is based on several electrodes distributed over the head of the baby, and since the weight of the head always will be on some of them, any type of hard electrode will inevitably cause a pressure-point that can irritate the skin. Therefore, we propose the use of soft conductive textiles as EEG electrodes, primarily for neonates, but also for other kinds of unobtrusive long-term monitoring. In this paper we have tested two types of textile electrodes on five healthy adults and compared them to standard high quality electrodes. The acquired signals were compared with respect to morphology, frequency distribution, spectral coherence, correlation and power line interference sensitivity, and the signals were found to be similar in most respects. The good measurement performance exhibited by the textile electrodes indicates that they are feasible candidates for EEG recording, opening the door for long-term EEG monitoring applications.

  7. Capture and separation of l-histidine through optimized zinc-decorated magnetic silica spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vanessa F; Sebastián, Víctor; Silva, Carlos J R; Botelho, Gabriela; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2017-09-01

    Zinc-decorated magnetic silica spheres were developed, optimized and tested for the capture and separation of l-histidine. The magnetic silica spheres were prepared using a simple sol-gel method and show excellent magnetic characteristics, adsorption capacity toward metal ions, and stability in aqueous solution in a wide pH range. The binding capacity of zinc-decorated magnetic silica spheres to histidine proved to be strongly influenced by the morphology, composition and concentration of metal at the surface of the magnetic silica spheres and therefore these parameters should be carefully controlled in order to maximize the performance for protein purification purposes. Optimized zinc-decorated magnetic silica spheres demonstrate a binding capacity to l-histidine of approximately 44mgg -1 at the optimum binding pH buffer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and electrochemical performances of nanoporous/cracked cobalt oxide layer for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobal, Fereydoon; Faraji, Masoud

    2014-12-01

    Nanoporous/cracked structures of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) electrodes were successfully fabricated by electroplating of zinc-cobalt onto previously formed TiO2 nanotubes by anodizing of titanium, leaching of zinc in a concentrated alkaline solution and followed by drying and annealing at 400 °C. The structure and morphology of the obtained Co3O4 electrodes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, EDX analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the obtained Co3O4 electrodes were composed of the nanoporous/cracked structures with an average pore size of about 100 nm. The electrochemical capacitive behaviors of the nanoporous Co3O4 electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge studies and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M NaOH solution. The electrochemical data demonstrated that the electrodes display good capacitive behavior with a specific capacitance of 430 F g-1 at a current density of 1.0 A g-1 and specific capacitance retention of ca. 80 % after 10 days of being used in electrochemical experiments, indicating to be promising electroactive materials for supercapacitors. Furthermore, in comparison with electrodes prepared by simple cathodic deposition of cobalt onto TiO2 nanotubes(without dealloying procedure), the impedance studies showed improved performances likely due to nanoporous/cracked structures of electrodes fabricated by dealloying of zinc, which provide fast ion and electron transfer routes and large reaction surface area with the ensued fast reaction kinetics.

  9. Electrochemical supercapacitors of cobalt hydroxide nanoplates grown on conducting cadmium oxide base-electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailas K. Tehare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dopant-free and cost-effective sprayed cadmium oxide (CdO conducting base-electrodes, obtained at different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M, characterized for their structures, morphologies and conductivities by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrical conductivity measurements, respectively, are employed as base-electrodes for growing cobalt hydroxide (Co(OH2 nanoplates using a simple electrodeposition method which further are envisaged for electrochemical supercapacitor application. Polycrystalline nature and mushroom-like plane-views are confirmed from the structure and morphology analyses. Both CdO and CdO–Co(OH2 electrodes reveal specific capacitances as high as 312 F g−1 and 1119 F g−1, respectively, in 0.1 M KOH electrolyte at 10 mV s−1 sweep rate. Optimized Co(OH2–CdO configuration electrode demonstrates energy density of 98.83 W h kg−1 and power density of 0.75 kW kg−1. In order to investigate the charge transfer kinematics electrochemical impedance measurements are carried out and explored.

  10. Surface modification of recording electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iaci Miranda Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne Polyurethanes (PUs are a family of polymers that contains urethane linkages synthesized in an aqueous environment and are thus free of organic solvents. Recently, waterborne PUs have been extensively studied for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility. The present work investigates the following: (1 the impact on electrical performance of electrode materials (platinum and silicon modified chemically by a layer of waterborne PU, and (2 the behavior of rat cardiac fibroblasts and rat cardiomyocytes when in contact with an electrode surface. Diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol were the main reagents for producing PUs. The electrochemical impedance of the electrode/electrolyte interface was accessed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The cellular viability, proliferation, and morphology changes were investigated using an MTT assay. Cardiomyocyte adherence was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained surface was uniform, flat, and transparent. The film showed good adhesion, and no peeling was detected. The electrochemical impedance decreased over time and was influenced by the ionic permeability of the PU layer. The five samples did not show cytotoxicity when in contact with neonatal rat cells.

  11. Improvement of Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticulate Thick Film Morphology for Ethanol Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukon Phanichphant

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were produced by flame spray pyrolysis using zinc naphthenate as a precursor dissolved in toluene/acetonitrile (80/20 vol%. The particles properties were analyzed by XRD, BET. The ZnO particle size and morphology was observed by SEM and HR-TEM revealing spheroidal, hexagonal, and rod-like morphologies. The crystallite sizes of ZnO spheroidal and hexagonal particles ranged from 10-20 nm. ZnO nanorods were ranged from 10-20 nm in width and 20-50 nm in length. Sensing films were produced by mixing the nanoparticles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as a vehicle binder. The paste was doctor-bladed onto Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. The morphology of the sensing films was analyzed by optical microscopy and SEM analysis. Cracking of the sensing films during annealing process was improved by varying the heating conditions. The gas sensing of ethanol (25-250 ppm was studied at 400 °C in dry air containing SiC as the fluidized particles. The oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the semiconductor was confirmed by mass spectroscopy (MS. The effect of micro-cracks was quantitatively accounted for as a provider of extra exposed edges. The sensitivity decreased notably with increasing crack of sensing films. It can be observed that crack widths were reduced with decreasing heating rates. Crack-free of thick (5 μm ZnO films evidently showed higher sensor signal and faster response times (within seconds than cracked sensor. The sensor signal increased and the response time decreased with increasing ethanol concentration.

  12. Boron-doped zinc oxide thin films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition for bifacial a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Xiangbin, E-mail: eexbzeng@mail.hust.edu.cn; Wen, Xixing; Sun, Xiaohu; Liao, Wugang; Wen, Yangyang

    2016-04-30

    Boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The influence of B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow rate and substrate temperature on the microstructure, optical, and electrical properties of BZO films was investigated by X-ray diffraction spectrum, scanning electron microscope, optical transmittance spectrum, and Hall measurements. The BZO films with optical transmittance above 85% in the visible and infrared light range, resistivity of 0.9–1.0 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm, mobility of 16.5–25.5 cm{sup 2}/Vs, and carrier concentration of 2.2–2.7 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were deposited under optimized conditions. The optimum BZO films were applied on the bifacial BZO/p-type a-Si:H/i-type a-Si:H/n-type c-Si/i-type a-Si:H/n{sup +}-type a-Si:H/BZO heterojunction solar cell as both front and back transparent electrodes. Meanwhile, the bifacial heterojunction solar cell with indium tin oxide (ITO) as both front and back transparent electrodes was fabricated. The efficiencies of 17.788% (open-circuit voltage: 0.628 V, short-circuit current density: 41.756 mA/cm{sup 2} and fill factor: 0.678) and 16.443% (open-circuit voltage: 0.590 V, short-circuit current density: 36.515 mA/cm{sup 2} and fill factor: 0.762) were obtained on the a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cell with BZO and ITO transparent electrodes, respectively. - Highlights: • Boron-doped zinc oxide films with low resistivity were fabricated. • The boron-doped zinc oxide films have the high transmittance. • B-doped ZnO film was applied in a-Si:H/c-Si solar cell as transparent electrodes. • The a-Si:H/c-Si solar cell with efficiency of 17.788% was obtained.

  13. Boron-doped zinc oxide thin films grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition for bifacial a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Xiangbin; Wen, Xixing; Sun, Xiaohu; Liao, Wugang; Wen, Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    Boron-doped zinc oxide (BZO) films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The influence of B_2H_6 flow rate and substrate temperature on the microstructure, optical, and electrical properties of BZO films was investigated by X-ray diffraction spectrum, scanning electron microscope, optical transmittance spectrum, and Hall measurements. The BZO films with optical transmittance above 85% in the visible and infrared light range, resistivity of 0.9–1.0 × 10"−"3 Ω cm, mobility of 16.5–25.5 cm"2/Vs, and carrier concentration of 2.2–2.7 × 10"2"0 cm"−"3 were deposited under optimized conditions. The optimum BZO films were applied on the bifacial BZO/p-type a-Si:H/i-type a-Si:H/n-type c-Si/i-type a-Si:H/n"+-type a-Si:H/BZO heterojunction solar cell as both front and back transparent electrodes. Meanwhile, the bifacial heterojunction solar cell with indium tin oxide (ITO) as both front and back transparent electrodes was fabricated. The efficiencies of 17.788% (open-circuit voltage: 0.628 V, short-circuit current density: 41.756 mA/cm"2 and fill factor: 0.678) and 16.443% (open-circuit voltage: 0.590 V, short-circuit current density: 36.515 mA/cm"2 and fill factor: 0.762) were obtained on the a-Si/c-Si heterojunction solar cell with BZO and ITO transparent electrodes, respectively. - Highlights: • Boron-doped zinc oxide films with low resistivity were fabricated. • The boron-doped zinc oxide films have the high transmittance. • B-doped ZnO film was applied in a-Si:H/c-Si solar cell as transparent electrodes. • The a-Si:H/c-Si solar cell with efficiency of 17.788% was obtained.

  14. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  15. Gold-Gilded Zinc Oxide Nanodiamonds: Plasmonic and Morphological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, G. R.; Khan, R. A.

    The novel properties, diverse applications and device performance of nanocomposites can be greatly modulated through astute combination of plasmonic and morphological effects. The biosensing sensitivity, semiconducting capability, photocatalytic efficiency and antibacterial efficacy of ZnO nanostructures can be enhanced by a diamond-like morphology of ZnO via incorporation of plasmonic gold owing to their exceptional specific surface area, outstanding photoluminescence and excellent biocompatibility. Toward the realization of this goal, Au-Zno nanodiamonds have been successfully synthesized by a microwave assisted solution phase route without use of any costly solvents, surfactants, substrates, post-synthesis treatment or hazardous ingredients. It shows the ability to control the concentration of Au nanoparticles in ZnO and the evolution of its growth in diamond shape. The synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by high-resolution measurements such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffused reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffractometory (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the results discussed in detail.

  16. Ultra-high density aligned Carbon-nanotube with controled nano-morphology for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mehdi; Zhao, Ran; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Yue; Cheng, Jiping; Guzman de Villoria, Roberto; Wardle, B. L.; Zhang, Q. M.

    2012-02-01

    Recent advances in fabricating controlled-morphology vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) with ultrahigh volume fractioncreate unique opportunities for developing unconventional supercapacitors with ultra-high energy density, power density, and long charge/discharge cycle life.Continuous paths through inter-VA-CNT channels allow fast ion transport, and high electrical conduction of the aligned CNTs in the composite electrodes lead to fast discharge speed. We investigate the charge-discharge characteristics of VA-CNTs with >20 vol% of CNT and ionic liquids as electrolytes. By employing both the electric and electromechanical spectroscopes, as well as nanostructured materials characterization, the ion transport and storage behaviors in porous electrodes are studied. The results suggest pathways for optimizing the electrode morphology in supercapacitorsusing ultra-high volume fraction VA-CNTs to further enhance performance.

  17. Comparison of electrocatalytic characterization of boron-doped diamond and SnO2 electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Jiangwei; Feng, Yujie; Liu, Junfeng; Qu, Youpeng; Cui, Fuyi

    2013-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) and SnO 2 electrodes were prepared by direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition (DC-PCVD) and sol–gel method, respectively. Electrochemical characterization of the two electrodes were investigated by phenol electrochemical degradation, accelerated service life test, cyclic voltammetry (CV) in phenol solution, polarization curves in H 2 SO 4 . The surface morphology and crystal structure of two electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed a considerable difference between the two electrodes in their electrocatalytic activity, electrochemical stability and surface properties. Phenol was readily mineralized to CO 2 at BDD electrode, favoring electrochemical combustion, but its degradation was much slower at SnO 2 electrode. The service life of BDD electrode was 10 times longer than that of SnO 2 . Higher electrocatalytic activity and electrochemical stability of BDD electrode arise from its high oxygen evolution potential and the physically absorbed hydroxyl radicals (·OH) on electrode surface.

  18. Electrolyte influence on the Cu nanoparticles electrodeposition onto boron doped diamond electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Jorge Tadao; Santos, Laura Camila Diniz; Couto, Andrea Boldarini; Baldan, Mauricio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Neidenei Gomes

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the electrolyte influence on deposition and dissolution processes of Cu nanoparticles on boron doped diamond electrodes (DDB). Morphological, structural and electrochemical analysis showed BDD films with good reproducibility, quality and reversible in a specific redox system. Electrodeposition of Cu nanoparticles on DDB electrodes in three different solutions was influenced by pH and ionic strength of the electrolytic medium. Analyzing the process as function of the scan rate, it was verified a better efficiency in 0,5 mol L -1 Na 2 SO 4 solution. Under the influence of the pH and ionic strength, Cu nanoparticles on DDB may be obtained with different morphologies and it was important for defining the desired properties. (author)

  19. Formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Takuya; Toyoura, Kazuaki; Tsujimura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    2004-08-25

    We investigated a possibility of electrochemical formation and control of zinc nitride in a molten LiCl-KCl-Li{sub 3}N system at 673 K. Zinc nitride films were obtained by means of potentiostatic electrolysis of zinc electrodes in the melt. From XRD analysis, it was confirmed that obtained films consisted of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} and LiZnN and that the composition of each film was effected by the applied potential value. In the potential range from 0.75 to 1.6 V (versus Li{sup +}/Li), the ratio of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} increased as the applied potential was more positive. Based on the result, we achieved the formation of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} film (3-5 {mu}m) in anti-scandium oxide structure (a = 0.977 nm) by means of potentiostatic electrolysis at 1.6 V for 3 h.

  20. The Adc/Lmb System Mediates Zinc Acquisition in Streptococcus agalactiae and Contributes to Bacterial Growth and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Pauline; Patron, Kévin; Cano, Camille; Zorgani, Mohamed Amine; Camiade, Emilie; Borezée-Durant, Elise; Rosenau, Agnès; Mereghetti, Laurent; Hiron, Aurélia

    2016-12-15

    The Lmb protein of Streptococcus agalactiae is described as an adhesin that binds laminin, a component of the human extracellular matrix. In this study, we revealed a new role for this protein in zinc uptake. We also identified two Lmb homologs, AdcA and AdcAII, redundant binding proteins that combine with the AdcCB translocon to form a zinc-ABC transporter. Expression of this transporter is controlled by the zinc concentration in the medium through the zinc-dependent regulator AdcR. Triple deletion of lmb, adcA, and adcAII, or that of the adcCB genes, impaired growth and cell separation in a zinc-restricted environment. Moreover, we found that this Adc zinc-ABC transporter promotes S. agalactiae growth and survival in some human biological fluids, suggesting that it contributes to the infection process. These results indicated that zinc has biologically vital functions in S. agalactiae and that, under the conditions tested, the Adc/Lmb transporter constitutes the main zinc acquisition system of the bacterium. A zinc transporter, composed of three redundant binding proteins (Lmb, AdcA, and AdcAII), was characterized in Streptococcus agalactiae This system was shown to be essential for bacterial growth and morphology in zinc-restricted environments, including human biological fluids. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.; Cousins, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of zinc absorption has not been delineated, but kinetic studies show that both passive and carrier-mediated processes are involved. The authors have identified a low molecular mass zinc-binding protein in the soluble fraction of rat intestinal mucosa that could function as an intracellular zinc carrier. The protein was not detected in liver or pancreas, suggesting a role specific to the intestine. The protein binds zinc during transmucosal zinc transport and shows signs of saturation at higher luminal zinc concentrations, characteristics consistent with a role in carrier-mediated zinc absorption. Microsequence analysis of the protein purified by gel-filtration HPCL and SDS/PAGE showed complete identity within the first 41 N-terminal amino acids with the deduced protein sequence of cysteine-rich intestinal protein. These investigators showed that the gene for this protein is developmentally regulated in neonates during the suckling period, conserved in many vertebrate species, and predominantly expressed in the small intestine. Cysteine-rich intestinal protein contains a recently identified conserved sequence of histidine and cysteine residues, the LIM motif, which our results suggest confers metal-binding properties that are important for zinc transport and/or functions of this micronutrient

  2. Highly transparent conductive electrode with ultra-low HAZE by grain boundary modification of aqueous solution fabricated alumina-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nian, Qiong; Cheng, Gary J. [Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States); Callahan, Michael; Bailey, John [Greentech Solutions, Inc., Hanson, Massachusetts 02341 (United States); Look, David [Semiconductor Research Center, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Efstathiadis, Harry [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE), University of Albany, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC) of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} with corresponding electrical resistivity and sheet resistances as low as 1 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and 75 Ω/sq, respectively. The high mobility also enabled a high transmittance (T) of 88%-96% at 550 nm for the UVLC films. In addition, HAZE measurement shows AZO film scattering transmittance as low as 1.8%, which is superior over most other solution deposited transparent electrode alternatives such as silver nanowires. Thus, AZO films produced by the UVLC technique have a combined figure of merit for electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and optical HAZE higher than other solution based deposition techniques and comparable to vacuumed based deposition methods.

  3. Fabrication and Characterization of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites Prepared via a Simple Chemical Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Hedayati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research zinc sulfide (ZnS nanoparticles and nanocomposites powders were prepared by chemical precipitation method using zinc acetate and various sulfur sources. The ZnS nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and fourier transform infra-red. The structure of nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffraction pattern. The crystallite size of ZnS nanoparticles was calculated by Debye–Scherrer formula. Morphology of nano-crystals was observed and investigated using the scanning electron microscopy. The grain size of zinc sulfide nanoparticles were in suitable agreement with the crystalline size calculated by X-ray diffraction results. The optical properties of particles were studied with ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum.

  4. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  5. Comparative effects of indium/ytterbium doping on, mechanical and gas-sensitivity-related morphological, properties of sprayed ZnO compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukhachem, A.; Fridjine, S.; Amlouk, A.; Boubaker, K.; Bouhafs, M.; Amlouk, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, conducting and transparent indium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by the micro-spray technique. First, zinc oxide layers were obtained by spaying a solution of propanol and zinc acetate in acidified medium. Alternatively, some of the obtained films were doped with indium (In) at the molar rates of: 1%, 2% and 3%. In addition to the classical structural investigated using XRD, AFM and SEM techniques, microhardness Vickers (Hv) measurements have been carried out along with comparative morphological prospecting. The specific gases sensitivity-related surface morphology of the doped ZnO compounds was favorably different from that of the non-doped ones, and showed a thin overlay structure. Results were compared to those recorded for similar ytterbium-doped material.

  6. Zinc in Cellular Regulation: The Nature and Significance of "Zinc Signals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-10-31

    In the last decade, we witnessed discoveries that established Zn 2+ as a second major signalling metal ion in the transmission of information within cells and in communication between cells. Together with Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ covers biological regulation with redox-inert metal ions over many orders of magnitude in concentrations. The regulatory functions of zinc ions, together with their functions as a cofactor in about three thousand zinc metalloproteins, impact virtually all aspects of cell biology. This article attempts to define the regulatory functions of zinc ions, and focuses on the nature of zinc signals and zinc signalling in pathways where zinc ions are either extracellular stimuli or intracellular messengers. These pathways interact with Ca 2+ , redox, and phosphorylation signalling. The regulatory functions of zinc require a complex system of precise homeostatic control for transients, subcellular distribution and traffic, organellar homeostasis, and vesicular storage and exocytosis of zinc ions.

  7. Effect of Consuming Zinc-fortified Bread on Serum Zinc and Iron Status of Zinc-deficient Women: A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad

    2012-03-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p bread improved iron absorption.

  8. Effects of electrode distance and nature of electrolyte on the diameter of titanium dioxide nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, S., E-mail: sum.abbasi@gmail.com; Mohamed, N. M., E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my; Singh, B. S. M., E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences Unviersiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar (Malaysia); Abbasi, S. H., E-mail: sarfrazabbasi@gmail.com [SABIC Plastic Application Development Center, Riyadh Technovalley, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-22

    The titanium nanotubes were synthesized using viscous electrolytes consisting of ethylene glycol and non-viscous electrolytes consisting of aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid. Sodium fluoride and ammonium fluoride were utilized as the source of fluorine ions. The samples were then characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Their morphologies were investigated under different anodic potentials and various electrolyte compositions. It was found out that nanotubes can be obtained in fluoride ions and morphology is dependent on various parameters like anodic potential, time, electrolyte composition and the effects by varying the distance between the electrodes on the morphology was also investigated. It was found that by altering the distance between the electrodes, change in the diameter and the porosity was observed.

  9. Synthesis of well-dispersed ZnO nanomaterials by directly calcining zinc stearate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Guangsheng; Shi Chen; Tao Dongliang; Qian Weizhong; Han Dongmei

    2009-01-01

    Well-dispersed ZnO nanomaterials were synthesized by direct calcination of zinc stearate. Results from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated both the decomposition degree of organic ligand and the purity of calcined products were increased with the calcination temperature. The influence of decomposition temperature on the morphology of ZnO nanomaterials was investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results revealed the morphology of ZnO transformed from nanosheets to hexagonal nanopyramids and then to nanoparticles at 573, 673 and 773 K respectively. Finally, a morphology evolution model of ZnO nanomaterials under different temperatures was proposed

  10. Patterned transparent zinc oxide films produced by sol-gel embossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, J.; Koh, L.H.K.; Crean, G.M. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Department of Microelectronic Engineering, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); O' Brien, S. [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland); Winfield, R.J.

    2008-08-15

    A low cost zinc oxide embossing technique is reported as a method of fabricating structures relevant to a variety of applications. A zinc based sol-gel material was prepared from zinc acetate[Zn(C{sub 2}H{sub 3}O{sub 2}){sub 2}], monoethanolamine[H{sub 2}NC{sub 2}H{sub 4}OH] and isopropanol. The sol-gel was cast into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould a track design, placed in contact with the substrate and dried under vacuum at 70 C for 3 hours. The formed track pattern was further densified to provide a stable conductor film that retained the embossed shape. An optimum Zn sol-gel content of 0.6 M was identified. The embossed films had a transparency of greater than 83% in the visible region. The optical bandgap energy was evaluated to be 3.306 eV. The influence of ZnO sol-gel film synthesis and embossing parameters on the microstructure, morphology and optical transparency of fabricated structures is described. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. An investigation of the electrochemical action of the epoxy zinc-rich coatings containing surface modified aluminum nanoparticle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalili, M. [Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rostami, M. [Nanomaterials and Nanocoatings Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir [Surface Coatings and Corrosion Department, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), PO 16765-654, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid. • 2 wt% of zinc dust in zinc-rich paint was substituted by aluminum nanoparticles. • Surface modified aluminum nanoparticle improved the cathodic period of protection. • Aluminum nanoparticles enhanced the corrosion protection of the zinc-rich coating. - Abstract: Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP). The surface characterization of the nanoparticles was done by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis. The influence of the replacement of 2 wt% of zinc dust in the standard zinc-rich epoxy coating by nanoparticles on the electrochemical action of the coating was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. The morphology and phase composition of the zinc rich paints were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and filed-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Results showed that the ATMP molecules successfully adsorbed on the surface of Al nanoparticles. Results obtained from salt spray and electrochemical measurements revealed that the addition of surface modified nanoparticles to the zinc rich coating enhanced its galvanic action and corrosion protection properties.

  12. An investigation of the electrochemical action of the epoxy zinc-rich coatings containing surface modified aluminum nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, M.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid. • 2 wt% of zinc dust in zinc-rich paint was substituted by aluminum nanoparticles. • Surface modified aluminum nanoparticle improved the cathodic period of protection. • Aluminum nanoparticles enhanced the corrosion protection of the zinc-rich coating. - Abstract: Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP). The surface characterization of the nanoparticles was done by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis. The influence of the replacement of 2 wt% of zinc dust in the standard zinc-rich epoxy coating by nanoparticles on the electrochemical action of the coating was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. The morphology and phase composition of the zinc rich paints were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and filed-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Results showed that the ATMP molecules successfully adsorbed on the surface of Al nanoparticles. Results obtained from salt spray and electrochemical measurements revealed that the addition of surface modified nanoparticles to the zinc rich coating enhanced its galvanic action and corrosion protection properties

  13. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  14. Relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate in utero supply of zinc is essential for optimal fetal growth because of the role of zinc in cellular division, growth and differentiation. Low maternal serum zinc has been reported to be associated with low birth weight and the later is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in newborns.

  15. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on zinc substrate by 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong; Huang, Chengya; Zhang, Long; Lou, Wanqiu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of stable superhydrophobic Zn surfaces by a reaction with 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts. • The highest water contact angle was 160°, and a low sliding angle of about 1°. • The superhydrophobicity was related with the special hierarchical porous microstructure and the low surface energy. • This procedure is facile and effective. - Abstract: In this study we report a new and efficient method of fabricating superhydrophobic surface on zinc plate modified with 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts (CF 3 BD), which shows a water contact angle of 160° for a 4 μl water droplet and a low sliding angle of about 1°. The morphology and chemical composition of as-prepared superhydrophobic zinc surfaces are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and FT-IR spectrum. The results show that the organic layers formed on zinc plate surface are provided with the special hierarchical porous microstructure and the low surface energy, which lead to the superhydrophobicity surface on the modified zinc

  16. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on zinc substrate by 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hong, E-mail: lihong@gdut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510090 (China); Huang, Chengya; Zhang, Long; Lou, Wanqiu [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of stable superhydrophobic Zn surfaces by a reaction with 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts. • The highest water contact angle was 160°, and a low sliding angle of about 1°. • The superhydrophobicity was related with the special hierarchical porous microstructure and the low surface energy. • This procedure is facile and effective. - Abstract: In this study we report a new and efficient method of fabricating superhydrophobic surface on zinc plate modified with 3-trifluoromethylbenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate salts (CF{sub 3}BD), which shows a water contact angle of 160° for a 4 μl water droplet and a low sliding angle of about 1°. The morphology and chemical composition of as-prepared superhydrophobic zinc surfaces are investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and FT-IR spectrum. The results show that the organic layers formed on zinc plate surface are provided with the special hierarchical porous microstructure and the low surface energy, which lead to the superhydrophobicity surface on the modified zinc.

  17. The Pore Structure of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter Brilner

    2005-01-01

    The pore structure and morphology of direct methanol fuel cell electrodes are characterized using mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the pore size distributions of printed primer and catalyst layers are largely dictated by the powders used to make...

  18. Study on conventional carbon characteristics as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajar, Muhammad Noer; Endarko

    2017-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC), black carbon (BC), and graphite were deposited onto ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) glass for counter electrode application in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. SEM-EDX was used to observe and analyse the morphology and composition of electrodes. The results showed that the particle distribution of the graphite electrode observed was approximately 34% with a size of 1 to 2 µm and BC electrode about 20% have a size of 0.5 to 1 µm, while AC electrode has a size of 0 – 0.5 µm observed around 20%. AC electrode has a more porous and uniform particle aggregates compared to BC and graphite electrodes. The efficiency of the counter electrode was measured using the solar simulator. The highest efficiency was at 0.011516% for the counter electrode that was fabricated by AC. Meanwhile, black carbon and graphite electrodes were achieved at 0.008744% and 0.010561%, respectively. The results proved that the porosity and the uniform aggregate of the particles were the most significant factors to improve the performance of DSSC. (paper)

  19. Study of electrode pattern design for a CZT-based PET detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Levin, C S

    2014-06-07

    We are developing a 1 mm resolution small animal positron emission tomography (PET) system using 3D positioning cadmium zinc telluride photon detectors comprising 40 mm × 40 mm × 5 mm crystals metalized with a cross-strip electrode pattern with a 1 mm anode strip pitch. We optimized the electrode pattern design for intrinsic sensitivity and spatial, energy and time resolution performance using a test detector comprising cathode and steering electrode strips of varying dimensions. The study found 3 and 5 mm width cathode strips locate charge-shared photon interactions near cathode strip boundaries with equal precision. 3 mm width cathode strips exhibited large time resolution variability as a function of photon interaction location between the anode and cathode planes (~26 to ~127.5 ns full width at half maximum (FWHM) for 0.5 mm and 4.2 mm depths, respectively). 5 mm width cathode strips by contrast exhibited more stable time resolution for the same interaction locations (~34 to ~83 ns FWHM), provided more linear spatial positioning in the direction orthogonal to the electrode planes, and as much as 68.4% improvement in photon sensitivity over the 3 mm wide cathode strips. The results were understood by analyzing the cathode strips' weighting functions, which indicated a stronger 'small pixel' effect in the 3 mm wide cathode strips. Photon sensitivity and anode energy resolution were seen to improve with decreasing steering electrode bias from 0 to -80 V w.r.t. the anode potential. A slight improvement in energy resolution was seen for wider steering electrode strips (400 versus 100 µm) for charge-shared photon interactions. Although this study successfully focused on electrode pattern features for PET performance, the results are generally applicable to semiconductor photon detectors employing cross-trip electrode patterns.

  20. Topotactic Consolidation of Monocrystalline CoZn Hydroxides for Advanced Oxygen Evolution Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Tan, Chuan Fu; Zhu, Ting; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2016-08-22

    We present a room temperature topotactic consolidation of cobalt and zinc constituents into monocrystalline CoZn hydroxide nanosheets, by a localized corrosion of zinc foils with cobalt precursors. By virtue of similar lattice orientation and structure coordination, the hybrid hydroxides amalgamate atomically without phase separation. Importantly, this in situ growth strategy, in combination with configurable percolated nanosheets, renders a high areal density of catalytic sites, immobilized structures, and conductive pathways between the nanosheets and underlying foils-all of which allow monocrystalline CoZn hydroxide nanosheet materials to function as effective electrodes for electrochemical oxygen evolution reactions. This convenient and eco-friendly topotactical transformation approach facilitates high-quality single crystal growth with improved multiphase purity and homogeneity, which can be extended to other transition metals for the fabrication of advanced functional nanocomposites. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  2. Interfacial and Electrode Modifications in P3HT:PC61BM based Organic Solar Cells: Devices, Processing and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sayantan

    The inexorable upsurge in world’s energy demand has steered the search for newer renewable energy sources and photovoltaics seemed to be one of the best alternatives for energy production. Among the various photovoltaic technologies that emerged, organic/polymer photovoltaics based on solution processed bulk-heterojunctions (BHJ) of semiconducting polymers has gained serious attention owing to the use of inexpensive light-weight materials, exhibiting high mechanical flexibility and compatibility with low temperature roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques on flexible substrates. The most widely studied material to date is the blend of regioregular P3HT and PC61BM used as donor and acceptor materials. The object of this study was to investigate and improve the performance/stability of the organic solar cells by use of inexpensive materials. In an attempt to enhance the efficiency of organic solar cells, we have demonstrated the use of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode in bulk heterojunction solar cell structure The device studies showed a significant enhancement in the short-circuit current as well as in the shunt resistance on use of the hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) layer. In another approach a p-type CuI hole-transport layer was utilized that could possibly replace the acidic PEDOT:PSS layer in the fabrication of high-efficiency solar cells. The device optimization was done by varying the concentration of CuI in the precursor solution which played an important role in the efficiency of the solar cell devices. Recently a substantial amount of research has been focused on identifying suitable interfacial layers in organic solar cells which has efficient charge transport properties. It was illustrated that a thin layer of silver oxide interfacial layer showed a 28% increase in power conversion efficiency in comparison to that of the control cell. The optoelectronic properties and morphological features of indium-free Zn

  3. Isolation and characterization of a native strain of Aspergillus niger ZRS14 with capability of high resistance to zinc and its supernatant application towards extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morahem Ashengroph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc oxide nanoparticles have quite a few applications in the fields of biology, optics, mechanics, magnetism, energy, hygiene and medicine. Due to serious problems associated with physiochemical synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, including environmental pollution, complicated and costly processes, there is a growing need to develop a simple biological procedure for synthesis of nanoparticles to achieve the monodisperse-sized particles with a higher purity, low energy consumption and a cleaner environment. We conducted this investigation to screen and isolate native fungi strains capable of high zinc metal tolerance ability and a potential for extracellular synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using fungal secretions as biological catalysts.Materials and methods: 15 different strains of fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from lead and zinc mines of Angoran-Zanjan using conventional enrichment process and characterized initially based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and colony morphology. The intrinsic tolerance of the isolated strains to zinc toxic metal was measured in the synthetic and complex media using the agar dilution method. The supernatants of isolated fungi were incubated with zinc acetate solution in a shaker incubator for 72h; then, the strain that was able to synthesis ZnO nanoparticle was identified. The ZnO nanoparticles formation was investigated by using spectroscopic techniques and microscopic observations.Results: Among the 15 isolated strains, the strain ZRS14 had highest zinc metal tolerance ability and was selected and identified as Aspergillus niger strain ZRS14 (GenBank accession number KF414527 based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis. For synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by isolated A. niger ZRS14, fungal cell-free filtrate of the strain was collected and incubated in the presence of zinc acetate solution at a final concentration of 250 mg/l zinc metal ion at 28º C for

  4. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  5. The Applications of Morphology Controlled ZnO in Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhai Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide (ZnO, with the unique chemical and physical properties of high chemical stability, broad radiation absorption range, high electrochemical coupling coefficient, and high photo-stability, is an attractive multifunctional material which has promoted great interest in many fields. What is more, its properties can be tuned by controllable synthesized morphologies. Therefore, after the success of the abundant morphology controllable synthesis, both the morphology-dependent ZnO properties and their related applications have been extensively investigated. This review concentrates on the properties of morphology-dependent ZnO and their applications in catalysis, mainly involved reactions on green energy and environmental issues, such as CO2 hydrogenation to fuels, methanol steam reforming to generate H2, bio-diesel production, pollutant photo-degradation, etc. The impressive catalytic properties of ZnO are associated with morphology tuned specific microstructures, defects or abilities of electron transportation, etc. The main morphology-dependent promotion mechanisms are discussed and summarized.

  6. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Brown-Peterson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Tilapia (Oreochromis spp. were collected seasonally from four contaminated rivers in southwestern Taiwan for studies of morphological deformities that could be used as biomarkers of contamination. Morphological deformities found in tilapia were separated into 15 categories. Overall, the prevalence of deformities such as split fins, lower lip extension and gill deformities were significantly related to various water quality parameters, including low DO and high ammonium, lead and zinc concentrations. The persistence of tilapia in polluted waters and the development of a suite of morphological deformities suggest that tilapia can be used as sentinels of non-point source pollution in rivers.

  7. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peter Lin; Hawkins, William E.; Overstreet, Robin M.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.

    2009-01-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were collected seasonally from four contaminated rivers in southwestern Taiwan for studies of morphological deformities that could be used as biomarkers of contamination. Morphological deformities found in tilapia were separated into 15 categories. Overall, the prevalence of deformities such as split fins, lower lip extension and gill deformities were significantly related to various water quality parameters, including low DO and high ammonium, lead and zinc concentrations. The persistence of tilapia in polluted waters and the development of a suite of morphological deformities suggest that tilapia can be used as sentinels of non-point source pollution in rivers. PMID:19742162

  8. Use of pyrrole black in zinc-halogen batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengoli, G.; Musiani, M.M.; Tomat, R.; Valcher, S.; Pletcher, D.

    1985-09-01

    The storage of Br/sub 2//Br/sup -/ and I/sub 2//I/sup -/ couples in a conducting polymer matrix, polypyrrole coated on a reticulated vitreous carbon disc, is described and the application of these positive electrodes in zinc-halogen model batteries is discussed. The cell based on the polypyrrole bromine adduct shows the higher open circuit voltage which, however, depends on the state of charge. Such cells self discharge thus limiting their usefulness. In the case of the iodine cell the self discharge is due to loss of iodine from the polymer to the bulk solution, but with the bromine cell the cause is oxidative bromination and depolymerization of the polypyrrole. 22 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Investigation of zinc recovery by hydrogen reduction assisted pyrolysis of alkaline and zinc-carbon battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Zinc (Zn) recovery from alkaline and zinc-carbon (Zn-C) battery waste were studied by a laboratory scale pyrolysis process at a reaction temperature of 950°C for 15-60min residence time using 5%H 2(g) -N 2(g) mixture at 1.0L/min gas flow rate. The effect of different cooling rates on the properties of pyrolysis residue, manganese oxide particles, were also investigated. Morphological and structural characterization of the produced Zn particles were performed. The battery black mass was characterized with respect to the properties and chemical composition of the waste battery particles. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process was studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. A hydrogen reduction reaction of the battery black mass (washed with Milli-Q water) takes place at the chosen temperature and makes it possible to produce fine Zn particles by rapid condensation following the evaporation of Zn from the pyrolysis batch. The amount of Zn that can be separated from the black mass increases by extending the residence time. Recovery of 99.8% of the Zn was achieved at 950°C for 60min residence time using 1.0L/min gas flow rate. The pyrolysis residue contains MnO and Mn 2 O 3 compounds, and the oxidation state of manganese can be controlled by cooling rate and atmosphere. The Zn particles exhibit spherical and hexagonal particle morphology with a particle size varying between 200nm and 3µm. However the particles were formed by aggregation of nanoparticles which are primarily nucleated from the gas phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ionic polymer metal composites with polypyrrole-silver electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, F.; Grillo, A.; Porfiri, M.

    2015-03-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a class of soft active materials that are finding increasing application in robotics, environmental sensing, and energy harvesting. In this letter, we demonstrate the fabrication of IPMCs via in-situ photoinduced polymerization of polypyrrole-silver electrodes on an ionomeric membrane. The composition, morphology, and sheet resistance of the electrodes are extensively characterized through a range of experimental techniques. We experimentally investigate IPMC electrochemistry through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and we propose a modified Randle's model to interpret the impedance spectrum. Finally, we demonstrate in-air dynamic actuation and sensing and assess IPMC performance against more established fabrication methods. Given the simplicity of the process and the short time required for the formation of the electrodes, we envision the application of our technique in the development of a rapid prototyping technology for IPMCs.

  11. An investigation of the electrochemical action of the epoxy zinc-rich coatings containing surface modified aluminum nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, M.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-02-01

    Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP). The surface characterization of the nanoparticles was done by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis. The influence of the replacement of 2 wt% of zinc dust in the standard zinc-rich epoxy coating by nanoparticles on the electrochemical action of the coating was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. The morphology and phase composition of the zinc rich paints were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and filed-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Results showed that the ATMP molecules successfully adsorbed on the surface of Al nanoparticles. Results obtained from salt spray and electrochemical measurements revealed that the addition of surface modified nanoparticles to the zinc rich coating enhanced its galvanic action and corrosion protection properties.

  12. Simultaneous determination of trace-levels of alloying zinc and copper by semi-mercury-free potentiometric stripping analysis with chemometric data treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Hansen, Elo Harald

    1998-01-01

    Assays of copper and zinc in brass samples were performed by Semi-Mercury Free Potentiometric Stripping Analysis (S-MF PSA) using a thin-film mercury covered glassy-carbon working electrode and dissolved oxygen as oxidizing agent during the stripping step. The stripping peak transients were...... resolved by chemometrics which enabled simultaneous determination of both the copper and the zinc concentrations, thereby eliminating the conventional necessary pretreatment of the sample solution, such as initial addition of Ga(III) or solvent extraction of copper. The brass samples were diluted...... by factors in the range 2.104 - 5.105 which resulted in quantification of the copper and of zinc contents comparable to the specified values within 10%. On the basis of the chemometric treatment, an empirical expression is deduced relating the stripping time to the recorded potential....

  13. The electrochemical behavior of Co(TPTZ)2 complex on different carbon based electrodes modified with TiO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortaboy, Sinem; Atun, Gülten

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical behavior of cobalt (II) complex with the N-donor ligand 2,2′-bipyridyl-1,3,5-tripyridyl-s-triazine (TPTZ) was investigated to elucidate the electron-proton transfer mechanisms. The electrochemical response of the complex was studied using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. A conventional three-electrode system, consisting of glassy carbon (GCE), TiO 2 modified glassy carbon (T/GCE), carbon paste (CPE) and TiO 2 modified carbon paste (T/CPE) working electrodes were employed. The ligand/metal ratio and stability constant of the complex as well as the mechanisms of the electrode processes were elucidated by examining the effects of pH, ligand concentration and frequency on the voltammograms. The EIS results indicated that the samples modified with TiO 2 had the higher charge transfer resistance than that of the bare electrodes and also suggested that the electroactivity of the electrode surfaces increased in the following order, T/CPE > CPE > T/GCE > GCE. The surface morphology of the working electrodes was also characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The values of surface roughness parameters were found to be consistent with the results obtained by EIS experiments. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the experimental process. - Highlights: • Electrochemical behavior of Co(TPTZ) 2 complex studied by SWV and EIS techniques. • GCE, CPE T/GCE and T/CPE were used as working electrodes for comparative studies. • The surface morphologies of the electrodes were characterized by AFM. • Mechanisms were proposed from the effects of pH, ligand concentration and frequency. • EIS and morphologic relationships of the surfaces were established successfully

  14. Highly transparent front electrodes with metal fingers for p-i-n thin-film silicon solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulin Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The optical and electrical properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCOs, traditionally used in thin-film silicon (TF-Si solar cells as front-electrode materials, are interlinked, such that an increase in TCO transparency is generally achieved at the cost of reduced lateral conductance. Combining a highly transparent TCO front electrode of moderate conductance with metal fingers to support charge collection is a well-established technique in wafer-based technologies or for TF-Si solar cells in the substrate (n-i-p configuration. Here, we extend this concept to TF-Si solar cells in the superstrate (p-i-n configuration. The metal fingers are used in conjunction with a millimeter-scale textured foil, attached to the glass superstrate, which provides an antireflective and retroreflective effect; the latter effect mitigates the shadowing losses induced by the metal fingers. As a result, a substantial increase in power conversion efficiency, from 8.7% to 9.1%, is achieved for 1-μm-thick microcrystalline silicon solar cells deposited on a highly transparent thermally treated aluminum-doped zinc oxide layer combined with silver fingers, compared to cells deposited on a state-of-the-art zinc oxide layer.

  15. Degradation studies of transparent conductive electrodes on electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride for uric acid measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa F Cardoso, Pedro Martins, Gabriela Botelho, Luis Rebouta, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez and Graca Minas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical analysis of physiological fluids using, for example, lab-on-a-chip devices requires accurate mixing of two or more fluids. This mixing can be assisted by acoustic microagitation using a piezoelectric material, such as the β-phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride (β-PVDF. If the analysis is performed using optical absorption spectroscopy and β-PVDF is located in the optical path, the material and its conductive electrodes must be transparent. Moreover, if, to improve the transmission of the ultrasonic waves to the fluids, the piezoelectric transducer is placed inside the fluidic structures, its degradation must be assessed. In this paper, we report on the degradation properties of transparent conductive oxides, namely, indium tin oxide (ITO and aluminum-doped zinc oxide, when they are used as electrodes for providing acoustic microagitation. The latter promotes mixing of chemicals involved in the measurement of uric acid concentration in physiological fluids. The results are compared with those for aluminum electrodes. We find that β-PVDF samples with ITO electrodes do not degrade either with or without acoustic microagitation.

  16. Degradation studies of transparent conductive electrodes on electroactive poly(vinylidene fluoride) for uric acid measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vanessa F; Minas, Graca; Martins, Pedro; Rebouta, Luis; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu; Botelho, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Biochemical analysis of physiological fluids using, for example, lab-on-a-chip devices requires accurate mixing of two or more fluids. This mixing can be assisted by acoustic microagitation using a piezoelectric material, such as the β-phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (β-PVDF). If the analysis is performed using optical absorption spectroscopy and β-PVDF is located in the optical path, the material and its conductive electrodes must be transparent. Moreover, if, to improve the transmission of the ultrasonic waves to the fluids, the piezoelectric transducer is placed inside the fluidic structures, its degradation must be assessed. In this paper, we report on the degradation properties of transparent conductive oxides, namely, indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide, when they are used as electrodes for providing acoustic microagitation. The latter promotes mixing of chemicals involved in the measurement of uric acid concentration in physiological fluids. The results are compared with those for aluminum electrodes. We find that β-PVDF samples with ITO electrodes do not degrade either with or without acoustic microagitation.

  17. Graphene-Based Transparent Electrodes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawashdeh, Nathir A. F.; Albiss, Borhan A.; Yousef, Mo'ath H. I.

    2018-02-01

    Several Zinc Oxide (ZnO) photo-anodes were prepared with different morphologies. For each morphology, two composites containing graphene oxide (GO) were prepared. ZnO sheet-flowers attained the highest efficiency among control samples, owing to the light diffraction that may be caused by such morphology. On the other hand, ZnO rods achieved lower performance than ZnO sheet-flowers, but higher than ZnO flowers, due to their porosity and structure, which may scatter light effectively. The effect of including GO in the photoanode matrix was studied and the results demonstrate a significant increase in short circuit current density (JSC). The addition of GO suggested an overall positive effect on cell performance, where samples of ZnO rods and Flowers had the most significant increase in their performance, due to the inhibition of charge recombination by GO.

  18. Effect of zinc on nectar secretion of Hibiscus rosa -sinensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawidis, Thomas; Papadopoulou, Alexandra; Voulgaropoulou, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Zinc toxicity in secretory cells caused a range of effects, mainly depending on metal concentration. Low concentrations activated nectary function increasing nectar secretion but secretion was greatly inhibited or stopped entirely by ongoing concentration. Water loss rate of zinc treated flower parts was significantly reduced whereas green sepals were dehydrated more rapidly in comparison to colored petals. The content of zinc, calcium, magnesium and manganese increased mainly in sepals under excess of zinc, but in the secreted nectar this metal was not evident. Morphological changes were observed in mucilage cells concerning the mucilage structure and appearance. The parenchymatic, subglandular cells displayed an early vacuolarization and cytoplasm condensation. Secretory hairs appeared to be thinner, the apical cell folded inwards and plasmolytic shrinkage became severe in all cells. The waxy cuticula showed an increased electron density. A plasmalemma detachment from the external cell walls was observed creating a gap between cell wall and plasmalemma. ER cisterns of all treated nectary hairs dominated the cytoplasm and electron dense deposits were seen within its profiles. A great number of other organelles were also present, showing electron dense deposits in their membranes as well. The vacuome was drastically reduced in all cells, except in the subglandular ones and electron dense membrane remnants were observed.

  19. Effects of KOH:ZnCl2 mole ratio on the phase formation, morphological and inhibitive properties of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, F.; Ghasemi, E.; Ramezanzadeh, B.; Mahdavian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: This figure illustrates the inhibition mechanism. The film precipitation on the anodic and cathodic regions of the metal surface causes a drop in dissolution rate of steel. - Highlights: • We synthesized the ZP pigments via coprecipitation method. • Effect of KOH:ZnCl 2 on phase formation, morphology and inhibitive performance of pigment. • KOH:ZnCl 2 ratio is effective on phase formation and morphology of ZP pigments. • KZn 2 H(PO 4 ) 2 phase showed superior corrosion inhibition behavior than KZnPO 4 . - Abstract: Different types of potassium zinc phosphate (PZP) pigments were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The PZPs were obtained through changing KOH:ZnCl 2 mole ratio. The chemical composition of the pigments was studied by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then, the extracts of the PZPs were prepared in 3.5% (w/w) NaCl solution. The inhibitive performance of the pigments was investigated by polarization technique and SEM surface analysis through dipping mild steel panels in the pigment extracts for different immersion times. Results showed that changing ZnCl 2 /KOH mole ratio could influence formation of KZn 2 H(PO 4 ) 2 and KZnPO 4 phases. It was known that the KZn 2 H(PO 4 ) 2 phase has a superior corrosion inhibition behavior in 3.5% NaCl solution than KZnPO 4 phase

  20. Nanostructured MnO₂ as Electrode Materials for Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Christian M; Mauger, Alain

    2017-11-17

    Manganese dioxides, inorganic materials which have been used in industry for more than a century, now find great renewal of interest for storage and conversion of energy applications. In this review article, we report the properties of MnO₂ nanomaterials with different morphologies. Techniques used for the synthesis, structural, physical properties, and electrochemical performances of periodic and aperiodic frameworks are discussed. The effect of the morphology of nanosized MnO₂ particles on their fundamental features is evidenced. Applications as electrodes in lithium batteries and supercapacitors are examined.

  1. Note: Erosion of W-Ni-Fe and W-Cu alloy electrodes in repetitive spark gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiawei; Han, Ruoyu; Ding, Weidong; Qiu, Aici; Tang, Junping

    2018-02-01

    A pair of W-Ni-Fe and W-Cu electrodes were tested under 100 kA level pulsed currents for 10 000 shots, respectively. Surface roughness and morphology characteristics of the two pairs of electrodes were obtained and compared. Experimental results indicated cracks divided the W-Cu electrode surface to polygons while the W-Ni-Fe electrode surface remained as a whole with pits and protrusions. Accordingly, the surface roughness of W-Ni-Fe electrodes increased to ∼3 μm while that of W-Cu electrodes reached ∼7 μm at the end of the test. The results reveal that the W-Ni-Fe alloy has a better erosion resistance and potential to be further applied in spark gaps.

  2. Sputter deposition on gas diffusion electrodes of Pt-Au nanoclusters for methanol oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorgi, L.; Giorgi, R.; Gagliardi, S.; Serra, E. [ENEA Casaccia Research Center, Rome (Italy). Physics Technologies and New Materials; Alvisi, M.; Signore, M.A. [ENEA Brindisi Research Center, Brindisi (Italy). Physics Technologies and New Materials

    2008-07-01

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are suited for use in commercial electrical vehicle and electric power applications. The gas diffusion electrodes of PEFCs are catalyzed by the deposition of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles on carbon powder. The particles must be localized on the electrode surface in order to achieve high electrocatalyst utilization. This study discussed a method of preparing PEFC electrodes using sputter deposition of a Pt-gold (Au) alloy nanoparticles on carbon powders. The method was designed to improve electrode performance and catalyst utilization. The nano-sized alloy clusters were deposited on a gas diffusion electrode at room temperature. The deposits were then characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to examine the effect of the deposition technique on the nano-morphology and electrocatalytic performance of the electrode. Results of the study showed that the technique can be used in the large-scale manufacture of fuel cell electrodes. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Electrode-electrolyte BIMEVOX system for moderate temperature oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boivin, J.C.; Pirovano, C.; Nowogrocki, G.; Mairesse, G. [Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physicochimie du Solide, URA CNRS 452, USTL-ENSCL BP 108, 59652 Villeneuve d`Ascq (France); Labrune, Ph.; Lagrange, G. [Centre de recherches Claude Delorme, Air Liquide, Jouy en Josas (France)

    1998-12-01

    . Similar results were obtained with copper and zinc derivatives. A model, in which part of the electrolyte material converts reversibly into electrode material is proposed to interpret the behavior of the oxygen separation membrane under operating conditions

  4. PREPARATION OF ZINC ENRICHED YEAST (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE BY CULTIVATION WITH DIFFERENT ZINC SALTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Harangozo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the best known microorganism and therefore widely used in many branches of industry. This study aims to investigate the accumulation of three inorganic zinc salts. Our research presents the ability of this yeast to absorb zinc from liquid medium and such enriched biomass use as a potential source of microelements in animal and/or human nutrition. It was found that the addition of different zinc forms, i.e. zinc nitrate, zinc sulphate and zinc chloride in fixed concentrations of 0, 25, 50 and 100 mg.100 ml-1 did not affect the amount of dry yeast biomass yielded, i.e. 1.0 – 1.2 g of yeast cells from 100 ml of cultivation medium, while higher presence of zinc solutions caused significantly lower yield of yeast biomass. The highest amount of zinc in yeast cells was achieved when added in the form of zinc nitrate in concentration of 200 mg.100 ml-1 YPD medium. The increment of intracellular zinc was up to 18.5 mg.g-1 of yeast biomass.

  5. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pešlová, F.; Kliber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 43-46 ISSN 0543-5846 Grant - others:KEGA(SK) KEGA 007 TnUAD-4/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * production of zinc oxide * microstructure * chemical composition * zinc slag Subject RIV: JG - Metal lurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  6. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ∼3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  7. An experimental study of the retention of zinc, zinc-cadmium mixture and zinc-65 in the presence of cadmium in Anguilla anguilla (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pally, Monique; Foulquier, Luc

    1976-07-01

    Zinc uptake was studied in eels in fresh water, using stable zinc, a zinc-cadmium mixture, and zinc 65 in the presence of small amounts of cadmium. The zinc content in the eel began to increase after 45 days only, and reached approximately 85 ppm after 76 days in water initially containing 5ppm of zinc. At the conclusion of the experiment (76 days), the body organs could be classified in decreasing order in zinc content (in ppm): kidneys (152), skeleton (133), skin (129), muscles (89), head (80), gills (78), digestive tract (77), liver (63) spleen-heart-air bladder (32), and mucus (15). A comparison of experimental results obtained with the zinc-cadmium mixture and cadmium alone showed that zinc decreased the cadmium content of all organs except the gills. The presence of cadmium in water did not inhibit zinc uptake. As cadmium content in water increased, then zinc content in the digestive tract and the kidneys decreased and in all cases remained lower than when zinc alone was present. In the presence of cadmium the percentage of zinc in the kidneys was always lower than the value obtained for zinc alone, and that of the digestive tract did not increase. Contamination of eels treated with 18 and 50ppb of cadmium for 29 days, then contaminated by zinc-65 (5μCi/l) while maintaining the same low cadmium content, showed no significant difference in zinc 65 uptake in the two groups. The same applied to the body organs, and particularly the digestive tract and kidneys, where the highest activity levels were observed. By weight, muscles represented approximately 30% of the total contamination after 45 days [fr

  8. Effect of zinc sources on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on an inceptisol of Delhi to evaluate three sources of zinc, namely, zinc sulphate, zincated urea and zinc oxide on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence. Results indicated that, amongst the three zinc sources, zinc sulphate and zincated urea gave the best performance in increasing the grain yield of rice whereas zinc oxide depressed the grain yield of wheat significantly when compared to other treatments. The highest Zn derived from fertilizer and its utilization was obtained with zinc sulphate for both rice and wheat crops. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  10. Nitrogen-doped graphene forests as electrodes for high-performance wearable supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Mei; Ma, Yifei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •N-doped graphene forest (GF) is successfully synthesized by in-situ PECVD process. •Morphology of N-doped GF electrode realizes a better in-plane electron transfer. •Areal and volumetric capacitances increase 26% and 89% by the N-doping of GF. •Energy and power densities increase 87% and 50% by the N-doping of GF. •The N-doped GF-based EDLC shows excellent bendability and reliable durability. -- Abstract: Recently, a graphene forest (GF) is synthesized by a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process, which subverts the stereotyped morphology of vertical graphene. The GF is demonstrated to possess excellent performance in flexible and bendable electrical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). In this work, synthesis process of the GF has been optimized and N-doped GF is successfully achieved by introducing NH 3 as the nitrogen precursor during the PECVD process. The N-doping obviously affects the morphology of the GF and the in-plane conductivity of GF is desirably enhanced. The specific area capacitances and volumetric capacitances of N-doped GF-based EDLC increases 26% and 89% in average, respectively, at different current densities compared with the non-doped GF-based EDLC. In addition, both the energy and power densities are improved, and impressively, the energy densities improve 87% by the N-doping of GF electrodes. The GF-based EDLC also provides the desirable stability that no degradation can be observed within 10,000 cycles. Finally, the flexible N-doped GF-based EDLC is also tested as a wearable supercapacitor, exhibiting no capacitance decrease under the dynamic bending situation. Our approach to synthesize the N-doped GF electrodes can achieve the fine-scale nano-structured GF electrodes and provide a new way forward for improved energy storage devices.

  11. WO3 Nanowires on Graphene Sheets as Negative Electrode for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available WO3 nanowires directly grown on graphene sheets have been fabricated by using a seed-mediated hydrothermal method. The morphologies and electrochemical performance of WO3 films prepared by different process were studied. The results show that the precoated nanoseeds and graphene sheets on graphite electrode provide more reactive centers for the nucleation and formation of uniform WO3 nanowires. The WO3 nanowires electrode exhibits a high area specific capacitance of 800 mF cm−2 over negative potential range from −1.0 V to 0 V versus SCE in 1 M Li2SO4 solution. A high performance electrochemical supercapacitor assembled with WO3 nanowires as negative electrode and PANI/MnO2 as positive electrodes over voltage range of 1.6 V displays a high volumetric capacitance of 2.5 F cm−3, which indicate great potential applications of WO3 nanowires on graphene sheets as negative electrode for energy storage devices.

  12. Electro-chemical deposition of nano hydroxyapatite-zinc coating on titanium metal substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wassefy, N A; Reicha, F M; Aref, N S

    2017-08-13

    Titanium is an inert metal that does not induce osteogenesis and has no antibacterial properties; it is proposed that hydroxyapatite coating can enhance its bioactivity, while zinc can contribute to antibacterial properties and improve osseointegration. A nano-sized hydroxyapatite-zinc coating was deposited on commercially pure titanium using an electro-chemical process, in order to increase its surface roughness and enhance adhesion properties. The hydroxyapatite-zinc coating was attained using an electro-chemical deposition in a solution composed of a naturally derived calcium carbonate, di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate, with a pure zinc metal as the anode and titanium as the cathode. The applied voltage was -2.5 for 2 h at a temperature of 85 °C. The resultant coating was characterized for its surface morphology and chemical composition using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. The coated specimens were also evaluated for their surface roughness and adhesion quality. Hydroxyapatite-zinc coating had shown rosette-shaped, homogenous structure with nano-size distribution, as confirmed by SEM analysis. FT-IR and EDS proved that coatings are composed of hydroxyapatite (HA) and zinc. The surface roughness assessment revealed that the coating procedure had significantly increased average roughness (Ra) than the control, while the adhesive tape test demonstrated a high-quality adhesive coat with no laceration on tape removal. The developed in vitro electro-chemical method can be employed for the deposition of an even thickness of nano HA-Zn adhered coatings on titanium substrate and increases its surface roughness significantly.

  13. Development of zinc oxide nanoparticle by sonochemical method and study of their physical and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Samreen Heena; Suriyaprabha, R.; Pathak, Bhawana; Fulekar, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    With the miniaturization of crystal size, the fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms becomes dominant, and hence, materials in the nano-regime behave very differently from the similar material in a bulk. Zinc oxide (ZnO), particularly, exhibits extraordinary properties such as a wide direct band gap (3.37 eV), large excitation binding energy (60 meV), low refractive index (1.9), stability to intense ultraviolet (UV) illumination, resistance to high-energy irradiation, and lower toxicity as compared to other semiconductors. This very property makes Zinc Oxide a potential candidate in many application fields, particularly as a prominent semiconductor. Zinc Oxide plays a significant role in many technological advances with its application in semiconductor mediated photocatalytic processes and sensor, solar cells and others. In present study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been synthesized using three different precursors by sonochemical method. Zinc Acetate Dihydrate, Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate and Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate used as a precursor for the synthesis process. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticle has been found under the range of ∼50 nm. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized using different characterizing tools. The as-synthesized ZnO was characterized by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the determination of functional group; Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for Morphology and elemental detection respectively, Transmission Electron Microscopy for Particle size distribution and morphology and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the confirmation of crystal structure of the nanomaterial. The optical properties of the ZnO were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy equipped with Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) confirmed the optical band gap of ZnO-3 around 3.23 eV resembles with the band gap of bulk ZnO (3.37eV). The TEM micrograph of the as-synthesized material showed perfectly spherical shaped

  14. Development of zinc oxide nanoparticle by sonochemical method and study of their physical and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Samreen Heena, E-mail: samreen.heena.khan@gmail.com; Suriyaprabha, R. [Centre for Nanosciences, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, India- 382030 (India); Pathak, Bhawana, E-mail: bhawana.pathak@cug.ac.in; Fulekar, M. H., E-mail: mhfulekar@yahoo.com [School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar, India- 382030 (India)

    2016-04-13

    With the miniaturization of crystal size, the fraction of under-coordinated surface atoms becomes dominant, and hence, materials in the nano-regime behave very differently from the similar material in a bulk. Zinc oxide (ZnO), particularly, exhibits extraordinary properties such as a wide direct band gap (3.37 eV), large excitation binding energy (60 meV), low refractive index (1.9), stability to intense ultraviolet (UV) illumination, resistance to high-energy irradiation, and lower toxicity as compared to other semiconductors. This very property makes Zinc Oxide a potential candidate in many application fields, particularly as a prominent semiconductor. Zinc Oxide plays a significant role in many technological advances with its application in semiconductor mediated photocatalytic processes and sensor, solar cells and others. In present study, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) has been synthesized using three different precursors by sonochemical method. Zinc Acetate Dihydrate, Zinc Nitrate Hexahydrate and Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate used as a precursor for the synthesis process. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticle has been found under the range of ∼50 nm. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were characterized using different characterizing tools. The as-synthesized ZnO was characterized by Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) for the determination of functional group; Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for Morphology and elemental detection respectively, Transmission Electron Microscopy for Particle size distribution and morphology and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) for the confirmation of crystal structure of the nanomaterial. The optical properties of the ZnO were examined by UV-VIS spectroscopy equipped with Diffuse Reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) confirmed the optical band gap of ZnO-3 around 3.23 eV resembles with the band gap of bulk ZnO (3.37eV). The TEM micrograph of the as-synthesized material showed perfectly spherical shaped

  15. Highly crumpled solar reduced graphene oxide electrode for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanapriya, K.; Ahirrao, Dinesh J.; Jha, Neetu

    2018-04-01

    Highly crumpled solar reduced graphene oxide (CSRGO) was synthesized by simple and rapid method through freezing the solar reduced graphene oxide aqueous suspension using liquid nitrogen and used as electrode material for supercapacitor application. This electrode material was characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-Ray diffractometer (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy techniques to understand the morphology and structure. The electrochemical performance was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge (CD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using 6M KOH electrolyte. The CSRGO exhibit high specifc capacitance of 210.1 F g-1 at the current density of 0.5 A g-1 and shows excellent rate capability. These features make the CSRGO material as promising electrode for high-performance supercapacitors.

  16. In situ electrochemical atomic force microscope study on graphite electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirasawa, K.A.; Sato, Tomohiro; Asahina, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Mori, Shoichiro [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Inashiki, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Center

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film on graphite electrodes has increased recently in the quest to improve the performance of lithium-ion batteries. Topographic and frictional changes on the surface of a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite electrode in 1 M LiCiO{sub 4} ethylene carbonate/ethylmethyl carbonate (1:1) electrolyte were examined during charge and discharge by in situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy and friction force microscopy simultaneously in real-time. Solid electrolyte interphase film formation commenced at approximately 2 V vs. Li/Li{sup +} and stable film formation with an island-like morphology was observed below approximately 0.9 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. Further experiments on a KS-44 graphite/polyvinylidene difluoride binder composite electrode showed similar phenomena.

  17. Thin-film electroencephalographic electrodes using multi-walled carbon nanotubes are effective for neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awara, Kousuke; Kitai, Ryuhei; Isozaki, Makoto; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Kikuta, Kenichiro; Fushisato, Naoki; Kawamoto, Akira

    2014-12-15

    Intraoperative morphological and functional monitoring is essential for safe neurosurgery. Functional monitoring is based on electroencephalography (EEG), which uses silver electrodes. However, these electrodes generate metal artifacts as silver blocks X-rays, creating white radial lines on computed tomography (CT) images during surgery. Thick electrodes interfere with surgical procedures. Thus, thinner and lighter electrodes are ideal for intraoperative use. The authors developed thin brain electrodes using carbon nanotubes that were formed into thin sheets and connected to electrical wires. The nanotube sheets were soft and fitted the curve of the head very well. When attached to the head using paste, the impedance of the newly developed electrodes was 5 kΩ or lower, which was similar to that of conventional metal electrodes. These electrodes can be used in combination with intraoperative CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or cerebral angiography. Somatosensory-evoked potentials, auditory brainstem responses, and visually evoked potentials were clearly identified in ten volunteers. The electrodes, without any artifacts that distort images, did not interfere with X-rays, CT, or MR images. They also did not cause skin damage. Carbon nanotube electrodes may be ideal for neurosurgery.

  18. Preparation, electrochemical characterization and charge-discharge of reticulated vitreous carbon/polyaniline composite electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Carla; Biaggio, Sonia R.; Rocha-Filho, Romeu C.; Bocchi, Nerilso

    2009-01-01

    Polyaniline was electrodeposited onto reticulated vitreous carbon - RVC - in order to obtain a tridimensional composite electrode. Three variations of these electrodes were analysed: a small-anion-doped polyaniline (RVC/Pani), a polyanion-doped polyaniline (RVC/PaniPSS) and a bi-layer type formed by an inner layer of the first electrode and an outer layer of the second one (RVC/Pani/PaniPSS). These composites were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electronic microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Photomicrographies, voltammetric profiles and impedance data pointed to different morphological and electrochemical characteristics for polyaniline doped with small or large anions, and a mixed behavior for the bi-layer electrodes. Charge-discharge tests for these tridimensional (3D) electrodes, employed as the cathode in lithium batteries, indicated better performance for the RVC/Pani electrode. These RVC composites presented higher specific capacities when compared with those obtained for Pani deposited onto bidimensional substrates.

  19. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  20. Mercury free zinc alloy powder for alkaline manganese battery. 2. Effect of additive species to zinc particle on suppressing hydrogen gas evolution; Arukari mangan denchiyo mukoka aen gokin funmatsu. 2. Suiso gas hassei ni oyobosu aen ryushi eno tenka genso no yokusei koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, M.; Fujitani, S.; Nishio, K. [Sanyo electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Akai, Y.; Kurimura, M. [Sanyo Excell Co. Ltd., Tottori (Japan)

    1997-08-05

    In order to make alkaline manganese batteries mercury-free and suppress hydrogen gas generation, investigations were given on the effect of additive species on modification of zinc particles present on negative electrode surface. Mercury with high hydrogen overvoltage has been added conventionally, but the mercury can cause an environmental problem. Surface modification by using indium exhibited hydrogen gas generation suppressing effect. With the surface modification amount of 0.10% by weight or more, the suppressing effect is saturated, reducing the effect to 50% of that of mercury. Surface-modifying the bismuth added zinc particles with indium showed greater suppressing effect than the case where each element is used independently. Zinc-indium (0.10% by weight) - bismuth (0.025% by weight) based alloy powder showed the same hydrogen generation suppressing effect as zinc-mercury (0.15% by weight) alloy powder. A sealed test battery using this alloy powder in negative active material exhibited a discharge capacity of 1700 mAh similarly to the initial stage even after having been stored for 20 days at 60 degC. Self-discharge characteristics equivalent to that of zinc-mercury (0.15% by weight) based alloy powder were obtained. An environment compatible dry cell battery containing no mercury whatsoever was developed successfully. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Electrochemical Supercapacitive Performance of Spray-Deposited NiO Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Abhijit A.; Chavan, U. J.

    2018-04-01

    Transition-metal oxides with porous structure are considered for use as promising electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors. Nanocrystalline nickel oxide (NiO) thin films have been prepared as active material for supercapacitors by spray pyrolysis. In this study, the effects of the film thickness on its structural, morphological, optical, electrical, and electrochemical properties were studied. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed cubic structure with average crystalline size of around 21 nm. Scanning electron microscopy showed porous morphology. The optical bandgap decreased from 3.04 eV to 2.97 eV with increase in the film thickness. Electrical resistivity measurements indicated semiconducting behavior. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge study revealed good pseudocapacitive behavior. Specific capacitance of 564 F g-1 at scan rate of 5 mV s-1 and 553 F g-1 at current density of 1 A g-1 was observed. An NiO-based supercapacitor delivered specific energy of 22.8 W h kg-1 at specific power of 2.16 kW kg-1, and retained 93.01% specific capacitance at current density of 1 A g-1 after 1000 cycles. Therefore, taking advantage of the porous morphology that exists in the nanostructure, such NiO materials can be considered for use as promising electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

  2. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Dymáček, Petr; Pešlová, F.; Jurkovič, Z.; Barborák, O.; Stodola, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-410 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * metallography * microstructure of zinc * zinc oxide * production of zinc oxide Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  3. Study and Fabrication of Super Low-Cost Solar Cell (SLC-SC) Based on Counter Electrode from Animal’s Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlilah, D. R.; Fajar, M. N.; Aini, A. N.; Haqqiqi, R. I.; Wirawan, P. R.; Endarko

    2018-04-01

    The synthesized carbon from bones of chicken, cow, and fish with the calcination temperature at 450 and 600°C have been successfully fabricated for counter electrode in the Super Low-Cost Solar Cell (SLC-LC) based the structure of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). The main proposed study was to fabricate SLC-SC and investigate the influence of the synthesized carbon from animal’s bone for counter electrode towards to photovoltaic performance of SLC-SC. X-Ray Diffraction and UV-Vis was used to characterize the phase and the optical properties of TiO2 as photoanode in SLC-SC. Meanwhile, the morphology and particle size distribution of the synthesized carbon in counter electrodes were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). The results showed that the TiO2 has anatase phase with the absorption wavelength of 300 to 550 nm. The calcination temperature for synthesizing of carbon could affect morphology and particle size distribution. The increasing temperature gave the effect more dense in morphology and increased the particle size of carbon in the counter electrode. Changes in morphology and particle size of carbon give effect to the performance of the SLC-SC where the increased morphology’s compact and particle size make decreased in the performance of the SLC-SC.

  4. Direct electrodeposition of metal nanowires on electrode surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambirasi, Arianna; Cattarin, Sandro; Musiani, Marco; Vazquez-Gomez, Lourdes; Verlato, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    A method for decorating the surface of disk electrodes with metal nanowires is presented. Cu and Ni nanowires with diameters from 1.0 μm to 0.2 μm are directly deposited on the electrode surface using a polycarbonate membrane filter template maintained in contact with the metal substrate by the soft homogeneous pressure of a sponge soaked with electrolyte. The morphologic and structural properties of the deposit are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The latter shows that the head of nanowires with diameter of 0.4 μm is ordinarily polycrystalline, and that of nanowires with diameter of 0.2 μm is almost always monocrystalline for Cu and frequently also for Ni. Cyclic voltammetries and impedance investigations recorded in alkaline solutions at representative Ni electrodes decorated with nanowires provide consistent values of roughness factor, in the range 20-25.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on hemoglobin immobilized at graphene, flower-like zinc oxide, and gold nanoparticles nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lingling; Xu, Yuandong; Cao, Xiaoyu

    2013-07-01

    In this work, a highly sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) biosensor based on immobilization of hemoglobin (Hb) at Au nanoparticles (AuNPs)/flower-like zinc oxide/graphene (AuNPs/ZnO/Gr) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed, where ZnO and Au nanoparticles were modified through layer-by-layer onto Gr/GCE. Flower-like ZnO nanoparticles could be easily prepared by adding ethanol to the precursor solution having higher concentration of hydroxide ions. The Hb/AuNPs/ZnO/Gr composite film showed a pair of well-defined, quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential (E(0)) of -0.367 V, characteristic features of heme redox couple of Hb. The electron transfer rate constant (k(s)) of immobilized Hb was 1.3 s(-1). The developed biosensor showed a very fast response (<2 s) toward H2O2 with good sensitivity, wide linear range, and low detection limit of 0.8 μM. The fabricated biosensor showed interesting features, including high selectivity, acceptable stability, good reproducibility, and repeatability along with excellent conductivity, facile electron mobility of Gr, and good biocompatibility of ZnO and AuNPs. The fabrication method of this biosensor was simple and effective for determination of H2O2 in real samples with quick response, good sensitivity, high selectivity, and acceptable recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide on flammability behaviour of aerospace epoxy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The flame retardancy of mono-component epoxy resin (RTM6, widely used for aerospace composites, treated with zinc borate (ZB, aluminium trihydroxide (ATH and their mixtures at different concentrations have been investigated by morphological and thermal characterization. Cone calorimeter data reveal that combustion behaviour, heat release rate peak (PHRR and heat release rate average (HRR Average of RTM6 resin decrease substantially when synergistic effects of zinc borate and aluminium trihydroxide intervene. Thermogravimetric (TGA results and analysis of the residue show that addition higher than 20% w/w of ZB, ATH, and their mixture greatly promotes RTM6 char formation acting as a barrier layer for the fire development. Depending upon the different used flame additives, SEM micrographs indicate that the morphology of residual char could vary from a compact amalgam-like structure, for the RTM6+ZB system, to a granular structure, characterized by very small particles of degraded resin and additive for the ATH.

  7. Cyclic AMP Pathway Activation and Extracellular Zinc Induce Rapid Intracellular Zinc Mobilization in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellerup, Lasse; Winther, Anne-Marie L.; Wilson, Duncan; Fuglsang, Anja T.

    2018-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient, required for a range of zinc-dependent enzymes and transcription factors. In mammalian cells, zinc serves as a second messenger molecule. However, a role for zinc in signaling has not yet been established in the fungal kingdom. Here, we used the intracellular zinc reporter, zinbo-5, which allowed visualization of zinc in the endoplasmic reticulum and other components of the internal membrane system in Candida albicans. We provide evidence for a link between cyclic AMP/PKA- and zinc-signaling in this major human fungal pathogen. Glucose stimulation, which triggers a cyclic AMP spike in this fungus resulted in rapid intracellular zinc mobilization and this “zinc flux” could be stimulated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and blocked via inhibition of adenylate cyclase or PKA. A similar mobilization of intracellular zinc was generated by stimulation of cells with extracellular zinc and this effect could be reversed with the chelator EDTA. However, zinc-induced zinc flux was found to be cyclic AMP independent. In summary, we show that activation of the cyclic AMP/PKA pathway triggers intracellular zinc mobilization in a fungus. To our knowledge, this is the first described link between cyclic AMP signaling and zinc homeostasis in a human fungal pathogen. PMID:29619016

  8. Slc39a7/zip7 plays a critical role in development and zinc homeostasis in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Slc39a7/Zip7, also known as Ke4, is a member of solute carrier family 39 (Slc39a and plays a critical role in regulating cell growth and death. Because the function of Zip7 in vivo was unclear, the present study investigated the function of zip7 in vertebrate development and zinc metabolism using zebrafish as a model organism. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using real-time PCR to determine the gene expression pattern of zip7 during zebrafish development, we found that zip7 mRNA is expressed throughout embryonic development and into maturity. Interestingly, whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that while zip7 mRNA is ubiquitously expressed until 12 hours post-fertilization (hpf; at 24 hpf and beyond, zip7 mRNA was specifically detected only in eyes. Morpholino-antisense (MO gene knockdown assay revealed that downregulation of zip7 expression resulted in several morphological defects in zebrafish including decreased head size, smaller eyes, shorter palates, and shorter and curved spinal cords. Analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF showed reduced concentrations of zinc in brain, eyes, and gills of zip7-MO-injected embryos. Furthermore, incubation of the zip7 knockdown embryos in a zinc-supplemented solution was able to rescue the MO-induced morphological defects. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that zip7 is required for eye, brain, and skeleton formation during early embryonic development in zebrafish. Moreover, zinc supplementation can partially rescue defects resulting from zip7 gene knockdown. Taken together, our data provide critical insight into a novel function of zip7 in development and zinc homeostasis in vivo in zebrafish.

  9. Controllably annealed CuO-nanoparticle modified ITO electrodes: Characterisation and electrochemical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tong; Su, Wen; Fu, Yingyi [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Hu, Jingbo, E-mail: hujingbo@bnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: We report a simple and controllable synthesis of CuO-nanoparticle-modified ITO by employing a combination of ion-implantation and annealing methods for the first time. The optimum CuO/ITO electrode shows uniform morphology, highly accessible surface area, long-term stability and excellent electrochemical performance towards biomolecules such as glucose in alkaline solution. - Highlights: • Controllably annealed CuO/ITO electrode was synthesized for the first time. • The generation mechanism of CuO nanoparticles is revealed. • The optimum CuO/ITO electrode shows excellent electrochemical performance. • A reference for the controllable preparation of other metal oxide nanoparticles. - Abstract: In this paper, we report a facile and controllable two-step approach to produce indium tin oxide electrodes modified by copper(II) oxide nanoparticles (CuO/ITO) through ion implantation and annealing methods. After annealing treatment, the surface morphology of the CuO/ITO substrate changed remarkably and exhibited highly electroactive sites and a high specific surface area. The effects of annealing treatment on the synthesis of CuO/ITO were discussed based on various instruments’ characterisations, and the possible mechanism by which CuO nanoparticles were generated was also proposed in this work. Cyclic voltammetric results indicated that CuO/ITO electrodes exhibited effective catalytic responses toward glucose in alkaline solution. Under optimal experimental conditions, the proposed CuO/ITO electrode showed sensitivity of 450.2 μA cm{sup −2} mM{sup −1} with a linear range of up to ∼4.4 mM and a detection limit of 0.7 μM (S/N = 3). Moreover, CuO/ITO exhibited good poison resistance, reproducibility, and stability properties.

  10. Synthesis and Microstructural Characterization of Manganese Oxide Electrodes for Application as Electrochemical Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhani, Banafsheh

    The aim of this thesis work was to synthesize Mn-based oxide electrodes with high surface area structures by anodic electrodeposition for application as electrochemical capacitors. Rod-like structures provide large surface areas leading to high specific capacitances. Since templated electrosynthesis of rods is not easy to use in practical applications, it is more desirable to form rod-like structures without using any templates. In this work, Mn oxide electrodes with rod-like structures (˜1.5 µm in diameter) were synthesized from a solution of 0.01 M Mn acetate under galvanostatic control without any templates, on Au coated Si substrates. The electrochemical properties of the synthesized nanocrystalline electrodes were investigated to determine the effect of morphology, chemistry and crystal structure on the corresponding electrochemical behavior of Mn oxide electrodes. Mn oxides prepared at different current densities showed a defective antifluoritetype crystal structure. The rod-like Mn oxide electrodes synthesized at low current densities (5 mAcm.2) exhibited a high specific capacitance due to their large surface areas. Also, specific capacity retention after 250 cycles in an aqueous solution of 0.5 M Na2SO4 at 100 mVs -1 was about 78% of the initial capacity (203 Fg-1 ). To improve the electrochemical capacitive behavior of Mn oxide electrodes, a sequential approach and a one-step method were adopted to synthesize Mn oxide/PEDOT electrodes through anodic deposition on Au coated Si substrates from aqueous solutions. In the former case, free standing Mn oxide rods (about 10 µm long and less than 1.5 µm in diameter) were first synthesized, then coated by electro-polymerization of a conducting polymer (PEDOT) giving coaxial rods. The one-step, co-electrodeposition method produced agglomerated Mn oxide/PEDOT particles. The electrochemical behavior of the deposits depended on the morphology and crystal structure of the fabricated electrodes, which were affected

  11. Reactivation in vitro of zinc-requiring apo-enzymes by rat liver zinc-thionein

    OpenAIRE

    Udom, Albert O.; Brady, Frank O.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of rat liver zinc-thionein to donate its metal to the apo-enzymes of the zinc enzymes horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase, yeast aldolase, thermolysin, Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase was investigated. Zinc-thionein was as good as, or better than, ZnSO4, Zn(CH3CO2)2 or Zn(NO3)2 in donating its zinc to these apo-enzymes. Apo-(alcohol dehydrogenase) could not be reactivated by zinc salts or by zinc-thionein. Incubation of the other apo-e...

  12. Research, development and demonstration of nickel-zinc batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    This is the first annual report of progress achieved under ANL Contract 31-109-38-4248. It covers the report period from 15 March 1978 to 15 August 1978. The nickel electrode development program is directed at the optimization of the electrical performance, specifically, in terms of increased cycle life. The work concentrated upon both the development of pilot plant facilities to produce nickel hydroxide and upon optimizing the manufacturing processes to produce nickel hydroxide which has high electrochemical utilization. The primary goal of the zinc electrode studies is to increase the cycle life of this electrode. This effort is primarily concentrating on the effect of additives upon shape change and cycle performance and on the mechanistic processes involved in the shape change. The separator effort has as its major goal the development of a low-cost separator which exhibits stability in the electrolyte, has uniform pores which are of a sufficiently small size to impede the growth of zinc dendrites, and exhibits low electrical resistance and good flexibility. The process itself is now optimized for pilot plant manufacture; hundreds of formulations have been produced and subsequently screened in both the laboratory and in actual cells. Promising formulations are presently being subjected to additional characterization tests and life cycles. The goal of the sealed cell studies is to determine the feasibility of sealed-cell operation. Large numbers of 20-Ah cells have been subjected to accelerated testing. These cells incorporated separator variations, active material additives, and internal design variations. Cycle lives up to 150 deep cycles were achieved. Cell failure modes are analyzed. 51 figures, 20 tables.

  13. Brain Lateralization in Mice Is Associated with Zinc Signaling and Altered in Prenatal Zinc Deficient Mice That Display Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Grabrucker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have reported changes in the hemispheric dominance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients on functional, biochemical, and morphological level. Since asymmetry of the brain is also found in many vertebrates, we analyzed whether prenatal zinc deficient (PZD mice, a mouse model with ASD like behavior, show alterations regarding brain lateralization on molecular and behavioral level. Our results show that hemisphere-specific expression of marker genes is abolished in PZD mice on mRNA and protein level. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we found an increased striatal volume in PZD mice with no change in total brain volume. Moreover, behavioral patterns associated with striatal lateralization are altered and the lateralized expression of dopamine receptor 1 (DR1 in the striatum of PZD mice was changed. We conclude that zinc signaling during brain development has a critical role in the establishment of brain lateralization in mice.

  14. Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, Stefano; Mazzaracchio, Vincenzo; Cacciotti, Ilaria; Moscone, Danila; Arduini, Fabiana

    2017-10-03

    Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M ® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA) as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial.

  15. Carbon Black-Modified Electrodes Screen-Printed onto Paper Towel, Waxed Paper and Parafilm M®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cinti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we evaluated the use of paper towel, waxed paper, and Parafilm M® (Heathrow Scientific, Vernon Hills, IL, USA as alternative substrates for screen-printed sensor manufacturing. Morphological study was performed to evaluate the adhesion of the ink on these uncommon substrates, as well as the morphology of the working electrode. The electrochemical characterization was carried out using ferricyanide/ferrocyanide as redox couple. To enhance the electrochemical properties of the developed sensors, the nanomaterial carbon black was used as nanomodifier. The modification by drop casting of the working electrode surface, using a stable dispersion of carbon black, allows to obtain a sensor with improved electrochemical behavior in terms of peak-to-peak separation, current intensity, and the resistance of charge transfer. The results achieved confirm the possibility of printing the electrode on several cost-effective paper-based materials and the improvement of the electrochemical behavior by using carbon black as sustainable nanomaterial.

  16. High performance symmetric supercapacitor based on zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets and 3D graphene-nickel foam composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamlich, S.; Abdullaeva, Z.; Kennedy, J.V.; Maaza, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A symmetric supercapacitor device based on NiF-G/ZHCNs composite materials electrodes was successfully fabricated. • The fabricated device exhibited high specific areal capacitance of 222 mF cm"−"2 at 1.0 mA cm"−"2 current density. • Excellent cycling performance with 96% specific capacitance retention after 5000 cycles was achieved. - Abstract: In this work, zinc hydroxychloride nanosheets (ZHCNs) were deposited on 3d graphene-nickel foam (NiF-G) by employing a simple hydrothermal synthesis method to form NiF-G/ZHCNs composite electrode materials. The fabricated NiF-G/ZHCNs electrode revealed a well-developed pore structures with high specific surface area of 119 m"2 g"−"1, and used as electrode materials for symmetric supercapacitor with aqueous alkaline electrolyte. The specific areal capacitance and electron charge transfer resistance (R_c_t) were 222 mF cm"−"2 (at current density of 1.0 mA cm"−"2) and 1.63 Ω, respectively, in a symmetric two-electrode system. After 5000 cycles with galvanostatic charge/discharge, the device can maintain 96% of its initial capacitance under 1.0 mA cm"−"2 and showed low R_c_t of about 9.84 Ω. These results indicate that NiF-G/ZHCNs composite is an excellent electrode material for electrochemical energy storage devices.

  17. Electrochemical determination of serotonin in urine samples based on metal oxide nanoparticles/MWCNT on modified glassy carbon electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola E. Fayemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical response of serotonin on the modified electrode based on multiwalled-carbon-nanotube (MWCNT doped respectively with nickel, zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles coating on glassy carbon electrode (GCE at physiological pH 7 was determined using cyclic voltammetry (CV and square wave voltammetry (SWV. The modified GCE/MWCNT-metal oxide electrodes exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the detection of serotonin at large peak current and lower oxidation potentials compared to other electrodes investigated. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was between 5.98 × 10−3 μM to 62.8 μM with detection limits 118, 129 and 166 nM for GCE/MWCNT-NiO, GCE/MWCNT-ZnO and GCE/MWCNT-Fe3O4 sensors respectively. GCE-MWCNT-NiO was the best electrode in terms of serotonin current response, electrode stability, resistance to fouling and limit of detection towards the analyte. The developed sensors were found to be electrochemically stable, reusable, economically effective due to their extremely low operational cost, and have demonstrated good limit of detection, sensitivity and selectivity towards serotonin determination in urine samples. Keywords: Metal oxides nanoparticles, Multiwalled carbon nanotubes, Glassy carbon electrode, Serotonin, Cyclic voltammetry, Square wave voltammetry

  18. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  19. Electrode-electrolyte interface model of tripolar concentric ring electrode and electrode paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollaholhosseini, Seyed Hadi; Steele, Preston; Besio, Walter G

    2016-08-01

    Electrodes are used to transform ionic currents to electrical currents in biological systems. Modeling the electrode-electrolyte interface could help to optimize the performance of the electrode interface to achieve higher signal to noise ratios. There are previous reports of accurate models for single-element biomedical electrodes. In this paper we develop a model for the electrode-electrolyte interface for tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE) that are used to record brain signals.

  20. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  1. Influence of soil zinc concentrations on zinc sensitivity and functional diversity of microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, K.; Janssen, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    Pollution induced community tolerance (PICT) is based on the phenomenon that toxic effects reduce survival of the most sensitive organisms, thus increasing community tolerance. Community tolerance for a contaminant is thus a strong indicator for the presence of that contaminant at the level of adverse concentrations. Here we assessed PICT in 11 soils contaminated with zinc runoff from galvanised electricity pylons and 11 reference soils sampled at 10 m distance from these pylons. Using PICT, the influence of background concentration and bioavailability of zinc on zinc sensitivity and functional diversity of microbial communities was assessed. Zinc sensitivity of microbial communities decreased significantly with increasing zinc concentrations in pore water and calcium chloride extracted fraction while no significant relationship was found with total zinc concentration in the soil. It was also found that functional diversity of microbial communities decreased with increasing zinc concentrations, indicating that increased tolerance is indeed an undesirable phenomenon when environmental quality is considered. The hypothesis that zinc sensitivity of microbial communities is related to background zinc concentration in pore water could not be confirmed. - Zinc sensitivity of microbial communities and functional diversity decrease with increasing zinc concentration in the pore water

  2. Electrochemical synthesis and characterization of zinc carbonate and zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Marashianpour, Zahra; Karimi, Meisam Sadeghpour; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    Zinc oxide and its precursor i.e., zinc carbonate is widely utilized in various fields of industry, especially in solar energy conversion, optical, and inorganic pigments. In this work, a facile and clean electrodeposition method was utilized for the synthesis of zinc carbonate nanoparticles. Also, zinc oxide nanoparticles were produced by calcination of the prepared zinc carbonate powder. Zinc carbonate nanoparticles with different sizes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of a zinc plate as anode in the solution of sodium carbonate. It was found that the particle size of zinc carbonate might be tuned by process parameters, i.e., electrolysis voltage, carbonate ion concentration, solvent composition and stirring rate of the electrolyte solution. An orthogonal array design was utilized to identify the optimum experimental conditions. The experimental results showed that the minimum size of the electrodeposited ZnCO3 particles is about 24 nm whereas the maximum particle size is around 40 nm. The TG-DSC studies of the nanoparticles indicated that the main thermal degradation of ZnCO3 occurs in two steps over the temperature ranges of 150-250 and 350-400 °C. The electrosynthesized ZnCO3 nanoparticles were calcined at the temperature of 600 °C to prepare ZnO nanoparticles. The prepared ZnCO3 and ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and FT-IR techniques.

  3. Controlled deposition of functionalized silica coated zinc oxide nano-assemblies at the air/water interface for blood cancer detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Chandra Mouli [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Nanobioelectronics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India); Dewan, Srishti [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Biomedical Engineering Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Haryana 131039 (India); Chawla, Seema [Biomedical Engineering Department, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University of Science & Technology, Haryana 131039 (India); Yadav, Birendra Kumar [Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, Rohini, Delhi 110085 (India); Sumana, Gajjala, E-mail: sumanagajjala@gmail.com [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Malhotra, Bansi Dhar, E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.com [Biomedical Instrumentation Section, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Nanobioelectronics Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Delhi 110042 (India)

    2016-09-21

    We report results of the studies relating to controlled deposition of the amino-functionalized silica-coated zinc oxide (Am-Si@ZnO) nano-assemblies onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. The monolayers have been deposited by transferring the spread solution of Am-Si@ZnO stearic acid prepared in chloroform at the air-water interface, at optimized pressure (16 mN/m), concentration (10 mg/ml) and temperature (23 °C). The high-resolution transmission electron microscopic studies of the Am-Si@ZnO nanocomposite reveal that the nanoparticles have a microscopic structure comprising of hexagonal assemblies of ZnO with typical dimensions of 30 nm. The surface morphology of the LB multilayer observed by scanning electron microscopy shows uniform surface of the Am-Si@ZnO film in the nanometer range (<80 nm). These electrodes have been utilized for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) detection by covalently immobilizing the amino-terminated oligonucleotide probe sequence via glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker. The response studies of these fabricated electrodes carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show that this Am-Si@ZnO LB film based nucleic acid sensor exhibits a linear response to complementary DNA (10{sup −6}–10{sup −16} M) with a detection limit of 1 × 10{sup −16} M. This fabricated platform is validated with clinical samples of CML positive patients and the results demonstrate its immense potential for clinical diagnosis. - Graphical abstract: Controlled deposition of functionalized silica coated zinc oxide nano-assemblies at the air/water interface for label free electrochemical detection of chronic myelogenous leukemia. - Highlights: • Stable and controlled deposition of Am-Si@ZnO nano-assemblies using LB technique. • Uniform monolayer deposition of the Am-Si@ZnO LB film within the nanometer range. • Am-Si@ZnO LB film shows enhanced electrochemical properties. • Fabricated

  4. Preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Film as Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) from Zinc Complex Compound on Thin Film Solar Cells: A Study of O2 Effect on Annealing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslih, E. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cell application was successfully prepared through two step preparations which consisted of deposition by spin coating at 2000 rpm for 10 second and followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 hours under O2 and ambient atmosphere. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as a precursor which dissolved in ethanol and acetone (1:1 mol) mixture in order to make a zinc complex compound. In this work, we reported the O2 effect, reaction mechanism, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. ZnO thin film in this work shows a single phase of wurtzite, with n-type semiconductor and has band gap, carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity as 3.18 eV, 1.21 × 10-19cm3, 11 cm2/Vs, 2.35 × 10-3 Ωcm respectively which is suitable for TCO at thin film solar cell.

  5. Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor using an electrode modified with iron pentacyanonitrosylferrate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razmi, H.; Mohammad-Rezaei, R.

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor was developed for determination of hydrogen peroxide (HP) based on a carbon ceramic electrode modified with iron pentacyanonitrosylferrate (FePCNF). The surface of an iron-doped CCE was derivatized in a solution of PCNF by cycling the electrode potential between -0. 2 and +1. 3 V for about 60 times. The morphology and the composition of the resulting electrode were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared techniques. The electrode displayed excellent response to the electro-oxidation of HP which is linearly related to its concentration in the range from 0. 5 μM to 1300 μM. The detection limit is 0. 4 μM, and the sensitivity is 849 A M -1 cm -2 . The modified electrode was used to determination of HP in hair coloring creams as real samples. (author)

  6. The relative efficiency of zinc carriers on growth and zinc nutrition of corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, B.; Sinha, K.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of different zinc carriers showed that application of Zn-DTPA, Zn-EDTA, Zn-fulvate and ZnSO 4 significantly increased the dry matter yield and zinc uptake by corn over the control treatment where no zinc was applied. The chelates in particular enhanced to a greater extent the uptake of both native and applied sources than that observed with ZnSO 4 as the zinc carrier. Both the dry matter yield and zinc uptake by corn showed a positive and significant relationship with self-diffusion coefficient of zinc showing thereby that diffusion contributed mainly the supply of Zn from the ambient soil matrix to plant roots. The effectiveness of the chelates varied depending on their capacity to retain Zn in a soluble form in the soil solution. It is evident that zinc nutrition of plants in alkaline and calcareous soils can be more effectively regulated by both synthetic and natural chelates or organic manures which contain substantial amount of complexed zinc. (orig.)

  7. Zinc oxide-potassium ferricyanide composite thin film matrix for biosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Shibu [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Arya, Sunil K. [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, S.P. [Department of Engineering Science and Materials, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, PR 00680 (United States); Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Malhotra, B.D. [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: vgupta@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2009-10-27

    Thin film of zinc oxide-potassium ferricyanide (ZnO-KFCN) composite has been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated corning glass using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The composite thin film electrode has been exploited for amperometric biosensing in a mediator-free electrolyte. The composite matrix has the advantages of high iso-electric point of ZnO along with enhanced electron communication due to the presence of a redox species in the matrix itself. Glucose oxidase (GOx) has been chosen as the model enzyme for studying the application of the developed matrix to biosensing. The sensing response of the bio-electrode, GOx/ZnO-KFCN/ITO/glass, towards glucose was studied using cylic voltammetry (CV) and photometric assay. The bio-electrode exhibits good linearity from 2.78 mM to 11.11 mM glucose concentration. The low value of Michaelis-Menten constant (1.69 mM) indicates an enhanced affinity of the immobilized enzyme towards its substrate. A quassireversible system is obtained with the composite matrix. The results confirm promising application of the ZnO-KFCN composite matrix for amperometric biosensing applications in a mediator-less electrolyte that could lead to the realization of an integrated lab-on-chip device.

  8. Zinc oxide-potassium ferricyanide composite thin film matrix for biosensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Shibu; Arya, Sunil K.; Singh, S.P.; Sreenivas, K.; Malhotra, B.D.; Gupta, Vinay

    2009-01-01

    Thin film of zinc oxide-potassium ferricyanide (ZnO-KFCN) composite has been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated corning glass using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The composite thin film electrode has been exploited for amperometric biosensing in a mediator-free electrolyte. The composite matrix has the advantages of high iso-electric point of ZnO along with enhanced electron communication due to the presence of a redox species in the matrix itself. Glucose oxidase (GOx) has been chosen as the model enzyme for studying the application of the developed matrix to biosensing. The sensing response of the bio-electrode, GOx/ZnO-KFCN/ITO/glass, towards glucose was studied using cylic voltammetry (CV) and photometric assay. The bio-electrode exhibits good linearity from 2.78 mM to 11.11 mM glucose concentration. The low value of Michaelis-Menten constant (1.69 mM) indicates an enhanced affinity of the immobilized enzyme towards its substrate. A quassireversible system is obtained with the composite matrix. The results confirm promising application of the ZnO-KFCN composite matrix for amperometric biosensing applications in a mediator-less electrolyte that could lead to the realization of an integrated lab-on-chip device.

  9. A new method synthesis polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites for supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, J.; Wei, X.; Zhou, S.P. [Shandong Univ. of Technology, Zibo (China). School of Chemical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    A series of polyaniline multi-walled nanotube (PANIMWNT) composite films were prepared using an in situ polymerization technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and microstructure of the samples. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge/discharge analyses were used to determine the electrochemical properties of the PANIMWNT films in a 3-electrode system. The electrochemical performance of PANI, PANIMWNT, and MWNT film performances was then compared. Results of the study showed that the PANI electrodes showed a much higher capacitance than the MWNT and PANIMWNT electrodes. Both the PANI and PANIMWNT nanocomposites showed good electrochemical capacitance. The improved performance of the electrodes was attributed to the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). 5 refs.

  10. Effects of dietary supplementation with tribasic zinc sulfate or zinc sulfate on growth performance, zinc content and expression of zinc transporters in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bo; Zhou, Xihong; Wu, Jie; Long, Ciming; Yao, Yajun; Peng, Hongxing; Wan, Dan; Wu, Xin

    2017-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of zinc sulfate (ZS) and tribasic zinc sulfate (TBZ) as sources of supplemental zinc on growth performance, serum zinc (Zn) content and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Zn transporters (ZnT1/ZnT2/ZnT5/ZIP4/DMT1) of young growing pigs. A total of 96 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs were randomly allotted to two treatments and were fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg Zn from either ZS or TBZ for 28 days. Feed : gain ratio in pigs fed TBZ were lower (P zinc transporter in either duodenum or jejunum of pigs fed TBZ were higher (P < 0.05) than pigs fed ZS. These results indicate that TBZ is more effective in serum Zn accumulation and intestinal Zn absorption, and might be a potential substitute for ZS in young growing pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Morphological aspects and composition of African elephant (Loxodonta africana ivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Raubenheimer

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at determining the origin of the diamond shaped pattern and composition of ivory of the African elephant. Fragments of ivory and tusks were obtained through the National Parks Board from the Kruger Park, Addo Elephant Park, Kaokoveld, Caprivi, Etosha, Kavango and Tembe Elephant Park. Polished surfaces were prepared in different planes and examined with light and electron microscopical techniques. Analyses of the inorganic composition were performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, ion selective electrodes and inductively coupled optical emission spectroscopy. The total amino acid composition was determined with the aid of an amino acid analyser. Morphological investigations showed the distinctive diamond shaped pattern of ivory to be caused by the sinusoidal surface to pulpal course followed by odontoblastic tubules. This course is the result of pressure which builds up between tightly packed odontoblasts on their centripetal course along an ever decreasing pulpal circumference during formation of ivory. A total of 17 elements were detected in the inorganic fraction of ivory, some in concentrations as low as 0.25 ^g/g. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium, fluoride, cobalt and zinc showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.007 between selected regions and may prove valuable in distinguishing chemically between ivory from different geographical locations. The organic content of ivory showed 17 amino acids in varying concentrations. The possible causes of these variations are discussed.

  12. In vitro study of nano-sized zinc doped bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yi-Fan; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Akram, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM skudai, Johor Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTMJohor Bahru (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [IbnuSina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor DarulTa' zim (Malaysia)

    2013-01-15

    Surface reactivity in physiological fluid has been linked to bioactivity of a material. Past research has shown that bioactive glass containing zinc has the potential in bone regeneration field due to its enhanced bioactivity. However, results from literature are always contradictory. Therefore, in this study, surface reactivity of bioactive glass containing zinc was evaluated through the study of morphology and composition of apatite layer formed after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Nano-sized bioactive glass with 5 and 10 mol% zinc were synthesized through quick alkali sol-gel method. The synthesized Zn-bioglass was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Samples after SBF immersion were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDX. Morphological study through SEM showed the formation of spherical apatite particles with Ca/P ratio closer to 1.67 on the surface of 5 mol% Zn-bioglass. Whereas, the 10 mol% Zn-bioglass samples induced the formation of flake-like structure of calcite in addition to the spherical apatite particles with much higher Ca/P ratio. Our results suggest that the higher Zn content increases the bioactivity through the formation of bone-bonding calcite as well as the spherical apatite particles. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-sized bioactive glasses were synthesized through quick alkali sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5 and 10 mol% Zn-bioglass induced the formation of spherical particles in SBF test. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 10 mol% Zn-bioglass also induced the formation of flake-like structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The flake-like structure is calcium carbonate; spherical particles are apatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High Zn contents negatively influence the chemical composition of the apatite layer.

  13. Electrospun carbon nanofibers surface-grafted with vapor-grown carbon nanotubes as hierarchical electrodes for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengping; Wu, Xiang-Fa; Fong, Hao

    2012-01-01

    This letter reports the fabrication and electrochemical properties of electrospun carbon nanofibers surface-grafted with vapor-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as hierarchical electrodes for supercapacitors. The specific capacitance of the fabricated electrodes was measured up to 185 F/g at the low discharge current density of 625 mA/g; a decrease of 38% was detected at the high discharge current density of 2.5 A/g. The morphology and microstructure of the electrodes were examined by electron microscopy, and the unique connectivity of the hybrid nanomaterials was responsible for the high specific capacitance and low intrinsic contact electric resistance of the hierarchical electrodes.

  14. Availability of native and fertilizer zinc in some Indian soils: studies with 65Zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhury, J.; Deb, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopically exchangeable zinc (Et values) was determined by different methods in some soils having pH(H 2 O) varying from 3.05 to 8.40 using 65 Zn. The Et values obtained using different extractants showed significant correlation with available zinc, organic carbon and soil pH. The recovery of applied zinc in the aqueous phase was less than one percent in most of the soils having pH higher than 7.0. Application of zinc with complexing agents like DTPA and EDTA increased the recovery of applied zinc in the solution to about 95 percent. Soil pH, organic C and DTPA extractable zinc showed significant relationship with the recovery of applied zinc under different treatments. Use of EDTA and DTPA extractants reduced the zinc buffering capacity of soil to a value less than one, irrespective of the initial pH of the soil, whereas the values were comparatively higher in presence of different levels of zinc carrier. (auth.)

  15. 65Zinc and endogenous zinc content and distribution in islets in relationship to insulin content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figlewicz, D.P.; Forhan, S.E.; Hodgson, A.T.; Grodsky, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Uptake of 65 Zn and distribution of 65 Zn, total zinc, and insulin were measured in rat islets and islet granules under different conditions of islet culture. Specific activity of islet zinc ( 65 Zn/zinc) was less than 15% that of extracellular zinc even after 48 h. In contrast, once in the islet, 65 Zn approached 70% of equilibrium with granular zinc in 24 h and apparent equilibrium by 48 h. During a 24-h culture, at either high or low glucose, reduction of both islet zinc and insulin occurred. However, zinc depletion was greater than that predicted if zinc loss was proportional to insulin depletion and occurred only from the granular compartment, which represents only one third of the total islet zinc. Extension of culture to 48 h caused additional insulin depletion, but islet zinc was unchanged. Omission of calcium during the 48-h culture caused a predicted increase in insulin retention, presumably by inhibiting secretion; however, zinc retention was not increased proportionately. Pretreatment of rats with tolbutamide caused a massive depletion of insulin stored in isolated islets, with little change in total islet zinc; subsequent culture of these islets resulted in a greater loss of granular zinc than predicted from the small loss of granular insulin. None of the conditions tested affected the percentage of either 65 Zn or total zinc that was distributed in the islet granules. Results show that zinc exists in a metabolically labile islet compartment(s) as well as in secretory granules; and extra-granular zinc, although not directly associated with insulin storage, may act as a reservoir for granular zinc and may regulate insulin synthesis, storage, and secretion in ways as yet unknown

  16. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong D. Tran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease.

  17. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  18. The electrochemical behavior of Co(TPTZ){sub 2} complex on different carbon based electrodes modified with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortaboy, Sinem, E-mail: ortaboy@istanbul.edu.tr; Atun, Gülten, E-mail: gatun@istanbul.edu.tr

    2015-04-15

    Electrochemical behavior of cobalt (II) complex with the N-donor ligand 2,2′-bipyridyl-1,3,5-tripyridyl-s-triazine (TPTZ) was investigated to elucidate the electron-proton transfer mechanisms. The electrochemical response of the complex was studied using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. A conventional three-electrode system, consisting of glassy carbon (GCE), TiO{sub 2} modified glassy carbon (T/GCE), carbon paste (CPE) and TiO{sub 2} modified carbon paste (T/CPE) working electrodes were employed. The ligand/metal ratio and stability constant of the complex as well as the mechanisms of the electrode processes were elucidated by examining the effects of pH, ligand concentration and frequency on the voltammograms. The EIS results indicated that the samples modified with TiO{sub 2} had the higher charge transfer resistance than that of the bare electrodes and also suggested that the electroactivity of the electrode surfaces increased in the following order, T/CPE > CPE > T/GCE > GCE. The surface morphology of the working electrodes was also characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The values of surface roughness parameters were found to be consistent with the results obtained by EIS experiments. - Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the experimental process. - Highlights: • Electrochemical behavior of Co(TPTZ){sub 2} complex studied by SWV and EIS techniques. • GCE, CPE T/GCE and T/CPE were used as working electrodes for comparative studies. • The surface morphologies of the electrodes were characterized by AFM. • Mechanisms were proposed from the effects of pH, ligand concentration and frequency. • EIS and morphologic relationships of the surfaces were established successfully.

  19. Morphology-controllable synthesis of 3D CoNiO_2 nano-networks as a high-performance positive electrode material for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jijun; Chen, Zexiang; Wang, Yan; Li, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a novel three-dimensional (3D) assembly of CoNiO_2 nanowire networks using a facile and scalable hydrothermal method followed by an annealing process for supercapacitor applications. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed the formation of highly-crystalline CoNiO_2 nano-networks. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed the formation of a 3D interconnected network of CoNiO_2 nanowires during the synthesis. In addition, a formation mechanism for 3D CoNiO_2 nano-networks was proposed. Electrochemical analysis showed a typical pseudocapacitive behavior for the CoNiO_2 nanowire networks. The as-prepared CoNiO_2 electrode exhibited a high specific capacitance of 1462 F g"−"1 (45.32 F cm"−"2) at a current density of 1 A g"−"1 (31 mA cm"−"2) and an excellent rate capability of 1000 F g"−"1 (31 F cm"−"2) at 32 A g"−"1 (992 mA cm"−"2). Moreover, a good cycle stability was achieved at 4 A g"−"1 with no degradation over 800 cycles, indicating the stable 3D structure of CoNiO_2 after the redox reactions. The high rate capability and the good cycle stability indicated that the as-prepared 3D CoNiO_2 electrode could satisfy the needs of supercapacitors with both high power and energy densities. - Highlights: • A three-dimensional (3D) assembly of CoNiO_2 nanowire networks was prepared. • Sodium-p-styrenesulfonate (PSS) plays a key role in forming the structure. • The as-prepared 3D CoNiO_2 electrode exhibits high power and energy densities. • The proposed method is easy to provide an industrial mass production. • The method can be used to fabricate different morphologies of nanomaterials.

  20. Lessons from a “Failed” Experiment: Zinc Silicates with Complex Morphology by Reaction of Zinc Acetate, the Ionic Liquid Precursor (ILP Tetrabutylammonium Hydroxide (TBAH, and Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Taubert

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available At elevated temperatures, the ionic liquid precursor (ILP tetrabutylammonium hydroxide reacts with zinc acetate and the glass wall of the reaction vessel. While the reaction of OH- with the glass wall is not surprising as such and could be considered a failed experiment, the resulting materials are interesting for a variety of applications. If done on purpose and under controlled conditions, the reaction with the glass wall results in uniform, well-defined hemimorphite Zn4Si2O7(OH2·nH2O and willemite Zn2SiO4 microcrystals and films. Their morphology can be adjusted by variation of the reaction time and reaction temperature. The hemimorphite can be transformed to Zn2SiO4 via calcination. The process is therefore a viable approach for the fabrication of porous films on glass surfaces with potential applications as catalyst support, among others.

  1. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... It suggests that supplementation of ewes diet with zinc sulfate could be an effective way to increase zinc ... alkaline phosphates activity. Zinc supplements were .... Similar results have been reported previously when dairy cows.

  2. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of nanocrystalline zinc oxide: Experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Mongia [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Farhat, Samir, E-mail: farhat@lspm.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Schoenstein, Frederic; Karmous, Farah; Jouini, Noureddine [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, 99 av. J.B. Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Viana, Bruno [LCMCP Chimie-Paristech, UPMC, Collège de France, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Mgaidi, Arbi [Laboratoire de chimie minérale industrielle université Tunis el Manar (Tunisia)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • ZnO nanospheres and nanowires were grown using ultrasound and thermal activation techniques. • The growth uses forced hydrolysis of zinc acetate in diethylene glycol (DEG). • A thermochemical model was developed based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. • We estimate species distribution in the bubble in temperature range from 5000 K to ambient. • We propose a new mechanism for ZnO growth ass